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Sample records for residual neuropsychological effects

  1. Neuropsychological effects associated with recreational cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soar, Kirstie; Mason, Colette; Potton, Anita; Dawkins, Lynne

    2012-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that recreational cocaine use is on the increase, with the UK reporting one of the highest levels of use in the EU (EMCDDA 2010). Nevertheless, very few studies have addressed the neuropsychological effects associated with non-dependent recreational cocaine use. The current study aimed to assess whether recreational cocaine users show neuropsychological deficits on a battery of tests, previously shown to be sensitive to cocaine-dependent and psychosis-prone individuals. Schizotypal traits were also measured. Recreational cocaine users (n = 17) were compared with controls (n = 24) on drug use patterns, the General Health Questionnaire, the Brief Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-B) and four neuropsychological tasks: spatial working memory, intra/extra-dimensional set shifting, the Stocking of Cambridge and the rapid visual processing. Relative to controls, recreational cocaine users produced significantly more errors on the intra/extra-dimensional set shift task and completed fewer stages, made significantly more six box stage errors on the spatial working memory task, and made significantly more errors and fewer hits, with overall poorer detection rates on the rapid visual processing task. Recreational cocaine users reported significantly higher scores on the cognitive perceptual and disorganised thinking SPQ-B subscales and total SPQ-B scores compared to controls. Recreational cocaine users displayed impairments on tasks tapping sustained attention, attentional shifting and spatial memory and reported higher schizotypal trait expression. These findings are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting subtle cognitive deficits, putatively reflecting underlying dopaminergic dysfunction, in non-dependent, recreational cocaine users.

  2. Effect of demographic data on neuropsychological tests

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    Ahmet Evlice

    2016-09-01

    Material and Methods: Between 2014-2016 years; mini mental state examination, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency (semantic and lexical, clock drawing, verbal and visual memory tests were performed to healthy people. The presence of correlation between neuropsychological tests and gender, age and education were researched in healthy people. Results: Hundred subjects (60 female, 40 male were included to study. No difference was observed between male and female subjects on neuropsychological tests. There was negative correlation between age and mini mental state examination, digit span and semantic fluency tests. And also there was positive correlation between education and all neuropsychological tests (except verbal memory test. Conclusion: The mean neuropsychological test scores in healthy people were not shown differences by gender, but they were affected by age and education. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 528-532

  3. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

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    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  4. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

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    Lisa H. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  5. Manganese exposure: neuropsychological and neurological symptoms and effects in welders.

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    Bowler, Rosemarie M; Gysens, Sabine; Diamond, Emily; Nakagawa, Sanae; Drezgic, Marija; Roels, Harry A

    2006-05-01

    Manganese exposure reportedly may have an adverse effect on CNS function and mood. Sixty-two welders with clinical histories of exposure to manganese were compared to 46 matched regional controls chosen at random from a telephone directory. The following tests were given: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III), Boston Naming, WRAT-3, Cancellation H, Trail Making Tests A and B, Auditory Consonant Trigrams, Stroop, Rey-Osterreith, Animal Naming, Controlled Oral Word Association (COWAT), Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item, Fingertapping, Grooved Pegboard, Dynamometer, Visual Attention Test, Lanthony d-15 Color Vision, Vistech Contrast Sensitivity, and Schirmer strips. The controls were administered a shorter battery of tests and the Rey-Osterreith, Animal Naming and some of the subtests of the WAIS-III, WMS-III were not administered. Mood tests, given to both groups, included the Symptom Checklist-40, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Profile of Mood Scale, Beck Depression Inventory II, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Forty-seven welders and 42 controls were retained for statistical analysis after appropriate exclusions. Results showed a high rate of symptom prevalence and pronounced deficits in motor skills, visuomotor tracking speed and information processing, working memory, verbal skills (COWAT), delayed memory, and visuospatial skills. Neurological examinations compared to neuropsychological test results suggest that neuropsychologists obtain significantly more mood symptoms overall. Odds ratios indicate highly elevated risk for neuropsychological and neurological symptomatology of manganism. Mood disturbances including anxiety, depression, confusion, and impaired vision showed very high odds ratios. Neurological exams and neuropsychological tests exhibit complementarity and differences, though neuropsychological methods may be more sensitive in detecting early signs of manganism. The present study corroborates the findings of our

  6. Neuropsychological effects and attitudes in patients following electroconvulsive therapy

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    Miriam Feliu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Miriam Feliu1,2, Christopher L Edwards1,2,3, Shiv Sudhakar4, Camela McDougald1, Renee Raynor5, Stephanie Johnson6, Goldie Byrd7, Keith Whitfield8, Charles Jonassaint8, Heather Romero1, Lekisha Edwards1, Chante’ Wellington1, LaBarron K Hill9, James Sollers, III9, Patrick E Logue11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; 2Duke Pain and Palliative Care Center; 3Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology; 4Drexel University Medical School; 5Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 6Science Directorate, American Psychological Association; 7Department of Biology, North Carolina A&T State University; 8Department of Psychology, Duke University; 9Department of Psychology, The Ohio State UniversityAbstract: The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R. Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Short-Term Memory Questionnaire (STMQ, and several other measures of emotional functioning and patient attitudes toward ECT. The mean number of days between pre-ECT and post-ECT testing was 24. T-test revealed a significant decrease in subjective ratings of depression as rated by the BDI, t(45 = 9.82, P < 0.0001 (Pre-BDI = 27.9 ± 20.2; post-BDI = 13.5 ± 9.7. Objective ratings of memory appeared impaired following treatment, and patients’ self-report measures of memory confirmed this decline. More specifically, repeated measures MANOVA [Wilks Lambda F(11,30 = 4.3, p < 0.001] indicated significant decreases for measures of immediate recognition memory (p < 0.005, long-term storage (p < 0.05, delayed prose passage recall (p < 0

  7. Neuropsychological effects of cranial radiation: current knowledge and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Deborah D.; Sperduto, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation is an invaluable therapeutic tool in the treatment of cancer, with well-established palliative and curative efficacy. As patient survival has improved, attention has focused on long-range treatment side effects. One such adverse effect, neuropsychological impairment, is incompletely understood. Much of the extant research has been directed at childhood leukemia survivors treated with low-dose whole-brain radiation. Less is known about the effects of high-dose focal or whole-brain radiation used in the treatment of brain lesions. This article reviews the scientific literature in this area, with greatest emphasis on methodologically rigorous studies. Research design considerations are discussed. Review findings suggest that low-dose whole-brain radiation (18 to 24 Gy) in children is associated with mild delayed IQ decline, with more substantial deficits occurring in children treated at a young age. A high incidence of learning disabilities and academic failure is observed in this population and may be caused by poor attention and memory rather than low intellectual level. Children who receive higher dose radiation for treatment of brain tumors experience more pronounced cognitive decline. At higher doses, whole-brain radiation, in particular, is linked to deleterious cognitive outcomes. Remarkably little is known about cognitive outcomes in irradiated adults. Preliminary findings indicate that certain cognitive functions, including memory, may be more vulnerable to decline than others. Suggestions for future research are proposed

  8. Effects of Marathi-Hindi Bilingualism on Neuropsychological Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H.; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism “disadvantage” would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:22206622

  9. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  10. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  11. Long-term neuropsychological effects of ecstasy in middle-aged ecstasy/polydrug users

    OpenAIRE

    Schilt, T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Smal, J.P.; Gouwetor, M.N.; van den Brink, W.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Studies reporting ecstasy-induced serotonin-toxicity and (neuro)psychological dysfunctions have been conducted in young adults. Little is known about ecstasy effects later in life, when serotonin levels and cognition decrease as a consequence of normal ageing. Objective This study aimed to assess whether harmful effects of ecstasy only add to or also interact with age-related neuropsychological decline. Methods Attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial ability, self-reported...

  12. STROOP EFFECT AND ITS LIMITATIONS IN PRACTICE EXECUTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHILD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ramírez-Benitez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The test of Stroop on line modality word / color is of limited application in the clinical child population. A digital adaptation of the test demands the infant's quick answer and at the same time that the processes used in the test have an interference in the boy. If the boy doesn't adapt to the digital demands it doesn't happen the interference between the processes and the test he doesn't have effect. Material and Method: The investigation seeks to determine if the results of the test Stroop, modality word / color, they are related with the results of other tests that evaluate the executive functions. The Dpto. of Neuropsychology he intended to revise all the results of the test SESH in the population from 7 to 15 years of the 2009 - 2011. The analyzed tests were: Stroop, Wisconsin, Time of complex reaction and the simple sustained Attention. Result: The clinical histories demonstrated that of the 207 evaluated children 59 present punctuations above the superior norm in the Stroop. However, the results in the Wisconsin, the time of reaction and the attention reports that the 59 children have a pathological index. The investigation shows that the punctuations risen in the Stroop are not sign of good acting in the other tests. Conclusions: The task Stroop is not effective in all the analyzed children. The problems in the prosecution speed and atencionales are a negative condition to execute with success the on-line task Stroop modality word / color in the infantile population.

  13. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  14. The Effect of Prior Caffeine Consumption on Neuropsychological Test Performance: A Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elizabeth R; Lesk, Valerie E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prior consumption of 200 mg of pure caffeine affected neuropsychological test scores in a group of elderly participants aged over 60 years. Using a double-blind placebo versus caffeine design, participants were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. A neuropsychological assessment testing the domains of general cognitive function, processing speed, semantic memory, episodic memory, executive function, working memory and short-term memory was carried out. Significant interaction effects between age, caffeine and scores of executive function and processing speed were found; participants who had received caffeine showed a decline in performance with increasing age. This effect was not seen for participants who received placebo. The results highlight the need to consider and control prior caffeine consumption when scoring neuropsychological assessments in the elderly, which is important for accuracy of diagnosis and corresponding normative data. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Neuropsychological effects of comorbidity in multiple sclerosis patients

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    Kalina Drenska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a progressive demyelinating and degenerative neurological disease. The degree of disability increases along with pathological damage, especially in cases with comorbidity. Methodology: The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of MS alone and with comorbidity on some neuropsychological patterns. Individual quality of life of 80 MS patients at a mean age of 49 years, 56 females and 24 males, was examined by means of Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 Questionnaire (MSQOL-54 in 2002-2015. Forty patients presented with MS alone and 40 with MS and comorbidity. The frequency of troubles of mental concentration/thinking, fixation of attention, and memory as well as of difficulty at work and other activities were examined. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with MS alone and those with MS and comorbidity concerning troubles of mental concentration/thinking (t=4.822; p<0.0001, and of memory (t=4.020; p<0.0001. Gender correlated negatively with troubles of memory (R=-0.343; r<0.05, while EDSS scores did with troubles of memory (R=-0.346; p<0.05 and with troubles of attention (R=-0.330; p<0.05. The accompanying diseases additionally worsened the components of health-related quality of life. Conclusions: Common comorbidity in MS patients requires careful clinical examinations and proper management in order to reduce the neuropsychological burden and assure a better individual quality of life for the patient.

  16. Long-term neuropsychological effects of ecstasy in middle-aged ecstasy/polydrug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilt, Thelma; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Smal, Johan P.; Gouwetor, Mathilde N.; van den Brink, Wim; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Studies reporting ecstasy-induced serotonin-toxicity and (neuro)psychological dysfunctions have been conducted in young adults. Little is known about ecstasy effects later in life, when serotonin levels and cognition decrease as a consequence of normal ageing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed

  17. Long-term neuropsychological effects of ecstasy in middle-aged ecstasy/polydrug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilt, T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Smal, J.P.; Gouwetor, M.N.; van den Brink, W.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Studies reporting ecstasy-induced serotonin-toxicity and (neuro)psychological dysfunctions have been conducted in young adults. Little is known about ecstasy effects later in life, when serotonin levels and cognition decrease as a consequence of normal ageing. Objective This study aimed to

  18. The effects of energy drinks alone and with alcohol on neuropsychological functioning.

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    Curry, Kim; Stasio, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks-alone or with alcohol-are heavily marketed to young adults, many of whom believe that caffeine counteracts some negative effects of alcohol intoxication. While the effects of caffeine and alcohol have been widely investigated, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance after consumption of a beverage containing both ingredients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 non-caffeine-deprived female participants were randomly assigned to consume a caffeinated energy drink alone, one containing alcohol, or a non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated control beverage. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted using alternate forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants who consumed the energy drink plus alcohol evidenced significantly lower post-test performance on a global score of neuropsychological status. Specifically, deficits were found in both visuospatial/constructional and language performance scores. While participants who consumed the caffeinated beverage alone trended toward improved attention scores, neuropsychological status did not show meaningful changes from the pre- to post-test. Consumption of an energy drink containing 6% alcohol by volume negatively influenced performance on a global measure of cognitive functioning. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: a repeated-measures clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Isabella; Stuff, Janice; Liu, Yan; Brewton, Christie; Dovi, Allison; Kleinman, Ronald; Nicklas, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relation between breakfast consumption and various domains of cognitive functioning within children, some of the reported findings are inconsistent. We sought to determine the short-term effects of a breakfast meal on the neuropsychological functioning of healthy school-aged children after an overnight fast. The study was conducted in a clinical research center with the use of a counterbalanced repeated-measures design among children who either consumed breakfast or were fasting. The administered neuropsychological tests included measures of attention, impulsivity, short-term memory, cognitive processing speed, and verbal learning. The sample consisted of children aged 8-10 y (n = 128), of whom 52% were female, 38% were African American, 31% were Hispanic, 28% were white, and 3% were of another race/ethnicity. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.004) differences between breakfast meal consumption and fasting for any of the neuropsychological measures administered. Breakfast consumption had no short-term effect on neuropsychological functioning in healthy school-aged children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01943604. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICIT AND EFFECT OF COMPUTERISED COGNITIVE RETRAINING IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

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    Shubhranshu Nath

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is a major public health issue across the globe. A range of cognitive and behavioural sequelae is exhibited by TBI. Patients of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI do benefit from cognitive retraining. The aim of the present study is to observe the effects of cognitive retraining on neuropsychological deficits. Sample for the study comprised of 36 patients of head injury reporting to a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cases were evaluated on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Wechsler’s Memory Scale (WMS III to assess the prevalence of neuropsychological deficit. The cases were given four sessions of Brain Function Therapy (BFT per week. A total of eight sessions were finally given to each one of the cases. The neuropsychological deficit were assessed before and after giving Brain Function Therapy (BFT or cognitive retraining and compared. RESULTS The mean age of the sample was 32.13±6.14 years and majority of the cases were educated till higher secondary school. Significant differences were noted when the neuropsychological deficit assessed pre-BFT and post-BFT were compared (p <0.001. CONCLUSION Cases of TBI do benefit with BFT, and hence, it is recommended to institute computerised cognitive rehabilitation/retraining in such cases in psychiatry setup.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  2. Long-term neuropsychological effects of opioid use in children: a descriptive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Mahendra, Vijaita; Singhal, Sarita; Dzara, Kristina; Pilla, Trinadha R; Manworren, Renee; Kaye, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    Use of opioids in the management of pain and its consequences in children presents a substantial challenge. A significant concern in pediatric pain management is the long-term neuropsychological consequences of opioids. The authors aim to provide a descriptive review of the current literature surrounding the neuropsychological impact of opioid use in children, along with possible extrapolations from their use in adults and animal models. Systematic review of published literature. Various universities in the United States. The electronic review for papers published between January 1992 and December 2012 was conducted using Medline/Pubmed, PsychInfo, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library database, and Google Scholar. Findings assessing pediatric pain patients treated with opioids demonstrated no significant differences in intelligence, behavior, vocabulary, or motor skills. One study reported a decrease in a visuo-constructional ability, which measured higher order executive function. Studies from prenatal illicit opioid exposure found poorer performance on measures of language, verbal ability, mathematics, reading, impulse control, and school readiness skills. The literature from adult prescribed opioid users has mixed results. Some showed impairment in the neuropsychological domains of memory, decision-making, attention, concentration, information processing, psychomotor speed, visual special skills, and hand-eye coordination, while others found no differences or revealed improved perceptual-cognitive status, possibly due to the removal of pain as a stressor. Very few studies looked into the long term neuropsychological and cognitive effects of the opioids in pediatric population. In an attempt to extrapolate from other groups, this review also included literature from adult patients, prenatal opioid exposure, and animal studies. Opioid medications have the potential to produce long-lasting neuropsychological side effects. However, given the negative consequences of

  3. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability

  4. STROOP EFFECT AND ITS LIMITATIONS IN PRACTICE EXECUTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHILD.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Ramírez-Benitez; Miriela Díaz Bringas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The test of Stroop on line modality word / color is of limited application in the clinical child population. A digital adaptation of the test demands the infant's quick answer and at the same time that the processes used in the test have an interference in the boy. If the boy doesn't adapt to the digital demands it doesn't happen the interference between the processes and the test he doesn't have effect. Material and Method: The investigation seeks to determine if the results of...

  5. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Test-retest reliability and practice effects for the ANAM General Neuropsychological Screening battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Andrea S; Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Fuenzalida, Eugenia; Gilliland, Kirby

    2018-04-01

    As the use of computer-based neurocognitive assessment is rapidly expanding, the need to systematically study and document key psychometric properties of these measures has become increasingly more salient. To meet this aim, this study examined test-retest reliability and practice effects for the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics General Neuropsychological Screening battery (ANAM GNS) in a sample of 94 community dwelling adults. ANAM GNS was administered and then repeated (alternate form) after 30 days. Test-retest reliability, practice effects, and the standard error of measurement were calculated. Using these estimates, reliable change indices were calculated to determine degree of performance change needed to exceed chance and measurement error (with 90% confidence interval). The test-retest reliability for the ANAM composite score was .91. Performance significantly improved upon retest, but the effect size was small consistent with minimal practice effects. The threshold indicating change beyond chance or measurement error with 90% certainty was .9 (z-score). Findings suggest that the ANAM GNS has excellent test-retest reliability upon retest at 30 days. Small practice effects can be expected. Change greater than .9 standard deviations in the ANAM composite score is likely to represent meaningful clinical change. This paper presents initial psychometric data from the ANAM GNS and supports its use as a reliable measure of cognition.

  7. Neuropsychological effects of the CSMD1 genome-wide associated schizophrenia risk variant rs10503253.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, G

    2013-03-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10503253, located within the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene on 8p23.2, was recently identified as genome-wide significant for schizophrenia (SZ), but is of unknown function. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of this CSMD1 variant in vivo in patients and healthy participants using behavioral and imaging measures of brain structure and function. We compared carriers and non-carriers of the risk \\'A\\' allele on measures of neuropsychological performance typically impaired in SZ (general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory and attentional control) in independent samples of Irish patients (n = 387) and controls (n = 171) and German patients (205) and controls (n = 533). Across these groups, the risk \\'A\\' allele at CSMD1 was associated with deleterious effects across a number of neurocognitive phenotypes. Specifically, the risk allele was associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological measures of general cognitive ability and memory function but not attentional control. These effects, while significant, were subtle, and varied between samples. Consistent with previous evidence suggesting that CSMD1 may be involved in brain mechanisms related to memory and learning, these data appear to reflect the deleterious effects of the identified \\'A\\' risk allele on neurocognitive function, possibly as part of the mechanism by which CSMD1 is associated with SZ risk.

  8. Acute effects of ayahuasca on neuropsychological performance: differences in executive function between experienced and occasional users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine, has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow in prefrontal brain regions after acute administration to humans. Despite interactions at this level, neuropsychological studies have not found cognitive deficits in abstinent long-term users. Here, we wished to investigate the effects of acute ayahuasca intake on neuropsychological performance, specifically on working memory and executive function. Twenty-four ayahuasca users (11 long-term experienced users and 13 occasional users) were assessed in their habitual setting using the Stroop, Sternberg, and Tower of London tasks prior to and following ayahuasca intake. Errors in the Sternberg task increased, whereas reaction times in the Stroop task decreased and accuracy was maintained for the whole sample following ayahuasca intake. Interestingly, results in the Tower of London showed significantly increased execution and resolution times and number of movements for the occasional but not the experienced users. Additionally, a correlation analysis including all subjects showed that impaired performance in the Tower of London was inversely correlated with lifetime ayahuasca use. Acute ayahuasca administration impaired working memory but decreased stimulus-response interference. Interestingly, detrimental effects on higher cognition were only observed in the less experienced group. Rather than leading to increased impairment, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca was associated with reduced incapacitation. Compensatory or neuromodulatory effects associated with long-term ayahuasca intake could underlie preserved executive function in experienced users.

  9. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  10. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  11. Neuropsychological effects of irradiation and chemotherapy treatments upon children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case study of monozygotic twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.T.; Souheaver, G.T.; Berry, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to determine the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy upon cognitive functioning when used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While many studies have demonstrated a deleterious effect, others have found no significant changes in neuropsychological functioning. The uncertainty regarding the cognitive effects of these treatments is exemplified via a presentation of monozygotic twins who were evaluated via neuropsychological tests. The children received similar induction-consolidation therapy which included intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation. Neuropsychological tests yielded almost identical I.Q. patterns, however, subtle differences were noted between the children when abstract reasoning abilities, achievement tests scores, motor speed, grip strength, performance on complex tasks requiring haptic sensitivity, and fingertip sensitivity were observed. This discussion also summarizes the previous findings related to cognitive function after chemotherapy and radiation therapy and some of the confounding factors which have been noted

  12. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Gavett

    Full Text Available Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96 or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72 or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121 at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed-but not the immediate-recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls. These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants-but not participants with AD-improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects-especially on the delayed recall condition-suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  13. Neuropsychological and renal effects of dental amalgam in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Barregard, Lars; Tavares, Mary; Cernichiari, Elsa; Daniel, David; McKinlay, Sonja

    2006-04-19

    No randomized trials have been published that address the concern that inhalation of mercury vapor released by amalgam dental restorations causes adverse health effects. To compare the neuropsychological and renal function of children whose dental caries were restored using amalgam or mercury-free materials. The New England Children's Amalgam Trial was a 2-group randomized safety trial involving 5 community health dental clinics in Boston, Mass, and 1 in Farmington, Me, between September 1997 and March 2005. A total of 534 children aged 6 to 10 years at baseline with no prior amalgam restorations and 2 or more posterior teeth with caries were randomly assigned to receive dental restoration of baseline and incident caries during a 5-year follow-up period using either amalgam (n=267) or resin composite (n =267) materials. The primary neuropsychological outcome was 5-year change in full-scale IQ scores. Secondary outcomes included tests of memory and visuomotor ability. Renal glomerular function was measured by creatinine-adjusted albumin in urine. Children had a mean of 15 tooth surfaces (median, 14) restored during the 5-year period (range, 0-55). Assignment to the amalgam group was associated with a significantly higher mean urinary mercury level (0.9 vs 0.6 microg/g of creatinine at year 5, Pamalgam and composite groups in 5-year change in full-scale IQ score (3.1 vs 2.1, P = .21). The difference in treatment group change scores was 1.0 (95% confidence interval, -0.6 to 2.5) full-scale IQ score point. No statistically significant differences were found for 4-year change in the general memory index (8.1 vs 7.2, P = .34), 4-year change in visuomotor composite (3.8 vs 3.7, P = .93), or year 5 urinary albumin (median, 7.5 vs 7.4 mg/g of creatinine, P = .61). In this study, there were no statistically significant differences in adverse neuropsychological or renal effects observed over the 5-year period in children whose caries were restored using dental amalgam or

  14. Parent-of-Origin Effects in ADHD: Distinct Influences of Paternal and Maternal ADHD on Neuropsychological Functioning in Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.A.M.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined parent-of-origin effects in transmission of ADHD and neuropsychological functioning. Proof of these effects can identify more etiologically homogeneous ADHD subgroups and facilitate genetic studies. Method: The authors included 238 ADHD and 147 control families. ADHD

  15. Long-term effectiveness of combined cognitive-behavioral and neuropsychological intervention in a case of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Agustín Ernesto; Piqueras, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effectiveness of a combined cognitive-behavioral and neuropsychological intervention in a woman of 19 years old with multiple sclerosis, by evaluating functional neuroimaging, neuropsychological and psychometric testing. The results showed a partial improvement in some brain areas and brain inflammatory activity. There was an increase in attention, verbal memory, and nonverbal executive functioning as well as in the emotional state at posttest and one-year follow-up. This study indicates the need for including components of both cognitive-behavioral therapy and neuropsychological rehabilitation based on an individualized and tailored plan in standard treatments for multiple sclerosis. Future studies should further develop these contributions.

  16. Effects of Two Concussions on the Neuropsychological Functioning and Symptom Reporting of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.

  17. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    were asked to undergo a neuropsychological development exam intended to assess both general measures of cognition, such as IQ, as well as investigating their IPT. The overall neuropsychological development data were obtained through administration of standardized tests for children, as well as parental...

  18. Effects of central-nervous-system irradiation on neuropsychologic functioning of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, S.S.; Marten, G.W.; Pitner, S.E.; Duenas, D.A.; Powazek, M.

    1975-01-01

    Two neuropsychologic studies were performed to determine the long-term effects of ''prophylactic'' cranial or craniospinal irradiation on the psychologic and neurologic functions of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. In a prospective study, 34 patients with leukemia who received either craniospinal irradiation or cranial irradiation combined with intrathecal methotrexate were evaluated by standardized neurologic and psychologic examinations before and after irradiation. Their performance was compared with that of 27 controls who received irradiation to parts of the body other than the cranium. In a retrospective study, 11 patients with leukemia receiving prophylactic craniospinal irradiation and 12 controls with the disease not receiving such therapy were followed from the second year after either irradiation or the initial hematologic remission. Eighteen months after irradiation in the prospective study and four years after irradiation in the retrospective study, no noteworthy neurologic or psychologic differences were found between subjects and controls

  19. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather; Zajdel, Dan

    2007-03-01

    When two auditory stimuli of different frequency are presented to each ear, binaural beats are perceived by the listener. The binaural beat frequency is equal to the difference between the frequencies applied to each ear. Our primary objective was to assess whether steady-state entrainment of electroencephalographic activity to the binaural beat occurs when exposed to a specific binaural beat frequency as has been hypothesized. Our secondary objective was to gather preliminary data on neuropsychologic and physiologic effects of binaural beat technology. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover experiment in 4 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomized to experimental auditory stimulus of 30 minutes of binaural beat at 7 Hz (carrier frequencies: 133 Hz L; 140 Hz R) with an overlay of pink noise resembling the sound of rain on one session and control stimuli of the same overlay without the binaural beat carrier frequencies on the other session. Data were collected during two separate sessions 1 week apart. Neuropsychologic and blood pressure data were collected before and after the intervention; electroencephalographic data were collected before, during, and after listening to either binaural beats or control. Neuropsychologic measures included State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, Rey Auditory Verbal List Test, Stroop Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Spectral and coherence analysis was performed on the electroencephalogram (EEG), and all measures were analyzed for changes between sessions with and without binaural beat stimuli. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions in any of the EEG measures. There was an increase of the Profile of Mood States depression subscale in the experimental condition relative to the control condition (p = 0.02). There was also a significant decrease in immediate verbal memory recall (p = 0.03) in the experimental condition compared to control

  20. Crop Residue Biomass Effects on Agricultural Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High residue loads associated with conservation tillage and cover cropping may impede water flow in furrow irrigation and thus decrease the efficiency of water delivery and runoff water quality. In this study, the biomass residue effects on infiltration, runoff, and export of total suspended solids (TSS, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, sediment-associated carbon (TSS-C, and other undesirable constituents such as phosphate (soluble P, nitrate (, and ammonium ( in runoff water from a furrow-irrigated field were studied. Furrow irrigation experiments were conducted in 91 and 274 m long fields, in which the amount of residue in the furrows varied among four treatments. The biomass residue in the furrows increased infiltration, and this affected total load of DOC, TSS, and TSS-C. Net storage of DOC took place in the long but not in the short field because most of the applied water ran off in the short field. Increasing field length decreased TSS and TSS-C losses. Total load of , , and soluble P decreased with increasing distance from the inflow due to infiltration. The concentration and load of P increased with increasing residue biomass in furrows, but no particular trend was observed for and . Overall, the constituents in the runoff decreased with increasing surface cover and field length.

  1. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO 2 response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO 2 reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  2. Some performance effects of age and low blood alcohol levels on a computerized neuropsychological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    COGSCREEN is a computerized test battery developed for the Federal Aviation Administration as an airman neuropsychological screening instrument for cognitive functioning. This study explored a multifaceted application of the sensitivity of the batter...

  3. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins-Crépeau L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau,1,2 Nicolas Berryman,2,3 Sarah A Fraser,4 Thien Tuong Minh Vu,5,6 Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,2,6 Karen ZH Li,7 Laurent Bosquet,8 Louis Bherer2,7 1Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Research Center, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Sports Studies, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 4Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Research Center, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Department of Psychology and PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada; 8Faculté des sciences du sport, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France Purpose: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults.Methods: Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention.Results: All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training

  4. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz

    2005-01-01

    was recorded. At approximately 7 years of age, 917 (90%) of the children underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. After adjustment for confounders, breastfeeding was associated with only marginally better neuropsychological performance on most tests. These associations were robust even after adjustment...... published studies though not associated with a deficit in neuropsychological performance at age 7. Although the advantage may be less, Faroese women can still safely breastfeed their children....

  5. Effects on neuropsychological performance and sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Staub

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS may have impaired neuropsychological performance. The aim of the study is to assess neuropsychological function in OSAS patients before and on continous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy to assess different neuropsychological tests – especially of sensomotor memory – in OSAS patients, and to relate neuropsychological test results to polysomnographic findings. Therefore, 36 normal controls and 18 OSAS patients performed tests of attention capacity and memory with retrieval in the evening and the following morning. Six weeks later, the tests were repeated (patients on CPAP. Controls performed significantly better than patients in the tests of attention and of memory of facts without and on CPAP therapy. Moreover, good compliance of CPAP therapy was not associated with better performance. However, there was no significant difference between controls and patients in the tests of sensomotor memory. The neuropsychological results depended on oxygen values, the arousal index, and sleep stages. There is no group difference in overnight improvement in the neuropsychological tests, which could indicate that sleep has an important function in homeostatic regulation rather than in consolidation.

  6. Provocative and inhibitory effects of a video-EEG neuropsychologic protocol in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaranha, Mirian Salvadori Bittar; da Silva Sousa, Patrícia; de Araújo-Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Guilhoto, Laura Maria Figueiredo Ferreira; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2009-11-01

    Studies suggest that higher cognitive functions could precipitate seizures in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). The present study aimed to analyze the effects of higher mental activity on epileptiform discharges and seizures in patients with JME and compare them to those of habitual methods of activation. Seventy-six patients with JME (41 female) underwent a video-EEG (electroencephalography) neuropsychologic protocol (VNPP) and habitual methods of activation for 4-6 h. Twenty-nine of the 76 (38.2%) presented provocative effect, and inhibition was seen in 28 of 31 (90.3%). A mixed effect was observed in 11 (35.5%), and 30 patients (39.5%) suffered no effect of VNPP. Action-programming tasks were more effective than thinking in provoking epileptiform discharges (23.7% and 11.0% of patients, respectively, p = 0.03). Inhibitory effect was observed equally in the various categories of tasks, except in mental calculation, which had a higher inhibitory rate. Habitual methods of activation were more effective than VNPP in provoking discharges. Anxiety disorders were diagnosed in 24 of 58 patients (41.4%); anxious patients had greater discharge indexes and no significant inhibitory effect on VNPP. Praxis exerted the most remarkable provocative effect, in accordance with the motor circuitry hyperexcitability hypothesis in JME. Inhibitory effect, which had no such task specificity, might be mediated by a widespread cortical-thalamic pathway, possibly involving the parietal cortex. The frequent inhibitory effect found under cortical activation conditions, influenced by the presence of anxiety, supports nonpharmacologic therapeutic interventions in JME.

  7. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of a neuropsychological treatment for confabulations after brain injury: A clinical trial with theoretical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triviño, Mónica; Ródenas, Estrella; Lupiáñez, Juan; Arnedo, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Confabulators consistently generate false memories without intention to deceive and with great feelings of rightness. However, to our knowledge, there is currently no known effective treatment for them. In order to fill this gap, our aim was to design a neuropsychological treatment based on current theoretical models and test it experimentally in 20 confabulators sequentially allocated to two groups: an experimental and a control group. The experimental group received nine sessions of treatment for three weeks (three sessions per week). The sessions consisted of some brief material that participants had to learn and recall at both immediate and delayed time points. After this, patients were given feedback about their performance (errors and correct responses). Pre- and post-treatment measurements were recorded. Confabulators in the control group were included in a waiting list for three weeks, performed the pre- and post- measurements without treatment, and only then received the treatment, after which a post-treatment measurement was recorded. This applied to only half of the participants; the other half quit the study prematurely. Results showed a significant decrease in confabulations and a significant increase in correct responses in the experimental group; by contrast, patients in the control group did not improve during the waiting list period. Only control group patients who subsequently received the treatment after serving as controls improved. The effects of the treatment were generalized to patients’ everyday lives, as reported by relatives, and persisted over time. This treatment seems to be effective and easy to implement and consequently of clinical interest. Moreover, it also has theoretical implications regarding the processes related to the genesis and/or maintenance of confabulations. In particular, results point to a deficit in early stages of memory retrieval with the preservation of later strategic monitoring processes. Specifically, some of

  9. Effectiveness of a neuropsychological treatment for confabulations after brain injury: A clinical trial with theoretical implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Triviño

    Full Text Available Confabulators consistently generate false memories without intention to deceive and with great feelings of rightness. However, to our knowledge, there is currently no known effective treatment for them. In order to fill this gap, our aim was to design a neuropsychological treatment based on current theoretical models and test it experimentally in 20 confabulators sequentially allocated to two groups: an experimental and a control group. The experimental group received nine sessions of treatment for three weeks (three sessions per week. The sessions consisted of some brief material that participants had to learn and recall at both immediate and delayed time points. After this, patients were given feedback about their performance (errors and correct responses. Pre- and post-treatment measurements were recorded. Confabulators in the control group were included in a waiting list for three weeks, performed the pre- and post- measurements without treatment, and only then received the treatment, after which a post-treatment measurement was recorded. This applied to only half of the participants; the other half quit the study prematurely. Results showed a significant decrease in confabulations and a significant increase in correct responses in the experimental group; by contrast, patients in the control group did not improve during the waiting list period. Only control group patients who subsequently received the treatment after serving as controls improved. The effects of the treatment were generalized to patients' everyday lives, as reported by relatives, and persisted over time. This treatment seems to be effective and easy to implement and consequently of clinical interest. Moreover, it also has theoretical implications regarding the processes related to the genesis and/or maintenance of confabulations. In particular, results point to a deficit in early stages of memory retrieval with the preservation of later strategic monitoring processes

  10. Resection of Gliomas with and without Neuropsychological Support during Awake Craniotomy—Effects on Surgery and Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kelm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDuring awake craniotomy for tumor resection, a neuropsychologist (NP is regarded as a highly valuable partner for neurosurgeons. However, some centers do not routinely involve an NP, and data to support the high influence of the NP on the perioperative course of patients are mostly lacking.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in clinical outcomes between patients who underwent awake craniotomy with and without the attendance of an NP.MethodsOur analysis included 61 patients, all operated on for resection of a presumably language-eloquent glioma during an awake procedure. Of these 61 cases, 47 surgeries were done with neuropsychological support (NP group, whereas 14 surgeries were performed without an NP (non-NP group due to a language barrier between the NP and the patient. For these patients, neuropsychological assessment was provided by a bilingual resident.ResultsBoth groups were highly comparable regarding age, gender, preoperative language function, and tumor grades (glioma WHO grades 1–4. Gross total resection (GTR was achieved more frequently in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 61.7 vs. 28.6%, P = 0.04, which also had shorter durations of surgery (NP vs. non-NP: 240.7 ± 45.7 vs. 286.6 ± 54.8 min, P < 0.01. Furthermore, the rate of unexpected tumor residuals (estimation of the intraoperative extent of resection vs. postoperative imaging was lower in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 19.1 vs. 42.9%, P = 0.09, but no difference was observed in terms of permanent surgery-related language deterioration (NP vs. non-NP: 6.4 vs. 14.3%, P = 0.48.ConclusionWe need professional neuropsychological evaluation during awake craniotomies for removal of presumably language-eloquent gliomas. Although these procedures are routinely carried out with an NP, this is one of the first studies to provide data supporting the NP’s crucial role. Despite the small group size, our study shows

  11. Effect of MAOA promoter polymorphism and neuropsychological performance on psychopathy traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romero-Rebollar

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: These findings were according to the previous studies about abnormal emotional processing and behavioral inhibition failures reported in subjects with genetic risk for violence, as well as with studies about neuropsychological performance in psychopaths. Further the MAOA genotype moderates the relationship between orbitofrontal functioning and antisocial traits of psychopathy which is a risk factor for violence.

