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Sample records for residual neuropsychological effects

  1. Neuropsychological effects and attitudes in patients following electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Feliu, Miriam; Edwards, Christopher L; Sudhakar, Shiv; McDougald, Camela; Raynor, Renee; Johnson, Stephanie; Byrd, Goldie; Whitfield, Keith; Jonassaint, Charles; Romero, Heather; Edwards, Lekisha; Wellington, Chante?; Hill, LaBarron K; Sollers, James; Logue, Patrick E

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R). Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short-Term...

  2. Effect of demographic data on neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Evlice

    2016-09-01

    Material and Methods: Between 2014-2016 years; mini mental state examination, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency (semantic and lexical, clock drawing, verbal and visual memory tests were performed to healthy people. The presence of correlation between neuropsychological tests and gender, age and education were researched in healthy people. Results: Hundred subjects (60 female, 40 male were included to study. No difference was observed between male and female subjects on neuropsychological tests. There was negative correlation between age and mini mental state examination, digit span and semantic fluency tests. And also there was positive correlation between education and all neuropsychological tests (except verbal memory test. Conclusion: The mean neuropsychological test scores in healthy people were not shown differences by gender, but they were affected by age and education. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 528-532

  3. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  4. Oculomotor and neuropsychological effects of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian S. Hill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive enhancement has become an important target for drug therapies in schizophrenia. Treatment development in this area requires assessment approaches that are sensitive to procognitive effects of antipsychotic and adjunctive treatments. Ideally, new treatments will have translational characteristics for parallel human and animal research. Previous studies of antipsychotic effects on cognition have relied primarily on paper-and-pencil neuropsychological testing. No study has directly compared neurophysiological biomarkers and neuropsychological testing as strategies for assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic treatment early in the course of schizophrenia. Anti psychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia were tested before treatment with risperidone and again 6 weeks later. Matched healthy participants were tested over a similar time period. Test-retest reliability, effect sizes of within-subject change, and multivariate/univariate analysis of variance were used to compare 3 neurophysiological tests (visually guided saccade, memory-guided saccade, and antisaccade with neuropsychological tests covering 4 cognitive domains (executive function, attention, memory, and manual motor function. While both measurement approaches showed robust neurocognitive impairments in patients prior to risperidone treatment, oculomotor biomarkers were more sensitive to treatment-related effects on neurocognitive function than traditional neuropsychological measures. Further, unlike the pattern of modest generalized cognitive improvement suggested by neuropsychological measures, the oculomotor findings revealed a mixed pattern of beneficial and adverse treatment related effects. These findings warrant further investigation regarding the utility of neurophysiological biomarkers for assessing cognitive outcomes of antipsychotic treatment in clinical trials and in early-phase drug development.

  5. Neuropsychological effects and attitudes in patients following electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Miriam; Edwards, Christopher L; Sudhakar, Shiv; McDougald, Camela; Raynor, Renee; Johnson, Stephanie; Byrd, Goldie; Whitfield, Keith; Jonassaint, Charles; Romero, Heather; Edwards, Lekisha; Wellington, Chante'; Hill, LaBarron K; Sollers, James; Logue, Patrick E

    2008-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R). Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short-Term Memory Questionnaire (STMQ), and several other measures of emotional functioning and patient attitudes toward ECT. The mean number of days between pre-ECT and post-ECT testing was 24. T-test revealed a significant decrease in subjective ratings of depression as rated by the BDI, t(45) = 9.82, P Objective ratings of memory appeared impaired following treatment, and patients' self-report measures of memory confirmed this decline. More specifically, repeated measures MANOVA [Wilks Lambda F(11,30) = 4.3, p memory (p recall (p visual designs (p memory functioning, and post-ECT self-reports may not be reliable.

  6. Neuropsychological effects and attitudes in patients following electroconvulsive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Feliu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Miriam Feliu1,2, Christopher L Edwards1,2,3, Shiv Sudhakar4, Camela McDougald1, Renee Raynor5, Stephanie Johnson6, Goldie Byrd7, Keith Whitfield8, Charles Jonassaint8, Heather Romero1, Lekisha Edwards1, Chante’ Wellington1, LaBarron K Hill9, James Sollers, III9, Patrick E Logue11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; 2Duke Pain and Palliative Care Center; 3Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology; 4Drexel University Medical School; 5Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 6Science Directorate, American Psychological Association; 7Department of Biology, North Carolina A&T State University; 8Department of Psychology, Duke University; 9Department of Psychology, The Ohio State UniversityAbstract: The current study examined the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT on neuropsychological test performance. Forty-six patients completed brief neuropsychological and psychological testing before and after receiving ECT for the treatment of recalcitrant and severe depression. Neuropsychological testing consisted of the Levin Selective Reminding Test (Levin and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Edition (WMS-R. Self-report measures included the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the Short-Term Memory Questionnaire (STMQ, and several other measures of emotional functioning and patient attitudes toward ECT. The mean number of days between pre-ECT and post-ECT testing was 24. T-test revealed a significant decrease in subjective ratings of depression as rated by the BDI, t(45 = 9.82, P < 0.0001 (Pre-BDI = 27.9 ± 20.2; post-BDI = 13.5 ± 9.7. Objective ratings of memory appeared impaired following treatment, and patients’ self-report measures of memory confirmed this decline. More specifically, repeated measures MANOVA [Wilks Lambda F(11,30 = 4.3, p < 0.001] indicated significant decreases for measures of immediate recognition memory (p < 0.005, long-term storage (p < 0.05, delayed prose passage recall (p < 0

  7. Neuropsychological effects of cranial radiation: current knowledge and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Deborah D.; Sperduto, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation is an invaluable therapeutic tool in the treatment of cancer, with well-established palliative and curative efficacy. As patient survival has improved, attention has focused on long-range treatment side effects. One such adverse effect, neuropsychological impairment, is incompletely understood. Much of the extant research has been directed at childhood leukemia survivors treated with low-dose whole-brain radiation. Less is known about the effects of high-dose focal or whole-brain radiation used in the treatment of brain lesions. This article reviews the scientific literature in this area, with greatest emphasis on methodologically rigorous studies. Research design considerations are discussed. Review findings suggest that low-dose whole-brain radiation (18 to 24 Gy) in children is associated with mild delayed IQ decline, with more substantial deficits occurring in children treated at a young age. A high incidence of learning disabilities and academic failure is observed in this population and may be caused by poor attention and memory rather than low intellectual level. Children who receive higher dose radiation for treatment of brain tumors experience more pronounced cognitive decline. At higher doses, whole-brain radiation, in particular, is linked to deleterious cognitive outcomes. Remarkably little is known about cognitive outcomes in irradiated adults. Preliminary findings indicate that certain cognitive functions, including memory, may be more vulnerable to decline than others. Suggestions for future research are proposed

  8. Effects of Marathi-Hindi Bilingualism on Neuropsychological Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H.; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K.; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism “disadvantage” would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests. PMID:22206622

  9. Effects of Marathi-Hindi bilingualism on neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Ghate, Manisha; Gollan, Tamar H; Meyer, Rachel; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Alexander, Terry; Grant, Igor; Mehendale, Sanjay; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to examine if bilingualism affects executive functions and verbal fluency in Marathi and Hindi, two major languages in India, with a considerable cognate (e.g., activity is actividad in Spanish) overlap. A total of 174 native Marathi speakers from Pune, India, with varying levels of Hindi proficiency were administered tests of executive functioning and verbal performance in Marathi. A bilingualism index was generated using self-reported Hindi and Marathi proficiency. After controlling for demographic variables, the association between bilingualism and cognitive performance was examined. Degree of bilingualism predicted better performance on the switching (Color Trails-2) and inhibition (Stroop Color-Word) components of executive functioning; but not for the abstraction component (Halstead Category Test). In the verbal domain, bilingualism was more closely associated with noun generation (where the languages share many cognates) than verb generation (which are more disparate across these languages), as predicted. However, contrary to our hypothesis that the bilingualism "disadvantage" would be attenuated on noun generation, bilingualism was associated with an advantage on these measures. These findings suggest distinct patterns of bilingualism effects on cognition for this previously unexamined language pair, and that the rate of cognates may modulate the association between bilingualism and verbal performance on neuropsychological tests.

