WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual oil storage

  1. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  2. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  3. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  5. Research of losses of oil oil and mineral oil at transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akzhigitov, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : All way of hydrocarbonic raw material from a mouth of oil wells up to the consumer is accompanied by losses which occur as a result of evaporation, outflow and change of quality. Therefore preservation of quantity and quality of oil and mineral oil during transportation and storages is the major not only economic, but also an ecological problem. The facilitated fractional structure, the big maintenance concern to prominent features of the majority oil from underground salts adjournment Prycaspi in them of the easy hydrocarbons, the raised gas factor in conditions of deposits and presence in structure of gases, except for hydrocarbons and sour a component, - hydrogen sulphide, carbonic gas, etc. The superficial tests stabilized on phase structure oil depending on conditions of preparation for external transport and the subsequent processing can contain this or that quantity of residual hydrogen sulphide, easy hydrocarbons and the lowest sulfhydrates. For change of temperature and external pressure, during transportation and storage the part of easy hydrocarbons and not hydrocarbonic connections (sulfur organic) can be allocated from oil in a gaseous phase and in case of hit in an atmosphere sharply worsens ecology. In the Western Kazakhstan during the years period the temperature of air sometimes reaches up to 40-45 degrees. As is known, at such temperature there is a strengthened warming up of the open surface of oil tanks, that finally leads to increase evaporation easy oil and oil hydrocarbons. With this purpose experiences by quantitative definition evaporation lungs oil and petromixes of the Western Kazakhstan were spent. As a result of the lead works it is found out, that the size of losses at the given fixed temperature depends on evaporation by nature, fractional and hydrocarbonic structures of oil

  6. Hydrogenation upgrading of heavy oil residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S.; Mazneva, O.A.; Galkina, N.I. [Fossil Fuel Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation). Hydrogenation and Gasification Dept.; Suvorov, U.P.; Khadjiev, S.N. [Inst. Oil and Chemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation). Hydrogenation of Heavy Residues Dept.

    1997-12-31

    At present time in the world there is no simple and effective technology at low pressure (<15-20 MPa) which could give the opportunity to use oil residues for distillate fractions production. In Russia a process for hydrogenation (up 6 MPa hydrogen pressure) of high boiling point (b.p. >520 C) oil products, including high S, V and Ni contents ones, into distillates, feedstock for catalytic cracking (b.p. 360-520 C) and metal concentrates. The main point of the new process is as follows: the water solution of catalytic additive, for which purpose water soluble metal salts of VI-VIII groups are used, is mixed with heavy oil residues, dispersed and then subjected to additional supercavitation in a special apparatus. (orig.)

  7. Method of removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmquist, F T.E.

    1949-09-08

    A method is described for removing paraffin from mineral oils, shale oils, tar oils, and their fractions or residues by centrifuging in the presence of oil-dissolving and paraffin-precipitating solvents, by which the precipitated paraffin is made to pass through an indifferent auxiliary liquid, in which a removal of oil takes place, characterized in that as auxiliary liquid is used a liquid or mixture of liquids whose surface tension against the oil solution is sufficiently low for the paraffin to pass the layer of auxiliary liquid in the form of separate crystals.

  8. DNA quantification of basidiomycetous fungi during storage of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Børja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for bioenergy caused an increased use of logging residues, branches and treetops that were previously left on the ground after harvesting. Residues are stored outdoors in piles and it is unclear to what extent fungi transform this material. Our objective was to quantify the amount of wood degrading fungi during storage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR to detect basidiomycetous DNA in logging residues, a novel approach in this field. We found that the qPCR method was accurate in quantifying the fungal DNA during storage. As the moisture content of the piled logging residues decreased during the storage period, the fungal DNA content also decreased. Scots pine residues contained more fungal DNA than residues from Norway spruce. Loose piles had generally more fungal DNA than bundled ones.

  9. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  10. Heating oil, distillates and residuals outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    M.J. Ervin and Associates offers strategic planning support to the downstream petroleum industry in terms of price market monitoring, market analysis, media commentary and benchmarking of marketing operations. This presentation included graphs depicting supply and demand for heating oil distillates and residuals from the mid 1990s to 2004. It was noted that the long-term decline in residuals demand in the United States and Canada are due to environmental issues, the use of natural gas as an alternative, and the increasing complexity of refineries. Graphs depicting market impacts of refinery utilization and inventory trends showed that middle distillate production will increase at the expense of gasoline production. Middle distillates and gasoline markets will be more sensitive to supply disruptions, resulting in more frequent price spikes. Inventory trends indicate a greater reliance on product imports. The demand for heating fuel has stabilized due to the continued penetration of natural gas in eastern states and provinces. The demand for diesel fuel has growth 1.5 to 2 per cent while the demand for jet fuel has remained relatively flat and depends greatly on the growth of the gross national product (GNP). tabs., figs

  11. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  12. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  13. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  14. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    conventional oil. The application of CO2EOR to ROZ enables a significant contribution to a field's recoverable reserves [3]. This work identifies for the first time the plays of geological conditions that create naturally occurring residual oil zones in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. We present a screening workflow to identify such zones and a methodology for assessing the resource potential and CO2 storage capacity for a number of different fields. Lastly we examine the economic consequences on CO2 storage of the incremental oil produced, and the carbon balance life-cycle. [1] Melzer, S., Koperna, G., Kuuskraa, V. 2006. The Origin and Resource Potential of Residual Oil Zones. SPE Annual and Technical Conference, San Antonio, Texas, Society. [2] Koperna, G., Melzer. S.L., Kuuskraa, V. 2006. Recovery of Oil Resources From the Residual and Transitional Oil Zones of the Permian Basin.. SPE Annual Technical Conference, San Antonia, Texas. Society of Petroleum Engineers. [3] Advanced Resources International, 2005. Assessing Technical and Economic Recovery of Residual Oil Zones. U.S Department of Energy.

  15. Radiation processing studies on residual fractions of Olowi petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfo, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Residual fuel oil is an inexpensive boiler fuel that can replace diesel in some industrial boilers. The viscous waxy nature of residual fuel oil makes it very difficult to use in industries where fuel storage tanks have no heating elements to keep the fuel at temperatures at which it would easily flow. Irradiation is currently being studied as a cost effective means of cracking heavy petroleum crude oil into lighter and more valuable products. Research has shown that irradiation can replace the conventional methods of cracking petroleum with economical benefits. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source was applied to the residue obtained after refining crude oil in this research study, with the intention of causing a similar cracking phenomenon. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using gamma radiation to reduce the viscosity of residual fractions of crude oil used as residual fuel oil. This was done by exposing samples of residual fuel oil in glass jars to 9 different doses of gamma radiation, at room temperature and an elevated temperature of 60 degrees Celsius to determine and quantify the effect of radiation on residual fuel oil obtained from the Tema Oil Refinery. The pour points of the irradiated samples were not affected by radiation doses up to 200 kGy while the changes in viscosity for irradiation at room temperature were not significant. Irradiation at 60 degrees Celsius induced a small but significant increase in viscosity at 1 kGy and 200 kGy absorbed doses of irradiation. Irradiation fuels were stable in relation to viscosity, density and pour point over a period of 20 days after exposure. The flash point of irradiated samples, however, decreased by 5.26, 10.53 and 11.34% for 30, 50 and 80 kGy absorbed doses of radiation respectively. Cumulative and continuous doses gave similar results for pour point, density, viscosity and flash point measurements up to 50 kGy. Comparative cost analysis of methods used in maintaining low

  16. Nondestructive assay of plutonium residue in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous plutonium recovery and purification processes often involve the temporary storage of plutonium solutions in holding tanks. Because plutonium is known to precipitate from aqueous solutions under certain conditions, there is a continuing need to assay emptied tanks for plutonium residue. A portable gamma spectrometer system, specifically designed for this purpose, provides rapid assay of such plutonium residues in horizontal storage tanks. A means is thus available for the nondestructive analysis of these tanks on a regular schedule to ensure that significant deposits of plutonium are not allowed to accumulate. 5 figs

  17. Preparing hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for preparation of hydraulic cement from oil-shale residue is characterized in that, as flux is used, rich-in-lime poor-in-sulfur portland-cement clinker, by which the usual gypsum addition, is avoided.

  18. Construction of VLCC marine oil storage cost index system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Yule; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhu, Faxin; Chen, Tian; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    VLCC as the research object, the basic knowledge of VLCC is summarized. According to the phenomenon that VLCC is applied to offshore oil storage gradually, this paper applies the theoretical analysis method to analyze the excess capacity from VLCC, the drop of oil price, the aging VLCC is more suitable for offshore storage The paper analyzes the reason of VLCC offshore oil storage from three aspects, analyzes the cost of VLCC offshore storage from the aspects of manpower cost and shipping cost, and constructs the cost index system of VLCC offshore oil storage.

  19. Eco-Friendly Multipurpose Lubricating Greases from Vegetable Residual Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnekanti Nagendramma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly multipurpose grease formulation has been synthesized by using Jatropha vegetable residual oil with lithium soap and multifunctional additive. The thus obtained formulation was evaluated for its tribological performance on a four-ball tribo-tester. The anti-friction and anti-wear performance characteristics were evaluated using standard test methods. The biodegradability and toxicity of the base oil was assessed. The results indicate that the synthesized residual oil grease formulation shows superior tribological performance when compared to the commercial grease. On the basis of physico-chemical characterization and tribological performance the vegetable residual oil was found to have good potential for use as biodegradable multipurpose lubricating grease. In addition, the base oils are biodegradable and non toxic.

  20. Enhancement of recovery of residual oil using a biosurfactant slug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the biosurfactant extract revealed a mixture of glycolipid and phospholipid in a ratio of 3.35:1. The irreducible water saturation (Swi) and initial residual oil saturation (Sor) of the sand-pack were 0.280 ± 0.003 and 0.373 ± 0.006, respectively. Core flooding experiment showed that an optimum oil recovery ...

  1. Effects of cooking and storage on residues of cyadox in chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2005-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the depletion of residues of cyadox in chicken muscle over time. The heat stabilities of cyadox (CYX) and its two metabolites, 1,4-bisdesoxycyadox (BDCYX) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA), in water, cooking oil, and as incurred residues in chicken muscle were investigated. CYX was shown to be unstable with a half-life of about 37.7 min in 100 degrees C water. In hot cooking oil at 180 degrees C, all three compounds were unstable. CYX decreased quickly and was not able to be detected after heating for 2 min. Diode-array analysis of CYX standard solution in cooking oil indicated that a portion of BDCYX was formed. The residues of CYX and BDCYX deteriorated rapidly in frozen storage, while that of QCA changed slowly. Muscles containing CYX residues were boiled, microwaved, or fried for the specified times. During boiling, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 94% and 81% in 10 min, respectively. During microwave cooking, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 54% and 47% in 2.5 min, respectively. During frying, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 86% and 76%, respectively. No significant reduction of QCA was found for the three cooking methods. The half-lives of CYX residues in cooked chicken muscles were estimated as follows: 2.22 min for CYX and 4.44 min for BDCYX by boiling; 6.66 min for CYX and 9.36 min for BDCYX by microwaving.

  2. Utility residual fuel oil market conditions: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Planning for residual fuel oil usage and management remains an important part of the generation fuel planning and management function for many utilities. EPRI's Utility Planning Methods Center has maintained its analytical overview of the fuel oil markets as part of its overall fuel planning and management research program. This overview provides an update of recent fuel oil market directions. Several key events of the past year have had important implications for residual fuel oil markets. The key events have been the changes brought about by the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, as well as continuing environmental policy developments. The Persian Gulf conflict has created renewed interest in reducing fuel oil use by utilities as part of an overall reduction in oil imports. The policy analysis performed to date has generally failed to properly evaluate utility industry capability. The Persian Gulf conflict has also resulted in an important change in the structure of international oil markets. The result of this policy-based change is likely to be a shift in oil pricing strategy. Finally, continued change in environmental requirements is continuing to shift utility residual oil requirements, but is also changing the nature of the US resid market itself

  3. Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

    2000-10-01

    Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.

  4. Residual load, renewable surplus generation and storage requirements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2014-01-01

    I examine the effects of increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load, which is defined as the difference between actual power demand and the feed-in of non-dispatchable and inflexible generators. I draw on policy-relevant scenarios for Germany and make use of extensive sensitivity analyses. Whereas yearly renewable surplus energy is low in most scenarios analyzed, peak surplus power can become very high. Decreasing thermal must-run requirements and increasing biomass flexibility substantially reduce surpluses. I use an optimization model to determine the storage capacities required for taking up renewable surpluses. Allowing curtailment of 1% of the yearly feed-in of non-dispatchable renewables would render storage investments largely obsolete until 2032 under the assumption of a flexible power system. Further restrictions of curtailment as well as lower system flexibility strongly increase storage requirements. By 2050, at least 10 GW of storage are required for surplus integration, of which a sizeable share is seasonal storage. Results suggest that policy makers should work toward avoiding surplus generation, in particular by decreasing the must-run of thermal generators. Concerns about surpluses should not be regarded as an obstacle to further renewable expansion. The findings are also relevant for other countries that shift toward fluctuating renewables. - Highlights: • I examine the effects of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load. • Surplus energies are generally low, but there are high surplus power peaks. • Increasing the flexibility of thermal generators substantially reduces surpluses. • Allowing curtailment of 1% renders storage investments largely obsolete by 2032. • Both storage requirements and the share of seasonal storage increase by 2050

  5. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  6. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muharnif; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 10 6 ty -1 ) of palm oil from 38.6 x 10 6 ty - 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), shell (2.3 x 10 6 ty - 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 10 6 ty - 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  7. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  8. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified...

  9. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  10. Decomposition of residual oil by large scale HSC plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Koichi; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Limmer, H.; Schuetter, H. (Toyo Engineering Corp., funabashi, Japan VEB Petrolchemisches Kombinat Schwedt, Schwedt (East Germany))

    1989-07-01

    Regarding large scale and high decomposition ratio visbreaker HSC, characteristic points and operation conditions of a new plant in East Germany were introduced. As for the characteristics of the process, high decomposition ratio and stable decpmposed oil, availability of high sulfur content oil or even decomposed residuum of visbreaker, stableness of produced light oil with low content of unsaturated components, low investment with low running cost, were indicated. For the realization of high decomposition ratio, designing for suppressing the decomposition in heating furnace and accelaration of it in soaking drum, high space velocity of gas phase for better agitation, were raised. As the main subject of technical development, design of soaking drum was indicated with main dimensions for the designing. Operation conditions of the process in East Germany using residual oil supplied from already working visbreaker for USSR crude oil were introduced. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THE USE OF HEAVY OIL RESIDUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Dashut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an alternative approach to the existing oil refining, in which instead of a single priority that emerged in the traditional approach, we consider two: get the light component and a heavy residue used for the production of new construction materials.

  12. European experience in transport/storage cask for vitrified residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otton, Camille; Sicard, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing cask designs. Therefore, TN International has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN TM 81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN TM 85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW (kilowatts). The challenges for the TN TM 81 and TN TM 85 cask designs were that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by the AREVA NC Specification relative to vitrified residue canister. The TN TM 81 and the TN TM 85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production. It also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing flasks such as the TN TM 28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  13. Hydrocracking of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ts Tugsuu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many catalytic processes to refine heavy part of crude oil have attracted much interest due to declining reserves of light crude oils. This study focused on hydrocracking process of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian crude oil in the first time compared to those of other countries. Residue samples were hydrocracked with a commercial catalyst at 450°C, 460°C, 470°C for 2 h under hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa. The amount of residual fraction (350°Cresidue from Tamsagbulag crude oil. When the ME-AR was hydrocracked, the high consumption of hydrogen was related to the lowest H/C atomic ratio of feed atmospheric residue. The amount of liquid fractions (BP<350°C including gaseous products increased from 45.4wt% to 89.2wt%, when the reaction temperature increased from 450°C to 470°C. The highest yield of the middle fraction for each sample was observed at temperature of 460°C. On the other hand, the effect of temperature on the yield of middle fraction was not so high as compared with the yields of other fractions. The contents of n-paraffins on midlle and heavy fractions of TB-AR, DQ-AR were similar, but ME-AR’s was around 2 times lower than other after hydrocracking runs.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.166 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 24-28 

  14. Acoustic Profiling of Bottom Sediments in Large Oil Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svet, V. D.; Tsysar', S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic features of acoustic profiling of bottom sediments in large oil storage tanks are considered. Basic acoustic parameters of crude oil and bottom sediments are presented. It is shown that, because of the presence of both transition layers in crude oil and strong reverberation effects in oil tanks, the volume of bottom sediments that is calculated from an acoustic surface image is generally overestimated. To reduce the error, additional post-processing of acoustic profilometry data is proposed in combination with additional measurements of viscosity and tank density distributions in vertical at several points of the tank.

  15. Steam foam studies in the presence of residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.A.; Demiral, B.; Castanier, L.M.

    1992-05-01

    The lack of understanding regarding foam flow in porous media necessitates further research. This paper reports on going work at Stanford University aimed at increasing our understanding in the particular area of steam foams. The behavior of steam foam is investigated with a one dimensional (6 ft. {times} 2.15 in.) sandpack under residual oil conditions of approximately 12 percent. The strength of the in-situ generated foam, indicated by pressure drops, is significantly affected by injection procedure, slug size, and steam quality. The surfactant concentration effect is minor in the range studied. In the presence of residual oil the simultaneous injection of steam and surfactant fails to generate foam in the model even though the same procedure generates a strong foam in the absence of oil. Nevertheless when surfactant is injected as a slug ahead of the steam using a surfactant alternating (SAG) procedure, foam is generated. The suggested reason for the success of SAG is the increased phase mixing that results from steam continually having to reestablish a path through a slug of surfactant solution.

  16. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  17. Assessing food allergy risks from residual peanut protein in highly refined vegetable oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.M.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Rubingh, C.M.; Remington, B.C.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Refined vegetable oils including refined peanut oil are widely used in foods. Due to shared production processes, refined non-peanut vegetable oils can contain residual peanut proteins. We estimated the predicted number of allergic reactions to residual peanut proteins using probabilistic risk

  18. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  19. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Luna Guevara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  20. Long-term storage of three unconventional oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein, Ismail H.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Three samples, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, were stored (autoxidized in the dark at 30±2 °C for 24 months. Oil aliquots were withdrawn every 2-4 month for analyses of changes in four quality indexes, namely fatty acid composition, tocopherol content, peroxide value and oxidative stability index by Rancimat. After 24 months of storage the fatty acid composition of the three oils showed no change while tocopherol contents were decreased. SCO and MBO showed only slight changes in their oxidative stability as indicated by the peroxide value and induction period during the 24 months of storage. Sorghum bug oil showed a periodical increase in the peroxide value and had less stability as measured by the Rancimat in comparison to other oils.Tres muestras de aceite, Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO, Melon bug oil (Aspongubus viduatus (MBO, and Sorghum bug oil (Agonoscelis pubescens (SBO, fueron almacenadas en la oscuridad a 30±2 °C durante 24 meses. Cada 2- 4 meses se toman alícuotas para analizar los cambios de calidad. Se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, el contenido en tocoferol, el índice de peróxidos y la estabilidad oxidativa mediante el aparato Rancimat. Después de 24 meses de almacenamiento, la composición en ácidos grasos no experimentó variación mientras que el contenido en tocoferol disminuyó en los tres aceites. SCO y MBO mostraron cambios minoritarios como se comprobó por los indices de peroxides y estabilidad a los 24 meses. SBO fue el menos estable de los tres aceites.

  1. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  2. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  3. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  4. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  5. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  6. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  7. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  8. Storage quality of walnut oil containing lycopene during accelerated oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaonan; Ma, Zheng Feei; Li, Fang; Zhang, Hongxia; Kong, Lingming; Yang, Zhipan; Xie, Weifeng

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of investigation was to assess the effect of lycopene on the peroxide value, acid value, fatty acids, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of walnut oil. Walnut oil was extracted from Xinjiang walnut variety using cold pressing method. Our study reported that after 45 days of accelerated oxidation at 60 °C (Schaal oven test), 0.005% lycopene exhibited the greatest antioxidant effect than other addition levels of lycopene. Therefore, under ambient storage conditions, the shelf-life of walnut oil could be extended up to 16 months by 0.005% lycopene. Moreover, 0.005% lycopene added to walnut oil had a significantly higher content of saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid, total phenol, reducing ability of the polar and non-polar components than the blank sample (walnut oil without any addition of lycopene). In conclusion, lycopene improved the quality of walnut oil because of its antioxidant effect against lipid oxidation.

  9. Efficiency of the refining processes in removing 14C-dichlorvos residues in soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Crude soybean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-dichlorvos at a dose 24 mg insecticide / kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes such as alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization. The effect of the refining processes on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. The insecticide residues in crude oil and cake amounted to 9.5% and 55% , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds. Extraction of the seeds with hexane gave crude oil with 9.5 % of original residues in seeds. The l4 C-activity in the crude stored Soya beans oil could be reduced by about 82% of radioactivity originally present in crude oil eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. A high percentage of the residues (50-55%) were eliminated during alkali treatment and bleaching. Refining of soybeans oil fortified with '1 4 C-dichlorovos. The final refined oil had only 13% of the radioactivity originally present, mainly in the form of dichlorvos, dimethyl and monomethyl phosphate in addition to desmethyl dichlorvos in oil with aged residues

  10. Research Progress in Carbon Dioxide Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Wang, Gang; Lu, Chunjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of global economy, human beings have become highly dependent upon fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum. Much fossil fuel is consumed in industrial production and human life. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing, and the greenhouse effects thereby generated are posing serious threats to environment of the earth. These years, increasing average global temperature, frequent extreme weather events and climatic changes cause material disasters to the world. After scientists’ long-term research, ample evidences have proven that emissions of greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide have brought about tremendous changes to global climate. To really reduce carbon dioxide emissions, governments of different countries and international organizations have invested much money and human resources in performing research related to carbon dioxide emissions. Manual underground carbon dioxide storage and carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery are schemes with great potential and prospect for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Compared with other schemes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, aforementioned two schemes exhibit high storage capacity and yield considerable economic benefits, so they have become research focuses for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. This paper introduces the research progress in underground carbon dioxide storage and enhanced oil recovery, pointing out the significance and necessity of carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery.

  11. Residual and Solubility trapping during Geological CO2 storage : Numerical and Experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmusson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers mitigates atmospheric release of greenhouse gases. To estimate storage capacity and evaluate storage safety, knowledge of the trapping mechanisms that retain CO2 within geological formations, and the factors affecting these is fundamental. The objective of this thesis is to study residual and solubility trapping mechanisms (the latter enhanced by density-driven convective mixing), specifically in regard to their dependency on ...

  12. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  13. Research within the coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, oil, feed and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.

    1981-06-01

    14 C-methyl and 14 C-ring-labelled carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl carbamate) were used to study the fate and magnitude of the insecticide in the plant and cotton seed products. Under conditions of actual agricultural practice, 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 mg/kg of 14 C-residues were found in the seed, crude oil and cake respectively. In oil, the residue was resolved into 4 compounds, 2 identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues from the soil did not exceed 0.3 mg/kg after the first week and declined to 0.1 mg/kg after 5 weeks. Parallel experiments were conducted under field conditions using 14 C-phenyl leptophos (4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl methyl phenyl phosphorothioate). Leptophos residues were determined in the cotton seed products during 1975, 1976 and 1977, with mean values for leptophos residues in the cotton seed, crude oil and cake of 0.26, 1.10 and 0.07 mg/kg, respectively. Experiments with non-labelled monocrotophos [3-(dimethoxy phosphinyloxy)-N-methyl cis-crotonamide] gave residues of 0.30, 1.56 and 0.02 mg/kg in the seed, crude oil and cake, respectively. Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined by a colorimetric method. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. Storage of corn oil for one year had essentially no effect on the concentration of carbaryl residues under laboratory conditions (presumably similar to regular storage conditions). An overall effect of simulated commercial processing procedures (saponification, deodorization and winterization) gave a loss of 70% of the original carbaryl in the oil. Commercial cooking procedures for national popular dishes resulted in near-complete elimination of carbaryl residues (up to 98%). Frying onions and potatoes in carbaryl-spiked corn oil for 3 min. up to 210 0 C resulted in 55-60% loss of the residue

  14. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  15. Booming Asia-Pacific oil trade spawns regional storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that surging oil trade in the Asia-Pacific region is spawning a number of big petroleum storage projects there. Among the biggest are those in Indonesia and Singapore. A group led by Singapore's Sembawang Group plans to build a $272 million (Singapore) oil storage terminal on Karimun Island in Riau province, Indonesia. Other participants include Kuo International, Hong Kong, and likely companies from Japan, Europe, and the U.S. According to press reports from Jakarta and Singapore, Van Ommeren Terminals of Netherlands was also reportedly involved in negotiations on the projects. A joint venture agreement was expected to be signed by the third quarter. Plans call for building a terminal with a capacity of 1.5 million cu m on the island, where Sembawang has a 100 year lease. Ultimately, Sembawang and Indonesian company Bangun Cipta want to develop the site as an industrial city with petrochemical plants, engineering and manufacturing industries, and shipyards. Semabawang Project Engineering recently completed a feasibility study of the Karimun storage project

  16. Studies on sludge from storage tank of waxy crude oil. Part I: structure and composition of distillate fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-08-01

    Tank bottom sludge from storage tanks of Bombay High crude oil deposited during ten years have been studied. The yield of the sludge is approximately 0.1% wt. of the crude oil through-put. The residue boiling above 500{degree}C amounts to over 50%. The distillate fractions collected at 50{degree}C intervals have been analyzed extensively and compared to fractions from whole crude of same boiling range. The sludge distillate are distinctly more paraffinic in nature. 15 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Residues in cottonseed oil and cake resulting from the combined application of DDT and dimethoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zorgani, G.A.; Ahmed, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Cotton plants were treated with a combination of DDT and dimethoate under conditions of local agricultural practice to study the fate and magnitude of both chemicals in the cottonseed and related products. GLC and nuclear (using 14 C-DDT) techniques were used. DDT residues in the crude oil averaged 0.115 mg/kg; mainly as p,p'-DDT while residues in the cake were not detected. Dimethoate and dimethoxon in the crude oil were 0.13 and 0.01 mg/kg respectively. The cake contained 0.14 mg/kg dimethoate and 0.01 mg/kg dimethoxon. By simulating commercial oil processing in the laboratory using 14 C-DDT fortified oil samples it was found that alkali treatment and bleaching removed only 7% of the total residue, while deodorization effected removal of 40-50% of the residue. (author)

  18. Rhizosphere biodegradation of xenobiotics: Microbiological study of a rice field polluted by oil refinery residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasolomanana, J.L.; Balandreau, J.

    1987-07-01

    A rice field had been studied in which the disposal of oil residues from a refinery plant seemed to improve rice growth and soil N content. To check the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation by oil-adapted bacteria could explain this observation we isolated and studied dominant diazotrophic bacteria from the rhizosphere of an actively N/sub 2/-fixing rice plant growing on the polluted soil; for this purpose we used an axenic plant as an enrichment step. The rhizosphere did not contain more than 10/sup 5/ N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria per g dry soil, essentially Bacillus polymyxa; one of the isolates, strain R3 could grow and reduce C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ on oil residues only in the presence of glucose or of exudates from an axenic plant (spermosphere model); the presence of R3 diminished the inhibition of rice growth due to the oil residues; R3 nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of rice was increased in the presence of these residues. This cometabolism of oil residues in the presence of exudates and their stimulating effect on N/sub 2/ fixation provide a likely explanation for observed positive effects of the disposal of oil residues on arable lands, and are conducive to the hypothesis that rhizosphere cometabolism could greatly enhance soil organic matter turn over and humification rates.

  19. NMR and Chemometric Characterization of Vacuum Residues and Vacuum Gas Oils from Crude Oils of Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Parlov Vuković

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy in combination with statistical methods was used to study vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils from 32 crude oils of different origin. Two chemometric metodes were applied. Firstly, principal component analysis on complete spectra was used to perform classification of samples and clear distinction between vacuum residues and vacuum light and heavy gas oils were obtained. To quantitatively predict the composition of asphaltenes, principal component regression models using areas of resonance signals spaned by 11 frequency bins of the 1H NMR spectra were build. The first 5 principal components accounted for more than 94 % of variations in the input data set and coefficient of determination for correlation between measured and predicted values was R2 = 0.7421. Although this value is not significant, it shows the underlying linear dependence in the data. Pseudo two-dimensional DOSY NMR experiments were used to assess the composition and structural properties of asphaltenes in a selected crude oil and its vacuum residue on the basis of their different hydrodynamic behavior and translational diffusion coefficients. DOSY spectra showed the presence of several asphaltene aggregates differing in size and interactions they formed. The obtained results have shown that NMR techniques in combination with chemometrics are very useful to analyze vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils. Furthermore, we expect that our ongoing investigation of asphaltenes from crude oils of different origin will elucidate in more details composition, structure and properties of these complex molecular systems.

  20. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  1. Secondary containment systems for bulk oil storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has conducted site inspections at several onshore bulk oil above ground storage facilities, to ensure that owners follow the spill prevention, control and countermeasure regulations. The four violations which were most frequently cited at these facilities were: (1) lack of a spill prevention plan, (2) lack of appropriate containment equipment to prevent discharged oil from reaching a navigable water course, (3) inadequate secondary containment structures, and (4) lack of an adequate quick drainage system in the facility tank loading/unloading area. Suggestions for feasible designs which would improve the impermeability of secondary containment for above ground storage tanks (AST) included the addition of a liner, retrofitting the bottom of an AST with a second steel plate, using a geosynthetic liner on top of the original bottom, installing a leak detection system in the interstitial space between the steel plates, or installing an under-tank liner with a leak detection system during construction of a new AST. 2 refs

  2. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  3. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Arami-Niya, Arash; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.; Noor, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  4. Removal of emulsified oil in residual waters by means of dissolved air flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverri Londono, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    In this article is consigned a theoretical and experimental study on the treatment of industrial residual waters with emulsified oil, through the flotation process for dissolved air (FAD), changing some operation parameters and some importance topics, related with the process. The experimental results and the theoretical pattern, show that the removal of oil depends fundamentally on the chemical pretreatment. Efficiencies of removal of oil up of 99% they were obtained, using the dissolved air flotation with the help of coagulants

  5. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  6. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  7. Improvement of Dune Sands by Residual Oil in Order to Use in Construction of Lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Hajian nia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research which is based on experimental work, devoted to study the improvement and stabilization of dune sands in order to create strong layer and stabilize slope and floor construction of sewage Lagoons. Materials used stabilizing these soils are residual oil from the refinery. To confirm the effectiveness of the use of residual oil to improve the mechanical properties of the sand, various samples with different percentages were tested. In besides, the geotechnical and environmental tests were done. Results demonstrate that samples made with 5% oil have highest shear and unconfined compaction strength. It revealed that in compare with natural samples, cohesion and loading capacity highly increased and permeability decrease well. Percentage of fine aggregate, minerals and durability of oil in soil material were also investigated. Finally, effects of sewage on the samples were analyzed, and performance the oils were evaluated in order to use in lagoons.

  8. Process and catalysis for hydrocracking of heavy oil and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Kressmann, S. [Centre d' Etudes et de developpement Indutriel ' Rene Navarre' , Vernaison (France); Harle, V.; Kasztelan, S. [Division Cinetique et Catalyse, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-07-01

    Atmospheric or vacuum residue can be converted into valuable distillates using reaction temperature, high hydrogen pressure and low contact time hydroprocessing units. Various residue hydrocracking processes are now commercially employed using fixed bed, moving bed or ebullated bed reactors. The choice of process type depends mainly on the amount of metals and asphaltenes in the feed and on the level of conversion required. Various improvements have been introduced in the last decade to increase run length, conversion level, products qualities and stability of the residual fuel. These improvements include on stream catalysts replacement systems, swing reactors, improved feed distribution, guard bed materials limiting pressure drop, coke resistant catalysts, complex association of catalysts using particle size, activity and pore size grading. Further improvement of the resistance of catalysts to deactivation by coke and metal deposits and of the hydrodenitrogenation activity are two major challenges for the development of new residue hydrocracking catalysts and processes. 29 refs.

  9. Research on crude oil storage and transportation based on optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuhua

    2018-04-01

    At present, the optimization theory and method have been widely used in the optimization scheduling and optimal operation scheme of complex production systems. Based on C++Builder 6 program development platform, the theoretical research results are implemented by computer. The simulation and intelligent decision system of crude oil storage and transportation inventory scheduling are designed. The system includes modules of project management, data management, graphics processing, simulation of oil depot operation scheme. It can realize the optimization of the scheduling scheme of crude oil storage and transportation system. A multi-point temperature measuring system for monitoring the temperature field of floating roof oil storage tank is developed. The results show that by optimizing operating parameters such as tank operating mode and temperature, the total transportation scheduling costs of the storage and transportation system can be reduced by 9.1%. Therefore, this method can realize safe and stable operation of crude oil storage and transportation system.

  10. Compositional changes of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in naturally weathered oil residues in the Egyptian western desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, A.O.; Qian, Y.; Kim, M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic steranes are geochemical markers that can be used to study the maturation of organic matter of sediments and to correlate crude oils and source rocks. In this study, naturally weathered oil residues from an arid waste disposal site in Al-Alamein, Egypt, were analyzed for monoaromatic and triaromatic steranes to show the usefulness of biomarker compounds in assessing changes in chemical composition during the degradation of oil residues that have been released onto terrestrial environments. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the individual aromatic compounds. Results indicate that triaromatic sterane distributions are similar in oil residues with varying extents of weathering. The distribution correlated with a fresh crude oil sample from Western Desert-sourced oil. Molecular ratios of triaromatic sterane compounds were found to be suitable for source identification. The major changes in chemical compositions resulting from the weathering of the oil included the depletion of short chain mono- and tri-aromatic steranes in extremely weathered samples. The results of the triaromatic sterane distribution correspond with weathering classifications based on the analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturate biomarker compounds. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  12. MODEL FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF BIODIESEL FROM RESIDUAL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Rosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a important fuel with economic benefits, social and environmental. The production cost of the biodiesel can be significantly lowered if the raw material is replaced by a alternative material as residual oil. In this study, the variation of specific gravity with temperature increase for diesel and biodiesel from residual oil obtained by homogeneous basic catalysis. All properties analyzed for biodiesel are within specification Brazil. The determination of the correction algorithm for the specific gravity function of temperature is also presented, and the slope of the line to diesel fuel, methylic biodiesel (BMR and ethylic biodiesel (BER from residual oil were respectively the values -0.7089, -0.7290 and -0.7277. This demonstrates the existence of difference of the model when compared chemically different fuels, like diesel and biodiesel from different sources, indicating the importance of determining the specific algorithm for the operations of conversion of volume to the reference temperature.

  13. The deep processing of oil residues conjunction with shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Maloletnev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the development of a new process of thermal cracking of tar oil as a slurry with crushed oil shale to obtain components of motor fuels. The results suggest doubtless advantages of the process before the industrial of thermo cracking, since the single-stage processing of raw materials in relatively in the mild conditions (5 MPa, 425ºC, volumetric feed rate 1.0 h-1 is achieved deep destruction of tar oil (the yield petrol fraction with a bp amounts to up to 180ºC - ~12 mass % of middle distillates with a bp 180-360ºC – 43-44 mass %, of raw material for catalytic cracking of a bp 360-520ºC – ~15-16%, based on the initial tar oil. Formed like coke products and raw materials contained in V and Ni is postponed on the mineral part of slate and removed from the reaction zone with the liquid products of the process.

  14. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emission risks from storage of wood residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihersaari, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels is one of the most important means of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. In Finland, wood energy is considered to be a very important potential energy source in this sense. There might, however, still be some elements of uncertainty when evaluating biofuel production chains. By combining data from a stack of composting biodegradable materials and forest residue storage research there was an indication that rather great amounts of greenhouse gases maybe released during storage of wood chip, especially if there is rapid decomposition. Unfortunately, there have not been many evaluations of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass handling and storage heaps. The greenhouse gas emissions are probably methane, when the temperature in the fuel stack is above the ambient temperature, and nitrous oxide, when the temperature is falling and the decaying process is slowing down. Nowadays it is still rather unusual to store logging residue as chips, because the production is small, but in Finland storage of bark and other by-products from the forest industry is a normal process. The evaluations made indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from storage can, in some cases, be much greater than emissions from the rest of the biofuel production and transportation chain

  15. Processing and display of nuclear magnetism logging signals: application to residual oil determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.J.S.; Neuman, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of a series of computations and signal displays which help to show the nature of NML signals in general as well as to show the response to particular formation, hole, and tool conditions. Such processing of digitally recorded signals enables improved accuracy and bed resolution over that presented with the raw log. The treatment of drilling mud filtrate to eliminate NML signal from the brine phase in the invaded zone is described. Logs are shown as recorded before and after invasion of treated mud filtrate. This treatment causes the NML signal to correspond to residual oil only, enabling accurate and relatively inexpensive measurement of residual oil. 24 refs

  16. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante Carvalho; Lilian Katie Nagato; Sheila da Silva Fagundes; Flavia Brandão dos Santos; Andrea Surrage Calheiros; Olaf eMalm; Patricia Torres Bozza; Paulo Hilario Nascimento Saldiva; Debora Souza Faffe; Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco; Walter Araujo Zin

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the...

  17. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  18. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  19. Experimental investigation of wettability alteration on residual oil saturation using nonionic surfactants: Capillary pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amirpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the novel technique for enhancing oil recovery from available petroleum reservoirs is one of the important issues in future energy demands. Among of all operative factors, wettability may be the foremost parameter affecting residual oil saturation in all stage of oil recovery. Although wettability alteration is one of the methods which enhance oil recovery from the petroleum reservoir. Recently, the studies which focused on this subject were more than the past and many contributions have been made on this area. The main objective of the current study is experimentally investigation of the two nonionic surfactants effects on altering wettability of reservoir rocks. Purpose of this work is to change the wettability to preferentially the water-wet condition. Also reducing the residual oil saturation (Sor is the other purpose of this work. The wettability alteration of reservoir rock is measured by two main quantitative methods namely contact angle and the USBM methods. Results of this study showed that surfactant flooding is more effective in oil-wet rocks to change their wettability and consequently reducing Sor to a low value. Cedar (Zizyphus Spina Christi is low priced, absolutely natural, and abundantly accessible in the Middle East and Central Asia. Based on the results, this material can be used as a chemical surfactant in field for enhancing oil recovery.

  20. TNTM85 and TNTM81 transports / storage flasks: An optimized solution for vitrified residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, D.; Verdier, A.; Dyck, P.

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues would not be transported in the existing flask designs. Therefore COGEMA LOGISTICS decided in the late nineties to develop a design with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters. The TN TM 85 flask shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the highest vitrified residues defining a thermal power of 56 kW. The challenge for the TN TM 85 flask design was that the geometry entry data were very restrictive and were combined with a fairly wide range set by COGEMA Specification 300AQ16 relative to vitrified residue canister. In addition, the cask had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the TN TM 28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. (authors)

  1. Stability evaluation of quality parameters for palm oil products at low temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Aainaa Syahirah; Mohd Noor, Mohd Azmil; Musa, Hajar; Ghazali, Razmah

    2018-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the major oils and fats produced and traded worldwide. The value of palm oil products is mainly influenced by their quality. According to ISO 17025:2005, accredited laboratories require a quality control procedure with respect to monitoring the validity of tests for determination of quality parameters. This includes the regular use of internal quality control using secondary reference materials. Unfortunately, palm oil reference materials are not currently available. To establish internal quality control samples, the stability of quality parameters needs to be evaluated. In the present study, the stability of quality parameters for palm oil products was examined over 10 months at low temperature storage (6 ± 2 °C). The palm oil products tested included crude palm oil (CPO); refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (RBDPO); RBD palm olein (RBDPOo); and RBD palm stearin (RBDPS). The quality parameters of the oils [i.e. moisture content, free fatty acid content (FFA), iodine value (IV), fatty acids composition (FAC) and slip melting point (SMP)] were determined prior to and throughout the storage period. The moisture, FFA, IV, FAC and SMP for palm oil products changed significantly (P  0.05). The stability study indicated that the quality of the palm oil products was stable within the specified limits throughout the storage period at low temperature. The storage conditions preserved the quality of palm oil products throughout the storage period. These findings qualify the use of the palm oil products CPO, RBDPO, RBDPOo and RBDPS as control samples in the validation of test results. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Testing in support of on-site storage of residues in the Pipe Overpack Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M.