  12. A dose-effect analysis of children's exposure to dental amalgam and neuropsychological function: the New England Children's Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Daniel, David; Zhang, Annie; Tavares, Mary A; McKinlay, Sonja

    2007-09-01

    The New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT) was a five-year randomized trial of 534 6- to 10-year-old children that compared the neuropsychological outcomes of those whose caries were restored using dental amalgam with the outcomes of those those whose caries were restored using mercury-free resin-based composite. The primary intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant differences between the treatment groups on the primary or secondary outcomes of the administered psychological tests: Full-Scale IQ score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, General Memory Index of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and Visual-Motor Composite of the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities. To determine whether treatment group assignment, a dichotomous measure of exposure, was sufficiently sensitive to detect associations between mercury exposure and these outcomes, the authors conducted analyses to evaluate the associations between the primary and secondary outcomes and two continuously distributed indexes of potential exposure, surface-years of amalgam and urinary mercury excretion. Neither index of mercury exposure was significantly associated with any of the three outcomes. The authors found no evidence that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam was associated with any adverse neuropsychological effects over the five-year period after placement of amalgam restorations. Analyses of the outcomes of the NECAT study indicate that use of dental amalgam was not associated with an increase in children's risk of experiencing neuropsychological dysfunction.

  13. EFFECTS OF AGE, SEX, AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ON FINANCIAL DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Shivapour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we examined how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred and sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56 to 90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. After controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several additional age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation, whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation. In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants’ financial decision-making and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one’s financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources.

  14. Effects of age, sex, and neuropsychological performance on financial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivapour, Sara K; Nguyen, Christopher M; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we explored how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56-90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision-Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. However, after controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation), whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation). In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants' financial decision-making ability and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one's financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources.

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation in children with therapy-resistant epilepsy diagnosed as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: clinical results, neuropsychological effects, and cost-effectiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majoie, H.J.; Berfelo, M.W.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Evers, S.M.M.A.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Renier, W.O.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the clinical efficacy and tolerability, neuropsychological effects, and cost-effectiveness (direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs, and indirect costs) of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in children with Lennox-like syndrome (n = 16). The situation 6 months before implantation of the

  16. The Effects of Low-level Repetitive Blasts on Neuropsychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    alterations in stress and/or sleep patterns related to participation and facilitation of the course itself may have masked impairments that occur as a result...some of the cadre suffer from problems with sleep , mood, memory, concentration, and what has been referred to as a general “brain fog.” It remains...neuropsychological complaints resemble those reported by athletes , accident victims, and Soldiers diagnosed with a concussion (Boake et al., 2005; Meehan

  17. Neuropsychological profile and clinical effects of arginine treatment in children with creatine transport deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilosi, Annamaria; Casarano, Manuela; Comparini, Alessandro; Battaglia, Francesca Maria; Mancardi, Margherita Maria; Schiaffino, Cristina; Tosetti, Michela; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Battini, Roberta; Cioni, Giovanni

    2012-06-19

    SLC6A8, an X-linked gene, encodes the creatine transporter (CRTR) and its mutations lead to cerebral creatine (Cr) deficiency which results in mental retardation, speech and language delay, autistic-like behaviour and epilepsy (CRTR-D, OMIM 300352). CRTR-D represents the most frequent Cr metabolism disorder but, differently from Cr synthesis defects, that are partially reversible by oral Cr supplementation, does not respond to Cr treatment even if precociously administrated. The precursors of Cr are the non-essential amino acids Glycine (Gly) and Arginine (Arg), which have their own transporters at the brain-blood barrier level and, therefore, their supplementation appears an attractive and feasible therapeutic option aimed at stimulating Cr endogenous synthesis and, in this way, at overcoming the block of Cr transport within the brain. However, until now the effects of Arg and/or Gly supplementation on Cr brain levels and behaviour have been controversial. In this study five Italian male patients affected by CRTR-D were supplemented with oral L-Arg at a dosage of 300 mg/kg/day divided into 3 doses, for 24-36 months. Biochemical and plasmatic amino acids examinations and thyroid hormone dosages were periodically performed. Moreover, Proton and Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) was monitored during follow-up in concurrence with neuropsychological evaluations. During L-Arg treatment a clinical improvement in motor skills and to a lesser extent in communication and attention was observed. In addition, all patients had a reduction in the number and frequency of epileptic seizures. Daily living skills appeared also to be positively influenced by L-Arg treatment. Moreover, Total Cr and especially PhosphoCr, evaluated by proton and phosphorus spectroscopy, showed a mild increase, although well below the normal range. This study provides information to support the effectiveness of L-Arg supplement treatment in CTRT-D patients; in fact the syndromic

  18. Neuropsychological profile and clinical effects of arginine treatment in children with creatine transport deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilosi Annamaria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SLC6A8, an X-linked gene, encodes the creatine transporter (CRTR and its mutations lead to cerebral creatine (Cr deficiency which results in mental retardation, speech and language delay, autistic-like behaviour and epilepsy (CRTR-D, OMIM 300352. CRTR-D represents the most frequent Cr metabolism disorder but, differently from Cr synthesis defects, that are partially reversible by oral Cr supplementation, does not respond to Cr treatment even if precociously administrated. The precursors of Cr are the non-essential amino acids Glycine (Gly and Arginine (Arg, which have their own transporters at the brain–blood barrier level and, therefore, their supplementation appears an attractive and feasible therapeutic option aimed at stimulating Cr endogenous synthesis and, in this way, at overcoming the block of Cr transport within the brain. However, until now the effects of Arg and/or Gly supplementation on Cr brain levels and behaviour have been controversial. Methods In this study five Italian male patients affected by CRTR-D were supplemented with oral L-Arg at a dosage of 300 mg/kg/day divided into 3 doses, for 24–36 months. Biochemical and plasmatic amino acids examinations and thyroid hormone dosages were periodically performed. Moreover, Proton and Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS was monitored during follow-up in concurrence with neuropsychological evaluations. Results During L-Arg treatment a clinical improvement in motor skills and to a lesser extent in communication and attention was observed. In addition, all patients had a reduction in the number and frequency of epileptic seizures. Daily living skills appeared also to be positively influenced by L-Arg treatment. Moreover, Total Cr and especially PhosphoCr, evaluated by proton and phosphorus spectroscopy, showed a mild increase, although well below the normal range. Conclusion This study provides information to support the effectiveness of L

  19. Neuropsychological late effects of treatment for acute leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncadin, Caroline; Hitzler, Johann; Downie, Andrea; Montour-Proulx, Isabelle; Alyman, Cheryl; Cairney, Elizabeth; Spiegler, Brenda J

    2015-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an elevated risk of developing acute leukemia, but little is known about treatment-related neuropsychological morbidity because they are systematically excluded from research in this area. The current study investigated neuropsychological outcomes in children with DS treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared to children with DS with no history of cancer. Participants were 4 to 17 years of age at testing and were administered measures of intelligence, academic achievement, language, visual-motor and fine-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients had been off treatment for at least 2 years. The AML group (N = 12) had significantly lower verbal intelligence and receptive vocabulary compared to controls (N = 21). By contrast, the ALL group (N = 14) performed significantly worse than controls on measures of verbal intelligence, spelling, receptive and expressive vocabulary, visual-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients with DS treated for AML may have specific post-treatment morbidity in verbal function, whereas those treated for ALL have broader morbidity affecting multiple neuropsychological domains and overall adaptive function. We hypothesize that the broader impairment profile of ALL survivors may be related to a combination of the longer duration of central nervous system-directed treatment for ALL compared to AML and the concomitant limited access to intervention opportunities during active treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Residual effect of lambdacyhalothrin on Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Ferro

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal residual effect and triatomine infestation rates in houses of a community fumigated with lambdcyhalothrin (Icon are reported. No mortality was observed in 5th-instar Triatoma infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on three different surfaces, one month after fumigation for a dose of 31.5 mg am/m2. However, during post-exposure observation a mortality of 60% was recorded for those insect exposed on sprayed woodboard. The results observed with mud-containing treated walls, were markedly poorer (0% of mortality. Twelve month after spraying 40% of mortality was observed on first-instar T. infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on woodboard, but lower mortality rates were observed in mud-containing materials. When the effect of deltamethrin (109 mg ai/m2 and lambdcyhalothrin (94 mg ai/m2 was compared, the former did not appear to be superior at similar loads. Both have showed a mortality rate of 30% on 5th-instar T. infestans nymphs three months post-fumigation. The dose utilized in the field fumigation was enough to get a significant (p < 0.0001 control of triatomine domestic infestation, since it was sufficient to keep 95% of the houses uninfested throughout 21 months following treatment, when compared with baseline situation. A remarkable knock-down effect on adult and nymphs forms of the insect and a high in situ mortality were observed as a result of its application, even at very low doses.

  1. Methodologic Issues in Neuropsychological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To familiarize athletic trainers with methodologic issues regarding the development and implementation of neuropsychological tests used in programs for monitoring sport-related cerebral concussion. Data Sources: Knowledge base and MEDLINE and PsychLit searches from 1980–2000 using the terms sports, athletes, concussion, and brain. Data Synthesis: Neuropsychological testing is a proven method for evaluating symptoms of concussion that results from a variety of different causes. These tests have been shown to be effective in evaluating symptoms of subtle cognitive dysfunction in a number of patient groups. Applying these tests in an athletic population has required some procedural modifications, including the use of brief test batteries, collection of preseason baseline data, and evaluation of subtle postconcussive changes in test scores over time. New methods are now being used for improved evaluation of the reliability and validity of neuropsychological tests in athletes. Proper scientific analysis of the psychometric properties of neuropsychological tests and the ultimate value of their use in the sport setting will require years of detailed study on large numbers of athletes with and without symptoms of concussion. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers and related personnel need to be aware of the training and methodologic issues associated with neuropsychological testing. Knowledge of the scientific properties of these tests, their advantages, and current limitations will ultimately enhance the athletic trainer's ability to use information from neuropsychological testing in an effective manner. PMID:12937499

  2. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  3. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...... of recommendations. This paper addresses general principles of residual N effects, gives literature-based estimates of them, and reviews to which extent residual N effects are included in ecommendations and regulations in selected countries....

  4. Effects of childhood sexual abuse on neuropsychological and cognitive function in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalta, Carryl P; Polcari, Ann; Webster, Danielle M; Boghossian, Ani; Teicher, Martin H

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six college women with a history of repeated childhood sexual abuse were recruited from the community and compared with 19 healthy female collegiate subjects on neurocognitive measures. Abused subjects showed increased response latency variability and diminished inhibitory capacity during a GO/NO-GO/STOP vigilance task. A strong association was found between duration of abuse and memory impairments. Math Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were significantly lower in abused subjects when matched against comparison subjects and when compared to their own Verbal SAT scores. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be associated with a constellation of neuropsychological deficiencies even in a group of relatively healthy women.

  5. Are There Subconcussive Neuropsychological Effects in Youth Sports? An Exploratory Study of High- and Low-Contact Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the neuropsychological effects of sports-related head trauma-specifically, repetitive subconcussive impacts or head blows that do not result in a diagnosable concussion. The researchers compared the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test scores of 2 groups of nonconcussed youth athletes (n = 282), grouped according to the frequency of concussions in their respective sports, with the assumption that more subconcussive impacts occur in sports in which there are more reported concussions. The results indicated that high-contact-sport (football) athletes had significantly poorer performance in processing speed and reaction time compared with athletes in low-contact sports (wrestling, soccer, baseball, judo, and basketball). This study into the effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma tentatively raises concern that participation in high-contact sports, even without evidence of a diagnosable concussion, could result in lowered neuropsychological functioning among high school athletes. Limitations of this exploratory research effort are discussed.

  6. [Organophosphate pesticides and neuropsychological and motor effects in the Maule Region, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Muñoz, María Pía; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Grillo, Angela; Brito, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate organophosphate pesticide exposure and neuropsychological and motor performance in agricultural and non-agricultural workers in the Maule Region in Chile. Analytic cross-sectional study in 93 exposed farm workers and 84 unexposed non-agricultural workers. A battery of four neuropsychological tests was administered together with a neuro-motor physical examination. On the Weschler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-IV), exposed agricultural workers exhibited poorer performance than non-agricultural workers in verbal comprehension (β=-3.2; p=0.034) and processing speed (β=-4.4; p=0.036) and in the full scale (β=-4; p=0.016), as well as in discrimination sensitivity (β=1, p=0,009), adjusted by years of schooling and/or age. We suggest the development of policies and regulations for the control, sale and use of organophosphate pesticides and intervention strategies on safety measures aimed at the exposed population. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effects of a neuropsychology program based on mindfulness on Alzheimer's disease: randomized double-blind clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Hernández, Domingo Jesús; Miró Barrachina, María Teresa; Ibáñez Fernández, Ignacio; del Pino, Angelo Santana; García Rodríguez, Javie r; Hernández, Jaime Rojas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess effects of a mindfulness based neuropsychological intervention on the clinical course of Alzheimer's disease. A two year randomized and double blind clinical trial was conducted on 127 probable Alzheimer's disease patients, according to NINCDS-ADRDA scale. Patients were grouped into three experimental groups (cognitive stimulation, progressive muscular relaxation, and mindfulness) plus a control group. All participants were receiving donepezil. Cognitive skills were assessed with CAMCOG and MMSE, functional area with RDRS-2, and NPI was used for psychopathology screening. Three treatment sessions per week were carried out for two years, and follow up measurements were taken every six months. The global cognitive function, functionality and behavioral disorders measurements indicated that patients from the experimental group based on mindfulness were stable during the two years, while patients from the control group, as well as the other experimental groups, showed a mild but significant worsening of their mental capacities. The mindfulness based neuropsychological program showed better cognitive and functional stability, as well as significant improvement in the psychopathological condition of mild to moderate Alzheimer' patients. These results support the idea that a mindfulness based intervention can produce a clinically relevant improvement in the treatment of dementia. More research is needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  9. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  10. Impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Parsons, Thomas D; Reynolds, Brooke L; Bedford, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Guides to neuropsychological assessment emphasize the importance of establishing rapport; however, there has been a minimal amount of empirical investigation of the impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance. In this experiment, participants (N = 98) were randomly assigned to take neuropsychological tests in either a high or low rapport condition. Results showed that we were able to manipulate the level of rapport and that the level of rapport had a significant effect on the Grooved Pegboard Test and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, with other tests nearing statistical significance. These results suggest that the level of rapport may affect neuropsychological test performance.

  11. Cognitive effects of MBSR/MBCT: A systematic review of neuropsychological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, So-An; Kissane, David; Meadows, Graham

    2016-10-01

    Mindfulness is theorised to improve attention regulation and other cognitive processes. This systematic review examines whether 8-week standardised and manualised mindfulness training programs such as Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) enhances attention, memory and executive function abilities measured by objective neuropsychological tests. Seven databases were searched resulting in 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria for review. Overall studies did not support attention or executive function improvements. We found preliminary evidence for improvements in working memory and autobiographical memory as well as cognitive flexibility and meta-awareness. Short-term mindfulness meditation training did not enhance theorised attentional pathways. Results call into question the theoretical underpinnings of mindfulness, further highlighting the need for a comprehensive theoretical framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The stroop effect in Greek healthy population: normative data for the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalonis, Ioannis; Christidi, Fotini; Bonakis, Anastasios; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I; Paraskevas, Georgios; Kapaki, Elissavet; Vasilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2009-02-01

    The Stroop Test is a quick and frequently used measure in screening for brain damage, dysfunction of selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. The purpose of the present study is to provide normative data for Trenerry's Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST) in a sample of 605 healthy Greek participants (age range: 18-84 years, education range: 6-18 years). Results revealed that age and education significantly contributed to SNST scores, accounting for a significant proportion of variance in time needed to complete the color task and in the interference Color-Word score. Performance on most of the measures decreases with increasing age and lower levels of education. Normative data stratified by age and education for the Greek adult population are provided as a useful set of norms for clinical practice.

  13. EFFECTS OF MUCUNA ( MUCUNA UTILIS L.) RESIDUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at two locations: University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB) and Olowo-Papa (OP) in Ogun state both in Forest-savannah transition zone of Nigeria to investigate the response of three upland rice cultivars (O.sativa) to mucuna residue incorporation and Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the ...

  14. Effect of Duration of Breastfeeding on Neuropsychological Development at 10 to 12 Years of Age in a Cohort of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Bisiacchi, Patrizia; Tarantino, Vincenza; Chiarotti, Flavia; D'elia, Lidia; De Mei, Barbara; Romano, Mariateresa; Gesualdo, Francesco; Salmaso, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article was to explore the effect of duration of breastfeeding on neurocognitive development. Method: The long-term effect of breastfeeding on neurodevelopment was examined through a battery of neuropsychological tests in 1403 children (693 females, 710 males; mean age 11y 9mo [SD 6mo], range: 10y 3mo-12y 8mo) who were…

  15. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Belzunces dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. METHOD: 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9±2.95 months of formal education and Group 2, 47.8±10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. RESULTS: The mean IQ was 77.1±5.50 and 79.4±3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001. Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2% and language (52.9% vs 25.7%. CONCLUSION: LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  16. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Erich Belzunces; Tudesco, Ivanda de Souza Silva; Caboclo, Luis Otávio S F; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2011-10-01

    To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP) of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA) on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP) suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9 ± 2.95 months of formal education) and Group 2, 47.8 ± 10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. The mean IQ was 77.1 ± 5.50 and 79.4 ± 3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001). Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2%) and language (52.9% vs 25.7%). LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  17. Neuropsychological effects of deep brain stimulation in subjects with early stage Parkinson's disease in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, Michael G; Molinari, Anna L; Konrad, Peter E; Davis, Thomas L; Wylie, Scott A; Neimat, Joseph S; May, Alexandra T; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Gill, Chandler E; Salomon, Ronald M; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Charles, David

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and motor symptom complications. Recently, attention has been focused on whether offering DBS earlier in the course of PD is beneficial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of DBS on neuropsychological functioning in subjects with early stage PD. Thirty subjects with early PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication) were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS+ODT (n = 15) after completing an expanded informed consent process specially designed for the study and administered by a medical ethicist and the study team. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing was completed in the treatment-withdrawn state at baseline and at 12 month and 24 month follow-ups. Two serious adverse events occurred in the DBS+ODT group. One subject experienced a stroke and another developed infected hardware that contributed to specific declines in cognitive functioning. However, compared to the ODT group, the remaining subjects in the DBS+ODT group exhibited modest reductions on a few measures of attention, executive function, and word fluency at 12 months. These differences were largely diminished at 24 months, especially when those with the adverse events were excluded. The results of this trial provide novel data regarding the effects of DBS on cognitive function in early PD. We believe that the findings and insights from this trial can help guide the safety analysis and risk-benefit evaluations in future discussions of DBS in early stage PD.

  18. Comparative effects of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of Southeast Nigeria to assess the effects of amending soil with plant residues on soil physical and chemical properties. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, ...

  19. Comparative effect of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of southeast Nigeria to access the effect of amending soil with plant residues on maize performance. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, combination of wood ash ...

  20. Test-retest reliability and practice effects of the computerized neuropsychological test battery CNS Vital Signs : Evaluation in a Dutch healthy sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, S.D.; Rijnen, S.J.M.; Emons, W.H.M.; Sitskoorn, M.M.; Gehring, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: CNS Vital Signs (CNS VS) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery that is translated into many languages. Test-retest reliability and potential practice effects of CNS VS were evaluated. Method: Dutch healthy participants were tested with CNS VS (T0), and retested after 3 (T1)

  1. Neuropsychological functioning in military pesticide applicators from the Gulf War: Effects on information processing speed, attention and visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kimberly; Krengel, Maxine; Bradford, William; Stone, Callie; Thompson, Terri Ann; Heeren, Timothy; White, Roberta F

    1991 Gulf War (GW) veterans continue to experience debilitating cognitive and mood problems more than two decades following their return from deployment. Suspected causes for these cognitive complaints include additive and/or synergistic effects of the varying combinations of exposures to chemicals in theater, including pesticides and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills. This study was undertaken to address one of the key recommendations of the US Department of Defense Environmental Exposure Report on Pesticides, which was to conduct an epidemiological study to further evaluate the role of neurotoxicant exposures in the expression of central nervous system symptoms reported by GW veterans. This study evaluated the role of pesticides and/or PB in the development of chronic neuropsychological dysfunction in GW veterans. We examined the associations between self-reported measures of pesticide and PB exposures and performance on neuropsychological tests in a group of 159 GW-deployed preventative medicine personnel who had varying levels of pesticide exposures during their work as pesticide applicators or other preventative medicine roles. These veterans had a unique knowledge of pesticides and their usage during the war. It was hypothesized that pesticide applicator personnel with higher exposures would perform significantly worse on objective cognitive measures than lower-exposed personnel and that multiple chemical exposures (pesticide and PB) would further diminish cognitive functioning and increase mood complaints. Study results showed that the participants with both high pesticide and high PB exposure performed worse on specific measures than the groups with high single exposures or low exposures to both toxicants. High combined exposure was associated with significantly slower information processing reaction times, attentional errors, worse visual memory functioning, and increased mood complaints. In addition, stepwise regression analyses of individual pesticide

  2. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of residual stresses on hydrogen permeation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Bercot, P.; Takadoum, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on electrochemical permeation in iron membrane was investigated. Four thermal and mechanical treatments were chosen to obtain different surface states in relation to the residual stresses. Residual stresses were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Macherauch and Mueller method. The results were completed by the microhardness measurements. For all iron membranes, compressive residual stresses were obtained. Electrochemical permeation experiments using a Devanathan and Stachurski cell were employed to determine the hydrogen permeation behaviour of the various iron membranes. The latter was charged with hydrogen by galvanostatic cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH at 25 deg. C. The experimental results revealed that hydrogen permeation rate increases with increasing residual stresses introduced in iron membranes.

  4. International growth of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Neuropsychological function in homeless mentally ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, L J; Caplan, B B; Tolomiczenko, G S; Turner, W M; Penk, W E; Schutt, R K; Goldfinger, S M

    1997-01-01

    Because little data are available on the neuropsychological functioning of severely and persistently mentally ill (SPMI) persons who are homeless, our primary goal was to describe accurately and extensively the general neuropsychological functioning of a large group of such homeless individuals. In addition, we have sought to examine the relationship between some neuropsychological functions and demographic, illness, and clinical state measures in this population. A 5-hour neuropsychological test battery was administered to 116 SPMI homeless individuals. Neuropsychological, diagnostic, substance abuse, clinical, and psychopathology data were obtained in a standardized manner. SPMI homeless individuals were significantly impaired on a wide range of neuropsychological functions. Specific test performances were most significantly related to precursor variables (level of education and parental socioeconomic status) and state variables (level of psychosis and anticholinergic medication dose). Gender and substance abuse had significant effects limited to sustained attention. Neuropsychological performance was impaired in this sample of homeless SPMI persons. Further research, using profile analysis to directly compare groups composed of homeless persons without psychiatric illness or demographically matched persons of comparable psychiatric status who are not homeless will help clarify the role of homelessness and psychosis on neuropsychological function.

  6. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    Residues from crops left on the soil surface have an impact on the microclimate, primarily temperature, within the soil and the atmosphere; but, the impact on the biological system is largely unknown. Residue is assumed to have a positive impact on the biological system in the soil and a negative impact on crop growth. This report investigates the effect of standing residue on the microclimate surrounding a cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in a semi-arid environment and the effect of flat residue on the seasonal soil temperature and soil water regimes in a humid climate with a corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system. A study was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in a semi-arid climate at Lubbock, Texas using standing wheat stubble to shelter cotton from wind. In this study soil water, microclimatic variables, and plant growth were measured within standing stubble and bare soil during the early vegetative growth period. Air temperatures were warmer at night within the standing residue and the air more humid throughout the day. This led to a reduction in the soil water evaporation rate and an increase in the water use efficiency of the cotton plant within the stubble. Studies on corn residue with continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations with no-till, chiselplow, and moldboard plow tillage practices in central Iowa showed that the average soil temperatures in the upper soil profile were not affected by the presence of flat residue after tillage. Diurnal temperature ranges were most affected by the residue throughout the year. The largest effect of the residue on soil temperature was in the fall after harvest when no-till fields cooled more slowly than tilled fields. In the spring, surface residue decreased the soil water evaporation rate and increased the soil water storage within the soil profile covered with residue. In years with below normal rainfall, the additional stored soil water due to the surface residue was used by the

  7. Arginine residues are more effective than lysine residues in eliciting the cellular uptake of onconase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundlass, Nadia K; Raines, Ronald T

    2011-11-29

    Onconase is an amphibian member of the pancreatic ribonuclease family of enzymes that is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Onconase, which has an abundance of lysine residues, is internalized by cancer cells through endocytosis in a mechanism similar to that of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we compare the effect of lysine versus arginine residues on the biochemical attributes necessary for Onconase to elicit its cytotoxic activity. In the variant R-Onconase, 10 of the 12 lysine residues in Onconase are replaced with arginine, leaving only the two active-site lysines intact. Cytometric assays quantifying internalization showed a 3-fold increase in the internalization of R-Onconase compared with Onconase. R-Onconase also showed greater affinity for heparin and a 2-fold increase in ribonucleolytic activity. Nonetheless, arginine substitution endowed only a slight increase in toxicity toward human cancer cells. Analysis of denaturation induced with guanidine-HCl showed that R-Onconase has less conformational stability than does the wild-type enzyme; moreover, R-Onconase is more susceptible to proteolytic degradation. These data indicate that arginine residues are more effective than lysine in eliciting cellular internalization but can compromise other aspects of protein structure and function.

  8. The effect of shunt surgery on neuropsychological performance in normal pressure hydrocephalus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Katie; Savulich, George Joseph; Jackson, Dan; Killikelly, Clare; Pickard, John Douglas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a systematic review of the literature and used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the impact of shunt surgery on neuropsychological performance in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Methods: Twenty-three studies with 1,059 patients were identified for review using PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and manual searching. Inclusion criteria were prospective, within-subject investigations of cognitive outcome using neuropsychological assessment b...

  9. Effect of pasteurization on the residues of tetracyclines in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kellnerová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to determine the effect of high pasteurization of milk (85 °C/3 s on the residues of tetracycline and oxytetracycline. The samples of raw cow’s milk, purchased from a vending machine, were spiked with standard solutions of tetracycline and oxytetracycline. The content of the residues of tetracycline antibiotics was measured before and after heating. Pre-cleaned samples were extracted by a mixed-mode solid phase extraction technique and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection. Whereas the residues of tetracycline decreased only by 5.74% and were not significantly different (P > 0.05, the residues of oxytetracycline decreased by 15.3% and this distinction was highly significant (P ≤ 0.01. Based on the results of our study, the tetracycline antibiotics were proved to have differences in the thermostability of particular substances at pasteurisation temperatures.

  10. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  11. Residual effects of intranasal methamphetamine on sleep, mood, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Marrone, Gina; Silver, Rae; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Although intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased, there are no published data investigating the residual effects of the drug under controlled conditions. Thus, the current study examined the residual effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine abusers (n = 11) completed this two-week, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. The study consisted of 4 two-day blocks of sessions; each block was separated by at least 24 hrs. At approximately 1000 hrs, on the first day of each block, participants received one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, 50 mg/70 kg). Lights were turned out at 2300 hrs that evening and sleep measures were assessed. On the morning of the second day of each block, methamphetamine plasma levels, cardiovascular measures, mood, subjective reports of the previous evening's sleep, and psychomotor performance were assessed to determine residual drug effects. The larger methamphetamine doses (25 and 50 mg) markedly disrupted subjective measures of that night's sleep and some indices of next-day mood, but only the largest dose (50 mg) dose decreased objective measures of that night's sleep and increased next-day physiological measures. Methamphetamine did not produce any negative residual effects on early next-day performance. Future studies should assess methamphetamine-related residual effects following repeated doses administered over consecutive days. PMID:18078723

  12. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  13. Stereotype contrast effect on neuropsychological assessment of contact-sport players: The moderating role of locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect). We predicted that effort and anxiety would mediate these effects. Contact-sport players and non-contact-sport players ("control" group) were randomly assigned to one condition (diagnosis threat or neutral) and then completed attention, executive, episodic memory, and working memory tasks. Regarding mediating and moderating variables, participants rated their effort and anxiety (self-report measures) and completed the Levenson (1974) locus of control scale. Regression-based path analyses were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effects. As expected, there was no effect of condition on the control group's performance. Contact-sport players with moderate and high levels of internal control outperformed (contrast effect) on executive and episodic memory tasks following diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition. Additionally, the less anxiety moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants felt, the better they performed on episodic memory and executive tasks. However, contact-sport players low in internal control did not underperform (assimilation effect) under diagnosis threat. Our results suggest that diagnosis threat instructions may have challenged moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants, leading them to outperform compared to the neutral condition. Individuals who have moderate and high levels of internal locus of control may have higher

  14. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  15. Don't Judge a Book by its Cover: Examiner Expectancy Effects Predict Neuropsychological Performance for Individuals Judged as Chronic Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodos, Louise M; Hirst, Rayna B; Watson, Jessica; Vaughn, Dylan

    2018-01-12

    The experimenter expectancy effect confound remains largely unexplored in neuropsychological research and has never been investigated among cannabis users. This study investigated whether examiner expectancies of cannabis user status affected examinees' neuropsychological performance. Participants included 41 cannabis users and 20 non-users. Before testing, examiners who were blind to participant user status privately rated whether they believed the examinee was a cannabis user or non-user. Examiners then administered a battery of neuropsychological and performance validity measures. Multiple regression analyses compared performance between examinees judged as cannabis users (n = 37) and those judged as non-users (n = 24). Examiners' judgments of cannabis users were 75% accurate; judgments of non-users were at chance. After controlling for age, gender, and actual user status, examiner judgments of cannabis user status predicted performance on two measures (California Verbal Learning Test-II, and Trail Making Test B; p < .05), as individuals judged as cannabis users obtained lower scores than those judged as non-users. Examiners' judgments of cannabis user status predicted performance even after controlling for actual user status, indicating vulnerability to examiner expectancy effects. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings, as scores may partially reflect examiners' expectations regarding cannabis effects rather than participants' cognitive abilities. These results demonstrate the need for expectancy effect research in the neuropsychological assessment of all populations, not just cannabis users. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Neurological and neuropsychological effects of cerebral spinal fluid shunting in children with assumed arrested ("normal pressure") hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, R D; Leibrock, L G; Gustavson, J L; Sundell, R R

    1985-08-01

    Normocephalic children found to have ventriculomegaly during evaluation of long-standing (4.5-8.5 years) neurological disorder were tested for academic achievement, intellectual quotient and neuropsychological functioning. Radioactive iodinated serum cisternography, pre and post-shunt electrophysiological studies (visual evoked responses, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, sleep electroencephalograms) and radiological studies (skull radiographs computed tomography) were recorded. Four children who have been followed more than one year after insertion of ventricular-peritoneal shunts are presented. All demonstrated improvement in psychometric findings along with some improvement in CT scan and EEG studies. The most marked initial changes were noted on measures of neuropsychological performance, accompanied later by improvement in measures of intelligence. Achievement test scores showed no consistent pattern of change. This sample suggests that there is a group of asymptomatic children with apparent clinically stable (arrested) hydrocephalus in whom abnormal neuropsychological testing indicates the need for cerebrospinal fluid shunting, with subsequent improvement.

  17. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  18. Characterizing neurocognitive late effects in childhood leukemia survivors using a combination of neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Plas, Ellen; Erdman, Lauren; Nieman, Brian J; Weksberg, Rosanna; Butcher, Darci T; O'connor, Deborah L; Aufreiter, Susanne; Hitzler, Johann; Guger, Sharon L; Schachar, Russell J; Ito, Shinya; Spiegler, Brenda J

    2017-10-10

    Knowledge about cognitive late effects in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is largely based on standardized neuropsychological measures and parent reports. To examine whether cognitive neuroscience paradigms provided additional insights into neurocognitive and behavioral late effects in ALL survivors, we assessed cognition and behavior using a selection of cognitive neuroscience tasks and standardized measures probing domains previously demonstrated to be affected by chemotherapy. 130 ALL survivors and 158 control subjects, between 8 and 18 years old at time of testing, completed the n-back (working memory) and stop-signal (response inhibition) tasks. ALL survivors also completed standardized measures of intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scales [WISC-IV]), motor skills (Grooved Pegboard), math abilities (WIAT-III), and executive functions (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System). Parents completed behavioral measures of executive functions (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function [BRIEF]) and attention (Conners-3). ALL survivors exhibited deficiencies in working memory and response inhibition compared with controls. ALL survivors also exhibited deficits on WISC-IV working memory and processing speed, Grooved Pegboard, WIAT-III addition and subtraction fluency, and numerical operations, as well as DKEFS number-letter switching. Parent reports suggested more attention deficits (Conners-3) and behavioral difficulties (BRIEF) in ALL survivors compared with referenced norms. Low correspondence between standardized and experimental measures of working memory and response inhibition was noted. The use of cognitive neuroscience paradigms complements our understanding of the cognitive deficits evident after treatment of ALL. These measures could further delineate cognitive processes involved in neurocognitive late effects, providing opportunities to explore their underlying mechanisms.