  10. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  11. STROOP EFFECT AND ITS LIMITATIONS IN PRACTICE EXECUTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHILD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ramírez-Benitez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The test of Stroop on line modality word / color is of limited application in the clinical child population. A digital adaptation of the test demands the infant's quick answer and at the same time that the processes used in the test have an interference in the boy. If the boy doesn't adapt to the digital demands it doesn't happen the interference between the processes and the test he doesn't have effect. Material and Method: The investigation seeks to determine if the results of the test Stroop, modality word / color, they are related with the results of other tests that evaluate the executive functions. The Dpto. of Neuropsychology he intended to revise all the results of the test SESH in the population from 7 to 15 years of the 2009 - 2011. The analyzed tests were: Stroop, Wisconsin, Time of complex reaction and the simple sustained Attention. Result: The clinical histories demonstrated that of the 207 evaluated children 59 present punctuations above the superior norm in the Stroop. However, the results in the Wisconsin, the time of reaction and the attention reports that the 59 children have a pathological index. The investigation shows that the punctuations risen in the Stroop are not sign of good acting in the other tests. Conclusions: The task Stroop is not effective in all the analyzed children. The problems in the prosecution speed and atencionales are a negative condition to execute with success the on-line task Stroop modality word / color in the infantile population.

  12. Cerebral pathology and neuropsychological effects. Differential effects of cranial radiation as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cranial radiation therapy (CRT) has been associated with an increased incidence of neuropsychological impairments and pathologic changes in the CNS among children. However, findings regarding a causal relationship between CRT and neurobehavioral impairments and the differential impact of CRT as a function of treatment age have been equivocal. Inconsistent findings may be attributed to the current research focus on description of impairments to the neglect of a larger theoretical framework and the failure of investigators to integrate findings from the various disciplines involved in assessing CRT effects. Two theories regarding the etiology of CRT effects on neuropsychological functions have been proposed. The myelination hypothesis suggests that CRT effects are attributable to direct effects on myelin synthesis. Findings indicating that the child is in a state of particular vulnerability to teratogens due to the rapid growth phase of myelin during the first 48 months of life provide the basis for this hypothesis. The myelination hypothesis predicts a differential effect for CRT as a function of age/maturation. The vascular hypothesis proposes that CRT effects are due to pathological changes in vascular tissues. Results indicating prominent white matter changes among some CRT recipients provide the basis for this hypothesis. The vascular hypothesis predicts no age effect or an inverse age effect; it places more emphasis on the relationship between indices of cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological test performance. Two basic mechanisms underlying the effects of CRT are outlined to provide a theoretical framework on which future research may be based. 29 references

  13. The Effect of Prior Caffeine Consumption on Neuropsychological Test Performance: A Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elizabeth R; Lesk, Valerie E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prior consumption of 200 mg of pure caffeine affected neuropsychological test scores in a group of elderly participants aged over 60 years. Using a double-blind placebo versus caffeine design, participants were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. A neuropsychological assessment testing the domains of general cognitive function, processing speed, semantic memory, episodic memory, executive function, working memory and short-term memory was carried out. Significant interaction effects between age, caffeine and scores of executive function and processing speed were found; participants who had received caffeine showed a decline in performance with increasing age. This effect was not seen for participants who received placebo. The results highlight the need to consider and control prior caffeine consumption when scoring neuropsychological assessments in the elderly, which is important for accuracy of diagnosis and corresponding normative data. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Long-term neuropsychological effects of ecstasy in middle-aged ecstasy/polydrug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilt, Thelma; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Smal, Johan P.; Gouwetor, Mathilde N.; van den Brink, Wim; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Studies reporting ecstasy-induced serotonin-toxicity and (neuro)psychological dysfunctions have been conducted in young adults. Little is known about ecstasy effects later in life, when serotonin levels and cognition decrease as a consequence of normal ageing. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed

  15. Long-term neuropsychological effects of ecstasy in middle-aged ecstasy/polydrug users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilt, T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Smal, J.P.; Gouwetor, M.N.; van den Brink, W.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Studies reporting ecstasy-induced serotonin-toxicity and (neuro)psychological dysfunctions have been conducted in young adults. Little is known about ecstasy effects later in life, when serotonin levels and cognition decrease as a consequence of normal ageing. Objective This study aimed to

  16. Effects of handcuffs on neuropsychological testing: Implications for criminal forensic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christine M; Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Denney, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluations are increasingly performed in forensic contexts, including in criminal settings where security sometimes cannot be compromised to facilitate evaluation according to standardized procedures. Interpretation of nonstandardized assessment results poses significant challenges for the neuropsychologist. Research is limited in regard to the validation of neuropsychological test accommodation and modification practices that deviate from standard test administration; there is no published research regarding the effects of hand restraints upon neuropsychological evaluation results. This study provides preliminary results regarding the impact of restraints on motor functioning and common neuropsychological tests with a motor component. When restrained, performance on nearly all tests utilized was significantly impacted, including Trail Making Test A/B, a coding test, and several tests of motor functioning. Significant performance decline was observed in both raw scores and normative scores. Regression models are also provided in order to help forensic neuropsychologists adjust for the effect of hand restraints on raw scores of these tests, as the hand restraints also resulted in significant differences in normative scores; in the most striking case there was nearly a full standard deviation of discrepancy.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  18. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  19. Preliminary effects of pagoclone, a partial GABAA agonist, on neuropsychological performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela F Caveney

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela F Caveney1, Bruno Giordani1, George M Haig21Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Neurosciences Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USAAbstract: Pagoclone is a novel cyclopyrrolone that acts as a partial GABAA receptor agonist. Preclinical studies suggest that pagoclone may have clinical utility as an anxiolytic agent, as well as a reduced incidence of side-effects. The present study was conducted to determine whether pagoclone would affect healthy individuals’ performances on neuropsychological measures as a function of dose within the projected therapeutic range. Twelve healthy adult subjects were randomly assigned to dosage groups in a 3-way crossover study. Participants were administered neuropsychological measures six hours following dosing on Day 1 and Day 6 of administration of the drug. Dose effects were noted on measures of alertness, learning, and memory and movement time. Significant effects were also noted on measures of alertness, learning and memory, information processing and psychomotor speed. Overall, the results of this small, preliminary study do not support a finding of behavioral toxicity for these doses of pagoclone. Rather, a pattern was found of transient and mild negative effects on learning and memory scores at the highest dose administered, though these changes were small and no longer evident by the sixth day of use.Keywords: pagoclone, cyclopyrrolone, neuropsychological, memory, generalized anxiety disorder

  20. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability

  1. STROOP EFFECT AND ITS LIMITATIONS IN PRACTICE EXECUTIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHILD.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaser Ramírez-Benitez; Miriela Díaz Bringas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The test of Stroop on line modality word / color is of limited application in the clinical child population. A digital adaptation of the test demands the infant's quick answer and at the same time that the processes used in the test have an interference in the boy. If the boy doesn't adapt to the digital demands it doesn't happen the interference between the processes and the test he doesn't have effect. Material and Method: The investigation seeks to determine if the results of...