    1997-02-01

    The disposition of the large back-log of plutonium residues at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) will require interim storage and subsequent shipment to a waste repository. Current plans call for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the transportation to WIPP in the TRUPACT-II. The transportation phase will require the residues to be packaged in a container that is more robust than a standard 55-gallon waste drum. Rocky Flats has designed the Pipe Overpack Container to meet this need. It is desirable to use this same waste packaging for interim on-site storage in non-hardened buildings. To meet the safety concerns for this storage the Pipe Overpack Container has been subjected to a series of tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In addition to the tests required to qualify the Pipe Overpack Container as a waste container for shipment in the TRUPACT-II several tests were performed solely for the purpose of qualifying the container for interim storage. This report will describe these tests and the packages response to the tests. 12 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  5. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... residual oil added to feed mixture on the biochemical traits of thigh muscles in .... The basal diet (Soybean + corn); T2 = basal diet + 0% RRO + 50 mg/kg ZnO; T3 = basal ... fatty acids, using gas chromatography (AOAC, 1999).

  6. Production of petroleum bitumen by oxidation of heavy oil residue with sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileuberdi, Ye.; Akkazyn, Ye. A.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper production of bitumen adding elemental sulfur at oxidation of oil residue are investigated. The objects of research were distilled residue of Karazhanbas crude oil and elemental sulfur. These oil residue characterized by a low output of easy fractions and the high content of tar-asphaltene substances, therefore is the most comprehensible feedstock for producing bitumen. The sulfur is one of the oil product collected in oil extraction regions. Oxidation process of hydrocarbons carried out at temperatures from 180 up to 210 °С without addition of sulfur and with the addition of sulfur (5-10 wt. %) for 4 hours. At 200 °С oxidation of hydrocarbons with 5, 7 and 10 wt.% sulfur within 3-4 h allows receiving paving bitumen on the mark BND 200/300, BND 130/200, BN 90/130 and BN 70/30. Physical and mechanical characteristics of oxidation products with the addition of 5-7 wt. % sulfur corresponds to grade of paving bitumen BND 40/60. At the given temperature oxidized for 2.5-3 h, addition of 10 wt. % sulfur gave the products of oxidation describing on parameters of construction grades of bitumen (BN 90/10).

  7. Quantification of oil recovery efficiency, CO 2 storage potential, and fluid-rock interactions by CWI in heterogeneous sandstone oil reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran; Sisson, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Significant interest exists in improving recovery from oil reservoirs while addressing concerns about increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The combination of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and safe geologic storage of CO2 in oil reservoirs is appealing and can be achieved by carbonated (CO...... for oil recovery and CO2 storage potential on heterogeneous cores. Since not all the oil reservoirs are homogenous, understanding the potential of CWI as an integrated EOR and CO2 storage scenario in heterogeneous oil reservoirs is essential....

  8. STUDY OF THE THERMAL CRACKING DURING THE VACUUM DISTILLATION OF ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE OF CRUDE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAOUAD ELAYANE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the study of the thermal cracking as undesirable phenomenon in the vacuum distillation of atmospheric residue of crude oil. In this point, we have sought to identify and characterize the effect of the increase in the temperature of vacuum distillation on the separation and the modification of the constituents of atmospheric residue of crude oil whose origin is Arabian Light. This study has been carried out by several techniques of analysis such as the density (ASTM D4052, distillation (ASTM D1160, determination of heavy metals nickel and vanadium (IFP9422, dosing of Conradson Carbon (ASTM D189, dosing of asphaltenes (ASTM D2549 and dosage of PCI (polycyclic aromatics (ASTM D 5186. The results showed a clear idea on the decomposition of the atmospheric residue and their influence on the performance of the vacuum distillation unit.

  9. The fuel characteristics of logging residue and their response to storage; Puupolttoaineen laadunvalvonta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, J [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland). Kannus Research Station

    1997-12-01

    Logging residue is one of the major biomass reserves of Finland available for energy production. Some 29 million m{sup 3} of this residue material is left in the forest annually in conjunction with logging operations. The technically harvestable annual reserve is estimated to consist of 8.6 million m{sup 3} biomass needles included, or 5.6 million m{sup 3} needles excluded. The present technology is based on the mechanised harvesting of stemwood with single-grip harvesters, off- road transport of residue to road side with forwarders, chipping at the road side and truck transport of chips. The amount used at heating plants in 1995 was estimated to only 50 000 m{sup 3} solid or less than 1 % of the harvestable reserve. The aim of the Project 125 is to find out how the fuel characteristics and the elemental composition of logging residue change over time in different storage conditions. Based on the information from the first year experiments it can be concluded that the season of comminution is of importance. The enforced paper cover that was used to protect the residue from precipitation did not improve the fuel quality. In addition the release of elements from the needle was found to be very slow. (orig.)

  10. Extra heavy oil and refinery residues upgrading through Eni Slurry Technology : first EST commercial unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, G.; Sanfilippo, D.; Amoroso, A [Eni S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The production of heavy crude oils is projected to continue to grow in the upstream oil industry given that large reserves of unconventional extra heavy crude and bitumen exist in several geographic areas including Canada and Venezuela. As reserves of conventional crude oil continue to decline, these unconventional feedstocks are becoming an opportunity to pursue, but they require effective technologies for upgrading and meeting the growing demand for light and middle distillate fuels. This paper described the proprietary technology that offers a solution to upstream and downstream oil producers for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. En i Slurry Technology (EST) is constructing an industrial plant in its Sannazzaro refinery in Italy. The plant is designed to convert 23,000 BPSD of vacuum residue into high quality diesel and other valuable refinery streams such as liquefied petroleum gas, naphtha and jet fuel. EST is an H-addition process characterized by the use of a special homogeneous isothermal intrinsically safe reactor, and of a nano-dispersed non-ageing catalyst. EST converts more than 98 per cent of any type of residues to about 110 per cent volume of light products and distillates or extra heavy oils to high quality bottomless SCO. In typical performance, HDS is greater than 85 per cent, HDM greater than 99 per cent and HDCCR greater than 97 per cent. EST also achieves the target of zero fuel oil - zero coke. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Experiment on the Effects of Storage Duration of Biodiesel produced from Crude Palm Oil, Waste Cooking oil and Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanihar, Nadiarulah; Khalid, Amir; Mustaffa, Norrizal; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palm oil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palm oil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palm oil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.

  12. γ-Oryzanol and tocopherol contents in residues of rice bran oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Bauer, Vanessa Ribeiro; Zambiazi, Rui C; Mendonça, Carla R B; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2012-10-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of the natural antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherols, which are lost to a large degree during oil refining. This results in a number of industrial residues with high contents of these phytochemicals. With the aim of supporting the development of profitable industrial procedures for γ-oryzanol and tocopherol recovery, the contents of these phytochemicals in all the residues produced during RBO refining were evaluated. The samples included residues from the degumming, soap precipitation, bleaching earth filtering, dewaxing and deodorisation distillation steps. The highest phytochemical concentrations were found in the precipitated soap for γ-oryzanol (14.2 mg g(-1), representing 95.3% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO), and in the deodorisation distillate for tocopherols (576 mg 100 g(-1), representing 6.7% of total tocopherols in crude RBO). Therefore, among the residues of RBO processing, the deodorisation distillate was the best source of tocopherols. As the soap is further processed for the recovery of fatty acids, samples taken from every step of this secondary process, including hydrosoluble fraction, hydrolysed soap, distillation residue and purified fatty acid fraction, were also analyzed. The distillation residue left after fatty acid recovery from soap was found to be the best source of γ-oryzanol (43.1 mg g(-1), representing 11.5% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  14. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambient and 5°C) for different periods before oil extraction at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on olive oil quality. Conventional analyses (acidity, peroxide value, specific extinction coefficient at 232 and 270 ...

  15. Studies on sludge from waxy crude oil storage tank. II. Solvent fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The sludge formed from crude oil (Bombay Hindu Crude oil) dump storage has been analysed by solvent extraction with a series of solvents of increasing polarity. The extract fractions so obtained have been analysed extensively. The nature of the sludge is compared with the similar sludges reported by other workers. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Asphalts tests using onshore drilling oil wells residues; Ensaios asfalticos utilizando residuos de perfuracao onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Adriano Elisio de F.L.; Rodrigues, John Kennedy G.; Ferreira, Heber Carlos; Lucena, Leda Christiane de F.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lucena, Luciana de F.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais Aplicada (FACISA), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling cuttings are one of the residues produced by the oils industries in large amounts during the drilling of oil wells. An alternative of final disposal of the drilling cutting residue is its utilization in asphalt mixtures. Based on this alternative, it was realized chemical and granulometric analysis and tests (Marshall and indirect tensile strength), on the asphaltic mixture using the residue from the oil drilling wells (well: 1-POTI-4-RN, located at Governador DIX-Sept Rosado - RN - Brazil). The achieved results to Marshall test indicated that for the analyzed mixture, the ideal content of residue that can be incorporated to the asphaltic composition and attend at the DNIT-ES 31 (2006) is 5%. To the indirect tensile strength test, the results showed a strength value higher than the minimum limit requested by the DNIT (0,65 MPa). The achieved results indicated the possibility of the utilization of the drilling cuttings in asphaltic pavements as fine aggregate, obeying the percentage limits, as an alternative to the final disposal. (author)

  17. Essential oil and their microconstituents of cumin and coriander seeds during storage under the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Abdullah, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Both cumin and coriander seeds were treated with gamma irradiation (10 KGy). The volatile oil and micro constituents were identified over seven months of storage. No marked changes were noticed regarding the volatile oil content and oil components between irradiated and non-irradiated of the two spices during the storage period at egyptian ambient temperature

  18. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  19. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in edible oil seeds and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers were presented in which chemical pollution due to insecticides was examined in edible oil seeds and their products. They include hexachlorocyclohexane residues in groundnut; carbaryl in groundnut; maize and cotton seed products, and in lactating goats; propoxur in cocoa beans; and leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products and in lactating goats. Eight of these papers constitute separate INIS entries. Egypt, Ghana, India, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, and the Sudan participated under the coordinated research programme. The progress of the programme is reviewed, and problems and priorities for future development of the programme are identified. A number of recommendations are addressed to the Joint FAO/IAEA Secretariat

  20. Determination of macro nickel, vanadium and iron in crude oil and residues by derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, L.; Li, X.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new method with derivative spectrophotometry and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol as the chromogenic reagent in buffer solution of different pH developed for determining micro amounts of nickel. Vanadium and iron in crude oil and residues is reported. Forth-, Second- and Third-, Fourth-order derivative spectrophotometry were applied to determine nickel, nickel and vanadium, nickel and iron in crude oil and residues, respectively. The derivative maximums chosen for the measurement were at 556 nm for nickel, 540 nm and 643 nm for nickel and vanadium, 524 nm and 604 nm for nickel and iron. Beer's law is valid for the range 1.0 x 10 -6 to 2.5 x 10 -5 M

  1. Microbial Physiology of the Conversion of Residual Oil to Methane: A Protein Prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brandon E. L.; Bastida-Lopez, Felipe; von Bergen, Martin; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2010-05-01

    Traditional petroleum recovery techniques are unable to extract the majority of oil in most petroliferous deposits. The recovery of even a fraction of residual hydrocarbon in conventional reserves could represent a substantive energy supply. To this end, the microbial conversion of residual oil to methane has gained increasing relevance in recent years [1,2]. Worldwide demand for methane is expected to increase through 2030 [3], as it is a cleaner-burning alternative to traditional fuels [4]. To investigate the microbial physiology of hydrocarbon-decomposition and ultimate methanogenesis, we initiated a two-pronged approach. First, a model alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, was used to interrogate the predominant metabolic pathway(s) differentially expressed during growth on either n-decane or butyrate. A total of 81 proteins were differentially expressed during bacterial growth on butyrate, while 100 proteins were unique to the alkane-grown condition. Proteins related to alkylsuccinate synthase, or the homologous 1-methyl alkylsuccinate synthase, were identified only in the presence of the hydrocarbon. Secondly, we used a newly developed stable isotope probing technique [5] targeted towards proteins to monitor the flux of carbon through a residual oil-degrading bacterial consortium enriched from a gas-condensate contaminated aquifer [1]. Combined carbon and hydrogen stable isotope fractionation identified acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant process in this system. Such findings agree with the previous clone library characterization of the consortium. Furthermore, hydrocarbon activation was determined to be the rate-limiting process during the net conversion of residual oil to methane. References 1. Gieg, L.M., K.E. Duncan, and J.M. Suflita, Bioenegy production via microbial conversion of residual oil to natural gas. Appl Environ Micro, 2008. 74(10): p. 3022-3029. 2. Jones, D.M., et al., Crude-oil biodegradation via

  2. Biodegradation of marine oil spill residues using aboriginal bacterial consortium based on Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Liu, Xing; Guo, Jie; Lv, Yingchun; Li, Yuanwei

    2018-09-15

    Bioremediation, mainly by indigenous bacteria, has been regarded as an effective way to deal with the petroleum pollution after an oil spill accident. The biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms co-incubated from sediments collected from the Penglai 19-3 oil platform, Bohai Sea, China, was examined. The relative susceptibility of the isomers of alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes and alkyldibenzothiophene to biodegradation was also discussed. The results showed that the relative degradation values of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) are 43.56% and 51.29% for sediments with untreated microcosms (S-BR1) and surfactant-treated microcosms (S-BR2), respectively. TPH biodegradation results showed an obvious decrease in saturates (biodegradation rate: 67.85-77.29%) and a slight decrease in aromatics (biodegradation rate: 47.13-57.21%), while no significant difference of resins and asphaltenes was detected. The biodegradation efficiency of alkylnaphthalenes, alkylphenanthrenes and alkyldibenzothiophene for S-BR1 and S-BR2 samples reaches 1.28-84.43% and 42.56-86.67%, respectively. The efficiency of crude oil degradation in sediment with surfactant-treated microcosms cultures added Tween 20, was higher than that in sediment with untreated microcosms. The biodegradation and selective depletion is not only controlled by thermodynamics but also related to the stereochemical structure of individual isomer compounds. Information on the biodegradation of oil spill residues by the bacterial community revealed in this study will be useful in developing strategies for bioremediation of crude oil dispersed in the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  4. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  5. Research on the porous flow of the mechanism of viscous-elastic fluids displacing residual oil droplets in micro pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guanyu

    2018-03-01

    In order to analyze the microscopic stress field acting on residual oil droplets in micro pores, calculate its deformation, and explore the hydrodynamic mechanism of viscous-elastic fluids displacing oil droplets, the viscous-elastic fluid flow equations in micro pores are established by choosing the Upper Convected Maxwell constitutive equation; the numerical solutions of the flow field are obtained by volume control and Alternate Direction Implicit methods. From the above, the velocity field and microscopic stress field; the forces acting on residual oil droplets; the deformations of residual oil droplets by various viscous-elastic displacing fluids and at various Wiesenberg numbers are calculated and analyzed. The result demonstrated that both the normal stress and horizontal force acting on the residual oil droplets by viscous-elastic fluids are much larger compared to that of inelastic fluid; the distribution of normal stress changes abruptly; under the condition of the same pressure gradient in the system under investigation, the ratio of the horizontal forces acting on the residual oil droplets by different displacing fluids is about 1:8:20, which means that under the above conditions, the driving force on a oil droplet is 20 times higher for a viscous-elastic fluid compared to that of a Newtonian Fluid. The conclusions are supportive of the mechanism that viscous-elastic driving fluids can increase the Displacement Efficiency. This should be of help in designing new chemicals and selecting Enhanced Oil Recovery systems.

  6. Microbial growth in Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil, Jatropha curcas oil, and their respective biodiesels under simulated storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciana Clarice Cazarolli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demands for biodiesel in Brazil, diverse oil feedstocks have been investigated for their potentials for biodiesel production. Due to the high biodegradability of natural oils and their respective biodiesels, microbial growths and consequent deterioration of final product quality are generally observed during storage. This study was aimed at evaluating the susceptibility of Acrocomia aculeata pulp oil and Jatropha curcas oil as well as their respective biodiesels to biodeterioration during a simulated storage period. The experiment was conducted in microcosms containing oil/biodiesel and an aqueous phase over 30 d. The levels of microbial contamination included biodiesel and oil as received, inoculated with fungi, and sterile. Samples were collected every 7 d to measure pH, surface tension, acidity index, and microbial biomass. The initial and final ester contents of the biodiesels were also determined by gas chromatography. The major microbial biomass was detected in A. aculeata pulp and J. curcas biodiesels. Significant reductions in pH values were observed for treatments with A. aculeata pulp biodiesel as a carbon source (p

  7. Engineering evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of Niagara Falls Storage Site, its residues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The final disposition scenarios selected by DOE for assessment in this document are consistent with those stated in the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) (DOE, 1983d) and the modifications to the alternatives resulting from the public scoping process. The scenarios are: take no action beyond interim remedial measures other than maintenance and surveillance of the NFSS; retain and manage the NFSS as a long-term waste management facility for the wastes and residues on the site; decontaminate, certify, and release the NFSS for other use, with long-term management of the wastes and residues at other DOE sites; and partially decontaminate the NFSS by removal and transport off site of only the more radioactive residues, and upgrade containment of the remaining wastes and residues on site. The objective of this document is to present to DOE the conceptual engineering, occupational radiation exposure, construction schedule, maintenance and surveillance requirements, and cost information relevant to design and implementation of each of the four scenarios. The specific alternatives within each scenario used as the basis for discussion in this document were evaluated on the bases of engineering considerations, technical feasibility, and regulatory requirements. Selected alternatives determined to be acceptable for each of the four final disposition scenarios for the NFSS were approved by DOE to be assessed and costed in this document. These alternatives are also the subject of the EIS for the NFSS currently being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 40 figures, 38 tables

  8. ACID VALUE OF VEGETABLE OILS AND POULTRY FEED AS AFECTED BY STORAGE PERIOD AND ANTIOXIDANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Hassan Khan, Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Rozina Sardar

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to assess acid values in soyabean, cotton seed and sunflower oil commonly used in poultry ration was conducted. It was observed that mean acid value of oils ~ept in open were significantly high (7.67 than oil kept in sealed form (1.296. The mean acid value was higher in soyabean oil (P<0.01 than the values in cotton seed oil and sunflower oil. While determining the effect of Santaquin, BHT and Oxistat as antioxidant, in the ration stored at 40 °C for 2 months, it was observed that the acid values in untreated control ration was 18.20 while with the added antioxidants were 4.88, 4.85 and 4.83, respectively showing a significant increase with each week of the storage.

  9. Radiation protection and management of NORM residues in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, P.P.; )

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides in oil and gas streams belong to the decay chains of 238 U and 232 Th originate from the reservoir rock that contains oil, gas and formation water. Formation water contains significant concentrations of isotopes of radium dissolved from the reservoir rock. The parent isotopes of uranium and thorium are not mobilized from the rock and hence the radium isotopes appear in the water co-produced with the oil and gas. When the ions of Group II elements are present in the produced water, drops in pressure and temperature can lead to precipitation of sulphate and carbonate scales on the inner walls of production tubulars, well heads, valves, pumps, separators, water treatment vessels, gas treatment and oil storage tanks. The mixed stream of oil, gas and water carries the radon gas generated in the reservoir rock and in the production stream it preferentially follows the dry export gases. Consequently the equipment from gas treatment and transport facilities may accumulate a thin film of 210 Pb in the inner surfaces of gas lines. The radionuclide concentrations in produced water, hard scale and sludge will be presented. Indication on typical quantities of wastes generated and best practices followed in the industry in managing such wastes will be outlined. Information on external gamma exposure and potential internal exposure as well as global emerging issues will be discussed

  10. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  11. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  12. Effect of containers on the quality of Chemlali olive oil during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Zribi, Akram; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This study is undertaken to determine the storage stability of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in different containers such as clear and dark glass bottles, polyethylene (PE) and tin containers. The different oil samples were stored under light at room temperature. Quality parameters monitored during a 6-month-storage period included: acidity, peroxide value (PV), spectrophotometric indices (K232 and K270), chlorophyll and carotene pigments, fatty acids and sterol compositions, total phenols, Rancimat induction time as well as sensory evaluation. Tin containers and dark glass bottles recorded the lowest oxidation values. In addition, oil packed in tin containers and dark glass bottles showed better physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics than that stored in clear glass bottles and PE containers. A significant decrease (p containers. Such results proved that the storage of oil in tin containers and dark glass bottles appeared most adequate, and showed a gradual loss of quality during storage, especially in PE containers and clear glass bottles. This study has shown that the best packaging materials for the commercial packing of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil are tin containers and dark glass bottles.

  13. The mathematical model accuracy estimation of the oil storage tank foundation soil moistening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildebrandt, M. I.; Ivanov, R. N.; Gruzin, AV; Antropova, L. B.; Kononov, S. A.

    2018-04-01

    The oil storage tanks foundations preparation technologies improvement is the relevant objective which achievement will make possible to reduce the material costs and spent time for the foundation preparing while providing the required operational reliability. The laboratory research revealed the nature of sandy soil layer watering with a given amount of water. The obtained data made possible developing the sandy soil layer moistening mathematical model. The performed estimation of the oil storage tank foundation soil moistening mathematical model accuracy showed the experimental and theoretical results acceptable convergence.

  14. Characterization of virgin walnut oils and their residual cakes produced from different varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Amador, Rosa M; Salvador, María Desamparados; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses the composition and properties of different walnut varieties (Chandler, Hartley and Lara), in particular their virgin oils and residual cakes obtained by screw pressing employing different cultivars. Among nuts, walnut (Juglans regia L.) exhibits interesting nutritional value, mainly due to their high content in linoleic acid, phenolic and tocopherol compounds, which show antioxidant and other healthy properties. Valuable results related to fatty acid profile and minor components were observed. Virgin walnut oil is a rich source in linoleic acid (60-62%) and γ-tocopherol (517-554 mg/kg). Moreover, walnuts show a very high content in total phenolic compounds (10,045-12,474 mg/kg; as gallic acid), which contribute to a great antioxidant activity (105-170 mmol/kg for DPPH, and 260-393 mmol/kg for ORAC), being the hydrolysable tannins (2132-4204 mg/kg) and flavanols (796-2433 mg/kg) their main phenolic groups. Aldehydes account for the highest contribution to aromatic volatiles in virgin walnut oil (about 35% of total). As expected, polar phenolic compounds concentrate in the residual cake, after the separation of the oily phase, reaching a content of up to 19,869 mg/kg, leading to potential added value and applications as source of bioactive compounds to this by-product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The variability in iron speciation in size fractionated residual oil fly ash particulate matter (ROFA PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2016-08-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) containing iron can catalyze Fenton reaction leading to the production of reactive oxygen species in cells. It can also catalyze atmospheric redox reaction. These reactions are governed by the physicochemical characteristics of iron in ambient PM. As a surrogate for ambient PM, we prepared residual oil fly ash PM (ROFA PM) in a practical fire tube boiler firing residual oils with varying sulfur and ash contents. The ROFA particles were resolved into fine PM or PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter (AD)iron speciation in PM2.5+ was ascertained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and leaching method while that in PM2.5 was reported earlier. The results of both studies are compared to get an insight into the variability in the iron speciation in different size fractions. The results show the predominance of ferric sulfate, with a minor spinal ferrite in both PM (i.e. ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 in PM2.5, ZnFe2O4 in PM2.5+). The iron solubility in ROFA PM depends on its speciation, mode of incorporation of iron into particle's carbonaceous matrix, the grade and composition of oils, and pH of the medium. The soluble fraction of iron in PM is critical in assessing its interaction with the biological systems and its toxic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Residue level, persistence, and storage performance of citrus fruit treated with fludioxonil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Marceddu, Salvatore; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo; Scherm, Barbara; Migheli, Quirico

    2005-08-24

    The potential of postharvest dip treatments with fludioxonil (FLU) (a synthetic analogue of the bacterial metabolite of pyrrolnitrin), in controlling postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum of citrus fruit was investigated in comparison with the conventional fungicide imazalil (IMZ). The ultrastructural changes of fruit epicuticular wax was investigated as a function of water dip temperature, and the possible role of these changes was related to residue accumulation under FLU treatment. Residues retained by fruit were determined as a function of fungicide concentration, dip temperature, and fruit storage conditions. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that fruit dipping in water at 30 or 40 degrees C did not cause differences in cuticular wax's ultrastructure in comparison to control fruit, while treatments at 50, 55, or 60 degrees C caused the disappearance of wax platelets, resulting in relatively homogeneous skin surface, due to partial "melting" of epicuticular wax. Residues of FLU in fruit treated at 20 or 50 degrees C were significantly correlated with the doses of fungicide applied. When equal amounts of fungicide were employed, the residue concentrations were notably higher (from 2.6- to 4-fold) in fruit treated at 50 degrees C than in fruit treated at 20 degrees C. The dissipation rate of FLU in "Salustiana" and "Tarocco" oranges was lower in fruit subjected to treatment at 50 degrees C. The minimal FLU concentration for almost complete decay control in artificially wounded fruit during 7-d storage at 20 degrees C was 400 mg/L active ingredient (ai) in fruit treated at 20 degrees C and 100 mg/L ai in fruit treated at 50 degrees C. Results on nonwounded Tarocco oranges subjected to 3 weeks of simulated quarantine conditions at 1 degrees C, plus 6 weeks of standard storage at 8 degrees C and an additional two weeks of simulated marketing period (SMP) at 20 degrees C revealed that almost complete decay control

  17. Oxidative stability during storage of structured lipids produced from fish oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    2004-01-01

    Structured lipids produced by enzymatic or chemical methods for different applications have been receiving considerable attention. The oxidative stability of a randomized structured lipid (RFO), produced by chemical interesterification from fish oil (FO) and tricaprylin, and a specific structured...... lipid (SFO), produced by enzymatic interesterification from the same oil and caprylic acid, was compared with the stability of FO. Oils were stored at 2degreesC for 11 wk followed by storage at 20degreesC for 6 wk. In addition, the antioxidative effect of adding the metal chelators EDTA or citric acid...

  18. A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.P.

    1999-01-27

    Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.

  19. Reusing a residue of the oil industry (FCC) in the production of building elements

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo Casso, Eduard Andrés; Universidad del Valle; Mejía de Gutiérrez, Ruby; Universidad del Valle; Gordillo Suárez, Marisol; Universidad Autónoma de Occidente; Torres Agredo, Janneth; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Palmira

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of using a residue of spent catalyst (FCC) of the cracking process, from a Colombian oil company, in the production of building elements such as locks and pavers. To define the optimal mix of portland cement/FCC, Portland cement mortars with FCC ratios between 0 and 70% as replacement of cement were prepared and its compressive strength is evaluated at ages up to 28 days of curing. Using a statistical processing, applying the methodology of response, the pr...

  20. Pro biotic as Alternative to Antibiotic for Broiler Chicken fed Food Industrial Residual Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Faramawy, A.A.; El-Maghraby, A.F.; El-Danasoury, M.M.; Hussien, H.A.; Hegazy, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pro biotic (some lactic acid bacteria) with different levels of food industrial residual oil in broiler commercial diets on growth performance, meat yield, internal organs, economical efficiency and performance index. One hundred and eighty one day old Cobb chicks (45 ± 0.4 g) were equally and randomly divided into 6 groups namely; the antibiotic with fresh oil (FO), the antibiotic with mixed oil (MO) [FO+RO ( 1:1 w/w)], the antibiotic with food industrial residual oil (RO), the pro biotic with FO, the pro biotic with MO and the pro biotic with RO. Virginiamycin, Phibro, USA (15 ppm), was the antibiotic, while a mixture of lactic acid bacteria is chosen as pro biotic. Both were added to the water. During the experiment which lasted for 42 days, the body weight, the feed intake and the mortality rate were recorded at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age then the body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, economical efficiency and performance index were calculated. The results revealed that the average body weight, body weight gain and feed consumption significantly (P 0.05) while liver increased significantly (P<0.05) in pro biotic FO and gizzard in all pro biotic group and antibiotic MO. The highest performance index was observed in groups of birds treated with pro biotic with MO followed by birds treated with pro biotic FO without significant difference. It could be concluded that supplementation of pro biotic in broiler diet containing different levels of RO was economically more beneficial than antibiotic

  1. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  2. Gasification of coal as efficient means of environment protection and hydrogenation of heavy oils residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S. [Fossil Fuel Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia`s more then 50% of coals produced in its European part contain over 2,5% of sulphur, and the coals containing less than 1.5% of sulphurs comprise ca.20%. Thus, utilisation of the sulphide coals is inevitable, and there a problem arises concerning the technology of their sensible use and considering the requirements on the environment protection. Russia`s specialists have developed a design and construction for a steam-gas installation with a closed cycle gasification of the solid fuel. The gasification process will proceed in the fluidized bed under forced pressure of the steam-air blast. Characteristic features of this process are the following: a higher efficiency (the capacity of one gas generator is 3-3,5 times larger than that attained in the present gas generators of the Lurgy`s type): 2-2,5 times decreased fuel losses as compared to the Winkler`s generators; retention of the sensible heat, resulting in an increased total energy efficiency. The main task for petroleum refining industry at the present stage is the increase of depth of oil processing with the aim to intensify motor fuel production. One of the ways to solve the problem is to involve heavy oil residues into the processing. But the high metal and asphaltenes contents in the latter make the application of traditional methods and processes more difficult. Up to now there is no simple and effective technology which could give the opportunity to use oil residues for distillate fractions production. In Fossil fuel institute a process for hydrogenation of high boiling oil products, including with high sulphur, vanadium and nickel contents ones, into distillates and metals concentrates. The main point of the new process is as follows: the water solution of catalytic additive, for which purpose water soluble metal salts of VI-VIII groups are used, is mixed with tar, dispersed and then subjected to additional supercavitation in a special apparatus.

  3. Dry storage technologies: Optimized solutions for spent fuels and vitrified residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, Vincent; Verdier, Antoine; Sicard, Damien; Neider, Tara

    2006-01-01

    ancillary equipment, Ready to move to final or centralized repository or reprocessing facility or other ISFSI, Compact systems, Easy rearrangement, Easy handling; - In favor of concrete shielded canisters based systems: Economics when initial quantity is sufficient to spread out up front equipment investment significant cost - Shielding advantage, Easy local production of the relatively light canisters. Both approaches of dry storage technologies can have a positive impact on their public acceptance because of their non-permanent characteristics and because their transport license refers to internationally recognized rules, standards and methods. Currently, more than 1,000 COGEMA Logistics/Transnuclear Inc. dry storage systems have been ordered in Belgium, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, Armenia and the US. Because of the evolution of burnup of spent fuel to be reprocessed, the high activity vitrified residues cannot be transported in the existing cask designs presently used. Therefore, COGEMA LOGISTICS has decided in the late nineties to develop a brand new design of casks with optimized capacity able to store and transport the most active and hottest canisters: the TN TM 81 casks currently in use in Switzerland and the TN TM 85 cask which shall permit in the near future in Germany the storage and the transport of the most active vitrified residues. The TN TM 81 and the TN TM 85 casks have been designed to fully anticipate shipment constraints of the present vitrified residue production in existing reprocessing facilities. They also used the feedback of current shipments and the operational constraints and experience of receiving and shipping facilities. The casks had to fit as much as possible in the existing procedures for the already existing casks such as the TN TM 28 cask and TS 28 V cask, all along the logistics chain of loading, unloading, transport and maintenance. In addition, years of feedback and experience in design and operations - together with ever improved

  4. Influence of lubricant oil residual fraction on recycled high density polyethylene properties and plastic packaging reverse logistics proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Moraes Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To recycle post-consumer HDPE contaminated with waste lubricating oils, companies include prior washing and drying in the process. This consumes large amounts of water and energy, generates significant effluent requiring treatment. This study assesses lubricating oil influence on HDPE properties to evaluate the feasibility of its direct mechanical recycling without washing. The current lubricating oil packaging reverse logistics in Rio de Janeiro municipality is also analyzed. HDPE bottle samples were processed with seven oil contents ranging from 1.6-29.4 (wt%. The results indicated the possibility to reprocess the polymer with oily residue not exceeding 3.2%. At higher levels, the external oil lubricating action affects the plastic matrix processing in the extruder and injection, and the recycled material has a burnt oil odor and free oil on the surface. Small residual oil amounts retain the plastic properties comparable to the washed recycled polymer and exhibited benefits associated with the oil plasticizer action. However, oil presence above 7.7% significantly changes the properties and reduces the elasticity and flexural modulus and the plastic matrix crystallinity.

  5. Preliminary study of acoustic emission (ae) noise signal identification for crude oil storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Shukri Mohd

    2008-08-01

    This preliminary work was carried out to simulate the Acoustic Emission (AE) signal contributed by pitting corrosion, and noise signal from environment during crude oil storage tanks monitoring. The purpose of this study is to prove that acoustic emission (AE) could be used to detect the formation of pitting corrosion in the crude oil storage tank and differentiated it from other sources of noise signal. In this study, the pitting corrosion was simulated by inducing low voltage and low amperage current onto the crude oil storage tank material (ASTM 516 G 70). Water drop, air blow and surface rubbing were applied onto the specimen surface. To simulate the noise signal produce by rain fall, wind blow and other sources of noise during AE crude oil storage tanks monitoring. AE sensor was attached onto the other surface of specimen to acquire all of these AE signals which then has send to AE DiSP 24 data acquisition system for signal conditioning. AE win software has been used to analyse this entire signal. It is found that, simulated pitting corrosion could be detected by AE system and differentiated from other sources of noise by using amplitude analysis. From the amplitude analysis is shown that 20-30 dB is the range amplitude for the blow test, 50-60 dB for surface rubbing test and over than 60 dB for water drop test. (Author)

  6. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  7. Dual catalyst system for the hydrocracking of heavy oils and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellussi, G. [ENI S.p.A., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2011-07-01

    One of the major challenges for our and for the future generations is the development of a sustainable energy supply system based mainly on renewable sources with no environmental impact. This task is necessary to limit the negative effects of green-house gas on the hearth and to allows the forecasted population growth. However, it is not yet clear the time span needed to reach the objective. The total world energy consumption in 2008 amounted to 8428 Mtoe. In a reference scenario, this amount is expected to grow to 16790 Mtoe in 2030 and the contribution expected by sources, according to the International Energy Agency, will be: oil 29.8 %, coal 29.1 %, natural gas 21,2 %, nuclear 5.7 %, hydroelectric 2.4 %, others (Renewable and waste, geothermal, solar, wind, tide,..) [1]. This picture indicates that for several decades, we must still rely on fossil fuels, avoid running out of this precious energy reserves of our planet and reducing the environmental damage arising from their use. For these reason there is a growing need for the efficient upgrading of the heavy oil streams for a better utilization of every barrel of oil produced and for bringing to production also the huge reserves of unconventional fossil sources, such as the heavy oils and the tar sands. Since several years many companies have R and D project aimed to the conversion of heavy residues through a hydrocracking slurry technology, which, with respect to other competing technologies, such as those based on fixed or ebullated bed, can convert all the feedstock to distillates, avoiding the production of fuel oil or coke. In this lecture the advancement in this area will be presented and discussed, highlighting the potentiality offered by the improvement of the catalyst system. (orig.)

  8. Long storage stability of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahim Bouaid; Mercedes Martinez; Jose Aracil [Complutense University, Madrid (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils. Production of biodiesel has grown tremendously in European Union in the last years. Though the commercial prospects for biodiesel have also grown, there remains some concern with respect to its resistance to oxidative degradation during storage. Due to the chemical structure of biodiesel the presence of the double bond in the molecule produce a high level of reactivity with the oxygen, especially when it placed in contact with air. Consequently, storage of biodiesel over extended periods may lead to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. This study used samples of biodiesel prepared by the process of transesterification from different vegetable oils: high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), high and low erucic Brassica carinata oil (HEBO and LEBO) respectively and used frying oil (UFO). These biodiesels, produced from different sources, were used to determine the effects of long storage under different conditions on oxidation stability. Samples were stored in white (exposed) and amber (not exposed) glass containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 30-months. At regular intervals, samples were taken to measure the following physicochemical quality parameters: acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), viscosity {nu}, iodine value (IV) and insoluble impurities (II). Results showed that AV, PV, {nu} and II increased, while IV decreased with increasing storage time of biodiesel samples. However, slight differences were found between biodiesel samples exposed and not exposed to daylight before a storage time of 12 months. But after this period the differences were significant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  10. Predicting extra virgin olive oil freshness during storage by fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, R.; Tena, N.; Romero, I.; Aparicio, R.; García-González, D.L.; Morales, M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Virgin olive oil quality relates to flavor and unique health benefits. Some of these properties are at the most desirable level when the oil is just extracted, since it is not a product that improves with age. On the contrary, the concentrations of many compounds change during its shelf-life. These changes reveal the aging of the oil but do not necessarily mean decay in sensory properties, so in some cases an aged oil from healthy olives may be better qualified than a fresh one from olives affected by fermentation. The aim of this work is to analyze different methodologies proposed for assessing the quality of virgin olive oil with implications in freshness and aging of the oil, and to highlight the possibilities of rapid spectrofluorimetric techniques for assessing oil freshness by checking the evolution of pigments during storage. The observed change in the selected spectral features and mathematical modelling over time was compared with the accepted model for predicting the amount of pyropheophytin a, which is based on isokinetic studies. The best regression was obtained for 655 nm (adjusted-R2 = 0.91) wavelength, which matches the distinctive band of pigments. The two mathematical models described in this study highlight the usefulness of pigments in the prediction of the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil. [es

  11. Impact of Refrigerated Storage on Quality of Oil from Freshwater Jarko (Wallago attu Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat N. Memon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated storage on the quality of freshwater fish oil Jarko (Wallago attu was evaluated by measuring fatty acid profile, free fatty acids (FFA, peroxide value (PV, acid value (AV, sponification value (SV, iodine value (IV and poylene index (PI up to the time period of 120 days. After 120 days storage, mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA contents were decreased by 24.89% and 33.70%, respectively. While, saturated fatty acids (SFA content was found to be increased by 26.82%, against the actual value. The change in polyunsaturated fatty acids during refrigerated storage was measured by the PI value. The PI decreased during storage due to lipid oxidation, but remained nearly constant after 90th day of storage. The results of PV, AV and FFA demonstrates that Wallago attu fish oil remained acceptable for consumption for 60 days but eventually exceeded the recommended values after 60 days of refrigerated storage.

  12. The effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Genyuan; Wang Huaguo; Qi Mengwen; Wang Fujun; Zhou Changjiu

    1994-01-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with 14 C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with 14 C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit

  13. The effect of commercial processing procedures on {sup 14}C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyuan, Peng; Huaguo, Wang; Mengwen, Qi; Fujun, Wang; Changjiu, Zhou [Laboratory for the Application of Nuclear Techniques, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    1994-06-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with {sup 14}C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with {sup 14}C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit.

  14. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  15. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulators and thermal cracking of heavy oil and ultraheavy residues using microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardini, Andre L.; Bineli, Aulus R.R.; Viadana, Adriana M.; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering; Medina, Lilian C.; Gomes, Alexandre de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Barros, Ricardo S. [University Foundation Jose Bonifacio (FUJB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, the design of microreactor with microfluidics channels has been carried out in Computer Aided Design Software (CAD) and constructed in rapid prototyping system to be used in chemical reaction processing of the heavy oil fractions. The flow pattern properties of microreactor (fluid dynamics, mixing behavior) have been considered through CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations. CFD calculations are also used to study the design and specification of new microreactor developments. The potential advantages of using a microreactor include better control of reaction conditions, improved safety and portability. A more detailed crude assay of the raw national oil, whose importance was evidenced by PETROBRAS/CENPES allows establishing the optimum strategies and processing conditions, aiming at a maximum utilization of the heavy oil fractions, towards valuable products. These residues are able to be processed in microreactor, in which conventional process like as hydrotreating, catalytic and thermal cracking may be carried out in a much more intensified fashion. The whole process development involves a prior thermal study to define the possible operating conditions for a particular task, the microreactor design through computational fluid dynamics and construction using rapid prototyping. This gives high flexibility for process development, shorter time, and costumer/task oriented process/product development. (author)

  16. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium pachyphyllum Fruits against Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Xin-Chao; Dong, Hui-Wen; Liu, Zhi-Long; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essenti...