  19. The moderating effect of estimated pre-morbid IQ on the relationship between neuropsychological status and subjective well-being after brain tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Dwan, Toni; Chambers, Suzanne; Walker, David G; Shum, David H K

    2014-03-01

    People with brain tumour experience complex and distressing symptoms. Neuropsychological impairment is proposed to have a negative impact on subjective well-being; however, research is yet to examine the influence of estimated premorbid IQ on this relationship. This preliminary study investigated the moderating effect of estimated premorbid IQ on the relationship between global neuropsychological status (GNF) and depression and quality of life. 73 adults (51% male) aged 21-65 years with primary brain tumour (52% benign) were administered a test battery assessing estimated premorbid IQ, GNF, depression (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales) and quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy, FACT). A series of two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for education found a significant interaction between estimated premorbid IQ (low average to average vs high average) and GNF (low vs high) on levels of depression (p IQ and low GNF reported better well-being than those with low-average to average estimated premorbid IQ and low GNF. Higher GNF was related to greater functional well-being (p IQ. The finding that higher premorbid cognitive ability buffers the effect of neuropsychological impairment on emotional well-being after brain tumour advances understanding of the role of cognitive reserve in adjustment to neurological disorders. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  1. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  2. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  3. Neuropsychological assessment of memory in child and adolescent first episode psychosis: cannabis and «the paradox effect».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Granados, Josefa María; Ferrín, Maite; Salcedo-Marín, Dolores M; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of neuropsychological functioning in First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) has led to the publication of a growing number of studies in this area of research. The present study pursued three goals: First, to examine verbal and visual memory in a sample of Child and Adolescent FEP, second, to evaluate the effect of other cognitive domains on verbal and visual memory, and finally, to examine the relationship between performance in this cognitive dimension and the use of cannabis at this age. A sample of 41 FEPs and 39 healthy subjects were evaluated. The variables assessed were verbal and visual memory, attention, working memory, processing speed, mental flexibility, verbal fluency, motor coordination, planning ability and intelligence. Our results found impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal memory, and short-term visual memory in early psychosis. They also found relationships between cognitive dimensions, such as visual memory and intelligence and motor coordination. Finally, a «paradoxical» effect was found in patients who used cannabis, as the FEP consumers performed the visual memory test better than those who had not used it. Patients showed impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal information and short-term visual reproduction. In the second place, motor coordination and intelligence influenced short-term visual memory in patients in the early stages of the illness. Third, use of cannabis in patients with FEP was associated with better performance in the test that evaluated the short-term visual memory, as measured by task completion time, that is, efficiency in performing the test. However, when measured by task execution accuracy, their visual memory was no better than the controls. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  5. Direct and residual effects of phosphate fertilizer on maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term field experiments were conducted for 13 cropping seasons on a Typic Paleustult in Ghana to study response of maize (Zea mays L.) to P fertilization, evaluate the relative efficiency of broadcast versus band applications, estimate residual effects of applied P and determine the critical P level for maize. The results ...

  6. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  7. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. ... Placebo drink group (Group P, n = 30) received water in the same protocol as Group C. The Student's t‑test was used to analyze RGV and pH postoperative satisfaction and postoperative nausea and vomiting ...

  8. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  9. The Effect of Central Nervous System Penetration Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on Neuropsychological Performance and Neuroimaging in HIV Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurie M; Paul, Robert H; Heaps-Woodruff, Jodi M; Chang, Jee Yoon; Ortega, Mario; Margolin, Zachary; Usher, Christina; Basco, Brian; Cooley, Sarah; Ances, Beau M

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of HIV-associated dementia has been greatly reduced in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however milder forms of cognitive impairment persist. It remains uncertain whether HAART regimens with a high degree of central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) exert beneficial neurological outcomes in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals on stable treatment. Sixty-four HIV-infected adults on HAART were assigned a CPE score using a published ranking system and divided into high (≥7; n = 35) and low (testing in addition to structural neuroimaging. Neuropsychological tests included measures known to be sensitive to HIV with values converted into standardized scores (NPZ-4) based on published normative scores. A semi-automated methodology was utilized to assess brain volumetrics within cortical (grey and white matter) and subcortical (thalamus, caudate, putamen) regions of interest. Analyses assessed NPZ-4 and brain volumetric differences between HIV+ individuals with high and low CPE scores. No significant differences in brain integrity were observed between the two groups. Long-term HAART regimens with a high degree of CPE were not associated with significantly improved neuropsychological or neuroimaging outcomes in HIV+ adults. Results suggest that alternate mechanisms may potentially contribute to better neurological outcomes in the era of HAART.

  10. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  11. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropsychological effects of bilateral STN stimulation in Parkinson disease - A controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, HMM; Koning-Haanstra, M; Schuurman, PR; Nijssen, P; van Laar, T; Schmand, B; Speelman, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and behavioral effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: The authors included 103 patients; 99 patients were evaluated 6 months after surgery. A control group of 39 patients with PD was formed and

  13. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate) in adult males with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaydaa A Shehata; Abd El-aziz M Bateh; Sherifa A Hamed; et al

    2009-01-01

    Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were asse...

  15. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Sinanović, Osman; Karamehić, Jasenko; Jakubović, Rusid

    2002-12-01

    A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years). Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercury levels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercury concentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53%) workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend 2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire). The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ). Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking, were significantly differed compared to those of controls (p trend < 0. 001). In 24 (52%) exposed to mercury workers we have determined ego strength loss and regressive defensive mechanisms (LB). Handwriting disturbances-micrography we have identified in 27 (58.7%) workers.

  16. The Effects of Stress on Neuropsychological Tests of Attention and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-14

    stressors (eg. , impending lumbar puncture; impending examination; death in the family ). If those stressors can be identified, and the effects of...sclerosis, previous brain surgery. 6. Visual impairments, and learning and/or reading disorders, including dyslexia . 7. Current psychoactive medications...mail or Itud1ed at home to help you 11:1 your work? C. BCIfE AND FAMILY V1th1n ttle time perioda lilted, hII’Ve yO\\l, erperienced: 14. a change in

  17. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate) in adult males with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Bateh, Abd El-aziz M; Hamed, Sherifa A; Rageh, Tarek A; Elsorogy, Yaser B

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for >/=1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition), Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030), bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036) and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020). Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis). The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040), verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001) and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000), and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009), psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001) and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045). This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance in cognition, mood and behavior. Duration of drug intake and the number of the utilized AEDs are the main confounding variables. This study did not provide clues on how to exclude the effect of epilepsy itself and psychosocial variables as additional important confounding variables.

  18. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate in adult males with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaydaa A Shehata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for ≥1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition, Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.Results: Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030, bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036 and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020. Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis. The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040, verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000, and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009, psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045.Conclusions: This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance

  19. First experiences with neuropsychological effects of oxytocin administration in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Özyurt, Jale; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Thiel, Christiane M; Müller, Hermann L

    2017-04-01

    The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin plays a major role in regulation of behavior and body composition. Quality of survival is frequently impaired in childhood craniopharyngioma patients due to sequelae such as behavioral deficits and severe obesity caused by tumor or treatment-related hypothalamic lesions. In our pilot cross-sectional study, we analyzed emotion recognition abilities and oxytocin concentrations in saliva and urine before and after single nasal administration of 24 IU oxytocin in 10 craniopharyngioma patients. Four craniopharyngioma presented with grade I lesions (limited to anterior hypothalamic areas) and 6 craniopharyngioma with grade II lesions (involving mammillary bodies and posterior hypothalamic areas). Emotional tasks were assessed before and after administration of oxytocin using the Geneva multimodal emotion portrayals corpus and the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire. All patients presented with detectable levels of oxytocin before administration. Nasal administration of oxytocin was well-tolerated and resulted in increased oxytocin concentrations in saliva and urine. After oxytocin administration, craniopharyngioma patients with postsurgical lesions limited to the anterior hypothalamus area showed improvements in emotional identifications compared to craniopharyngioma patients with lesions of anterior and posterior hypothalamic areas. Focusing on correct assignments to positive and negative emotion categories, craniopharyngioma patients improved assignment to negative emotions. Oxytocin might have positive effects on emotion perception in craniopharyngioma patients with specific lesions of the anterior hypothalamic area. Further studies on larger cohorts are warranted.

  20. Neuropsychological approaches to epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Melissa; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Gobbi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission report on classification and terminology indicates that "diagnosing an individual as having an encephalopathic course requires demonstration of a failure to develop as expected relative to the same-aged peers or to regress in abilities." In this chapter, basing our discussion on the theoretical framework of neuroconstructivism, on the latest results deriving from functional neuroimaging and on the concept of system epilepsy, we use continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) as an example of how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep spikes interfere with the organization and consolidation of neuropsychological networks in the sensitive phase of development, affecting also interconnected systems. Indeed, recent discoveries show that the normal overnight downscaling of slow wave activity (SWA) from the first to the last hours of sleep is absent in electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) patients, thus impairing the neural process and possibly the local plastic changes associated with learning and other cognitive functions. Moreover, specific patterns of spike-induced activation (especially in perisylvian and/or prefrontal areas) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) have been shown in patients with CSWS. Consequently, to date, we may conceive that the possible mechanisms underlying neuropsychological disorders in encephalopathic epilepsy (EE) may be double, since NREM sleep interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) induce both a pathologic activation in epileptogenic areas and a pathologic deactivation of DMN beyond the epileptogenic zone. The growing body of literature on the effects of ESES in CSWS provides us with increasing knowledge on the complexity of brain development and a better understanding of plasticity, enlightening the pathogenesis of damage on developing neuropsychological functions. Finally, the need for an individually tailored interpretation of the neuropsychological

  1. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  2. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  3. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  4. Early life intervention with glucocorticoids has negative effects on motor development and neuropsychological function in 14-17 year-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Wolbeek, Maike; de Sonneville, Leo M J; de Vries, Willem B; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Veen, Sylvia; Kornelisse, René F; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam; Baerts, Wim; Liem, Kian D; van Bel, Frank; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2013-07-01

    To reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, preterm infants receive neonatal treatment with glucocorticoids, mostly dexamethasone (DEX). Compared to current protocols, treatment regimens of the late 1980s - early 1990s prescribed high doses of DEX for an extensive period up to 6 weeks. Worldwide at least one million children have been treated with this dose regimen. Previous studies have shown adverse effects of neonatal treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) on outcome in children aged 7-10 years. On the other hand, treatment with another glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone (HC), was not related to adverse effects in childhood. In the current study we determined the consequences of early life intervention with DEX or HC in adolescents (age 14-17 years). Besides motor function and intellectual capacities, we also examined fundamental neuropsychological functions which have so far received little attention. In an observational cohort study we compared 14-17 year-old adolescents who received DEX (.5 mg/kg/day tapering off to .1 mg/kg/day over 21 days, n=63), or HC (5 mg/kg/day tapering off to 1 mg/kg/day over 22 days, n=67), or did not receive neonatal glucocorticoids (untreated, n=71) after premature birth (gestational ageeffects on motor function, school level, and neuropsychological functions, whereas treatment with the clinically equally effective dose of 5 mg/kg/day HC was not. Potential physiological mechanisms underlying the differences in dexamethasone and hydrocortisone effects are discussed. Based on the current findings, we recommend early identification of neuropsychological deficits after DEX treatment in order to specify extra educational needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Universal relationship connecting various two-body effective residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuepfer, W.; Huber, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Starting from a momentum space analysis of the two-body matrix elements, a relation has been established between the size of the model space actually used in a specific calculation and the relevant properties of the effective residual interaction. It turns out that the two-body transition density acts like a filter function on the Fourier transform of the force; it exhibits a distinct structure which clearly reflects the size and the detailed properties of the configuration space actually used. From an investigation of this filter function an equivalence criterion for different effective residual two-body interactions has been established both for closed and open shell nuclei. This result can be used to construct simple although realistic effective forces. As an example, a model for a separable residual interaction is proposed in which the corresponding parameters are being clearly related to the nuclear radius (i.e., the mass number), to the quantum numbers (i.e., the angular momentum) of the state under consideration and to the size of the configuration space used. For a number of examples this force has been applied successfully for the description of low energy properties of both closed and open shell nuclei

  6. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  7. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  8. The Effect of Oxygen Enrichment on Cardiorespiratory and Neuropsychological Responses in Workers With Chronic Intermittent Exposure to High Altitude (ALMA, 5,050 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Moraga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that labor activity at high altitudes in Chile will increase from 60,000 to 120,000 workers by the year 2020. Oxygenation of spaces improves the quality of life for workers at high geographic altitudes (<5,000 m. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a mobile oxygen module system on cardiorespiratory and neuropsychological performance in a population of workers from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA, 5,050 m radiotelescope in the Chajnantor Valley, Chile. We evaluated pulse oximetry, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure (SAP/DAP, and performed neuropsychological tests (Mini-Mental State examination, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test at environmental oxygen conditions (5,050 m, and subsequently in a mobile oxygenation module that increases the fraction of oxygen in order to mimic the higher oxygen partial pressure of lower altitudes (2,900 m. The use of module oxygenation at an altitude of 5,050 m, simulating an altitude of 2,900 m, increased oxygen saturation from 84 ± 0.8 to 91 ± 0.8% (p < 0.00001, decreased heart rate from 90 ± 8 to 77 ± 12 bpm (p < 0.01 and DAP from 96 ± 3 to 87 ± 5 mmHg (p < 0.01. In addition, mental cognitive state of workers (Mini-Mental State Examination shown an increased from 19 to 31 points (p < 0.02. Furthermore, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test (memory shown a significant increase from 35 to 70 (p < 0.0001. The results demonstrate that the use of an oxygen module system at 5,050 m, simulating an altitude equivalent to 2,900 m, by increasing FiO2 at 28%, significantly improves cardiorespiratory response and enhances neuropsychological performance in workers exposed to an altitude of 5,050 m.

  9. Resection of Gliomas with and without Neuropsychological Support during Awake Craniotomy-Effects on Surgery and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Anna; Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-01-01

    During awake craniotomy for tumor resection, a neuropsychologist (NP) is regarded as a highly valuable partner for neurosurgeons. However, some centers do not routinely involve an NP, and data to support the high influence of the NP on the perioperative course of patients are mostly lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in clinical outcomes between patients who underwent awake craniotomy with and without the attendance of an NP. Our analysis included 61 patients, all operated on for resection of a presumably language-eloquent glioma during an awake procedure. Of these 61 cases, 47 surgeries were done with neuropsychological support (NP group), whereas 14 surgeries were performed without an NP (non-NP group) due to a language barrier between the NP and the patient. For these patients, neuropsychological assessment was provided by a bilingual resident. Both groups were highly comparable regarding age, gender, preoperative language function, and tumor grades (glioma WHO grades 1-4). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved more frequently in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 61.7 vs. 28.6%, P  = 0.04), which also had shorter durations of surgery (NP vs. non-NP: 240.7 ± 45.7 vs. 286.6 ± 54.8 min, P  vs. postoperative imaging) was lower in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 19.1 vs. 42.9%, P  = 0.09), but no difference was observed in terms of permanent surgery-related language deterioration (NP vs. non-NP: 6.4 vs. 14.3%, P  = 0.48). We need professional neuropsychological evaluation during awake craniotomies for removal of presumably language-eloquent gliomas. Although these procedures are routinely carried out with an NP, this is one of the first studies to provide data supporting the NP's crucial role. Despite the small group size, our study shows statistically significant results, with higher rates of GTR and shorter durations of surgery among patients of the NP group. Moreover, our data emphasize the common

  10. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  11. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  12. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  13. Effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma on the neuropsychological test performance of high school athletes: A comparison of high, moderate, and low contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Siu, Andrea M; Yoshinaga, Kara; Choi, So Yung; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The results revealed that the High Contact group obtained small but statistically poorer performances in ImPACT Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Impulse Control, and Total Symptom scores compared to the Moderate and Low Contact groups. The High Contact group also had poorer Reaction Time scores compared to the Low Contact group. No differences between the Moderate and Low Contact groups were noted. The findings, along with prior similar results, tentatively raise concerns that participant in high contact sports, exposed to repetitive subconcussive head trauma, may be at greater risk for lowered neuropsychological functioning and increased symptoms, compared to other high school athletes. In view of the preliminary nature of this investigation, more research into the effects of frequent head impacts in high school sports is strongly recommended.

  14. Gender effects in gaming research: a case for regression residuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Numerous recent studies have examined the impact of video gaming on various dependent variables, including the players' affective reactions, positive as well as detrimental cognitive effects, and real-world aggression. These target variables are typically analyzed as a function of game characteristics and player attributes-especially gender. However, findings on the uneven distribution of gaming experience between males and females, on the one hand, and the effect of gaming experience on several target variables, on the other hand, point at a possible confound when gaming experiments are analyzed with a standard analysis of variance. This study uses simulated data to exemplify analysis of regression residuals as a potentially beneficial data analysis strategy for such datasets. As the actual impact of gaming experience on each of the various dependent variables differs, the ultimate benefits of analysis of regression residuals entirely depend on the research question, but it offers a powerful statistical approach to video game research whenever gaming experience is a confounding factor.

  15. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  16. The neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Frith, U

    1996-08-01

    In this review, we aim to bring together major trends in autism research at three levels: biology, behaviour and cognition. We propose that cognitive theories are vital in neuropsychology, which seeks to make connections between brain abnormality and behavioural symptoms. Research at each of the three levels is incomplete, but important advances have been made. At the biological level, there is strong evidence for genetic factors, although the mechanism is, as yet, unknown. At the behavioural level, diagnosis and education are becoming more coherent and less controversial, although the possibility of autism subtypes has provoked new debate. At the cognitive level, three major theories are proving fruitful (mentalizing impairment, executive dysfunction and weak central coherence), although the relation and overlap between these is uncertain. Rapidly advancing technology and methodology (e.g. brain imaging, gene mapping), as tools of cognitive theory, may help to make autism one of the first developmental disorders to be understood at the neuropsychological level.

  17. The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to burning the residue, has ...

  18. Neuropsychological diagnostics of neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera B. Nikishina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of neuropsychological studies of the patients with neurosarcoidosis. The obtained results show that typical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis are disorders of motor functions. They appear in the speed reduction of actions and their accuracy, which prove peripheral neuropathy and myopathy at the functional level as clinical signs of neurosarcoidosis. Specific manifestations of neurosarcoidosisare determinedby topographical localization of granulomatoma.

  19. Child neuropsychological rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez Yepes, Natalia; Quiroz Molinares, Nathalia; Monachello Fuentes, Franca Melina; De los Reyes, Carlos Jose; Universidad del Norte

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, there are many children with cognitive difficulties as results of brain injury or neurodevelopmental disorders. These difficulties lead to school, social, family and behavioral disturbances, among others; and reduce the quality of life of the child and his family. Consequently, more papers are published in scientific literature that evaluate the usefulness of several neuropsychological rehabilitation programs. This review aimed (1) to determine which are the most frequently ...

  20. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  1. HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Varako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The article reviews the history of neuropsychological rehabilitation. It begins with the description of first rehabilitation programs developed by Paul Broca and Shepherd Franz. Franz’s experimental work for motor recovery in monkeys and correlation between active movement or affected limb immobilization and rehabilitation outcomes are described in further details. Special focus is given on ideas of famous German neurologist and psychiatrist Kurt Goldstein, who laid the foundation for modern approach in rehabilitation. Goldstein developed the idea of connection between rehabilitation and patient’s daily life. He also pointed out the necessity of psychological care of patients with brain damage.Russian neuropsychological approach is presented by its founders L.S. Vygotskiy and A.R. Luriya. Aspects of higher mental processes structure and options of its correction such as “cognitive prosthesis” are described in the sense of the approach.Y. Ben-Yishay, G. Prigatano, B. Wilson represent neuropsychological rehabilitation of the second half of the 20th century. The idea of a holistic approach for rehabilitation consists of such important principles as patient’s active involvement in a process of rehabilitation, work of a special team of rehabilitation professionals, inclusion of patient’s family members. The short review of a new rehabilitation approach for patients in coma, vegetative states and critical patients under resuscitation is given. 

  2. Experience with V-STORE: considerations on presence in virtual environments for effective neuropsychological rehabilitation of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Priore, Corrado; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Liccione, Diego; Liccione, Davide

    2003-06-01

    The paper discusses the use of immersive virtual reality systems for the cognitive rehabilitation of dysexecutive syndrome, usually caused by prefrontal brain injuries. With respect to classical P&P and flat-screen computer rehabilitative tools, IVR systems might prove capable of evoking a more intense and compelling sense of presence, thanks to the highly naturalistic subject-environment interaction allowed. Within a constructivist framework applied to holistic rehabilitation, we suggest that this difference might enhance the ecological validity of cognitive training, partly overcoming the implicit limits of a lab setting, which seem to affect non-immersive procedures especially when applied to dysexecutive symptoms. We tested presence in a pilot study applied to a new VR-based rehabilitation tool for executive functions, V-Store; it allows patients to explore a virtual environment where they solve six series of tasks, ordered for complexity and designed to stimulate executive functions, programming, categorical abstraction, short-term memory and attention. We compared sense of presence experienced by unskilled normal subjects, randomly assigned to immersive or non-immersive (flat screen) sessions of V-Store, through four different indexes: self-report questionnaire, psychophysiological (GSR, skin conductance), neuropsychological (incidental recall memory test related to auditory information coming from the "real" environment) and count of breaks in presence (BIPs). Preliminary results show in the immersive group a significantly higher GSR response during tasks; neuropsychological data (fewer recalled elements from "reality") and less BIPs only show a congruent but yet non-significant advantage for the immersive condition; no differences were evident from the self-report questionnaire. A larger experimental group is currently under examination to evaluate significance of these data, which also might prove interesting with respect to the question of objective

  3. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  4. Cognitive reserve during neuropsychological performance in HIV intravenous drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Justo, Enrique; Blanco, Adolfo Piñón; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Gestoso, Carlos Guillén; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are frequently observed in people with HIV. We aimed to evaluate the influence of cognitive reserve on the neuropsychological performance of seropositive drug users. We carried out a neuropsychological assessment and compared the performance of seropositive drug users (n = 75) with that of a group of seronegative drug users (n = 48). The results showed that a low cognitive reserve makes the seropositive patients neuropsychologically vulnerable. Likewise, we found that a high cognitive reserve has a protective effect in the presence of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV. In the seronegative group, differences in a small number of tests were found between participants with low and high cognitive reserve. Overall, these data suggest that seropositivity is not sufficient to explain the neuropsychological alterations of seropositive drug users; rather, these alterations are multifactorial.

  5. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  6. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  8. Effect of crop residue management and cropping system on pearl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retaining crop residues in the field and using legume-based crop rotations have been suggested as ways to simultaneously increase yields per unit area and replenish soil nutrients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cropping systems and three crop residue management practices on grain ...

  9. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  10. Direct and residual effects of manure on soil chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastri, A.; Triberti, L.; Giordani, G.; Comellini, F.; Baldoni, G.

    2009-04-01

    The beneficial effects of manure recycling in cropland on soil fertility are well documented. Nowadays it can help sequestrate C in the soil organic matter, advocated to mitigate the atmospheric CO2 increase. Because of the gradual disappearance of conventional livestock farming in Western Europe, the study of the persistence of the positive effects of manuring after its interruption can be interesting. Any research on soil fertility dynamic, however, requires long-term experiments because it is quite slow and greatly influenced by weather. A field trial, started in 1966 and still in progress in the Experimental Farm of Bologna University, compares 5 crop rotations (a 9-year course: corn-wheat-corn-wheat-corn-wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa, corn-wheat and sugarbeet-wheat, continuous corn and continuous wheat), at 3 levels of cattle manure supply combined with 3 inorganic NP fertilizers rates in a split-split plot replicated twice. The soil is an alluvial silty loam, fertile but low in organic matter (13.3 g kg-1). Manure is spread before corn, sugarbeet and alfalfa, at a mean yearly rate of 0 (M0), 20 (M1) and 40 (M2) t ha-1 of fresh material. Since 1984 M2 has been interrupted to evaluate residual effects. Regarding mineral fertilizer rates, for this study we considered only the unfertilized control (N0P0) and N1P1 level, corresponding to a mean yearly application of 220 kg N ha-1 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Each year, since 1972 till now, we have sampled soil in the ploughed layer (0-0.4 m) to assess its pH (in water) and its content of organic carbon (SOC, Lotti method), total nitrogen (TN, Kjeldahl) and available phosphorus (P2O5, Olsen). To reduce the influence of crops and weather, statistical analyses were conducted on the averages of data obtained in the 4-year periods at the end of four 9-year cycles (1972-75, 81-84, 90-93 and 99-02). In 30 years, the continuous M1 supply without any inorganic integration increased SOC, TN and P2O5 by +3.6 t ha-1 (+11%), +1.09 t

  11. Residual stress effects in tubular K-joints crack growth

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Claire; Nussbaumer, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Seeking light and transparent bridge designs, engineers and architects have found an efficient and artistic way to fulfill their requirements: steel tubular bridges. Like any other welded structure, the joints of this kind of bridge suffer from high tensile weld residual stresses. Combined with high stress concentrations, tensile residual stress is a relevant factor in fatigue crack development. Therefore, an experimental study has been carried out on tubular joints in order to characterize ...

  12. Effect of catalyst deactivation on vacuum residue hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda S. Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated deactivation tests of the pre-sulfided Mo–W/SiO2–Al2O3 commercial catalyst were performed using heavy vacuum petroleum feedstock. High reaction temperature employed in the accelerated catalyst aging resulted in large amounts of carbonaceous deposition with high aromaticity, which was found to be the principal deactivation cause. The effect of catalyst deactivation on hydrocracking of vacuum residue was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at 60 bar, feed to catalyst ratio 10:1 and temperature 425 °C. The duration time for a cycle-run was 4 h. On increasing the interval duration times from 4 to 20 h (i.e. five cycles, the quality of the hydrocracked products was decreased. In each cycle-run, a fresh feedstock was used with the same sulfide catalyst. The quality of distillate products, such as hydrodesulfurization (HDS was decreased from 61.50% to 39.52%, while asphaltene contents of the total liquid product were increased from 2.7% to 5.2% and their boiling ranges were increased during these duration times due to the successive catalyst deactivation during the 5 cycle-runs, caused by successive adsorption of coke formation.

  13. Effect of different formulations on tebuconazole residues in stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Molinari, Gian Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The correlation between pesticide residue levels and formulation of an active substance is often not considered, even if it is reasonable to expect some differences arising from behaviour during dilution and spraying, from adhesion to plant and from degradation. An experimental study to investigate the magnitude of tebuconazole residues as a function of different tebuconazole formulated products was carried out in Italy. The fungicide was applied as wettable powder (WP) and water-dispersible granule (WG) formulations to peach, plum, apricot and nectarine orchards, on four different sites. The fruit samples gained from the field trials were quantitatively analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC/NPD) for tebuconazole residues. Tebuconazole residues in the fruits gained from the plot treated with the WP formulation, 14 days after application, were in the range 0.01-0.07 mg kg(-1), while corresponding residues in the plot treated with the WG formulation were in the range 0.01-0.06 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in the residue levels of tebuconazole could be observed between the trials conducted with the WP and the WG formulation. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Neuropsychological-EEG Activation in Genetic Generalized Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, evaluated the effects of neuropsychological activation (NPA tasks on epileptiform discharges (ED in adolescents with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE and in comparison with hyperventilation and photic stimulation.

  16. Effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Asi, M.R.; Tahira, R.; Chudhary, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity and some nitrogen transformations in a loam soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The soil samples containing bound residues arising from 10 mg g-1 of the applied malathion were mixed in equal quantity with fresh soil and compared with solvent extracted control soil without bound residues (extracted in the same way as soil containing bound residues). Another control comprising un extracted fresh soil without bound residues was also kept to study the effect of solvent extraction on the biological activity. Rate of Carbon mineralization (CO/sub 2/ evolution) was decreased in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. Bound residues also affected dehydrogenase activity of soil. Over 40% inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed after 4 days and the inhibition persisted at least for 12 days. Nitrogen mineralization was stimulated in soil containing bound residues of malathion and this stimulatory effect increased with time of incubation. Nitrification was partially inhibited in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. The inhibitory effect of the soil-bound residues on nitrification did not show much variation with time. The soil-bound residues did not affect denitrification rate (N/sub 2/O evolution). Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was partially inhibited in soil amended with bound residues of malathion and the inhibitory effect persisted for at least one week. In general, soil bound residues of malathion inhibited CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, nitrification and nitrogen fixation while mineralization of nitrogen was stimulated. Denitrification was not affected by the applied insecticide. (author)

  17. [Neuropsychological performance in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Castillo, Lilia; Martínez Bermejo, Antonio; Portellano Pérez, José Antonio; Tirado Requero, Pilar; Garriz Luis, Alexandra; Velázquez Fragua, Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children. A comparison was made between the neuropsychological performance of a group of 23 boys and girls with a mean age of 8.7 years (+/-1.39) and diagnosed with NF1, and a control group consisting of 21 healthy children, with mean age of 8.9 years (+/- 1.41) and with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was applied to evaluate the subjects of both groups. The group of patients affected with NF1 showed a lower performance in every primary index of WISC IV: Verbal Comprehension Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and full Scale IQ. Only in two subscales were no statistically significant differences observed: similarities and coding. The results show subtle and generalised neuropsychological alterations in the sample of children affected with NF1, which affect most of cognitive domains that have been evaluated. Proper specific and early neuropsychological treatment should be provided in order to prevent the high risk for these children of presenting learning difficulties and school failure. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of applied stress on the compressive residual stress introduced by laser peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Rie; Tazawa, Toshiyuki; Narazaki, Chihiro; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Peening is the process which is able to be generated compressive residual stress and is known to be effective for preventing SCC initiation and improvement of fatigue strength. Laser peening is used for the nuclear power plant components in order to prevent SCC initiation. Although it is reported that the compressive residual stress decreases due to applied stresses under general operating condition, the change of residual stress might be large under excessive loading such as an earthquake. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relaxation behavior of the compressive residual stress due to laser peening and to confirm the surface residual stress after loading. Therefore laser peened round bar test specimens of SUS316L which is used for the reactor internals of nuclear power plant were loaded at room temperature and elevated temperature and then surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method. In the results of this test, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stress remained after applying uniform stress larger than 0.2% proof stress, and the effect of cyclic loading on the residual stress was small. The effect of applying compressive stress on the residual stress relaxation was confirmed to be less than that of applying tensile stress. Plastic deformation through a whole cross section causes the change in the residual stress distribution. As a result, the surface compressive residual stress is released. It was shown that the effect of specimen size on residual stress relaxation and the residual stress relaxation behavior in the stress concentration region can be explained by assumed stress relaxation mechanism. (author)

  19. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    that no cleaning after the solder process is required. In some cases, however, this statement is not correct. Experiments with ‘No Clean’ wave solder flux have been performed, and the results show, that the solder temperature plays an important role; temperatures below 170°C cause more flux residues than solder......Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... of dust, which can act as a humidity absorber. The experiments have been made on SnPb wave solder flux, later experiments will show if the problems are less for Lead-free reflow and wave soldering, because the solder temperature is about 20°C higher. Furthermore an example of failure after humidity...

  20. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  1. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual...... neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission, defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio

  2. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation.

  3. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  4. Effect of household and industrial processing on levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated by two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peels, the most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for ...

  5. Effects of hyacinth residues on chemical properties and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that has blocked many navigable water-ways in the tropics. ... amendments more than S2 and showed that maize performance during the first cropping was better on S1 than S2, whereas during the residual cropping the crop performed equally well on both soils.

  6. Residual Effect of Chromium on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These greenhouse and field trials were aimed at determining the residual influence of Cr on some agronomic characters, nutrient content, nutrient uptake and crude protein content of fluted pumpkin in soils previously treated with 0, 50, 100, 200 mg Cr(NO3). .9H2O per 5 kg soil in the greenhouse and 0, 20, 40, 80 kgha-1 Cr ...

  7. [Dyslexia: neuropsychological and neurolinguistic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, A

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is given of the contribution of neuropsychological diagnostic methods and neurolinguistic diagnostic investigations. Through the analysis of errors, neurolinguistic examinations today make it possible to isolate in dyslexic populations at least three groups with clear-cut characteristics, requiring a distinct remedial approach. Neuropsychological investigations, and in particular their cross-matching with radiological neuro-imaging methods, serve to evidence the specificity of the cerebral organization of dyslexics.

  8. The earthworm gastrointestinal effect on the release of organic bound residues in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    Earthworm activities promote the release of bound residues and the digestive activities of earthworms contribute to the process. Earthworm digestive effects on bound residues can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Physical effects include gastrointestinal abrasion and mixing. The abrasion of soil and litter residues in earthworm gizzards and intestine can grind the food into fine particles, which increase the contact surface with microbial and promote the desorption of bound residues. Chemical effects are attributed to the secreted surfactant substances and digestive enzymes. The surfactants, especially at levels that lead to micellization, can enhance the desorption process of the organic contaminants that sored in the soil. The enzymes in earthworm digestive tracts can decompose the humus in soil, which may promote the release of organic residues that bind with humus.

  9. Computational Neuropsychology and Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Thomas; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine 'prior' beliefs with a generative (predictive) model to explain the causes of sensations. Under this view, neuropsychological deficits can be thought of as false inferences that arise due to aberrant prior beliefs (that are poor fits to the real world). This draws upon the notion of a Bayes optimal pathology - optimal inference with suboptimal priors - and provides a means for computational phenotyping. In principle, any given neuropsychological disorder could be characterized by the set of prior beliefs that would make a patient's behavior appear Bayes optimal. We start with an overview of some key theoretical constructs and use these to motivate a form of computational neuropsychology that relates anatomical structures in the brain to the computations they perform. Throughout, we draw upon computational accounts of neuropsychological syndromes. These are selected to emphasize the key features of a Bayesian approach, and the possible types of pathological prior that may be present. They range from visual neglect through hallucinations to autism. Through these illustrative examples, we review the use of Bayesian approaches to understand the link between biology and computation that is at the heart of neuropsychology.

  10. Efeitos da exposição à altitude sobre os aspectos neuropsicológicos: uma revisão da literatura Effects of exposure to altitude on neuropsychology aspects: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Aquino Lemos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Discutir os efeitos da exposição à altitude sobre as funções neuropsicológicas. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma revisão de literatura usando como fonte de pesquisa artigos indexados no Pubmed, no período de 1921 a 2008, utilizando as palavras-chave "cognition and hypoxia", "hypoxia and neuropsychology", "acute hypoxia", "chronic hypoxia" e "acclimatization and hypoxia", além de livros específicos do assunto. DISCUSSÃO: Os efeitos agudos e crônicos da hipóxia podem alterar inúmeras funções neuropsicológicas em diferentes altitudes, decorrentes de alterações fisiológicas que resultam da diminuição parcial de oxigênio (O2, que podem levar as alterações neuropsicológicas, como atenção, memória, tomada de decisão e demais funções executivas, em indivíduos expostos a grandes altitudes. CONCLUSÃO: Indivíduos que se expõem às grandes altitudes devem utilizar suplementação de O2 e prática de aclimatização, entre outras estratégias para minimizar os efeitos negativos da hipóxia nos aspectos neuropsicológicos.OBJECTIVE: Discuss the effects of altitude exposure on neuropsychological functions. METHOD: We have conducted a literature review using as source indexed articles at Pubmed in the period from 1921 to 2008, using the following key words: "cognition and hypoxia", "hypoxia and neuropsychology", "acute hypoxia", "chronic hypoxia", and "acclimatization and hypoxia", as well as specific books on the subject. DISCUSSION: Acute and chronic effects of Hypoxia can alter many of the neuropsychological functions in different altitudes due to physiological changes resulted by the oxygen (O2 partial decrease that can lead to neuropsychological alterations in individuals exposed to high altitudes. CONCLUSION: Individuals exposed to high altitudes must use an O2 supplementation and the practice of acclimatization, among other strategy ways that can be used in order to minimize the negative effects of hypoxia on

  11. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  12. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition.