  2. Neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Federico, Angela; Martini, Alice; Tinazzi, Michele; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Tamburin, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features. We should regard neuropsychological testing as an extension of the neurological examination applied to higher order cortical function, since each cognitive domain has an anatomical substrate. Ideally, neurologists should discuss the indications and results of neuropsychological assessment with a clinical neuropsychologist. This paper summarises the rationale, indications, main features, most common tests and pitfalls in neuropsychological evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Age-related practice effects across longitudinal neuropsychological assessments in older people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Link, Peter; Fish, Scott; Kraemer, Helena; Jeste, Dilip

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between aging and practice effects on longitudinal neuropsychological assessments was investigated in middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Older people with schizophrenia (n = 107; M age = 56.1) and age-comparable nonpsychiatric controls (n = 107; M age = 57.7) were scheduled to receive annual assessments on a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests for an average of 2.5 years (range 11 months to 4 years). Mixed-model analyses were used to separately examine the effects of practice and age on test performance. Number of prior assessments (practice) was associated with significant performance improvement across assessments, whereas older age was associated with significant decline in performance. The groups did not differ significantly in extent of age-related cognitive decline, but a three-way interaction among group, age, and practice was found, such that greater age-related decline in practice effects were found for older people with schizophrenia relative to nonpsychiatric participants. This study did not find any evidence of neurodegenerative age-related decline in neuropsychological abilities in middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia, but older age was associated with diminished ability to benefit from repeated exposure to cognitive tasks in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia may combine with cognitive decline associated with normal aging to reduce practice effects in older patients. These findings have important implications for the design of studies examining the longitudinal trajectory of cognitive functioning across the life span of people with schizophrenia, as well as clinical trials that attempt to demonstrate cognitive enhancement in these individuals. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Effects of radiation therapy on neuropsychological functioning in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.W.H.; Hung, B.K.M.; Woo, E.K.W.; Tai, P.T.H.; Choi, D.T.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients who had a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who were treated with radiation therapy were followed up after a median duration of 5.5 years and given a battery of neuropsychological tests. Results were compared with a comparable group of newly diagnosed NPC patients awaiting radiation therapy. The irradiated group was significantly poorer in overall IQ, non-verbal memory recall, and reported a substantially greater number of memory related complaints. These results contrast with the complacent general assumption that radiation therapy has a negligible effect on adult functioning. (author)

  5. Neuropsychological effects of the CSMD1 genome-wide associated schizophrenia risk variant rs10503253.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, G

    2013-03-01

    The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10503253, located within the CUB and Sushi multiple domains-1 (CSMD1) gene on 8p23.2, was recently identified as genome-wide significant for schizophrenia (SZ), but is of unknown function. We investigated the neurocognitive effects of this CSMD1 variant in vivo in patients and healthy participants using behavioral and imaging measures of brain structure and function. We compared carriers and non-carriers of the risk \\'A\\' allele on measures of neuropsychological performance typically impaired in SZ (general cognitive ability, episodic and working memory and attentional control) in independent samples of Irish patients (n = 387) and controls (n = 171) and German patients (205) and controls (n = 533). Across these groups, the risk \\'A\\' allele at CSMD1 was associated with deleterious effects across a number of neurocognitive phenotypes. Specifically, the risk allele was associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological measures of general cognitive ability and memory function but not attentional control. These effects, while significant, were subtle, and varied between samples. Consistent with previous evidence suggesting that CSMD1 may be involved in brain mechanisms related to memory and learning, these data appear to reflect the deleterious effects of the identified \\'A\\' risk allele on neurocognitive function, possibly as part of the mechanism by which CSMD1 is associated with SZ risk.

  6. Acute effects of ayahuasca on neuropsychological performance: differences in executive function between experienced and occasional users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine, has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow in prefrontal brain regions after acute administration to humans. Despite interactions at this level, neuropsychological studies have not found cognitive deficits in abstinent long-term users. Here, we wished to investigate the effects of acute ayahuasca intake on neuropsychological performance, specifically on working memory and executive function. Twenty-four ayahuasca users (11 long-term experienced users and 13 occasional users) were assessed in their habitual setting using the Stroop, Sternberg, and Tower of London tasks prior to and following ayahuasca intake. Errors in the Sternberg task increased, whereas reaction times in the Stroop task decreased and accuracy was maintained for the whole sample following ayahuasca intake. Interestingly, results in the Tower of London showed significantly increased execution and resolution times and number of movements for the occasional but not the experienced users. Additionally, a correlation analysis including all subjects showed that impaired performance in the Tower of London was inversely correlated with lifetime ayahuasca use. Acute ayahuasca administration impaired working memory but decreased stimulus-response interference. Interestingly, detrimental effects on higher cognition were only observed in the less experienced group. Rather than leading to increased impairment, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca was associated with reduced incapacitation. Compensatory or neuromodulatory effects associated with long-term ayahuasca intake could underlie preserved executive function in experienced users.

  7. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  8. Neuropsychological effects of irradiation and chemotherapy treatments upon children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case study of monozygotic twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.T.; Souheaver, G.T.; Berry, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous attempts have been made to determine the effects of irradiation and chemotherapy upon cognitive functioning when used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While many studies have demonstrated a deleterious effect, others have found no significant changes in neuropsychological functioning. The uncertainty regarding the cognitive effects of these treatments is exemplified via a presentation of monozygotic twins who were evaluated via neuropsychological tests. The children received similar induction-consolidation therapy which included intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation. Neuropsychological tests yielded almost identical I.Q. patterns, however, subtle differences were noted between the children when abstract reasoning abilities, achievement tests scores, motor speed, grip strength, performance on complex tasks requiring haptic sensitivity, and fingertip sensitivity were observed. This discussion also summarizes the previous findings related to cognitive function after chemotherapy and radiation therapy and some of the confounding factors which have been noted

  9. Parent-of-Origin Effects in ADHD: Distinct Influences of Paternal and Maternal ADHD on Neuropsychological Functioning in Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.A.M.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined parent-of-origin effects in transmission of ADHD and neuropsychological functioning. Proof of these effects can identify more etiologically homogeneous ADHD subgroups and facilitate genetic studies. Method: The authors included 238 ADHD and 147 control families. ADHD

  10. Effects of Perinatal Exposure to PCBs on Neuropsychological Functions in the Rotterdam Cohort at 9 Years of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, H.J.I.; Emmen, H.H.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs are known for their neurotoxic properties, especially on the developing brain. To increase insight into the neurotoxic effects of PCB exposure, the authors studied the effects of perinatal exposure to environmental levels of these compounds on different neuropsychological domains. In 9-year-old

  11. Effects of Two Concussions on the Neuropsychological Functioning and Symptom Reporting of High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Geling, Olga; Arnold, Monica; Oshiro, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of two sports-related concussions on neuropsychological functioning and symptom reporting, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) was administered to 483 high school athletes. Three groups of athletes were determined based on the number of previous concussions: no concussion (n = 409), 1 concussion (n = 58), and 2 concussions (n = 16). The results showed that the three groups did not differ in terms of their ImPACT composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Reaction Time, and Processing Speed) and the Total Symptom Score. As there are only a few studies that have reported the sequelae of 2 concussions in high school athletes, it is premature to declare that a repeated concussion does not have persistent neurocognitive effects on high school athletes.

  12. Effects of central-nervous-system irradiation on neuropsychologic functioning of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soni, S.S.; Marten, G.W.; Pitner, S.E.; Duenas, D.A.; Powazek, M.

    1975-01-01

    Two neuropsychologic studies were performed to determine the long-term effects of ''prophylactic'' cranial or craniospinal irradiation on the psychologic and neurologic functions of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. In a prospective study, 34 patients with leukemia who received either craniospinal irradiation or cranial irradiation combined with intrathecal methotrexate were evaluated by standardized neurologic and psychologic examinations before and after irradiation. Their performance was compared with that of 27 controls who received irradiation to parts of the body other than the cranium. In a retrospective study, 11 patients with leukemia receiving prophylactic craniospinal irradiation and 12 controls with the disease not receiving such therapy were followed from the second year after either irradiation or the initial hematologic remission. Eighteen months after irradiation in the prospective study and four years after irradiation in the retrospective study, no noteworthy neurologic or psychologic differences were found between subjects and controls

  13. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather; Zajdel, Dan

    2007-03-01

    When two auditory stimuli of different frequency are presented to each ear, binaural beats are perceived by the listener. The binaural beat frequency is equal to the difference between the frequencies applied to each ear. Our primary objective was to assess whether steady-state entrainment of electroencephalographic activity to the binaural beat occurs when exposed to a specific binaural beat frequency as has been hypothesized. Our secondary objective was to gather preliminary data on neuropsychologic and physiologic effects of binaural beat technology. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover experiment in 4 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomized to experimental auditory stimulus of 30 minutes of binaural beat at 7 Hz (carrier frequencies: 133 Hz L; 140 Hz R) with an overlay of pink noise resembling the sound of rain on one session and control stimuli of the same overlay without the binaural beat carrier frequencies on the other session. Data were collected during two separate sessions 1 week apart. Neuropsychologic and blood pressure data were collected before and after the intervention; electroencephalographic data were collected before, during, and after listening to either binaural beats or control. Neuropsychologic measures included State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, Rey Auditory Verbal List Test, Stroop Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Spectral and coherence analysis was performed on the electroencephalogram (EEG), and all measures were analyzed for changes between sessions with and without binaural beat stimuli. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions in any of the EEG measures. There was an increase of the Profile of Mood States depression subscale in the experimental condition relative to the control condition (p = 0.02). There was also a significant decrease in immediate verbal memory recall (p = 0.03) in the experimental condition compared to control