  17. Marine Lipids (Omega-3 Oil) - Stability of Oil and Enriched Products During Production and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2015-01-01

    The awareness of health benefits of marine lipids with a high content of omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids from fish and algae oil has led to an increased intake as oil and in products. However, these lipids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation, which results in the formation of undesirable...... off-flavours and gives rise to unhealthy compounds such as free radicals and reactive aldehydes. Necessary prerequisites for successful development of omega-3 enriched products are that the oil used for enrichment is of a high quality and low in oxidation products and that oxidation of the lipids...

  18. Environmental assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Big Hill facility storage of commercial crude oil project, Jefferson County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The Big Hill SPR facility located in Jefferson County, Texas has been a permitted operating crude oil storage site since 1986 with benign environmental impacts. However, Congress has not authorized crude oil purchases for the SPR since 1990, and six storage caverns at Big Hill are underutilized with 70 million barrels of available storage capacity. On February 17, 1999, the Secretary of Energy offered the 70 million barrels of available storage at Big Hill for commercial use. Interested commercial users would enter into storage contracts with DOE, and DOE would receive crude oil in lieu of dollars as rental fees. The site could potentially began to receive commercial oil in May 1999. This Environmental Assessment identified environmental changes that potentially would affect water usage, power usage, and air emissions. However, as the assessment indicates, changes would not occur to a major degree affecting the environment and no long-term short-term, cumulative or irreversible impacts have been identified

  19. Decarboxylation Of Palm And Groundnut Oils In Medium Uv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    INTRODUCTION. Vegetable oils undergo appreciable deterioration during processing and storage. The residual free fatty acid (FFA) concentration of vegetable oils is a function of the processing and storage conditions. Vegetable oils spoilage, usually defined as rancidity, is the result of fatty acid moity has been recognized ...

  20. Influence of storage temperature on quality parameters, phenols and volatile compounds of Croatian virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Bubola, K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low storage temperature (+4 °C and -20 °C and conventional storage room temperature on the quality parameters, phenolic contents and volatile profiles of Buža, Črna and Rosinjola monovarietal virgin olive oils after 12 months of storage was investigated in this study. Virgin olive oils stored at low temperatures maintained better quality parameters than oils stored at room temperature. A negligible decrease in the total phenols was detected after 12 months of storage at all investigated temperatures. The total volatile compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and esters in almost all stored samples were unchanged compared to fresh oils. Total ketones increased after storage, although at a lower temperature these changes were less notable. An increase in the oxidation indicators hexanal and hexanal/E-2-hexenal ratio was the lowest in oils stored at +4 °C.Storage at temperatures lower than room temperature could help to prolong the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil by maintaining high quality parameters and preserving the fresh oil’s volatile profile.Se ha estudiado la influencia, durante 12 meses, de temperaturas bajas (+4 °C y −20 °C y convencional (ambiente, sobre los parámetros de calidad, contenido fenólico y perfil de volátiles de aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales Buža, Črna y Rosinjola. Los aceites de oliva vírgenes almacenados a bajas temperaturas mantienen mejores propiedades de calidad que los aceites almacenados a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró una disminución no significativa de los fenoles totales después de 12 meses de almacenamiento a todas las temperaturas estudiadas. Los compuestos volátiles totales, aldehídos, alcoholes y ésteres, en casi todas las muestras almacenadas, se mantuvieron sin cambios en comparación con los aceites frescos. Las cetonas totales incrementaron tras el almacenamiento, aunque a temperaturasmas bajas estos cambios fueron menos notables. El incremento de los

  1. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  3. Energy fluxes in oil palm plantations as affected by water storage in the trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Fan, Yuanchao; Herbst, Mathias; Niu, Furong; Tiedemann, Frank; June, Tania; Rauf, Abdul; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    between GPP and T in the morning and the early decreases of both fluxes at midday suggest the existence of internal water storage mechanisms in oil palms both in the leaves and in the stem, which delayed the detection of water movement at the leaf petioles. The combination of our measured data with the model simulations suggest the existence of both external and internal trunk water storage mechanisms in mature oil palms contributing to ecosystem water fluxes. Oil palm plantations can lead to surface warming at early stages of development, but further assessments should be performed at landscape level to understand the climatic feedbacks of oil palm expansion.

  4. Review of Palm Kernel Oil Processing And Storage Techniques In South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeke CG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of palm kernel processing and storage in South-Eastern Nigeria was carried out by investigative survey approach. The survey basically ascertained the extent of mechanization applicable in the area to enable the palm kernel processors and agricultural policy makers, device the modalities for improving palm kernel processing in the area. According to the results obtained from the study, in Abia state, 85% of the respondents use mechanical method while 15% use manual method in cracking their kernels. In Imo state, 83% of the processors use mechanical method while 17% use manual method. In Enugu and Ebonyi state, 70% and 50% of the processors respectively use mechanical method. It is only in Anambra state that greater number of the processors (50% use manual method while 45% use mechanical means. It is observable from the results that palm kernel oil extraction has not received much attention in mechanization. The ANOVA of the palm kernel oil extraction technique in South- East Nigeria showed significant difference in both the study area and oil extraction techniques at 5% level of probability. Results further revealed that in Abia State, 70% of the processors use complete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil; 25% and 5% respectively use incomplete fractional process and zero refining process. In Anambra, 60% of the processors use complete fractional process and 40% use incomplete fractional process. Zero refining method is not applicable in Anambra state. In Enugu sate, 53% use complete fractional process while 25% and 22% respectively use zero refining and incomplete fractional process in refining the palm kernel oil. Imo state, mostly use complete fractional process (85% in refining palm kernel oil. About 10% use zero refining method while 5% of the processors use incomplete fractional process. Plastic containers and metal drums are dominantly used in most areas in south-east Nigeria for the storage of palm kernel oil.

  5. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.47 Section 279.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil must...

  6. Production of vanillin from waste residue of rice bran oil by Aspergillus niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lirong; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhihao; Bai, Yanbing; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xinfu

    2007-03-01

    A new technology of transforming ferulic acid, which was from waste residue of rice bran oil, into vanillin was developed by a combination of fungal strains Aspergillus niger CGMCC0774 and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. Various concentrations of ferulic acid were compared, and the highest yield reached 2.2 g l(-1) of vanillic acid by A. niger CGMCC0774 in a 25 l fermenter when concentration of ferulic acid was 4 g l(-1). The filtrate of A. niger CGMCC0774 culture was concentrated and vanillic acid in the filtrate was bio-converted into vanillin by P. cinnabarinus CGMCC1115. The yield of vanillin reached 2.8 g l(-1) when 5 g l(-1) of glucose and 25 g of HZ802 resin were supplemented in the bioconversion medium. The 13C isotope analysis indicated that delta13C(PDB) of vanillin prepared was much different from chemically synthesized vanillin.

  7. Evaluation of Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC oil as a fungitoxicant against storage mycoflora of pigeon pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, Nijendra N

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of 30 essential oils against four dominant fungi Aspergillus flavus Link., A. niger van Tieghem, A. ochraceus Wilhelm and A. terreus Thom of stored pigeon pea seeds at a concentration of 0.36 µL mL(-1). Various fungitoxic properties, such as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and fungitoxic spectrum, of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of pigeon pea seeds for 6 months was also carried out by storing 1 kg of seeds in the oil vapour. Clausena pentaphylla and Citrus limon oils were more effective against all the fungi tested, which exhibited 100% per cent mycelial inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. pentaphylla oil was determined as 0.07 µL mL(-1) against all the test fungi and was found to be more toxic than Citrus limon oil. C. pentaphylla oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against 16 other storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. C. pentaphylla oil significantly protected 1 kg seeds of pigeon pea from fungal deterioration and was superior to synthetic fumigants. The oil did not show any phytotoxicity and the protein content of the seeds was significantly retained for up to 6 months of storage. Thus, C. pentaphylla oil may be used as an effective fumigant in the ecofriendly management of storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, due to competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale has somewhat slowed the development of biodiesel industry. Studies have been conducted to recover oil from mill palm oil operation especially from the spent bleaching earth. Hence, the study was to investigate the potential recovery of oil from spent bleaching earth to be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of different types of catalysts (sodium hydroxide alkali and sulfuric acid catalysts on biodiesel yield was studied. In addition, the effect of volume addition of methanol to the weight of spent bleaching earth on the product yield was also studied. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of hexane to methanol was also carried out to determine its product yield. The studies were carried out in an in-situ biodiesel reactor system and the biodiesel product was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Result shows that the use of alkali catalyst produced the highest yield of biodiesel and the most optimum biodiesel yield was obtained when the methanol to spent bleaching earth ratio was 3.2:1 (gram of methanol: gram of SBE and hexane to methanol ratio of 0.6:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 19th December 2010, Revised: 10th May 2011; Accepted: 18th May 2011[How to Cite: R. Mat, O.S. Ling, A. Johari, M. Mohamed. (2011. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Residual Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 53-57. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.678.53-57 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/678 ] | View in 

  9. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. ....... The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations....

  10. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  11. STUDY OF ASPHALT BINDER OIL RESIDUE AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ASH TO BE USED IN LOW TRAFFIC PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michéle Dal Toé Casagrande

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The great generation of urban solid has been a concern in several countries. This work presents a study with two materials: the asphalt binder oil residue accumulated in the bottom of asphalt tanks and the municipal solid waste ash, to be used, respectively, as a substitute of conventional binder in asphalt mixtures and for soil stabilization in pavements base layers. Were evaluated properties as the mechanical behavior of the mixtures through experimental tests. The results show the potential of incorporating these residues for low traffic roads, allowing the construction of low cost roads and an environmental use of the residue.

  12. Antioxidant, Anti-Tyrosinase and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Oil Production Residues from Camellia tenuifloria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yuan Chiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia tenuifloria is an indigenous Camellia species used for the production of camellia oil in Taiwan. This study investigated for the first time the potential antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of oil production byproducts, specifically those of the fruit shell, seed shell, and seed pomace from C. tenuifloria. It was found that the crude ethanol extract of the seed shell had the strongest DPPH scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activities, followed by the fruit shell, while seed pomace was the weakest. The IC50 values of crude extracts and fractions on monophenolase were smaller than diphenolase. The phenolic-rich methanol fraction of seed shell (SM reduced nitric oxide (NO production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. It also repressed the expression of IL-1β, and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and IL-6 in response to LPS. SM strongly stimulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression and addition of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, reversed the inhibition of NO production, indicating the involvement of HO-1 in its anti-inflammatory activity. The effects observed in this study provide evidence for the reuse of residues from C. tenuifloria in the food additive, medicine and cosmetic industries.

  13. Vitamin E Contents and Oxidative Stability of Red Palm Oils Blended Chicken Nuggets during Frozen Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurkhuzaiah Kamaruzaman; Abdul Salam Babji; Wan Rosli Wan Ismail; Peng, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Oil (RPO) has a high oxidative stability and contains high levels of natural antioxidants, such as vitamin E and carotenoids. In this study, Vitamin E contents and lipid oxidation of chicken nuggets blended with red palm oil consist of NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 were compared against the control chicken fat treatment, each containing 10 % fat. Vitamin E contents, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide values (PV) for all samples were measured throughout 4 months of storage at -18 degree Celsius. All the vitamin E homologues were decreased. α-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol decreased faster meanwhile δ-tocopherol decreased slower than other homologues. Besides that, Vitamin E content in NVRO and NVRO-100 was significantly decreased (p<0.05) from 767.15 to 482.14 μg/ g and 842.73 to 672.36 μg/ g respectively. TBA and PV values for all samples chicken nuggets increased throughout 3 months of frozen storage but started to decrease thereafter. However, chicken nuggets formulated with NVRO, NVRO-100 and NVRO-50 significantly reduced (p<0.05) TBA and PV values compared with chicken fat treatments. This study showed that frozen storage influence vitamin E stability and the potential of utilization of red palm oils in improving nutritional quality and reducing lipid oxidation of chicken nugget. (author)

  14. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  16. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  17. Proceedings of the Ontario Petroleum Institute's 48. annual conference : Ontario oil, gas and storage conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This conference discussed issues related to Ontario's petroleum industry and evaluated the province's potential hydrocarbon plays. Geological studies of interest to oil and gas operators were presented along with storage opportunities for hydrocarbons in underground formations. Regulatory issues related to the environmental impacts of oil and gas operations on soil and groundwater were reviewed, and various mitigation options for treating soils impacted by hydrocarbons were discussed. New technologies currently being used in Ontario's petroleum industry were presented together with various investment and exploration opportunities. An economic update of recent oil and gas activities in the region was also presented. The conference was divided into 7 sessions, and featured 17 presentations, of which 11 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  18. Antimicrobial properties of clove essential oil on raw hamburger during storage in freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Hoseini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing safe foods resistant to pathogens as well as replacing chemical preservatives with natural compounds including essential oils has attracted great attention in current studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial properties of clove’s essential oil on hamburger. For this reason, clove essential oil was extracted by Clevenger apparatus method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was measured. The antimicrobial effect of the essence in the concentrations of 0.0015%, 0.01%, 0.1% and 0.15% was examined on hamburger. The samples were examined at 0, 7, 30, 60 and 90 days of cold storage. Sensory characteristics of the samples were assessed through Hedonic method. MICs resulted from the test for S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger were 0.1%, 0.065%, 0.03% and 0.01% (V/V, respectively. The results of microbial examinations indicated that with the increasing of the concentration of clove oil essence and also with the progression of storage time, the microbial load was gradually decreased. According to the sensory assays conducted by the consumers, low concentrations of 0.0015% and maximum of 0.01% were found desirable.

  19. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  20. Analysis of removal of residual decay heat from interim storage facilities by means of the CFD program FLUENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratmann, W.; Hages, P.

    2004-01-01

    Within the scope of nuclear licensing procedures of on-site interim storage facilities for dual purpose casks it is necessary, among other things, to provide proof of sufficient removal of the residual decay heat emitted by the casks. The results of the analyses performed for this purpose define e.g. the boundary conditions for further thermal analyses regarding the permissible cask component temperatures or the maximum permissible temperatures of the fuel cladding tubes of the fuel elements stored in the casks. Up to now, for the centralized interim storage facilities in Germany such analyses were performed on the basis of experimental investigations using scaled-down storage geometries. In the engineering phase of the Lingen on-site interim storage facility, proof was furnished for the first time using the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) program FLUENT. The program FLUENT is an internationally recognized and comprehensively verified program for the calculation of flow and heat transport processes. Starting from a brief discussion of modeling and the different boundary conditions of the computation, this contribution presents various results regarding the temperatures of air, cask surfaces and storage facility components, the mass flows through the storage facility and the heat transfer at the cask surface. The interface point to the cask-specific analyses is defined to be the cask surface

  1. Astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation of Pacific white shrimp oil: kinetics study and stability as affected by storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Takeungwongtrakul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The kinetics of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei as affected by storage temperature were studied. When shrimp oil was incubated at different temperatures (4, 30, 45 and 60 °C for 16 h, the rate constants (k of astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil increased with increasing temperatures (p < 0.05. Thus, astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oil were augmented at high temperature. When shrimp oils with different storage conditions (illumination, oxygen availability and temperature were stored for up to 40 days, astaxanthin contents in all samples decreased throughout storage (p < 0.05. All factors were able to enhance astaxanthin degradation during 40 days of storage. With increasing storage time, the progressive formation of primary and secondary oxidation products were found in all samples as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values (PV and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (p < 0.05. Light, air and temperatures therefore had the marked effect on astaxanthin degradation and lipid oxidation in shrimp oils during the extended storage.

  2. Chemical durability of glass and glass-ceramic materials, developed in laboratory scale, from industrial oil shale residue. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Fonseca, M.V. de; Souza Santos, P. de

    1990-01-01

    Industrial developments frequently drive to the natural resources extinction. The recycling era has come out a long time ago and it has been evident that great part of industrial work's problems are related to the pollution and the raw materials extinction. These problems should be solved, with advantages, through industrial residues recycling. This study deals with glass and glass-ceramics materials obtained from oil shale (Irati Formation-Sao Mateus do Sul-Parana State) industrialization residues. The reached results show that a controled devitrification of retorted oil shale glass improves its performance related to chemical attack. The crystallinity caracterization of the oil shales glass-ceramic was made through X-ray diffraction. (author) [pt

  3. GC-MS and FI-IR analysis of the bio-oil with addition of ethyl acetate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le eZhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mass fractions (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% of ethyl acetate were added to bio-oil for improving its storage stability during storage at 40℃ for 35d. For different bio-oils during storage, physical properties were characterized and chemical components were determined by GC-MS and FT-IR. The results of properties characterization showed that, addition of ethyl acetate could instantly lower bio-oil viscosity, water content, and dramatically decrease the rate of aging. pH value of bio-oil can be instantly improved by adding ethyl acetate. GC-MS results revealed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oil and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could both lead to disappearance of previous compounds and generation of new compounds. FT-IR results showed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oils and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could slightly change the wavenumbers of substantial functional groups in bio-oils.

  4. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Manzanares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB, extracted olive pomace (EOP and olive leaves (OL that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  5. Residual biomass potential in olive tree cultivation and olive oil industry in Spain: valorization proposal in a biorefinery contex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.; Ruiz, E.; Ballesteros, M.; Negro, M.J.; Gallego, F.J.; López-Linares, J.C.; Castro, E.

    2017-07-01

    Olive crop and olive oil industry generates several residues, i.e., olive tree pruning biomass (OTPB), extracted olive pomace (EOP) and olive leaves (OL) that could be used to produce high-added value products in an integrated biorefinery. OTPB is generated in the field as a result of pruning operation to remove old branches; EOP is the main residue of the pomace olive oil extracting industry after extraction with hexane of residual oil contained in olive pomace; and OL comes from the olive cleaning process carried out at olive mills, where small branches and leaves are separated by density. In this work, an analysis of the potential of OTPB, EOP and OL residues was addressed by estimating the production volumes at national level and the spatial distribution of these residues using geographic information system software. Information provided by public institutions and personal surveys to the industries was evaluated. Moreover, chemical analysis of the residues was undertaken and the results used to make a first assessment of valorization into biofuels such as bioethanol and bio based chemicals. Results show that close to 4.2 million tons/year of EOP, OL and OTPB derived from olive oil industry and olive tree cultivation in Spain could be available as a raw material for biorefineries in Spain. The analysis of the chemical characteristics indicates the relevant potential of these feedstocks for the production of bioethanol and other compounds such as phenols based on suitable processing and conversion routes, although techno-economic evaluations must be tackled to refine this approach.

  6. Oil spill prevention: Regulatory trends and compliance at existing storage terminals and refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janisz, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1973, the Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) regulations were promulgated. The objective of the regulations was to prevent oil spills. However, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, several catastrophic spills of oils led to review of oil spill prevention regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Coast Guard, and the Department of the Interior's Minerals Management Service. The reviews led to promulgation of various acts and regulations including the proposed revisions to the SPCC regulations, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90), and others. Numerous facilities within the petroleum and chemical industry were or will be affected by these regulations. This paper discusses regulatory trends for spill planning and prevention in general, but principally concentrates on above ground storage tanks at facilities storing or refining petroleum products. The paper includes discussions of bills on above ground storage tanks and proposed national standards, as well as regulatory trends in various states. Proposed SPCC regulations and their effects on the industry are also discussed, including requirements for impermeable surfaces and increasing secondary containment capacity. Management strategies to review facility operations and prepare for upgrades are outlined. The paper discusses the types of upgrades typically necessary at existing storage terminals and refineries and discusses information necessary to prepare conceptual designs and cost estimates. Cost estimates for typical upgrades, such as raising earthen berms and installing isolation valves, are presented. Facilities in the state of New Jersey are used as examples, because regulations in New Jersey are similar to the proposed federal regulations

  7. Physicochemical Properties and Storage Stability of Microencapsulated DHA-Rich Oil with Different Wall Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wuxi; Wang, Haijun; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Feng; Chen, Shulin; Li, Demao

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties and storage stability of microencapsulated DHA-rich oil spray dried with different wall materials: model 1 (modified starch, gum arabic, and maltodextrin), model 2 (soy protein isolate, gum arabic, and maltodextrin), and model 3 (casein, glucose, and lactose). The results indicated that model 3 exhibited the highest microencapsulation efficiency (98.66 %) and emulsion stability (>99 %), with a moisture content and mean particle size of 1.663 % and 14.173 μm, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that the Tm of DHA-rich oil microcapsules was high, suggesting that the entire structure of the microcapsules remained stable during thermal processing. A thermogravimetric analysis curve showed that the product lost 5 % of its weight at 172 °C and the wall material started to degrade at 236 °C. The peroxide value of microencapsulated DHA-rich oil remained at one ninth after accelerated oxidation at 45 °C for 8 weeks to that of the unencapsulated DHA-rich oil, thus revealing the promising oxidation stability of DHA-rich oil in microcapsules.

  8. Assessment of bioavailability of weathered oil residues using caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) as indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleczinski, C.F.; Costa, H.J.; Rigatti, M.J.; Wong, M.C.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1988, an estimated 400,000 gallons of San Joaquin Valley crude oil spilled into Peyton Slough and subsequently into Suisun Bay from an oil refinery in Martinez, California. The crude oil initially impacted a number of ecologically sensitive environments including estuarine water, marsh grasses, marsh and shoreline sediment, and intertidal sediment. A four-year oil weathering study was performed to determine the concentrations of environmentally important compounds in the stranded oil, to monitor changes in these concentrations over time, and to assess the potential long-term impact of the spilled oil in these various environments. As a result of marked differences in the rate of weathering at the different sites, a bioaccumulation component was added to the original study design in order to assess the bioavailability of crude oil residues remaining four-years post spill. Caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) were deployed at the three study sites as sentinel organisms and exposed for three months. Sediments and organism tissues were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblages characteristics of the spilled oil. Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques (e.g., double ratio plots of characteristic alkyl PAHs) were used to match distributions in the organisms and in the study site sediments

  9. Accelerated decay rates drive soil organic matter persistence and storage in temperate forests via greater mineral stabilization of microbial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Craig, M.; Turner, B. L.; Liang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate predicts soil organic matter (SOM) stocks at the global scale, yet controls on SOM stocks at finer spatial scales are still debated. A current hypothesis predicts that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in soils should be greater when decomposition is slow owing to microbial competition for nutrients or the recalcitrance of organic substrates (hereafter the `slow decay' hypothesis). An alternative hypothesis predicts that soil C and N storage should be greater in soils with rapid decomposition, owing to the accelerated production of microbial residues and their stabilization on soil minerals (hereafter the `stabilization hypothesis'). To test these alternative hypotheses, we quantified soil C and N to 1-m depth in temperate forests across the Eastern and Midwestern US that varied in their biotic, climatic, and edaphic properties. At each site, we sampled (1) soils dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species, which typically have fast decay rates and accelerated N cycling, (2) soils dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree species, which generally have slow decay rates and slow N cycling, and (3) soils supporting both AM and ECM trees. To the extent that trees and theor associated microbes reflect and reinforce soil conditions, support for the slow decay hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in ECM soils, whereas support for the stabilization hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in AM soils. We found support for both hypotheses, as slow decomposition in ECM soils increased C and N storage in topsoil, whereas fast decomposition in AM soils increased C and N storage in subsoil. However, at all sites we found 57% greater total C and N storage in the entire profile in AM- soils (P stabilization hypothesis. Amino sugar biomarkers (an indicator of microbial necromass) and particle size fractionation revealed that the greater SOM storage in AM soils was driven by an accumulation of microbial residues on clay minerals and metal oxides. Taken together

  10. Sheet GT3-2. General approach of life phases on a long term for uranium mining residues storages and comparison with other storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document aims at specifying the short term, middle term and long term boundaries for a sustainable management and rehabilitated ancient uranium mining sites and of uranium mining residue storage sites. It presents a general overview of site evolution in time, and then, more precisely, the different functions (rehabilitation management, corrective actions, control and monitoring, and so on) and equipment (confinement works, measurement system) at stake in the management of these sites and the control of their impacts. Functions and equipment implemented on such a site, as well as time scales corresponding to different approaches are compared with those of other types of storage. The peculiarity of ancient uranium mining sites and its implications in terms of management on a long term are discussed

  11. Effect Of Gamma Irradiation On The Chemical Properties Of Olive And Linseed Oils During The Storage Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.D.H.; Eweida, M.H.T.; Ali, H.E.; Refai, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of edible oil is usually determined in term of its quality constants and the change in these constants would affect the quality of the oil. Evaluation of gamma irradiation and storage period effects on olive and linseed oils was studied. The studied changes in the chemical properties for these oils were free fatty acid, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid, iodine value and saponification value. The applied irradiation doses were 4, 6 and 8 kGy while the dose rate was 3.529 kGy/h at the time of experimentation. The non-irradiated oil samples were used as controls. The irradiated oil samples showed that free fatty acid, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid were increased and the iodine value was decreased with increasing the doses of radiation and storage period while the saponification value did not change by changing the applied radiation doses. The statistical analysis of the data exhibited that there were non-significant effects in irradiated oils during the storage period. However, the values of chemical properties of non-irradiated and irradiated oil samples were still within the normal limits of edible oils recommended by the Egyptian Standard Specifications (2005 a, b)

  12. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Residual oil fly ash (ROFA is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25±5 g were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 µL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL or ROFA (0.2 µg in 10 L of saline solution. Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure, neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for four days and disappeared spontaneously.

  13. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Nagato, Lilian Katiê da Silva; Fagundes, Sheila da Silva; Dos Santos, Flávia Brandão; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Malm, Olaf; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário N; Faffe, Débora Souza; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 μL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL) or ROFA (0.2 μg in 10 μL of saline solution). Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure), neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h) in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for 4 days and disappeared spontaneously.

  14. Capillary-Physics Mechanism of Elastic-Wave Mobilization of Residual Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Pennington, W. D.; Turpening, R. M.

    2003-12-01

    Much attention has been given to the possibility of vibratory mobilization of residual oil as a method of enhanced recovery. The common features of the relevant applications have nonetheless been inconsistency in the results of field tests and the lack of understanding of a physical mechanism that would explain variable experiences. Such a mechanism can be found in the physics of capillary trapping of oil ganglia, driven through the pore channels by an external pressure gradient. Entrapping of ganglia occurs due to the capillary pressure building on the downstream meniscus entering a narrow pore throat. The resulting internal-pressure imbalance acts against the external gradient, which needs to exceed a certain threshold to carry the ganglion through. The ganglion flow thus exhibits the properties of the Bingham (yield-stress) flow, not the Darcy flow. The application of vibrations is equivalent to the addition of an oscillatory forcing to the constant gradient. When this extra forcing acts along the gradient, an instant "unplugging" occurs, while, when the vibration reverses direction, the flow is plugged. This asymmetry results in an average non-zero flow over one period of vibration, which explains the mobilization effect. The minimum-amplitude and maximum-frequency thresholds apply for the mobilization to occur. When the vibration amplitude exceeds a certain "saturation" level, the flow returns to the Darcy regime. The criterion of the mobilization of a particular ganglion involves the parameters of both the medium (pore geometry, interfacial and wetting properties, fluid viscosity) and the oscillatory field (amplitude and frequency). The medium parameters vary widely under natural conditions. It follows that an elastic wave with a given amplitude and frequency will always produce a certain mobilization effect, mobilizing some ganglia and leaving others intact. The exact macroscopic effect is hard to predict, as it will represent a response of the populations

  15. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis is a technology for recycling of the non-metal fraction of PCBs. • Liquid product constituents were analyzed for PCB pyrolysis. • Water-soluble ionic species were determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. - Abstract: Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200–500 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)–MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25–28 mg/g, iron 1.3–1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8–1.0 mg/g and magnesium 0.4–1.0 mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68–73%, hydrogen was 10–14%, nitrogen was 4–5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  16. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  17. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  18. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  19. Efficiency of Castor Oil as a Storage Medium for Avulsed Teeth in Maintaining the Viability of Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Khodabakhsi, Afrooz; Ahzan, Shamseddin; Mehrabani, Davood

    2018-03-01

    Researchers always seek a new storage medium for avulsed teeth. Castor oil is a vegetable oil with several advantages such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, low toxicity, and glutathione preservation capability, low cost, and high availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the capacity of castor oil as a new storage medium in preserving the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells compared to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and milk. Forty freshly extracted human teeth were divided into 3 experimental and 2 control groups. The experimental teeth were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed for 45 min in one of the following media; castor oil, HBSS, and milk. The positive and negative control groups were exposed to 0 min and 2 h of dry time respectively with no immersion in any storage medium. The teeth were then treated with dispase grade II and collagenase and the number of viable PDL cells were counted. Data were analyzed using Kruskal- Wallis test. The percentage of viable cells treated with castor oil, HBSS and milk counted immediately after removal from these media were 46.93, 51.02 and 55.10 % respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that the value for castor oil was significantly lower than HBSS and milk ( p > 0.05). Within the parameters of this study, it appears that castor oil cannot be served as an ideal medium for storage of avulsed tooth. More investigations under in vivo conditions are required to justify the results of this study.

  20. Effect of sulphur forms on colour and residue of sulphur during the storage at drying grapes by sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boztepe Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the world leader in the manufacture and export of seedless raisins. Requirement of golden bleached raisins is increasing in food Industry of especially cake, bread and pastry year by year. In this research, the lowest residual value and the practical realization of such production was intended to determine by drying grapes with application of sulphur. In this case, sulphur residue and colour situations were determined during 12-mounth-storage according to sulphur forms. In this study sulphur studies were applied by Vitis Vinifera cv. “Sultani Çekirdeksiz” with Na2S2O5, which is liquid source of sulphur and SO2, which is gas source of sulphur. SO2 application were studied during 3, 6 and 8 hours and liquid form of sulphur is Na2S2O5 that was used during by 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Applications were prepared with 3 replicates which contain 20 kg fresh grape in each replicate. In conclusion, changes in dried grape have been identified in point of colour (chroma and hue and the sulphur content was determined according to sulphur forms in packing. Gas form of sulphur (SO2 which was applied 3 hours, gave the best result during 12-mounth-storage for colour and sulphur residue.

  1. The reduction of oil pollutants of petroleum products storage-tanks sludge using low-cost adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari-Hosseini Zahra Beagom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of storage tank sludge in oil depots is a major environmental concern due to the high concentration of hydrocarbons involved. This paper investigates the reduction of the sludge oil pollutants with initial oil and grease concentration of about 50 mass% using low cost adsorbents. Among the examined adsorbents, sawdust indicated the maximum removal of oil and grease. The screening and optimizing of process parameters were evaluated employing Plackett-Burman design and response surface method. For the optimized conditions, more than 60 mass% of oil and grease from the sludge was removed. Moreover, it was found that sawdust adsorption of the oil and grease approximately followed the Freundlich isotherm. The results indicated that oil pollutants of sludge could be reduced using sawdust as a low-cost, available and flammable adsorbent so that thus saturated adsorbents could be used as fuel in certain industries.

  2. Determination of residual oil saturation from time-lapse pulsed neutron capture logs in a large sandstone reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, E.V.; Salaita, G.N.; McCaffery, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    Cased hole logging with pulsed neutron tools finds extensive use for identifying zones of water breakthrough and monitoring oil-water contacts in oil reservoirs being depleted by waterflooding or natural water drive. Results of such surveys then find direct use for planning recompletions and water shutoff treatments. Pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logs are useful for estimating water saturation changes behind casing in the presence of a constant, high-salinity environment. PNC log surveys run at different times, i.e., in a time-lapse mode, are particularly amenable to quantitative analysis. The combined use of the original open hole and PNC time-lapse log information can then provide information on remaining or residual oil saturations in a reservoir. This paper reports analyses of historical pulsed neutron capture log data to assess residual oil saturation in naturally water-swept zones for selected wells from a large sandstone reservoir in the Middle East. Quantitative determination of oil saturations was aided by PNC log information obtained from a series of tests conducted in a new well in the same field

  3. Accelerated artificial aging of particleboards from residues of CCB treated Pinus sp. and castor oil resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília da Silva Bertolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tests simulating exposure to severe weather conditions have been relevant in seeking new applications for particleboard. This study aimed to produce particleboards with residues of CCB (chromium-copper-boron oxides impregnated Pinus sp. and castor oil-based polyurethane resin, and to evaluate their performance before and after artificial accelerated aging. Panels were produced with different particle mass, resin content and pressing time, resulting eight treatments. Particles moisture and size distribution were determined, beyond panel physical and mechanical properties, according to NBR14810-3: 2006. After characterization, treatments B and G (small adhesive consumption and better mechanical performance, respectively were chosen to artificial aging tests. Statistical results analysis showed best performances were achieved for waterproof aged samples, of both B and G treatments. As example, in treatment B, MOR and MOE values were 23 MPa and 2,297 MPa, samples before exposure; 26 MPa and 3,185 MPa, 32 MPa and 3,982 MPa for samples after exposure (non-sealed and sealed, respectively.

  4. Catalytic copyrolysis of cork oak and bio-oil distillation residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yejin; Oh, Daejun; Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheric distillation residue (ADR) of cork oak (CO) pyrolysis oil was used as the co-feeding material for the catalytic pyrolysis of CO over HZSM-5 catalysts to improve the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Although the non-catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR did not improve the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons, the catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR promoted the synergistic formation of aromatic hydrocarbons. HZSM-5(30), having a lower SiO2/Al2O3(30), showed better performance for the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons than HZSM-5(80) because of its higher acidity. The catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR also decreased the formation of coke. The largest quantity of aromatic hydrocarbons was obtained from the catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR over HZSM-5 (30) at 600 °C, whereas the lowest coke yield was achieved at 700 °C. When the catalyst to sample ratio was increased from 2:1 to 5:1, the synergistic formation of aromatic hydrocarbons was limited, resulting in a lower experimental yield of aromatic hydrocarbons than the theoretical yield. A lower coke yield was also achieved at a high catalyst to sample ratio (5:1).

  5. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...... extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production...

  6. A case study of electrostatic accidents in the process of oil-gas storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yuqin; Liu, Jinyu; Gao, Jianshen; Wang, Diansheng

    2013-01-01

    Ninety nine electrostatic accidents were reviewed, based on information collected from published literature. All the accidents over the last 30 years occurred during the process of oil-gas storage and transportation. Statistical analysis of these accidents was performed based on the type of complex conditions where accidents occurred, type of tanks and contents, and type of accidents. It is shown that about 85% of the accidents occurred in tank farms, gas stations or petroleum refineries, and 96% of the accidents included fire or explosion. The fishbone diagram was used to summarize the effects and the causes of the effects. The results show that three major reasons were responsible for accidents, including improper operation during loading and unloading oil, poor grounding and static electricity on human bodies, which accounted for 29%, 24% and 13% of the accidents, respectively. Safety actions are suggested to help operating engineers to handle similar situations in the future.

  7. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  8. Feasibility of CO{sub 2} geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Sanxi [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China); Shana, Huimei; Li, Yilian [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Zhaohong [Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Geological storage of CO{sub 2} as an effective way of reducing CO{sub 2} output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO{sub 2} geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO{sub 2} gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO{sub 2} gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  9. Effects of processing methods and commercial storage conditions on the extra virgin olive oil quality indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiritsakis, A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of machinery groups, packing materials and light intensities was ascertained on indices of oxidative deterioration, peroxide value, and extinction coefficient K232 and K270 of extra virgin olive oil for one season of olive harvesting in an effort to simulate commercial storage conditions. It was revealed that during the storage of olive oil the peroxide value was significantly affected by the type of extraction machinery, packing material and light intensity. It is significant that oil exposed to diffused daylight and artificial light attained maximum PV in the second or third month of storage and de creased thereafter, while samples stored in the dark attained their maximum PV during the sixth month of storage. Oil samples extracted using the centrifugal type of machines and kept in glass containers in the dark had higher peroxide values than those extracted by the classic method. The rate of changes of the PV and the two indices K232 and K270 was also affected similarly by the type of machinery, packing material and light intensity.El efecto de la maquinaria, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz fue relacionado con los índices de deterioración oxidativa, índice de peróxidos (IP y coeficientes de extinción K232 y K270 del aceite de oliva virgen extra durante una campaña de cosecha de aceituna en un esfuerzo por simular las condiciones de almacenamiento comercial. Esto reveló que durante el almacenamiento del aceite de oliva el índice de peróxidos fue afectado significativamente por el tipo de maquinaria de extracción, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz. Es significativo que el aceite expuesto a la luz diaria difusa y a la artificial alcanzara el máximo IP en el segundo o tercer mes de almacenamiento, decreciendo a partir de este momento, mientras que las muestras almacenadas en oscuridad no alcanzaban su máximo IP hasta el sexto mes de conservación. Las muestras de aceite extraídas con centr

  10. EBER - development of evaluation methods for shipping and storage containers with an increased content of metallic residual materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, B.; Voelzke, H.

    1995-01-01

    Containers which are manufactured using recycled metallic residual materials from decommissioned nuclear facilities must be designed in accordance with the requirements of transport, interim and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. When metallic residual materials are added to the melt in the manufacture of containers made of cast iron with nodular graphite (GGG 40), how the effect on and characteristics of materials are to be observed as well as the permissible limits. The influence on charcteristics of relevance to safety, such as fracture toughness and the types and magnitudes of defects in construction components are the most important factors. In BAM's 'EBER' project presented here, the studies concentrate on design-based safety against the mechanical effects of accidents. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Computed Tomographic-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Recurrent or Residual Hepatocellular Carcinomas around Retained Iodized Oil after Transarterial Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Young Hwan [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon-Il [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Beom [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Ju [Department of Radiology, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy, safety, and risk factors influencing local tumor progression, following CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of recurrent or residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), around iodized oil retention. Sixty-four patients (M : F = 51 : 13, 65.0 ± 8.2 years old) with recurrent or residual HCC (75 index tumors, size = 14.0 ± 4.6 mm) had been treated by CT-guided RFA, using retained iodized oil as markers for targeting. The technical success, technique effectiveness rate and complications of RFA were then assessed. On pre-ablative and immediate follow-up CT after RFA, we evaluated the size of enhancing index tumors and iodized oil retention, presence of abutting vessels, completeness of ablation of iodized oil retention, and the presence of ablative margins greater than 5 mm. Also, the time interval between transarterial chemoembolization and RFA was assessed. The cumulative local tumor progression rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazards model was adopted, to clarify the independent factors affecting local tumor progression. The technical success and technique effectiveness rate was 100% and 98.7%, respectively. Major complications were observed in 5.6%. The cumulative rates of local tumor progression at 1 and 2 years were 17.5% and 37.5%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, partial ablation of the targeted iodized oil retention was the sole independent predictor of a higher local tumor progression rate. CT-guided RFA of HCC around iodized oil retention was effective and safe. Local tumor progression can be minimized by complete ablation of not only index tumors, but targeted iodized oil deposits as well.

  12. CO2 Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery: Bald Unit Test Site, Mumford Hills Oil Field, Posey County, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Krapac, Ivan G. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Okwen, Roland T. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); McKaskle, Ray W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a small-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection test in a sandstone within the Clore Formation (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) in order to gauge the large-scale CO2 storage that might be realized from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of mature Illinois Basin oil fields via miscible liquid CO2 flooding.

  13. Effect of storage on residue levels of enrofloxacin in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralica Kyuchukova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since fluoroquinolones are one of the most commonly used antibacterial drugs in aquaculture, there is a risk of their residues to be found in the treated fish. The objective of this study was to examine t he changes in enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin levelsduring storage of rainbow trout and common carp muscle at -18 °C. The trout and carp were treated orally with a single dose of 10 mg/kg of enrofloxacin. Tissue samples were collected 24 h after the treatment and stored at -18 °C for 270 days either as a whole fish or as precut muscle samples. Results for trout revealed that in the precut samples enrofloxacin concentration decreased significantly only after 9 months of storage, whereas a significant decline in the ciprofloxacin level was observed much earlier (after 3 months. After 9 months of storage, the trout stored without being sliced and eviscerated showed significantly higher levels of both quinolones as compared to the precut muscle samples. The enrofloxacin levels in the carp musculature decreased considerably after 3 months of storage and stayed almost unchanged up to the end of the study, whereas the ciprofloxacin concentration continued to drop even after this period and after 270 days constituted 1/6 of the initial values.