  13. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  14. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  15. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  16. How effective are common household preparations on removing pesticide residues from fruit and vegetables? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wc

    2017-12-09

    Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest control in crops, especially for fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases, washing and soaking can only lead to a certain degree of reduction in residue level, while other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aims to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses

  18. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  19. Evaluation of machining effect for the residual stress of SA508 by hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kun; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Song, Ki O; Kim, Young Shin

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses on a surface of the material are welcome or undesirable since it's direction, compression or tensile. But especially for the fatigue, it is not negligible effect on the material strength. These residual stresses developed during the manufacturing processes involving material deformation, heat treatment, machining. The object of this paper is verifying the effect of machining what is mostly used for SA508. For verifying the effect of machining, three different kind of machining have been achieved, milling, grinding, wire cutting. Also to measure the residual stress, hole drill method and indentation method are used.

  20. The effect of residual stress on polymer pipe lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Frank, A.; Náhlík, Luboš; Kučera, J.; Pinter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, SI (2013), s. 98-108 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack paths 2012. Gaeta, 19.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual stress * Linear elastic fracture mechanics * Lifetime estimation * Polyethylene pipes * Slow crack growth Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013

  1. Effects of Bio-char on Soil Microbes in Herbicide Residual Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gen-lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on soil microbial community were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment, which clarifed the improvement of biochar and its structural properties on soil microenvironment. The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes had the same effect tendency within 0~0.72 mg·kg-1 in clomazone residue which increased the role of stimulation with crop growth process prolonged, especially in high residue treatment, but strong inhibitory effect on bacteria community was occured early which returned to normal until sugar beet growth to fiftieth day. Soil fungi community decreased with bio-char adding, but had no significant difference with the control. When clomazone residue in soil was below 0.24 mg·kg-1, soil actinomycetes community was higher than control without bio-char, bacteria increased first and then reduced after adding carbon as below 0.12 mg·kg-1. Biochar was ‘deep hole’ structure containing C, O, S and other elements. The results showed that a certain concentration clomazone residue in soil would stimulate soil fungi and actinomycetes to grow. After adding the biochar, the inhibition effect of high herbicides residual on bacterial would be alleviated.

  2. The Effect of Creep on the Residual Stresses Generated During Silicon Sheet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. W.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The modeling of stresses generated during the growth of thin silicon sheets at high speeds is an important part of the EFG technique since the experimental measurement of the stresses is difficult and prohibitive. The residual stresses which arise in such a growth process lead to serious problems which make thin Si ribbons unsuitable for fabrication. The constitutive behavior is unrealistic because at high temperature (close to the melting point) Si exhibits considerable creep which significantly relaxes the residual stresses. The effect of creep on the residual stresses generated during the growth of Si sheets at high speeds was addressed and the basic qualitative effect of creep are reported.

  3. Outlet baffles: Effect on liquid residuals from zero-gravity draining of hemispherically ended cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the relative effectiveness of various outlet baffles in reducing liquid residuals resulting from the draining of hemispherically ended cylindrical tanks in a weightless environment. Three different baffles were employed. The relative effectiveness of each baffle was determined by comparing the results obtained, in the form of liquid residuals, with results for an unbaffled tank. Data indicate that all the baffles tested reduced residuals. Reductions betweem 10 and 60 percent were obtained, depending on baffle geometry and outlfow Weber number.

  4. The jungle book of neuropsychology: Disentangling the influence of feral childhood from adult brain injury in order to provide effective rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, C J; James, A I W

    2018-03-01

    This article considers the complexities of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury when the client is illiterate, is from a foreign culture with English as a second language, and reports highly atypical childhood feral experiences prior to injury. MC was a 63-year-old woman referred for neuropsychological rehabilitation with a diagnosis of suspected St Louis encephalitis and global cognitive impairment. In formulating her clinical presentation, consideration was given to a reported history of feral childhood living with monkeys in the Colombian jungle and subsequent physical and emotional abuse. MC participated in comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and then targeted rehabilitation. Neuroimaging documented relatively focal damage in the right temporal lobe. MC's family described her as "the same but worse"; assessment and formulation indicated an exacerbation of attentional, pragmatic, arousal and executive weaknesses but with new memory and emotion recognition impairments. Rehabilitation techniques for communication and executive difficulties were successful despite the complexities of the case. The importance of carefully considered assessment and formulation in understanding MC's presentation is discussed. To the authors' knowledge, this is the only case of neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation in brain injury involving a history of feral childhood.

  5. Effects of twin-screw extrusion on soluble dietary fibre and physicochemical properties of soybean residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Chi, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Extrusion cooking technology was applied for soluble dietary fibre extraction from soybean residue. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the effects of extrusion parameters, namely extrusion temperature (90-130°C), feed moisture (25-35%) and screw speed (160-200 rpm) on the content of soluble dietary fibre. According to the regression coefficients significance of the quadratic polynomial model, the optimum extrusion parameters were as follows: extrusion temperature, 115°C; feed moisture, 31%; and screw speed, 180 rpm. Under these conditions, the soluble dietary fibre content of soybean residue could reach to 12.65% which increased 10.60% compared with the unextruded soybean residue. In addition, the dietary fibre in extrude soybean residue had higher water retention capacity, oil retention capacity and swelling capacity than those of dietary fibre in unextruded soybean residue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute effects of high-dose furosemide on residual renal function in CAPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olden, Rudolf W.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Arisz, Lambertus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of furosemide can increase urine volume in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. However, no information is available about effects on urinary solute excretion in relation to residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary furosemide excretion, and peritoneal solute

  7. Characterization of Residual Stress Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; James, Mark A.; Brazill, Richard L.; Schultz, Robert W.; Donald, J. Keith; Blair, Amy

    2015-01-01

    An on-line compliance-based method to account for residual stress effects in stress-intensity factor and fatigue crack growth property determinations has been evaluated. Residual stress intensity factor results determined from specimens containing friction stir weld induced residual stresses are presented, and the on-line method results were found to be in excellent agreement with residual stress-intensity factor data obtained using the cut compliance method. Variable stress-intensity factor tests were designed to demonstrate that a simple superposition model, summing the applied stress-intensity factor with the residual stress-intensity factor, can be used to determine the total crack-tip stress-intensity factor. Finite element, VCCT (virtual crack closure technique), and J-integral analysis methods have been used to characterize weld-induced residual stress using thermal expansion/contraction in the form of an equivalent delta T (change in local temperature during welding) to simulate the welding process. This equivalent delta T was established and applied to analyze different specimen configurations to predict residual stress distributions and associated residual stress-intensity factor values. The predictions were found to agree well with experimental results obtained using the crack- and cut-compliance methods.

  8. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Sushree Sangita; Swain, Sarada Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion), oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia). Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration) as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning), which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs (global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings), the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases. Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but the severity level varies from person to person. Like the

  9. Computational Neuropsychology and Bayesian Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Parr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine ‘prior’ beliefs with a generative (predictive model to explain the causes of sensations. Under this view, neuropsychological deficits can be thought of as false inferences that arise due to aberrant prior beliefs (that are poor fits to the real world. This draws upon the notion of a Bayes optimal pathology – optimal inference with suboptimal priors – and provides a means for computational phenotyping. In principle, any given neuropsychological disorder could be characterized by the set of prior beliefs that would make a patient’s behavior appear Bayes optimal. We start with an overview of some key theoretical constructs and use these to motivate a form of computational neuropsychology that relates anatomical structures in the brain to the computations they perform. Throughout, we draw upon computational accounts of neuropsychological syndromes. These are selected to emphasize the key features of a Bayesian approach, and the possible types of pathological prior that may be present. They range from visual neglect through hallucinations to autism. Through these illustrative examples, we review the use of Bayesian approaches to understand the link between biology and computation that is at the heart of neuropsychology.

  10. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  11. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  12. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  13. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  14. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  15. Effects of the components of coal hydro-liquefaction residue on its rheological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y.; Jin, S.; Xu, Y.; Wei, A.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-07-01

    Four kinds of typical coal liquefaction residue samples, coming from Shenhua coal liquefaction pilot plant, were used to investigate the effects of components of residue, separation time, and temperature on its rheological characteristics. Coal liquefaction residue is a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid whose apparent viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Moreover, the residue has high viscosity at the initial softening temperature, and its viscosity drops greatly with increasing temperature. The oil content in residue has a great effect on the decline of the apparent viscosity of residue. The asphaltene can increase the apparent viscosity at lower temperatures but decrease it at higher temperatures. However, the solid only increases the apparent viscosity as it can be neither softened nor dissolved to become fluid. After simulating the separation condition, it is found that prolonging the separation time and enhancing the separation temperature will increase the apparent viscosity of residue, which is bad for preventing pipes from being blocked. So choosing the right separation time and separation temperature is necessary to actual industrial production.

  16. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  17. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress of repaired weldment in surge nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang Young; Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In the welding process, weldments usually include repair weld during the manufacturing process. Repair welds is supposed to cause strong tensile residual stress. Moreover weldments, usually made by Alloy 82/182, is susceptible to PWSCC. Therefore, mitigation of welding residual stress in weldments is important for reliable operating. PWOL is one of the methods for mitigation and verified for over twenty years. In this paper, residual stress distribution of repaired weldments and the effect of PWOL on mitigation is examined for surge nozzle.

  18. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zer Cindy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL and sulfamethazine (SM2 are low molecular weight ( Results The artificial antigens were spotted on microarray slides. Standard concentrations of the compounds were added to compete with the spotted antigens for binding to the antisera to determine the IC50. Our microarray assay showed the IC50 were 39.6 ng/ml for CL and 48.8 ng/ml for SM2, while the traditional competitive indirect-ELISA (ci-ELISA showed the IC50 were 190.7 ng/ml for CL and 156.7 ng/ml for SM2. We further validated the two methods with CL fortified chicken muscle tissues, and the protein microarray assay showed 90% recovery while the ci-ELISA had 76% recovery rate. When tested with CL-fed chicken muscle tissues, the protein microarray assay had higher sensitivity (0.9 ng/g than the ci-ELISA (0.1 ng/g for detection of CL residues. Conclusions The protein microarrays showed 4.5 and 3.5 times lower IC50 than the ci-ELISA detection for CL and SM2, respectively, suggesting that immunodetection of small molecules with protein microarray is a better approach than the traditional ELISA technique.

  19. The impact of oculomotor functioning on neuropsychological performance in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Long, Jeffrey D; Westervelt, Holly J; Smith, Megan M; Bruce, Jared M; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A; Paulsen, Jane S

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition with prominent motor (including oculomotor), cognitive, and psychiatric effects. While neuropsychological deficits are present in HD, motor impairments may impact performance on neuropsychological measures, especially those requiring a speeded response, as has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. The current study is the first to explore associations between oculomotor functions and neuropsychological performance in HD. Participants with impaired oculomotor functioning performed worse than those with normal oculomotor functioning on cognitive tasks requiring oculomotor involvement, particularly on psychomotor speed tasks, controlling for covariates. Consideration of oculomotor dysfunction on neuropsychological performance is critical, particularly for populations with motor deficits.

  20. Statistical advances in clinical neuropsychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agelink van Rentergem Zandvliet, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve the reliability of neuropsychological assessment, specifically by improving the normative comparison procedure. The first goal was to provide multivariate normative comparisons, which test the patient's whole profile of scores. The second goal was to provide

  1. History of neuropsychology in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Barr, W.B.; Bielauskas, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    German neuroscientists played a crucial role in the foundation of neuropsychology. In the 19th century, Gall formulated new assumptions with respect to the nature and localization of mental functions in the brain. Wernicke popularized an approach in which mental functions were represented as

  2. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  3. Neuropsychological Counseling in Hospital Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Explores integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology in hospital setting. Sees example of such interchange occurring in rehabilitation unit or hospital where psychologist has responsibilities for helping patients, families, and staff to understand implications of central nervous system dysfunction and to adapt to changes. Discusses…

  4. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  5. [Risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 6 to 12 months and its effects on neuropsychological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Zhang, Cui-Mei; Huang, Lian-Hong; Fu, Si-Mao; Liu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ang; Ou, Jun-Bin

    2015-08-01

    To study the risk factors for moderate and severe iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infants aged 6-12 months, and to preliminarily investigate the effects of IDA on the neuromotor development and temperament characteristics of infants. A total of 326 infants aged 6-12 months with IDA were classified into three groups: mild IDA (n=176), moderate IDA (n=111), and severe IDA (n=39) according to the severity of anemia. The risk factors for moderate or severe IDA were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and forty-six infants without IDA who showed matched age, sex, and other backgrounds were selected as the control group. The Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale was used to evaluate children's mental development. The Temperament Scale for infants was used for evaluating children's temperament. The univariate analysis showed that the severity of IDA was associated with sex, birth weight, gestational age, multiple birth, maternal anemia during pregnancy, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA (Panemia during pregnancy, breast feeding, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA were the risk factors for severe IDA (OR>1; P1; Panemia during pregnancy and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA in infants aged 6-12 months. Infants with IDA have delayed neuromotor development and most of them have negative temperaments. More attention should be paid to mental and behavior problems for the infants. It is necessary to provide guidance for their parents in feeding and education.

  6. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and envir...

  7. Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao

    2012-01-01

    Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.

  8. Brain Connectivity and Neuropsychological Functioning in Recently Treated Testicular Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Agerbæk, Mads; Leemans, Alexander

    neuropsychological functioning. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has well-known neurotoxic side effects and neural populations such as progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and hippocampal neurons are exceptionally vulnerable to even small concentrations of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... the possible adverse effects of BEP on brain white matter connectivity and neuropsychological functioning in recently treated men with TC....

  9. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO 3 ) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO 3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm 2 . LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO 3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO 3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO 3 , thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO 3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application

  10. Bark- and wood-boring beetles on Scots pine logging residues from final felling: Effects of felling date, deposition location and diameter of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Foit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the risk of bark- and wood-boring beetle pests, the extensive removal of logging residues is conducted in forests; however, this practice can lead to a loss of saproxylic insect diversity. Thus, finding a better pest management strategy is needed and requires additional information on the actual effects of various, differently treated logging residues for pest multiplication. In the present study, a total of 2,160 fragments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. logging residues generated during final felling in a single stand in the Drahanská Highlands in the Czech Republic were examined for bark- and wood-boring beetles. The felling occurred on four dates in 2006 (in February, May, August and November. The logging residues from each felling were left scattered on the clear-cut area or were gathered into piles. The fauna inhabiting the logging residues were investigated by peeling off the bark during the first six months of the vegetative period following the felling. The logging residues hosted species-rich assemblages of bark- and wood-boring beetles (25 species were identified. Beetle occurrence was significantly affected by felling date, logging residue type (trunk fragment or branch and branch thinner or thicker than 1 cm, diameter and the manner in which the logging residues were deposited (freely scattered, top pile layer, or bottom pile layer. The Scots pine logging residues were a substrate for the significant multiplication of several potentially significant pests (particularly, Pityogenes chalcographus [Linnaeus], Ips acuminatus [Gyllenhal] and Pityophthorus pityographus [Ratzeburg]. The results indicated that the risk of pest reproduction can be minimised by felling the trees in August (and probably also September and October. For I. acuminatus and P. pityographus, the risk can be minimised by gathering the logging residues into piles.

  11. Effects of different ratios of pig manure to fungus residue on physicochemical parameters during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangming; Wang, Litong; Wang, Houming; Jiang, Long; Jiang, Xinyou

    2016-05-01

    This study examined physicochemical parameters to assess their effectiveness as stability and maturity indicators during the process of composting pig manure and fungus residue at different ratios. The results showed that composting mixtures with all ratios of pig manure to fungus residue maintained a temperature exceeding 50 °C for more than 10 days during composting and met the requirement for pathogen destruction. The treatment containing mainly pig manure showed higher nitrogen loss and a shorter thermophilic phase and maturity time than the treatment containing mainly fungus residue. The germination index (GI) values indicated that compost maturity was achieved in the final compost with initial ratios of pig manure to fungus residue of 9:1-7:3 (GIs of 101.4%, 91.2%, and 81.3%); the ratio of 6:4 did not reach compost maturity (GI of 63.8%) and had an inhibitory effect on seed germination. The results of this study suggest that a ratio of pig manure to fungus residue of approximately 8:2 can be considered suitable for the efficient and quality composting of pig manure and fungus residue. Co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue with appropriate proportion can effectively reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes, as well as achieve a safer and high-quality organic fertilizer, which can be used to improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, increase crop yields, and promote agricultural sustainable development. Therefore, technique of co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue has a wide prospect of application in practical production all over the world.

  12. Functional brain imaging in neuropsychology over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-11-01

    Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies. Initial progress in neuropsychological application of functional neuroimaging has been hampered by costs and the exposure to ionizing radiation. With rapid evolution of functional methods-in particular functional MRI (fMRI)-neuroimaging has profoundly transformed our knowledge of the brain. Its current applications span the spectrum of normative development to clinical applications. The field is moving toward applying sophisticated statistical approaches that will help elucidate distinct neural activation networks associated with specific behavioral domains. The impact of functional neuroimaging on clinical neuropsychology is more circumscribed, but the prospects remain enticing. The theoretical insights and empirical findings of functional neuroimaging have been led by many neuropsychologists and have transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience. Thus far they have had limited effects on the clinical practices of neuropsychologists. Perhaps it is time to add training in functional neuroimaging to the clinical neuropsychologist's toolkit and from there to the clinic or bedside. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  14. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  15. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  16. Effective inter-residue contact definitions for accurate protein fold recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective encoding of residue contact information is crucial for protein structure prediction since it has a unique role to capture long-range residue interactions compared to other commonly used scoring terms. The residue contact information can be incorporated in structure prediction in several different ways: It can be incorporated as statistical potentials or it can be also used as constraints in ab initio structure prediction. To seek the most effective definition of residue contacts for template-based protein structure prediction, we evaluated 45 different contact definitions, varying bases of contacts and distance cutoffs, in terms of their ability to identify proteins of the same fold. Results We found that overall the residue contact pattern can distinguish protein folds best when contacts are defined for residue pairs whose Cβ atoms are at 7.0 Å or closer to each other. Lower fold recognition accuracy was observed when inaccurate threading alignments were used to identify common residue contacts between protein pairs. In the case of threading, alignment accuracy strongly influences the fraction of common contacts identified among proteins of the same fold, which eventually affects the fold recognition accuracy. The largest deterioration of the fold recognition was observed for β-class proteins when the threading methods were used because the average alignment accuracy was worst for this fold class. When results of fold recognition were examined for individual proteins, we found that the effective contact definition depends on the fold of the proteins. A larger distance cutoff is often advantageous for capturing spatial arrangement of the secondary structures which are not physically in contact. For capturing contacts between neighboring β strands, considering the distance between Cα atoms is better than the Cβ−based distance because the side-chain of interacting residues on β strands sometimes point to

  17. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Chantsoulis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.

  18. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, W David; Harrison, David W; Wright, James W

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the potential health-related benefits of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich dark chocolate and cocoa. The objective of the study was to examine the short-term (6 wk) effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health in healthy older adults. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel-group clinical trial was used. Participants (n = 101) were randomly assigned to receive a 37-g dark chocolate bar and 8 ounces (237 mL) of an artificially sweetened cocoa beverage or similar placebo products each day for 6 wk. No significant group (dark chocolate and cocoa or placebo)-by-trial (baseline, midpoint, and end-of-treatment assessments) interactions were found for the neuropsychological, hematological, or blood pressure variables examined. In contrast, the midpoint and end-of-treatment mean pulse rate assessments in the dark chocolate and cocoa group were significantly higher than those at baseline and significantly higher than the midpoint and end-of-treatment rates in the control group. Results of a follow-up questionnaire item on the treatment products that participants believed they had consumed during the trial showed that more than half of the participants in both groups correctly identified the products that they had ingested during the experiment. This investigation failed to support the predicted beneficial effects of short-term dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on any of the neuropsychological or cardiovascular health-related variables included in this research. Consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa was, however, associated with significantly higher pulse rates at 3- and 6-wk treatment assessments.

  19. A signal detection-item response theory model for evaluating neuropsychological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L; Brown, Gregory G; Gur, Ruben C; Moore, Tyler M; Patt, Virginie M; Risbrough, Victoria B; Baker, Dewleen G

    2018-02-05

    Models from signal detection theory are commonly used to score neuropsychological test data, especially tests of recognition memory. Here we show that certain item response theory models can be formulated as signal detection theory models, thus linking two complementary but distinct methodologies. We then use the approach to evaluate the validity (construct representation) of commonly used research measures, demonstrate the impact of conditional error on neuropsychological outcomes, and evaluate measurement bias. Signal detection-item response theory (SD-IRT) models were fitted to recognition memory data for words, faces, and objects. The sample consisted of U.S. Infantry Marines and Navy Corpsmen participating in the Marine Resiliency Study. Data comprised item responses to the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT; N = 1,338), Penn Word Memory Test (PWMT; N = 1,331), and Visual Object Learning Test (VOLT; N = 1,249), and self-report of past head injury with loss of consciousness. SD-IRT models adequately fitted recognition memory item data across all modalities. Error varied systematically with ability estimates, and distributions of residuals from the regression of memory discrimination onto self-report of past head injury were positively skewed towards regions of larger measurement error. Analyses of differential item functioning revealed little evidence of systematic bias by level of education. SD-IRT models benefit from the measurement rigor of item response theory-which permits the modeling of item difficulty and examinee ability-and from signal detection theory-which provides an interpretive framework encompassing the experimentally validated constructs of memory discrimination and response bias. We used this approach to validate the construct representation of commonly used research measures and to demonstrate how nonoptimized item parameters can lead to erroneous conclusions when interpreting neuropsychological test data. Future work might include the

  20. Neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cruz-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children. Seventy-three children underwent neuropsychological assessment and were divided into two groups: a group with dyslexia (DG; n=39 and a control group (CG; n= 34. A general linear model showed a significant difference between the groups regarding the following abilities: reading, writing and mathematics; forward and backward digit span tasks; semantic and phonological fluency; number of completed categories and total number of cards in the Wisconsin Cards Sorting Test; as well as right and left discrimination on self and on other. These results suggest impairment in executive functions, phonological working memory and semantic memory among dyslexic children, rather than impairment of just phonological abilities, as suggested in previous studies.

  1. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, unknown-manner changes in charge neutrality point (CNP) positioning were ascribed to humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exactmeans of humidity interacting with hydrophobicgraphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene ...

  2. Effect of Dimethoate Residues on Soil Micro-arthropods Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    its ecotoxicological effects on the soil micro- arthropods population. There are no baseline data available about the soil contamination with pesticides and the soil fauna of the study area . MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study area: The valley of Zendan is located in. Arhab Destrict, Sana'a Governorate. This valley is.

  3. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  4. Effect of orthodontic debonding and residual adhesive removal on 3D enamel microroughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Janiszewska-Olszowska

    2016-10-01

    (skewness of the scale-limited surface. Discussion Confocal laser microscopy allowed 3D surface analysis of enamel surface, avoiding the limitations of contact profilometry. Tungsten carbide burs are the most popular adhesive removing tools, however, the results of the present study indicate, that a one step polisher and finisher as well as Adhesive Residue Remover are less detrimental to the enamel. This is in agreement with a recent study based on direct 3D scanning enamel surface. It proved, that a one-step finisher and polisher as well as Adhesive Residue Remover are characterized by a similar effectiveness in removing residual remnants as tungsten carbide bur, but they remove significantly less enamel. Conclusion Orthodontic debonding and removal of adhesive remnants increases enamel roughness. The smoothest surfaces were achieved using Adhesive Residue Remover, and the roughest using tungsten carbide bur.

  5. How To Test Nontarget Effects of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Residues in Livestock Dung in the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochmann, R.; Blanckenhorn, W.U.; Bussière, L.; Eirkson, C.E.; Jensen, J.; Kryger, U.; Lahr, J.; Lumaret, J.P.; Römbke, J.; Wardhaugh, K.G.; Floate, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    To register veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) as parasiticides on pastured animals, legislation in the European Union requires an environmental risk assessment to test the potential nontarget effects of fecal residues on dung-dwelling organisms. Products with adverse effects in single-species

  6. Effect of flue gas desulfurization residue on plant establishment and soil and leachate quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punshon, T.; Adriano, D.C.; Weber, J.T. [University of Georgia, Savannah, GA (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2001-06-01

    Effects on soil quality and crop establishment after incorporation of flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) into soil as an amendment was assessed in a mesocosm study. Mesocosm units received applications equivalent to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% FGD residue. Germination, biomass production, and elemental composition of corn, radish and cotton were determined. The quality of leachates and soil were also determined periodically. Flue gas desulfurization residue did not affect germination and all application rates stimulated aboveground biomass. Plants grown in FGD-amended soil contained significantly elevated tissue concentrations of As, B, Se, and Mo. The FGD residue elevated surface soil pH from 5.5 to 8.1. Leachate pH was unaffected by FGD, but salinity rose sharply with increasing application rates of FGD. Leachates contained higher concentrations of B, with small increases in Se and As. Flue gas desulfurization residue application caused an increase in total B, As, Mo, Se and extractable Ca in the soil, but decreased Mn and Zn. Using FGD residues could have beneficial effects on crop establishment without detrimental effects on soil or leachate quality, at an optimum rate of approximately 2.5%. This material could alleviate surface acidity, and B and Mo deficiencies in plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    The accumulated body of scientific evidence regarding intellectual function, presence of learning disorders, and specific neuropsychological deficits in TS suggests that difficulties in these areas are present in a significant percentage of patients with TS. Despite the numerous methodological shortcomings of past neuropsychological studies of TS, relatively robust and consistent findings have emerged. The literature to date has suggested that intellectual ability is normally distributed in TS. Whether or not individuals with TS have significant discrepancies between their verbal and nonverbal abilities remains unclear. The prevalence of learning disabilities in TS has been reported to be similar to the base rates reported for the general population, although there is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of LDs in children with TS may actually be lower and specific for difficulties in math and written language. Specific cognitive deficits in TS consist of visuomotor integration problems, impaired fine motor skill, and executive dysfunction. The presence of comorbid conditions, notably ADHD and OCD, appears to significantly increase the likelihood that an individual with TS will also have learning problems or some demonstrable cognitive impairment. The presence of a learning disability, specific academic deficiency, or cognitive deficit may pose a greater obstacle for persons with TS than the tic disorder itself. This is particularly salient for children with TS, who may be at a higher risk for poor school performance and academic failure. The psychosocial impact of these problems is also far-reaching. Given the recent emphasis on the early detection of academic and learning problems, it would seem prudent that children with TS who are suspected of having neuropsychological difficulties be evaluated as soon as possible. There are numerous educational interventions and accommodations available to children with LDs and/or specific academic weaknesses that can work

  8. Long-term use of organophosphates and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, N; Kipen, H; Kelly-McNeil, K; Fenske, R

    1997-11-01

    This study evaluated neuropsychological effects due to chronic organophosphate use among farmers with no history of acute poisoning. Fifty-seven male tree fruit farmers (exposed) were compared with 42 age-matched male cranberry/blueberry growers and hardware store owners (unexposed). Univariate analyses of covariance (reading test as covariate) comparing exposed and unexposed subjects revealed significantly slower reaction time. No other significant differences were noted on tests of concentration, visuomotor skills, memory, expressive language, or mood. Based on an exposure metric derived from detailed exposure histories, farmers were divided into high exposure (n = 40) and low exposure (n = 59) groups, and their neuropsychological performance was compared. Analysis of covariance with age and reading test score as covariates revealed that the high exposure group had significantly slower reaction time, dominant hand. Long-term use of organophosphates without evidence of an acute poisoning episode appears to produce, at most, subtle changes in neuropsychological performance.

  9. EXOGENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF OXYTOCIN AND ITS RESIDUAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. IJAZ AND M. ALEEM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a peptide hormone which is synthesized in the hypothalamic neurons and released from the posterior pituitary gland. This hormone has a wide range of applications in human and veterinary medicine. Whether secreted endogenously or administered exogenously, it produces the desired effects within minutes and is metabolized rapidly into inactive products. If at all oxytocin is secreted in the milk and is ingested alongwith milk, it is degraded by the gut enzymes and can not reach blood circulation in biologically active form. Thus, there seems to be no harm in consuming milk from oxytocin-treated dairy animals. However, its use in pregnant animals should be discouraged.

  10. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  11. Fatigue life estimation of welded components considering welding residual stress relaxation and its mean stress effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  12. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    sativum L.), was studied in three field experiments. The effect of catch crop incorporation in the soil on the yield and N accumulation in succeeding crops was also investigated. An aftersown catch crop should be used for pea, since undersown ryegrasses reduced the pea yield. Undersown perennial ryegrass......The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...... or an aftersown catch crop can be used for spring barley. The catch crops had accumulated up to 70 kg N ha-1 at the time of ploughdown in early December. The nitrogen accumulation in catch crops following pea was significantly higher than in the catch crop following barley supplied with 100 kg N ha-1. Barley...

  13. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  14. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  15. Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, M.; Bakht, J.; Attaullah; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation

  16. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  17. Effect of processing conditions on residual stress distributions by bead-on-plate welding after surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Residual stress is important factor for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that has been observed near the welded zone in nuclear power plants. Especially, surface residual stress is significant for SCC initiation. In the joining processes of pipes, butt welding is conducted after surface machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes, and residual stress distribution due to surface machining is varied by the subsequent butt welding. In previous paper, authors reported that residual stress distribution generated by bead on plate welding after surface machining has a local maximum residual stress near the weld metal. The local maximum residual stress shows approximately 900 MPa that exceeds the stress threshold for SCC initiation. Therefore, for the safety improvement of nuclear power plants, a study on the local maximum residual stress is important. In this study, the effect of surface machining and welding conditions on residual stress distribution generated by welding after surface machining was investigated. Surface machining using lathe machine and bead on plate welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc under various conditions were conducted for plate specimens made of SUS316L. Then, residual stress distributions were measured by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). As a result, residual stress distributions have the local maximum residual stress near the weld metal in all specimens. The values of the local maximum residual stresses are almost the same. The location of the local maximum residual stress is varied by welding condition. It could be consider that the local maximum residual stress is generated by same generation mechanism as welding residual stress in surface machined layer that has high yield stress. (author)

  18. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  19. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury : Acute versus chronic disturbances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M.; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully

  20. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  1. Effects of coffee processing residues on anaerobic microorganisms and corresponding digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sossa, Juan Pablo; Murillo-Roos, Mariana; Uribe, Lidieth; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Marsh, Terence; Larsen, Niels; Chen, Rui; Miranda, Alberto; Solís, Kattia; Rodriguez, Werner; Kirk, Dana; Liao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of different coffee processing residues on the anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. The results elucidated that mucilage-rich feed enhanced the accumulation of methanogens, which consequently led to better digestion performance of biogas production. Fifty percent more methane and up to 3 times more net energy (heat and electricity) output were achieved by the digestion of the mucilage-rich feed (M3). The microbial community and statistical analyses further elucidated that different residues in the feed had significant impact on microbial distribution and correspondingly influenced the digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Bio-char on Sugar Beet Growth in Clomazone Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yu-mei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on sugar beet growth were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment. The results showed that the safety threshold of sugar beet growth with clomazone residual was 0.12 mg·kg-1, and beyond this value, sugar beet growth was in inhibition with clomazone residues increased gradually; Early seedling growth under severe phytotoxicity inhibition rate reached 100% when clomazone concentration was greater than 0.48 mg·kg-1; Seedlings subjected to injury sym-ptoms generally reduced to no phytotoxicity after put into a certain amount of bio-car in soil, the plant growth and root shoot ratio increased. Sugar beet root tuber yield and total sugar yield were influenced after applying carbon, sugar content increased 1.10%, which showed significant difference compared with CK. It explained that the bio-char could promote the growth of sugar beet. Applying biochar to soil could reduce the biological hazardous taken by clomazone residues within certain scope.

  3. Effects of chemical modification of lysine residues on the sweetness of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2005-03-01

    Lysozyme is a sweet-tasting protein with a sweetness threshold value of around 7 microM. To clarify the effect of basicity at the side chain of lysine residues on the threshold values of sweetness, charge-specific chemical modifications such as guanidination, acetylation and phosphopyridoxylation of lysine residues were performed. Sensory analysis showed that the sweetness threshold value of lysozyme was not changed by guanidination, whereas it was increased markedly by acetylation and phosphopyridoxylation. To confirm the importance of the basicity in the lysine residues in detail, purification of acetylated (Ac-) and phosphopyridoxylated (PLP-) lysozymes using SP-ion exchange column chromatography was performed. The threshold values were not changed by modification with fewer than two residues (approximately 7 microM), whereas the threshold values significantly increased to 15 and 34 microM when tetra-Ac and tri-PLP, respectively. Furthermore, sweetness was not detected at 30 microM (hexa-, penta-Ac and tetra-PLP). It should be noted that removal of the negative charges of the phosphate groups in the tri-PLP lysozyme by acid phosphatase resulted in the recovery of sweetness (6.4 microM), indicating that basicity at the position of the lysine residues is responsible for lysozyme sweetness and that strict charge complementarities might be required for interaction to its putative receptor.

  4. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  5. Effects of the magnesium oxide thin films' microstructures on the residual stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-jun, E-mail: helijun4@126.com [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Li-yan [Electronic Information and Networking Research Institute, Collaborative Innovation Center for Information Communication Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Chen, Wei-Zhong [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Liu, Xing-zhao [The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The MgO thin films are deposited at various inclined angles. The morphology investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the MgO thin films deposited at high inclined angles have columnar grain. The relationships between full width high maximum (FWHM) of ω-scan, residual stresses and the inclined angles are studied. The results show the smallest FWHM of MgO (002) is 4.968°, the residual stress of MgO thin films is compressive stress, and the residual stress of MgO thin films deposited at the inclined angle of 55° is the smallest. So the microstructures of MgO thin films fabricated by the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique effectively control the residual stresses. - Highlights: • MgO thin films are deposited by oblique angle deposition technique. • The FWHMs of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°. • Residual stress of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°.

  6. Effect of depth of planting, methods of planting and animal residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in farmers' field, from March to December in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at the research site of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ejiba, Kogi State of Nigeria to investigate the effect of depth of planting, methods of planting and animal residues application on the growth and ...

  7. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the metal coating, which acts as electrode, increases the stiffness and the effective mass of the composite structure, the residual stress increases or decreases the net stiffness if it is a tensile or compressive type respectively. In this paper, we investigate both these cases by taking two different structures, namely, the ...