  14. The effect of nabilone on neuropsychological functions related to driving ability: an extended case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Ilsemarie; Bodner, Thomas; Kemmler, Georg; Entner, Tanja; Wissel, Joerg; Berger, Thomas; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of this prospective extended case series was to obtain the first data about the potential influence of nabilone intake on driving ability related neuropsychological functions. Six patients were investigated within a placebo controlled, double-blind crossover study of this synthetic cannabinoid (2 mg/day) in patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity associated pain. Five neuropsychological functions (reaction time, working memory, divided attention, psychomotor speed and mental flexibility) were assessed. No indication was found of a deterioration of any of the five investigated neuropsychological functions during the 4-week treatment period with nabilone. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO 2 response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO 2 reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  16. Long-term effects of amyloid, hypometabolism, and atrophy on neuropsychological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkoppele, R.; van der Flier, W.M.; Verfaillie, S.C.J.; Vrenken, H.; Versteeg, A.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Sikkes, S.A.; Twisk, J.; Adriaanse, S.M.; Zwan, M.D.; Boellaard, R.; Windhorst, A.D.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.; Lammertsma, A.A.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess how amyloid deposition, glucose hypometabolism, and cerebral atrophy affect neuropsychological performance in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and controls over time. Methods: A total of 41 patients with AD dementia,

  17. Some performance effects of age and low blood alcohol levels on a computerized neuropsychological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    COGSCREEN is a computerized test battery developed for the Federal Aviation Administration as an airman neuropsychological screening instrument for cognitive functioning. This study explored a multifaceted application of the sensitivity of the batter...

  18. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desjardins-Crépeau L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Desjardins-Crépeau,1,2 Nicolas Berryman,2,3 Sarah A Fraser,4 Thien Tuong Minh Vu,5,6 Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,2,6 Karen ZH Li,7 Laurent Bosquet,8 Louis Bherer2,7 1Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Research Center, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Sports Studies, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 4Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Research Center, Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Department of Psychology and PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada; 8Faculté des sciences du sport, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France Purpose: Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults.Methods: Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention.Results: All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training

  19. Effects of breast feeding on neuropsychological development in a community with methylmercury exposure from seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Esben Budtz

    2005-01-01

    was recorded. At approximately 7 years of age, 917 (90%) of the children underwent detailed neurobehavioral examination. After adjustment for confounders, breastfeeding was associated with only marginally better neuropsychological performance on most tests. These associations were robust even after adjustment...... published studies though not associated with a deficit in neuropsychological performance at age 7. Although the advantage may be less, Faroese women can still safely breastfeed their children....

  20. Effects on neuropsychological performance and sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Staub

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS may have impaired neuropsychological performance. The aim of the study is to assess neuropsychological function in OSAS patients before and on continous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy to assess different neuropsychological tests – especially of sensomotor memory – in OSAS patients, and to relate neuropsychological test results to polysomnographic findings. Therefore, 36 normal controls and 18 OSAS patients performed tests of attention capacity and memory with retrieval in the evening and the following morning. Six weeks later, the tests were repeated (patients on CPAP. Controls performed significantly better than patients in the tests of attention and of memory of facts without and on CPAP therapy. Moreover, good compliance of CPAP therapy was not associated with better performance. However, there was no significant difference between controls and patients in the tests of sensomotor memory. The neuropsychological results depended on oxygen values, the arousal index, and sleep stages. There is no group difference in overnight improvement in the neuropsychological tests, which could indicate that sleep has an important function in homeostatic regulation rather than in consolidation.

  1. Residual effects of hypnotics: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I

    1991-07-01

    The sedative/hypnotic benzodiazepines introduced worldwide in the early 1960s were acclaimed for their low chemical toxicity and safety in clinical use. A decade later, some researchers and clinicians found that while all the drugs had undoubted potency and efficacy as sleep inducers and maintainers, the trade-off in residual effects (e.g., excessive daytime tiredness, poor concentration, impaired psychomotor performance, lowered mental abilities) was cause for concern. These sequelae not only affected patients' safety and ability to perform daytime tasks, but were also counter-therapeutic; the daytime sleep that was produced interfered with the natural nocturnal sleep. In a recent study, the degree to which patient abilities were impaired was measured by a number of psychomotor tests. Benzodiazepines with a duration of clinical effect of less than 8 to 10 hours produced fewer, less frequent residual effects than those with a measurable activity in excess of the normal nocturnal sleep period.

  2. Provocative and inhibitory effects of a video-EEG neuropsychologic protocol in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaranha, Mirian Salvadori Bittar; da Silva Sousa, Patrícia; de Araújo-Filho, Gerardo Maria; Lin, Katia; Guilhoto, Laura Maria Figueiredo Ferreira; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2009-11-01

    Studies suggest that higher cognitive functions could precipitate seizures in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). The present study aimed to analyze the effects of higher mental activity on epileptiform discharges and seizures in patients with JME and compare them to those of habitual methods of activation. Seventy-six patients with JME (41 female) underwent a video-EEG (electroencephalography) neuropsychologic protocol (VNPP) and habitual methods of activation for 4-6 h. Twenty-nine of the 76 (38.2%) presented provocative effect, and inhibition was seen in 28 of 31 (90.3%). A mixed effect was observed in 11 (35.5%), and 30 patients (39.5%) suffered no effect of VNPP. Action-programming tasks were more effective than thinking in provoking epileptiform discharges (23.7% and 11.0% of patients, respectively, p = 0.03). Inhibitory effect was observed equally in the various categories of tasks, except in mental calculation, which had a higher inhibitory rate. Habitual methods of activation were more effective than VNPP in provoking discharges. Anxiety disorders were diagnosed in 24 of 58 patients (41.4%); anxious patients had greater discharge indexes and no significant inhibitory effect on VNPP. Praxis exerted the most remarkable provocative effect, in accordance with the motor circuitry hyperexcitability hypothesis in JME. Inhibitory effect, which had no such task specificity, might be mediated by a widespread cortical-thalamic pathway, possibly involving the parietal cortex. The frequent inhibitory effect found under cortical activation conditions, influenced by the presence of anxiety, supports nonpharmacologic therapeutic interventions in JME.

  3. The Feasibility of Detecting Neuropsychologic and Neuroanatomic Effects of Type 1 Diabetes in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L.; Kesler, Shelli; Hoang, Sherry; Drobny, Jessica; Park, Yaena; Schleifer, Kristin; Baumgartner, Heidi; Wilson, Darrell M.; Buckingham, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if frequent exposures to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia during early childhood lead to neurocognitive deficits and changes in brain anatomy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this feasibility, cross-sectional study, young children, aged 3 to 10 years, with type 1 diabetes and age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed neuropsychologic (NP) testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain. RESULTS NP testing and MRI scanning was successfully completed in 98% of the type 1 diabetic and 93% of the HC children. A significant negative relationship between HbA1c and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) verbal comprehension was observed. WISC index scores were significantly reduced in type 1 diabetic subjects who had experienced seizures. White matter volume did not show the expected increase with age in children with type 1 diabetes compared with HC children (diagnosis by age interaction, P = 0.005). A similar trend was detected for hippocampal volume. Children with type 1 diabetes who had experienced seizures showed significantly reduced gray matter and white matter volumes relative to children with type 1 diabetes who had not experienced seizures. CONCLUSIONS It is feasible to perform MRI and NP testing in young children with type 1 diabetes. Further, early signs of neuroanatomic variation may be present in this population. Larger cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of neurocognitive function and neuroanatomy are needed to define the effect of type 1 diabetes on the developing brain. PMID:21562318

  4. Effect of MAOA promoter polymorphism and neuropsychological performance on psychopathy traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romero-Rebollar

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: These findings were according to the previous studies about abnormal emotional processing and behavioral inhibition failures reported in subjects with genetic risk for violence, as well as with studies about neuropsychological performance in psychopaths. Further the MAOA genotype moderates the relationship between orbitofrontal functioning and antisocial traits of psychopathy which is a risk factor for violence.