  14. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  15. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  16. The effect of essential oils on microbial composition and quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhan; Liu, Xiaochang; Jia, Shiliang; Zhang, Longteng; Luo, Yongkang

    2018-02-02

    Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of essential oils (oregano, thyme, and star anise) on microbial composition and quality of grass carp fillets were investigated. Essential oils treatment was found to be effective in inhibiting microbial growth, delaying lipid oxidation, and retarding the increase of TVB-N, putrescine, hypoxanthine, and K-value. Based on sensory analysis, shelf-life of grass carp fillets was 6days for control and 8days for treatment groups. Among the essential oils, oregano essential oil exhibited the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. GC-MS analysis of essential oils components revealed that carvacrol (88.64%) was the major component of oregano essential oil. According to the results of high-throughput sequencing, Aeromonas, Glutamicibacter, and Aequorivita were the predominant microbiota in fresh control samples. However, oregano essential oil decreased the relative abundance of Aeromonas, while thyme and star anise essential oils decreased the relative abundance of Glutamicibacter and Aequorivita in fresh treated samples. The microbial composition of both control and treatment groups became less diverse as storage time increased. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas were dominant in spoiled samples and contributed to fish spoilage. Compared to the control, essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of Aeromonas and Shewanella in grass carp fillets during chilled storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  18. An Assessment of Hydrological Safety for the Guri Underground Oil Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-15

    Hydrological and geochemical analysis of the various kinds of water including observation borehole groundwater was carried out for the assessment of the hydrological safety of the underground oil storage cavern and the potentiality of mineralogical and microbiological clogging was estimated. There was no distinct chemical difference in the various kinds of water. All kinds of water are undersaturated with the calcite which is the major clogging mineral. Most water samples have low Fe and Mn concentrations. However, they are saturated or oversaturated with the iron-oxide/hydroxide minerals and have high dissolved oxygen contents which softiies the possibility of clogging by the iron-oxide/hydroxide minerals as a long-term aspect. Statistical analysis shows the degree of mineral precipitation or dissolution is mainly controlled by pH, Eh and DO of water samples. Because the slime forming bacteria ate dominant microbe in several observation boreholes, the clogging can be caused by it as a long-term aspect. In addition, the possibility of clogging can be increased if the microbial effect is combined with the mineralogical effect such as iron oxide/hydroxide minerals for the possibility of clogging. Therefore, the systematic and long-term program for the assessment of clogging is required for the safe operation of underground oil storage cavern.

  19. An Assessment of Hydrological Safety for the Guri Underground Oil Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-01

    Hydrological and geochemical analysis of the various kinds of water including observation borehole groundwater was carried out for the assessment of the hydrological safety of the underground oil storage cavern and the potentiality of mineralogical and microbiological clogging was estimated. There was no distinct chemical difference in the various kinds of water. All kinds of water are undersaturated with the calcite which is the major clogging mineral. Most water samples have low Fe and Mn concentrations. However, they are saturated or oversaturated with the iron-oxide/hydroxide minerals and have high dissolved oxygen contents which softiies the possibility of clogging by the iron-oxide/hydroxide minerals as a long-term aspect. Statistical analysis shows the degree of mineral precipitation or dissolution is mainly controlled by pH, Eh and DO of water samples. Because the slime forming bacteria ate dominant microbe in several observation boreholes, the clogging can be caused by it as a long-term aspect. In addition, the possibility of clogging can be increased if the microbial effect is combined with the mineralogical effect such as iron oxide/hydroxide minerals for the possibility of clogging. Therefore, the systematic and long-term program for the assessment of clogging is required for the safe operation of underground oil storage cavern

  20. Feasibility study on energy saving and environmental improvement via utilization of residual oil at Petron Bataan Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on reduction of global warming gas emission at Bataan Refinery of Petron Company in the Republic of the Philippines by utilizing residual oil in the refinery at high efficiency. In the project, installation will be implemented on thermal power generation equipment using a low-speed diesel engine that uses residual oil as fuel, and a waste heat recovered steam generation system having NOx removing equipment at Bataan Revinary of Petron Company, in addition to the existing boiler-turbine power generation system. As a result of the discussions, the annual energy saving effect in 8 years after the installation will correspond to crude oil of 50,409 tons, and in 20 years cumulatively, it will correspond to 1,017,224 tons. The annual reduction of the global warming gas emission in 8 years after the installation will be 131,698 t-CO2, or 2,657,599 t-CO2 for 20 years cumulatively. The total investment amount for these facilities is about 4.1 billion yen, whereas the investment and energy saving effects were 10.7 tons of crude oil equivalent/year-one million yen. In addition, the investment and global warming gas emission reducing effects were 28.1 t-CO2/year-one million yen. (NEDO)

  1. The H-Oil process: a worldwide leader in vacuum residue hydro processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colyar, J.J.; Wisdom, L.I.; Koskas, A.

    1996-12-31

    The h-Oil process is a catalytic hydrocracking process which is used to convert and upgrade petroleum residua and heavy oils. This paper discusses additional background information on the H-Oil process, some of the key advances made to the process and applications for the Latin America market. 5 refs., 6 tabs.., 2 figs.

  2. [Pretreatment of oil palm residues by dilute alkali for cellulosic ethanol production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhou, Yujie; Li, Jinping; Dai, Lingmei; Liu, Dehua; Zhang, Jian'an; Choo, Yuen May; Loh, Soh Kheang

    2013-04-01

    In the study, we used oil palm residues (empty fruit bunch, EFB) as raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol by pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Firstly, the pretreatment of EFB with alkali, alkali/hydrogen peroxide and the effects on the components and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results show that dilute alkali was the suitable pretreatment method and the conditions were first to soak the substrate with 1% sodium hydroxide with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 degrees C for 24 h, and then subjected to 121 degrees C for 30 min. Under the conditions, EFB solid recovery was 74.09%, and glucan, xylan and lignin content were 44.08%, 25.74% and 13.89%, respectively. After separated with alkali solution, the pretreated EFB was washed and hydrolyzed for 72 h with 5% substrate concentration and 30 FPU/g dry mass (DM) enzyme loading, and the conversion of glucan and xylan reached 84.44% and 89.28%, respectively. We further investigated the effects of substrate concentration and enzyme loading on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The results show that when enzyme loading was 30 FPU/g DM and substrate concentration was increased from 5% to 25%, ethanol concentration were 9.76 g/L and 35.25 g/L after 72 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (inoculum size 5%, V/V), which was 79.09% and 56.96% of ethanol theory yield.

  3. Downdraft gasification of pellets made of wood, palm-oil residues respective bagasse: Experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, Catharina; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2011-01-01

    The downdraft gasification technology has an increased interest among researchers worldwide due to the possibility to produce mechanical and electrical power from biomass in small-scale to an affordable price. The research is generally focused on improvement of the performance and optimizing of a certain gasifier, on testing different fuels, on increasing the user-friendliness of the gasifier and on finding other uses for the product gas than in an IC-engine, for example liquid fuel production. The main objective with the gasification tests presented here is to further contribute in the field by studying the impact of the char bed properties such as char bed porosity and pressure drop on the gasification performance as well as the impact of fuel particle size and composition on the gasification process in one and the same gasifier. In addition, there is very little gasification data available in literature of 'before disregarded' fuels such as sugar cane bagasse from sugar/alcohol production and empty fruit bunch (EFB) from the palm-oil production. By pelletizing these residues, it is possible to introduce them into downdraft gasification technology which has been done in this study. The results show that one and the same reactor can be used for a variety of fuels in pellet form, but at varying air-fuel ratios, temperature levels, gas compositions and lower heating values. Gasification of wood pellets results in a richer producer gas while EFB pellets give a poorer one with higher contents of non-combustible compounds. In this gasification study, there is almost linear relation between the air-fuel ratio and the cold-gas efficiency for the studied fuels: Higher air-fuel ratios result in better efficiency. The pressure drop in the char bed is higher for more reactive fuels, which in turn is caused by low porosity char beds.

  4. Iron storage in liver, bone marrow and splenic Gaucheroma reflects residual disease in type 1 Gaucher disease patients on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenboog, Martine; Bohte, Anneloes E; Akkerman, Erik M; Stoker, Jaap; Hollak, Carla E M

    2017-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the storage of glycosphingolipids in macrophages. Despite effective therapy, residual disease is present in varying degrees and may be associated with late complications, such as persistent bone or liver disease and increased cancer risk. Gaucher macrophages are capable of storing iron and locations of residual disease may thus be detectable with iron imaging. Forty type 1 GD (GD1) patients and 40 matched healthy controls were examined using a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging protocol consisting of standard sequences, allowing analysis of iron content per organ, expressed as R2* (Hz). Median R2* values were significantly elevated in GD1 patients as compared to healthy controls in liver [41 Hz (range 29-165) vs. 38 Hz (range 28-53), P Gaucher lesions known as Gaucheroma were found to have increased R2* values. R2* values of liver, spleen and vertebral bone marrow strongly correlated with serum ferritin levels. GD1 patients with persistent hyperferritinaemia demonstrate increased iron levels in liver and bone marrow, which may carry a risk for liver fibrosis and cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Storage of oil above ground for underground: Regulations, costs, and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Driscoll, W.; Ameer, P.; Watson, S.

    1993-01-01

    Some owners of underground storage tank systems (USTs) appear to be replacing their systems with aboveground storage tank systems (ASTs) without full knowledge of the US Government environmental regulations that apply to facilities with ASTs, and their associated costs. This paper discusses the major federal regulatory requirements for USTs and ASTS, and presents the compliance costs for new tank systems that range in capacity from 1,000 to 10,000 gallons. The costs of two model UST system and two model AST systems are considered for new oil storage capacity, expansion of existing capacity, and replacement of an existing UST or AS T. For new capacity, ASTs are less expensive than USTs, although ASTs do have significant regulatory compliance costs that range from an estimated $8,000 to $14,000 in present value terms, depending on the size and type of system. For expanded or replacement capacity, ASTs are in all but one case less expensive than USTS; the exception is the expansion of capacity at an existing UST facility. In this case, the cost of a protected steel tank UST system is comparable to the cost of an AST system. Considering the present value of all costs over a 30 year useful life, the cost for an AST with a concrete dike is less than the cost of an AST with an earthen dike, for the tank sizes considered. This is because concrete dikes are cost competitive for small tanks, and the costs to clean up a release are higher for earthen dikes, due to the cost of disposal and replacement of oil-contaminated soil. The cost analyses presented here are not comprehensive, and are intended primarily for illustrative purposes. Only the major costs of tank purchase, installation, and regulatory compliance were considered

  6. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  7. Fast synthesis of multilayer carbon nanotubes from camphor oil as an energy storage material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  8. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin TermehYousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs.

  9. Fast Synthesis of Multilayer Carbon Nanotubes from Camphor Oil as an Energy Storage Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    TermehYousefi, Amin; Bagheri, Samira; Shinji, Kawasaki; Rouhi, Jalal; Rusop Mahmood, Mohamad; Ikeda, Shoichiro

    2014-01-01

    Among the wide range of renewable energy sources, the ever-increasing demand for electricity storage represents an emerging challenge. Utilizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for energy storage is closely being scrutinized due to the promising performance on top of their extraordinary features. In this work, well-aligned multilayer carbon nanotubes were successfully synthesized on a porous silicon (PSi) substrate in a fast process using renewable natural essential oil via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Considering the influx of vaporized multilayer vertical carbon nanotubes (MVCNTs) to the PSi, the diameter distribution increased as the flow rate decreased in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy results indicated that the crystalline quality of the carbon nanotubes structure exhibits no major variation despite changes in the flow rate. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirmed the hexagonal structure of the carbon nanotubes because of the presence of a peak corresponding to the carbon double bond. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed multilayer nanotubes, each with different diameters with long and straight multiwall tubes. Moreover, the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method has been used to analyze the hydrogen storage properties of MVCNTs, which indicates that hydrogen adsorption sites exist on the synthesized multilayer CNTs. PMID:25258714

  10. Biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil: characteristics and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2017-04-01

    Characteristics and storage stability of biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil (MSO) were determined. The addition of MSO increased spread ratio, whilst decreased the thickness of biscuit. The highest hardness of biscuit was obtained with addition of 9 or 12% MSO. Biscuit surface showed higher redness and yellowness when MSO was incorporated ( p  < 0.05). The addition of MSO up to 6% had no adverse effect on biscuit quality and acceptability. When biscuits added with 6% MSO were stored under different illumination conditions (light and dark), lipid oxidation in all samples increased throughout the storage of 12 days. Light accelerated lipid oxidation of biscuits as evidenced by the increases in both peroxide values and abundance of volatile compounds. No marked change in EPA, DHA and astaxanthin contents were noticeable in biscuit fortified with MSO after 12 days of storage. Therefore, the biscuit could be fortified with MSO up to 6% and must be stored in dark to assure its oxidative stability.

  11. Risks and mitigation options for on-site storage of wastewater from shale gas and tight oil development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwayama, Yusuke; Roeshot, Skyler; Krupnick, Alan; Richardson, Nathan; Mares, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We provide a critical review of existing research and information regarding the sources of risk associated with on-site shale gas and tight oil wastewater storage in the United States, the gaps that exist in knowledge regarding these risks, policy and technology options for addressing the risks, and the relative merits of those options. Specifically, we (a) identify the potential risks to human and ecological health associated with on-site storage of shale gas and tight oil wastewater via a literature survey and analysis of data on wastewater spills and regulatory violations, (b) provide a detailed description of government regulations or industry actions that may mitigate these risks to human and ecological health, and (c) provide a critical review of this information to help generate progress toward concrete action to make shale gas and tight oil development more sustainable and more acceptable to a skeptical public, while keeping costs down. - Highlights: • We review current research/information on shale gas and tight oil wastewater storage. • Pit overflows, tank overfills, and liner malfunctions are common spill causes. • Tanks lead to smaller and less frequent spills than pits, but are not a magic bullet. • State regulations for on-site oil and gas wastewater storage are very heterogeneous.

  12. Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranauskiene, R.; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies...... individual compounds were observed. Larger differences in the compositions of surface oils from various encapsulation products were obtained. Flavor components were released at different rates by each of the encapsulated products. The aroma binding capacity of different modified starch matrices to lock EO...... droplets depends on the water activity, and the leakage of aromas from encapsulated powder products during storage increased with increasing water activity....

  13. Effects of sodium caseinate concentration and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Dwyer, Sandra P; O' Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O' Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative stability of various oils (sunflower, camelina and fish) and 20% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, were examined. The mean particle size decreased from 1179 to 325 nm as sodium caseinate (emulsifier) concentration was increased from 0.25% to 3% in O/W emulsions (Psodium caseinate concentration increased, and similarly decreased as microfluidisation pressure increased (P<0.05). Increasing storage temperature of the emulsions from 5 to 60°C, resulted in lower detectable lipid oxidation products during storage (P<0.05). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage Unit to Enhance a Workshop Heating System Driven by Industrial Residual Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various energy sources can be used for room heating, among which waste heat utilization has significantly improved in recent years. However, the majority of applicable waste heat resources are high-grade or stable thermal energy, while the low-grade or unstable waste heat resources, especially low-temperature industrial residual water (IRW, are insufficiently used. A thermal energy storage (TES unit with paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM is designed to solve this problem in a pharmaceutical plant. The mathematical models are developed to simulate the heat storage and release processes of the TES unit. The crucial parameters in the recurrence formulae are determined: the phase change temperature range of the paraffin wax used is 47 to 56 °C, and the latent heat is 171.4 kJ/kg. Several thermal behaviors, such as the changes of melting radius, solidification radius, and fluid temperature, are simulated. In addition, the amount of heat transferred, the heat transfer rate, and the heat storage efficiency are discussed. It is presented that the medicine production unit could save 10.25% of energy consumption in the investigated application.

  15. Changes in antioxidant and biochemical activities in castor oil-coated Capsicum annuum L. during postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Jitendriya; Patel, Mansi; Patel, Niyati; Gheewala, Bhumi; Gantait, Saikat

    2018-06-01

    This study, for the first time, evaluates the efficiency of castor oil when used as an external coating on Capsicum annuum L., to increase postharvest storage-life at 4 ± 1 °C. The castor oil-coated fruits were successfully stored for 36 days, while the non-coated fruits could only sustain for 18 days. Throughout the storage period (at 9-day intervals), different antioxidants and biochemical assays (allied with storage) such as titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, ferrous ion chelating activity, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, total sugar estimation, and enzymatic study of polyphenol oxidase and pectate lyase, were assessed. During storage, the castor oil-coated fruits showed a substantial decrease in titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, including antioxidant activities such as reducing power and DPPH activity; however, an increase in ferrous ion chelating activity, total soluble sugar content, polyphenol oxidase activity and initial pectate lyase activity was observed, in contrast to that of the non-coated fruits. The application of castor oil proved to be effective in delaying the ripening process of fruits during storage.

  16. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  17. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  18. Impact of residual glycerides on viscosity of biodiesel (waste and rapeseed oil blends)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jurac; L. Pomenić

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters is a biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources as a vegetable oils or animal fats. Use of waste cooking oils reduce the cost of raw materials for biodiesel production and also reduces the environment pollution. Moreover, pure edible vegetable oils for biodiesel production have an ethical significance because food is used to produce fuel. The aim of this work is a presentation of effects that r...

  19. Effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, I.; Haugsgjerd, B.O.

    2014-01-01

    was assessed by peroxide value and anisidine value, measurement of lipid derived volatiles, lipid classes and antioxidants. The non-enzymatic browning reactions were assessed through the measurement of pyrroles, free amino acids content and Strecker-derived volatiles. The increase of incubation temperature......The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature towards lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in krill oil upon storage. Krill oil was incubated at two different temperatures (20 and 40°C) for 28 or 42 days. The oxidative stability of krill oil...

  20. Biodiesel Production from Residual Palm Oil Contained in Spent Bleaching Earth by In Situ Trans-Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Fahmil QRM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE is an industrial solid waste of vegetable oil industry that has a high residual oil to be potentialy converted to biodiesel. This study aims at developing a biodiesel production process technology by utilizing residual palm oil contained in SBE and to test the use of hexane in the trans-esterification process. Optimization process was done by using the Response Surface Method (RSM. The variables studied included catalyst concentration and reaction time. On the other hand, the deoiled SBE resulted from biodiesel production was tested as an adsorbent on biodiesel purification after being reactivated. The method used in the biodiesel production included an in situ acid catalysed esterification followed by in situ base catalysed trans-esterification. The results of RSM showed that the optimum process was obtained at NaOH concentration of 1.8% and reaction time of 104.73 minutes, with a predicted response rate of 97.18% and 95.63% for validation results. The use of hexane could also increase the yield of biodiesel which was obtained on the ratio of hexane to methanol of 0.4:1 (volume of hexane: volume of methanol. On the other hand, the reactivated bleaching earth was effective as an adsorbent in biodiesel production, which was still conform with the Indonesian National Standard.

  1. Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, GH

    2004-01-15

    Full Text Available of Food and Agriculture J Sci Food Agric 84:52?58 (online: 2003) DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1609 Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions Gretel H van der Merwe,1asteriskmath... Lourens M du Plessis1 and John RN Taylor2 1CSIR Bio/Chemtek, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Abstract: Six quality indices, namely free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide...

  2. Could residual oil from the Exxon Valdez spill create a long-term population "sink" for sea otters in Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled 42 million L of crude oil into the waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. At the time of the spill, the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population inhabiting the spill area suffered substantial acute injuries and loss. Subsequent research has resulted in one of the best-studied species responses to an oil spill in history. However, the question remains: Is the spill still influencing the Prince William Sound sea otter population? Here we fit time-varying population models to data for the sea otter population of western Prince William Sound to quantify the duration and extent of mortality effects from the spill. We hypothesize that the patchy nature of residual oil left in the environment has created a source-sink population dynamic. We fit models using the age distributions of both living and dying animals and estimates of sea otter population size to predict the number of sea otters in the hypothesized sink population and the number lost to this sink due to chronic exposure to residual oil. Our results suggest that the sink population has remained at just over 900 individuals (95% CI: 606-960) between 1990 and 2009, during which time prime-age survival remained 2-6% below pre-spill levels. This reduced survival led to chronic losses of ???900 animals over the past two decades, which is similar in magnitude to the number of sea otter deaths documented in western Prince William Sound during the acute phase of the spill. However, the unaffected source population appears to be counterbalancing these losses, with the model indicating that the sea otter population increased from ???2150 individuals in 1990 to nearly 3000 in 2009. The most optimistic interpretation of our results suggests that mortality effects dissipated between 2005 and 2007. Our results suggest that residual oil can affect wildlife populations on time scales much longer than previously believed and that cumulative chronic effects can be as

  3. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  4. Radiotracer studies on the fate and transformation of pesticide residues in the environment and food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.

    1980-10-01

    The magnitude and fate of some pesticide chemicals in Korean foods were studied with particular reference to oil-bearing crops and related products. Application of the chemicals was made under conditions of actual agricultural practice. Analytical methodologies included nuclear activation, gas chromatographic, spectrophotometric and radiotracer techniques. Residues of benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT found in refined vegetable oil samples were below or within the tolerance limits set by international organizations and as such, these are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. Also, residues of the herbicides nitrogen, alachlor and butachlor applied to oil-bearing crops were not detected in the seeds. Studies on 14 C-BHC residues in rice revealed that polishing and washing play an important role in removing a considerable portion of the residue. Data on the arsenic-containing neoasozine residues suggest that the products consumed by the human (grain and oil) contained residues below the tolerance limit and are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. On the other hand, relatively high arsenic concentrations (2.2 mg/kg) were found in the cake (serving as animal feed) and should be carefully evaluated in the light of toxicological data

  5. Refinery plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : understanding and preventing the problem through new oil gellant chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Cheng, A.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Phosphate ester oil gellants are the most prevalent oil gellant technology in use by service companies. However, in 1995, they were found to be responsible for plugging distillation trays at 3 refineries across Canada including Imperial Oil's Strathcona refinery in Edmonton, Petro-Canada's refinery in Oakville, Ontario and Chevron's refinery in Burnaby, British Columbia. Since 1998, additional fouling has occurred in Canada, and in 2002, fouling was detected at a refinery in Pennsylvania while processing Canadian sweet, light crude. Since refiners pay a high cost for unscheduled refinery shutdowns, much effort has gone into solving this problem and to maintain the value of Canadian sweet, light crude. Studies by the Canadian Crude Quality Technical Association (CCQTA) have shown that phosphate esters begin to decompose through hydrolysis of the ester linkage at approximately 240 degrees. Gases cool as they move up the tower through distillation trays. Trays in the temperature range of 230 to 290 degrees C produce most of the volatile phosphorous compounds that condense out of the gas phase and cause plugging, thereby reducing the efficiency of distillation. Phosphate esters are often used with a metal crosslinker such as ferric iron or aluminium to gel hydrocarbons for use as a fracturing fluid. This paper described the advantages of existing ferric iron-crosslinked phosphate ester oil gels over the older, alternative oil gellant chemistries. Carbon dioxide-miscible, gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluids provide better well stimulation by avoiding capillary pressure effects associated with water-based fluids. The fluid properties of the new phosphonate ester system were compared to those of a conventional phosphate ester system. Field tests from two fracturing treatments were also presented. Plugging did not occur with the new phosphonate ester treatment. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  6. Water Curtain System Pre-design for Crude Oil Storage URCs : A Numerical Modeling and Genetic Programming Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghotbi Ravandi, Ebrahim; Rahmannejad, Reza; Karimi-Nasab, Saeed; Sarrafi, Amir; Raoof, Amir

    In this paper the main criteria of the water curtain system for unlined rock caverns (URCs) is described. By the application of numerical modeling and genetic programming (GP), a method for water curtain system pre-design for Iranian crude oil storage URCs (common dimension worldwide) is presented.

  7. Long-term effects of drying conditions on the essential oil and color of tarragon leaves during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Muller, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of storage on the essential oil content and color of French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves is studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures 45, 60 and 90 °C with, respectively, the relative humidity levels 17%, 7% and 2.5%. At 60 °C also a relative humidity level of 18%

  8. Monitoring nitrite and nitrate residues in frankfurters during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Bosch-Bosch, N; Garciá-Mata, M

    1996-09-01

    Frankfurter-type sausages were prepared in a pilot plant with different concentrations of NaNO(2) (75, 125 or 250 ppm) combined or not with 200 ppm KNO(3). A meat system, free of curing agents, was also used as control. Nitrite and nitrate levels were tested in various processing steps and over 120 days storage at 3 °C of the vacuum-packaged frankfurters. Little influence of the originally added nitrite level on the amount of nitrate formed was observed. Important losses of nitrite and nitrate were due to cooking. Thereafter about 50% of the nitrite added initially remained in this form in all samples (39, 59 and 146 ppm, respectively) and between 10 and 15% as nitrate. When only nitrate was initially added, formation of nitrite after cooking was observed (maximum level 43 ppm NaNO(2)). Formulations prepared with both nitrate and nitrite showed no significant differences (p nitrite or nitrate counterparts. A good correlation among nitrite and nitrate levels and storage time was showed by multiple linear regression analysis. It is concluded that the use of nitrate in combination with nitrite in cooked meat products seems to have little technological significance and adds to the total body burden of nitrite.

  9. Heat exchange studies on coconut oil cells as thermal energy storage for room thermal conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Z.; Wonorahardjo, S.; Kurnia, D.

    2017-07-01

    As reported by many thermal environment experts, room air conditioning might be controlled by thermal mass system. In this paper we discuss the performance of coconut oil cells as room thermal energy storage. The heat exchange mechanism of coconut oil (CO) which is one of potential organic Phase Change Material (PCM) is studied based on the results of temperature measurements in the perimeter and core parts of cells. We found that the heat exchange performance, i.e. heat absorption and heat release processes of CO cells are dominated by heat conduction in the sensible solid from the higher temperature perimeter part to the lower temperature core part and heat convection during the solid-liquid phase transition and sensible liquid phase. The capability of heat absorption as measured by the reduction of air temperature is not influenced by CO cell size. Besides that, the application of CO as the thermal mass has to be accompanied by air circulation to get the cool sensation of the room’s occupants.

  10. A tiered analytical protocol for the characterization of heavy oil residues at petroleum-contaminated hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Kenefick, S.L.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Holloway, L.R.; Rawluk, M.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from abandoned refinery sites in Alberta, Canada is used to illustrate a tiered analytical approach to the characterization of complex hydrocarbon wastes. Soil extracts isolated from heavy oil- and creosote-contaminated sites were characterized by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), ultraviolet fluorescence, simulated distillation (GC-SIMDIS) and chemical ionization GC-MS analysis. The combined screening and detailed analytical methods provided information essential to remedial technology selection including the extent of contamination, the class composition of soil extracts, the distillation profile of component classes and the distribution of individual class components within various waste fractions. Residual contamination was characteristic of heavy, degraded oils, consistent with documented site operations and length of hydrocarbon exposure at the soil surface

  11. Metagenome enrichment approach used for selection of oil-degrading bacteria consortia for drill cutting residue bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alaine B; Oliveira, Jorge S; Silva-Portela, Rita C B; Araújo, Wydemberg; Carlos, Aline C; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Domingos, Yldeney Silva; de Farias, Mirna Ferreira; Fernandes, Glauber José Turolla; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2018-04-01

    Drill cuttings leave behind thousands of tons of residues without adequate treatment, generating a large environmental liability. Therefore knowledge about the microbial community of drilling residue may be useful for developing bioremediation strategies. In this work, samples of drilling residue were enriched in different culture media in the presence of petroleum, aiming to select potentially oil-degrading bacteria and biosurfactant producers. Total DNA was extracted directly from the drill cutting samples and from two enriched consortia and sequenced using the Ion Torrent platform. Taxonomic analysis revealed the predominance of Proteobacteria in the metagenome from the drill cuttings, while Firmicutes was enriched in consortia samples. Functional analysis using the Biosurfactants and Biodegradation Database (BioSurfDB) revealed a similar pattern among the three samples regarding hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactants production pathways. However, some statistical differences were observed between samples. Namely, the pathways related to the degradation of fatty acids, chloroalkanes, and chloroalkanes were enriched in consortia samples. The degradation colorimetric assay using dichlorophenolindophenol as an indicator was positive for several hydrocarbon substrates. The consortia were also able to produce biosurfactants, with biosynthesis of iturin, lichnysin, and surfactin among the more abundant pathways. A microcosms assay followed by gas chromatography analysis showed the efficacy of the consortia in degrading alkanes, as we observed a reduction of around 66% and 30% for each consortium in total alkanes. These data suggest the potential use of these consortia in the bioremediation of drilling residue based on autochthonous bioaugmentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of pectin edible coating enriched with essential oils of citrus on strawberry quality during refrigerated storage and shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Abdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest life of strawberry fruit is very short due to humidity and high metabolic activity. In order to extend the shelf life and quality of strawberry (cv. parous, effects of pectin coating enriched with different concentrations of lemon and orange peel essential oil were assessed at 20˚C for 6 days or 5˚C to 12 days. The experiment conducted based on a complete randomized design (CDR in 3 replications with 6 treatments including control (distilled water, pectin (1%, pectin enriched with orange peel essential oil (0.5 and 1% and pectin containing lemon peel essential oil (0.5 and 1%. Fruit quality was evaluated by marketing, weight loss, anthocyanin content, ascorbic acid content, total protein and chlorophyll of calyx every 3 days. Based on results coating fruits with citrus essential oil carried by pectin delayed the change in weight loss, total protein, anthocyanin content, maintained ascorbic acid content of fruits and also reduced chlorophyll destruction of calyx. The results showed that pectin coating containing lemon essential oil had a significant effect on the maintaining the visual quality of the fruit during the storage, delayed the weight loss and showed better results compared to the other coatings and to the control fruit. In addition, the maximum content of ascorbic acid and anthocyanin were obtained for strawberries coated with pectin containing lemon essential oil 1% after 12 days storage of fruits at 5˚C. All coatings significantly reduced weight loss of fresh strawberries during storage at 5˚C and 20˚C compared to the uncoated fruits. Results indicated that adding high concentrations (1% of orange peel essential oil into pectin coatings did not improve quality of fruits. In addition, it was found that adding orange peel essential oil to pectin coating accelerate decay of fruits. Based on results, pectin coating containing 1% lemon essential oil considered an appropriate treatment to improve shelf life and storage

  13. Prevention of refinery tower plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude : pilot plant evaluation of alternative oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Fyten, G.C.; Tamayo, C.; Funkhouser, G.P. [Haliburton, Houston, TX (United States); Lemieux, A.; Blackmore, T. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Previous studies have described refinery plugging caused by volatile phosphorus components originating from phosphate ester oil gellants as well as two successful field trials of new phosphonate ester oil gellants, which were demonstrated to address this problem. Additional field testing of phosphonate ester gellants directed at optimization of cost and performance has also been previously studied. This paper presented the results of a follow-up study to these previous investigations, as new modified phosphate ester systems were expected to become commercial that would reduce volatile phosphorus. Several questions that required further investigation were discussed in this paper. These included the comparative ability of phosphonate and modified phosphate esters to control volatile phosphorus; tower fouling at higher temperatures in the presence of steam; and, organic halide formations under distillation tower conditions. The paper presented the results of full-scale pilot plant testing that was performed over several days with flowback captured after actual fracturing treatments in order to serve as a guide to the selection of oil gellant systems for reduction of refinery tower and heat exchanger fouling. The study measured fouling of a tray inserted in the pilot plant distillation tower as well as fouling of the packing material. Any changes in operating parameters such as rate, temperature, or pressure over the time of each test were also noted, as these could also be indicative of fouling. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  14. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  15. Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, James [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Smith, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Kurz, Bethany [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Hawthorne, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Jin, Lu [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Bosshart, Nicholas [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Torres, Jose [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Nyberg, Carolyn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Heebink, Loreal [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Hurley, John [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)

    2018-03-09

    Tight oil formations such as those in the Bakken petroleum system are known to hold hundreds of billions of barrels of oil in place; however, the primary recovery factor for these plays is typically less than 10%. Tight oil formations, including the Bakken Formation, therefore, may be attractive candidates for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2. Multiphase fluid behavior and flow in fluid-rich shales can vary substantially depending on the size of pore throats, and properties such as fluid viscosity and density are much different in nanoscale pores than in macroscale pores. Thus it is critical to understand the nature and distribution of nano-, micro-, and macroscale pores and fracture networks. To address these issues, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting a research program entitled “Improved Characterization and Modeling of Tight Oil Formations for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Potential and Storage Capacity Estimation.” The objectives of the project are 1) the use of advanced characterization methods to better understand and quantify the petrophysical and geomechanical factors that control CO2 and oil mobility within tight oil formation samples, 2) the determination of CO2 permeation and oil extraction rates in tight reservoir rocks and organic-rich shales of the Bakken, and 3) the integration of the laboratory-based CO2 permeation and oil extraction data and the characterization data into geologic models and dynamic simulations to develop predictions of CO2 storage resource and EOR in the Bakken tight oil formation. A combination of standard and advanced petrophysical characterization techniques were applied to characterize samples of Bakken Formation tight reservoir rock and shales from multiple wells. Techniques included advanced computer tomography (CT) imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, whole-core and micro x-ray CT imaging, field

  16. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS, PESTICIDE RESIDUE AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COLD PRESSED PUMPKIN SEED (Cucurbita pepo L. OILS FROM CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMA NUR ARSLAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical characteristics, pesticide residues and aflatoxin contaminations of cold pressed pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L. oils cultivated in four different central Anatolia regions of Turkey, were investigated. Lab-scale screw press machine was used to produce cold pressed pumpkin seed oils and the oil contents were found between 42.8%−47.4% for naked seeds. The physicochemical characteristic (refractive index, viscosity, color value, triglyceride profile analysis, peroxide value, iodine value, free fatty acid, saponification number, unsaponified matter, specific extinction values at 232 and 270 nm of cold pressed oils were determined by using different analytical techniques. The results showed that there was a non-significant difference between cold pressed pumpkin seed oils from different regions, in terms of physicochemical characteristics. The contents of pesticide residue and aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 contamination were determined by using validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The chlorpyrifos pesticide residue was detected under the limit value declared by official authorities for the quality assessment of edible oils. Aflatoxins weren’t detected in any of studied pumpkin seed oils. Therefore, in food industry the positive effect of screw-pressing application could be useful for preservation of bioactive compounds during edible oil production and also enhancing of their functional properties.

  17. Evaluation of PAH depletion of subsurface Exxon Valdez oil residues remaining in Prince William Sound in 2007-2008 and their likely bioremediation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R. [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States); Bragg, J.R. [Creative Petroleum Solutions LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the extent of oil weathering at the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) sites and estimated the bioremediation potential for shoreline segments by examining the depletion of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relative to an estimated applicability threshold of 70 per cent. The distribution of oil was examined by location and current ratios of nitrogen and non-polar oil in order to assess if biodegradation rates were nutrient-limited. The impact of sequestration on the effectiveness of bioremediation was also studied. Results of the study showed that the EVOS residues are patchy and infrequently found on sites that were heavily oiled in 1989. Only 0.4 per cent of the oil originally stranded in 1989 remained. The remaining EVOS residues are sequestered under boulder and cobble armour in areas with limited contact with flowing water. The study also showed that concentrations of nitrogen and dissolved oxygen in pore waters within strata adjacent to the sequestered oil can support biodegradation. Most remaining EVOS residues are highly weathered and biodegraded. It was concluded that nutrients added to the shorelines are unlikely to effectively contact the sequestered oil. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  18. Carbaryl and monocrotophos residues in cottonseed products. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, F.E.

    1981-03-01

    Cotton plants of Deltapine variety were treated with carbaryl (naphthyl-1- 14 C), (6.7 mg/plant) three times at two week intervals. Seeds were collected at maturity and 14 C-residues were determined in the oil and cake by standard procedures. 14 C-carbaryl and/or metabolite residues were 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg in the crude oil and cake respectively. Parallel studies were conducted with spectrophotometric techniques using p-nitrobenzene diazonium fluoborate as chromogenic agent. Applications were made three times at a rate of 14 mg/plant. Residues in the crude oil and cake were found to be 0.83 and 0.04 mg/kg respectively. The higher residue level in the oil - compared to the radiometric technique - probably relates to higher application rates. Cotton plants of Deltapine variety were treated with (N-methyl- 14 C) monocrotophos (0.09 mg/plant) three times at two week intervals, as recommended for agricultural practice. Seeds were collected at maturity and standard procedures for extraction, clean-up and paper and thin-layer chromatography were adopted for the ultimate determination of residues in seed, oil and cake. Parallel experiments, using spectrophotometric techniques, were made for comparison. 14 C-residues of monocrotophos and/or metabolites in cottonseed, crude oil and cake were found to be 0.06, 0.12 and 0.05 mg/kg respectively. Corresponding data obtained by non-nuclear techniques were 0.18, 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. The discrepancy between the two sets of results may be related to different rates of application: 0.3 mg and 0.09 mg/plant for non-nuclear and radiometric techniques respectively. Among the major metabolites identified in the cottonseed were dimethyl phosphate and O-desmethyl monocrotophos. N-demethylated monocrotophos and sugar conjugates were also identified

  19. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil with Oils Residuals through Bioaugmentation and Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Carla Deon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential for soil contamination by oil spills is growing, due to heavy industrialization and economic development of countries. Due to this fact, the bioremediation has become an alternative to remediate areas through the use of biological agents. Two microorganisms, isolated from a lipid-rich effluent, were used in the bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with diesel oil, lubricating oil and soybean oil. Natural attenuation tests were conducted as controls. The removal of diesel fuel at the time of 21 d were of 18.5%, 7.30% and 11.38%, respectively, for the bioaugmentation with isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation. The removal of lubricating oil were 41.6%, 14.16% and 6.91% respectively for the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation, while for soybean oil removals were of 87 8%, 73.9% and 49.4%. Considering the processes of bioaugmentatiom and natural attenuation, the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 showed better results, possibly due to the production of compounds capable of reducing the surface tension during the preparation of bioaugmentation.

  20. Application of environmental management system for a energetic plant with oil residual biomass; Aplicacion de un sistema de gestion medio ambiental a una planta generadora de energia que utiliza la biomasa residual del olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linan Veganzones, M.J.; Soca Olazabal, N.; Pizarro Camacho, D

    1998-12-01

    Being the alpechin one of the most contaminant residues by the mediterranean agrarian industry, as of today there is no integral depuration procedure. In this paper we show the innovative approach being used to eliminate the alpechin along with the oil miller residual biomass. What it more, the only agroindustrial complex which has introduced such approach is using an EMAS so that actual achievements could be realistically measured. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Prevention of refinery tower plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude-pilot plant evaluation of alternative oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Fyten, G.C.; Cheng, A. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P.S. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Tower fouling at petroleum refineries is related to background volatile phosphorus components originating from phosphate ester oil gellants. In an attempt to reduce the cost of unplanned refinery shut downs, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) may institute a new specification in July 2006 of 0.5 ppm maximum volatile phosphorus in crude. In concept, volatile phosphorus can be removed from phosphate esters by eliminating volatile components in the original phosphate ester gellant. However, the issue of of whether modified phosphate esters can really reduce refinery tower fouling has been questioned. For that reason, this study focused on water hydrolysis which may occur in a distillation tower, causing localized areas of acidity and causticity. Halogenation reactions could occur in the presence of acid at high temperatures if halogen ions are present. The source of halide ions could be any salts that have not been removed in the de-salters. Full-scale testing at a pilot plant facility was conducted over several days with flowback captured after actual fracturing treatments. Fouling of distillation tower trays was measured along with fouling of the packing material. The study examined how fouling was influenced by changes in operating parameters such as rate, temperature, or pressure during each test. Three full-scale pilot evaluations were conducted using actual flowback fluids from fracturing treatments conducted with 3 different oil gellants: conventional phosphate ester, modified phosphate and phosphonate ester. The comparison of actual tower fouling between these alternative gellants can be used as a guide when choosing oil gellant systems to reduce refinery tower and heat exchanger fouling. It was concluded that phosphonate gellants are hydrolytically stable at higher temperatures and should minimize volatile phosphorus created through the hydrolysis of phosphate esters. However, they are more expensive since they are more complex to create

  2. Comprehensive profiling and marker identification in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insecticides authorized for use on olive trees and the relationship between their registration and residues in olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lentza-Rizos, Ch.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate losses due to insect attack, several insecticides are used on olive trees. Their residues in olive oil constitute an important parameter of its quality and must be monitored regularly and kept as low possible in order to ensure consumer protection. In this paper the insecticides authorized for use on olive trees are listed and their ADIs and Codex Alimentarius MRLs reported. The existing registrations are discussed from the point of view of their residues in oil.