  8. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White clover grows naturally all over the Himalayan regions including the hilly areas of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of white clover residues alone or in combination with phosphorus (P) fertilizer on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, nutrient uptake and ...

  9. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency of MEMS resonators. ASHOK KUMAR PANDEY, K P VENKATESH and RUDRA. PRATAP. ∗. CranesSci MEMS Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian. Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 e-mail: pratap@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in.

  10. Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on mungbean (Vigna mungo L.Hepper) local cultivar. An experiment [using randomized complete block design (RCBD) design] with three replications was conducted in 2010. The trial comprised of four treatments such as mulching, incorporation into ...

  11. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  12. Effects of heating durations on normal concrete residual properties: compressive strength and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Shahidan, Shahiron; Khaida Baharuddin, Nur; Beddu, Salmia; Hisyam Abu Bakar, Badorul

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of high temperature with five different heating durations on residual properties of 30 MPa normal concrete. Concrete cubes were being heated up to 600°C for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The temperature will keep constant for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The standard temperature-time curve ISO 834 is referred to. After heating the specimen were left to cool in the furnace and removed. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the residual mass and residual compressive strength were observed. The obtained result shows that, the compressive strength of concrete decrease as the heating duration increases. This heating duration influence, might affects the loss of free water present and decomposition of hydration products in concrete. As the heating duration increases, the amount of water evaporated also increases led to loss in concrete mass. Conclusively, the percentage of mass and compressive strength loss increased as the heating duration increased.

  13. Effect of rice bran processing into oil on 14C-carbofuran residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayaputch, N.; Phaikaew, Y.; Sitayoung, R.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of processing rice bran into refined oil on 14 C-carbofuran residues were studied under field conditions and in fortified oil samples. The results showed that only 0.52% of the field applied 14 C-carbofuran was present in rice bran. Of this amount, crude oil retained 11.6%, compared to 86% in the fortified sample. When crude oils were subjected to degumming and neutralization processes, radioactivity substantially declined to 1% and 14% for aged and fortified residues, respectively. Bleaching and deodorization were ineffective in eliminating residues from spiked samples. Carbofuran, 3-hydroxy carbofuran, 3-keto carbofuran and carbofuran phenol, were identified in the crude and refined oils obtained from the field experiment. It is concluded that the commercially adopted procedures efficiently remove carbofuran and/or its products present in oil. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  14. Effects of material non-linearity on the residual stresses in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sujit K.; Utku, Senol

    1990-01-01

    Thermal stresses developed in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon have been shown to cause plastic deformation and residual stresses in the ribbon. This paper presents an implementation of a numerical model proposed for thermoelastoplastic behavior of a material. The model has been used to study the effects of plasticity of silicon on the residual stresses. The material properties required to implement this model are all assumed, and the response of the material to the variations in these assumed parameters of the constitutive law and in the finite element mesh is investigated. The steady state growth process is observed to be periodic with nonzero residual stresses. Numerical difficulties are also encountered in the computer solution process, resulting in sharp jumps and large oscillations in the stress responses.

  15. Hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ graft procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2011-01-01

    lower limb ischemia were obtained. Direct measurements of proximal and distal blood pressures in the graft were taken and simultaneous determinations of volume blood flow proximally and distally in the graft with ultrasound transit time technique before and after closure of residual fistulae were made......The objective was to study the intraoperative hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ saphenous vein graft procedures. Data on 60 residual arteriovenous fistulae in nine patients (five men) with a median age of 74 years (range 64-83 years) with critical....... Closure of a fistula with blood flow around or below 100 mL/min did not increase distal outflow, whereas closure of fistulae with higher blood flow resulted in unpredictable changes in distal outflow. Only fistulae with a blood flow above approximately 100 mL/min may be of hemodynamic significance....

  16. Prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordeaux, J.D.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Francis, D.J.; van Eys, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions

  17. Neuropsychological change following individualized cognitive rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatsch, Linda; Stress, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Results from a retrospective chart review of thirty-seven patients completing an individualized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) program, using a Developmental Metacognitive approach, are reported. Neuropsychological functioning was used as the measure of progress in CRT. Demographic data, number of CRT sessions, and number of months post-injury were used to predict overall improvement in neuropsychological status. Eighty-nine percent of the patients in the CRT program experienced significant change on at least one neuropsychological measure administered. Despite considerable sample diversity, demographic and treatment variables were not predictive of overall neuropsychological change. Individualizing the CRT approach can maximize the chance of improvement in a diverse patient sample.

  18. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400 Y 15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  19. Crop residue management and fertilization effects on soil organic matter and associated biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Yu, Yueyue; Karlen, Douglas L; Hao, Xiying

    2016-09-01

    Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer. Each CRM received N fertilizer rates at 270, 360, and 450 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). At the end of the experiment, soil NO3-N was reduced by 33 % from the R relative to the R0 treatment, while the Rc treatment resulted in a 21 to 44 % increase in occluded particulate organic C and N, and 80 °C extracted dissolved organic N, 19 to 32 % increase in microbial biomass C and protease activity, and higher monounsaturated phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA):saturated PLFA ratio from stimulating growth of indigenous bacteria when compared with the R treatment. Principal component analysis showed that the Biolog and PLFA profiles in the three CRM treatments were different from each other. Overall, these properties were not influenced by the used N fertilizer rates. Our results indicated that application of 17 % of the total N using manure in a field with crop residues return was effective for improving potential plant N availability and labile soil organic matter, primarily due to a shift in the dominant microorganisms.

  20. No neuropsychological consequence in male and female soccer players after a short heading training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Cornelia; Jansen, Petra

    2011-11-01

    The impact of heading on neuropsychological performance is a subject of controversy. In this experimental study, a controlled group design was used to investigate the possible effects of a short heading training session on neuropsychological performance. Ninety-one participants matched by age, sex, and intelligence were assigned to one of the following groups: A heading-training group, a placebo control group, and a waiting control group. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery for attention and working memory (D2 Test, Benton Visual Retention Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task Test). After 1 week, they received heading training, football (e.g., soccer) training without heading, or no training. Immediately after this training, the neuropsychological tests were conducted again. There was no neuropsychological deficit which could only be attributed to the heading training. However, within the heading group, women complained more about headache than men.

  1. [Formula: see text]Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN): Guidelines for Practicum Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron P; Roper, Brad L; Slomine, Beth S; Morrison, Chris; Greher, Michael R; Janusz, Jennifer; Larson, Jennifer C; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Ready, Rebecca E; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Whiteside, Doug M; Willment, Kim; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Practical experience is central to the education and training of neuropsychologists, beginning in graduate school and extending through postdoctoral fellowship. However, historically, little attention has been given to the structure and requirements of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. A working group of senior-level neuropsychologists, as well as a current postdoctoral fellow, all from a diverse range of settings (The AACN Practicum Guidelines Workgroup), was formed to propose guidelines for practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. The Workgroup reviewed relevant literature and sought input from professional organizations involved in education and training in neuropsychology. The proposed guidelines provide a definition of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, detail entry and exit criteria across competencies relevant to practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, and discuss the relationship between doctoral training programs and practicum training sites. The proposed guidelines also provide a methodology for competency-based evaluation of clinical neuropsychology practicum trainees and outline characteristics and features that are integral to an effective training environment. Although the guidelines discussed below may not be implemented in their entirety across all clinical neuropsychology practicum training sites, they are consistent with the latest developments in competency-based education.

  2. Norepinephrine transporter function and desipramine: residual drug effects versus short-term regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Gregory A; Jia, Weihong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Mandela, Prashant; Pan, Jun

    2005-04-30

    Previous research has shown that exposure of norepinephrine transporter (NET)-expressing cells to desipramine (DMI) downregulates the norepinephrine transporter, although changes in the several transporter parameters do not demonstrate the same time course. Exposures to desipramine for effects of residual desipramine on norepinephrine transporter binding and uptake were re-evaluated following exposures of PC12 cells to desipramine using different methods to remove residual drug. Using a method that minimizes residual drug, exposure of intact PC12 cells to desipramine for 4h had no effect on uptake capacity or [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter, while exposures for > or =16 h reduced uptake capacity. Desipramine-induced reductions in binding to the transporter required >24 h or greater periods of desipramine exposure. This study confirms that uptake capacity of the norepinephrine transporter is reduced earlier than changes in radioligand binding, but with a different time course than originally shown. Special pre-incubation procedures are required to abolish effects of residual transporter inhibitor when studying inhibitor-induced transporter regulation.

  3. Effect of constraint condition and internal medium on residual stress under overlay welding for dissimilar metal welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In nuclear power plants, residual stress of dissimilar metal weld propagates cracks in the weld metal which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Overlay welding is a process widely used to mitigate residual stress replacing inside tensile stress by compression stress. However, according to the result of this study the effect of overlay welding on residual stress depends on both internal medium and constraint condition. The purpose of this study is to maximize the positive effect of overlay welding by finite element analyses.

  4. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities

  5. Effectiveness of stress release geometries on reducing residual stress in electroforming metal microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang; Du, Liqun; Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Heqing; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Weitai

    2018-04-01

    Micro electroforming, as a mature micromachining technology, is widely used to fabricate metal microdevices in micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). However, large residual stress in the local positions of the micro electroforming layer often leads to non-uniform residual stress distributions, dimension accuracy defects and reliability issues during fabrication of the metal microdevice. To solve this problem, a novel design method of presetting stress release geometries in the topological structure of the metal microstructure is proposed in this paper. First, the effect of stress release geometries (circular shape, annular groove shape and rivet shape) on the residual stress in the metal microstructure was investigated by finite element modeling (FEM) analysis. Two evaluation parameters, stress concentration factor K T and stress non-uniformity factor δ were calculated. The simulation results show that presetting stress release geometries can effectively reduce and homogenize the residual stress in the metal microstructures were measured metal microstructure. By combined use with stress release geometries of annular groove shape and rivet shape, the stress concentration factor K T and the stress non-uniformity factor δ both decreased at a maximum of 49% and 53%, respectively. Meanwhile, the average residual stress σ avg decreased at a maximum of 20% from  -292.4 MPa to  -232.6 MPa. Then, micro electroforming experiments were carried out corresponding to the simulation models. The residual stresses in the metal microstructures were measured by micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) method. The results of the experiment proved that the stress non-uniformity factor δ and the average residual stress σ avg also decreased at a maximum with the combination use of annular groove shape and rivet shape stress release geometries, which is in agreement with the results of FEM analysis. The stress non-uniformity factor δ has a maximum decrease of 49% and the

  6. Effect of pretreatment on biomass residue structure and the application of pyrolysed and composted biomass residues in soilless culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Suo

    Full Text Available The changes in the structural characteristics of biomass residues during pyrolysis and composting were investigated. The biomass residues particles were prepared by pyrolysing at temperatures ranging from 350 to 400. For soilless production of the ornamental plant Anthurium andraeanum, pure sphagnum peat moss (P has traditionally been used as the growing medium. This use of P must be reduced, however, because P is an expensive and nonrenewable resource. The current study investigated the use of biomass residues as substitutes for P in A. andraeanum production. Plants were grown for 15 months in 10 soilless media that contained different proportions of pyrolysed corn cobs (PC, composted corn cobs (C, pyrolysed garden wastes (PG, and P. Although the media altered the plant nutrient content, A. andraeanum growth, development, and yield were similar with media consisting of 50% P+50% PC, 50% P+35% PC+15% PG, and 100% P. This finding indicates that, when pyrolysed, organic wastes, which are otherwise an environmental problem, can be used to reduce the requirement for peat in the soilless culture of A. andraeanum.

  7. Effect of the Leveling Conditions on Residual Stress Evolution of Hot Rolled High Strength Steels for Cold Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keecheol; Oh, Kyungsuk

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of leveling conditions on residual stress evolution during the leveling process of hot rolled high strength steels, the in-plane residual stresses of sheet processed under controlled conditions at skin-pass mill and levelers were measured by cutting method. The residual stress was localized near the edge of sheet. As the thickness of sheet was increased, the residual stress occurred region was expanded. The magnitude of residual stress within the sheet was reduced as increasing the deformation occurred during the leveling process. But the residual stress itself was not removed completely. The magnitude of camber occurred at cut plate was able to be predicted by the residual stress distribution. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysing the effect of leveling conditions on residual stress. It was able to implement the effect of plastic deformation in leveling, tension, work roll bending, and initial state of sheet (residual stress and curl distribution). The validity of simulated results was verified from comparison with the experimentally measured residual stress and curl in a sheet.

  8. Can pleiotropic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) impact residual cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John R; True, Wayne S; Le, Viet; Mason, R Preston

    2017-11-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk persists even in statin-treated patients with optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Other pathways beyond cholesterol contribute to CV risk and the key to reducing residual risk may be addressing non-cholesterol risk factors through pleiotropic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature relating to the potential role of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in reducing residual CV risk. The literature shows that EPA can robustly lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels without raising LDL-C levels and documents EPA to have a broad range of beneficial effects on the atherosclerotic pathway, including those on lipids, lipoproteins, inflammation, oxidation, phospholipid membranes, and the atherosclerotic plaque itself. Clinical imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that EPA decreases plaque vulnerability and prevents plaque progression. The evidence therefore points to a potential role for EPA to reduce residual CV risk. A large randomized study of statin-treated Japanese patients demonstrated that EPA ethyl ester reduced major coronary events by 19% (P = 0.011). However, while there has been significant benefit demonstrated in this and another Japanese CV outcomes study, the question as to whether EPA can play a role in reducing residual CV risk remains to be addressed in broader populations. The large, global, ongoing, randomized, placebo-controlled REDUCE-IT study of high-risk statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia is currently underway to investigate the potential of icosapent ethyl (high-purity prescription EPA ethyl ester) as an add-on therapy to reduce residual CV risk.

  9. Effects of residual stress on fatigue strength of small diameter welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Hattori, Takahiro; Nomoto, Toshiharu; Iida, Kunihiro; Sato, Masanobu

    1996-01-01

    A power plant consists of many welded components, therefore, it is essential in establishing the reliability of the power plant to maintain the reliability of all welded components. The fatigue failure caused by mechanical vibrations of small diameter welded joints, which is represented by socket welded joints, is one of the major causes of trouble for the welded parts of the power plant. Here, bending fatigue tests were conducted to investigate the fatigue strength of small diameter socket welded pipe joints. In the most cases of large diameter socket joints, a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet weld though the stress amplitude at the root was smaller than that at the toe of fillet weld. Additionally, the fatigue strength was affected by the weld bead sequence. The residual stress was considered to be one of the important parameters governing fatigue strength, therefore, its effects were investigated. In several types of pipe joints, the local stress and residual stress distributions were calculated by finite element analysis. The residual stresses were compressive at the toe and tensile at the root of the socket welded joints. Based on these results, the effects of residual stresses on the fatigue strength are discussed for small diameter welded pipe joints in the present work

  10. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  11. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy.

  12. The effect of radiation on the function of the residual pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    For patients with carcinomas of the bile duct and the pancreas, a pancreatoduodenectomy is generally the first choise of treatment. In our institute, the residual pancreas after surgery is transplanted into the abdominal wall in order to prevent diabetes mellites. We irradiated the residual pancreas postoperatively with a dosage of 15 to 43 Gy in order to inhibit the exocrine function. We then removed the drainage catheter from the residual pancreas. In the treatment, the endocrine function can be preserved. With respect to the radiation effect on the exocrine function, the amount of pancreatic secretion showed a transient increase in the first few days after the start of the irradiation, followed by a mild decrease. The serum amylase decreased immediatelly after the start of irradiation and increased sequentially during long-term observations. The amylase in the pancreatic juice showed a remarkable decrease immediatelly after the start of irradiation, and this decrease was maintained during long-term observations (The minimum level was observed from the dosage of 20 to 30 Gy). In order to analyse the radiation effect on the endocrine function, 50 g OGTTs were performed before and after irradiation in thirteen patients. In two of the thirteen patients, the results of the tests showed a new diabetic pattern after irradiation, which required insulin in one patient. It was concluded from our study that irradiation to the residual pancreas with in the dosage of 15 to 43 Gy the catheters in the residual pancreas could be removed in fourteen of fifteen patients without any unfavorable effect. (author)

  13. Neuropsychological assessment: principles, rationale, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are increasingly in demand for a wide range of patients. This paper offers a survey of the basic aspects of neuropsychological assessment that are of greatest importance for professionals (e.g., psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and lawyers) who are not trained in neuropsychological testing, but who refer clients for neuropsychological assessment. This survey could also serve neuropsychologists in their early stages of training, by addressing some of the major issues related to the assessment process. The range of goals that neuropsychological assessment may attain is first outlined. Next, a model is presented that explains the rationale enabling generalization from assessment to real-world functions that are the focus of interest and the target of prediction. Issues that need to be considered before deciding to conduct a neuropsychological evaluation are then introduced, and sources of information available to the assessor are described. A description is provided of what a neuropsychological assessment includes, with an emphasis on its cognitive aspects. Finally, mention is made of some of the difficulties and challenges that must be confronted in the course of a neuropsychological assessment.

  14. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although uraemic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little information exists concerning the identification of some of the neuropsychological processes. underlying overt behaviour that affect adjustment to ESRD. The results of a neuropsychological investigation of a ...

  15. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (pacrylic resin (p>0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on total energy, dry organic matter digestibility and on digestible energy of organic matter for some agricultural residues (maize straw, lentils straw, cottonwood, residues of apple-tree pruning, olive-cake first and second treatment). Sample were irradiated at 0, 50 and 100 KGy. Total energy was estimated by calorimeter. Digestibility was estimated in vitro by the method of Tilly and Terry (1963). Two sheep with rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donating animals. Irradiation resulted in increasing the digestion of organic and dry matter and also the digestible energy of organic matter in all residues used except lentils straw and olive-cake first treatment. The increase in digestible energy values of organic matter (kJ) at dose of 100 KGy were: 155, 105, 71 and 25 for residue of apple-tree pruning, maize straw, cottonwood and olive-cake second treatment, respectively. (author).28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  18. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  19. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  20. Estimation of average causal effect using the restricted mean residual lifetime as effect measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Although mean residual lifetime is often of interest in biomedical studies, restricted mean residual lifetime must be considered in order to accommodate censoring. Differences in the restricted mean residual lifetime can be used as an appropriate quantity for comparing different treatment groups...... with respect to their survival times. In observational studies where the factor of interest is not randomized, covariate adjustment is needed to take into account imbalances in confounding factors. In this article, we develop an estimator for the average causal treatment difference using the restricted mean...

  1. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shikui, E-mail: shktang@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D{sub 99} (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D{sub 99} was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a

  2. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-01-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained. (paper)

  3. Cost effective production of pullulan from agri-industrial residues using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ananya; Prasad, G S; Choudhury, Anirban Roy

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to develop an economically feasible process for the fermentative production of pullulan using agri-industrial residues, jaggery, de-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC) and corn steep liquor (CSL), as sole media components. A second order polynomial model was obtained using central composite design to understand the effects of interactions among these substrates on pullulan biosynthesis. Results indicated that, lower concentrations of CSL and DOJSC and higher concentrations of jaggery favoured pullulan production. The optimal nutrient composition (18% jaggery, 3% DOJSC and 0.97% CSL) as suggested by the model resulted in production of 66.25 g/L pullulan with a productivity of 0.92 g/Lh. Analysis of raw material cost component for pullulan production suggested that sole utilization of agri-residues may lead to development of cost effective process for pullulan production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of water renewal on the residual effect of larvicides in the control of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Soares Pontes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the residual effect of three larvicides under laboratory conditions for 100 days in Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality rate was measured without water renewal or with daily water renewal (80%. With temephos, there was 100% mortality in both groups until the 70th day. In the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-WDG test, there was no difference during the first 20 days. With Bti-G, without water renewal, mortality was sustained above 90% for up to 35 days. The second experiment (with water renewal reduced the mortality to below 90% after the first 20 days. When renewed water was provided, the residual effect was significantly lower for all larvicides.

  5. Effect of Multi-Axial Loading on Residual Strain Tensor for 12L14 Steel Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Jeffrey R.; Penumadu, Dayakar; Lou, Xin; Hubbard, Camden R.

    2014-08-01

    Evaluating the state of residual strain or stress is critically important for structural materials and for reliable design of complex shape components that need to function in extreme environment subjected to large thermo-mechanical loading. When residual stress state is superposed to external loads, it can lead to reduction or increase in failure strength. Past diffraction studies for evaluating the residual strain state involved measuring lattice spacings in three orthogonal directions and do not often correspond to principal directions. To completely resolve the state of strain at a given location, a full strain tensor must be determined. This is especially important when characterizing materials or metallic components exposed to biaxial or complex loading. Neutron diffraction at the second Generation Neutron Residual Stress Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used in this study to measure strain tensors associated with different modes of stress path. Hollow cylinder steel samples with 2 mm wall thickness are subjected to either pure axial extension or pure torsion to simulate multi-axial loading conditions. A virgin sample that is not subjected to any deformation, but subjected to identical manufacturing conditions and machining steps involved to obtain hollow cylinder geometry is used for obtaining reference d-spacing for given hkl planes at target spatial location(s). The two samples which are subjected to either pure tension or torsion are loaded to a deformation state that corresponded to equal amount of octahedral shear strain which is an invariant. This procedure is used so that a basis for comparison between the two samples can be made to isolate the stress path effects. A 2-circle Huber orienteer is used to obtain strain measurements on identical gauge volume at a series of φ and ψ values. The residual state of stress tensor corresponding to ex situ (upon unloading) conditions is presented for three lattice planes (211, 110, 200) for

  6. Effects of Bioreactor Retention Time on Aerobic Microbial Decomposition of CELSS Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of resource recovery research at the KSC-CELSS Breadboard Project has been the evaluation of microbiologically mediated biodegradation of crop residues by manipulation of bioreactor process and environmental variables. We will present results from over 3 years of studies that used laboratory- and breadboard-scale (8 and 120 L working volumes, respectively) aerobic, fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) for recovery of carbon and minerals from breadboard grown wheat and white potato residues. The paper will focus on the effects of a key process variable, bioreactor retention time, on response variables indicative of bioreactor performance. The goal is to determine the shortest retention time that is feasible for processing CELSS crop residues, thereby reducing bioreactor volume and weight requirements. Pushing the lower limits of bioreactor retention times will provide useful data for engineers who need to compare biological and physicochemical components. Bioreactor retention times were manipulated to range between 0.25 and 48 days. Results indicate that increases in retention time lead to a 4-fold increase in crop residue biodegradation, as measured by both dry weight losses and CO2 production. A similar overall trend was also observed for crop residue fiber (cellulose and hemicellulose), with a noticeable jump in cellulose degradation between the 5.3 day and 10.7 day retention times. Water-soluble organic compounds (measured as soluble TOC) were appreciably reduced by more than 4-fold at all retention times tested. Results from a study of even shorter retention times (down to 0.25 days), in progress, will also be presented.

  7. The Effect of Weld Residual Stress on Life of Used Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald G. Ballinger; Sara E. Ferry; Bradley P. Black; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    With the elimination of Yucca Mountain as the long-term storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the United States, a number of other storage options are being explored. Currently, used fuel is stored in dry-storage cask systems constructed of steel and concrete. It is likely that used fuel will continue to be stored at existing open-air storage sites for up to 100 years. This raises the possibility that the storage casks will be exposed to a salt-containing environment for the duration of their time in interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels, which are used to construct the canisters, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing environments if a continuous aqueous film can be maintained on the surface and the material is under stress. Because steel sensitization in the canister welds is typically avoided by avoiding post-weld heat treatments, high residual stresses are present in the welds. While the environment history will play a key role in establishing the chemical conditions for cracking, weld residual stresses will have a strong influence on both crack initiation and propagation. It is often assumed for modeling purposes that weld residual stresses are tensile, high and constant through the weld. However, due to the strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress, this assumption may be overly conservative. In particular, the residual stresses become negative (compressive) at certain points in the weld. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a probabilistic model with quantified uncertainties for SCC failure in the dry storage casks. In this paper, the results of a study of the residual stresses, and their postulated effects on SCC behavior, in actual canister welds are presented. Progress on the development of the model is reported.

  8. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale [CES-D]), and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome and race by gender as the groups. Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (standardized adjusted B = .135, P  .05). Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender.

  9. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Aim Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. Methods We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]) and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome, and race by gender as the groups. Results Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (Standardized Adjusted B=.135, P 0.05). Conclusion Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender. PMID:26823066

  10. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. On measurements of Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of deinked papers using Kubelka-Munk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Vahey; J.Y. Zhu; C.J. Houtman

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) in recycled papers depends on their opacity. For opacity less than 97.0%, the method is based on application of the Kubelka-Munk theory to diffuse reflection from papers measured once with a black backing and again with a thick backing of the same papers. At opacities above 97.0%, the two reflection values...

  12. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  13. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  15. Effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation at 200 C in a welded joint austenitic stainless steel - ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouane, A.I.; Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of heterogeneous welded joints between austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels is evaluated for reactor components and more particularly effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation in a heterogeneous welded joint. Residual stress is measured by the hole method in which a hole is drilled through the center of a strain gage glued the surface of the materials. In the non uniform stress field a transmissibility function is used for residual stress calculation. High compression residual stress in the ferritic metal near the interface ferritic steel/weld slow down fatigue crack propagation. 5 tabs., 15 figs., 19 refs [fr

  16. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR.

  17. Acute and residual interactive effects of repeated administrations of oral methamphetamine and alcohol in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Levin, Frances R.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2011-01-01

    Although methamphetamine and alcohol are commonly used together in a binge-like pattern, there is a dearth of empirical data investigating the repeated effects of this drug combination. The current study examined acute and residual mood, performance, and physiological effects of methamphetamine alone, alcohol alone, and the combination. Nine adult male volunteers completed this 20-day within-participant, residential laboratory study. During four 5-day blocks of sessions, participants were administered oral methamphetamine (0, 10 mg) combined with alcohol (0, 0.375, 0.75 g/kg) three times (day 2: AM, day 2: PM, and day 3: PM). Breath alcohol concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and cognitive/psychomotor performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Subjective and objective sleep measures were also assessed; residual effects were assessed on days 3–5 of each block. Following the first drug administration, the methamphetamine–alcohol combination produced greater elevations of heart rate and ratings of “good drug effect” compared to either drug alone. Methamphetamine attenuated alcohol-related performance decrements and feelings of intoxication, whereas alcohol attenuated methamphetamine-related sleep disruptions. By the third administration, many of these effects were significantly diminished, suggesting that participants developed tolerance. Few residual effects were observed. These data show that methamphetamine combined with alcohol produced a profile of effects that was different from the effects of either drug alone. The largely positive effects of the drug combination (i.e., greater euphoria, and fewer performance and sleep disruptions) might explain why these drugs are often used in combination. PMID:21748253

  18. Human health effects of residual carbon nanotubes and traditional water treatment chemicals in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simate, Geoffrey S; Iyuke, Sunny E; Ndlovu, Sehliselo; Heydenrych, Mike; Walubita, Lubinda F

    2012-02-01

    The volume of industrial and domestic wastewater is increasing significantly year by year with the change in the lifestyle based on mass consumption and mass disposal brought about by the dramatic development of economies and industries. Therefore, effective advanced wastewater treatment is required because wastewater contains a variety of constituents such as particles, organic materials, and emulsion depending on the resource. However, residual chemicals that remain during the treatment of wastewaters form a variety of known and unknown by-products through reactions between the chemicals and some pollutants. Chronic exposure to these by-products or residual chemicals through the ingestion of drinking water, inhalation and dermal contact during regular indoor activities (e.g., showering, bathing, cooking) may pose cancer and non-cancer risks to human health. For example, residual aluminium salts in treated water may cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). As for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), despite their potential impacts on human health and the environment having been receiving more and more attention in the recent past, existing information on the toxicity of CNTs in drinking water is limited with many open questions. Furthermore, though general topics on the human health impacts of traditional water treatment chemicals have been studied, no comparative analysis has been done. Therefore, a qualitative comparison of the human health effects of both residual CNTs and traditional water treatment chemicals is given in this paper. In addition, it is also important to cover and compare the human health effects of CNTs to those of traditional water treatment chemicals together in one review because they are both used for water treatment and purification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  20. The effects of forest residual debris disposal on perennial grass emergence, growth, and survival in a ponderosa pine ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin J. Law; Peter F. Kolb

    2007-01-01

    Soil surface conditions can have profound effects on plant seedling emergence and subsequent seedling survival. To test the hypothesis that different soil-surface treatments with logging residue affect range grass seedling emergence and survival, 6 alternative forest-residual treatments were established in the summer of 1998 following thinning of mature trees from...

  1. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  2. Research and application of residual stress monitor based on magneto-elastic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Vu Nhut; Luong Thi Hong; Vu Xuan Thanh; Nguyen Viet Hung

    2015-01-01

    Residual stresses can play a significant role in explaining of deformation and crack in weld joints. There are many methods of residual stress measurement. Most commonly methods used in industry and academia are considered: X-ray and neutron diffraction, hole drilling, Barkhausen, eddy current and ultrasonic methods. This paper introduces a new method for stress measurement, which is based on magneto-elastic effect, is a nondestructive method, available to assist evaluate and monitor the stress level, concentration and the gradient which are very important parameters for the evaluation and assessment of predicted life of the components and preventive care. The paper also reports on research which involved diagnostics and assessment of stressed state in butt weld plate before and after heat treatment. (author)

  3. [Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth.

  4. Effect of torrefaction conditions on greenhouse crop residue: Optimization of conditions to upgrade solid characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iáñez-Rodríguez, Irene; Martín-Lara, María Ángeles; Blázquez, Gabriel; Pérez, Antonio; Calero, Mónica

    2017-11-01

    This work investigated the possibility of using a greenhouse crop waste as a fuel, since it is an abundant residue in the Mediterranean area of Spain. The residue is mainly composed by biomass with a little quantity of plastic. The physical and chemical characteristics of the biomass were determined by elemental analysis, proximate analysis, FT-IR, FE-SEM and thermogravimetry. Additionally, a torrefaction process was carried out as a pre-treatment to improve the energy properties of the biomass material. The optimal conditions (time and temperature) of torrefaction were found to be 263°C and 15min using the gain and loss method. Further studies were carried out with the sample prepared with the nearest conditions to the optimal in order to determine the effect of the plastic fraction in the characteristics and torrefaction process of the waste studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of residual sericin on the structural characteristics and properties of regenerated silk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Song, Dae Woong; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2016-08-01

    Regenerated silk film has been increasingly attracting the research community's attention for biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and excellent cyto-compatibility. However, some limitations regarding its mechanical properties, such as brittleness, have restricted the use of silk films for industrial biomedical applications. In this study, regenerated silk films with different residual sericin content were prepared applying controlled degumming conditions to evaluate the effect of sericin content on the structure and properties of the films generated. When the residual sericin content increased to 0.6%, crystallinity index and breaking strength of silk films were increased. Above this value, these parameters then decreased. A 1.5 fold increase of silk film elongation properties was obtained when incorporating 16% sericin. Regardless of sericin content, all regenerated silk films showed excellent cyto-compatibility, comparable to the one obtained with tissue culture plates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fitting correlated residual error structures in nonlinear mixed-effects models using SAS PROC NLMIXED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R; Blozis, Shelley A

    2014-06-01

    Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models remain popular among practitioners for analyzing continuous repeated measures data taken on each of a number of individuals when interest centers on characterizing individual-specific change. Within this framework, variation and correlation among the repeated measurements may be partitioned into interindividual variation and intraindividual variation components. The covariance structure of the residuals are, in many applications, consigned to be independent with homogeneous variances, [Formula: see text], not because it is believed that intraindividual variation adheres to this structure, but because many software programs that estimate parameters of such models are not well-equipped to handle other, possibly more realistic, patterns. In this article, we describe how the programmatic environment within SAS may be utilized to model residual structures for serial correlation and variance heterogeneity. An empirical example is used to illustrate the capabilities of the module.

  7. Residual charges effect on the annealing behavior of Co-60 irradiated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwu, J.G.; Lee, G.S.; Lee, S.C.; Wang, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    It was experimentally observed that the residual charges of a MOS capacitor after C-V testing can exist for a long time. These residual charges induce a nonzero field at the SiO/sub 2//Si interface, and subsequently affect the annealing behavior due to a charge-temperature effect if the MOS capacitor is left floating during annealing. This problem is solved by a flat-band condition annealing method based on a charge-temperature technique. The annealing kinetics of a Co-60 irradiated MOS capacitor are then studied. A power law behavior of the annealing kinetics has been obtained for oxide charges annealed at 300 0 C. Possible explanations are given for this observation

  8. Effects on residual stresses of aluminum alloy LC4 by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Lu, Jin-zhong; Kong, De-jun; Yao, Hui-xue; Yang, Chao-jun

    2007-12-01

    The influences of processing parameters on laser-induced shock waves in metal components are discussed and analyzed. The effects of different parameters of laser shock processing (LSP) on residual stress of aerospace aluminum alloy LC4 were investigated. LSP was performed by using an Nd: glass phosphate laser with 23 ns pulse width and up to ~45 J pulse energy at power densities above GW/mm -2. Special attention is paid to the residual stresses from laser shock processing. Modification of microstructure, surface morphology by laser shock processing is also discussed. Results to date indicate that laser shock processing has great potential as a means of improving the mechanical performance of components.

  9. Effects of location, thermal stress and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.L.; Cohen, L.M.; Besuner, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (K 1 ) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions both with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute K 1 values from the uncracked stress distribution. For each type of loading K 1 values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for 6 crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced K 1 values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on K 1 of crack location, thermal stress and residual stress, as compared with pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that K 1 for small crack depths is maximised early in the transient, while K 1 for large cracks is maximised later under steady state conditions. Computation should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum K 1 for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on K 1 of location, thermal stresses and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The utilised combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (author)

  10. Residual effects of successive exposure of soybean Bradyrhizobium strains to aluminium on solid defined medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Rubens José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these studies was to investigate whether residual toxic effects of exposing soybean root nodule bacteria to Al in a solid defined media (SDM alter tolerance to Al, survival, sensitivity to antibiotics, N2 fixation effectiveness and genetic diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains. After being exposed four times to Al, strains showed variation in Al tolerance but there was no evidence of change in their original Al tolerance, sensitivity to the antibiotics or genetic diversity. Exposure of Bradyrhizobium strains to SDM plus Al did not alter biological N2 fixation effectiveness of five strains. Strain SEMIA 587 showed a reduction in its N2 fixation effectiveness but it seems that it was just a superficial toxic effect because one single passage through the plant eliminated this effect. Residual Al did not cause increases in Al tolerance and reductions in the survival and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains USDA 143, SEMIA 586, SEMIA 5019, SEMIA 5039 and SEMIA 5073. It also did not alter the resistance to antibiotics of strains USDA 143, SEMIA 5039 and SEMIA 5073, and the genetic diversity of the strains SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019.