  5. Resection of Gliomas with and without Neuropsychological Support during Awake Craniotomy—Effects on Surgery and Clinical Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kelm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDuring awake craniotomy for tumor resection, a neuropsychologist (NP is regarded as a highly valuable partner for neurosurgeons. However, some centers do not routinely involve an NP, and data to support the high influence of the NP on the perioperative course of patients are mostly lacking.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in clinical outcomes between patients who underwent awake craniotomy with and without the attendance of an NP.MethodsOur analysis included 61 patients, all operated on for resection of a presumably language-eloquent glioma during an awake procedure. Of these 61 cases, 47 surgeries were done with neuropsychological support (NP group, whereas 14 surgeries were performed without an NP (non-NP group due to a language barrier between the NP and the patient. For these patients, neuropsychological assessment was provided by a bilingual resident.ResultsBoth groups were highly comparable regarding age, gender, preoperative language function, and tumor grades (glioma WHO grades 1–4. Gross total resection (GTR was achieved more frequently in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 61.7 vs. 28.6%, P = 0.04, which also had shorter durations of surgery (NP vs. non-NP: 240.7 ± 45.7 vs. 286.6 ± 54.8 min, P < 0.01. Furthermore, the rate of unexpected tumor residuals (estimation of the intraoperative extent of resection vs. postoperative imaging was lower in the NP group (NP vs. non-NP: 19.1 vs. 42.9%, P = 0.09, but no difference was observed in terms of permanent surgery-related language deterioration (NP vs. non-NP: 6.4 vs. 14.3%, P = 0.48.ConclusionWe need professional neuropsychological evaluation during awake craniotomies for removal of presumably language-eloquent gliomas. Although these procedures are routinely carried out with an NP, this is one of the first studies to provide data supporting the NP’s crucial role. Despite the small group size, our study shows

  6. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO{sub 2} response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO{sub 2} reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  7. A dose-effect analysis of children's exposure to dental amalgam and neuropsychological function: the New England Children's Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Daniel, David; Zhang, Annie; Tavares, Mary A; McKinlay, Sonja

    2007-09-01

    The New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT) was a five-year randomized trial of 534 6- to 10-year-old children that compared the neuropsychological outcomes of those whose caries were restored using dental amalgam with the outcomes of those those whose caries were restored using mercury-free resin-based composite. The primary intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant differences between the treatment groups on the primary or secondary outcomes of the administered psychological tests: Full-Scale IQ score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, General Memory Index of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and Visual-Motor Composite of the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities. To determine whether treatment group assignment, a dichotomous measure of exposure, was sufficiently sensitive to detect associations between mercury exposure and these outcomes, the authors conducted analyses to evaluate the associations between the primary and secondary outcomes and two continuously distributed indexes of potential exposure, surface-years of amalgam and urinary mercury excretion. Neither index of mercury exposure was significantly associated with any of the three outcomes. The authors found no evidence that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam was associated with any adverse neuropsychological effects over the five-year period after placement of amalgam restorations. Analyses of the outcomes of the NECAT study indicate that use of dental amalgam was not associated with an increase in children's risk of experiencing neuropsychological dysfunction.

  8. EFFECTS OF AGE, SEX, AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ON FINANCIAL DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Shivapour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we examined how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred and sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56 to 90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. After controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several additional age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation, whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation. In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants’ financial decision-making and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one’s financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources.

  9. Embrittling effects of residual elements on steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, J.M.; King, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    In a review of work related to reheat cracking in nuclear pressure vessel steels, Dhooge et al referred to work of the authors on the relative embrittling parameter for SA533B steels. The poor agreement when these parameters were applied to creep ductility data for SA508 class 2 lead the reviewers to conclude that the relative importance of impurity elements is a function of base alloy composition. The authors briefly describe some of their more recent work which demonstrates that when various mechanical, and other, effects are taken into consideration, the relative effects of the principal residual elements are similar, despite differing base compositions, and that the embrittling parameters derived correlate well with the data for SA Class 2 steel. (U.K.)

  10. Neuropsychological profile and clinical effects of arginine treatment in children with creatine transport deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background SLC6A8, an X-linked gene, encodes the creatine transporter (CRTR) and its mutations lead to cerebral creatine (Cr) deficiency which results in mental retardation, speech and language delay, autistic-like behaviour and epilepsy (CRTR-D, OMIM 300352). CRTR-D represents the most frequent Cr metabolism disorder but, differently from Cr synthesis defects, that are partially reversible by oral Cr supplementation, does not respond to Cr treatment even if precociously administrated. The precursors of Cr are the non-essential amino acids Glycine (Gly) and Arginine (Arg), which have their own transporters at the brain–blood barrier level and, therefore, their supplementation appears an attractive and feasible therapeutic option aimed at stimulating Cr endogenous synthesis and, in this way, at overcoming the block of Cr transport within the brain. However, until now the effects of Arg and/or Gly supplementation on Cr brain levels and behaviour have been controversial. Methods In this study five Italian male patients affected by CRTR-D were supplemented with oral L-Arg at a dosage of 300 mg/kg/day divided into 3 doses, for 24–36 months. Biochemical and plasmatic amino acids examinations and thyroid hormone dosages were periodically performed. Moreover, Proton and Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) was monitored during follow-up in concurrence with neuropsychological evaluations. Results During L-Arg treatment a clinical improvement in motor skills and to a lesser extent in communication and attention was observed. In addition, all patients had a reduction in the number and frequency of epileptic seizures. Daily living skills appeared also to be positively influenced by L-Arg treatment. Moreover, Total Cr and especially PhosphoCr, evaluated by proton and phosphorus spectroscopy, showed a mild increase, although well below the normal range. Conclusion This study provides information to support the effectiveness of L-Arg supplement treatment in

  11. Neuropsychological late effects of treatment for acute leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncadin, Caroline; Hitzler, Johann; Downie, Andrea; Montour-Proulx, Isabelle; Alyman, Cheryl; Cairney, Elizabeth; Spiegler, Brenda J

    2015-05-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have an elevated risk of developing acute leukemia, but little is known about treatment-related neuropsychological morbidity because they are systematically excluded from research in this area. The current study investigated neuropsychological outcomes in children with DS treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared to children with DS with no history of cancer. Participants were 4 to 17 years of age at testing and were administered measures of intelligence, academic achievement, language, visual-motor and fine-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients had been off treatment for at least 2 years. The AML group (N = 12) had significantly lower verbal intelligence and receptive vocabulary compared to controls (N = 21). By contrast, the ALL group (N = 14) performed significantly worse than controls on measures of verbal intelligence, spelling, receptive and expressive vocabulary, visual-motor skills, and adaptive function. Patients with DS treated for AML may have specific post-treatment morbidity in verbal function, whereas those treated for ALL have broader morbidity affecting multiple neuropsychological domains and overall adaptive function. We hypothesize that the broader impairment profile of ALL survivors may be related to a combination of the longer duration of central nervous system-directed treatment for ALL compared to AML and the concomitant limited access to intervention opportunities during active treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  13. TECHNOLOGY & NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: TOWARDS A CYBER – NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Soto-Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies have penetrated all walks of human beings. Numerous technological advances have been developed in the field of neuropsychology, but they are not usually used in daily care. In this regard, it are developed some reflections on the difficulties and of the process of implementing technology solutions in the field of neuropsychology.