    Diversos insecticidas son usados para eliminar las pérdidas debidas al ataque de insectos en olivos. Sus residuos en el aceite de oliva constituyen un parámetro importante de su calidad y deben ser controlados con regularidad y mantenidos tan bajos como sea posible en orden a asegurar la protección del consumidor. En este artículo se incluyen los distintos insecticidas autorizados para su uso en olivos así como los valores de ingesta diaria aceptable para el hombre y los límites máximos autorizados de los mismos. Los registros existentes se discuten desde el punto de vista de sus residuos en el aceite.

  4. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  5. Mineral oil residues in soil and apple under temperate conditions of Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Malik Mukhtar; Wani, Ashraf Alam; Sofi, Mubashir; Ara, Ishrat

    2018-03-09

    The study was undertaken to ascertain the persistence of Orchol-13, a mineral oil used against insect pests of horticultural fruit crops in soil and apple following the dormant and summer applications of 2 and 0.75% respectively. Soil samples were collected during dormant, while as both soil and apple samples were collected during summer season. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days post treatment in both the seasons. Average recoveries of paraffinic constituents (which constitute about 60% of mineral oils by composition) from soil and apple at 1 μg ml -1 spiking level were found to be 74.18 and 76.81% respectively. The final quantification of paraffinic constituents was performed on gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). No paraffinic constituents of mineral oil could be detected in soil and apple at 0 day post treatment in both the seasons.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters. IWA Publishing 2008.

  7. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  8. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  9. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  10. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Carum Carvi Fruits from China and Its Main Components against Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Rui; Jiang, Cai Hong; Wang, Xiu Yi; Zhang, Hai Ming; Liu, Zhi Long; Zhou, Ligang; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

    2010-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Carum carvi fruits was found to possess strong contact toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 3.07 and 3.29 mg/adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC50 values of 3.37 and 2.53 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by G...

  11. An adaptive robust optimization scheme for water-flooding optimization in oil reservoirs using residual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siraj, M.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Model-based dynamic optimization of the water-flooding process in oil reservoirs is a computationally complex problem and suffers from high levels of uncertainty. A traditional way of quantifying uncertainty in robust water-flooding optimization is by considering an ensemble of uncertain model

  12. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  13. Inactivation of Lipase and Lipoxygenase of Wheat Germ with Temperature-Controlled Short Wave Infrared Radiation and Its Effect on Storage Stability and Quality of Wheat Germ Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Hongjian; Sun, Dewei; Deng, Boxin; Li, Jinwei; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Wheat germ (WG) is quite susceptible to deterioration due to the presence of lipase (LA) and lipoxygenase (LOX). Therefore it is indispensable to adopt a stabilization step to decrease the activity of LA and LOX while retaining a maximum level of nutrients. But over-drying can make foodstuffs more susceptible to autoxidation. So a stabilization protocol for inactivating LA and LOX of WG with a temperature- controlled short wave infrared (SIR) radiation system was adopted to retard its rancidity and retain a maximum level of fat-soluble nutrients. Meanwhile, the critical storage water activity (Aw) of WG for inhibiting both hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity was appraised. Results indicate that WG irradiated at 90°C for 20 min acquired the optimal stabilization effect, and its residual LA and LOX activity were 18.02% and 19.21%, respectively. At this condition, the free fatty acids (FFA) content and peroxide value (PV) increment of WG oil at 40°C remained below 5% and 2.24 meq O2/kg for 60 days, respectively. The residual Aw of this WG sample was 0.13, and it is near the Aw corresponding to its monolayer. No significant decrease of fatty acids was observed during SIR processing, while about 96.42% of its original tocopherols still retained in WG treated at 90°C for 20 min.

  14. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  15. Degradability of n-alkanes during ex situ natural bioremediation of soil contaminated by heavy residual fuel oil (mazut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramadan Mohamed Muftah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that during biodegradation of oil in natural geological conditions, or oil pollutants in the environment, a degradation of hydrocarbons occurs according to the well defined sequence. For example, the major changes during the degradation process of n-alkanes occur in the second, slight and third, moderate level (on the biodegradation scale from 1 to 10. According to previous research, in the fourth, heavy level, when intensive changes of phenanthrene and its methyl isomers begin, n-alkanes have already been completely removed. In this paper, the ex situ natural bioremediation (unstimulated bioremediation, without addition of biomass, nutrient substances and biosurfactant of soil contaminated with heavy residual fuel oil (mazut was conducted during the period of 6 months. Low abundance of n-alkanes in the fraction of total saturated hydrocarbons in the initial sample (identification was possible only after concentration by urea adduction technique showed that the investigated oil pollutant was at the boundary between the third and the fourth biodegradation level. During the experiment, an intense degradation of phenanthrene and its methyl-, dimethyl-and trimethyl-isomers was not followed by the removal of the remaining n-alkanes. The abundance of n-alkanes remained at the initial low level, even at end of the experiment when the pollutant reached one of the highest biodegradation levels. These results showed that the unstimulated biodegradation of some hydrocarbons, despite of their high biodegradability, do not proceed completely to the end, even at final degradation stages. In the condition of the reduced availability of some hydrocarbons, microorganisms tend to opt for less biodegradable but more accessible hydrocarbons.

  16. Remediation and recycling of oil-contaminated soil beneath a large above-ground storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1994-01-01

    While retrofitting a large 30-year-old, above-ground petroleum storage tank, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) discovered that soil beneath the fixed-roof, single-bottom tank was contaminated with 40,000 gallons of number-sign 6 fuel oil. The steel tank was left in place during the excavation and remediation of the contaminated soil to retain the operating permit. The resulting 2,000 tons of contaminated aggregate was recycled to make asphalt concrete for paving the tank basin and the remaining 5,600 tons of oily soil was thermally treated on site for use as engineered fill at another location. This successful operation provided an economical cleanup solution for a common leakage problem of single-lined tanks and eliminated the long-term liability of Class 1 landfill disposal. As a pro-active environmental effort, this paper shares SCE's site assessment procedure, reveals the engineering method developed to stabilize the tank, discusses the soil treatment technologies used, describes the problems encountered and lessons learned during the cleanup, discloses the costs of the operation, and offers guidelines and recommendations for similar tank remediation. This paper does not describe the work or costs for removing or replacing the tank bottom

  17. Hydrogen storage by carbon materials synthesized from oil seeds and fibrous plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Jaybhaye, Sandesh [Nanotechnology Research Center, Birla College, Kalyan 421304 (India); Soga, T.; Afre, Rakesh [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Sathiyamoorthy, D.; Dasgupta, K. [Powder Metallurgy Division, BARC, Trombay 400 085 (India); Sharon, Madhuri [Monad Nanotech Pvt. Ltd., A702 Bhawani Tower, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials of various morphologies have been synthesized by pyrolysis of various oil-seeds and plant's fibrous materials. These materials are characterized by SEM and Raman. Surface areas of these materials are determined by methylene blue method. These carbon porous materials are used for hydrogen storage. Carbon fibers with channel type structure are obtained from baggas and coconut fibers. It is reported that amongst the different plant based precursors studied, carbon from soyabean (1.09 wt%) and baggas (2.05 wt%) gave the better capacity to store hydrogen at 11kg/m{sup 2} pressure of hydrogen at room temperature. Efforts are made to correlate the hydrogen adsorption capacity with intensities and peak positions of G- and D-band obtained with carbon materials synthesized from plant based precursors. It is suggested that carbon materials whose G-band is around 1575cm{sup -1} and the intensity of D-band is less compared to G-band, may be useful material for hydrogen adsorption study. (author)

  18. Prevention of refinery plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude-optimization of phosphonate ester oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemieux, A.; Alick, C.; Stadnyk, S.; Funkhouser, G.; Fyten, G.; Taylor, R.S. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the use of phosphonate ester oil gellants for refinery plugging. Field tests were performed to test ways to optimize cost and performance and to establish quality control specifications based on performance testing and compositional analysis determined through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Additional field tests were performed to ensure both operational performance and the ability to control volatile phosphorus while continuing to meet the standards of the 2 initial field trials. The study assessed the ability of phosphonate esters to control volatile phosphorus at higher temperatures. Distillations used to evaluate volatile phosphorus to date have had a 250 degree C end point. This temperature was chosen because it represents the approximate temperature experienced at the distillation tower trays where plugging has been observed from components condensing from the gas phase. However, the actual peak temperature in the tower bottom is closer to 350 degrees C. This higher temperature is the actual temperature at which decomposition or volatilization occurs. In order to fully understand the ability to control volatile phosphorus, distillations were conducted with a 350 degree C end point. Volatile and total phosphorus to both 250 degrees C and 350 degrees C end points were reported. The study also addressed the concern regarding organic halide formation under distillation tower conditions, although no organic halides were detected in the field trials. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  19. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-05-04

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  20. Extraction and characterization of mandarin essential oil obtained from agroindustrial residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Carolina; Gil, Jesus; Durango, Diego; Garcia, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, citrus national agroindustries have shown a significant momentum, led by the market expansion of fruit derivatives. This activity has resulted in the generation of large amounts of waste, which could have a potential as starting material for the development of commercial products with high added value such as essential oils (EO), fixed oils, and fibres among others. The EO have a strong demand in the food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This paper describes the extraction and characterization of mandarin EO obtained through steam distillation, of agroindustrial waste. The effect of vapour pressure, thickness, and the number of layers of plant material, were evaluated on the yield and quality of EO. The operating conditions were adjusted in accordance to the design characteristics of the extraction plant of a local company.

  1. Development of High Heat Input Welding High Strength Steel Plate for Oil Storage Tank in Xinyu Steel Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hemin; Dong, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xiong

    This essay introduces the developed high-heat input welding quenched and tempered pressure vessel steel 12MnNiVR for oil storage tank by Xinyu Steel, which passed the review by the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Standards Technical Committee in 2009. The review comments that compared to the domestic and foreign similar steel standard, the key technical index of enterprise standard were in advanced level. After the heat input of 100kJ/cm electro-gas welding, welded points were still with excellent low temperature toughness at -20°C. The steel plate may be constructed for oil storage tank, which has been permitted by thickness range from 10 to 40mm, and design temperature among -20°C-100°C. It studied microstructure genetic effects mechanical properties of the steel. Many production practices indicated that the mechanical properties of products and the steel by stress relief heat treatment of steel were excellent, with pretreatment of hot metal, converter refining, external refining, protective casting, TMCP and heat treatment process measurements. The stability of performance and matured technology of Xinyu Steel support the products could completely service the demand of steel constructed for 10-15 million cubic meters large oil storage tank.

  2. Shelf Life Extension of Tomato Paste Through Organoleptically Acceptable Concentration of Betel Leaf Essential Oil Under Accelerated Storage Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-05-01

    This study was attempted with two objectives: (1) to find an acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) based on sensory evaluation that can be employed in tomato paste; (2) to evaluate the effect of the acceptable concentration of BLEO in the paste during accelerated storage under 89 ± 1.2% RH at 39 ± 1 °C. Linguistic data obtained from sensory evaluation of tomato paste treated with 4 different concentrations of BLEO were analyzed using fuzzy logic approach. The organoleptically acceptable concentration was determined to be 0.25 mg/g of BLEO in tomato paste. The effect of the selected concentration of BLEO on different physicochemical and microbial attributes of tomato paste during accelerated storage was studied. Untreated tomato paste was found to have 12% less total antioxidant capacity than treated paste at the end of storage. Based on a * /b * value in CIELAB color space, the BLEO treated paste efficiently extended the shelf life by 14 days with respect to untreated paste samples under accelerated storage conditions. BLEO comes with a tag contributing to green consumerism, and its application as food preservative is no less than a value addition to the product. Essential oil is considered to have promising potential as an alternative food preservative, and its use is practically possible if they could overcome the sensory barrier, while retaining the preservative potency. The importance of identifying the sensory attributes for commercial success of essential oil treated food product was considered in this study. It contributes to the potency of organoleptically acceptable concentration of BLEO in shelf life extension of tomato paste under accelerated storage conditions. At industrial level, the estimated shelf life of treated tomato paste can be increased by incorporating more hurdles alongside BLEO. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2017-01-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  4. Rejuvenation of residual oil hydrotreating catalysts by leaching of foulant metals. Modelling of the metal leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafi, M.; Kam, E.K.T.; Stanislaus, A.; Absi-Halabi, M. [Petroleum Technology Department, Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Materials Division, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    1996-11-19

    Increasing emphasis has been paid in recent years on the development of processes for the rejuvenation of spent residual oil hydroprocessing catalysts, which are deactivated by deposition of metals (e.g. vanadium) and coke. As part of a research program on this subject, we have investigated selective removal of the major metal foulant from the spent catalyst by chemical leaching. In the present paper, we report the development of a model for foulant metals leaching from the spent catalyst. The leaching process is considered to involve two consecutive operations: (1) removal of metal foulants along the main mass transfer channels connected to the narrow pores until the pore structure begins to develop and (2) removal of metal foulants from the pore structure. Both kinetic and mass transfer aspects were considered in the model development, and a good agreement was noticed between experimental and simulated results

  5. Effect of some Antioxidants, Caraway Oil (Carium carvum L.) and Gamma Radiation on Gray Mould of Strawberry Fruits during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Sh.A.; Salem, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Some antioxidants, caraway oil and gamma radiation were tested against grey mould of strawberry fruits caused by Botrytis cinerea. Salicylic acid was the best antioxidant inhibiting mycelial growth of B. cirerea at 6000 ppm, while the least effective was oxalic acid. Also caraway oil completely inhibited the growth of the fungus at 700 μl/L. Gamma radiation at dose 2.5 kGy caused 87.77% inhibition growth. Light microscope observation revealed that caraway oil at 700 μl/L caused changes in morphological characters of B. cinerea. Antioxidants salicylic acid was recorded the least percentage of infection for fruits naturally or artificially infected with B. cirerea. The least effective was oxalic acid. Caraway oil at 700 μl/L inhibited completely the percentage of infection of fruits naturally or artificially infected with B. cirerea after 4 days of storage, while after 10 days of storage, the percentage of infection for artificially infected fruits was 13.33% and for gamma irradiated fruits were 46.66% at dose 2.5 kGy. Salicylic acid at 8 g/L showed more peroxidase (POD) activity than other treatments

  6. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  7. Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on the Efficacy of the Bivalent Foot and Mouth Disease Oil Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab El-Sayed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The storage stability of locally produced double oil emulsion adjuvant bivalent Foot and mouth disease (FMD vaccine prepared from type O1/Aga/ EGY/93 strain and A/EGY/1/2006 had been determined depending on its shelf life in different storage temperatures during the registration of this vaccine by the Central Laboratory for Evaluation of Veterinary Biologics, Abbasia, Cairo. Samples of this vaccine were kept at 4°C for period of 27 months; at 25°C for 5 weeks and at 37°C for 3 weeks. The potency of these vaccine samples was evaluated in guinea pigs as laboratory animal's model. The obtained results confirmed that the vaccine keep its potency beyond the normal conservation period at 4°C for two years with 100% protection against challenge with FMDV O1/Aga/EGY/93 and at 25°C for 3 weeks and at 37°C for 1 week, showing 80% protection when storage of the vaccine at 25°C for 4 weeks; at 37°C for 2 weeks. On challenge with A/EGY/1/2006 the vaccine gave 100% protection when storage at 4°C for 21 months; at 25°C for 2 weeks and at 37°C for 1 week. Otherwise it gave 80% protection when storage at 4°C for 24 months; at 25°C for 3 weeks and at 37°C for 2 weeks then became invalid after 27 months at 4°C; after 4 weeks at 25°C and for 3 weeks at 37°C. So it could be concluded that 4°C is the best temperature of choice for storage of the oil inactivated bivalent FMD vaccine.

  8. Integrated Assessment of Palm Oil Mill Residues to Sustainable Electricity System (POMR-SES): A Case Study from Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaye, I. F. Md; Sadhukhan, J.; Murphy, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Generating electricity from biomass are undeniably gives huge advantages to the energy security, environmental protection and the social development. Nevertheless, it always been negatively claimed as not economically competitive as compared to the conventional electricity generation system using fossil fuel. Due to the unfair subsidies given to renewable energy based fuel and the maturity of conventional electricity generation system, the commercialization of this system is rather discouraging. The uniqueness of the chemical and physical properties of the biomass and the functionality of the system are fully depending on the availability of the biomass resources, the capital expenditure of the system is relatively expensive. To remain competitive, biomass based system must be developed in their most economical form. Therefore the justification of the economies of scale of such system is become essential. This study will provide a comprehensive review of process to select an appropriate size for electricity generation plant from palm oil mill (POM) residues through the combustion of an empty fruit bunch (EFB) and biogas from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Peninsular Malaysia using a mathematical model and simulation using ASPEN Plus software package. The system operated at 4 MW capacity is expected to provide a return on investment (ROI) of 20% with a payback period of 6.5 years. It is notably agreed that the correct selection of generation plant size will have a significant impact on overall economic and environmental feasibility of the system.

  9. Sustainable utilization of waste palm oil and sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from coconut meal residue for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Indika; Babel, Sandhya

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an inexpensive, environmental benign acid catalyst is prepared using coconut meal residue (CMR) and employed for biodiesel production from waste palm oil (WPO). The total acid density of the catalyst is found to be 3.8mmolg -1 . The catalyst shows a unique amorphous structure with 1.33m 2 g -1 of surface area and 0.31cm 3 g -1 of mean pore volume. Successful activation is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The highest biodiesel yield of 92.7% was obtained from WPO in an open reflux system using the catalyst. Results show that biodiesel yield increases with increasing methanol:oil (molar ratio) and reaction time up to an optimum value. It is found that the catalyst can be reused for at least four cycles for >80% biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel meet international biodiesel standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative evaluation of thermal oxidative decomposition for oil-plant residues via thermogravimetric analysis: Thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-11-01

    Thermal oxidative decomposition characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of rape straw (RS), rapeseed meal (RM), camellia seed shell (CS), and camellia seed meal (CM) were evaluated via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TG-DTG-DSC curves demonstrated that the combustion of oil-plant residues proceeded in three stages, including dehydration, release and combustion of organic volatiles, and chars oxidation. As revealed by combustion characteristic parameters, the ignition, burnout, and comprehensive combustion performance of residues were quite distinct from each other, and were improved by increasing heating rate. The kinetic parameters were determined by Coats-Redfern approach. The results showed that the most possible combustion mechanisms were order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was clearly observed. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS) at peak temperatures were calculated through the activated complex theory. With the combustion proceeding, the variation trends of ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS for RS (RM) similar to those for CS (CM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. effect of cold storage on the composition of the essential oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrodistilled volatile oil of fresh leaves and leaves of Eugenia uniflora L. stored for 24hr at 4oC were compared. The GC, LSC and GC-MS analyses of the oils revealed major quantitative differences in their chemical composition. The predominantly sesquitepene rich oils differed mainly in the percentage of their ...

  12. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  13. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-07-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  14. Partial least squares modeling of combined infrared, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra to predict long residue properties of crude oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peinder, P.; Visser, T.; Petrauskas, D.D.; Salvatori, F.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the potential of partial least squares (PLS) modeling of mid-infrared (IR) spectra of crude oils combined with the corresponding 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data, to predict the long residue (LR) properties of these substances. The study

  15. Demulsification of residual waters from refining industries of lubricant oil: case study; Desemulsificacao de aguas residuarias de industrias de refino de oleo lubrificante: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawamura, Marcia Yumi; Morita, Dione Mari [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Sanitaria]. E-mail: dmmorita@usp.br

    1997-07-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the coagulation, flocculation with iron chloride (FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O), followed by phase separation, as alternative for treating residual waters from lubricant oil refining industries. Tests have been performed by using {sup j}ar test{sup ,} changing pH value and coagulants for various wastewater characteristics.

  16. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-01-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  17. Prediction of long-residue properties of potential blends from mathematically mixed infrared spectra of pure crude oils by partial least-squares regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Peinder, P.; Visser, T.; Petrauskas, D.D.; Salvatori, F.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has been carried out to determine the feasibility of partial least-squares (PLS) regression models to predict the long-residue (LR) properties of potential blends from infrared (IR) spectra that have been created by linearly co-adding the IR spectra of crude oils. The study is the follow-up

  18. A comparison study on the antibacterial efficiency of essential oil and dried powder of Ocimum basilicum in ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shohreh Dadfar

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that both essential oil and dried powder of Ocimum basilicum increased the microbial stability of ground meat during storage, whereas dried powder showed more preservative capability at final days of storage. So it is possible to use this kind of natural product instead of synthetic one to reduce the disease of consumers and enhancing the organoleptic features of food

  19. Effects of olive maturation and stoning on quality indices and antioxidant content of extra virgin oils (cv. Coratina) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacorta, G; Faccia, M; Previtali, M A; Pati, S; La Notte, E; Baiano, A

    2010-04-01

    Quality indices, antioxidant compounds, and antioxidant activities of extra-virgin oils from Coratina olives were evaluated during a 12-mo storage. Whole and stoned olives, picked at 2 different maturation index (MI), were submitted to malaxation for 45 min and extracted by a 3-phase continuous system. A 90-min malaxation trial was also performed for the stoned olives. The following parameters were monitored: free acidity, peroxide value, K(232) and K(270) indices, sensory profile, total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic profiles, tocopherol compounds, and antioxidant activity (AA). The highest TPC, AA, and sensory score were found for the oils obtained by olives picked at low MI and by stoned olives. After 12 mo, all the oils were still included into the "extra-virgin" category, and those deriving from whole olives picked at the lowest MI showed the best sensory characteristics due to high fruity and well-balanced pungent and bitter tastes. This study could represent a helpful tool for oil-makers to improve the marketing of extra-virgin olive oils produced from cultivars with very high phenolic contents, such as Coratina, generally not adequately appreciated by consumers because of their excessive bitterness and pungent taste. These oils, when extracted from whole olives, are generally consumed after a certain period of time (at least 6 mo) during which a decrease in the phenolic content occurs. The results of the present work demonstrate that oils extracted from olives picked at low maturation index can be marketed immediately after production if subjected to stoning and malaxed for a short time. This procedure allows to adjust the phenolic content and to obtain a high flavor and a well-balanced taste.

  20. Characterization of oil shale residue and rejects from Irati Formation by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, S.L.; Brinatti, A.M.; Saab, S.C. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Simoes, M.L.; Martin-Neto, L. [Embrapa Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Rosa, J.A. [IAPAR - Unidade Regional de Pesquisa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Mascarenhas, Y. P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-03-15

    In this study, sedimentary organic matter of oil shale rejects, calschist, shale fine and the so called retorted shale from Irati formation was characterized. EPR was used to analyse the samples regarding loss of signal in g = 2:003 associated to the organic free radical with the calcined samples and washing with hydrogen peroxide. The radical signal was detected in all samples, however, for the calschist and shale fine samples another signal was identified at g = 2:000 which disappeared when the sample was heated at 400 deg C. Hydrogen peroxide washing was also performed and it was noted that after washing the signal appeared around g = 2:000 for all samples, including retorted shale, which might be due to the quartz E1 defect. (author)

  1. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Reactivity of dolomite in water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide: Significance for carbon capture and storage and for enhanced oil and gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuyu; Alvarado, Vladimir; Swoboda-Colberg, Norbert; Kaszuba, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dolomite reactivity with wet and dry supercritical CO 2 were evaluated. ► Dolomite does not react with dry CO 2 . ► H 2 O-saturated supercritical CO 2 dissolves dolomite and precipitates carbonate mineral. ► Temperature/reaction time control morphology and extent of carbonate mineralization. ► Reaction with wet CO 2 may impact trapping, caprock integrity, and CCS/EOR injectivity. - Abstract: Carbon dioxide injection in porous reservoirs is the basis for carbon capture and storage, enhanced oil and gas recovery. Injected carbon dioxide is stored at multiple scales in porous media, from the pore-level as a residual phase to large scales as macroscopic accumulations by the injection site, under the caprock and at reservoir internal capillary pressure barriers. These carbon dioxide saturation zones create regions across which the full spectrum of mutual CO 2 –H 2 O solubility may occur. Most studies assume that geochemical reaction is restricted to rocks and carbon dioxide-saturated formation waters, but this paradigm ignores injection of anhydrous carbon dioxide against brine and water-alternating-gas flooding for enhanced oil recovery. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to evaluate the reactivity of the common reservoir mineral dolomite with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions (55 and 110 °C, 25 MPa) and elevated temperature (220 °C, 25 MPa) for approximately 96 and 164 h (4 and 7 days). Dolomite dissolves and new carbonate mineral precipitates by reaction with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Dolomite does not react with anhydrous supercritical carbon dioxide. Temperature and reaction time control the composition, morphology, and extent of formation of new carbonate minerals. Mineral dissolution and re-precipitation due to reaction with water-saturated carbon dioxide may affect the contact line between phases, the carbon dioxide contact angle, and the

  3. Influence of the addition and storage time of crude extract of tea leaves (camellia sinensis l.) toward value of free fatty acid in crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Wahifiyah, E.; Hairani, R.; Panggabean, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the crude extract of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.) and storage time on the content of free fatty acid in palm oil. The dried tea leaves were macerated and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The extract obtained was added to crude palm oil with various added mass of the extract and various storage times. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, phenolics and flavonoids. The ANOVA test showed a decrease in free fatty acid content in crude palm oil with the addition of tea leaves extract. The LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed the best influence on ALB of palm oil is on the total extract mass of 2 grams and the storage time of 20 days.

  4. Effect of the inclusion of fish residue oils in diets on the fatty acid profile of muscles of males and females lambari (Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Uribe Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of two lipids sources of fish residue (tilapia and salmon compared with a vegetable oil source (soybean oil on the fatty acid profiles of male and female lambari. This experiment was developed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments resulting from the combination of the three experimental diets for both sexes, with four replications for each treatment. This study involved 120 male (2.58±0.13 g and 72 female lambari (4.00±0.09 g, fed the experimental diets twice a day until apparent satiation for a period of 60 days. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids were found at higher concentrations in all experimental oils and diets, as well in the muscle of male and female lambari. The low amounts of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the experimental diets and subsequent greater concentrations in muscle tissue, suggested that lambari are able to desaturate and elongate the chain of fatty acids with 18 carbons. The fish of both sexes that received the diet with soybean oil showed high levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially of C18: 2n-6 and low levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The diet with salmon residue oil promoted higher levels of fatty acids of the n-3 series and resulted in the best n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of male and female lambari. The oils from fish residues can be a substitute for traditional fish oil and its use in the lambari diets does not impair its growth.

  5. Technology on In-Situ Gas Generation to Recover Residual Oil Reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayavur Bakhtiyarov

    2008-02-29

    This final technical report covers the period October 1, 1995 to February 29, 2008. This chapter begins with an overview of the history of Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques and specifically, CO2 flood. Subsequent chapters conform to the manner consistent with the Activities, Tasks, and Sub-tasks of the project as originally provided in Exhibit C1 in the Project Management Plan dated September 20, 1995. These chapters summarize the objectives, status and conclusions of the major project activities performed during the project period. The report concludes by describing technology transfer activities stemming from the project and providing a reference list of all publications of original research work generated by the project team or by others regarding this project. The overall objective of this project was a final research and development in the United States a technology that was developed at the Institute for Geology and Development of Fossil Fuels in Moscow, Russia. Before the technology can be convincingly adopted by United States oil and gas producers, the laboratory research was conducted at Mew Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The experimental studies were conducted to measure the volume and the pressure of the CO{sub 2} gas generated according to the new Russian technology. Two experimental devices were designed, built and used at New Mexico Tech facilities for these purposes. The designed setup allowed initiating and controlling the reaction between the 'gas-yielding' (GY) and 'gas-forming' (GF) agents proposed by Russian technology. The temperature was controlled, and the generated gas pressure and volume were recorded during the reaction process. Additionally, the effect of surfactant addition on the effectiveness of the process was studied. An alternative GY reactant was tested in order to increase the efficiency of the CO2 gas generation process. The slim tube and the core flood experimental studies were conducted to define

  6. Assessment of alternatives for long-term management of uranium ore residues and contaminated soils located at DOE's Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    About 11,000 m 3 of uranium ore residues and 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated soils (wastes) are consolidated within a diked containment area at the Niagara Falls Storage Site located about 30 km north of Buffalo, New York. The residues account for less than 6% of the total volume of contaminated materials but almost 99% of the radioactivity. The average radium-226 concentration in the residues is 67,000 pCi/g. The US Department of Energy is considering several alternatives for long-term management of the wastes and residues, including: improvement of the containment at NFSS, modification of the form of the residues, management of the residues separately from the wastes, management of the wastes and residues at another humid site (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) or an arid site (Hanford, Washington), and dispersal of the wastes in the ocean. Potential radiological risks associated with implementation of any of the alternatives are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant radiological risk to humans. The residues and wastes will remain hazardous for thousands of years. After controls cease, the radioactive materials will eventually be dispersed in the environment. Loss of the earthen covers over the buried materials is predicted to occur from several hundred to more than two million years, depending primarily on the use of the land surface. Groundwater will eventually be contaminated in all alternatives; however, the groundwater pathway is relatively insignificant with respect to radiological risks to the general population. 2 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  7. Antifungal potential of thyme essential oil as a preservative for storage of wheat seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Anžlovar, Sabina; Likar, Matevž; Dolenc Koce, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Plant essential oils are potential food preservatives due to their inhibitory effects on bacterial and fungal growth. Antifungal activities of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil were tested against endophytic fungi grown from wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain, molecularly identified as Alternaria alternata, Alternaria infectoria, Aspergillus fl avus, Epicoccum nigrum and Fusarium poae. Their susceptibility to thyme essential oil was tested in vitro, and ranged from fungicidal to fu...

  8. Ex situ bioremediation of a soil contaminated by mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)--a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Milić, Jelena; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Solević, Tatjana; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2011-03-01

    Mazut (heavy residual fuel oil)-polluted soil was exposed to bioremediation in an ex situ field-scale (600 m(3)) study. Re-inoculation was performed periodically with biomasses of microbial consortia isolated from the mazut-contaminated soil. Biostimulation was conducted by adding nutritional elements (N, P and K). The biopile (depth 0.4m) was comprised of mechanically mixed polluted soil with softwood sawdust and crude river sand. Aeration was improved by systematic mixing. The biopile was protected from direct external influences by a polyethylene cover. Part (10 m(3)) of the material prepared for bioremediation was set aside uninoculated, and maintained as an untreated control pile (CP). Biostimulation and re-inoculation with zymogenous microorganisms increased the number of hydrocarbon degraders after 50 d by more than 20 times in the treated soil. During the 5 months, the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the contaminated soil was reduced to 6% of the initial value, from 5.2 to 0.3 g kg(-1) dry matter, while TPH reduced to only 90% of the initial value in the CP. After 150 d there were 96%, 97% and 83% reductions for the aliphatic, aromatic, and nitrogen-sulphur-oxygen and asphaltene fractions, respectively. The isoprenoids, pristane and phytane, were more than 55% biodegraded, which indicated that they are not suitable biomarkers for following bioremediation. According to the available data, this is the first field-scale study of the bioremediation of mazut and mazut sediment-polluted soil, and the efficiency achieved was far above that described in the literature to date for heavy fuel oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes during storage of quality parameters and in vitro antioxidant activity of extra virgin monovarietal oils obtained with two extraction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, C; Del Caro, A; Sanguinetti, A M; Urgeghe, P P; Vacca, V; Arca, P P; Piga, A

    2012-10-01

    Extraction technology has a great effect on quality of olive oils. This paper studied 18 months of storage of two Sardinian extra virgin monovarietal oils obtained with a traditional and with a low oxidative stress technology. Oil samples were subjected to the following chemical analyses: acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K₂₃₂ and K₂₇₀, carotenoids, chlorophylls, tocopherols and total polyphenols. The antioxidant capacity of oils, polyphenol extract and oil extract (remaining after polyphenol extraction) was also determined as radical scavenging activity. The results show that both extraction technologies resulted in minor changes in legal and quality indices during storage, due surely to the high quality of the oils as well as to the very good storage conditions used. Oils obtained with the low oxidative stress technology showed lower peroxide value and acidity and resulted in up to 103% higher total polyphenol content as well as increased radical-scavenging activity, with respect to oils obtained with the traditional technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diesel oil safety stock in storage and distribution terminals: a case study: Porto Velho/Rio, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Rubens C. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); D' agosto, Marcio A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for calculating diesel oil safety stock in distributor terminals located in the northern of Brazil, applied on a case study for terminals in the state of Rondonia. From the mapping of logistic flows related to transport and storage of diesel oil, the risk factors that cause uncertainties in lead time were analyzed and quantified. Through a research conducted among economic agents (producers, distributors and carriers) operating in the region, it was measured the relevance and impact of risk factors on the safety stock in the terminals. The safety stock was calculated by the classical equation of inventories, as well as by the methodology proposed in this paper. The difference between the two methods has unveiled inefficiencies derived from uncertainties in lead time. Recommendations of actions to mitigate the risk factors are included at the end of this paper. (author)

  11. Physical and sensory characteristics of pork sausages from enzymatically modified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheong, L.Z.; Zhang, H.; Nersting, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical and sensory characteristic of pork sausages produced from enzymatic interesterified blends of lard and rapeseed oil during storage were evaluated. All three enzymatic interesterified blends (IE90, IE70 and IE50) had ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids within the range of 1.......47-2.84 which is favourable for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Blends of IE90 and IE70 were found to have suitable solid fat content, melting and crystallization profile suitable for sausages production. Sausages were produced from blends of IE90 and IE70 with different muscle types (musculus...... longissimus dorsi and musculus sternomandibularis) and processing conditions such as cooling rates and final processing temperature. Cooling rate was found to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on hardness of the sausages throughout storage. Both musculus longissimus dorsi and high final processing...

  12. Effect of curing methods, packages and gamma irradiation on the quality of volatile garlic oil during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; El-Abbassi, F.; Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.

    1988-01-01

    The values of V.R.S. as a measurement of pungency, were decreased gradually during storage especially in un-irradiated cloves treatments. Chinese garlic had higher values than Egyptian cultivar after 3,6 months. But after 9 months the pungency of Egyptian was higher than that of Chinese garlic. Irradiation decreased the V.R.S. after 3 and 6 months, but after 9 months the irradiated samples contained more V.R.S. than the unirradiated ones. No effect was observed for type of packages or curing methods. Gas chromatographic profiles, at harvest, proved that 35, 32 peaks were found in the volatile oil of Egyptian and Chinese cultivars, respectively. The identified compounds were dimethyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide, methyl allyl disulphide and dimethyl trisulphide. These compounds were found in either Egyptian or Chinese garlic. Besides, the dimethyl sulphide was detected in Chinese garlic. All tested treatments, i.e. cultivar, irradiation, curing methods and storage period, affected the percent and number of the identified constituents or unidentified compounds. Dimethyl sulphide and allyl sulphide were absent in the Egyptian Cultivar at harvest, but they were found during storage. Allyl sulphide was found in Chinese garlic only at end of storage period

  13. Environmental performance, mechanical and microstructure analysis of concrete containing oil-based drilling cuttings pyrolysis residues of shale gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qiang; Lin, Xiao-Yan; He, Ming; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Si-Lan

    2017-09-15

    The overall objective of this research project is to investigate the feasibility of incorporating oil-based drilling cuttings pyrolysis residues (ODPR) and fly ash serve as replacements for fine aggregates and cementitious materials in concrete. Mechanical and physical properties, detailed environmental performances, and microstructure analysis were carried out. Meanwhile, the early hydration process and hydrated products of ODPR concrete were analyzed with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results indicated that ODPR could not be categorize into hazardous wastes. ODPR had specific pozzolanic characteristic and the use of ODPR had certain influence on slump and compressive strength of concrete. The best workability and optimal compressive strength were achieved with the help of 35% ODPR. Environmental performance tests came to conclusion that ODPR as recycled aggregates and admixture for the preparation of concrete, from the technique perspective, were the substance of mere environmental contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetalation reactions of residue oils over CoMo/aluminum borate catalysts in a trickle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.C.; Chen, Y.W.; Kang, B.C.; Wu, J.C.; Leu, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a series of aluminum borates (AB) with various Al/B mole ratios is prepared by the precipitation method. The results indicated that the exhibited properties are dependent on the Al/B ratio of the material. The monodisperse pore size distributions of these samples simply that it is a true microcomposite structure rather than a mixture of the individual materials. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodemetalation (HDM) of heavy Kuwait atmospheric residuum over CoMo/AB catalysts were carried out in a bench-scale trickle bed reactor at 663 K and 7582 kPa. The weight hourly space velocity of residue oils was 1.5, and the hydrogen flow rate was kept constant at 300 mL/min (STP). The results showed that these catalysts are much more active than the conventional CoMo/Al 2 O 3 catalyst in HDS and HDM reactions. The results of desulfurization activity are mainly interpreted on the basis of difference in dispersion and the interaction of Mo species with the support. The demetalation activity was strongly influenced by the intraparticle diffusion of metal porphyrins

  15. Removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst using membrane ultra-filtration technique: An optimization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, residual potassium hydroxide catalyst was removed from palm oil-based alkyl esters (biodiesel using membrane separative technique, with the aim of achieving high-quality biodiesel that meets international standard specifications. Further, Central Composite Design (CCD coupled with Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to study the effects of the system variables such as flow rate, temperature and transmembrane pressure (TMP on the retention of potassium. At the optimum conditions, the coefficient of retention (%R of the catalyst was 93.642, and the content of the potassium was reduced from 8.328 mg/L to 0.312 mg/L; a value well below the one specified by both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. In addition, the comparison between predicted and experimental values for the catalyst retention offers a reasonable percentage error of 0.081%. Therefore, this study has proven that membrane technique can be used to post treat crude biodiesel; in order to achieve high-quality biodiesel fuel that can be efficiently used on diesel engines.

  16. Comparative evaluation of radiological impact of the radon associated to the storage of uranium ore processing residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroussin, J.L.; Schneider, Th.

    1999-01-01

    In order to illustrate the expected variations according to the storage characteristics used for the calculations, a sensitiveness analysis for the storage site of Lodeve is presented by considering the individual and collective doses before and after site refitting. (N.C.)

  17. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium pachyphyllum Fruits against Two Grain Storage Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Dong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Illicium pachyphyllum fruits against two grain storage insects, Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum, and to isolate any insecticidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 36 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds in the essential oil being trans-ρ-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (24.56%, D-limonene (9.79%, caryophyllene oxide (9.32%, and cis-carveol (5.26% followed by β-caryophyllene (4.63% and bornyl acetate. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated and identified as trans-ρ-mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol, D-limonene and caryophyllene oxide. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits exhibited contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 17.33 μg/adult and 28.94 μg/adult, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol (LD50 = 8.66 μg/adult and 13.66 μg/adult, respectively exhibited stronger acute toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults than either caryophyllene oxide (LD50 = 34.09 μg/adult and 45.56 μg/adult and D-limonene (LD50 = 29.86 μg/adult and 20.14 μg/adult. The essential oil of I. pachyphyllum possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 11.49 mg/L and 15.08 mg/L, respectively. trans-p-Mentha-1(7,8-dien-2-ol exhibited stronger fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults, respectively, with LC50 values of 6.01 mg/L and 8.14 mg/L, than caryophyllene oxide (LC50 = 17.02 mg/L and 15.98 mg/L and D-limonene (LC50 = 33.71 mg/L and 21.24 mg/L. The results indicate that the essential oil of I. pachyphyllum fruits and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for the control of

  18. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  19. Degradation rates of phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas L. oil and pressed seeds under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasukarratchai, Naphatsarnan; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2017-03-01

    Phorbol esters (PEs), found in Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCO) and J. curcas pressed seeds (JPS), are known as bioactive compounds in agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The degradation rates of PEs in JCO and JPS under various conditions is important for the utilisation of PEs. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the PE degradation rates in JCO and JPS under different storage conditions. PE degradation rates were found to be first-order reactions. The slowest degradation rate was at 0.9 × 10 -3 d -1 for both JCO and JPS unexposed to light at 4 °C. Light intensity (1097 lx and 4690 lx, representing diffused sunlight and fluorescent lighting, respectively) and temperature (25 to 35 °C) were the significant degradation factors. Light exposure led to 280% to 380% higher degradation rates in JCO than in JPS due to light penetration through the transparent oil. Dried and sterilised JPS showed an 80% to 90% lower PE degradation rate than untreated JPS under all storage conditions since biodegradation was assembly limited. The PEs were unstable under the studied conditions, especially when exposed to light and room temperature. To protect against PE degradation, a material should be stored in a light-protected container and below 4 °C. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Application of risk curve for statistical analysis of backside corrosion in the bottom floors of oil storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Naoya; Maeda, Takuma; Tamura, Koichi; Kitsukawa, Shigeo; Sekine, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Overall thickness profile data for backside corrosion of the bottom floors of 17 oil storage tanks were collected, and a risk curve from the overall thickness profile and discrete thickness data was derived to evaluate the corrosion risk of the bottom floors. The slope of the risk curve in the large corrosion region was found to indicate the local corrosion condition. Parameters for evaluating localized corrosion derived from the corrosion distributions were also investigated to evaluate the corrosion risk of the bottom floors. Compared with the parameters obtained using the overall thickness profile and discrete thickness data, the slope of the risk curve is an excellent evaluation parameter using discrete thickness data. Thus, it is possible to accurately evaluate the corrosion characteristics of the bottom floors of oil storage tanks with the parameters obtained from discrete thickness data. - Highlights: • The risk curves for corrosion show the corrosion characteristic. • The obtained parameters indicate the corrosion characteristic. • The corrosion characteristic can be evaluated with discrete thickness data.