  11. Occupational health, cognitive disorders and occupational neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Work can be an important etiologic factor in the genesis of some mental disorders including cognitive disability. Occupational neuropsychology constitutes an intriguing new but neglected area of research and clinical practice which deals with the neurocognitive consequences of the work environment and work habits. Neuropsychological knowledge is fundamental to understand cognitive requirements of work competence. Work can impact sleep patterns and mental energy, which in turn can cause neuropsychological symptoms. This report presents relevant evidence to illustrate the relationship between work and cognitive dysfunction.

  12. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the Residual Heat Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) transfer heat from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) to the reactor plant Component Cooling System (CCS) to reduce the temperature of the RCS at a controlled rate during the second part of normal plant cooldown and maintains the desired temperature until the plant is restarted. By the use of an analytic tool, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the RHRS, because of its redundant two train design, is able to accommodate any credible component single failure with the only effect being an extension in the required cooldown time, thus demonstrating the reliability of the RHRS to perform its intended function

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH APPROACHES TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

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    Yu. V. Mukhitova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the Russian and British approaches to restoration of the highest mental functions in patients with neurological disorders.The applicability of development of effective programs for neuropsychological rehabilitation of neurological patients is represented, where one of the main directions is the reconstruction of higher mental functions.Results. This article shows the importance of cooperation and understanding of specialists among the multidisciplinary team in medical rehabilitation system. The history of origin of the concept «multidisciplinary approach» is cited, it was spoken about by V. M. Bekhterev for the first time, emphasizing the necessity of multidisciplinary study of neuropsychic system of a healthy and ill person. Special aspects of rehabilitation process in Russia and in England were considered. Results of the comparison of neuropsychological rehabilitation models of two countries were presented. Conclusions. Further guidelines of cooperation between Russian and foreign neuropsychologists were identified. The attention is focused on determination of rehabilitation potential and inclusion of the patient and his family in rehabilitation process as it allows to solve problems of insufficiency of motivation, a self-assessment and to prevent emotional violations, increasing quality of life of patients. 

  14. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The ulilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (Auth.)

  15. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  16. The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.

  17. Effect of ensiled hop (Humulus lupulus L.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun, Mohammad; Saito, Aya; Sano, Hiroaki

    2011-06-01

    An isotope dilution method using [1-(13)C]sodium acetate was applied to determine the effect of feeding ensiled hop (Humulus lupulus L.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in six adult crossbred sheep. The sheep were fed 63 g/kg body weight (BW)(0.75)/day of either mixed hay of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and round bale silage at 3:1 ratio (Hay-diet), or another where round bale silage was replaced by ensiled hop residues (Hop-diet) with a crossover design each of a 3-week period. The isotope dilution method was performed on day 21 of each dietary treatment. Dry matter digestibility was similar between diets, and nitrogen (N) digestibility was lower (P = 0.001) for Hop-diet than Hay-diet. However, N retention did not differ between diets. Plasma acetate concentration was lower (P = 0.04) for Hop-diet than Hay-diet, and the turnover rate of plasma acetate did not differ between diets. Plasma concentration of lactate and non-esterified fatty acids were similar between diets. Hop-diet was found almost comparable to Hay-diet on plasma acetate turnover rate in the present experimental conditions. Therefore, it could be concluded that hop residues partially could be used as an alternative to traditionally used round bale silage for rearing sheep. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effective deleting of residual photoconductivity in high-resistance layers GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaev, B.S.; Kadirova, I.T.; Sharipov, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of residual photoconductivity as the storage of optical memory (OM) represents practical interest in micro and optoelectronics. The finding - out of the nature OM represents undoubtedly and scientific interest. Now residual photoconductivity (RPC) is explained by potential barriers arising because of non-monocharacteristical of distribution components of the semiconductor or carriers of a current in volume. Depending on a nature non-monocharacteristical the time relaxation RPC changes in a wide limit. The special interest represents RPC created by impurity. In the given work the results of research of a nature RPC created photos by ionization of the filled centres of chrome in compensated epitaxilogic layers arsenide galls are resulted. Epitaxilogic layers were brought up by a vertical method ZFE. Highness was reached (achieved) by special indemnification of the residual donors deep acceptors of chrome. Substrates served n-GoAs. Lassitude of i-layers has made 70-80 microns. Specific resistance of layers has made (1/3) 108 om·sm. (T= 300 K). The structures were photosensitive as at low (T = 77 K) and at room temperatures. The photosensitivity of structures in impurity to a strip of absorption chrome (= 1,4 microns) was comparable (compared) with own. The researches show, that the structures have RPC. Size RPC the greatest ambassador impurity of illumination is carrying out photoionization Cr2 + - of the centres. That is established, RPC impurity of a photocurrent is effectively erased only at certain length of a wave of external illumination

  19. Residual nitrogen fertilization effect of common bean production on succeeding corn intercropped with Congo grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Almeida Carmeis Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Crop production in conservation systems involving intercropped cultivations mainly with corn have been proposed as a technology to promote sustainability in the Brazilian Cerrado areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of residual nitrogen fertilization applied in common bean on subsequent corn sole or intercropped with Congo grass (Urochloa ruziziensis in no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks with three replicates in a split-plot design. The treatments were composed by two cropping systems (sole and intercropped with Congo grass, and the sub-plots were five doses of nitrogen (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg of N ha-1, applied in topdressing on common-bean (previous crop. There was no effect of cropping systems and residual amount of nitrogen application in the vegetative and reproductive development of corn. Corn intercropped with Congo grass leaded an adequate formation of crop residue and total land covering target at sustainability of no-tillage system.

  20. Effect of Residual Gas Composition on Epitaxial Growth of Graphene on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, J.; Rejhon, M.; Belas, E.; Dědič, V.; Moravec, P.; Franc, J.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, graphene growth optimization has been one of the key routes towards large-scale, high-quality graphene production. We measure in situ residual gas content during epitaxial-graphene growth on silicon carbide (SiC) to find detrimental factors of epitaxial-graphene growth. The growth conditions in high vacuum, in argon, purified argon, and the flow of argon are compared. The grown epitaxial graphene is studied by Raman-scattering mapping. We determine mechanical strain, number of graphene layers and the graphene quality. The surface topography is measured by atomic force microscopy. Charge density and carrier mobility are studied by Hall-effect measurements in van der Pauw configuration. We identify the major role of the chemical reaction of carbon and residual water. The rate of the reaction is lowered when purified argon is used. We also show that, according to time-varying gas content, it is preferable to grow graphene at higher temperatures and shorter times. Other sources of growth environment contamination are also discussed. The reaction of residual gas and SiC is discussed as one of the factors decreasing the lateral size of SiC atomically flat terraces and leading to their irregular shape. The importance of purified argon and its sufficient flow rate is concluded to be important for high-quality graphene growth as it reduces the rate of undesired chemical reactions and provides a more stable and defined growth ambient.

  1. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  2. Efeito residual de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência em diferentes solos Residual effect of herbicides applied in pre-emergence in different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Inoue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar o efeito residual dos herbicidas ametryne, clomazone e diuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, utilizando amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico e de um Latossolo Vermelho, com texturas e composições contrastantes. Para isso, foram conduzidos seis bioensaios em casa de vegetação, com amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico (textura arenosa e de um Latossolo Vermelho (textura argilosa. Foi avaliado o efeito residual de ametryne (0, 1,60 e 2,40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0,90 e 1,10 kg ha-1 e diuron (0, 1,60 e 3,20 kg ha-1, por meio de semeadura de bioindicador previamente selecionado (Cucumis sativus ou Brachiaria decumbens aos 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a aplicação (DAA. Verificou-se que ametryne proporcionou 80% de controle até os 40 DAA, independentemente do solo e da dose. O clomazone apresentou efeito residual satisfatório quando aplicado na dose recomendada em solo argiloso, mantendo o controle acima de 80% até os 71 DAA. Em solo arenoso, o controle não foi satisfatório já aos 25 DAA, mesmo na dose recomendada para solo argiloso. Diuron apresentou alta estabilidade em solo argiloso, observando-se controle superior a 91% até os 100 DAA na dose recomendada e controle acima de 80% até os 54 DAA na dose recomendada para solo arenoso. No entanto, em solo arenoso não houve aumento do efeito residual, mesmo com a aplicação da dose recomendada para solo argiloso.The objective of this work was to monitor the residual effect of the herbicides ametryne, clomazone and diuron, applied in pre-emergence, using Psament and Red Latosol with contrasting texture and composition. Thus, six experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions with samples of Psament (sandy texture and Red Latosol (clay texture. The residual effect of ametryne (0, 1.60 and 2.40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0.90 and 1.10 kg ha-1 and diuron (0, 1.60 and 3.20 kg ha 1 was evaluated by sowing the test plant (Cucumis sativus or

  3. Ecological significance of residual exposures and effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2006-07-01

    An ecological significance framework is used to assess the ecological condition of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in order to address the current management question: 17 y following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are there any remaining and continuing ecologically significant exposures or effects on the PWS ecosystem caused by EVOS? We examined the extensive scientific literature funded by the Exxon Valdez Trustees or by ExxonMobil to assess exposures and effects from EVOS. Criteria to assess ecological significance include whether a change in a valued ecosystem component (VEC) is sufficient to affect the structure, function, and/or health of the system and whether such a change exceeds natural variability. The EVOS occurred on 24 March 1989, releasing over 250,000 barrels of crude oil into PWS. Because PWS is highly dynamic, the residual oil was largely eliminated in the first few years, and now only widely dispersed, highly weathered, or isolated small pockets of residual contamination remain. Many other sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in PWS from past or present human activities or natural oil seeps. Multiple-lines-of-evidence analyses indicate that residual PAHs from EVOS no longer represent an ecologically significant exposure risk to PWS. To assess the ecological significance of any residual effects from EVOS, we examined the literature on more than 20 VECs, including primary producers, filter feeders, fish and bird primary consumers, fish and bird top predators, a bird scavenger, mammalian primary consumers and top predators, biotic communities, ecosystem-level properties of trophodynamics and biogeochemical processes, and landscape-level properties of habitat mosaic and wilderness quality. None of these has any ecologically significant effects that are detectable at present, with the exception of 1 pod of orcas and possibly 1 subpopulation of sea otters; however, in both those cases, PWS-wide populations appear to have

  4. Efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha Residual effect of sewage sludge on off-season corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Moraes de Cesare Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Das opções de disposição final do lodo de esgoto, a reciclagem agrícola tem sido uma das mais utilizadas em diversos países desenvolvidos, sendo considerada a forma mais adequada em termos técnicos, econômicos e ambientais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha, após dois anos de aplicação consecutiva desse resíduo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. O experimento foi realizado em campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, e os tratamentos foram os seguintes: testemunha e adubações com lodo de esgoto nas doses de 6, 12, 24 e 36 t ha-1 (peso de matéria seca. Houve efeito residual do uso do lodo de esgoto caleado na produtividade de milho safrinha; a dose de 36 t ha-1 foi estatisticamente superior às doses de 6 e 12 t ha-1.Among the possibilities of final disposal of sewage sludge, agricultural recycling has become one of the most widely used in several developed countries, and is considered the most appropriate in technical, economical and environmental terms. This study aimed at evaluating the sewage sludge residual effect on off-season corn yield on an Eutroferric Red Latossol (Oxisol. The field experiment was in a randomized block design with three replications, with treatments consisting of increasing doses of sewage sludge (0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 t ha-1, on a dry weight basis, applied in the two previous cropping seasons.. The residual effect of the application of lime-stabilized sewage sludge increased the yield of off-season corn; the grain yield under a rate of 36 t ha-1 was statistically higher than those under 6 and 12 t ha-1.

  5. Soluble carbon in oxisol under the effect of organic residue rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lúcia Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic residues to the soil can increase soluble organic carbon (SOC and affect the pH and electrolytic conductivity (EC of the soil. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of residue and the applied dose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing C rates contained in organic residue on the pH, EC, water-extractable total carbon (WETC, water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC, and water-extractable inorganic carbon (WEIC in soil treated with manure (chicken, swine, and quail, sawdust, coffee husk, and sewage sludge. The levels of total C (TC- KH2PO4, organic carbon (OC- KH2PO4, and inorganic C (IC- KH2PO4 extractable by a 0.1 mol L-1 KH2PO4 solution were also quantified in soil under the effect of increasing rates of chicken and quail manures. The following rates of organic residue C were applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol sample: 0, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 mg kg-1. The addition of organic residues to the soil increased pH, except in the case of sewage sludge, which acidified the soil. The acidity correction potential of chicken and quail manure was highest, dependent on the manure rate applied; regardless of the dose used, sawdust barely alters the soil pH. At all tested rates, the EC of the soil treated with swine manure, coffee husk, and sawdust remained below 2.0 dS m-1, which is a critical level for salinity-sensitive crops. However, the application of chicken or quail manure and sewage sludge at certain rates increased the EC to values above this threshold level. Highest levels of WETC, WEOC, and WEIC were obtained when chicken and quail manure and coffee husk were applied to the Oxisol. The quantities of SOC extracted by KH2PO4 were higher than the quantities extracted by water, demonstrating the ability of soil to adsorb C into its colloids.

  6. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  7. Reflections on clinical neuropsychology: a multifaceted approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869233

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychology is a rapidly growing, independent discipline with a broad work field. Neuropsychologists are working in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, forensic organisations and research institutes. One of the most important instruments of a neuropsychologist in assessing the

  8. Efeito residual de sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen em três solos Residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.D Melo

    2010-12-01

    oxyfluorfen, que apresentou controle praticamente constante em todas as épocas avaliadas, e do sulfentrazone, que mostrou elevado efeito residual ao longo do período avaliado. As características inerentes a cada herbicida, bem como as diferenças nos teores de matéria orgânica e de textura entre os solos, influenciam na persistência do sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen no solo. Maior efeito residual de oxyfluorfen foi observado no solo franco-arenoso e de isoxaflutole no solo argiloso com alto teor de matéria orgânica. Já o sulfentrazone apresentou elevado efeito residual nos três solos estudados.The physical and chemical properties of soils, as well as climatic conditions, influence the behavior of herbicides applied in pre-emergence. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils. The trial was conducted in a protected environment in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications. The treatments for each soil were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial, being three herbicides and five sowing periods after herbicide application. Sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen were applied at 0.5 kg ha-1, 0.72 kg ha-1 and 0.113 kg ha-1, respectively, on plastic pots with 250 mL volume, previously filled with the two clay texture soils and the sandy loam texture soil. Subsequently, the bioindicator species Sorghum bicolor was sown at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after application (DAA. A control with no herbicide treatment was sown at different times for each soil and used as a comparison in the evaluations. At 21 days after sowing in each season, intoxication and plant growth were evaluated by means of shoot dry mass. Sorghum plants in the clay soil with 9.0 dag kg-1 of organic matter (O.M., submitted to the application of isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone and oxyfluorfen, produced shoot dry mass over the control to 34, 20 and 40%, respectively, at 60 DAA. In the sandy loam soil, it was observed a high

  9. Effect of tillage and crop residue on soil temperature following planting for a Black soil in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; McLaughlin, Neil; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Minggang; Liang, Aizhen

    2018-03-14

    Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops. Tillage had significant effects on soil temperature in 10 of 15 weekly periods. Weekly average NT soil temperature was 0-1.5 °C lower than MP, but the difference was significant (P temperature. Higher residue coverage caused lower soil temperature; the effect was greater for maize than soybean residue. Residue type had significant effect on soil temperature in 9 of 15 weekly periods with 0-1.9 °C lower soil temperature under maize than soybean residue. Both tillage and residue had small but inconsistent effect on soil temperature following planting in Northeast China representative of a cool to temperate zone.

  10. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma.

  11. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  12. Evaluation of residual effect of partially acidulated phosphate rock on crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munyinda, K; Lungu, O.I.

    2005-01-01

    Many countries in Sub -Saharan Africa are rich in phosphate rock (PR) -the primary raw material for the production of phosphate fertilizers. Because of the low local demand and the global surplus of P fertilisers, these deposits have not been developed. Technical, economic and conducive policy regimes are needed in order to initiate tapping of these resources and providing them at low cost.Direct application of of ground PR would be one way of providing the PR at low cost, but this mode of application has proved not to be effective with Zambian PR. In current field trials, simply processed partially acidulated PR (PAPR) was utilised. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PAPR produced from simply processed phospate rock products in soils of varying soil chemical properties for direct and residual application on field crops. The results of the three year study have demonstrated that PAPR was a good source of P in providing P to plants and improving crop yields.Where soils were acidic and acutely P deficient, PAPR was a better source of P compared to highly soluble fertilizers.The results have also shown that in the third year as in the second year , there was a greater residual effect of PAPR to increase crop yields. A one time application of P was effective for up to three years. (author)

  13. Exposure to metals during pregnancy and neuropsychological development at the age of 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Forns, Joan; Fort, Marta; Casas, Maribel; Cáceres, Alejandro; Guxens, M.; Gascón, Mireia I.; García-Esteban, R.; Júlvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is insufficient epidemiological evidence for deciding whether prenatal exposure to the current low-levels of metals in developed countries may affect neuropsychological function in early childhood. Objectives: Our goal was to evaluate potential neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to seven metals (cobalt, copper, arsenic, cadmium, antimony, thallium and lead), during the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy, on child neuropsychological development at 4 years of age. Materia...

  14. Differential neuropsychological functioning between adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without conduct disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background/Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without comorbidities of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and/or conduct disorder (CD) and the mediation effects of the neuropsychological functions in the relationship between ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms to increase our understanding about these frequently co-occurring disorders. Methods: Adolescents aged 11â18 years were interviewed by the Kiddie epide...

  15. The impact of oculomotor functioning on neuropsychological performance in Huntington disease

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, JO; Long, JD; Westervelt, HJ; Smith, MM; Bruce, JM; Kim, JI; Mills, JA; Paulsen, JS; De Soriano, I; Shadrick, C; Miller, A; Chiu, E; Preston, J; Goh, A; Antonopoulos, S

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative condition with prominent motor (including oculomotor), cognitive, and psychiatric effects. While neuropsychological deficits are present in HD, motor impairments may impact performance on neuropsychological measures, especially those requiring a speeded response, as has been demonstrated in multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. The curren t study is the first to explore associations between oculomotor functions and neur...

  16. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  17. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  18. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  19. Effect of residual stresses on the reliability of components under fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestenberg, I.

    1995-01-01

    The assurance of the reliability of mechanical components relative to a variety of failure mechanisms is of decisive technical, industrial, and economic importance. In this dissertation, the reliability, i.e. the probability that the lifetime does not fall below a given value, is examined with respect to the particularly important failure mechanisms of fracture and fatigue. The general problem of uniaxial fatigue is studied on the basis of both continuum damage mechanics and crack mechanics. In particular, the mechanisms of crack initiation, as characterized by the Coffin-Manson-Neuber local strain-life equations for notched components as well as the mechanism of crack growth, as governed by the Paris-Erdogang relation, are taken into account. The nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation process for components subjected to general, cyclic loading histories is modeled by a multilinear damage law which allows, in principle, to characterize the subsequent activation of different fatigue mechanisms. Explicit equations are developed for quintuple-, quadruple-, and triple-linear damage accumulation. Particularly promising appears the triple-linear damage approach which allows, in principle, the identification of a nucleation, an initiation, and a final growth stage up to rupture of fatigue cracks. The beneficial effect of intentionally induced compressive residual stresses on the lifetime of the component is investigated. To this end, an elasto-plastic contact problem, based on Prandtl-Reuss' constitutive equations, is numerically solved, and the residual stress field, as it is typically produced by the mechanical process of cold rolling, is established. Assessments of the effect of adaptation, i.e. the subsequent reduction of the residual stresses due to cyclic in-service loading as well as of the effect of unavoidable surface roughness, introduced by manufacturing processes like forging, are carried out. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  20. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  1. A kinetic approach to evaluate salinity effects on carbon mineralization in a plant residue-amended soil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad R.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of salinity stress and plant residue quality on C mineralization kinetics in soil is not well understood. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of salinity stress on C mineralization kinetics in a soil amended with alfalfa, wheat and corn residues. A factorial combination of two salinity levels (0.97 and 18.2 dS/m) and four levels of plant residues (control, alfalfa, wheat and corn) with three replications was performed. A first order kinetic model was used to describe the C mineralization and to calculate the potentially mineralizable C. The CO2-C evolved under non-saline condition, ranged from 814.6 to 4842.4 mg CO2-C/kg in control and alfalfa residue-amended soils, respectively. Salinization reduced the rates of CO2 evolution by 18.7%, 6.2% and 5.2% in alfalfa, wheat and corn residue-amended soils, respectively. Potentially mineralizable C (C 0) was reduced significantly in salinized alfalfa residue-treated soils whereas, no significant difference was observed for control treatments as well as wheat and corn residue-treated soils. We concluded that the response pattern of C mineralization to salinity stress depended on the plant residue quality and duration of incubation. PMID:16972320

  2. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  3. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  4. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780.......Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780....

  5. Activity and Residual Effect of Two Formulations of Lambdacyhalothrin Sprayed on Palm Leaves to Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazariego-Arana Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity and residual effect of two formulations of lambdacyhalothrin were evaluated with Rhodnius prolixus;laboratory and field tests were conducted in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. The results indicate that the lethal concentrations of the active ingredient of SC (LC50 = 2.37 and LC90 = 8.5 mg, a.i./m² were 4-8 times than those with the insecticide WP applied on R. prolixus bugs in palm leaves, a common building material for thatched roofs. Other investigators in South America recommended applying 30 mg a.i./m² in porous materials; we obtained that the products WP and SC were 3.5 and 16 times more effective on palm leaves. Regarding the evaluation of the residual effects in field spraying, there was up to 15 months persistence after the application of WP in two doses (8.6 mg a.i./m² and 3.752 mg a.i./m² with SC. We consider R. prolixus highly susceptible to the employed pyrethroids; they could be used to control this vector in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

  6. The potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Fumio; Matsui, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Sado, Masashi; Taniguchi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kamiyama, Masashi; Suda, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Yuhiro; Yamori, Akira; Igarashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Jun; Oka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    It is generally thought that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers commonly found in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes for medical use may cause dermal irritation, but a systematic study has never been carried out. Therefore, we assessed the potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers. We studied seven acrylic monomers, acrylic acid (AA), methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), n-hexyl acrylate (n-HA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), as well as three methacrylic monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA). We first examined their cytotoxic effect on a cultured dermis model using the MTT method to determine their EC(50) and then performed a primary irritation test in rabbits using the monomers at three different concentrations (i.e., EC(50) , one-tenth EC(50) and 10 times EC(50)). Marked variations were found in cytotoxic and dermal irritating activities among the (meth)acrylic monomers tested. HEA exhibited the most potent dermal irritation having the lowest erythema dose (the concentration which gives a primary dermal irritation index of 1.00) of 460 ppm. But the other monomers exhibited less potent dermal irritation (lowest erythema doses > or =1000 ppm). For the monomers, significant correlation was found between cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritating activity. Our results show that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers in adhesive tapes are unlikely to induce skin irritation except for HEA. This study also suggests that cultured skin models are extremely useful as a screening method for chemical substances that could potentially cause dermal irritating activity.

  7. Differential effects of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention for residual speech errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Mcallister Byun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors. Eleven child/adolescent participants received ten sessions of visual-acoustic biofeedback and ten sessions of traditional treatment, with the order of biofeedback and traditional phases counterbalanced across participants. Probe measures eliciting untreated rhotic words were administered in at least 3 sessions prior to the start of treatment (baseline, between the two treatment phases (midpoint, and after treatment ended (maintenance, as well as before and after each treatment session. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed by outside listeners in a blinded, randomized fashion. Results were analyzed using a combination of visual inspection of treatment trajectories, individual effect sizes, and logistic mixed-effects regression. Effect sizes and visual inspection revealed that participants could be divided into categories of strong responders (n=4, mixed/moderate responders (n=3, and non-responders (n=4. Individual results did not reveal a reliable pattern of stronger performance in biofeedback versus traditional blocks, or vice versa. Moreover, biofeedback versus traditional treatment was not a significant predictor of accuracy in the logistic mixed-effects model examining all within-treatment word probes. However, the interaction between treatment condition and treatment order was significant: biofeedback was more effective than traditional treatment in the first phase of treatment, and traditional treatment was more

  8. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  9. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.M

    2009-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15 N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  10. Effects of lysine residues on structural characteristics and stability of tau proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsang; Baek, Inchul; Choi, Hyunsung; Kim, Jae In; Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: nass@korea.ac.kr

    2015-10-23

    Pathological amyloid proteins have been implicated in neuro-degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lewy-body diseases and prion related diseases. In prion related diseases, functional tau proteins can be transformed into pathological agents by environmental factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, Aβ-mediated toxicity and covalent modification. These pathological agents are stable under physiological conditions and are not easily degraded. This un-degradable characteristic of tau proteins enables their utilization as functional materials to capturing the carbon dioxides. For the proper utilization of amyloid proteins as functional materials efficiently, a basic study regarding their structural characteristic is necessary. Here, we investigated the basic tau protein structure of wild-type (WT) and tau proteins with lysine residues mutation at glutamic residue (Q2K) on tau protein at atomistic scale. We also reported the size effect of both the WT and Q2K structures, which allowed us to identify the stability of those amyloid structures. - Highlights: • Lysine mutation effect alters the structure conformation and characteristic of tau. • Over the 15 layers both WT and Q2K models, both tau proteins undergo fractions. • Lysine mutation causes the increment of non-bonded energy and solvent accessible surface area. • Structural instability of Q2K model was proved by the number of hydrogen bonds analysis.

  11. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  12. Effect of six different starter cultures on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Hur, Sun Jin

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of six different starter cultures of enterobacteria on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion. Before digestion, the concentration of residual nitrite was dependent on starter culture in fermented sausage and ranged from 25.2 to 33.2mg/kg. Among the six starter cultures of enterobacteria, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Staphylococcus carnosus showed higher nitrite depletion ability than the other three strains in fermented sausages. The concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages was significantly (psausages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of post-harvest forestry residue management practices on the diversity of epigeal coleopterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ramírez Aliaga

    2017-01-01

    and summer, the treatment with residues left registered significantly greater abundance and species richness. In the residue management, the practices of intact leaving residue should be considered as the least impacting on diversity and abundance of epigeal coleopterans and is recommended for creating refugee areas to promote diversity of beetles in this area of study.

  14. SU-D-16A-06: Modeling Biological Effects of Residual Uncertainties For Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L; Larson, D; McDermott, M; Sneed, P [UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, A [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Residual uncertainties on the order of 1-2 mm are frequently observed when delivering stereotactic radiosurgery via on-line imaging guidance with a relocatable frame. In this study, a predictive model was developed to evalute potentiral late radiation effects associated with such uncertainties. Methods: A mathematical model was first developed to correlate the peripherial isodose volume with the internal and/or setup margins for a radiosurgical target. Such a model was then integrated with a previoulsy published logistic regression normal tissue complication model for determining the symptomatic radiation necrosis rate at various target sizes and prescription dose levels. The model was tested on a cohort of 15 brain tumor and tumor resection cavity patient cases and model predicted results were compared with the clinical results reported in the literature. Results: A normalized target diameter (D{sub 0}) in term of D{sub 0} = 6V/S, where V is the volume of a radiosurgical target and S is the surface of the target, was found to correlate excellently with the peripheral isodose volume for a radiosurgical delivery (logarithmic regression R{sup 2} > 0.99). The peripheral isodose volumes were found increase rapidly with increasing uncertainties levels. In general, a 1-mm residual uncertainties as calculated to result in approximately 0.5%, 1%, and 3% increases in the symptomatic radiation necrosis rate for D{sub 0} = 1 cm, 2 cm, and 3 cm based on the prescription guideline of RTOG 9005, i.e., 21 Gy to a lesion of 1 cm in diameter, 18 Gy to a lesion 2 cm in diameter, and 15 Gy to a lesion 3 cm in diameter respectively. Conclusion: The results of study suggest more stringent criteria on residual uncertainties are needed when treating a large target such as D{sub 0}≤ 3 cm with stereotactic radiosurgery. Dr. Ma and Dr. Sahgal are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery (ISRS)

  15. Effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application on soil residues of chiral fungicide benalaxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liang, Yiran; Luo, Mai; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge on the dissipation behavior of the fungicide benalaxyl and its primary metabolite benalaxyl acid in soil were studied on an enantiomeric level during a 148-day exposure experiment. Chiral separation and analysis of the two pairs of enantiomers were achieved using HPLC-MS/MS with a chiralpak IC chiral column. Benalaxyl decreased with half-life of 16.1 days in soil under tap water irrigation with preferential residue of S-benalaxyl. Benalaxyl acid was formed with great preference of R-enantiomer before 21 days while enriched in S-enantiomer afterwards. The degradation of benalaxyl was restrained by both wastewater and treated wastewater irrigation, but the enantioselectivity in S-benalaxyl residue was enhanced. Benalaxyl acid was also formed with similar enantioselectivity as in tap water irrigation. Sewage sludge could accelerate benalaxyl degradation with shorter half-life. Surprisingly, the enantioselectivity with preference degradation of S-enantiomer in sewage sludge was opposite to that in soil. More benalaxyl acid was generated with EF values always lower than 0.5 and remained longer in sewage sludge than in soil. A sterilization experiment indicated that the conversion of benalaxyl to benalaxyl acid and the enantioselectivity were determined by the microorganisms in soil or sewage sludge. Farming practices like wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application might not only influence the fate of pesticide, but also the enantioselectivity of chiral pesticide enantiomers and thus the risks of pesticide residues posed to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.

  17. Effects of socio-demographic variables on performance on the Cambridge neuropsychological automated tests for the assessment of dementia and Portuguese norms for older adults living in retirement homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos Gonçalves, Marta; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Rodrigues Simões, Mário

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, education, gender, computer experience, institutionalization time, and psychotropic drug use on performance on four tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) which are recommended for the assessment of dementia (Rapid Visual Information Processing [RVP], Paired Associates Learning [PAL], Spatial Working Memory [SWM], and Reaction Time [RTI]), and to provide norms for Portuguese older persons without neuropsychiatric diagnoses who are living in retirement homes. The normative sample included 128 adults aged 69-96 years who had no neuropsychiatric diagnosis and who had lived in retirement homes for 3-232 months. The CANTAB was administered, at the latest, one week after a screening session that comprised an interview and the administration of pencil-and-paper tests. The simultaneous multiple linear regression models were significant (p computer experience effect was found for the RTI simple movement time measure. We additionally observed significant effects of education, age, gender, and computer experience on several pencil-and-paper tests. Our findings suggest that different socio-demographic variables influence distinct tests and measures of the same test, and that the associations between computer experience and several pencil-and-paper tests may be mediated by possible cognitive skills developed through computer use.

  18. Neuropsychology and rehabilitation of patients with severe acquired brain injury: a complex relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio De Tanti; Donatella Saviola

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of simultaneous impairments in persons with severe acquired brain injury calls for coordinated work by a team of specialists in order to optimise residual potential and deal immediately with aspects that interfere with recovery. Here we propose a review of the main critical aspects that can interfere with neuropsychological rehabilitation in these subjects in the post-acute intensive rehabilitation stage: associated damage, complications, sensory and motor impairment and ...

  19. Neuropsychology and rehabilitation of patients with severe acquired brain injury: a complex relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Tanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of simultaneous impairments in persons with severe acquired brain injury calls for coordinated work by a team of specialists in order to optimise residual potential and deal immediately with aspects that interfere with recovery. Here we propose a review of the main critical aspects that can interfere with neuropsychological rehabilitation in these subjects in the post-acute intensive rehabilitation stage: associated damage, complications, sensory and motor impairment and pharmacological treatment.

  20. Effects of shot peening on the residual stress of welded SS400 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Hyung; Cheong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of structures is usually determined by welding zone. The tensile residual stress, which is induced by welding, reduces the fatigue life and fatigue strength of welded structures. If we remove the tensile residual stress or induce the compressive residual stress, the fatigue life of welded structures will be improved. The change of hardness and compressive residual stress of welded zone after shot peening was investigated in this paper. The results show that the hardness was increased by shot peening. The residual stress was reduced by shot peening

  1. Effect of ferrous sulfate and nitrohumic acid neutralization on the leaching of metals from a combined bauxite residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiaolian; Li, Fasheng; Du, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Bauxite residue neutralization is intended to open opportunities for revegetation and reuse of the residue. Ferrous sulfate (FS) and nitrohumic acid (NA) were two kinds of materials studied for pH reduction of the residue from 10.6 to 8.3 and 8.1, respectively. The effects of FS and NA on the leaching of metals from a combined bauxite residue were investigated by using sequential and multiple extraction procedures. Neutralization with FS and NA restricted the leaching of Al, V, and Pb from the residue but promoted the leaching of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni, consistent with the changes in the potentially mobile fractions. With the exceptions of Pb and Ni, leaching of metals increased during a 10-day extraction period. However, the maximum leaching of Al, V, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni from neutralized bauxite residue were 0.46 mg/L, 59.3, 12.9, 167, 95.3, 15.5, and 14.5 μg/L, respectively, which were under the corresponding limits in the National Standard (GB/T 14848-93). Although it is necessary to consider the continued leaching of metals during neutralization, both maximum and accumulation leaching concentrations of metals from a combined bauxite residue were too low to pose a potential environmental risk.

  2. Electron space charge effects in ion sources for residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, M.C.; Allison, W.

    1993-01-01

    An electron impact ionization source suitable for residual gas analysis (RGA) with a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. The electronic space charge is shown to play a role in limiting the extracted current from RGA ion sources and the simulation treats this aspect of the problem self-consistently. Under certain source conditions, the ion extraction efficiency is observed to decrease for electron currents above approximately 1 mA - well below the current at which space charge limiting of the electron emission is expected. The observed effects are well reproduced by the simulation. We show that whereas the electron trajectories are only weakly perturbed by space charge effects, the loss of ionization efficiency can be attributed to drastic changes in the ion trajectories. (author)

  3. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds and pesticides residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fkih, Sana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effects of this process of conservation on the polyphenol rate and the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols of quince, of the cocoa and those of sage, then to study its effects on the pesticides residues in the sage sheets. The irradiation of quince polyphenols, increased the polyphenols rate as well as the antioxidant capacity. In the case of cocoa polyphenols, we don't have ace observed many differences between the irradiated and not irradiated samples, and in the case of sage polyphenols, the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity decreased. Finally, irradiation of parathion caused degradation of this molecule, and the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity pf polyphenols of the sheets of sage soaked with parathion was a less decreased than polyphenols of the sheets not soaked with parathion. (Author). 37 refs

  4. Neuropsychological intervention in dyslexia: two studies on British pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical context of this research is developmental neuropsychology--in particular, the educational implications for the classification of and intervention in specific developmental dyslexia (SDD). Controlled and validated research can help identify optimal teaching methods for groups and individuals. Within this framework, neuropsychological theory can be explored as a medium for improving intervention for pupils with SDD. Neuropsychological stimulation cannot change the macro aspects of the brain but can change its "finetuning" and its response to written text. Within the psycho-neurological approaches, Bakker (1979, 1990, 1998) developed both a diagnostic procedure and empirically investigated intervention procedures. The theory rests on the Balance Model of learning to read, in which differential hemisphere involvement is implicated in beginning and advanced reading. Intervention can take place via hemisphere-specific stimulation using visual or tactile stimulation or hemisphere-alluding stimulation using modified text. Two investigations are presented, one experimental and another clinical. The results support the validity of dyslexia subtyping and the effectiveness of the treatment methods.