  14. [Effects of a neuropsychology program based on mindfulness on Alzheimer's disease: randomized double-blind clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Hernández, Domingo Jesús; Miró Barrachina, María Teresa; Ibáñez Fernández, Ignacio; del Pino, Angelo Santana; García Rodríguez, Javie r; Hernández, Jaime Rojas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess effects of a mindfulness based neuropsychological intervention on the clinical course of Alzheimer's disease. A two year randomized and double blind clinical trial was conducted on 127 probable Alzheimer's disease patients, according to NINCDS-ADRDA scale. Patients were grouped into three experimental groups (cognitive stimulation, progressive muscular relaxation, and mindfulness) plus a control group. All participants were receiving donepezil. Cognitive skills were assessed with CAMCOG and MMSE, functional area with RDRS-2, and NPI was used for psychopathology screening. Three treatment sessions per week were carried out for two years, and follow up measurements were taken every six months. The global cognitive function, functionality and behavioral disorders measurements indicated that patients from the experimental group based on mindfulness were stable during the two years, while patients from the control group, as well as the other experimental groups, showed a mild but significant worsening of their mental capacities. The mindfulness based neuropsychological program showed better cognitive and functional stability, as well as significant improvement in the psychopathological condition of mild to moderate Alzheimer' patients. These results support the idea that a mindfulness based intervention can produce a clinically relevant improvement in the treatment of dementia. More research is needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  16. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  17. Neuropsychological functioning in older people with type 2 diabetes: the effect of controlling for confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulou, K G; Hampson, S E; Morrish, N J

    2002-04-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was examined in a group of 33 older (mean age 62.40 +/- 9.62 years) people with Type 2 diabetes (Group 1) and 33 non-diabetic participants matched with Group 1 on age, sex, premorbid intelligence and presence of hypertension and cardio/cerebrovascular conditions (Group 2). Data statistically corrected for confounding factors obtained from the diabetic group were compared with the matched control group. The results suggested small cognitive deficits in diabetic people's verbal memory and mental flexibility (Logical Memory A and SS7). No differences were seen between the two samples in simple and complex visuomotor attention, sustained complex visual attention, attention efficiency, mental double tracking, implicit memory, and self-reported memory problems. These findings indicate minimal cognitive impairment in relatively uncomplicated Type 2 diabetes and demonstrate the importance of control and matching for confounding factors.

  18. EFFECTS OF MUCUNA ( MUCUNA UTILIS L.) RESIDUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at two locations: University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB) and Olowo-Papa (OP) in Ogun state both in Forest-savannah transition zone of Nigeria to investigate the response of three upland rice cultivars (O.sativa) to mucuna residue incorporation and Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the ...

  19. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Belzunces dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. METHOD: 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9±2.95 months of formal education and Group 2, 47.8±10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. RESULTS: The mean IQ was 77.1±5.50 and 79.4±3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001. Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2% and language (52.9% vs 25.7%. CONCLUSION: LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  20. Low educational level effects on the performance of healthy adults on a Neuropsychological Protocol suggested by the Commission on Neuropsychology of the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Erich Belzunces; Tudesco, Ivanda de Souza Silva; Caboclo, Luis Otávio S F; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2011-10-01

    To assess cognitive measures and impact of education on cognitive performance (CP) of low educational levels healthy adults (LELHA) on a Neuropsychological Protocol (NP) suggested by the Liga Brasileira de Epilepsia. 138 subjects from an Education Program for Adults divided into two, age and gender matched groups of 69 subjects, answered the NP: Group 1 (mean of 6.9 ± 2.95 months of formal education) and Group 2, 47.8 ± 10 months. Data were compared as z-scores. The mean IQ was 77.1 ± 5.50 and 79.4 ± 3.30 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.001). Both performed below the normal curve and Group 1 worse than 2. CP correlated with schooling, especially executive functions (54.1% vs 36.2%) and language (52.9% vs 25.7%). LELHA showed significant cognitive impairment in verbal and visuospatial areas. If these results had been obtained in epilepsy patients they would be interpreted as global cognitive impairment.

  1. Don't Judge a Book by its Cover: Examiner Expectancy Effects Predict Neuropsychological Performance for Individuals Judged as Chronic Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodos, Louise M; Hirst, Rayna B; Watson, Jessica; Vaughn, Dylan

    2018-01-12

    The experimenter expectancy effect confound remains largely unexplored in neuropsychological research and has never been investigated among cannabis users. This study investigated whether examiner expectancies of cannabis user status affected examinees' neuropsychological performance. Participants included 41 cannabis users and 20 non-users. Before testing, examiners who were blind to participant user status privately rated whether they believed the examinee was a cannabis user or non-user. Examiners then administered a battery of neuropsychological and performance validity measures. Multiple regression analyses compared performance between examinees judged as cannabis users (n = 37) and those judged as non-users (n = 24). Examiners' judgments of cannabis users were 75% accurate; judgments of non-users were at chance. After controlling for age, gender, and actual user status, examiner judgments of cannabis user status predicted performance on two measures (California Verbal Learning Test-II, and Trail Making Test B; p users obtained lower scores than those judged as non-users. Examiners' judgments of cannabis user status predicted performance even after controlling for actual user status, indicating vulnerability to examiner expectancy effects. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings, as scores may partially reflect examiners' expectations regarding cannabis effects rather than participants' cognitive abilities. These results demonstrate the need for expectancy effect research in the neuropsychological assessment of all populations, not just cannabis users. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effectiveness of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training on symptomatological, neuropsychological and work function in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2013-06-01

    There has been plenty of interest in cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia here in Korea since the year 2000. But the efficacy studies of cognitive remediation intervention are still deficient. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a computer-assisted cognitive remediation program and conduct a clinical trial in a group of schizophrenic patients. Sixty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive rehabilitation (Cog-trainer) group plus usual rehabilitation (UR) or to a usual rehabilitation (UR) group only. Clinical, neuropsychological and functional outcome variables were assessed at baseline and after intervention. The Cog-trainer group received 20 sessions of computerized cognitive remediation training over 3 months. This training program consists of 10 units, with each unit being divided into three stages: (i) practice; (ii) application; and (iii) advanced. Compared to the UR group, the Cog-trainer exhibited a significant improvement in attention, concentration and working memory. The Cog-trainer group also showed improvement in the work quality subscale of the work behavior inventory. However, there were no significant benefits of computerized cognitive remediation where symptoms were concerned. These results indicate that computerized cognitive rehabilitation training can contribute to an improvement in the cognitive function of people with schizophrenia. The changes in cognitive outcomes can also contribute to improvement in job functioning. Further study of generalization to other functional outcome measures will be necessary. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm the maintenance of such improvements. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. International growth of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Neuropsychological profiles of adolescents with ADHD: effects of reading difficulties and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucklidge, Julia J; Tannock, Rosemary

    2002-11-01

    Executive function, particularly behavioral inhibition, has been implicated as a core deficit specific to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) whereas rapid naming has been implicated as a core deficit specific to reading disabilities (RD). Females may be less impaired in executive function although adolescent females with ADHD have yet to be studied. Neuropsychological profiles of four adolescent groups aged 13-16 with equal female representation were investigated: 35 ADHD, 12 RD, 24 ADHD+RD, and 37 normal controls. A semi-structured interview (K-SADS-PL), the Conners Rating Scales and the Ontario Child Health Study Scales were used to diagnose ADHD. RD was defined as a standard score below 90 on at least one of the following: Reading or Spelling of the WRAT3 or Word Attack or Word Identification of the WRMT-R. The WISC-III, Rapid Automatized Naming, Stroop and Stop tasks were used as measures of cognitive and executive function. The two ADHD groups (ADHD, ADHD+RD) showed deficits in processing speed, naming of objects, poor behavioral inhibition and greater variability in reaction times whereas the two RD groups (RD, RD+ADHD) showed verbal working memory deficits and slower verbal retrieval speed. Only the comorbid group was slower with naming of numbers and colors and had slower reaction times. Regression analyses indicated that incongruent color naming (Stroop) and variability in go reaction time were the best predictors of hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms whereas variability in go reaction time and processing speed were the best predictors of inattentive ADHD symptoms. Speed of letter naming and verbal working memory accounted for the most variability in composite achievement scores. No gender differences were found on any of the cognitive tests. This study challenges the importance of behavioral inhibition deficits in ADHD and that naming deficits are specific to RD. Further investigation into cognitive deficits in these groups is required.

  5. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of residual stresses on hydrogen permeation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Bercot, P.; Takadoum, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on electrochemical permeation in iron membrane was investigated. Four thermal and mechanical treatments were chosen to obtain different surface states in relation to the residual stresses. Residual stresses were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Macherauch and Mueller method. The results were completed by the microhardness measurements. For all iron membranes, compressive residual stresses were obtained. Electrochemical permeation experiments using a Devanathan and Stachurski cell were employed to determine the hydrogen permeation behaviour of the various iron membranes. The latter was charged with hydrogen by galvanostatic cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH at 25 deg. C. The experimental results revealed that hydrogen permeation rate increases with increasing residual stresses introduced in iron membranes.