  1. Fuzzy fault tree assessment based on improved AHP for fire and explosion accidents for steel oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Shuai, Jian; Xu, Kui

    2014-08-15

    Fire and explosion accidents of steel oil storage tanks (FEASOST) occur occasionally during the petroleum and chemical industry production and storage processes and often have devastating impact on lives, the environment and property. To contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing the occurrence probability of FEASOST, a fault tree of FEASOST is constructed that identifies various potential causes. Traditional fault tree analysis (FTA) can achieve quantitative evaluation if the failure data of all of the basic events (BEs) are available, which is almost impossible due to the lack of detailed data, as well as other uncertainties. This paper makes an attempt to perform FTA of FEASOST by a hybrid application between an expert elicitation based improved analysis hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy set theory, and the occurrence possibility of FEASOST is estimated for an oil depot in China. A comparison between statistical data and calculated data using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) based on traditional and improved AHP is also made. Sensitivity and importance analysis has been performed to identify the most crucial BEs leading to FEASOST that will provide insights into how managers should focus effective mitigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Sonker, Nivedita; Singh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    During mycofloral analysis of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) seed samples taken from different grocery stores by agar and standard blotter paper methods, 5 fungal species were identified, of which Aspergillus flavus exhibited higher relative frequency (75.20% to 80.60%) and was found to produce aflatoxin B1 . On screening of 11 plant essential oils against this mycotoxigenic fungi, Lippia alba essential oil was found to be most effective and showed absolute inhibition of mycelia growth at 0.28 μL/mL. The oil of L. alba was fungistatic and fungicidal at 0.14 and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. Oil had broad range of fungitoxicity at its MIC value and was absolutely inhibited the AFB1 production level at 2.0 μL/mL. Chemical analysis of this oil revealed geranial (36.9%) and neral (29.3%) as major components followed by myrcene (18.6%). Application of a dose of 80 μL/0.25 L air of Lippia oil in the storage system significantly inhibited the fungal proliferation and aflatoxin production without affecting the seed germination rate. By the virtue of fungicidal, antiaflatoxigenic nature and potent efficacy in storage food system, L. alba oil can be commercialized as botanical fungicide for the protection of green gram seeds during storage. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Dielectric, ferroelectric, and thermodynamic properties of silicone oil modified PVDF films for energy storage application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Bingcheng; Wang, Xiaohui, E-mail: wxh@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: llt-dms@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Longtu, E-mail: wxh@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: llt-dms@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Hui [Aero-Engine Control System Institute, Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Jiangsu, Wuxi 214063 (China)

    2016-06-13

    Silicone oil modified poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) films were fabricated by the blending, casting, and hot-molding methods. The dielectric constant was increased for the 7.4 wt. % and 17.0 wt. % silicone oil modified P(VDF-HFP) films, while the dielectric loss for all blend films are decreased. D-E loops of 7.4 wt. % and 17.0 wt. % silicone oil modified P(VDF-HFP) films become slimmer than the pristine P(VDF-HFP) films. The maximum discharged energy density of 10.3 J/cm{sup 3} was obtained in 7.4 wt. % silicone oil modified P(VDF-HFP) films at the external electric field of 398 kV/mm. The Gibbs energy, miscibility, and phase behavior of binary mixture of P(VDF-HFP) silicone oil were investigated using molecular simulations and the extended Flory–Huggins model revealing favorable interactions and compatibility between P(VDF-HFP) and silicone oil.

  4. Activity of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) essential oils against the grain storage pest Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa, Carolina; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent, toxic and feeding deterrent properties against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and adults. A topical application assay was employed for the contact toxicity study and filter paper impregnation for the fumigant assay. A treated diet was also used to evaluate the repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay for the feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. The essential oil of the leaves contained mainly monoterpenoids, with alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and camphene predominant, whereas that from the fruits contained mainly alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and beta-myrcene. The leaf essential oil showed repellent effects, whereas that from the fruit was an attractant. Both oils produced mortality against larvae in topical and fumigant bioassays, but fumigant toxicity was not found against adults. Moreover, both essential oils produced some alterations in nutritional index. These results show that the essential oils from S. areira could be applicable to the management of populations of Tribolium castaneum.

  5. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Carum Carvi Fruits from China and Its Main Components against Two Grain Storage Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Carum carvi fruits was found to possess strong contact toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum adults, with LD50 values of 3.07 and 3.29 mg/adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC50 values of 3.37 and 2.53 mg/L, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be (R-carvone (37.98% and D-limonene (26.55% followed by α-pinene (5.21, cis-carveol (5.01% and b-myrcene (4.67%. (R-Carvone and D-limonene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. (R-Carvone and D-limonene showed strong contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 2.79 and 29.86 mg/adult and T. castaneum (LD50 = 2.64 and 20.14 mg/adult. (R-Carvone and D-limonene also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais (LC50 = 2.76 and 48.18 mg/L and T. castaneum adults (LC50 = 1.96 and 19.10 mg/L.

  7. Successful field application of novel, non-silicone antifoam chemistries for high foaming heavy oil storage tanks in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Clariant Oil Services, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil operators in northern Alberta have experienced production problems associated with foam formation in crude oil storage tanks. The foam could enter the transportation trucks and create separation problems in the process systems. Any antifoam used in the system could not contain silicone based polymers since these compounds affected the catalysts used in upgrading the crude oil and in the manufacture of asphalt. As such, there was a need to change the performance of the antifoam product. A phosphate ester and a salted amine were the previous incumbent antifoam products that did not perform well. Several chemistries were tested, including phosphate based products; ethoxylated and propoxylated esters; polyethylene glycol esters and oleates; alcohols, fatty alcohols and ethoxylated; and propoxylated alcohols. All products had to be freeze protected to -40 degrees C, which influenced the efficacy of antifoam chemicals. This paper described how laboratory testing has evolved to field wide implementation of a combined defoamer/antifoam chemistry. The laboratory tests revealed that foam induced in heavy, aged crude was very challenging and required the addition of heptane to create the foam. A potential follow-up may be to induce the foam without the addition of heptane by using a Seltzer cylinder in a semi-quantitative manner to rank performance of products against one another. The final selection of antifoam will depend on supply chain cost since the performance of the 2 blend products was essentially the same. 12 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Characterization of oil-palm trunk residue degradation enzymes derived from the isolated fungus, Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kok Chang; Arai, Takamitsu; Ibrahim, Darah; Deng, Lan; Murata, Yoshinori; Mori, Yutaka; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study characterizes crude enzymes derived from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL, a mesophilic fungus isolated from the local soil of Malaysia. Prior to enzyme activity evaluation, P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL was inoculated into a broth medium containing oil-palm trunk residues for the preparation of crude enzymes. Oil-palm trunk residues were optimally hydrolysed at pH5.0 and 50°C. P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes displayed higher thermal stability compared with the commercial enzymes, Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500. Moreover, the hydrolysing activities of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived crude enzymes (xylan, arabinan, and laminarin) were superior compared to that of Celluclast 1.5 L and Acellerase 1500, and exhibit 2- to 3-fold and 3- to 4-fold higher oil-palm trunk residues-hydrolysing specific activity, respectively. This higher hydrolysis efficiency may be attributed to the weak 'lignin-binding' ability of the P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL-derived enzymes compared to the commercial enzymes.

  9. Colour Determination and Change of Sensory Properties of Mayonnaise with Different Contents of Oil Depending on Length of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. SIKIMIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the stability of three types of mayonnaise (with 75 %, 50 % and 30 % of edible refined sunflower oil and other additives by measuring colour on photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter “MOM-colour 100“, showing the results in CIE (Y(%, l (nm and Č (% and CIE L ´ a ´ b system immediately after preparation, after 90 and 180 days of warehousing, at temperature of +5°C. In parallel, sensory analysis was conducted by means of the analytical point system when a group of experienced tasters evaluated the appearance, colour, fragrance and taste, during the storage lasting up to 180 days. It was established that average estimates for the appearance, colour and both, statistically do not depend significantly on the contents of mayonnaise and statistically very much depend on the time of storage. The interaction of contents of mayonnaise and time of storage statistically significantly influences the average estimate of the appearance and to all sensory properties.

  10. Utilization of oil palm biodiesel solid residue as renewable sources for preparation of granular activated carbon by microwave induced KOH activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2013-02-01

    In this work, preparation of granular activated carbon from oil palm biodiesel solid residue, oil palm shell (PSAC) by microwave assisted KOH activation has been attempted. The physical and chemical properties of PSAC were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, volumetric adsorption analyzer and elemental analysis. The adsorption behavior was examined by performing batch adsorption experiments using methylene blue as dye model compound. Equilibrium data were simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Kinetic modeling was fitted to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models, while the adsorption mechanism was determined using the intraparticle diffusion and Boyd equations. The result was satisfactory fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 343.94mg/g at 30°C. The findings support the potential of oil palm shell for preparation of high surface area activated carbon by microwave assisted KOH activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Gelatin-Based Edible Films Enriched with Laurel Essential Oil on the Quality of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fillets During Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Baygar; Taçnur Baygar; Hatice Hasanhocaoglu; Cansu Metin; Yunus Alparslan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of gelatin films enriched with laurel leaf essential oil on the quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during refrigerated storage at (4±1) °C were examined over a period of 26 days. Fish fillets were wrapped with 8 % gelatin films containing 0, 0.1 and 1 % (by volume per mass) of laurel essential oil and vacuum packaged. Sensory (raw and cooked fish), microbiological (total viable counts, psychrotrophic bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria) and ...

  12. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines. PMID:29303966

  13. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Santoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO, was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  14. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Bosio, Pietro; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-05

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v / v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola , but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea . In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea . Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  15. Residual Effect of Chemical and Animal Fertilizers and Compost on Yield, YieldComponents, Physiological Characteristics and Essential Oil Content of Matricaria chamomilla L. under Drought Stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Ahmadian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The residual effect of inorganic and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of plants is one of the important problems in nutrition. This study was conducted to determine the residual effect of different fertilizers on yield, yield components, physiological parameters and essential oil percentage of Matricaria chamomilla under drought stress. A split plot arrangement based on randomized completely block design (RCBD with three replication was conducted in 2009, at the University of Zabol. Treatments included W1 (non stress, W2 (75% FC and W3 (50% FC as main plot and three types of residual’s fertilizers: F1 (non fertilizer, F2 (chemical fertilizer, F3 (manure fertilizer and F4 (compost as sub plot. Results showed that water stress at W3 treatment reduced dry flower yield. Low water stress increased essential oil percentage and the highest oil was obtained in W2. In this experiment, free proline and total soluble carbohydrate concentration were increased under water stress. The residual’s manure and compost enhanced flower yield, percentage and yield of essential oil of chamomile at the second year. At a glance, animal manure application and light water stress (75% FC was recommended to obtain best quantitative and qualitative yield. Keywords: Water Stress, Fertilizer, Carbohydrate, Proline, Chamomile

  16. Hippocampus lipid peroxidation induced by residual oil fly ash intranasal instillation versus habituation to the open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Ana Claudia; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) inhalation on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It has been reported that air pollution may affect the central nervous system and decrease cognitive function. In rats, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) instillation causes decreased motor activity and increased lipid peroxidation in the striatum and the cerebellum. Our objective was to determine whether chronic instillation of particles induces changes in learning and memory in rats and whether oxidants in the hippocampus may contribute to these adverse effects. Forty-five-day-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ROFA by intranasal instillation and were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days. Control groups were exposed to ROFA, NAC, or neither. On days 1, 8, and 30 of the protocol, rats were submitted to the open field test to evaluate habituation. After the last open field session, the rats were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus was used to determine lipid peroxidation (LP) by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances test. ROFA instillation induced an increase in LP in the hippocampus compared to all treatment groups (p = .012). NAC treatment blocked these changes. All of the treatment groups presented a decrease in the frequency of peripheral walking (p = .001), rearing (p = .001), and exploration (p = .001) over time. Our study demonstrates that exposure to particles for 30 days and/or NAC treatment do not modify habituation to an open field, a simple form of learning and memory in rats, and that oxidative damage induced by ROFA does not modulate these processes.

  17. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  18. Effects of Gelatin-Based Edible Films Enriched with Laurel Essential Oil on the Quality of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Fillets During Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Baygar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of gelatin films enriched with laurel leaf essential oil on the quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during refrigerated storage at (4±1 °C were examined over a period of 26 days. Fish fillets were wrapped with 8 % gelatin films containing 0, 0.1 and 1 % (by volume per mass of laurel essential oil and vacuum packaged. Sensory (raw and cooked fish, microbiological (total viable counts, psychrotrophic bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria and chemical (proximate composition, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, free fatty acid (FFA and peroxide value (PV analysis, and colour measurement were carried out during the storage period and shelf-life was determined periodically. The obtained results showed that the gelatin film enriched with laurel essential oil was suitable for the preservation of rainbow trout fillet and the ability of laurel essential oil to preserve the film depended on its ratio. Combined effects of gelatin film and laurel essential oil (1 % by volume per mass was efficient in maintaining the quality characteristics at an acceptable level up to 22 days of storage, while the control and gelatin film without the essential oil reached an unacceptable level at 15 and 20 days, respectively.

  19. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  20. Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab Farouk M; El-Anany, Ayman M

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

  1. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

  2. Cold Storage Stability of Blend Oil from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Different Melting Points%大豆油调和不同熔点棕榈液油的冷藏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴苏喜; 刘立萍; 李慧; Ooi Cheng KEAT

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide references for preparing blend oil from soybean oil and palm oil with different melting points, the effects of different types and amounts of anti-crystallization agent and soybean oil-to-palm oil ratio on the cold storage stability of blend oil were studied. The best anti-crystallization agent was hydroxyl stearin at a dose of 0.025%. The blend oil A composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 10 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 16 hours at 0 ℃ and more than 72 h at 5℃. The blend oil B composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 30 h at 10℃. The blend oil C composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 20 h at 15℃. The blend oil D composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% μm olein with melting point of 24℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 10 h.%为了制备适应不同储存温度的豆油.棕榈液油调和油,以大豆油与不同熔点棕榈液油为原料,采用冷藏试验方法优化抑晶剂种类、用量和调和油配方。结果表明,羟基硬脂精是效果最佳的抑晶剂,其最佳添加量为0.025%;调和油1(豆油70%+10℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在0℃环境下储存可保持16h以上澄清透亮,在5℃条件可保持72h以上澄清透亮;调和油2(豆油70%+18℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在10℃环境下可保持30h以上澄清透亮;调和油3(豆油60%+18℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在15℃环境下可保持20h以上澄清透亮;调和油4(豆油60%+24℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在20℃环境下可保持10h以上澄清透亮。

  3. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.

  4. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide and enhanced oil recovery. I. Uncertainty quantification employing a streamline based proxy for reservoir flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is already injected into a limited class of reservoirs for oil recovery purposes; however, the engineering design question for simultaneous oil recovery and storage of anthropogenic CO 2 is significantly different from that of oil recovery alone. Currently, the volumes of CO 2 injected solely for oil recovery are minimized due to the purchase cost of CO 2 . If and when CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere are managed, it will be necessary to maximize simultaneously both economic oil recovery and the volumes of CO 2 emplaced in oil reservoirs. This process is coined 'cooptimization'. This paper proposes a work flow for cooptimization of oil recovery and geologic CO 2 storage. An important component of the work flow is the assessment of uncertainty in predictions of performance. Typical methods for quantifying uncertainty employ exhaustive flow simulation of multiple stochastic realizations of the geologic architecture of a reservoir. Such approaches are computationally intensive and thereby time consuming. An analytic streamline based proxy for full reservoir simulation is proposed and tested. Streamline trajectories represent the three-dimensional velocity field during multiphase flow in porous media and so are useful for quantifying the similarity and differences among various reservoir models. The proxy allows rational selection of a representative subset of equi-probable reservoir models that encompass uncertainty with respect to true reservoir geology. The streamline approach is demonstrated to be thorough and rapid

  5. Status report. Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on a Full-Diameter SNF Interim Storage Canister Mockup.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents the mockup specifications and manufacturing processes; the initial cutting of the mockup into three cylindrical pieces for testing and the measured strain changes that occurred during the cutting process; and the planned weld residual stress characterization activities and the status of those activities.

  6. Influência do armazenamento de folhas secas no óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin Benth. Storage influence of dried leaves on patchouly (Pogostemon cablin Benth. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trícia Cavalcanti Pergentino de Sant'ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of five storage times of dry leaves of two patchouli genotypes on its essential oil content and chemical composition. Harvest was realized four months after planting. Storage influenced essential oil content of genotype POG-002. Patchoulol was the majority compound. Storage of dry leaves increased significatively the content of the compounds α-bulnesene and germacrene A of genotype POG-021 and longicanfenilone, pogostol and patchoulol of POG-002. However, storage reduced significatively the content of the compounds cicloseichelene, β-cariofilene, α-guaiene, acifilene and α-bulnesene of the essential oil of genotype POG-002.

  7. Application of Ganghwa Mugwort in Combination with Ascorbic Acid for the Reduction of Residual Nitrite in Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The application of ganghwa mugwort (GM), ascorbic acid (AC), and their combinations for reduction of residual nitrite contents was analyzed in pork sausages during storage of 28 d. Six treatments of pork sausages contained the following: Control (no antioxidant added), AC (0.05% AC), GM 0.1 (0.1% GM), GM 0.2 (0.2% GM), AC+GM 0.1 (0.05% AC + 0.1% GM) and AC+GM 0.2 (0.05% AC + 0.2% GM). Results showed that the mixture of 0.05% AC and 0.2% GM was most effective for reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and residual nitrite contents than the control and GM added sausages alone (pcolor values of all treatments were significantly affected by adding GM (either alone or with AC). Additionally, the total color difference (ΔE) and hue angle (H°) values of treatments added with GM were higher than those of the control as the amount of GM increased (p0.05). Our results showed possible applications of antioxidant combination, for preventing the lipid oxidation and decreasing the residual nitrite levels of meat products. PMID:26760936

  8. Innovative isothermal oil-free co-rotating scroll compressor–expander for energy storage with first expander tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, A.; Favrat, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Doing a new concept of small scale compressed air energy storage. • Presenting a new working process of scroll machinery. • Updating a thermodynamic model of scroll compressor that take into account water injection. • Updating a mathematical model of volumetric loses that take into account sealing effect of liquid water. • Encouraging results to investigate more deeply this new concept. - Abstract: The development of an efficient isothermal turbine and compressor is essential for the realization of a small-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article presents the theoretical development of an oil-free co-rotating scroll air compressor and turbine working with water injection to make the operations of expansion and compression as isothermal as possible. First experimental results in expander mode are shown. The theoretical performance is predicted with the help of a mathematical model using the equations of energy and mass conservation and the equation of state. This model takes into account the effects of water injection and volumetric losses. The experimental prototype is an oil-free scroll air compressor with the distinctive feature of having two mobile involutes working in synchronized co-rotation one relative to another. The prime-mover is an electric motor driving the two scrolls with two synchronizing belts. Water injection in the housing intends to provide a quasi-isothermal compression. The same device is used as an isothermal expander by supplying high-pressure air with water when it rotates backwards in expander mode, the electric motor acting then as a generator. Expected improvements to a standard scroll compressor and expander are a better volumetric efficiency and a greater power density due to a higher rotational speed of the scrolls, thanks to their symmetrical masses. The isothermal processes increase also the overall performance

  9. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  11. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  12. CO2 enhanced oil recovery and storage in the North Sea - a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckly, Andy; Hughes, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Considerable technical and economic challenges must be overcome if the potential for CO 2 injection and sequestration is to be fully realised. However, there is an opportunity to exploit the synergy between the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and the potential to use CO 2 to increase North Sea oil reserves and extend the life of the basin. This opportunity is available now, while the infrastructure remains in place

  13. Assessment of the Available Drawdowns for Oil Storage Caverns at the West Hackberry SPR Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology and Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy, in response to requests from the U.S. Congress, wishes to maintain an up-to-date table documenting the number of available full drawdowns of each of the caverns owned by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This information is important for assessing the SPR’s ability to deliver oil to domestic oil companies expeditiously if national or world events dictate a rapid sale and deployment of the oil reserves. What factors go into assessing available drawdowns? The evaluation of drawdown risks require the consideration of several factors regarding cavern and wellbore integrity and stability, including stress states caused by cavern geometry and operations, salt damage caused by dilatant and tensile stresses, the effect on enhanced creep on wellbore integrity, the sympathetic stress effect of operations on neighboring caverns. Based on the work over the past several months, a consensus has been built regarding the assessment of drawdown capabilities and risks for the SPR caverns. This paper draws upon the recently West Hackberry model upgrade and analyses to reevaluate and update the available drawdowns for each of those caverns. Similar papers for the Bryan Mound, Big Hill, and Bayou Choctaw papers will be developed as the upgrades to those analyses are completed. The rationale and documentation of the methodology is described in the remainder of this report, as are the updated estimates of available drawdowns for the West Hackberry caverns.

  14. Effect of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa L. on fresh fish (Barbus grypus fillets during storage at 2 ± 1 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine OZPOLAT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is important that the methods and materials used for to lengthen the shelf-life of food are simple, inexpensive and safe. For these reasons, herbal additives like cumin oil (Nigella sativa L. have been preferred recently. Thus, the present study focuses on the influence of black cumin oil on chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of fish (Barbus grypus fillets during storage at 2 ± 1 °C. Acceptability scores for sensory quality of all described treatment groups decreased with storage time. Defined limits for mesophilic bacteria and Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N were reached after 21st days for the control group, after 24th days for with 0.2% black cumin oil treated group and after 28th days for with 0.4% and 0.6% black cumin oil treated groups. No difference was found among groups during storage in terms of defined thiobarbituric acid (TBA values. Consequently, it was found that black cumin oil treated groups had longer shelf-life and higher sensory quality than the untreated control group.

  15. Effect of black cumin oil (Nigella sativa L. on fresh fish (Barbus grypus fillets during storage at 2 ± 1 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine OZPOLAT

    Full Text Available Abstract It is important that the methods and materials used for to lengthen the shelf-life of food are simple, inexpensive and safe. For these reasons, herbal additives like cumin oil (Nigella sativa L. have been preferred recently. Thus, the present study focuses on the influence of black cumin oil on chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of fish (Barbus grypus fillets during storage at 2 ± 1 °C. Acceptability scores for sensory quality of all described treatment groups decreased with storage time. Defined limits for mesophilic bacteria and Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N were reached after 21st days for the control group, after 24th days for with 0.2% black cumin oil treated group and after 28th days for with 0.4% and 0.6% black cumin oil treated groups. No difference was found among groups during storage in terms of defined thiobarbituric acid (TBA values. Consequently, it was found that black cumin oil treated groups had longer shelf-life and higher sensory quality than the untreated control group.

  16. The Galeta Oil Spill. III. Chronic Reoiling, Long-term Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues and Effects on Epibiota in the Mangrove Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Sally C.; Garrity, Stephen D.; Burns, Kathryn A.

    1994-04-01

    In April 1986, 75 000-100 000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil (˜ 10 000-13 500 metric tons) spilled into Bahía las Minas, a large mangrove-lined bay on the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Between 1986 and 1991, biological and chemical effects of this spill were studied. The epibiota of fringing mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle L.) were examined in three habitats: (1) the shoreward margins of reef flats that fronted the open sea, (2) the edges of channels and lagoons, and (3) the banks of streams and man-made cuts that drained interior mangroves or uplands into lagoons. Chemical analyses of bivalves collected from submerged prop roots (oysters and false mussels) and records of slicks and tarry deposits on artificial roots documented chronic reoiling. Each habitat was repeatedly oiled between 1986 and 1991, with petroleum residues identified as the oil spilled in 1986. There was a decline in the release of tarry oils recorded as slicks and on roots over time, but not in tissue burdens of hydrocarbons in bivalves. This suggested that the processes that released these different types of oil residues were at least partially independent and that toxic hydrocarbons were likely to be released from sediments over the long term. The submerged prop roots of fringing mangroves in each habitat had a characteristic epibiota. On the open coast, roots were covered with a diverse assemblage of sessile invertebrates and algae. In channels, the most abundant species on roots was the edible oyster Crassostrea virginica ( rhizophorae morph). In streams, the false mussel Mytilopsis sallei covered the most space on roots. Cover of sessile invertebrates was significantly reduced at oiled compared with unoiled sites on the open coast for 4 years after oiling, while oysters and false mussels were reduced in cover at oiled sites in channels and streams through at least 1991, when observations ended. False mussels transplanted from an unoiled stream to oiled and unoiled streams were

  17. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of a Nanoemulsion with Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae Oil by a Low-Energy/Solvent-Free Method and Evaluation of Its Preliminary Residual Larvicidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia L. M. Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Andiroba (Carapa guianensis seeds are the source of an oil with a wide range of biological activities and ethnopharmacological uses. However, few studies have devoted attention to innovative formulations, including nanoemulsions. The present study aimed to obtain a colloidal system with the andiroba oil using a low-energy and organic-solvent-free method. Moreover, the preliminary residual larvicidal activity of the nanoemulsion against Aedes aegypti was evaluated. Oleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids, in addition to the phytosterol β-sitosterol and limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids. The required hydrophile-lipophile was around 11.0 and the optimal nanoemulsion was obtained using polysorbate 85. The particle size distribution suggested the presence of small droplets (mean diameter around 150 nm and low polydispersity index (around 0.150. The effect of temperature on particle size distribution revealed that no major droplet size increase occurred. The preliminary residual larvicidal assay suggested that the mortality increased as a function of time. The present study allowed achievement of a potential bioactive oil in water nanoemulsion that may be a promising controlled release system. Moreover, the ecofriendly approach involved in the preparation associated with the great bioactive potential of C. guianensis makes this nanoemulsion very promising for valorization of this Amazon raw material.

  19. Pore Structure and Diagenetic Controls on Relative Permeability: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Cather, M.; Mozley, P.

    2016-12-01

    Multiphase flow in clay-bearing sandstones of the Morrow Sandstone governs the efficiency of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery at the Farnsworth Unit, Texas. This formation is the target for enhanced oil recovery and injection of one million metric ton of anthropogenically-sourced CO2. The sandstone hosts eight major flow units that exhibit distinct microstructural characteristics due to diagenesis, including: "clean" macro-porosity; quartz overgrowths constricting some pores; ghost grains; intergranular porosity filled by microporous authigenic clay; and feldspar dissolution. We examine the microstructural controls on macroscale (core scale) relative permeability and capillary pressure behavior through: X-ray computed tomography, Robomet.3d, and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy imaging of the pore structure of the major flow units of the Morrow Sandstone; relative permeability and capillary pressure in the laboratory using CO2, brine, and oil at reservoir pressure and effective stress conditions. The combined data sets inform links between patterns of diagenesis and multiphase flow. These data support multiphase reservoir simulation and performance assessment by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory through the SWP under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. APA-style human milk fat analogue from silkworm pupae oil: Enzymatic production and improving storage stability using alkyl caffeates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xudong; Pang, Na; Zhu, Weijie; Zhao, Xingyu; Wang, Fangqin; Wu, Fuan; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-08

    Silkworm pupae oil derived from reeling waste is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which has multipal applications. ALAs were added in sn-1, 3 positions in a triacylglycerol (TAG) to produce an APA-human milk fat analogues (APA-HMFAs, A: α-linolenic acid, P: palmitic acid). The optimum condition is that tripalmitin to free fatty acids of 1:12 (mole ratio) at 65 °C for 48 h using lipase Lipozyme RM IM. Results show that, the major TAG species that comprised APA-HMFAs were rich in ALA and palmitic acid, which contained 64.52% total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and 97.05% PA at the sn-2 position. The melting point of APA was -27.5 °C which is much lower than tripalmitin (40.5 °C) indicating more plastic character. In addition, the practical application of alkyl caffeates as liposoluble antioxidants in APA was developed. Alkyl caffeate showed a superior IC50 (1.25-1.66 μg/mL) compared to butyl hydroxy anisd (1.67 μg/mL) and L-ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (L-AP) (1.87 μg/mL) in DPPH analysis. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil achieved a higher UFAs content (73.58%) at high temperatures. Overall, APA was obtained from silkworm pupae oil successfully, and the addition of caffeates extended storage ranges for APA-HMFAs.

  1. Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

  2. Well selection in depleted oil and gas fields for a safe CO2 storage practice: A case study from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and sequestration technology is recognized as a successful approach taken to mitigate the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. However, having a successful storage practice requires wise selection of suitable wells in depleted oil or gas fields to reduce the risk of leakage and contamination of subsurface resources. The aim of this paper is to present a guideline which can be followed to provide a better understanding of sophisticated wells chosen for injection and storage practices. Reviewing recent studies carried out on different aspects of geosequestration indicated that the fracture pressure of seals and borehole conditions such as cement-sheath integrity, distance from faults and fractures together with the depth of wells are important parameters, which should be part of the analysis for well selection in depleted reservoirs. A workflow was then designed covering these aspects and it was applied to a depleted gas field in Malaysia. The results obtained indicated that Well B in the field may have the potential of being a suitable conduit for injection. Although more studies are required to consider other aspects of well selections, it is recommended to employ the formation integrity analysis as part of the caprock assessment before making any decisions.

  3. Thermophysical parameters of coconut oil and its potential application as the thermal energy storage system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Widya A.; Fahmi, Zulfikar; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    The high consumption of electric energy for room air conditioning (AC) system in Indonesia has driven the research of potential thermal energy storage system as a passive temperature controller. The application of coconut oil (CO) as the potential candidate for this purpose has been motivated since its working temperature just around the human thermal comfort zone in the tropical area as Indonesia. In this research we report the time-dependent temperature data of CO, which is adopting the T-history method. The analysis of the data revealed a set of thermophysical parameters, consist of the mean specific heats of the solid and liquid, as well as the latent heat of fusion for the phase change transition. The performance of CO to decrease the air temperature was measured in the thermal chamber. From the results it is shown that the latent phase of CO related to the solid-liquid phase transition show the highest capability in heat absorption, directly showing the potential application of CO as thermal energy storage system in Indonesia.

  4. South Louisiana Enhanced Oil Recovery/Sequestration R&D Project Small Scale Field Tests of Geologic Reservoir Classes for Geologic Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hite, Roger [Blackhorse Energy LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The project site is located in Livingston Parish, Louisiana, approximately 26 miles due east of Baton Rouge. This project proposed to evaluate an early Eocene-aged Wilcox oil reservoir for permanent storage of CO2. Blackhorse Energy, LLC planned to conduct a parallel CO2 oil recovery project in the First Wilcox Sand. The primary focus of this project was to examine and prove the suitability of South Louisiana geologic formations for large-scale geologic sequestration of CO2 in association with enhanced oil recovery applications. This was to be accomplished through the focused demonstration of small-scale, permanent storage of CO2 in the First Wilcox Sand. The project was terminated at the request of Blackhorse Energy LLC on October 22, 2014.

  5. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Reis DERCELI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate (COP10 with RelyX ARC (RX after mechanical cycling (MC and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8 according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h or 60 days (60 d, and the performance (MC+FS or not (only FS of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05. Results The obtained FS (MPa values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt% of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  6. A castor oil-containing dental luting agent: effects of cyclic loading and storage time on flexural strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derceli, Juliana Dos Reis; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi; Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Favorable results in the use of castor oil polyurethane (COP) as pulp capping, membrane material, sealer, mouthwash and in bone repair, associated with the fact that Ricinus communis is not derived from petroleum and it is abundant in Brazil, encourage researches in the development of luting agents. Objectives This study compared the flexural strength (FS) of a castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate (COP10) with RelyX ARC (RX) after mechanical cycling (MC) and distilled water storage. Material and Methods Sixty-four specimens (25x2x2 mm) were fabricated and divided into two groups, COP10 and RX (control). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=8) according to the storage time, 24 hours (24 h) or 60 days (60 d), and the performance (MC+FS) or not (only FS) of the mechanical cycling test. The FS (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min) and MC tests (10,000 cycles, 5 Hz, 0.5 mm/min) were carried out using an MTS-810 machine. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Results The obtained FS (MPa) values were: COP10 24h- 19.04±2.41; COP10 60d- 17.92±3.54; RX 24h- 75.19±3.43; RX 60d- 88.77±6.89. All the RX specimens submitted to MC fractured, while the values for COP10 after MC were as follows: COP10 24h- 17.90±1.87 and COP10 60d- 18.60±1.60. Conclusions A castor oil-containing dental luting agent with a weight percentage of 10% (wt%) of calcium carbonate is resistant to mechanical cycling without decreases in flexural strength. However, mean COP10 showed only about 25% of the RelyX ARC mean flexural strength.

  7. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Rece...

  8. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100–400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat. PMID:27338486

  9. Effect of Oregano Essential Oil (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum) on the Storage Stability and Quality Parameters of Ground Chicken Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-06-07

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of oregano essential oil on the oxidative stability and color of raw and cooked chicken breast meats. Five treatments, including (1) control (none added); (2) 100 ppm oregano essential oil; (3) 300 ppm oregano essential oil; (4) 400 ppm oregano essential oil; and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), were prepared with ground boneless, skinless chicken breast meat and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For raw meat study, samples were individually packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored in a cold room (4 °C) for 7 days. For cooked meat study, the raw meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags and then cooked in-bag to an internal temperature of 75 °C. After cooling to room temperature, the cooked meats were repackaged in new oxygen-permeable bags and then stored at 4 °C for 7 days. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, volatiles, and color at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Oregano essential oil significantly reduced (p oil at 400 ppm showed the strongest effect for all these parameters. Hexanal was the major aldehyde, which was decreased significantly (p oil treatment, in cooked meat. Overall, oregano essential oil at 100-400 ppm levels could be a good preservative that can replace the synthetic antioxidant in chicken meat.

  10. On-site monitoring of Hebei Spirit oil spill by fluorometric detection of oil residues in coastal waters off Taean, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.; Yim, U.H.; Hong, S.H.; Jung, J.H.; Won, J.; An, J.; Choi, H.W.; Shim, W.J. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Inst., Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed activities conducted to monitor a crude oil spill that contaminated over 70 km of the western Korean coastline. Contamination levels and temporal variations of dissolved and dispersed oils in sea and pore water at 40 beaches were monitored using a portable fluorimeter for 10 months after the spill. More than 980 samples from the heavily-impacted Mallipo Beach area were analyzed. The analysis showed that oil concentrations in the sea water were as high as 16,600 {mu}g/L directly after the spill, and decreased to below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 {mu}g/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. However, the oil content in pore water remained high, with levels of up to 2,320 {mu}g/L for the first few months following the spill. Higher oil contamination levels were observed at some sites for up to 10 months after the spill. Results of the study suggested that oil in pore water persisted in confined areas along the coastline. Results from the fluorescence detection technique were then compared with traditional gas chromatography (GC) techniques of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. It was concluded that fluorescence detection was capable of generating accurate results more quickly and cost-effectively than traditional GC techniques. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Evaluation of the toxicity of the weathered crude oil used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE) and the resultant burn residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Li, K.; Fingas, M.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity of the weathered crude oil Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend (ASMB) used at the Newfoundland Offshore Burn Experiment (NOBE), and the resultant burn residue was evaluated using the newly developed Environment Canada water-accomodated fraction (WAF) method and exposure protocol. Rainbow trout, three-spine stickleback and gametes of sea urchins were exposed to saltwater WAF prepared from both weathered ASMB and burn residue. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry headspace analysis of 28 analytes showed low levels of volatile hydrocarbons after 96 hours of exposure (except for sea urchins, in which case the test was only 20 minutes in duration). All samples were found to be not toxic to all species tested. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Effect of the heating rate on residual thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of a high-strength concrete in the context of nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, C.; Pin, M.; Ranc, G.; Rodrigues, S.

    2003-01-01

    Concrete is likely to be used in massive structures for nuclear waste long-term storage facilities in France. In the framework of vitrified waste and spent fuel management, these structures could be submitted to high temperatures. In standard conditions, ambient temperature should not exceed 60 degC but in case of failure of a cooling system, concretes could be temporarily exposed to temperatures up to 250 degC. Depending on the temperature rise kinetics, concretes could be damaged to a greater or lesser extent. In this context, an experimental study on the effect of heating rate on concrete thermo-hydro-mechanical properties exposed to high temperatures (110 - 250 degC) was carried out at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Data analysis and interpretation provided enough arguments to conclude that, at local scale, the impact of heating rate on residual properties was real though relatively limited. (author)

  13. Methods for storage and disposal of residues from wastewater treatment of former uranium mining and milling facilities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, J; Weiss, D [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Berlin (Germany); Kiessig, G [WISMUTGmbH, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    In connection with the flooding of uranium mines in Saxony and Thuringia, there are contaminated pit waters that must be purified before discharge into surface waters. The expected duration of the water purification process until concentrations of natural radionuclides, various heavy metals and arsenic are low enough to allow direct discharge into surface waters amounts to decades . To prevent or minimize the leaching of the contaminants from the sludge of the water treatment in the long term, the contaminants are either transformed into chemical compounds of low solubility or affixed within ion exchange resins. Due to the accumulation of those contaminants during the water processing procedure, the residua must be disposed of for reasons of radiation protection and waste management. A final storage of the residua in accord with nuclear regulatory stipulations is unnecessary because of the contamination levels and also because of the mining origin. The method of residua-storage chosen to be best suited to a particular site has to be based on costs-to-benefit analyses, giving due consideration to the different aspects e.g. radiation and environmental protection, long term safety, form of immobilization, site specific conditions. These methods will be described and illustrated using specific examples of applications. (author)

  14. Methods for storage and disposal of residues from wastewater treatment of former uranium mining and milling facilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, J.; Weiss, D.; Kiessig, G.

    2002-01-01

    In connection with the flooding of uranium mines in Saxony and Thuringia, there are contaminated pit waters that must be purified before discharge into surface waters. The expected duration of the water purification process until concentrations of natural radionuclides, various heavy metals and arsenic are low enough to allow direct discharge into surface waters amounts to decades . To prevent or minimize the leaching of the contaminants from the sludge of the water treatment in the long term, the contaminants are either transformed into chemical compounds of low solubility or affixed within ion exchange resins. Due to the accumulation of those contaminants during the water processing procedure, the residua must be disposed of for reasons of radiation protection and waste management. A final storage of the residua in accord with nuclear regulatory stipulations is unnecessary because of the contamination levels and also because of the mining origin. The method of residua-storage chosen to be best suited to a particular site has to be based on costs-to-benefit analyses, giving due consideration to the different aspects e.g. radiation and environmental protection, long term safety, form of immobilization, site specific conditions. These methods will be described and illustrated using specific examples of applications. (author)

  15. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-05-15

    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  16. Alginate edible films containing microencapsulated lemongrass oil or citral: effect of encapsulating agent and storage time on physical and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Moyano, Jessica K; Bustos, Rubén O; Herrera, María Lidia; Matiacevich, Silvia B

    2017-08-01

    Active edible films have been proposed as an alternative to extend shelf life of fresh foods. Most essential oils have antimicrobial properties; however, storage conditions could reduce their activity. To avoid this effect the essential oil (EO) can be microencapsulated prior to film casting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the type of encapsulating agent (EA), type of EO and storage time on physical properties and antimicrobial activity of alginate-based films against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Trehalose (TH), Capsul ® (CAP) and Tween 20 (Tw20) were used as EA. Lemongrass essential oil (LMO) and citral were used as active agents. The results showed that the type of EA affected the stability of the film forming-emulsions as well as the changes in opacity and colour of the films during storage but not the antimicrobial activity of them. Both microencapsulated EOs showed a prolonged release from the alginate films during the 28 days of storage. Trehalose was selected to encapsulate both active compounds because the films made with this microencapsulated EA showed the greatest physical stability and the lowest color variation among all the films studied.