  5. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Zachi

    Full Text Available Abstract Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives: The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods: Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results: At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (P<0.05. Paired comparisons of neuropsychological functioning within the exposed group at baseline and 1.5 years later showed poorer immediate memory performance (P<0.05. There were no differences on other measures. Conclusions: Although the literature show signs of recovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  6. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  7. Estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the effect of residual foreground contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantaye, Y.; Leach, S.M.; Baccigalupi, C. [SISSA, Astrophysics Sector, via Bonomea 265, Trieste 34136 (Italy); Stivoli, F. [INRIA, Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 490, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Grain, J. [CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiments 120-121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tristram, M. [CNRS, Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 200, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Stompor, R., E-mail: fantaye@sissa.it, E-mail: stivoli@gmail.com, E-mail: julien.grain@ias.u-psud.fr, E-mail: leach@sissa.it, E-mail: tristram@lal.in2p3.fr, E-mail: bacci@sissa.it, E-mail: radek@apc.univ-paris7.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire Astroparticule and Cosmologie, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2011-08-01

    We consider future balloon-borne and ground-based suborbital experiments designed to search for inflationary gravitational waves, and investigate the impact of residual foregrounds that remain in the estimated cosmic microwave background maps. This is achieved by propagating foreground modelling uncertainties from the component separation, under the assumption of a spatially uniform foreground frequency scaling, through to the power spectrum estimates, and up to measurement of the tensor to scalar ratio in the parameter estimation step. We characterize the error covariance due to subtracted foregrounds, and find it to be subdominant compared to instrumental noise and sample variance in our simulated data analysis. We model the unsubtracted residual foreground contribution using a two-parameter power law and show that marginalization over these foreground parameters is effective in accounting for a bias due to excess foreground power at low l. We conclude that, at least in the suborbital experimental setups we have simulated, foreground errors may be modeled and propagated up to parameter estimation with only a slight degradation of the target sensitivity of these experiments derived neglecting the presence of the foregrounds.

  8. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  9. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  10. Impacts of both reference population size and inclusion of a residual polygenic effect on the accuracy of genomic prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rensing Stephan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this work was to study the impact of both the size of genomic reference populations and the inclusion of a residual polygenic effect on dairy cattle genetic evaluations enhanced with genomic information. Methods Direct genomic values were estimated for German Holstein cattle with a genomic BLUP model including a residual polygenic effect. A total of 17,429 genotyped Holstein bulls were evaluated using the phenotypes of 44 traits. The Interbull genomic validation test was implemented to investigate how the inclusion of a residual polygenic effect impacted genomic estimated breeding values. Results As the number of reference bulls increased, both the variance of the estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism effects and the reliability of the direct genomic values of selection candidates increased. Fitting a residual polygenic effect in the model resulted in less biased genome-enhanced breeding values and decreased the correlation between direct genomic values and estimated breeding values of sires in the reference population. Conclusions Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle enhanced with genomic information is highly effective in increasing reliability, as well as using large genomic reference populations. We found that fitting a residual polygenic effect reduced the bias in genome-enhanced breeding values, decreased the correlation between direct genomic values and sire's estimated breeding values and made genome-enhanced breeding values more consistent in mean and variance as is the case for pedigree-based estimated breeding values.

  11. Residual Perchloroethylene in Dry-Cleaned Acetate: The Effect of Pressing and Extent of Inter-Dry-Cleaner Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Kevin P; Jang, Christine J; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Serrano, Paulina I; Weker, Robert A; Lee, Kiyoung; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    1999-02-01

    Measurements of residual perchloroethylene (PCE), a dry-cleaning solvent associated with human health effects, were made in dry-cleaned acetate cloth to enable improved characterizations of both occupational and environmental exposure. A limited sample size (25 acetate cloths) was used to explore the extent of inter-dry-cleaner variability in residual PCE and to characterize the effect of the pressing operation on residual PCE. A new method, which uses carbon-disulfide as the direct extracting agent, proved effective in the analysis of residual PCE, with a recovery-efficiency ≈ 75%. Inter-dry-cleaner variability of residual PCE, although marginally statistically significant, was relatively low, showing only a fourfold range compared to a 5-order-of-magnitude range obtained from Kawauchi and Nishiyama 1 . Pairwise comparison of residual PCE in nonpressed versus pressed acetate samples revealed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.008), which amounted to a consistent (among dry-cleaners) pressing-related removal efficiency of 75 ± 4%. A preliminary assessment of the source term associated with the pressing operation (mass PCE liberated per kg cloth dry-cleaned, S PCE ≈ 30 mg/kg) indicates a minor contribution to the average ambient air concentrations within dry-cleaning establishments.

  12. Effects of non-catalytic, distal amino acid residues on activity of E. coli DinB (DNA polymerase IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason M; Parasuram, Ramya; Rajput, Pradyumna R; Rozners, Eriks; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Beuning, Penny J

    2012-12-01

    DinB is one of two Y family polymerases in E. coli and is involved in copying damaged DNA. DinB is specialized to bypass deoxyguanosine adducts that occur at the N(2) position, with its cognate lesion being the furfuryl adduct. Active site residues have been identified that make contact with the substrate and carry out deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) addition to the growing DNA strand. In DNA polymerases, these include negatively charged aspartate and glutamate residues (D8, D103, and E104 in E. coli DNA polymerase IV DinB). These residues position the essential magnesium ions correctly to facilitate nucleophilic attack by the primer hydroxyl group on the α-phosphate group of the incoming dNTP. To study the contribution of DinB residues to lesion bypass, the computational methods THEMATICS and POOL were employed. These methods correctly predict the known active site residues, as well as other residues known to be important for activity. In addition, these methods predict other residues involved in substrate binding as well as more remote residues. DinB variants with mutations at the predicted positions were constructed and assayed for bypass of the N(2) -furfuryl-dG lesion. We find a wide range of effects of predicted residues, including some mutations that abolish damage bypass. Moreover, most of the DinB variants constructed are unable to carry out the extension step of lesion bypass. The use of computational prediction methods represents another tool that will lead to a more complete understanding of translesion DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of residual stress on the integrity of a branch connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Kirstein, O.; Luzin, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new connection to an existing gas pipeline was made by hot-tapping, welding directly onto a pressurised pipeline. The welds were not post-weld heat treated, causing significant residual stresses. The critical weld had residual stresses determined by neutron diffraction using ANSTO's residual stress diffractometer, Kowari. The maximum measured residual stress (290 MPa) was 60% of the yield strength. The magnitudes of errors from a number of sources were estimated. An integrity assessment of the welded branch connection was performed with the measured residual stress values and with residual stress distributions from the BS 7910 and API 579 analysis codes. Analysis using estimates of residual stress from API 579 overestimated the critical crack size. Highlights: ► Residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction in a thick section, non post-weld heat treated ferritic weld. ► There is little published data on these welds. ► The work compares the measured residual stresses with code-based residual stress distributions.

  14. Effect of processing conditions and methods on residual stress in CeO2 buffer layers and YBCO superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Qin Wenfeng; Cui Xumei; Tao Bowan; Tang Jinlong; Li Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    CeO 2 layers have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on (1 1 0 2) sapphire substrate. Microstructure of CeO 2 layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction as functions of substrate temperature. The effects of the substrate temperature on the residual stress have been studied. The results show that residual stress in CeO 2 film decreased with increasing substrate temperature, not the same development tendency as that of thermal stress. This means that the thermal stress is only a fraction of the residual stress. Moreover, YBCO superconducting films were prepared by direct current (DC) sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The residual stress and thermal stress of both YBCO films were measured. PLD processing apparently generated higher intrinsic compressive stresses in comparison to DC sputtering

  15. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  16. The Neuropsychological Profile of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H.; Salmon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from “normal,” age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22474609

  17. Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, M.; Toparli, M.B.; Smyth, N.; Cini, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Irving, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of laser peen intensity on local residual stress fields in 2024 aluminium. ► Peening induces significant changes in surface topography and local hardness. ► Residual stress at peen spot centre in tension, spot overlap in compression. ► Notched fatigue lives increased; crack morphology correlated to residual stress field. ► Large peening power densities can cause fatigue life reduction in notched samples. - Abstract: Laser peening at a range of power densities has been applied to 2 mm-thick sheets of 2024 T351 aluminium. The induced residual stress field was measured using incremental hole drilling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Fatigue samples were subjected to identical laser peening treatments followed by scribing at the peen location to introduce stress concentrations, after which they were fatigue tested. The residual stresses were found to be non-biaxial: orthogonal to the peen line they were tensile at the surface, moving into the desired compression with increased depth. Regions of peen spot overlap were associated with large compression strains; the centre of the peen spot remaining tensile. Fatigue lives showed moderate improvement over the life of unpeened samples for 50 μm deep scribes, and slight improvement for samples with 150 μm scribes. Use of the residual stress intensity K resid approach to calculate fatigue life improvement arising from peening was unsuccessful at predicting the relative effects of the different peening treatments. Possible reasons for this are explored.

  18. [Mini Mental State Examination and Brief neuropsychological Examination as neuropsychological screening tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissi, Marianna; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2012-01-01

    An adequate neuropsychological evaluation is essential today to obtain a correct diagnosis in most neurological and geriatric areas. For these purposes, a number of screening and evaluation tools are in use to aid the neuropsychologist for diagnosis of cognitive disorder and for assessing the type of the disease. The present research compares two neuropsychological tools, commonly used in the daily practice: the "Mini Mental State Examination" and the "Brief Neuropsychological Examination". This study explores the neuropsychological profile of 56 post-stroke patients in rehabilitation phase. Patients were divided in three groups, in order to the stroke brain area: left, right and multinfarctual. No significant difference in the three pathological groups were observed, in the mean MMSE-score. On the opposite, ENB demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in discrimination between pathological groups, but only on the descriptive level: for example, right-stroke patients performed worse in visuo-spatial tests while left-stroke patients had lower performance in verbal memory tests. Our results showed an inadequacy of neuropsychological screening evaluation in post-stroke patients: both Mini Mental State Examination and the Brief Neuropsychological Examination appear to be inadequate to underline specific cognitive deficits in patients with different brain lesions; therefore it is important to consider the tools adequacy and the time-after-stroke when doing neuropsychological evaluation.

  19. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    population. This study was rated as low quality. One study assessed a specialist nurse intervention in an adult population. This study was rating as very low quality.We rated one study as having unclear risk of bias and one study as having high risk of bias.The CBI study indicated that this intervention could significantly reduce depressive symptoms in people with subthreshold depressive disorder. However, the study assessing the effectiveness of a nurse intervention found no significant benefit for depressive symptoms,but did find that in individuals with the least knowledge of epilepsy, a nurse intervention could increase their knowledge of epilepsy scores. Meta-analysis was not possible as we identified only two studies and they utilised different interventions and outcome measures.Previous research has highlighted the impact of psychological and neuropsychological difficulties experienced by people with epilepsy and the negative effect this has on their quality of life. The main finding of this review is that there is a paucity of research assessing possible neuropsychological and psychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

  20. Separation and effect of residual moisture in liquid phase adsorption of xylene on y zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lahot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of p-xylene and m-xylene from C8 aromatic hydrocarbon feed using Y zeolites is investigated. Effect of residual moisture on p-xylene adsorption on BaY was measured in order to optimize the activation temperature of the adsorbent. The results show that with an increase in temperature the moisture on the adsorbent decreases. An optimum loading of moisture is required for adsorption of xylene on the adsorbents. The Everett equation is used to determine the adsorption capacity and selectivity. It has been found that the adsorbents best suited for the separation of p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene and ethyl benzene from the mixture of C8 aromatics are NaY, NaY, BaY and KY, respectively. The XRD results show that the crystallinity of the adsorbent decreases upon exchanging the zeolites to K+ and Ba2+ ions.

  1. Effects on Machining on Surface Residual Stress of SA 508 and Austenitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Jai Hak

    2011-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking has occurred in dissimilar weld areas in nuclear power plants. Residual stress is a driving force in the crack. Residual stress may be generated by weld or surface machining. Residual stress due to surface machining depends on the machining method, e.g., milling, grinding, or EDM. The stress is usually distributed on or near the surface of the material. We present the measured residual stress for machining on SA 508 and austenitic stainless steels such as TP304 and F316. The residual stress can be tensile or compressive depending on the machining method. The depth and the magnitude of the residual stress depend on the material and the machining method

  2. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibe L. Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

  3. Effect of a glycine residue insertion into crustacean hyperglycemic hormone on hormonal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Hidekazu; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2004-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) have similar amino acid sequences and therefore comprise a peptide family referred to as the CHH family. All MIHs unexceptionally have an additional glycine residue at position 12, which is lacking in all CHHs. In order to understand the relevance of the absence of the glycine residue for hyperglycemic activity, a mutant CHH having a glycine residue insertion was prepared, and its hyperglycemic activity was assessed. Thi...

  4. Effect of a Glycine Residue Insertion into Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone on Hormonal Activity(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidekazu, Katayama; Hiromichi, Nagasawa; Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo; Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

    2004-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) have similar amino acid sequences and therefore comprise a peptide family referred to as the CHH family. All MIHs unexceptionally have an additional glycine residue at position 12, which is lacking in all CHHs. In order to understand the relevance of the absence of the glycine residue for hyperglycemic activity, a mutant CHH having a glycine residue insertion was prepared, and its hyperglycemic activity was assessed. Thi...

  5. Effect of temperature on iron leaching from bauxite residue by sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Rong; Zeng, Kai; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Bauxite residue, as solid waste from alumina production, contains mainly hematite [Fe2O3]. Kinetic study of iron leaching of bauxite residue by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. The results have been obtained as following: (i) Temperature play an important role in iron leaching from bauxite residue. Higher temperature is favor of Fe(III) leaching from bauxite residue. (ii) The leaching process is applicable to the intra-particle diffusion model and the apparent activation energy of model of leaching is found to be 17.32 kJ/mol.

  6. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  7. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  8. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  9. Effect of prior machining deformation on the development of tensile residual stresses in weld-fabricated nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevey, P.S.; Mason, P.W.; Hornbach, D.J.; Molkenthin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard SCC, depending on their magnitude and sign. A combined x-ray diffraction and mechanical procedure was used to determine the axial and hoop residual stress and yield strength distributions into the inside-diameter surface of a simulated Alloy 600 penetration J-welded into a reactor pressure vessel. The degree of cold working and the resulting yield strength increase caused by prior machining and weld shrinkage were calculated from the line-broadening distributions. Tensile residual stresses on the order of +700 MPa were observed in both the axial and the hoop directions at the inside-diameter surface in a narrow region adjacent to the weld heat-affected zone. Stresses exceeding the bulk yield strength were found to develop due to the combined effects of cold working of the surface layers during initial machining and subsequent weld shrinkage. The residual stress and cold work distributions produced by prior machining were found to influence strongly the final residual stress state developed after welding

  10. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  11. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (<15%). The EDI/ADI ratios found in all cases were well below their ADI values, and the dietary exposure assessed (EDI) in fresh-cut lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  12. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  14. Effect of increased milking frequency and residual milk removal on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Kovac, Lucia; Shingfield, Kevin J; Agenäs, Sigrid

    2017-11-01

    It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period. Milk was sampled at each milking for the analysis of gross composition and SCC. Samples of available and residual milk collected on the last milking during each treatment period were collected and submitted for fatty acid composition analysis. Increases in milking frequency and residual milk removal alone or in combination had no effect on milk yield or on the secretion of lactose and protein in milk. However, residual milk removal during more frequent milking increased milk fat yield. Milking treatments had no major influence on the fatty acid composition of available milk, but resulted in rather small changes in the relative abundance of specific fatty acids, with no evidence that the additive effects of treatments were due to higher utilisation of preformed fatty acids relative to fatty acid synthesis de novo. For all treatments, fat composition of available and residual milk was rather similar indicating a highly uniform fatty acid composition of milk fat within the mammary gland.

  15. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. Methods We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively. Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. Results During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05. During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  16. Probing the disparate effects of arginine and lysine residues on antimicrobial peptide/bilayer association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A; Wereszczynski, J

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of the innate immune response and represent promising templates for the development of broad-spectrum alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Most AMPs are short, cationic peptides that interact more strongly with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes than net neutral eukaryotic ones. Both AMPs and synthetic analogues with arginine-like side chains are more active against bacteria than those with lysine-like amine groups, though the atomistic mechanism for this increase in potency remains unclear. To examine this, we conducted comparative molecular dynamics simulations of a model negatively-charged membrane system interacting with two mutants of the AMP KR-12: one with lysine residues mutated to arginines (R-KR12) and one with arginine residues mutated to lysine (K-KR12). Simulations show that both partition analogously to the bilayer and display similar preferences for hydrogen bonding with the anionic POPGs. However, R-KR12 binds stronger to the bilayer than K-KR12 and forms significantly more hydrogen bonds, leading to considerably longer interaction times. Additional simulations with methylated R-KR12 and charge-modified K-KR12 mutants show that the extensive interaction seen in the R-KR12 system is partly due to arginine's strong atomic charge distribution, rather than being purely an effect of the greater number of hydrogen bond donors. Finally, free energy simulations reveal that both peptides are disordered in solution but form an amphipathic α-helix when inserted into the bilayer headgroup region. Overall, these results highlight the role of charge and hydrogen bond strength in peptide bilayer insertion, and offer potential insights for designing more potent analogues in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The effects of toothpastes on the residual microbial contamination of toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, D P; Goldschmidt, M C; Thompson, M B; Adler-Storthz, K; Keene, H J

    2001-09-01

    Contaminated toothbrushes have been shown to harbor and transmit viruses and bacteria. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the effect of a triclosan-containing toothpaste on the residual anaerobic microbial contamination of toothbrushes. Twenty patients who had Type III or Type IV periodontitis participated in this study. One side of each of their mouths served as a control (no toothpaste). The teeth on the other side were brushed with a regular toothpaste or a triclosan-containing toothpaste. After the toothbrushes were allowed to dry in air for four hours, the authors placed the toothbrush heads in solution, dislodged the microbes from the brushes by vortexing and plated them in culture dishes. The authors anerobically incubated the culture dishes and determined the presence or absence of Prevotella species or Ps; Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Pg; and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, or Aa. The authors detected Aa and Pg on the control toothbrushes more frequently than they did Ps. This variation in isolation frequency was statistically significant by chi 2 analysis (P frequency of the three test organisms between the control and regular-toothpaste groups, between the control and triclosan-containing--toothpaste groups, and between the triclosan-containing--toothpaste and regular-toothpaste groups. They found no significant intergroup differences in the isolation frequencies after using chi 2 analysis. Toothpaste use reduced the residual microbial contamination for two of three test organisms, but the lower isolation frequencies were not statistically significant. Further study in this area is indicated. Dental professionals should advise patients who have systemic, localized or oral inflammatory diseases to disinfect or frequently replace their toothbrushes.

  19. Effect of Restorative Protocol on Cuspal Strain and Residual Stress in Endodontically Treated Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ras; Bicalho, A A; Franco, S D; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A; Soares, C J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the restorative protocol on cuspal strain, fracture resistance, residual stress, and mechanical properties of restorative materials in endodontically treated molars. Forty-five molars received mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) Class II preparations and endodontic treatment followed by direct restorations using three restorative protocols: composite resin (CR) only (Filtek Supreme, 3M-ESPE), resin modified glass ionomer cement in combination with CR (Vitremer, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity), conventional glass ionomer cement in combination with composite resin (CGI-CR) (Ketac Fil, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity). Cuspal strain was measured using strain gauges, and fracture resistance was tested with an occlusal load. Elastic modulus (EM) and Vickers hardness (VH) of the restorative materials were determined at different depths using dynamic microhardness indentation. Curing shrinkage was measured using the strain gauge technique. The restorative protocols were also simulated in finite element analysis (FEA). The shrinkage strain, cuspal strain, EM, VH, and fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance and Tukey test (p=0.05). Residual shrinkage stresses were expressed in modified von Mises equivalent stresses. Shrinkage strain values (in volume %) were Ketac Fil (0.08±0.01) restorative protocol significantly affected the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated molars. Using glass ionomer to fill the pulp chamber is recommended when endodontically treated molars receive direct composite restorations because it reduces cuspal strain and increases fracture resistance.

  20. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  1. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  2. Effects of residual hearing on cochlear implant outcomes in children: A systematic-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2017-09-01

    to investigate if preoperative residual hearing in prelingually deafened children can interfere on cochlear implant indication and outcomes. a systematic-review was conducted in five international databases up to November-2016, to locate articles that evaluated cochlear implantation in children with some degree of preoperative residual hearing. Outcomes were auditory, language and cognition performances after cochlear implant. The quality of the studies was assessed and classified according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence table - 2011. Risk of biases were also described. From the 30 articles reviewed, two types of questions were identified: (a) what are the benefits of cochlear implantation in children with residual hearing? (b) is the preoperative residual hearing a predictor of cochlear implant outcome? Studies ranged from 04 to 188 subjects, evaluating populations between 1.8 and 10.3 years old. The definition of residual hearing varied between studies. The majority of articles (n = 22) evaluated speech perception as the outcome and 14 also assessed language and speech production. There is evidence that cochlear implant is beneficial to children with residual hearing. Preoperative residual hearing seems to be valuable to predict speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation, even though the mechanism of how it happens is not clear. More extensive researches must be conducted in order to make recommendations and to set prognosis for cochlear implants based on children preoperative residual hearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  4. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element in the environment. Higher levels of As in soils may result from various anthropogenic sources such as use of arsenical pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes, and coal combustion. This is of great environmental and human health concern due to the high toxicity and proven carcinogenicity of several arsenical species. Thus there is a need for developing cost effective technologies capable of lowering bioavailable As concentrations in soils to environmentally acceptable levels. In-situ immobilization of metals using inexpensive amendments such as minerals (apatite, zeolite, or clay minerals) or waste by-products (steel shot, beringite, and iron-rich biosolids) to reduce bioavailability is an inexpensive alternative to the more expensive ex-situ remediation methods. One such emerging in-situ technique is the application of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). WTRs can be classified as a byproduct of drinking water treatment plants and are generally composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. WTRs possess amorphous structure and generally have high positive charge. Because As is chemically similar to phosphorus, the oxyanions As (V) and As (III) may have the potential of being retained by the WTRs. Thus, it is hypothesized that WTRs retain As irreversibly, thereby reducing As biavailability. As mobility of arsenic is controlled by adsorption reactions, knowledge of adsorption of As by WTRs is of primary relevance. Although the overall rate of adsorption is dependent on numerous factors, review of the literature indicates that competing ions in solution play an important role in the overall retention of As; however, little work has been conducted to identify which ions provide the most competition. As arsenic adsorption appears to be influenced by the variable pH-dependent charges developed on the soil particle surfaces, the effect of pH is also of critical importance. Hence, the

  5. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Subjective memory and concentration difficulties are frequently expressed in modern society and, if sufficiently worrying, may elicit a medical consultation for elucidation. When a clear explanation cannot be given, a neuropsychological assessment may be a useful tool. Method. The present naturalistic study ...

  6. Neuropsychological diagnostics in Ethiopia - challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Neuropsychological tests can provide crucial information regarding the consideration of psychiatric differential diagnosis. This is especially important in developing countries like Ethiopia where advanced imaging is not widely available. Methods A detailed literature search was conducted using the search ...

  7. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  8. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  9. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  10. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  11. Effect of residual stress on modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shankar, E-mail: shankardutta77@gmail.com; Panchal, Abha; Kumar, Manoj; Pal, Ramjay; Bhan, R. K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India 110054 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Deep boron diffusion often induces residual stress in bulk micromachined MEMS structures, which may affect the MEMS devices operation. In this study, we studied the modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope under the residual stress (100 – 1000 MPa). Modal patterns and modal frequencies of the gyro are found to be dependent on the residual stress values. Without any residual stress, the modal frequencies drive and sense modeswere found to be 20.06 kHz and 20.36 kHz respectively. In presence of 450 MPa residual stress, the modal frequencies of the drive and sense modes were changed to 42.75 kHz and 43.07 kHz respectively.

  12. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery efficiencies in crop production systems of China with and without consideration of the residual effect of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ti, Chaopu; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Vitousek, Peter; Chen, Deli; Leip, Adrian; Cai, Zucong

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest consumer of synthetic nitrogen (N), where very low rates of fertilizer N recovery in crops have been reported, raising discussion around whether fertilizer N use can be significantly reduced without yield penalties. However, using recovery rates as indicator ignores a possible residual effect of fertilizer N—a factor often unknown at large scales. Such residual effect might store N in the soil increasing N availability for subsequent crops. The objectives of the present study were therefore to quantify the residual effect of fertilizer N in China and to obtain more realistic rates of the accumulative fertilizer N recovery efficiency (RE) in crop production systems of China. Long-term spatially-extensive data on crop production, fertilizer N and other N inputs to croplands in China were used to analyze the relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input (or total N input), and to estimate the amount of residual fertilizer N. Measurement results of cropland soil N content in two time periods were obtained to compare the change in the soil N pool. At the provincial scale, it was found that there is a linear relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input or total N input. With the increase in fertilizer N input, annual direct fertilizer N RE decreased and was indeed low (below 30% in recent years), while its residual effect increased continuously, to the point that 40–68% of applied fertilizer was used for crop production sooner or later. The residual effect was evidenced by a buildup of soil N and a large difference between nitrogen use efficiencies of long-term and short-term experiments. (paper)

  14. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment.

  15. Effects of pulse-to-pulse residual species on discharges in repetitively pulsed discharges through packed bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for conversion of toxic and waste gases, and CO2 removal. These discharges are repetitively pulsed having varying flow rates and internal geometries, which results in species from the prior pulse still being in the discharge zone at the time the following discharge pulse occurs. A non-negligible residual plasma density remains, which effectively acts as preionization. This residual charge changes the discharge properties of subsequent pulses, and may impact important PBR properties such as chemical selectivity. Similarly, the residual neutral reactive species produced during earlier pulses will impact the reaction rates on subsequent pulses. We report on results of a computational investigation of a 2D PBR using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM. Results will be discussed for air flowing though an array of dielectric rods at atmospheric pressure. The effects of inter-pulse residual species on PBR discharges will be quantified. Means of controlling the presence of residual species in the reactor through gas flow rate, pulse repetition, pulse width and geometry will be described. Comparisons will be made to experiments. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  16. Physiological effects and tissue residues from exposure of leopard frogs to commercial naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Judit E G; Hersikorn, Blair D; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2012-10-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) have been cited as one of the main causes of the toxicity related to oil sands process-affected materials and have recently been measured in biological tissues (fish). However, adverse effects have not been a consistent finding in toxicology studies on vertebrates. This study set out to determine two factors: 1) whether exposure to commercial NAs (Refined Merichem) resulted in detectable tissue residues in native amphibians (northern leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens), and 2) whether such exposure would produce clinical or subclinical toxicity. Frogs were kept in NA solutions (0, 20, or 40 mg/L) under saline conditions comparable to that on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands for 28 days. These exposures resulted in proportional NA concentrations in muscle tissue of the frogs, estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Detailed studies determined if the increasing concentrations of NAs, and subsequently increased tissue NA levels, caused a proportional compromise in the health of the experimental animals. Physiological investigations included innate immune function, thyroid hormone levels, and hepatic detoxification enzyme induction, none of which differed in response to increased exposures or tissue concentrations of NAs. Body mass did increase in both the salt- and NA-exposed animals, likely related to osmotic pressure and uptake of water through the skin. Our results demonstrate that commercial NAs are absorbed and deposited in muscle tissue, yet they show few negative physiological or toxicological effects on the frogs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Neuropsychological evaluation of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, S.; Olsnes, B.T.; Mastekaasa, A.

    1988-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate possible central nervous system dysfunction in patients treated with chemotherapy. Ninety-five patients with non-small cell lung cancer limited disease were randomized to either radiotherapy (2.8 Gyx15) or combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. In order to evaluate cognitive functions three neuropsychological tests were applied: Trail Making, Benton Visual Retention Test and Verbal Learning. Changes in the patients' test scores before and after treatment were compared. The chemotherapy patients showed reduced performance on some of the neuropsychological tests compared to the radiotherapy group. This indicates a treatment related effect on the central nervous system, possibly caused by the combination chemotherapy. (orig.)

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTION BEFORE AND AFTER SUBCALLOSAL CINGULATE DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION IN PATIENTS WITH TREATMENT-RESISTANT DEPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreines, Jared L.; McClintock, Shawn M.; Kelley, Mary E.; Holtzheimer, Paul E.; Mayberg, Helen S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a pervasive and difficult to treat condition for which deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate white matter (SCCwm) is an emerging therapeutic option. However, neuropsychological safety data for this novel treatment have only been published for a small number of subjects. Moreover, little is known regarding the neuropsychological profile present in TRD patients at baseline, prior to initiation of DBS therapy. This report describes the neuropsychological effects of TRD and acute and chronic DBS of the SCCwm in patients with unipolar and bipolar TRD. Methods Patients with TRD (N =17) were compared to a healthy control group (N = 15) on subtests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and the Stroop Task. Patients were then tested again at subsequent time points of 1 and 6 months following the initiation of chronic DBS of the SCCwm. Results Patients with TRD showed similar levels of performance to healthy controls on most neuropsychological measures, with the exception that the TRD group had slower processing speed. Patients with bipolar TRD, relative to those with unipolar TRD, obtained lower scores on measures of executive function and memory only at baseline. With acute and chronic SCCwm DBS, neuropsychological function improved in multiple domains including processing speed and executive function (planning, set shifting, response inhibition), and memory remained stable. Conclusions Patients with TRD show slowed processing speed but otherwise largely preserved neuropsychological functioning. DBS of the SCCwm does not result in worsening of any aspect of neuropsychological function and may improve certain domains. Future research is warranted to better understand the effects of TRD and DBS on neuropsychological function. PMID:24753183

  19. Dynamic effects of soil bulk density on denitrification and mineralisation by 15N labelled lettuce residue and paper wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Cheng Qing; Vinten, A.J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Two laboratory incubation experiments aimed to study the denitrification and mineralisation influenced by different additives ( 15 N labelled lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both) and soil bulk densities were carried out by means of acetylene inhibition at the constant 15 degree C for 107 and 90 days, respectively. The results showed that the changes of N 2 O, CO 2 emission rates, inorganic nitrogen (NO 3 - and NH 4 + ), total N and 15 N abundance in the soils which were affected by adding lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both were investigated. Soil denitrification rate increased after lettuce residue was added into soil for 8 days. The maximum rate of N 2 O emission was 15 times higher than that in soil without any additive. However, paper wastes did not increase N 2 O emission in the first 8 days compared with other treatments, mixed residue and paper wastes could promote soil microbial activity, but N 2 O emission was lower than that in the soil with lettuce residue added and higher than that with paper wastes, indicating that mixture of residue and paper wastes was benefit to soil nitrogen immobilisation. CO 2 emission in all the treatments were declined to the same level on the 107 th day. In the treatment added mixed residues and paper wastes, the released CO 2 quantities were higher than those in other treatments every day. Effect of different bulk density on N 2 O and CO 2 emission were response to the change of bulk density, it seems that N 2 O and CO 2 emission increased with bulk density. High bulk density could affect decomposition of paper wastes and NO 3 - , NH 4 + concentration. (30 ref., 10 tabs.)

  20. Residual stress distribution of wheel tread for freight car due to aging effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Seo, Jung-Won; Kwon, Sung-Tae

    2010-03-01

    Recently, several wheels for freight car in running had experienced the wheel failure due to fatigue crack, overheat braking and other factors. Severe heating of the wheel during tread braking was believed to be a contributing factor of derailment. It is necessary to evaluate the residual stress in wheel tread in order to manage the safety of wheel. In the present paper, the residual stress of wheel regarding to running distance using x-ray diffraction system is investigated. The result shows that the residual stress of wheel is depend on the running distance, wear rate of wheel and thermal gradient during brake application.

  1. Duration of Posttraumatic Amnesia Predicts Neuropsychological and Global Outcome in Complicated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tessa; Novack, Thomas A; Temkin, Nancy; Barber, Jason; Dikmen, Sureyya S; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Ricker, Joseph; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Jallo, Jack; Hsu, Nancy H; Zafonte, Ross

    Examine the effects of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) duration on neuropsychological and global recovery from 1 to 6 months after complicated mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI). A total of 330 persons with cmTBI defined as Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 to 15 in emergency department, with well-defined abnormalities on neuroimaging. Enrollment within 24 hours of injury with follow-up at 1, 3, and 6 months. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, California Verbal Learning Test II, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Duration of PTA was retrospectively measured with structured interview at 30 days postinjury. Despite all having a Glasgow Coma Scale Score of 13 to 15, a quarter of the sample had a PTA duration of greater than 7 days; half had PTA duration of 1 of 7 days. Both cognitive performance and Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale outcomes were strongly associated with time since injury and PTA duration, with those with PTA duration of greater than 1 week showing residual moderate disability at 6-month assessment. Findings reinforce importance of careful measurement of duration of PTA to refine outcome prediction and allocation of resources to those with cmTBI. Future research would benefit from standardization in computed tomographic criteria and use of severity indices beyond Glasgow Coma Scale to characterize cmTBI.

  2. Diagnostics and Neuropsychological Correction of Children with Neurosis-Like Enuresis and Encopresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereskin D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of a work with a group of children with enuresis (six patients and encopresis (one patient both of residual-organic origin is analyzed in this article. Work included psychological diagnostic techniques and psychological correction. Psychological diagnostic evaluation was directed to the measurements of different characteristics of sensorimotor reactions, memory, attention and cognitive functions. Functional characteristics of the central nervous system in children with enuresis and encopresis were approximated to those recorded in their healthy peers, while the cognitive functions in present group of children were lower. Psychological correction has included neuropsychological methods, which were aimed at the development of: visual-motor coordination, spatio-temporal organization relations and logic constructions understanding. Based on children's and parent's self-reports and based on medical records also it can be assumed that proposed psychological correction can be effective in enuresis and encopresis in children with similar characteristics, which can be observed. The significance of the functional indices evaluation of the central nervous system by measuring various characteristics of sensorimotor reactions substantiate by results obtained.

  3. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  4. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  5. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Padmakar S; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Mandokar, Rashmi B

    2009-01-01

    Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner). A total of 70 specimens (64 Chi 10 Chi 3.3 mm) were polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10). Control group specimens were not subjected to any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W) and time (3, 4, and 5 min) settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min) by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  6. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  7. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: chenxizhang@wzu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University., Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhou, Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components.