  7. Radiation effects on residual voltage of polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyokane, Jun; Park, Dae-Hee; Yoshino, Katsumi.

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that diagnosis of deterioration in insulating materials for electric cables used in nuclear power plants and outer space (communications satellite in particular) can be effectively performed based on measurements of residual voltage. In the present study, polyethylene films are irradiated with γ-rays or electron beam to examine the changes in residual voltage characteristics. Irradiation of electron beam and γ-rays are carried out to a dose of 0 - 90 Mrad and 0 - 100 Mrad, respectively. Measurements are made of the dependence of residual voltage on applied voltage, electron beam and γ-ray irradiation, annealing temperature and annealing time. Results show that carriers, which are once trapped after being released from the electrode, move within the material after the opening of the circuit to produce resiual voltage. The residual voltage increases with increasing dose of electron beam or γ-ray and levels off at high dose. Residual voltage is increased about several times by either electron beam or γ-rays, but electron beam tends to cause greater residual voltage than γ-ray. Polyethylene films irradiated with electron beam can recover upon annealing. It is concluded from observations made that residual voltage has close relations with defects in molecular structures caused by radiations, particularly the breaking of backbone chains and alteration in superstructures. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Stereotype contrast effect on neuropsychological assessment of contact-sport players: The moderating role of locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect). We predicted that effort and anxiety would mediate these effects. Contact-sport players and non-contact-sport players ("control" group) were randomly assigned to one condition (diagnosis threat or neutral) and then completed attention, executive, episodic memory, and working memory tasks. Regarding mediating and moderating variables, participants rated their effort and anxiety (self-report measures) and completed the Levenson (1974) locus of control scale. Regression-based path analyses were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effects. As expected, there was no effect of condition on the control group's performance. Contact-sport players with moderate and high levels of internal control outperformed (contrast effect) on executive and episodic memory tasks following diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition. Additionally, the less anxiety moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants felt, the better they performed on episodic memory and executive tasks. However, contact-sport players low in internal control did not underperform (assimilation effect) under diagnosis threat. Our results suggest that diagnosis threat instructions may have challenged moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants, leading them to outperform compared to the neutral condition. Individuals who have moderate and high levels of internal locus of control may have higher

  9. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  10. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  11. Residual effects of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on low level visual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Bruno, Raimondo; Brown, John

    2012-03-01

    'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induces impaired functioning in the serotonergic system, including the occipital lobe. This study employed the 'tilt aftereffect' paradigm to operationalise the function of orientation-selective neurons among ecstasy consumers and controls as a means of investigating the role of reduced serotonin on visual orientation processing. The magnitude of the tilt aftereffect reflects the extent of lateral inhibition between orientation-selective neurons and is elicited to both 'real' contours, processed in visual cortex area V1, and illusory contours, processed in V2. The magnitude of tilt aftereffect to both contour types was examined among 19 ecstasy users (6 ecstasy only; 13 ecstasy-plus-cannabis users) and 23 matched controls (9 cannabis-only users; 14 drug-naive). Ecstasy users had a significantly greater tilt magnitude than non-users for real contours (Hedge's g = 0.63) but not for illusory contours (g = 0.20). These findings provide support for literature suggesting that residual effects of ecstasy (and reduced serotonin) impairs lateral inhibition between orientation-selective neurons in V1, which however suggests that ecstasy may not substantially affect this process in V2. Multiple studies have now demonstrated ecstasy-related deficits on basic visual functions, including orientation and motion processing. Such low-level effects may contribute to the impact of ecstasy use on neuropsychological tests of visuospatial function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2016-03-01

    Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurological and neuropsychological effects of cerebral spinal fluid shunting in children with assumed arrested ("normal pressure") hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, R D; Leibrock, L G; Gustavson, J L; Sundell, R R

    1985-08-01

    Normocephalic children found to have ventriculomegaly during evaluation of long-standing (4.5-8.5 years) neurological disorder were tested for academic achievement, intellectual quotient and neuropsychological functioning. Radioactive iodinated serum cisternography, pre and post-shunt electrophysiological studies (visual evoked responses, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, sleep electroencephalograms) and radiological studies (skull radiographs computed tomography) were recorded. Four children who have been followed more than one year after insertion of ventricular-peritoneal shunts are presented. All demonstrated improvement in psychometric findings along with some improvement in CT scan and EEG studies. The most marked initial changes were noted on measures of neuropsychological performance, accompanied later by improvement in measures of intelligence. Achievement test scores showed no consistent pattern of change. This sample suggests that there is a group of asymptomatic children with apparent clinically stable (arrested) hydrocephalus in whom abnormal neuropsychological testing indicates the need for cerebrospinal fluid shunting, with subsequent improvement.

  14. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  15. Environmental context effects on episodic memory are dependent on retrieval mode and modulated by neuropsychological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Ohr; Vakil, Eli; Levy, Daniel A

    2013-01-01

    Contextual change or constancy between occasions of memory formation and retrieval are commonly assumed to affect retrieval success, yet such effects may be inconsistent, and the processes leading to the pattern of effects are still not well understood. We conducted a systematic investigation of environmental context effects on memory, using a range of materials (common objects, pictures of familiar and unfamiliar faces, words, and sentences), and four types of retrieval (free recall, cued recall, recognition, and order memory), all assessed within participants. Additionally, we examined the influence of mnemonic challenge on context effects by examining both healthy participants and a group of patients in rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We found no effects of contextual factors on tests of recognition for either group of participants, but effects did emerge for cued and free recall, with the most prominent effects being on memory for objects. Furthermore, while patients' memory abilities in general were impaired relative to the comparison group, they exhibited greater influences of contextual reinstatement on several recall tasks. These results support suggestions that environmental context effects on memory are dependent on retrieval mode and on the extent to which retrieval is challenging because of neurocognitive status. Additionally, findings of environmental context effects in memory-impaired TBI patients suggest that by harnessing such preserved indirect memory (e.g., using reminder technologies), it may be possible to ameliorate TBI patients' difficulties in explicit remembering.

  16. Neuropsychological assessment of memory in child and adolescent first episode psychosis: cannabis and «the paradox effect».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Granados, Josefa María; Ferrín, Maite; Salcedo-Marín, Dolores M; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of neuropsychological functioning in First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) has led to the publication of a growing number of studies in this area of research. The present study pursued three goals: First, to examine verbal and visual memory in a sample of Child and Adolescent FEP, second, to evaluate the effect of other cognitive domains on verbal and visual memory, and finally, to examine the relationship between performance in this cognitive dimension and the use of cannabis at this age. A sample of 41 FEPs and 39 healthy subjects were evaluated. The variables assessed were verbal and visual memory, attention, working memory, processing speed, mental flexibility, verbal fluency, motor coordination, planning ability and intelligence. Our results found impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal memory, and short-term visual memory in early psychosis. They also found relationships between cognitive dimensions, such as visual memory and intelligence and motor coordination. Finally, a «paradoxical» effect was found in patients who used cannabis, as the FEP consumers performed the visual memory test better than those who had not used it. Patients showed impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal information and short-term visual reproduction. In the second place, motor coordination and intelligence influenced short-term visual memory in patients in the early stages of the illness. Third, use of cannabis in patients with FEP was associated with better performance in the test that evaluated the short-term visual memory, as measured by task completion time, that is, efficiency in performing the test. However, when measured by task execution accuracy, their visual memory was no better than the controls. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  18. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  19. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  20. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  1. Level of intrauterine cocaine exposure and neuropsychological test scores in preadolescence: subtle effects on auditory attention and narrative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Frank, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Level of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure and Neuropsychological Test Scores in Preadolescence: Subtle Effects on Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeghly, Marjorie; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Martin, Brett M.; Cabral, Howard J.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) [71], after controlling for relevant covariates. Participants included 137 term 9.5-year-old children from low-income urban backgrounds (51% male, 90% African American/Caribbean) from an ongoing prospective longitudinal study. Level of IUCE was assessed in the newborn period using infant meconium and maternal report. 52% of the children had IUCE (65% with lighter IUCE, and 35% with heavier IUCE), and 48% were unexposed. Infants with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, HIV seropositivity, or intrauterine exposure to illicit substances other than cocaine and marijuana were excluded. At the 9.5-year follow-up visit, trained examiners masked to IUCE and background variables evaluated children's neuropsychological functioning using the NEPSY. The association between level of IUCE and NEPSY outcomes was evaluated in a series of linear regressions controlling for intrauterine exposure to other substances and relevant child, caregiver, and demographic variables. Results indicated that level of IUCE was associated with lower scores on the Auditory Attention and Narrative Memory tasks, both of which require auditory information processing and sustained attention for successful performance. However, results did not follow the expected ordinal, dose-dependent pattern. Children's neuropsychological test scores were also altered by a variety of other biological and psychosocial factors. PMID:24978115