  17. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki, E-mail: ebitani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Miyazato, Akio [Nanotechnology Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  19. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki; Miyazato, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H 2 O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, 13 C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously

  20. The Application of Active Paper Incorporated with Oleoresin of Cinnamon Leaf (Cinnamomum burmanii) Distillation Residues on Maintaining Dragon Fruits (Hylocereus costaricensis) Quality during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M. S. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active paper placement methods on super red dragon fruits quality during storage at ambient temperature. The active papers were incorporated with oleoresin of cinnamon leaf distillation residues. Various active paper placement methods were applied such as wrapping, placed on the cardboard wall, placed cardboard pad, and scrap of paper on the sidelines. Weight loss, peel color, surface and flesh hardness, total titratable acid, soluble solid total, pH flesh fruit, and total plate count (TPC) of super red dragon fruits samples were investigated during 9 days storage. The result shows that active paper placement methods significantly affected the weight loss, surface firmness and color peel change of super red dragon fruits samples. However, active paper placement methods insignificantly affected the titrable acid total, soluble solid total, pH, flesh firmness and microbial spoilage of super red dragon fruits samples. The best method to maintain the super red dragon fruits quality was wrapping method.

  1. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  3. The atomization and the flame structure in the combustion of residual fuel oils; La atomizacion y estructura de flama en la combustion de combustibles residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado Estandia, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    In this article a research on the combustion of heavy residual fuel oils is presented. The type of flames studied were obtained by means of the burning of sprays produced by an atomizer designed and calibrated specially for the research purpose. The flame characteristics that were analyzed are its length, its luminosity, the temperature, the distribution of the droplets size and mainly the burning regime of the droplets in the flame. The experimental techniques that were used for these studies were shadow micro-photography, suction pyrometry and of total radiation, laser diffraction, 35 mm photography, and impact push. The analysis of the experimental results, together with the results of the application of a mathematical model, permitted to establish two parameters, that quantitatively related determine the burning regime of the droplets in a flame of sprays of residual heavy fuel oil. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una investigacion sobre la combustion de combustibles residuales pesados. El tipo de flamas estudiadas se obtuvieron mediante el quemado de sprays producidos por un atomizador disenado y calibrado especialmente para el proposito de la investigacion. Las caracteristicas de flama que se analizaron son la longitud, la luminosidad, la temperatura, la distribucion de tamano de gotas y, principalmente, el regimen de quemado de gotas en la flama. Las tecnicas experimentales que se usaron para estos estudios fueron microfotografia de sombras, pirometria de succion y de radiacion total, difraccion laser, fotografia de 35 mm y empuje de impacto. El analisis de resultados experimentales, junto con los resultados de la aplicacion de un modelo matematico, permitio establecer dos parametros, que relacionados cuantitativamente, determinan el regimen de quemado de gotas en una flama de sprays de combustible residual pesado.

  4. Pyrolysis thermocatalytic of the residues generated in the process of oil refining; Pirolise termocatalitica de residuos gerados no processo de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Regineide Oliveira; Castro, Kesia Kelly Vieira de; Lima, Cicero de Souza; Araujo, Aruzza Mabel de Morais; Silva, Edjane Fabiula Buriti da; Araujo, Antonio Souza de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The pyrolysis process is a catalytic thermal defined as the degradation of waste which occurs by the action of temperature and presence of catalysts. Thus promoting disruption of the original molecular structure of a given compound by the catalytic action in an environment with little or no oxygen. Investigations have been developed in the pyrolysis due to be a promising technique, due to the application of catalytic materials. In this work, the catalyst used Al/MCM-41 was synthesized in a ratio Si / Al = 50 by the hydrothermal method. Being in this promising oil industry because of their structural characteristics. This material was characterized by XRD analysis, which was observed three major peaks typical of mesoporous materials. The analysis of the adsorption / desorption of nitrogen this material was performed to determine the textural parameters, which are peculiar to the mesoporous materials. The residue samples were characterized with a view to meet some properties such as through elemental analysis of the compounds and saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes. The pyrolysis reaction system catalytic thermal residue is mounted to test the pyrolysis of residue pure and the Al-MCM-41. For both pyrolysis liquid fractions were obtained, gaseous and solid. And only the liquid fractions were characterized by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Thus, there was an increase in the range hydrocarbons (C6-C12 and C13-C17) for products obtained from the pyrolysis catalyst. (author)

  5. Tailoring diffraction technique Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-can oiled 304 stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P.; Anis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tailoring of diffraction technique-Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates assuming the material is isotopic, the residual stress measurements using X-ray powder diffraction is just performed for a plane lying in a large angle. For anisotropic materials, the real measurements will not be represented by the methods. By Utilizing of all diffraction peaks in the observation region, tailoring diffraction technique-Rietveld analysis is able to cover the limitations. The residual stress measurement using X-ray powder diffraction tailored by Rietveld method, in a series of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates deforming; 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175, and 196 % reduction in thickness, have been reported. The diffraction data were analyzed by using Rietveld structure refinement method. Also, for all cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates cuplikans, the diffraction peaks are broader than the uncanailed one, indicating that the strains in these cuplikans are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was calculated. Finally, the average residual stresses in cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates were shown to be a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of martensite particles and austenite matrix. The average residual stresses were evaluated from the experimentally determined average lattice strains in each phase. It was found the tensile residual stress in a cuplikan was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a cuplikan reducing 34% in thickness and minimum for a 196% cuplikan

  6. Effects of plant polyphenols and a-tocopherol on lipid oxidation, residual nitrites, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines formation during ripening and storage of dry-cured bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of plant polyphenols (green tea polyphenols (GTP) and grape seed extract (GSE) and a-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, lipid oxidation, residual nitrite, microbiological counts, biogenic amines, and N-nitrosamines were determined in bacons during dry-curing and storage. Results show ...

  7. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande

    2015-01-01

    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  8. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  9. The Effect of Edible Coating Enriched With Kaffir Lime Leaf Essential Oil (Citrus hystrix DC) on Beef Sausage Quality During Frozen Storage (-18°±2°C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, R.; Kawiji; Khasanah, L. U.; Solikhah, R.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of edible coating enriched with kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) leaves essential oil at various concentration on beef sausage quality during frozen storage (-18°±2°C). The concentration of kaffir lime leaves essential oil enriched in edible coating were varied at 0%; 0.2%; 1.4%. Microbiological, physical and chemical characteristics (TPC, color, TBA, TVB, and pH) were investigated at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of storage. The result showed that edible coating with the addition of kaffir lime leaves essential oils decreased the microbial growth, TVB value, and TBA value of beef sausage. The color and pH of samples can be stabilized during storage. The selected kaffir lime leaves essential oil concentrations based on microbial, physical, and chemical characteristics of beef sausages during frozen storage at -18°C was 0.2%.

  10. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  11. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  12. Assessment of bioethanol yield by S. cerevisiae grown on oil palm residues: Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Dinie Muhaimin; Mat Don, Mashitah

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm trunk (OPT) sap was utilized for growth and bioethanol production by Saccharomycescerevisiae with addition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as nutrients supplier. Maximum yield (YP/S) was attained at 0.464g bioethanol/g glucose presence in the OPT sap-POME-based media. However, OPT sap and POME are heterogeneous in properties and fermentation performance might change if it is repeated. Contribution of parametric uncertainty analysis on bioethanol fermentation performance was then assessed using Monte Carlo simulation (stochastic variable) to determine probability distributions due to fluctuation and variation of kinetic model parameters. Results showed that based on 100,000 samples tested, the yield (YP/S) ranged 0.423-0.501g/g. Sensitivity analysis was also done to evaluate the impact of each kinetic parameter on the fermentation performance. It is found that bioethanol fermentation highly depend on growth of the tested yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis (L. on rooster sperm motility during 4°C short-term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Touazi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (L. essential oil on rooster sperm motility during 4°C short-term storage. Materials and Methods: R. officinalis essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify the active components. 10 of 45-week-old Hubbard commercial broilers were subjected to biweekly semen collections during 3 weeks. At each collection, sperm was pooled and divided into four aliquots and then diluted with Tris extender supplemented with 870, 87, or 8.7 μg/ml of R. officinalis essential oil, identified as treatments R, R5, and R10, respectively. Tris-based extender without any supplementation was considered as a control group. Diluted sperm was then stored at 4°C in the refrigerator and analyzed at 0, 6, 24, and 48 h using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Different semen parameters were measured including total motility, progressive motility, gametes velocities (straight line velocity [VSL], curvilinear velocity [VCL], and average path velocity [VAP], amplitude of the lateral head displacement [ALH], and beat-cross frequency [BCF]. Results: The phytochemical analysis of R. officinalis essential oil revealed the presence of 25 active components including seven major molecules: Camphor (18.88%, camphene (5.17%, 1,8-cineole (7.85%, β-thujene (13.66%, α-thujene (4.87%, chrysanthenone (12.05%, and β-cubenene (7.97%. The results showed a beneficial effect of R. officinalis essential oil on sperm cells motility, particularly when using the lowest concentrations, 8.7 and 87 μg/ml. Progressive motility and gametes velocities (VCL, VSL, and VAP, materializing the quality of gametes motility, showed highly statistically significant values (p<0.01 in 8.7 and 87 μg/ml treatments, especially from 6 h of storage at 4°C. Conversely, the highest concentration (870 μg/ml showed harmful effects with a total spermicidal activity after 24 h of storage

  14. Exploration of a mechanism for the production of highly unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. at low temperature grown on oil crop residue based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Kun; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-11-01

    The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells. A mechanism was proposed and tested through simulation experiments which quantified the carbon flux allocation in algal cells at different cultivation stages. It is concluded that low culture temperature such as 10°C is suitable for the production of lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  16. An improved crude oil atmospheric distillation process for energy integration: Part II: New approach for energy saving by use of residual heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benali, Tahar; Tondeur, Daniel; Jaubert, Jean Noël

    2012-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, it was shown on thermodynamic grounds that introducing a flash in the preheating train of an atmospheric oil distillation process, together with an appropriate introduction of the resulting vapour into the column, could potentially bring substantial energy savings, by reducing the duty of the preheating furnace, by doing some pre-fractionation and by reducing the column irreversibilities. Part II expands on this idea by showing how this can be done while keeping the throughput and the product characteristics unchanged. The outcome is that placing several flashes after the heat exchangers and feeding the corresponding vapour streams to the appropriate trays of the column reduces the pumparound flows and the heat brought to the preheating train. The resulting heat deficit may then be compensated in an additional heat exchanger by using low level heat recuperated from the products of the distillation and/or imported from other processes. The use of this residual heat reduces the furnace duty by approximately an equivalent amount. Thus high level energy (fuel-gas burnt in the furnace) is replaced by residual low level heat. The simulation with an example flowsheet shows that the savings on fuel could be as high as 21%. - Highlights: ► Flash installation in the preheating train of the crude oil distillation process. ► Pumparound streams and heat sent to the preheating train are reduced. ► A high level heat deficit is induced and replaced by low level heat. ► Considerable energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions are achieved.

  17. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery.

  18. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  19. Total sulfur determination in residues of crude oil distillation using FT-IR/ATR and variable selection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Mello, Paola de Azevedo; Ferrão, Marco Flores; dos Santos, Maria de Fátima Pereira; Guimarães, Regina Célia Lourenço; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Total sulfur concentration was determined in atmospheric residue (AR) and vacuum residue (VR) samples obtained from petroleum distillation process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) in association with chemometric methods. Calibration and prediction set consisted of 40 and 20 samples, respectively. Calibration models were developed using two variable selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS). Different treatments and pre-processing steps were also evaluated for the development of models. The pre-treatment based on multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and the mean centered data were selected for models construction. The use of siPLS as variable selection method provided a model with root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values significantly better than those obtained by PLS model using all variables. The best model was obtained using siPLS algorithm with spectra divided in 20 intervals and combinations of 3 intervals (911-824, 823-736 and 737-650 cm-1). This model produced a RMSECV of 400 mg kg-1 S and RMSEP of 420 mg kg-1 S, showing a correlation coefficient of 0.990.

  20. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  1. Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Illicium difengpi Stem Bark and Its Constituent Compounds Towards Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool...

  2. A multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction method for the determination of halogenated solvent residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, J; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L; González, A G

    2014-02-01

    The present paper describes a method based on the extraction of analytes by multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction and detection by ion-trap mass spectrometry and electron capture detectors after gas chromatographic separation. The limits of detection are in the range of 0.13-0.67 μg kg(-1), five orders of magnitude lower than those reached with the European Commission Official method of analysis, with three orders of magnitude of linear range (from the quantification limits to 400 μg kg(-1) for all the analytes) and recoveries in fortified olive oils in the range of 78-104 %. The main advantages of the analytical method are the absence of sample carryover (due to the disposable nature of the membranes), high enrichment factors in the range of 79-488, high throughput and low cost. The repeatability of the analytical method ranged from 8 to 15 % for all the analytes, showing a good performance.

  3. STABILITAS OKSIDATIF MINYAK BIJI KENARI (Canarium indicum DAN Canarium vulgare SELAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA SUHU 30 DAN 40°C [Oxidative Stability of Canarium Nut (Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare Oil during Storage at 30 and 40°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartati Djarkasi1

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to study the effect of temperature and storage on the oxidative stability of crude and refined canarium nut oil extracted from the seeds of Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare. The experiment was designed to include storage of two type of canarium nut oil at two different temperatures for up to 35 days. The oils (crude and refined used had the similar condition. Parameter used for oxidative deterioration indicators were two peroxide value, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and free fatty acid value. The result showed that refining oil can decrease component natural antioxidant of canarium oil cause more sensitive to the oxidation. Increased storage temperature can raise oxidation of crude and refined oils from both species Canarium. The peroxide values of crude and refined oils both Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored at 30 °C were 2.17, 4.35, 3.36 and 3.77 meq O2/kg oil, respectively. When they were stored at 4C the similar results were 6.21, 19.09, 8.12 and 17.23 meq O2/kg oil. Furthermore, TBARS value of crude and refined oils both for Canarium indicum and Canarium vulgare stored 30C were 4.55, 7.78, 5.70 and 6.58 µmol MDA/kg oil. When they were stored at 40 °C the similar results were 9.99, 55.46, 12.46 and 43.62 µmol MDA/kg oil.

  4. Justification of parameters and selection of equipment for laboratory researches of a rammer's operating element dynamics in a soil foundation of a tank for oil and oil products storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzin, A. V.; Gruzin, V. V.; Shalay, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The development of technology for a directional soil compaction of tank foundations for oil and oil products storage is a relevant problem which solution will enable simultaneously provide required operational characteristics of a soil foundation and reduce time and material costs to prepare the foundation. The impact dynamics of rammers' operating elements on the soil foundation is planned to specify in the course of laboratory studies. A specialized technique is developed to justify the parameters and select the equipment for laboratory researches. The usage of this technique enabled us to calculate dimensions of the models, of a test bench and specifications of the recording equipment, and a lighting system. The necessary equipment for laboratory studies was selected. Preliminary laboratory tests were carried out. The estimate of accuracy for planned laboratory studies was given.

  5. Antimicrobial Activities of the Combined Use of Cuminum Cyminum L. Essential Oil, Nisin and Storage Temperature Against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Mashak, Zohreh; Moradi, Bizhan; Sodagari, Hamid Reza

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne diseases are considered as major health problems in different countries. Concerns over the safety of some chemical preservatives and negative consumer reactions to them have prompted interest in natural alternatives for the maintenance or extension of food shelf life. In this respect, the combination of a plant essential oil and nisin has used for controlling the growth of foodborne pathogens as natural food preservative using the mathematical model. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (0, 15, 30 and 45 µL/100 mL) and nisin (0, 0.5 and 1.5 µg/mL) combination at different temperatures (10, 25 and 35°C) on growth of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in the Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth model. The concentrations of 0 µL/100 mL for essential oil and 0 µg/mL for nisin imply the negative control. A multivariate variance experiment was performed. To assess the effect of essential oil, nisin and the incubation temperature on growth probability (log P%) of S. typhimurium and S. aureus, four concentrations of C. cyminum L. essential oil (0, 15, 30 and 45 µL/100 mL), three concentrations of nisin (0, 0.5 and 1.5 µg/mL) and three storage temperatures (10, 25 and 35°C) were considered. The growth of S. typhimurium was significantly decreased by the concentration of essential oil ≥ 30 µL/100 mL in combination with nisin ≥ 0.5 µg/mL at temperature = 10°C (P essential oil ≥ 15 µL/100 mL and nisin ≥ 0.5 µg/mL at temperature ≤ 25°C, the growth of S. aureus was significantly reduced (P essential oil and nisin inhibits the growth of S. typhimurium and S. aureus bacteria and there is the possibility of using them as substitutes for chemical food preservatives. Moreover, the model (log P%) in this study can be a good tool for the reduction of microbiological hazards in food industry.

  6. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Two schemes for production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01: Applying residues from soybean oil industry and silica sol-gel immobilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Lotfabad, Tayebe; Ebadipour, Negisa; Roostaazad, Reza; Partovi, Maryam; Bahmaei, Manochehr

    2017-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are the most common biosurfactants and P. aeruginosa strains are the most frequently studied microorganisms for the production of rhamnolipids. Eco-friendly advantages and promising applications of rhamnolipids in various industries are the major reasons for pursuing the economic production of these biosurfactants. This study shows that cultivation of P. aeruginosa MR01 in medium contained inexpensive soybean oil refinery wastes which exhibited similar levels and homologues of rhamnolipids. Mass spectrometry indicated that the Rha-C10-C10 and Rha-Rha-C10-C10 constitute the main rhamnolipids in different cultures of MR01 including one of oil carbon source analogues. Moreover, rhamnolipid mixtures extracted from different cultures showed critical micelle concentrations (CMC) in the range of ≃24 to ≃36mg/l with capability to reduce the surface tension of aqueous solution from 72 to ≃27-32mN/m. However, the sol-gel technique using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a gentler method in order to entrap the P. aeruginosa MR01 cells in mold silica gels. Immobilized cells can be utilized several times in consecutive fermentation batches as well as in flow fermentation processes. In this way, reusability of the cells may lead to a more economical fermentation process. Approximately 90% of cell viability was retained during the silica sol-gel immobilization and ≃84% of viability of immobilized cells was preserved for 365days of immobilization and storage of the cells in phosphate buffer at 4°C and 25°C. Moreover, mold gels showed good mechanical stability during the seven successive fermentation batches and the entrapped cells were able to efficiently preserve their biosurfactant-producing potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of inoculum source and co-digestion strategies on anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Dolores; Martín-Marroquín, Jesús M

    2014-09-01

    This work aims at selecting a suitable strategy to improve the performance of the anaerobic digestion of residues generated in the treatment of waste vegetable oils (WVO). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays were conducted at 35 °C to evaluate the effects of substrate mix ratio between a mixture of WVO residues (M) and pig manure (PM) co-digesting by using different inocula. Inoculum from an industrial digester fed with organic waste from hotels, restaurants and catering leftovers (HORECA) showed higher methanogenic activity (55.5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)) than municipal wastewater treatment plant (mWWTP) inoculum (42.6 mL CH4 gVS(-1) d(-1)). Furthermore, the results showed that the resistance to WVO residues toxicity was higher for the HORECA sludge than for the mWWTP sludge. HORECA inoculum produced more biogas in all the assays. Moreover, the resulting biogas was of better quality, containing an average of 71.1% (SD = 1.6) methane compared to an average of 69.5% (SD = 1.2) methane for test with mWWTP sludge. The maximum degradation rate occurred at the higher PM mix ratio (M/PM:1/3), reaching 26.7 ± 4.3 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) for mWWTP inoculum, versus 42.0 ± 1,5 mLCH4 gVS(-1) d(-1) achieved for HORECA inoculum. A high reduction of volatile solids (between 70% and 81%) was obtained with both inocula at all M/PM ratios assayed (1/0, 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 v/v) but, bearing in mind the operation of a full-scale anaerobic plant, the optimal scenario assayed corresponds to the ratio M/PM: 1/3 v/v where shorter lag periods will make it possible to operate at lower hydraulic retention times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Change on storage quality of edible oil in different specification of tank%不同规格罐体内食用植物油储存品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽琼; 朱启思; 吴秋婷; 曾彩虹; 邓常继

    2015-01-01

    The related indicators of edible oil quality during storage were monitored to compare the change of the oil quality,including peanut oil,soybean oil,rapeseed oil,stored in non -standard oil tank with standard oil tank.The results showed that the quality of peanut oil stored in non -standard tank was bet-ter than stored in standard tank.With stored in non -standard tank,the quality of soybean oil and rape-seed oil,was better than peanut oil.%监测食用油储存期间相关指标,对存放在标准油罐与非标油罐花生油的品质变化进行研究,非标罐中花生油、大豆油、油菜籽油的品质变化进行比较。结果表明非标准油罐存放的花生油品质好于标准罐存放;同是非标油罐存放,大豆油和油菜籽油储存品质优于花生油储存品质。

  10. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra FAKHAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  11. Efficacy of chemically characterized Foeniculum vulgare Mill seed essential oil in protection of raw tobacco leaves during storage against fungal and aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, A; Dwivedy, A K; Pandey, A K; Kumar, R R; Regmi, P; Dubey, N K

    2015-10-01

    To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and the potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant-based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their toxigenicity. Both in vivo and in vitro tests were done to evaluate antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of chemically characterized EO. The mycoflora analysis revealed 108 fungal colonies belonging to five genera and nine species. All A. flavus isolates were found aflatoxigenic during screening. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of EO identified 19 components (99·66%); estragole being the major component (47·49%). The EO showed broad fungitoxicity at 1·25 μl ml(-1) and 100% inhibition to AFB1 production as well as ergosterol synthesis at 1·0 μl ml(-1) concentration. EO showed 100% protection of stored tobacco samples from aflatoxin B1 contamination. The fennel EO can thus be formulated as a plant-based preservative for food items. The present investigation comprises the first report on antiaflatoxin efficacy of fennel oil and its potency in the protection of tobacco leaves from fungal and aflatoxin contamination during storage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Integrated project: Microbiological and physiological studies on the presence of residual concentrations in mineral-oil-contaminated soils after rehabilitation. Final report. Pt. 2; Mikrobiologische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Restkonzentration bei der Sanierung mineraloelkontaminierter Boeden. Abschlussbericht. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miethe, D.; Riis, V.; Stimming, M.

    1996-01-04

    It has been known for a long time that microorganisms are able to utilise mineral oils. Today various methods are practised which exploit autochthonous microorganisms` ability to utilise mineral oils. The main problem of microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons is that mineral oil residues remain. The aim of the present research project was therefore to determine the limits of the metabolisability of the substrate and find out why residues remain. Mineral oils and residual fractions differ markedly in their decomposability. Intermediate distillates are easily decomposed to a degree of 95-97% by well-adapted consorts. For high-boiling mineral oils (bp>400 C) the degree of decomposition is approx. 60%. Extracts from contaminated sites range from 40 to 60% in their degree of decomposability. The incomplete microbial decomposition of mineral oils is mainly due to their structure. There remain chemically and thermally extremely, inert hydrocarbons (mainly aliphatic and aromatic fused-ring systems) which are either hardly metabolisable or not at all. An important factor in soils or at other contaminated sites is that some of the substrate is not available because it is bound to the matrix thus increasing the proportion of residue. The next task after examining and presenting the causes of incomplete decomposition is to minimise residual mineral oil concentrations remaining after microbial decomposition. Here the use of special surfactants or of auxiliary substrates could point a way. Project applications to this end have already been submitted to the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dass Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, Mineraloele zu verwerten, ist seit langem bekannt. Verfahren, die das Potential autochthoner Mikroorganismen zur Verwertung von Mineraloelen nutzen sind Praxis. Hauptproblem beim mikrobiellen Abbau der Kohlenwasserstoffe ist das Verbleiben von Mineraloelresten. Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Ermittlung der Grenzen

  13. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Residue determination and levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with oil palm plantation in Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Levels of glyphosate and its main metabolite were determined in surface water, soil and sediment samples from an oil palm plantation area located at Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. The optimization analytical method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate herbicide and its metabolite amino-methyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) in surface waters to a level of 0.1μg/L, while in sediments and soils to a level of 0.5μg/g with a good linearity in the calibration range of 1-100μg/L. The procedure involves a pre-columnderivatization step with 9-fluorenyl-methyl-chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) yielding highly fluorescent derivatives of the analytes which can be determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. In the field, levels of glyphosate in surface waters ranges from not detected to 1.0mg/L, while in soils and sediments were from not detected to 6.0mg/kg. For AMPA, the residues in surface waters were between not detected to 2.0mg/L, while in soil and sediment samples were from not detected to 5mg/kg. This variation of glyphosate and AMPA levels depended directly on time of pesticide application and the season.

  15. Influence of soybean storage conditions on crude oil quality Influência das condições de armazenagem da soja na qualidade do óleo bruto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernandes R. de Alencar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the quality of crude oil from soybeans stored under different conditions. The grains were harvested at 18% (w.b. moisture content (m.c., and after drying to 11.2, 12.8 and 14.8% they were stored at 20, 30 or 40 ºC. Changes in free fatty acid (FFA content, peroxide, iodine and photometric color index of the extracted oil were determined at 45-day intervals for 180-day storage. In general, oil FFA content increased in all the samples, except in grains at 11.2% m.c. and stored at 20 ºC. The peroxide and photometric color index increased significantly, independently of storage conditions; however, the increase was more accentuated in oil extracted of stored grains at high m.c. and temperature. It was concluded that crude oil quality is not affected during 6-month storage of soybeans up to 15.0% m.c. (w.b. at 20 ºC, and for storage at 30 ºC, the grain moisture up to 13% maintains oil quality within the Brazilian market standards.Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a qualidade do óleo bruto extraído dos grãos de soja armazenados em diferentes condições. Grãos de soja foram colhidos com aproximadamente 18,0% de teor de água (b.u. e, após secados até 11,2, 12,8 e 14,8% b.u., armazenados a 20, 30 e 40 ºC. A cada 45 dias até 180 dias de armazenamento, foram determinados o teor de ácidos graxos livres, o índice de peróxido, o índice de iodo e o índice fotométrico de cor do óleo bruto. Em geral, o percentual de ácidos graxos livres aumentou, exceto no óleo extraído dos grãos armazenados com 11,2% a 20 ºC. O índice de peróxido e o índice fotométrico de cor do óleo aumentaram significativamente em todas as condições de armazenagem; entretanto, este comportamento foi mais acentuado no óleo extraído dos grãos armazenados com maior teor de água e temperatura mais elevada. Pode-se concluir, com base nos resultados, que é possível armazenar grãos de soja com teor de água de até 15,0% (b

  16. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    of cowpea cv. Sempre Verde were impregnated with these oils in glass recipients and submitted to manual agitation for two minutes. Each plot of 20g was infested with eight females of C. maculatus up to 48 hours old, during four days. The oil efficiency was evaluated right after the impregnation and after 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. In the first evaluation, all essential oils caused 100% of mortality and the fixed oils caused low mortality, varying from 35% (G. hirsutum to 67,5% (G. max. With longer storage period, there was an increase in the number of viable eggs and emerged insects, except for P. aduncum. Among the fixed oils, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum and C. brasiliense were the most efficient up to 30 days of storage. The results showed the low residual effect of the tested oils for the control of C. maculatus, excep P. aduncum, which was efficient throughout the 120 days of storage.

  17. European model code of safe practice for the prevention of ground and surface water pollution by oil from storage tanks and during the transport of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The code outlines general requirements for pollution prevention and provides guidelines for corrosion protection of mild steel tanks, pipe and fitting assemblies, and for storage tank installations. The transportation and delivery of petroleum fuels are discussed, and operating procedures are suggested.

  18. Studies on the effects of storage stability of bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum deoiled seed cake on the performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-04-19

    The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics. The bio-oil is produced in a fixed bed reactor at 500 °C under the constant heating rate of 30 °C/min. All the stability analysis methods involve an accelerated aging procedure based on standards established by ASTM (D5304 and E2009) and European standard (EN 14112). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to analytically characterize the unaged and aged bio-oil samples. The results clearly depict that stabilizing Calophyllum inophyllum bio-oil with 10% (w/w) methanol improved its stability than that of the unstabilized sample thereby reducing the aging rate of bio-oil to 0.04 and 0.13 cst/h for thermal and oxidative aging respectively. Engine testing of the bio-oil sample revealed that aged bio-oil samples deteriorated engine performance and increased emission levels at the exhaust. The oxidatively aged sample showed the lowest BTE (24.41%), the highest BSEC (20.14 MJ/kWh), CO (1.51%), HC (132 ppm), NOx (1098 ppm) and smoke opacity (34.8%).

  19. Use of egg white protein powder based films fortified with sage and lemon balm essential oils in the storage of lor cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible film was produced by adding 3 % sorbitol (w/v to egg white protein powder (EWPP. The first group of lor cheese samples was coated with a film fortified by sage essential oil (SEO and the second group of samples was coated with films enriched by adding lemon balm essential oil (BEO at various concentrations [0.5 %, 1 %, 2 % (v/v]. The films were labeled as EWPPSEO(0.5, EWPPSEO(1, EWPPSEO(2, EWPPBEO(0.5, EWPPBEO(1, EWPPBEO(2 to indicate the type and the concentration of the additive. The third batch of the lor cheese samples was coated exclusively with non-fortified EWPP and the fourth batch was uncoated. All of the cheese samples were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Viable cell counts of these species, yeasts and moulds were determined after the cheese production. All the samples were stored at +4 °C. Their physicochemical and microbiological properties were examined on the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th day of the storage. Thereat significant (P0.05. Physicochemical and antibacterial properties were more significant in SEO at all concentrations compared to BEO. However, the antifungal effect of BEO was higher than that of SEO. The antifungal effect of BEO was the same at 1 % (v/v and 2 % (v/v concentrations. E. coli O157:H7 was the most resistant microorganism to the essential oils while L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive. EWPP showed a bacteriostatic effect on the microorganisms and bactericidal effects were determined on the 30th day of the storage against L. monocytogenes and yeast-moulds.

  20. Earthquake and welded structures 5: Earthquake damages and anti-earthquake measures of oil storage tanks; 5 kikenbutsu chozo tank no jishin higai to taishin taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, K. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    The result of field investigation carried out on the state of damages of 236 hazardous material storage tanks out of 687 caused by the Hyogoken Nambu Earthquake in 1995 is introduced together with the cases of damage and the description of the countermeasures. The events of inclination and settlement of tank bodies were confirmed in 44% among those investigated in particular with tanks having a capacity of less than 1000kl and as for the basement and ground settlement, the fact that sand spouted as a result of their fluidization was witnessed as much as 81% among those investigated and the area surrounding tanks was roughly agreed with the area where ground crack appeared. A great number of other damages such as cracking of preventive seals against rain water, breakdown of oil defense banks and so forth were also confirmed. In the latter half of the report, aseismatic standards of old and new regulations as well as on the new criterion concerning the outdoor storage tank body, its basement and ground are tabulated and 4 items of anti-earthquake measures such as the final structural check up with regard to an earthquake exceeding the designed permissible stress, consolidation of tank body structure on the basis of the revised seismic coefficient method, assurance of the steadfast basement, prevention of the elevated platform from falling down and strengthening of water-proof seals and oil defense banks are enumerated in accordance with the report of investigation and examination on the resistibility of hazardous material storage equipment against the earthquake. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  2. Composite reinforced alumina ceramics with titan and lantana for use in coating storage tanks and transport of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, C.E.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Oliveira, J.C.S.; Ferreira, R.A. Sanguinetti; Yadava, Y.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to use ceramics to improve the performance of the tanks that store and transport crude oil and which use metallic materials for their manufacture. These tanks in contact with crude oil undergo a process of degradation on their surfaces, since crude oil is a highly corrosive substance. And in turn ceramic materials have good stability in hostile environments. However, they are inherently fragile for display little plastic deformation. Therefore, the choice of a ceramic composite alumina-titania-lantana has high mechanical strength and high toughness which were produced by thermo-mechanical processing. These composites were sintered at 1350 ° C for 36 hours, and it was held Vickers hardness testing and microstructural characterization to assess their surfaces before and after the attack by crude to use such material as ceramic coating. These results will be presented at the congress. (author)

  3. Changes in olive oils used as covering in preserves of eggplants (Solanum Melongena in relation to the time and the condition of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Felice, M.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the extra virgin olive oil as covering in food preserves presents some problems and still today object of study. With this research it was investigate the changes of some analytical parameters that occur during the storage in the olive oils used as covering in eggplant preserves. It was ascertained that in the oils in presence of the eggplants a drastic decrease of the total phenols was verified immediately after the thermal treatment affecting the oxidative processes. Besides it was observed that in all the oils stored under light the values of the K270. ΔK, the total chlorophylls and the 1,2-DG36/1,3-DG36 ratio were significantly changed.El uso de aceite de oliva virgen extra como cobertura en conservas alimentarias presenta una serie de problemas que son todavía hoy objeto de estudio. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los cambios de algunos parámetros analíticos producidos durante el almacenamiento en aceite de oliva usado como cobertura en la conservación de berenjenas. Se encontró que el aceite que ha estado en contacto con las berenjenas, sufrió una disminución de los fenoles totales inmediatamente después del tratamiento térmico, afectando a los procesos oxidativos. Se observó asimismo, que en todos los aceites almacenados a la luz variaron significativamente los valores del K270, del ΔK, de la clorofila y de la proporción de 1,2-DG36/1,3- DG36.

  4. Residual oil fly ash induces cytotoxicity and mucin secretion by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells via an oxidant-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Dreher, K L; Dye, J A; Li, Y; Richards, J H; Martin, L D; Adler, K B

    2000-03-15

    Inhalation of ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with pulmonary injury and inflammation. Using primary cultures of guinea pig tracheal epithelial (GPTE) cells as an in vitro model of airway epithelium, we examined effects of exposure to suspensions of six different emission and ambient air PM samples: residual oil fly ash (ROFA) from an electrical power plant; fly ash from a domestic oil burning furnace (DOFA); ambient air dust from St. Louis (STL), Ottawa (OT), and Washington, DC (WDC); and volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Saint Helens (MSH) in 1980. Effects of these particulates on cell viability (assessed via LDH assay), secretion of mucin (measured by a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA), and steady-state mRNA levels of the mucin gene MUC2 were determined. ROFA was the most toxic of the dusts tested, as it significantly increased LDH release following a 24-h incubation with 50 microg/cm(2) ROFA. ROFA also enhanced MUC2 mRNA after 4-h exposure, and mucin secretion after 8 h. ROFA-induced mucin secretion and cytotoxicity were attenuated by the oxidant scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU). ROFA exposure also depleted cells of glutathione (GSH). Relatedly, depletion of intracellular GSH by treatment of the cells with buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) also provoked mucin secretion, as well as enhancing the secretory effect of ROFA when the two agents were added together. L-NMA, the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, did not affect ROFA-induced mucin secretion. Of the soluble transition metals in ROFA (nickel, iron, vanadium), only vanadium individually, or combinations of the metals containing vanadium, provoked secretion. The results suggest ROFA enhances mucin secretion and generates toxicity in vitro to airway epithelium via a mechanism(s) involving generation of oxidant stress, perhaps related to depletion of cellular antioxidant capacity. Deleterious effects of inhalation of ROFA in the respiratory tract in vivo may relate to these cellular

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  6. Integrated management of organic wastes for remediation of massive tailings storage facilities under semiarid mediterranean climate type: efficacy of organic pork residues as study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; España, Helena; Gardeweg, Rosario; Bas, Fernando; Gandarillas, Mónica

    2016-04-01

    Remediation of large surface areas of massive mine wastes, such as tailings storage facilities (TSFs) is challenging, particularly when no topsoils have been stored for the mine closure stage. Worldwide, it has been demonstrated that the use of organic wastes as substrate amendments for remediation of hard rock mine wastes is a useful alternative to topsoils material. In the case of semi-arid climate conditions of north-central Chile, the copper mining industry has generated massive TSF (between 400 ha and 3,000 ha) which needs now to be properly closed according to recently established mine closure regulations. However, in most of the cases, there have been no topsoils savage that facilitate the initial stage of the site remediation. Industrial organic wastes (i.e. biosolids) are found in the area, but their availability is normally below the demand needed for remediation of TSFs and salt content is normally elevated, thus posing salinization risks to the substrate and negative plant growth. We focused on a large organic waste producing industry, the pork industry, whose growth has been restricted due to the limited possibilities for using pig slurries as amendments for croplands in north-central Chile and the strong odor generated, resulting in conflicts with local communities. Incorporation of pig slurries as amendments to post-operative TSFs has been scarcely evaluated at international level (i.e. Spain) and no evaluation at all exists for the solid organic fraction generated from pig slurry treatment plants (PSTP). In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of both pig slurries (PS) and the solid fraction of PSTP (SF-PSTP) as tailings amendment for creating good plant productivity on TSFs located under semi-arid Mediterranean climate conditions in north-central Chile. A short-term greenhouse study was developed. Copper mine tailings were mixed either with PS (0, 40, 80, and 120 m3 ha-1) or SF-PSTP (0, 25, 50 and 75 t ha-1), distributed in 3 L pots, and

  7. Determination of 1,2/1,3-diglycerides in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by 1H-NMR over a one-year storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Archimede; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    This study is aimed to monitor by 1 H NMR spectroscopy the effect of a 12-month storage period on the 1,2-diglycerides over 1,3-diglycerides ratio for five mono-cultivar 'extra virgin olive oils' (EVOO) (Arbequina, Arbosana, Cerasuola, Nocellara and FS17) and one blend of two different cultivars (Nocellara + Biancolilla) preserved in the dark and at room temperature. These quantifications, at 500 MHz, are readily extracted through a specific and original integration difference method. Albeit it was known that the isomerisation rate is affected by the free acidity, we here demonstrate that it also depends on the presence of specific macromolecules (lipases), indeed, different EVOO cultivars with similar free acidity, show different isomerisation rate. Our results are consistent with similar diglyceride monitoring performed on Greek and Spanish EVOOs by 31 P NMR.

  8. 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad supplemental information to the Hanford facility contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, N.C.

    1996-12-01

    The 190-C Facility <90 Day Storage Pad stores waste oils primarily contaminated with lead generated while draining equipment within the building of residual lubricating oils. Waste oils are packaged and stored in fifty-five gallon drums, or other containers permitted by the Site Specific Waste Management Instruction. Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) manual BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements Procedures, references this document. This document is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements in Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations, for certain Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) waste management units (units). Refer to BHI-EE-02, for additional information

  9. A Weibull model to describe antimicrobial kinetics of oregano and lemongrass essential oils against Salmonella Enteritidis in ground beef during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thales Leandro Coutinho; Soares, Rodrigo de Araújo; Piccoli, Roberta Hilsdorf

    2013-03-01

    The antimicrobial effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.) essential oils (EOs) against Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in in vitro experiments, and inoculated in ground bovine meat during refrigerated storage (4±2 °C) for 6 days was evaluated. The Weibull model was tested to fit survival/inactivation bacterial curves (estimating of p and δ parameters). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for both EOs on S. Enteritidis was 3.90 μl/ml. The EO concentrations applied in the ground beef were 3.90, 7.80 and 15.60 μl/g, based on MIC levels and possible activity reduction by food constituents. Both evaluated EOs in all tested levels, showed antimicrobial effects, with microbial populations reducing (p≤0.05) along time storage. Evaluating fit-quality parameters (RSS and RSE) Weibull models are able to describe the inactivation curves of EOs against S. Enteritidis. The application of EOs in processed meats can be used to control pathogens during refrigerated shelf-life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  11. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  12. EFEITO RESIDUAL DE INSETICIDAS NATURAIS NO CONTROLE DE SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTS. EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual effect of natural insecticides was evaluated on adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on stored corn grains. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L., white pepper (Piper nigrum L., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and silica dioxide powders were tested as well as neem, eucalyptus (Eucaliptus globulus Labill and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., eugenol, andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oils. Powders were tested at concentration of 1kg/t in 50g-corn-plot and the oils at dosage of 50¿L in 20g-corn-plot. The plots infestation was accomplished using 20 and 8 adults (males and females of S. zeamais being 0 to 15 days old, respectively, in the experiments with powders and oils. Silica dioxide caused 46.7, 38.3 and 37.5% of mortality, respectively, in the initial (soon after the treatment with the powders or oils and at 60 and 120 days of storage periods, but the mortality induced by the other powders was inexpressive. In the three studied storage periods, silica dioxide was the more efficient in reducing adults emergency. At the initial storage period, all the oils caused mortality above 79%, however, after 60 and 120 days, mortality was lower than 2.5%. The adult emergency increased as stored period increased, although at 120 days the best performance was obtained using neem, followed by andiroba, cedar, rosemary and E. globulus oils.