  8. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xizhang; Fang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F.; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components

  9. The Effect of Welding-Pass Grouping on the Prediction Accuracy of Residual Stress in Multipass Butt Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongung Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual stress analysis of a thick welded structure requires a lot of time and computer memory, which are different from those in thin welded structure analysis. This study investigated the effect of residual stress due to welding-pass grouping as a way to reduce the analysis time in multipass thick butt welding joint. For this purpose, the parametric analysis which changes the number of grouping passes was conducted in the multipass butt weld of a structure with a thickness of 25 mm and 70 mm. In addition, the residual stress by thermal elastoplastic FE analysis is compared with the results by the neutron diffraction method for verifying the reliability of the FE analysis. The welding sequence is considered in order to predict the residual stress more accurately when using welding-pass grouping method. The results of the welding-pass grouping model and half model occurred between the results of the left/right of the full model. If the total number of welding-pass grouping is less than half of that of welding pass, a large difference with real residual stress is found. Therefore, the total number of the welding-pass grouping should not be reduced to more than half.

  10. The effect of initial stress induced during the steel manufacturing process on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-ung Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A residual stress generated in the steel structure is broadly categorized into initial residual stress during manufacturing steel material, welding residual stress caused by welding, and heat treatment residual stress by heat treatment. Initial residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process is combined with welding residual stress or heat treatment residual stress, and remained as a final residual stress. Because such final residual stress affects the safety and strength of the structure, it is of utmost importance to measure or predict the magnitude of residual stress, and to apply this point on the design of the structure. In this study, the initial residual stress of steel structures having thicknesses of 25 mm and 70 mm during manufacturing was measured in order to investigate initial residual stress (hereinafter, referred to as initial stress. In addition, thermal elastic plastic FEM analysis was performed with this initial condition, and the effect of initial stress on the welding residual stress was investigated. Further, the reliability of the FE analysis result, considering the initial stress and welding residual stress for the steel structures having two thicknesses, was validated by comparing it with the measured results. In the vicinity of the weld joint, the initial stress is released and finally controlled by the weld residual stress. On the other hand, the farther away from the weld joint, the greater the influence of the initial stress. The range in which the initial stress affects the weld residual stress was not changed by the initial stress. However, in the region where the initial stress occurs in the compressive stress, the magnitude of the weld residual compressive stress varies with the compression or tension of the initial stress. The effect of initial stress on the maximum compression residual stress was far larger when initial stress was considered in case of a thickness of 25 mm with a value of 180

  11. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieters (Marlien); S.A. Barnard (Sunelle A.); D.T. Loots (Du Toit); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDue to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen

  12. Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Meijer, T.; Vinyeta, E.; Klis, van der J.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were

  13. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  14. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) on Residual Stress State and Fatigue Strength of AISI 304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, A.; Pyoun, Y.; Scholtes, B.

    2010-03-01

    The effects of a new mechanical surface treatment method, called ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), on near-surface microstructures and residual stress states as well as on the fatigue behavior of an austenitic steel AISI 304 are investigated and discussed. The results are compared with consequences of other mechanical surface treatment methods such as deep rolling or shot peening.

  15. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico)]. E-mail: crubio@cidesi.mx; Gomez-Rosas, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara. Lagos de Moreno Jal. (Mexico); Ocana, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Banderas, A. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico); Porro, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Morales, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm{sup 2} with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy.

  16. Effect of Harvest Residue Management on Tree Productivity and Carbon Pools during Early Stand Development in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Phillip Dougherty; Daniel McInnis; Pete Anderson; Steve Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Soil incorporation of postharvest forest floor or logging residues during site preparation increased mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration and had a differential effect on early stand growth in a clonal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Incorporating 25 Mg ha

  17. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  18. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - sive type respectively. In this paper, we investigate both these cases by taking two different structures, namely, the micro cantilever beam with gold layer deposited on its top surface and the MEMS gyroscope with residual stresses. First, we ...

  19. Modelling the Effects of Surface Residual Stresses on Fatigue Behavior of PM Disk Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A finite element based model will be developed and validated to capture the evolution of residual stresses and cold work at machined features of compressor and...

  20. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  1. In-vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity and alpha amylase inhibition effect of seven tropical fruit residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Study suggests that these fruit residues demonstrate promising antidiabetic and anticancer activity that substantiated its ethno medicinal use and may provide new molecules for the treatment of these diseases.

  2. Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Performance of Portland Cement Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tolentino

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the "residual" performance of Portland cement concretes heat-treated at 600 °C after cooling down to room temperature. Concretes with characteristic compressive strength at 28 days of 45 MPa and of 60 MPa were studied. The heat-treatment was carried out without any imposed load. We measured the residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The geometry of the structure was described by mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption tests. We observed a decrease of residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, with the raise of heat-treatment temperature, as a result of heat-induced material degradation. The results also indicated that the microstructural damage increased steadily with increasing temperature. Based on the results of this experimental work we concluded that residual mechanical properties of concrete are dependent of their original non heat-treated values.

  3. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.; Isitekhale, H.H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  4. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  5. Effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack-growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1974-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5 mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. This report presents the analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions.

  6. The effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1973-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that the shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. The analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions are presented.

  7. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected.

  8. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  9. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The uptake of soil-derived N by a test crop (N catch crop) of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown in the autumn was higher after pea than after barley. The N uptake in the test crop was reduced by 27% and 34% after pea and barley residue incorporation, respectively, probably due to N immobilization....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  10. Effects of various agro-industrial residues on soil fertility and yield and quality of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaci, O L; Seçer, M; Ceylan, S

    2012-07-01

    Nine combinations of production residues of agro-industries, urban wastes and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum var. Marabel) in a field experiment, and the effect of these combinations on soil characteristics, on yield and on various quality parameters of tubers were determined. The applications significantly affected soil pH, CaCO3 and organic matter content. Total N and available P and K levels of soils showed significant differences between the applications. The content of available Zn and Mn in the soil differed significantly between the applications. Sufficient levels of N, P and K were not attained in leaves in any application. Significant differences were observed between the P content of the leaves of the control and of the other applications. Potassium and Na content of the leaves showed significant variations between the applications. Manganese was at a statistically higher level in the leaves of some combinations. The nitrogen, P and Mn contents of tubers differed significantly between the applications. Phosphorus, K, Mg and Cu levels were found to be sufficient, but Fe, Zn and Mn were low in tubers. Tuber yield was statistically highest in the Wastes P + Mineral NK combination. Reduced sugar and protein content of the tubers was affected significantly by the applications. Significant correlations were found between soil, leaf and tubers.

  11. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, Saqib Saleem; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to global food security. Biochar amendment could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crop in the season. However, its long-term residual effect on reducing Na+ uptake in latter crops remains unknown. A pot experiment with wheat was conducted...... in a greenhouse. The soil used was from an earlier experiment on potato where the plants were irrigated with tap water (S0), 25 mM (S1) and 50 mM (S2) NaCl solutions and with 0 and 5% (w/w) biochar amendment. At onset of the experiment, three different EC levels at S0, S1 and S2 were established in the non-biochar...... control (2.3, 7.2 and 10.9 dS m−1) and the biochar amended (2.8, 8.1 and 11.8 dS m−1) soils, respectively. A column leaching experiment was also conducted in the greenhouse to study the adsorption capacity of biochar to Na+. The results indicated that biochar addition reduced plant sodium uptake...

  12. Residual thermal effects in macro fiber composite actuators exposed to persistent temperature cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeck, J. D.; Owen, R. B.; Inman, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the authors present results of an experimental investigation demonstrating how extreme persistent thermal cycling influences the performance of piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators. More specifically, this research shows how repeated temperature cycling ranging from -60 °C to 90 °C and from -50 °C to 150 °C affects an MFCs ability to actuate while being driven at frequencies of 60 Hz to 90 Hz with a voltage of 20 Vpp. Experimental results show that thermal cycling causes MFC actuation characteristics to drift and eventually stabilize after approximately 20 cycles. In two cases presented here, thermal cycling alone caused a residual increase in actuation amplitude that exceeded the initial amplitude by 70%. This apparent thermal memory effect of MFCs may significantly impact the design and analysis of active structures where MFCs are used for vibration or displacement control in transient extreme temperature environments such as those encountered by aerospace structures, industrial equipment, automobiles, and civil infrastructure.

  13. Calibration of a portable cost-effective chemical residue detection system with adaptive neural net control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Alan C.; Walker, James C.

    2003-07-01

    The Sensory Research Institute at the Florida State University has quantitatively characterized a chemical residue detection system with adaptive neural net data processing. Two separate configurations, "Stormy" and "Gaea", were trained by exposure to decreasing amounts of n-amyl acetate from chemical emitters randomly distributed among a collection of non-emitters. The concentration of chemical in the sampled air stream was controlled precisely. The detection threshold for "Stormy" was 1.14 ppt; that for "Gaea" was 1.9 ppt. Cycle time for sampling and chemical analysis of each sample port was on the order of seconds. Possible effects on the sensors of environmental factors such as ambient humidity, temperature, and air velocity were not considered. Besides processing individual air sample data, the neural nets can sense concentration gradients and track to chemical source. The adaptive neural nets are accessed by a voice recognition system and are capable of point testing or free-ranging search. The service life of the detectors, the neural net processors, and auxiliary packaging is approximately 8 years under normal field use. Maintenance requires a good quality kibble and an occasional romp in the park.

  14. Protein Coexpression Using FMDV 2A: Effect of “Linker” Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Minskaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical applications absolutely require, or are substantially enhanced by, coexpression of multiple proteins from a single vector. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A and “2A-like” sequences (e.g., Thosea asigna virus 2A; T2A are used widely for this purpose since multiple proteins can be coexpressed by linking open reading frames (ORFs to form a single cistron. The activity of F2A “cleavage” may, however, be compromised by both the use of shorter versions of F2A and the sequences (derived from multiple-purpose cloning sites used to link F2A to the upstream protein. To characterise these effects, different lengths of F2A and T2A were inserted between green and cherry fluorescent proteins. Mutations were introduced in the linker region immediately upstream of both F2A- and T2A-based constructs and activities determined using both cell-free translation systems and transfected cells. In shorter versions of F2A, activity may be affected by both the C-terminal sequence of the protein upstream and, equally strikingly, the residues immediately upstream introduced during cloning. Mutations significantly improved activity for shorter versions of F2A but could decrease activity in the case of T2A. These data will aid the design of cloning strategies for the co-expression of multiple proteins in biomedical/biotechnological applications.

  15. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  16. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  17. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  18. Cover Crop Residue Amount and Quality Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Ghimire

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decline in soil organic carbon (SOC and the associated impacts on crop production under conventional farming raises concerns on how alternative management practices increase SOC sequestration and improve agricultural sustainability. This study aimed to understand SOC mineralization kinetics with different cover crop (CC residue amendments. Soil samples were collected from a fallow and three CC (pea, oat, and canola plots. Soil samples from the CC plots were manipulated with zero, five, and 10 Mg ha−1 of the respective CC residues. All soil samples were incubated for eight weeks, SOC mineralization was monitored, and the first order kinetic and parabolic equation models were fitted to the observed data for estimating labile SOC (C0, and the decomposition rate constant (k. Subsequent comparisons of fitted model parameters were based on the first order kinetic model. The C0 varied with the residue amount while k varied with CC type. C0 was 591–858% greater with 10 Mg ha−1 and 289–456% greater with five Mg ha−1 residue additions while k was 122–297% greater with 10 Mg ha−1 and 94–240% greater with five Mg ha−1 residue additions when compared to the fallow treatment. The CC residue stimulated cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin irrespective of CC type, suggesting that cover cropping has potential to improve SOC cycling in agroecosystems.

  19. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  20. Effects of prone and supine positioning on gastric residuals in preterm infants: a time series with cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiau-Shr; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Gau, Bih-Shya; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Chen, Jia-Yuh

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of body position on gastric residuals at different time points in feeding preterm infants. Further, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. To describe the changing pattern of gastric residuals over time in the prone and supine position and to examine the effects of position on gastric residuals at different feeding volumes in preterm infants. A randomized, time series with cross-over study. A neonatal intensive care unit affiliated with a medical center in central Taiwan. 35 preterm infants who were asymptomatic for gastroesophageal reflux, other gastrointestinal diseases or other significant morbidities of any kind other than prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to the following treatments: 3h in a supine position followed by 3h in a prone position, or vice versa. Measurements of gastric residual volume were taken by syringe at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min following feeding when the enteral intake was set at 50 or 100ml/kg/day. The rate of decrease of gastric residuals in the prone and supine positions was fastest during the first half an hour post-feeding according to measurements taken at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min at feeding volumes of 50 and 100ml/kg/day (pposition at the five measurement points. Placing preterm infants in the prone position for the first half an hour post-feeding and then changing the position according to the behavior cues of the infants is suggested. This result contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between time, position, and gastric residuals; it could also help health care professionals to provide efficient feeding as well as perform the appropriate positioning of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Sherin; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Loukusa, Soile; Omar, Manal; Riad, Geylan; Rautio, Arja; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ) on these abilities. Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1) and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6). Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (pneuropsychological performance. Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  2. Neuropsychological performance in patients with schizophrenia and controls as a function of cigarette smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C.; Bacher, Ingrid; Sacco, Kristi A.; George, Tony P.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with many neurocognitive deficits, some of which are improved by nicotine and cigarette smoking. To better understand the relationship between smoking and cognitive function in schizophrenia, cross-sectional assessment of neuropsychological performance as a function of smoking status (smoker or non-smoker) and smoking history (current, former or never-smoker) in clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia and controls was evaluated. Subjects (N=140) were divided into subgroups on the basis of self-report and biochemical verification of smoking history. Current smokers with schizophrenia (n=38), former smokers with schizophrenia (n=17), never-smokers with schizophrenia (n=12), control smokers (n=31), control former smokers (n=16), and control never-smokers (n=26) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Smokers were studied under non-deprivation conditions. Comparison of neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia and control subjects revealed significant main effects of diagnosis. Analysis of the data as a function of smoking history demonstrated that never-smokers with schizophrenia performed the poorest on measures of sustained attention, processing speed and response inhibition, when compared to the other schizophrenia subgroups. Cigarette smoking did not alter neuropsychological performance in controls. Our findings suggest that smoking status and history differentially alters neuropsychological outcomes in schizophrenia compared to non-psychiatric controls, and that never-smokers may present with more severe neurocognitive impairments. PMID:21669462

  3. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  4. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaricha, Leyla; Henni, Ahmed Djafar; Lancelot, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand) with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°), and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%).

  5. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaricha Leyla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°, and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%.

  6. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  7. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  8. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  9. Parboiled rice bran in japanese quail diets at growing phase and residual effect at laying period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the second largest cereal crop in the world and the by-products resulting from rice processing for human consumption are potential feedstuffs to compose poultry diets. In this sense, it was evaluated the influence of parboiled rice bran (PRB in diets for Japanese quails in growing phase on the performance and digestibility, besides of residual effects and characteristics of egg quality in laying phase. A total of 324 Japanese quails with 7 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 6 treatments and 6 replicates of 9 birds. The treatments consisted of 6 isonutritives diets, being a control diet without PRB and the others containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. At the end of growing phase the birds were allotted in cages and fed the same diet without PRB at laying phase. At growing phase, the inclusion of PRB up to 5% promoted linear reduction in dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of diet; however a linear increase in metabolizable energy was noted. Feed intake, weight gain and final weight were reduced but not altering feed:gain ratio and body composition. At laying phase, the inclusion of PRB increased the age at first egg production but no influence was verified at age to reach 50% of egg production. No effect was verified at laying percentage, feed intake, weight and egg mass and feed:gain ratio. In economical evaluation, the inclusion of up to 25% of parboiled rice bran provided best economical indexes. The inclusion of PRB Japanese quails diets at growing phase can be recommended in levels up to 25%, without incurring future losses at laying phase.

  10. Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antônio Almeida

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil.

  11. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin P. Antony

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial Infarction (MI, commonly known as a Heart Attack, remains a leading cause of death throughout the world. Studies have shown that patients, who had MI, have cognitive impairment affecting attention, problem solving, memory, visuospatial, executive function and even dementia. Since cognition and emotion are integral part of the disease, there are no focused studies addressing this issue in the Indian context. Hence the present study. The objective of the study was to determine the neuropsychological deficits in patients with MI and with MI after cardiac bypass surgery. The sample consisted of 30 patients, 15 MI and 15 MI after CABG. All patients were assessed on. a battery of Neuropsychological tests and Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, The findings revealed impairment in mental speed, sustained attention, Animal Fluency Test, Phonemic Fluency Test, verbal and visual working memory, planning, response inhibition, verbal and visual learning and memory. On comparison with MI patients CABG patients showed significant deficits in Planning.

  12. Symptom validity testing, effort, and neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    Symptom validity testing (SVT) has become a major theme of contemporary neuropsychological research. However, many issues about the meaning and interpretation of SVT findings will require the best in research design and methods to more precisely characterize what SVT tasks measure and how SVT test findings are to be used in neuropsychological assessment. Major clinical and research issues are overviewed including the use of the “effort” term to connote validity of SVT performance, the use of cut-scores, the absence of lesion-localization studies in SVT research, neuropsychiatric status and SVT performance and the rigor of SVT research designs. Case studies that demonstrate critical issues involving SVT interpretation are presented.

  13. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-01-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years

  14. Evaluation of residue management practices effects on corn productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Jose German

    The removal of crop residues left after harvest is being considered as a potential feedstock source for bioethanol production which can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel use and net greenhouse gas (GHG). The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine how tillage, N fertilization rates, residue removal, and their interactions affect crop productivity, (ii) SOC and soil physical properties, and (iii) GHG emissions, and (iv) calculated a soil C budget to determine how much crop residue can be sustainably be removed in Central and Southwest Iowa. After three years of residue removal under different management practices, the findings of this study suggest that a portion of the corn residue that is left on the soil surface after harvest can be removed, with no negative impacts in the short term continuous corn yield in sites at Central and Southwest Iowa. However, significant decreases in SOC sequestration rates, microbial biomass-C, bulk density, soil penetration resistance, wet aggregate stability, and infiltration rates were observed, but varied with soil type and management practices. Additionally, soil surface CO2 and N2O emissions were responsive to management practices; primarily by altering soil temperature, soil water content, soil mineral N, and crop growth. Results from soil C budget show that in 2010 when corn growth was not water stressed (lack of moisture), approximately 35 and 30% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively. In 2011, drier soil conditions resulted in approximately 2 and 49% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively.

  15. Neuropsychology reports for childhood brain tumor survivors: implementation of recommendations at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Traumatic brain injury neuropsychology in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quijano María Cristina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: comparative analysis between control group and patients with TBI to determine whetherthere neuropsychological differences at 6 months of evolution, to guide timely interventioncommensurate with the needs of this population. Materials and methods: a total of 79 patientswith a history of TBI with a minimum of 6 months of evolution and 79 control subjects were evaluated.Both groups with a mean age of 34 and without previous neurological or psychiatric disorders and an average schooling of 11 years for the control group and 9 years for the TBI group.The Glasgow Coma Scale in the TBI group was classified as moderate with 11 points. The BriefNeuropsychological Evaluation in Spanish Neuropsi was applied to both groups. Results: significantdifferences (p≤0.05 in the tasks of orientation, attention, memory, language, reading andwriting were found. Conclusions: TBI generates significant neuropsychological changes, even sixmonths after discharge from the health service. It suggests that patients with head injury requiretreatment after overcoming the initial stage.

  17. The neuropsychological function of children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, Kimberley; Tofts, Louise; Benson, Suzanne; Porter, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    The current observational study had three specific objectives: (i) to document any neuropsychological impairment in a sample of children with achondroplasia; (ii) to explore individual variability; and (iii) to determine the functional impact of any impairments. Fourteen children aged between 6 and 15 years with a medically confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia (FGFR 3 mutation positive) underwent a comprehensive standardized neuropsychological evaluation. On average, while generally still within normal limits, significantly lower scores compared to standardized means were identified on: Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, working memory, arithmetic, attention, executive functioning and aspects of day-to-day emotional, social, and behavioral functioning. Clinically significant levels of impairment at a group level were identified on measures of: arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning. There was variability among the group and for most measures scores ranged from impaired to within normal limits. A high percentage of children were impaired on measures of: verbal IQ, attention and executive functioning. Results of this study suggest a need for individual neuropsychological evaluation and monitoring of children with achondroplasia and suggest verbal IQ, arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning are particularly common areas of impairment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Behavior, neuropsychology and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean; Hermens, Daniel F; Lagopoulos, Jim

    Cognitive neuroscientists in the late 20th century began the task of identifying the part(s) of the brain concerned with normal behavior as manifest in the psychological capacities as affective powers, reasoning, behaving purposively and the pursuit of goals, following introduction of the 'functional magnetic resonance imaging' (fMRI) method for identifying brain activity. For this research program to be successful two questions require satisfactory answers. First, as the fMRI method can currently only be used on stationary subjects, to what extent can neuropsychological tests applicable to such stationary subjects be correlated with normal behavior. Second, to what extent can correlations between the various neuropsychological tests on the one hand, and sites of brain activity determined with fMRI on the other, be regarded as established. The extent to which these questions have yet received satisfactory answers is reviewed, and suggestions made both for improving correlations of neuropsychological tests with behavior as well as with the results of fMRI-based observations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Neuropsychological Mechanisms for Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eLiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in – and the prevalence of – falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life.

  20. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  1. Effects of tooling on the residual stress distribution in an inertia weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, J.W.L.; Preuss, M.; Withers, P.J.; Baxter, G.J.; Small, C.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron diffraction residual strain measurements have been made on a tubular structure formed by joining two nickel-based superalloy RR1000 parts by inertia welding. Residual strains in the radial, hoop and axial directions of the tube cross-section have been measured. The corresponding residual stress field has been calculated accounting for the stress-free lattice parameter variations in the region close to the weld line. Tensile residual stresses were observed near the inner diameter of the tube with magnitudes of the order of +500, +1100 and +1300 MPa in the radial, axial and hoop directions, respectively. By comparison near the outer diameter (OD) of the weld the corresponding stresses are of the order of -200, -1000 and 150 MPa. The final stress state reflects the influence of the gripping fixture tooling and thermal gradients during inertia welding. Additional X-ray (at the surface) and hole-drilling (at the near surface) measurements show a steep residual stress gradient in the near surface region. Tensile hoop and axial machining stresses at the surface indicate the potential for improving the inertia weld tooling and the machining parameters used when removing the flash

  2. Effects of interface edge configuration on residual stress in the bonded structures for a divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagata, K.; Shibui, M.; Tachikawa, N.; Araki, M.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses in the interface region, that developed at the cool down during the brazing, were evaluated for several bonded structures to assess the mechanical strength of the bonded interface, using thermoelasto-plastic stress analysis. Normal stress components of the residual stresses around the interface edge of graphite-copper (C-Cu) bonded structures were compared for three types of bonded features such as flat-type, monoblock-type and saddle-type. The saddle-type structure was found to be favorable for its relatively low residual stress, easy fabrication accuracy on bonded interface and armor replacement. Residual stresses around the interface edge in three armor materials/copper bonded structures for a divertor plate were also examined for the C-Cu, tungsten-copper (W-Cu) and molybdenum alloy-copper (TZM-Cu), varying the interface wedge angle from 45 to 135 . An optimal bonded configuration for the least value of residual stress was found to have a wedge angle of 45 for the C-Cu, and 135 for both the W-Cu and TZM-Cu bonded ones. (orig.)

  3. Investigation on the effects of geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth in the RPV BMI penetration nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Ra, Myoung Soo; Lee, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of various geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth of RPV BMI penetration nozzles. An FE residual stress analysis procedure was developed and validated from the viewpoint of FFS assessment. The validated FE residual stress analysis procedure and the PWSCC growth assessment procedure in the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI were applied to the BMI penetration nozzles with specified ranges of the geometric variables. The total stresses at steady state during normal operation including welding residual stresses increase with increasing inclination angle of the BMI nozzles, and with tilt angle, depth, and root width of the J-groove weld. The lifetime from the assumed initial crack to the acceptance criteria according to the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI also decreases under these conditions. The total stresses decrease and the lifetime increases with increasing nozzle thickness, but outer radius of the BMI nozzles has an insignificant effect on both of these factors.

  4. Chaperone-like activity of β-casein and its effect on residual in vitro activity of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Olsen, Karsten; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    , as similar experiment with bovine serum albumin resulted in residual activity of horseradish peroxidase that was significantly lower than without any addition. The effect of β-casein on HRP disappears when pH is below the isoelectric point of β-casein. It was also proven by light scattering studies that β...... proteins. Incubating HRP (0.1 mg mL-1) for 10 min at 72 °C resulted in residual activity of 59 ± 5%, while addition of 1 mg mL-1 β-casein resulted in increase in residual activity up to 85 ± 1%. Increased residual activity is not merely attributed to an effect of higher total protein concentration......-casein interacts with horseradish peroxidase when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C whereas interactions seem to cease when temperature was lowered back to 25 °C. This study highlights how specific proteins can influence enzyme activity, which is of potential importance for various industries...

  5. Effect of the Basic Residue on the Energetics, Dynamics and Mechanisms of Gas- Phase Fragmentation of Protonated Peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Yang, Zhibo; Song, Tao; Lam, Corey; Chu, Ivan K.

    2010-11-17

    The effect of the basic residue on the energetics, dynamics and mechanisms of backbone fragmentation of protonated peptides was investigated. Time- and collision energy-resolved surface-induced dissociation (SID) of singly protonated peptides with the N-terminal arginine residue and their analogs, in which arginine is replaced with less basic lysine and histidine residues was examined using in a specially configured Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). SID experiments demonstrated very different kinetics of formation of several primary product ions of peptides with and without arginine residue. The energetics and dynamics of these pathways were determined from the RRKM modeling of the experimental data. Comparison between the kinetics and energetics of fragmentation of arginine-containing peptides and the corresponding methyl ester derivatives provides important information on the effect of dissociation pathways involving salt bridge (SB) intermediates on the observed fragmentation behavior. It is found that because pathways involving SB intermediates are characterized by low threshold energies, they efficiently compete with classical oxazolone pathways of arginine-containing peptides on a long timescale of the FT-ICR instrument. In contrast, fragmentation of histidine- and lysine-containing peptides is largely determined by classical oxazolone pathways. Because SB pathways are characterized by negative activation entropies, fragmentation of arginine-containing peptides is kinetically hindered and observed at higher collision energies as compared to their lysine- and histidine-containing analogs.

  6. Neuropsychological processing associated with recovery from depression after stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Tim; Yiend, Jenny; Bramham, Jessica; Teasdale, John D; Ogilvie, Alan D; Malhi, Gin; Howard, Robert

    2004-10-01

    The authors compared patients who underwent stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy for depression, who were still depressed or recovered from depression, to identify therapeutic mechanisms. Ten depressed and eight recovered psychosurgery patients, along with nine never-depressed subjects and nine who had recovered from depression with medication, completed the Iowa Gambling Task, a measure of decision making in the face of feedback. Psychosurgery patients also completed general neuropsychological testing. Recovered psychosurgery patients exhibited insensitivity to negative feedback on the Iowa Gambling Task compared to the other three groups. This difference between the groups remained when general neuropsychological performance was covaried out. These findings suggest acquired relative insensitivity to negative information as a specific mechanism mediating the antidepressant effect of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. Such insensitivity is not secondary to deficits in general neuropsychological functioning and is not a function of recovery from depression per se.

  7. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  8. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of...

  9. Low-dose endotoxemia and human neuropsychological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, Karen Suárez; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yirmiya, Raz; Smed, Annelise; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2005-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate an association between systemic low-grade inflammation defined as 2- to 3-fold increases in circulating inflammatory mediators and age-related decline in cognitive function. However, it is not known whether small elevations of circulating cytokine levels cause direct effects on human neuropsychological functions. We investigated changes in emotional, cognitive, and inflammatory parameters in an experimental in vivo model of low-grade inflammation. In a double-blind crossover study, 12 healthy young males completed neuropsychological tests before as well as 1.5, 6, and 24 h after an intravenous injection of Escherichia coli endotoxin (0.2 ng/kg) or saline in two experimental sessions. Endotoxin administration had no effect on body temperature, cortisol levels, blood pressure or heart rate, but circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6 increased 2- and 7-fold, respectively, reaching peak values at 3 h, whereas soluble TNF-receptors and IL-1 receptor antagonist peaked at 4.5 h. The neutrophil count increased and the lymphocyte count declined. In this model, low-dose endotoxemia did not affect cognitive performance significantly but declarative memory performance was inversely correlated with cytokine increases. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a negative association between circulating IL-6 and memory functions during very low-dose endotoxemia independently of physical stress symptoms, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  10. Neuropsychological function in patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weider, Siri; Indredavik, Marit Saebø; Lydersen, Stian; Hestad, Knut

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the neuropsychological performance of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) compared with healthy controls (HCs). An additional aim was to investigate the effect of several possible mediators on the association between eating disorders (EDs) and cognitive function. Forty patients with AN, 39 patients with BN, and 40 HCs who were comparable in age and education were consecutively recruited to complete a standardized neuropsychological test battery covering the following cognitive domains: verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, speed of information processing, visuospatial ability, working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, attention/vigilance, and motor function. The AN group scored significantly below the HCs on eight of the nine measured cognitive domains. The BN group also showed inferior performance on six cognitive domains. After adjusting for possible mediators, the nadir body mass index (lowest lifetime BMI) and depressive symptoms explained all findings in the BN group. Although this adjustment reduced the difference between the AN and HC groups, the AN group still performed worse than the HCs regarding verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuospatial ability, working memory, and executive functioning. Patients with EDs scored below the HCs on several cognitive function measures, this difference being most pronounced for the AN group. The nadir BMI and depressive symptoms had strong mediating effects. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify the importance of weight restoration and treatment of depressive symptoms in the prevention of a possible cognitive decline. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on Residual Stress and Tensile Properties for 6061 Al Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kijung; Cho, Young-Rae; Ko, Dea Hoon; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2011-01-01

    To develop a 6061 aluminum alloy with low residual stress and high tensile strength, a cryogenic treatment process was investigated. Compared to the conventional heat treatment process for precipitation hardening with artificial aging, the cryogenic treatment process has two additional steps. The first step is cryogenic quenching of the sample into liquid nitrogen, the second step is up-hill quenching of the sample into boiling water. The residual stress for the sample was measured by the sin 2 ψ method with X-ray diffraction. The 6061 aluminum alloy sample showed 67% relief in stress at the cryogenic treatment process with artificial aging at 175°C. From this study, it was found that the optimum cryogenic treatment process for a sample with low residual stress and high tensile strength is relatively low cooling speed in the cryogenic quenching step and a very high heating speed in the up-hill quenching step.

  12. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the residual effect of P fertilizer's on plant P nutrition using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.C.; Zapata, F.

    1994-01-01

    The residual effect of P fertilizers previously applied to a soil on plant P nutrition was examined by both the isotopic dilution method (pot experiment) and isotopic exchange method (laboratory test) using 32 p as a tracer. The fraction of P derived from a fertilizer in plant (%Pdff in plant) was compared with the fraction of P derived from fertilizer in soil solution (%Pdff in soil solution) which is a new laboratory index proposed by Morel and Fardeau to predict %Pdff in plant. Four soil samples of a Humic Andosol from long-term experimental plots, which received no fertilizer (A1 soil), a readily soluble fertilizer (A2 soil), the same readily soluble fertilizer (RSF) plus a fused magnesium phosphate (A3 soil), and combination of RSF with Florida phosphate rock (A4 soil), were tested. In the pot experiment, maize (Zea mays) was grown during 38 days and dry shoot weight, P uptake and specific radioactivity were measured. Dry shoot weight, P uptake and L-value were the highest in A3 soil, followed by A4, A2 and A1 soils. %Pdff in plant were 71,9%, 51,9% and 15,4% in A3, A4 and A2 soils respectively. A laboratory study using 32 p isotopic exchange kinetics was carried out to examine three status parameters of soil P, intensity, quantity and capacity factors. Goof agreement was obtained between quantity factor (E 1 -value), and the pot experimental data; i.e. P uptake and L-value. %Pdff in soil solution were similar to those %Pdff in plant except for A4 soil. The enhancement of P uptake by the plant from the phosphate rock obtained in A4 soil could be attributed to specific plant factors and soil moisture conditions. (authors)

  14. The effect of peritoneal dialysis method on residual renal function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Skrzypczyk, Piotr; Jander, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Bałasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Drozdz, Dorota; Pietrzyk, Jacek A

    2012-01-01

    We set out to assess the effect of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) on residual renal function (RRF) in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In 101 children (age: 8.84 +/- 5.25 years; 44 on CAPD, 57 on APD) over 36 months, we evaluated RRF [as daily diuresis (DD) in mL/kg/24 h and mL/m2/24 h], glomerular filtration rate [GFR (in mL/min/1.73 m2)], ESRD cause, presence of arterial hypertension (HTN), biochemical parameters, peritoneal equilibration test (PET), adequacy [as total weekly Kt/V (twKt/V) and creatinine clearance (twCCr)], and infectious complications of PD. Initially, the CAPD and APD groups did not differ significantly in DD, but mean GFR was significantly higher in the APD group (p uremic syndrome (HUS) and hereditary nephropathy were at the highest anuria risk. Compared with the 22 children (7 CAPD, 15 APD) who became anuric, the 20 children (10 CAPD, 10 APD) with RRF preserved for 36 months had a higher DD and GFR before dialysis onset; higher hemoglobin and albumin; and lower HTN prevalence, cholesterol, triglycerides, and proteinuria (p dialysis onset, HTN, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria. Compared with children on APD, those on CAPD show better preservation of RRF during year 1, although the risk of anuria seems to be the same for both methods. In children with risk factors for rapid diuresis loss, CAPD might be considered the preferred initial dialysis method.

  15. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  16. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Li, Lv-Mu; Li, Bin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Ding, Xiao-Ling; Xu, Fa-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR) of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg) and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups) with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively). Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (presidue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (pfeeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  17. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  18. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...

  19. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  20. Predictive modeling and multi-objective optimization of machining-induced residual stresses: Investigation of machining parameter effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutan, Durul

    2013-01-01

    In the aerospace industry, titanium and nickel-based alloys are frequently used for critical structural components, especially due to their higher strength at both low and high temperatures, and higher wear and chemical degradation resistance. However, because of their unfavorable thermal properties, deformation and friction-induced microstructural changes prevent the end products from having good surface integrity properties. In addition to surface roughness, microhardness changes, and microstructural alterations, the machining-induced residual stress profiles of titanium and nickel-based alloys contribute in the surface integrity of these products. Therefore, it is essential to create a comprehensive method that predicts the residual stress outcomes of machining processes, and understand how machining parameters (cutting speed, uncut chip thickness, depth of cut, etc.) or tool parameters (tool rake angle, cutting edge radius, tool material/coating, etc.) affect the machining-induced residual stresses. Since experiments involve a certain amount of error in measurements, physics-based simulation experiments should also involve an uncertainty in the predicted values, and a rich set of simulation experiments are utilized to create expected value and variance for predictions. As the first part of this research, a method to determine the friction coefficients during machining from practical experiments was introduced. Using these friction coefficients, finite element-based simulation experiments were utilized to determine flow stress characteristics of materials and then to predict the machining-induced forces and residual stresses, and the results were validated using the experimental findings. A sensitivity analysis on the numerical parameters was conducted to understand the effect of changing physical and numerical parameters, increasing the confidence on the selected parameters, and the effect of machining parameters on machining-induced forces and residual