  13. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, Deborah R. [CESyMA, Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Silvia [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Evelson, Pablo, E-mail: pevelson@ffyb.uba.ar [Instituto de Bioquímica Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL-UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  15. An alarm instrument for monitoring leakage of oil storage tanks and the location of their leak position using radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qingqian; Sun Xiaolei; Hu Xusheng

    1990-01-01

    Usually it is difficult to find out gasoline leakage at the bottom of a storage tank from the very beginning. In order to solve this problem, a leak-monitoring technique and an instrument based on the detection of nuclear radiation have been successfully developed. The instrument possesses high sensitivity, short reaction time, excellent stability and rellability. When very small leaks at the bottom of a tank appear, the instrument will show a leak signal and give an alarm. In the meantime, however, the tank can be still used until the preparations for repairing are completed. Then its leak position can be accurately located by using radioisotope tracers

  16. Hydrocarbons storage in oil stations in urban areas and its environmental aspects; Almacenamiento de hidrocarburos en estaciones de servicio en zonas urbanas caracteristicas y afeccion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Pamo, J.

    1997-09-01

    The oil stations have been surrounded by the cities. Most of them are too near from the houses. because of the product (oil) sold by them, the oil stations can produce an important soil pollution. (Author)

  17. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  18. Impact of CO_2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO_2 Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliver, Djuna M.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2016-01-01

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO_2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO_2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO_2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO_2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO_2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO_2 concentration and will create CO_2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO_2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO_2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO_2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO_2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO_2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO_2 injection/leakage plume where CO_2 concentrations are highest. At CO_2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO_2 plume, selected microorganisms emerged as dominant in the CO_2 exposed conditions. Results suggest that the altered microbial community was site specific and highly dependent on pH. The site

  19. Propoxur (2-iso propoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate) residues in cocoa beans. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1982-05-01

    Pod-bearing Amazon and Amelonado cocoa plants were sprayed with Unden 20% (propoxur, arprocarb, baygon) at the recommended rate of 210 g a.i./ha and twice the recommended rate at monthly intervals from July to October 1976, and cured beans from the ripe pods analysed for propoxur residues by gas chromatography. In a radiotracer study with 14 C-labelled propoxur, the effect of processing methods on residues and systemic uptake of propoxur from insecticide deposits on pod surfaces were also investigated. Residues did not exceed 0.03 mg/kg. There was no relationship between residues and harvesting time, cocoa type or rate of application. Contamination of beans with insecticide deposits on the pod surface during processing, and systemic uptake of insecticide from pod surfaces were negligible. Experiments were also designed to provide data on 14 C-propoxur residues in cocoa beans, uptake of the chemical from pod surfaces and persistence on the leaves and in the soil. Leaves were picked from the lowest five branches of the cocoa trees, 13 months after the application of 14 C-propoxur, dried at 80 0 for 4 days, stored and analysed for their 14 C-activity. Soil samples were collected at 15 cm and 30 cm distances from the trunk base of treated trees, dried, stored and analysed. The analytical procedure involved extraction and clean-up steps after a standard method using acetone, chloroform and a coagulating agent. Propoxur residues in cocoa leaves collected 13 months after the insecticide application ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg. Residues in shells from cocoa pods treated with 14 C-propoxur 2 months prior to harvest did not exceed 0.02 mg/kg. Propoxur residues in soil samples collected at 6, 16, and 19 months following application ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg. These low levels are probably related to volatilization and heavy rains. Possible binding to soil cannot be precluded. The low levels of propoxur are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to humans

  20. Potential of oregano essential oil and MAP to extend the shelf life of fresh swordfish: a comparative study with ice storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatrakou, V; Kykkidou, S; Papavergou, A; Kontominas, M G; Savvaidis, I N

    2008-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 5% O(2)/50% CO(2)/45% N(2); treatment M), the addition of oregano oil (0.1%, v/w; treatment AO) as a natural preservative, as well as their combination (treatment MO) on the quality and shelf life extension of fresh Mediterranean swordfish fillets during a refrigerated storage (4 degrees C) period of 18 d. Simultaneously, swordfish fillets were stored under aerobic conditions (control treatment A, 4 degrees C) and on ice (usual commercial method of preservation, treatment I, 0 degrees C). Among the 5 treatments examined in the present study, the most effective one to inhibit the microbial and sensory spoilage proved to be the MO treatment, achieving a shelf life extension of 8 to 9 d. The dominant bacteria in the microflora of swordfish, irrespective of treatment, were the Pseudomonads and the H(2)S-producing bacteria, while both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the Enterobacteriaceae produced the lowest populations in swordfish samples kept on ice. Among the chemical indices examined, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values showed no specific trend of lipid oxidation for swordfish, irrespective of treatment. Final trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values for treatments, A, AO, M, and MO ranged between 1.33 and 14.29 mg N/100 g and 14.11 to 55.52 mg N/100 g, respectively, whereas for I samples they remained almost unchanged during storage. Sensory analysis (taste attribute) correlated well with microbiological analysis, indicating a shelf life of approximately 5 to 6 d for control, 10 to 11 d for AO, 12 d for I, 13 d for M, and 14 d for MO samples.

  1. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (tota...

  2. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  3. Towards Safe Food Free From Pesticides Residues: Biochemical Changes of Selected Vitamins, Trace Elements and Genotoxicity of Irradiated Dates During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, S.E.A.; Elsawy, KH.M.; Elgammal, M.H.; Hammoud, G.M.; Youssef, M.S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing quality of semi-dry dates due to infestation during storage is recorded by many researchers. Low gamma irradiation doses could be considered safe alternative of human toxic chemicals and pesticides. In the present study, semi-dry dates irradiated with different doses of 1, 3, 5 kGy beside non-irradiated samples were stored at 20 degree C and at -18 degree C for nine months. Vitamins E, A and trace elements were determined to check the genotoxicity effect of irradiation at high doses (1, 3, 5, 20 and 30 kGy). Results of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) proved that semi-dry dates contain vitamins A (β-carotene) and E (α-tocopherol) in amounts of 98.78 μg/100 g and 1.818 mg/100 g, respectively, in raw non-irradiated fruits. Degradation of vitamins either naturally during storage or by irradiation was manifested. However, the lowest losses of vitamins were detected at low doses of irradiation (1-3 kGy). Also, trace elements and metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique. Six trace elements; selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), cupper (Cu), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni), which are responsible for immunity system were detected in dates with considerable concentrations. Two contaminants heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), were detected. All the trace elements were in safe levels and have negligible changes under stress of irradiation and during long storage conditions. The genotoxicity test proved that the increased toxicity of irradiated dates was dose dependant, therefore, the irradiated samples at 1 kGy were safe (near control samples). Consequently, the irradiation at 1 kGy was preferable to be used as an alternative of pesticides in spite of some losses in some bioactive content.

  4. Study of the treatment of oil-based muds from PEMEX's storage centres using thermal plasma in a deoxygenated atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    In this project, evaluation of plasma thermal process applied for degradation of hazardous waste was performed when the process was operated without oxigen, for degradation of oily sludge. Such wastes are produced from petroleum refineries and represent a problem due to the fact that they hazardous and great amount of them are generated in Mexico and the world; moreover there are not current with high efficiency to treat them. In this study the degradation experiments were made using two different sludge samples, one them was free of sediments, the bigger portion was water and hydrocarbons and the other sample was characterized by to had a high amount of sediments. These samples were obtained from a storing center of PEMEX. Process was operated utilizing different characteristics of the by-product. The biggest decrease in volume obtained with the sample of high amount of sediments was 85%, and such by-product resulted inert. For the sludge free of sediment the highest decrease of volume obtained was 95.5% and this by-product contained high amount of carbon in the form of dust, almost 50% of carbon mixes with clay material. The degradation efficiency of organic material was higher than to 99.99%. The residual gases formed during the degradation had low molecular weight

  5. 稀碱预处理棕榈残渣制备纤维乙醇%Pretreatment of oil palm residues by dilute alkali for cellulosic ethanol production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕; 周玉杰; 李晋平; 戴玲妹; 刘德华; 张建安; Yuen May Choo; Soh Kheang Loh

    2013-01-01

    In the study, we used oil palm residues (empty fruit bunch, EFB) as raw material to produce cellulosic ethanol by pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Firstly, the pretreatment of EFB with alkali, alkali/hydrogen peroxide and the effects on the components and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were studied. The results show that dilute alkali was the suitable pretreatment method and the conditions were first to soak the substrate with 1% sodium hydroxide with a solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 at 40 ℃ for 24 h, and then subjected to 121 ℃ for 30 min. Under the conditions, EFB solid recovery was 74.09%, and glucan, xylan and lignin content were 44.08%, 25.74% and 13.89%, respectively. After separated with alkali solution, the pretreated EFB was washed and hydrolyzed for 72 h with 5% substrate concentration and 30 FPU/g dry mass (DM) enzyme loading, and the conversion of glucan and xylan reached 84.44% and 89.28%, respectively. We further investigated the effects of substrate concentration and enzyme loading on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The results show that when enzyme loading was 30 FPU/g DM and substrate concentration was increased from 5% to 25%, ethanol concentration were 9.76 g/L and 35.25 g/L after 72 h fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (inoculum size 5%, V/V), which was 79.09% and 56.96% of ethanol theory yield.%以棕榈残渣(Empty fruit bunch,EFB)为原料,通过预处理、酶解、发酵等过程制备纤维乙醇.首先对比了碱、碱/过氧化氢等预处理条件对棕榈残渣组成及酶解的影响,结果表明稀碱预处理效果较好.适宜的稀碱预处理条件为:NaOH浓度为1%,固液比为1∶10,在40℃浸泡24 h后于121℃下保温30 min,在该条件下,EFB的固体回收率为74.09%,纤维素、半纤维素和木质素的含量分别为44.08%、25.74%和13.89%.对该条件下预处理后的固体样品,以底物浓度5

  6. A Promising Material by Using Residue Waste from Bisphenol A Manufacturing to Prepare Fluid-Loss-Control Additive in Oil Well Drilling Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The residues mixture from Bisphenol A manufacturing process was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR were used to characterize the residues. The results indicated that the residues were complex mixture of several molecules. 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl-1,1,3-trimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-5-ol and phenol were the main components of the residues. The technical feasibility of using it as phenol replacement in fluid-loss-control additive production was also investigated. The fluid-loss-control capacity of the novel additive was systematically investigated. It was discovered that the well fluid-loss performance of the prepared additive can be achieved, especially at high temperature.

  7. Former main oil storage Volkach. Sanitation of a BTX large-scale failure and revitalisation of areas; Ehemaliges Main-Tanklager Volkach. Sanierung eines BTX-Grossschadens und Flaechenrevitalisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Robert; Geissler, Ralf; Dornheim, Martin

    2009-10-15

    After the insolvency of the operator, the area of the former Main oil storage in Volkach (Federal Republic of Germany) lied fallow for nearly ten years and was a hindrance for the development of the regional and economic politics. High risks and high costs for the removal of contaminations prevented investments on the area. The cause for the refuse dump is an adopted entry of 400,000 litres of gasoline into the underground in the 1970's. The contribution under consideration reports on a redevelopment and a revitalization of this area in two stages. In the first stage, the oil storage is built back. In addition, a source redevelopment by conventional ground excavation is accomplished in the ranges with the largest load. The second stage plans a two-year monitoring phase in the groundwater. On basis of these results, it is to be decided on further measures for the redevelopment of the groundwater impurities.

  8. Effects of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus leaves and its susceptibility on the quality of fresh orange juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euloge Adjou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effect of essential oil (EO from Cymbopogon citratus leaves against the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice. Thus, the EO was extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus collected in southern Benin and its chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Orange samples were collected from large production areas of South and Central Benin and juices were extracted by mechanical pressing. After identification of spoilage flora of fresh orange juice, antimicrobial tests were carried out with the EO of Cymbopogon citratus to evaluate its antimicrobial activity on spoilage flora of fresh orange juice.  Results indicate that the spoilage flora of fresh orange juice is mainly composed of fungi belonging to the genera of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Fusarium. Bacteria such as Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes were also identified in some samples. The major compounds identified in the EO by GC/MS are Neral (33.0% and geranial (41.3% with a predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes (85.5%. Antimicrobial tests have revealed a high antibacterial activity of the EO, with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC between 0.1 and 0.15 μL.mL-1. Antifungal tests revealed that fungi are also susceptible to this EO with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC between 0.15 and 0.25 μL.mL-1. Results obtained during the evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of the orange juice stored by adding EO, indicated a significant decrease in the pH and vitamin C content. However, with EO concentration of 0.250 μL.mL-1, the pH of stored juice was 6.4 ± 0.1 after 15 days of preservation, with a best vitamin C content of 28.06 ± 0.03 mg / 100mL. The EO of Cymbopogon citratus, with high antimicrobial activity, could be used as an alternative in the preservation of fruit juices, replacing antimicrobials from chemical synthesis.

  9. Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil over an ex-situ dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5: Analytical PY-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Deng, Aidong; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic co-pyrolysis of bamboo residual and waste lubricating oil was conducted. • MgO was beneficial to deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation. • Dual catalytic bed system exhibited prominent deoxygenation and aromatization. • A HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely increased the yield of aromatics. • Waste lubricating oil leads hydrocarbon pool towards the formation of hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) of bamboo residual (BR) and waste lubricating oil (WLO) over dual catalytic beds of MgO and HZSM-5 were carried out in an analytical PY-GC/MS. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, catalyst types, HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio and WLO percentage on products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were investigated. Experimental results revealed that 600 °C promoted the total peak area of volatile matters and accelerated the yields of furans and phenols. Compared to HZSM-5, MgO exhibited pronounced deacidification via ketonization and aldol condensation reactions as the minimum yield of acids (2.116%) and the maximum yield of ketones (28.805%) could be obtained. Furthermore, given the selectivity of phenols, MgO not only spurred the increase of overall phenols yield, but also facilitated the selectivity of light phenols like phenol and 4-methyl-phenol. With respect to the co-CFP of BR and WLO, a HZSM-5/MgO mass ratio of 3:2 largely accelerated the yield of aromatics via Diels-Alder reaction. Simultaneously, the WLO percentage played a vital role in the yield of hydrocarbons (i.e. aromatics + olefins & alkanes), and the maximum yield (70.305%) could be attained at the percentage of 60% as a function of significant activation of hydrocarbon pool.

  10. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  11. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  12. Carbaryl residues in cottonseed products in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    Residues of carbaryl in cottonseed products were determined by spectrophotometry. Carbaryl residues in oil and cake were 0.83 and 0.04 mg/kg respectively. Parallel experiments with 14 C-carbaryl gave comparable results. 14 C-carbaryl residues in oil and cake were 0.42 and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. (author)

  13. Pyramid mountain diesel fuel storage site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolmsa, M.; Sandau, C. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Remediation activities during the decommissioning of a microwave tower facility where a tram line was used to transfer diesel fuel from the base of a mountain to its summit were described. As the site was leased from Parks Canada, federal guidelines were used to assess levels of contamination. Underground storage tanks (USTs) used for diesel storage had been replaced with aboveground storage tanks (AST) in 1994. Remediation was also complicated by the remote location and altitude of the site, as well as by extreme weather conditions. Hand auguring and test pitting were used at both the summit and base to allow characterization and preliminary delineation of impacted soils. A heavy lift helicopter was used to place demolition and excavation equipment on the summit. An excavator was used to remove hydrocarbon impacted soils. Following the remedial excavation for the summit diesel AST, residual soil impacts in excess of the applicable remediation guidelines were present at the bottom of the tank nest and under a floor slab. An environmental liner was installed, and a quantitative screening level risk assessment demonstrated the low level of risk for the area, as well as for waste oil impacted soils on the slope below the summit. Contaminants of potential concern were barium, zinc, naphthalene, and petroleum hydrocarbon fractions F1-F4. It was concluded that there are now no unacceptable ecological or human risks from residual impacts at the site. 1 tab., 19 figs.

  14. Using environmental chemistry technologies for the removal of arsenic from drinking water, and fat and oil based phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterlin, William R.

    The first four chapters of this dissertation involve the removal of arsenic from drinking water. Various forms of a macroporous char prepared by partial gasification of subbituminous coal were studied for removal of arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) from water. In increasing order of effectiveness for arsenic(V) removal were untreated char water containing 500 micrograms/L of arsenic to levels below 10 micrograms/L. The capacity of the solid to remove arsenic was significantly diminished in water containing 4 mg/L of phosphate. An electrical current passed over 4 g of iron(III) oxide char in a column enabled removal of arsenic(III) from 14,000 mL of 500 micrograms/L arsenic(III) to below 10 micrograms/liter and at significantly higher flow rates than could be employed without electrolysis. The fifth chapter in this dissertation focused on the retention of organics onto a char/concrete pellet. A mixture of naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, biphenyl, toluene, tetrachloroethane, and chlorobenzene were impregnated into a loose granular char, a char/concrete pellet and a sand/concrete pellet. The results showed that the char/concrete pellet had significant advantages over the other forms. Chapters 6--9 focus on phase change materials (PCMs). These PCMs are made from fats and oils. PCMs are perhaps the only proven method that can provide near 100% thermal energy storage. In chapter 7 a novel HPLC method was developed that could provide quantification and qualification of the resulting products formed after PCM synthesis. In chapter 8 thermal cycling studies were conducted on the fat and oil based PCMs. These thermal cycle demonstrated that these PCMs were capable of going through a multitude of freeze and melt processes with little to no degradation if the appropriate preservative is used. Finally in chapter 9 the PCM is incorporated into a simulated 100 th scale house. A traditional freon based evaporator is used to freeze the PCM at night during electrical-off-peak hours

  15. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  16. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass and Algal Residues via Integrated Pyrolysis, Catalytic Hydroconversion and Co-processing with Vacuum Gas Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olarte, M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, T. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Beginning in 2010, UOP, along with the Department of Energy and other project partners, designed a pathway for an integrated biorefinery to process solid biomass into transportation fuel blendstocks. The integrated biorefinery (IBR) would convert second generation feedstocks into pyrolysis oil which would then be upgraded into fuel blendstocks without the limitations of traditional biofuels.

  17. Impact of CO2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lowry, Gregory V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2016-06-20

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO2 concentration and will create CO2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO2 injection/leakage plume where CO2 concentrations are highest. At CO2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO2 plume, selected microorganisms

  18. Impact of CO2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lowry, Gregorgy V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO22 concentration and will create CO2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO2 injection/leakage plume where CO2 concentrations are highest. At CO2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO2 plume, selected microorganisms

  19. Optimization of combined in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation for remediation of bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolivand, Ali; Naddafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Saeedi, Reza

    2017-07-31

    In this research, removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated under the optimized conditions of in-vessel composting process and chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 and Fenton. After determining the optimum conditions, the sludge was pre-treated with the optimum state of the oxidation process. Then, the determined optimum ratios of the sludge to immature compost were composted at a C:N:P ratio of 100:5:1 and moisture content of 55% for a period of 10 weeks. Finally, both pre-treated and composted mixtures were again oxidized with the optimum conditions of the oxidants. Results showed that total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal of the 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with H 2 O 2 were 88.34% and 90.4%, respectively. In addition, reduction of TPH in 1:8 and 1:10 composting reactors which were pre-treated with Fenton were 83.90% and 84.40%, respectively. Without applying the pre-treatment step, the composting reactors had a removal rate of about 80%. Therefore, pre-treatment of the reactors increased the TPH removal. However, post-oxidation of both pre-treated and composted mixtures reduced only 13-16% of TPH. Based on the results, remarkable overall removal of TPH (about 99%) was achieved by using chemical oxidation and subsequent composting process. The study showed that chemical oxidation with H 2 O 2 followed by in-vessel composting is a viable choice for the remediation of the sludge.

  20. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  1. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  2. Oxidizing oils, etc. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penniman, W B.D.

    1926-03-02

    The oxidation of crude petroleum and its distillates, shale oils and tars, waxes, sludges, petroleum residues, asphaltic oils, asphalt, malthas, cracked oils and residues from cracking stills, wood tar oils and wood tar, peat and lignite distillates, coal tar oils and coal tar, and oils containing powdered coal, coke or peat, sulphur in suspension, is effected by passing air or other oxygen-containig gas through a layer of the material of a depth sufficient substantially to deoxygenate the air, the pressure being at or below atmospheric pressure.

  3. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...... a mix based on pea, wheat, sunflower and beans. In the second study, one group of rainbow trout was fed a traditional diet based on fish meal and fish oil, whereas the other five groups were fed diets in which 40 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant proteins from peas, horse bean and rapeseed...

  4. Technological alternatives for the handling of high viscosity heavy crude oil and of petroleum residuals; Alternativas tecnologicas para el manejo de crudos pesados de alta viscosidad y residuales de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, Ramon; Peralta M, Maria Vita; Gonzalez Santalo, Jose M; Herrera V, J Ramon; Arriola M, Alejandro M; Manzanares P, Emilio; Romo M, Cesar A; Palacios L, Elvia M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents the technological capacity that, through the years, has been developed in emulsions of heavy oil in water preparations, as well as the potential application that this technology has in the electrical sector and the problem reduction during the extraction and handling of high viscosity heavy oils. Within this technological development it first appears the process for the formation of emulsions of residual petroleum within lots, followed by the preparation of emulsions in a continuous way within a laboratory model, and finally the production in greater scale in a pilot plant, including more and more adequate tense-actives for the formation of emulsions. Also experimental systems are presented to execute static stability and dynamic tests in different conditions, pumping tests for the handling of these emulsions and burning tests for their combustion. All of this with the purpose of consolidating the technology of residual petroleum emulsions as a profitable alternative that replaces the heavy fuel oil and to solve specific problems of the oil industry, among other benefits. [Spanish] Este trabajo exhibe la capacidad tecnologica que, a traves de los anos, se ha desarrollado en la preparacion de emulsiones de aceites pesados en agua; asi como el potencial de aplicacion que tiene dicha tecnologia en el sector electrico y la reduccion de problemas durante la extraccion y manejo de aceites pesados de alta viscosidad. Dentro de este desarrollo tecnologico figura primero el proceso para la formacion de emulsiones de residuales de petroleo dentro de lotes, seguido por la preparacion de emulsiones en continuo dentro de un laboratorio modelo, y finalmente la produccion a mayor escala en una planta piloto, incluyendo cada vez mas adecuados tenso-activos para la formacion de las emulsiones. Tambien se presentan sistemas experimentales para ejecutar pruebas de estabilidad estatica y dinamica en diferentes condiciones, pruebas de bombeo para el manejo de estas

  5. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  6. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  7. Effects of storage conditions on the fatty acid composition of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-08-31

    Aug 31, 2015 ... Key words: Pentadesma butyracea, oil seed, storage, butter, fatty acid. INTRODUCTION ... oil, in skin and hair care and in the manufacturing of soap because of its ..... study of Ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil.

  8. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  9. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    . Storage rings have instrumentation to monitor the electrical and mechanical systems, and the beam quality. Computers are used to control the operation. Large storage rings have millions of control points from all systems. The time dependent beam intensity I(t) can often be approximated by an exponential function I(t) = I(0) exp(-t/τ) (1) where the decay time τ and, correspondingly, the store time ranges from a few turns to 10 days (ISR). τ can be dominated by a variety of effects including lattice nonlinearities, beam-beam, space charge, intrabeam and Touschek scattering, interaction with the residual gas or target, or the lifetime of the stored particle. In this case, the beam lifetime measurement itself can be the purpose of a storage ring experiment. The main consideration in the design of a storage ring is the preservation of the beam quality over the store length. The beam size and momentum spread can be reduced through cooling, often leading to an increase in the store time. For long store times vacuum considerations are important since the interaction rate of the stored particles with the residual gas molecules is proportional to the pressure, and an ultra-high vacuum system may be needed. Distributed pumping with warm activated NEG surfaces or cold surfaces in machines with superconducting magnets are ways to provide large pumping speeds and achieve low pressures even under conditions with dynamic gas loads. The largest application of storage rings today are synchrotron light sources, of which about 50 exist world wide. In experiments where the beam collides with an internal target or another beam, a storage ring allows to re-use the accelerated beam many times if the interaction with the target is sufficiently small. In hadron collider and ion storage rings store times of many hours or even days are realized, corresponding to up to 1011 turns and thereby target passages. Ref. (3) is the first proposal for a collider storage ring. A number of storage rings

  10. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  11. La conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes : au carrefour du thermique et du catalytique Conversion of Residues and Heavy Oils At the Crossroads of Thermal Cracking and Catalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Page J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les diverses familles de procédés de conversion des résidus et huiles lourdes. Tous les résultats semblent converger pour accréditer l'idée que dans tous ces procédés, y compris les procédés dits catalytiques, l'essentiel de la conversion des espèces de poids moléculaire élevé, résines et asphaltènes, procède par mécanisme radicalaire : la clef de la conversion profonde, c'est paradoxalement la maîtrise de la condensation radicalaire de ces espèces. Hydrogène seul, hydrogène en présence de solvant donneur, d'additifs ou encore mieux de catalyseurs, sont les armes dont dispose tout raffineur pour affirmer cette maîtrise, dans la mesure où il ne tient pas à fabriquer du coke. Tous ces procédés de conversion des résidus donnent par ailleurs naissance à des produits craqués dont la nature et la distribution rappellent celles des produits de première distillation du pétrole brut dont est issu le résidu soumis au craquage. This article reviews the different families of conversion processes for residues and heavy oils. All the results seem to converge to support the idea that in all these processes, including so-called catalytic processes, most of the conversion of high-molecular-weight species (resins and asphaltenes operates by a radical mechanism. The key to in-depth conversion is, paradoxically, the mastery of the radical condensation of these species. Hydrogen alone, hydrogen in the presence of a donor solvent, of additives or, better yet, of catalysts, are the arms at the disposal of all refiners to assert this mastery, to the extent that they do not want to manufacture coke. All such conversion processes for residues also give rise to cracked products whose nature and distribution recall those of first-distillation products of crude oil, from which the residue comes that is subjected to cracking.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage; Efeito da radiação gama nos parâmetros microbiológicos, físico-químicos e compostos fenólicos de farinha de resíduos de frutas durante armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet, E-mail: jessica.aranha@usp.br [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindústria, Alimentos e Nutrição

    2017-07-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  13. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  14. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  15. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  16. The oil and gas industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  17. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Thermophysical Parameters of Organic PCM Coconut Oil from T-History Method and Its Potential as Thermal Energy Storage in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Alfriska O.; Sukmawati, Nissa; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thermophysical parameters of organic phase change material (PCM) of coconut oil (co_oil) have been studied by analyzing the temperature vs time data during liquid-solid phase transition (solidification process) based on T-history method, adopting the original version and its modified form to extract the values of mean specific heats of the solid and liquid co_oil and the heat of fusion related to phase transition of co_oil. We found that the liquid-solid phase transition occurs rather gradually, which might be due to the fact that co_oil consists of many kinds of fatty acids with the largest amount of lauric acid (about 50%), with relatively small supercooling degree. For this reason, the end of phase transition region become smeared out, although the inflection point in the temperature derivative is clearly observed signifying the drastic temperature variation between the phase transition and solid phase periods. The data have led to the values of mean specific heat of the solid and liquid co_oil that are comparable to the pure lauric acid, while the value for heat of fusion is resemble to those of the DSC result, both from references data. The advantage of co_oil as the potential sensible and latent TES for room-temperature conditioning application in Indonesia is discussed in terms of its rather broad working temperature range due to its mixture composition characteristic.

  20. Aspects of radiological safety and protection in the decontamination of the Benefit plant of uranium in Ciudad Aldama and in the storage of its residues in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1971 the National Commission of Nuclear Energy and the Mining Fostering Commission operated coordinately a production plant of uranium and molybdenum concentrates (Benefit plant) at Ciudad Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico. During two years of operation some 45 tonnes of uranium concentrate and approximately 35,000 tonnes of uranium wetlands were produced. These last were stored in a dam to 120 m. toward West of the plant. Due to the nearness of the population with respect to what was the Benefit plant and over all to the wetland dam, the objective of this work had two main aspects: On the one hand, to carry out the works of radiological decontamination of the benefit plant of uranium, according to the established normative by the Regulatory organization in matter of radiological safety and protection (CNSNS) for the population and the hard workers. After that the works mentioned were realized it was considered that the estate which comprises what was the Benefit plant did not reach the established criteria by the CNSNS for being considered of unrestricted use such estate and it was not allowed any type of construction in the zone which could be showed the residual contamination which remains there. On the other hand, to determine the site where could be stored the radioactive wastes generated by the radiological decontamination and the wetland mobilization for its definitive storage in benefit of the present population and of the future generations due to the radionuclides which are in a such material. The site more adequate technical and economically to storage the wastes generated by this activity was evaluated. Whereby studies about demography, use of soil and water, meteorology, hydrology and ecology were realized. The site selected being in the Pena Blanca mountains, Chihuahua, place where is located one of the uranium zones and the most important of the country. In this work, specific objectives also were treated such as: knowing the radiological

  1. Oxidative stability during storage of fish oil from filleting by-products of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is largely independent of the processing and production temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Nouard, Marie-Louise; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is the main fish species produced in Danish fresh water farming. Large amounts of fileting by-products like heads, bones, tails (HBT), and intestines are produced when rainbow trout is processed to smoked rainbow trout filets. The filleting by-products can...... be used to produce high quality fish oil. In this study, the oxidative stability of fish oil produced from filleting by-products was evaluated. The oil was produced from conventional or organic fish (low and high omega-3 fatty acid content) at different temperatures (70 and 90°C). The oxidative stability...

  2. Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and antioxidants in blended oil using a liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive solid phase extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Tian, Wen; Pei, Fei; Li, Peng; Shao, XiaoLong; Fan, Yan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-08-15

    This article developed a method to detect two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)) and twelve pesticides (dichlorvos, pirimicarb, prothiofos, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, malathion, beta-Cypermethrin, profenofos, diazinon, propoxur, procymidon, captan) in blended oil samples after their extraction simultaneously. The establishment of the method was based on two-step process of screening and optimization experiment design. With a Plackett-Burman (PB) design, significant parameters were found by screening experiment and single factor experiment accompanied by a central composite design (CCD) experiment were used to make important parameters optimal. The coefficients of determination (r 2 ) was between 0.9931 and 0.9996 while the limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were found in scope of 0.002-0.04mg·kg -1 and 0.0006-0.0012mg·kg -1 . Recovery values of analytes were above 74%, at the same time the relative standard deviations (RSDs) under 10% at the concentrations ranging from 0.05mg·kg -1 to 0.20mg·kg -1 . To sum up, this method with shorter time and fewer consumption of reagents could be employed in various occasions to detect antioxidants and pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a quadrupole/linear ion trap instrument for the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M D; Ferrer, C; Ulaszewska, M; García-Reyes, J F; Molina-Díaz, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the development of an enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of pesticides in olive oil. One hundred pesticides belonging to different classes and that are currently used in agriculture have been included in this method. The LC-MS method was developed using a hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap (QqQ(LIT)) analyzer. Key features of this technique are the rapid scan acquisition times, high specificity and high sensitivity it enables when the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode or the linear ion-trap operational mode is employed. The application of 5 ms dwell times using a linearly accelerating (LINAC) high-pressure collision cell enabled the analysis of a high number of pesticides, with enough data points acquired for optimal peak definition in MRM operation mode and for satisfactory quantitative determinations to be made. The method quantifies over a linear dynamic range of LOQs (0.03-10 microg kg(-1)) up to 500 microg kg(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated by comparing the slopes of matrix-matched and solvent-based calibration curves. Weak suppression or enhancement of signals was observed (ion (EPI) and MS3 were developed.

  4. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Effect of storage and packaging on fatty acid composition and oxidation in dry fermented sausages made with added olive oil and antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2004-01-01

    Dry fermented sausages produced by a partial substitution of pork backfat with preemulsified olive oil were manufactured and stored (2 and 5 months) using different packing conditions (aerobic/ vacuum piece/ vacuum slices) in order to evaluate the intensity of the oxidation process. Also the effect of the addition of BHT and BHA to one of the modified batches was studied. Addition of olive oil, especially with antioxidants, was more effective than using vacuum storing methods in avoiding lipi...

  6. Regularities of filtration of sunflower oil with the use of vibroacoustic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue in sunflower oil is a dispersed phase consisting of particulate products grinding sunflower seeds in the form of particles of the pulp, oil cake, meal, residual quantities of metals, pesticides. In the recycling process they are in the oil in suspension and negatively affect its quality. For research an experimental setup was developed allowing to change the angle of inclination of the filter element. The regularities of filtration were determined without preliminary purification of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. It is established, the contamination of centrifuged oil in the initial period is 14.6 times lower. After 10 minutes of treatment, it decreases by 62%, after 20 minutes – by 79.4%. With a 30-minute treatment, particles of 0.005-0.1 mm in size are removed to 90%, which is approximated to the refined oil in terms of contamination. The influence of vibration-acoustic action on sunflower oil during its filtration is shown. At the last stage of production, the peroxide index is reduced to 2-3 moles of active oxygen, and after 3 months of storage – from 11.8 to 7.7, which according to GOST corresponds to the highest-grade oil. The regularities of the filtration without pre-treatment of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. Shows the effect of vibroacoustic exposure on sunflower oil when filtering. The obtained data on the change of qualitative parameters of sunflower oil during its filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact.

  7. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  8. Case study of successful weld repair of a storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S; Ambrose, S.

    2012-01-01

    Weld repairs or modifications may be required for existing welded structures or components as a result of service damage or failure, or as a result of wear, corrosion or changed service condition. A case study of a repair to a large oil storage tank which failed in Australia by brittle fracture during modification is described to demonstrate the application of basic principles and good practice needed to produce successful repairs/modifications. Prevention of brittle fracture in welded steel structures requires consideration of the toughness at minimum temperature of the weld, the HAZ and the base material itself, applied and residual stress and 'equivalent crack' size. This case shows the importance of residual stress, repair planning and the care needed with old steels.

  9. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (total viable counts (TVC) and total psychrotrophic counts (TPC)), biochemical (Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH) and sensory characteristics. Also, the efficacy of these treatments was investigated in control of the population of Eschershia coli O157:H7 inoculated in silver carp fillet. According to the obtained results, C-A + CEO 1.5 % showed lowest (p clove essential oil might be recommended as a preservative in the meat products.

  10. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  11. Citronelle Dome: A giant opportunity for multizone carbon storage and enhanced oil recovery in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, R.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Walsh, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Citronelle Dome is a giant, salt-cored anticline in the eastern Mississippi Interior Salt Basin of southern Alabama that is located near several large-scale, stationary, carbon-emitting sources in the greater Mobile area. The dome forms an elliptical, four-way structural closure containing opportunities for CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) and large-capacity saline reservoir CO2 sequestration. The Citronelle oil field, located on the crest of the dome, has produced more than 169 million bbl of 42-46?? API gravity oil from sandstone bodies in the Lower Cretaceous Rodessa Formation. The top seal for the oil accumulation is a thick succession of shale and anhydrite, and the reservoir is underfilled such that oil-water contacts are typically elevated 30-60 m (100-200 ft) above the structural spill point. Approximately 31-34% of the original oil in place has been recovered by primary and secondary methods, and CO2-EOR has the potential to increase reserves by up to 20%. Structural contour maps of the dome demonstrate that the area of structural closure increases upward in section. Sandstone units providing prospective carbon sinks include the Massive and Pilot sands of the lower Tuscaloosa Group, as well as several sandstone units in the upper Tuscaloosa Group and the Eutaw Formation. Many of these sandstone units are characterized by high porosity and permeability with low heterogeneity. The Tuscaloosa-Eutaw interval is capped by up to 610 m (2000 ft) of chalk and marine shale that are proven reservoir seals in nearby oil fields. Therefore, the Citronelle Dome can be considered a major geologic sink where CO2 can be safely stored while realizing the economic benefits associated with CO2-EOR. Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  12. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  13. Biodiesel of palm oil in tractor agricultural: opacity of smoke in the light of storage time; Biodiesel de dende em trator agricola: opacidade da fumaca em funcao do tempo de armazenamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Leomar P. [Instituto Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (IFTM), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)], email: leomaragro@yahoo.com.br; Lopes, Afonso; Oliveira, Melina C.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Camara, Felipe T. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Cariri, CE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The scenario of atmospheric emissions world characterized-if, in recent years, due to a series of technical factors, economic and political, by the need to reduce the consumption of petroleum. The objective of this work was to evaluate the opacity of smoke of a motor of a tractor agricultural operating with biodiesel of palm oil with different periods of storage. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of machinery and agricultural mechanization of Rural Engineering Department of UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP. In this study,-if a tractor Valtra BM 110 4x2 TDA 73,6 kW (100 cv) in engine 2.350 rpm. The experimental design was completely randomized, in factorial scheme 5x3, with 3 repetitions. The combinations of factors were five proportions of mixing biodiesel for diesel (B0, B5, B25, B 50 and B100, that the number indicates the percentage of biodiesel for diesel) and three storage times in condition environment (0, 3 and 6 months). The results showed that in relation to B0, when used biodiesel in the proportion of B100, the opacity of smoke reduced in 50.4% and the time of storage of biodiesel not committed the opacity of smoke from combustion of the engine. (author)

  14. ''Z'' Facility Dielectric Oil Clean-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandri, Daniel; Bloomquist, Doug; Donovan, Guy; Feltz, Greg; Grelle, Nibby; Guthrie, Doug; Harris, Mark; Horry, Mike; Lockas, Mike; Potter, Jimmy; Pritchard, Chuck; Steedly, Jim.

    1999-01-01

    In August of 1998 the Z facility leaked approximately 150 gallons of deionized water into the dielectric oil of the Energy Storage Section (ESS). After processing the oil to remove existing particulate and free water the dielectric breakdown strength increased from the mid 20kV range to values in excess of 40 kV. 40 kV is above historical operating levels of about 35 kV. This, however, was not enough to allow 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. Further analysis of the oil showed dissolved water at a saturated level (70 - 80 ppm) and some residual particulate contamination smaller than 3 microns. The dissolved water and particulate combination was preventing the 90 kV charging of the Marx Generators in the ESS. After consulting with the oil industry it was determined that nitrogen sparging could be used to remove the dissolved water. Further particulate filtering was also conducted. After approximately 20 hours of sparging the water content in the ESS was reduced to 42 ppm which enabled Marx charging to 90 kV

  15. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  16. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  17. Old radioactive waste storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the regulatory context for the management of old sites used for the storage of radioactive wastes with respect with their activity, the concerned products, the disposal or storage type, this document describes AREVA's involvement in the radioactive waste management process in France. Then, for the different kinds of sites (currently operated sites having radioactive waste storage, storage sites for uranium mineral processing residues), it indicates their location and name, their regulatory status and their control authority, the reference documents. It briefly presents the investigation on the long term impact of uranium mineral processing residues on health and environment, evokes some aspects of public information transparency, and presents the activities of an expertise group on old uranium mines. The examples of the sites of Bellezane (uranium mineral processing residues) and COMURHEX Malvesi (assessment of underground and surface water quality at the vicinity of this installation) are given in appendix

  18. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  19. Use of aluminum oxides, titanium and cerium in the production of ceramic composites for protective coating of storage tanks and transportation of oil raw; Uso de oxidos de aluminio, titanio e cerio na producao de compositos ceramicos para revestimento protetor de tanques de armazenamento e transporte de petroleo cru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, S.A.B.C.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: sheila.abc.rego@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias

    2012-07-01

    The deployment of the Abreu e Lima refinery in the port of SUAPE - PE will increase the need to store oil in the region, it is essential to research and develop new materials inert to chemical attack promoted by oil. In this work, we produce the ceramic composite alumina-titania, ceria of high mechanical strength which is observed that with additions of titanium oxide in the order of 15% and 20% better results are obtained as possibly indicating these composites suitable for use in coating ceramic storage tanks of crude oil. (author)

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