  3. Neuropsychological effects of bilateral STN stimulation in Parkinson disease - A controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeding, HMM; Koning-Haanstra, M; Schuurman, PR; Nijssen, P; van Laar, T; Schmand, B; Speelman, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cognitive and behavioral effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: The authors included 103 patients; 99 patients were evaluated 6 months after surgery. A control group of 39 patients with PD was formed and

  4. Effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening in stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, N.; Kondo, K.; Kaji, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Miwa, Y. [Nuclear Energy and Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Structural materials in fusion reactor with water cooling system will undergo corrosion in aqueous environment and heavier irradiation than that in LWR. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion (IASCC) may be induced in stainless steels exposed in these environment for a long term of reactor operation. The IASCC is considered to be caused in a welding zone. It is difficult to predict and estimate the IASCC, because several irradiation effects (irradiation hardening, swelling, irradiation induced stress relaxation, etc) work intricately. Firstly, effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening were investigated in stainless steels. Specimens used in this study were SUS316 and SUS316L. By bending deformation, the specimens with several % plastic strain, which corresponds to weld residual stress, were prepared. Ion irradiations of 12 MeV Ni{sup 3+} were performed at 330, 400 and 550 deg. C to 45 dpa in TIARA facility at JAEA. No bent specimen was simultaneously irradiated with the bent specimen. The residual stress was estimated by X-ray residual stress measurements before and after the irradiation. The micro-hardness was measured by using nano-indenter. The irradiation hardening and the stress relaxation were changed by irradiation under bending deformation. The residual stress did not relax even for the case of the higher temperature aging at 500 deg. C for the same time of irradiation. The residual stress after ion irradiation, however, relaxed at these experimental temperatures in SUS316L. The hardness was obviously suppressed in bent SUS316L irradiated at 300 deg. C to 6 or 12 dpa. It was evident that irradiation induced stress relaxation occasionally suppressed the irradiation hardening in SUS316L. (authors)

  5. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Sinanović, Osman; Karamehić, Jasenko; Jakubović, Rusid

    2002-12-01

    A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years). Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercury levels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercury concentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53%) workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend 2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire). The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ). Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking, were significantly differed compared to those of controls (p trend < 0. 001). In 24 (52%) exposed to mercury workers we have determined ego strength loss and regressive defensive mechanisms (LB). Handwriting disturbances-micrography we have identified in 27 (58.7%) workers.

  6. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurka Pranjić

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years. Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercurylevels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercuryconcentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53% workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend < 0. 001 with higher scores for scales: Hysteria (p trend <0. 001, Schizoid and Psychoastenia (MMPI. All psychological parameters were in highly significantly correlations with mercury levels and length of occupational exposure. Pathological parameters were possible general identified if the concentration of blood mercury levels are >2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire. The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ. Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking

  7. Neuropsychological effects of antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine versus valproate in adult males with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaydaa A Shehata

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Abd El-aziz M Bateh,2 Sherifa A Hamed,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Yaser B Elsorogy11Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt; 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, Banha University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs on cognition and behavior in adult epileptic males controlled on treatment with conventional antiepileptic medications. Methods: Cognitive, mood, behavior and personality traits were assessed in 45 epileptic patients treated with carbamazepine and/or valproate and free of seizures for ≥1 year. Thirty-four newly diagnosed or untreated patients with epilepsy and 58 matched healthy subjects were also included for comparison. A battery of psychometric tests was utilized including Stanford-Binet (4th edition, Beck Inventory for Depression, Aggressive Scale and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.Results: Compared to matched control subjects, treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance in different cognitive and behavioral functions testing. Treated patients had worse scores in memory for digits forward and backward, total short-term memory, extroversion and psychosis. The duration of AEDs intake was correlated with memory of objects (r = -0.323; P = 0.030, bead memory (r = -0.314; P = 0.036 and total nonverbal short-term memory (r = -0.346; P = 0.020. Treated and untreated epileptic patients had poor performance of similar extent in behavioral functions testing (depression, aggression and neurosis. The dose of AEDs was correlated with testing scores for neurosis (r = 0.307; P = 0.040, verbal aggression (r = 0.483; P = 0.001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.526; P = 0.000, and duration of drug intake was correlated with scores for depression (r = 0.384; P = 0.009, psychosis (r = 0.586; P = 0.0001 and nonverbal aggression (r = 0.300; P = 0.045.Conclusions: This study provides support for the notion that AEDs can impair performance

  8. First experiences with neuropsychological effects of oxytocin administration in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Özyurt, Jale; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Thiel, Christiane M; Müller, Hermann L

    2017-04-01

    The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin plays a major role in regulation of behavior and body composition. Quality of survival is frequently impaired in childhood craniopharyngioma patients due to sequelae such as behavioral deficits and severe obesity caused by tumor or treatment-related hypothalamic lesions. In our pilot cross-sectional study, we analyzed emotion recognition abilities and oxytocin concentrations in saliva and urine before and after single nasal administration of 24 IU oxytocin in 10 craniopharyngioma patients. Four craniopharyngioma presented with grade I lesions (limited to anterior hypothalamic areas) and 6 craniopharyngioma with grade II lesions (involving mammillary bodies and posterior hypothalamic areas). Emotional tasks were assessed before and after administration of oxytocin using the Geneva multimodal emotion portrayals corpus and the Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire. All patients presented with detectable levels of oxytocin before administration. Nasal administration of oxytocin was well-tolerated and resulted in increased oxytocin concentrations in saliva and urine. After oxytocin administration, craniopharyngioma patients with postsurgical lesions limited to the anterior hypothalamus area showed improvements in emotional identifications compared to craniopharyngioma patients with lesions of anterior and posterior hypothalamic areas. Focusing on correct assignments to positive and negative emotion categories, craniopharyngioma patients improved assignment to negative emotions. Oxytocin might have positive effects on emotion perception in craniopharyngioma patients with specific lesions of the anterior hypothalamic area. Further studies on larger cohorts are warranted.

  9. [Neuropsychological rehabilitation in wartime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Molina, Alberto; Roig-Rovira, Teresa

    2013-11-16

    The decrease in the rate of mortality due to brain damage during the First World War resulted in a large number of veterans with neurological or neuropsychological sequelae. This situation, which was unknown up until then, called for the development of new therapeutic approaches to help them reach acceptable levels of autonomy. This article reviews the relationship between neuropsychological rehabilitation and warfare, and describes the contributions made by different professionals in this field in the two great conflicts of the 20th century. The First World War was to mark the beginning of neuropsychological rehabilitation as we know it today. Some of the most outstanding contributions in that period were those made by Goldstein and Popplereuter in Germany or Franz in the United States. The Second World War was to consolidate this healthcare discipline, the leading figures at that time being Zangwill in England and Luria in the Soviet Union. Despite being of less importance, geopolitically speaking, the study also includes the Yom Kippur War, which exemplifies how warfare can stimulate the development of neuropsychological intervention programmes. Today's neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes are closely linked to the interventions used in wartime by Goldstein, Zangwill or Luria. The means employed may have changed, but the aims are still the same, i.e. to help people with brain damage manage to adapt to their new lives.

  10. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  11. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  12. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF FURFURAL RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic saccharification of pretreated furfural residues with different lignin content was studied to verify the effect of lignin removal in the hydrolysis process. The results showed that the glucose yield was improved by increasing the lignin removal. A maximum glucose yield of 96.8% was obtained when the residue with a lignin removal of 51.4% was hydrolyzed for 108 h at an enzyme loading of 25 FPU/g cellulose. However, further lignin removal did not increase the hydrolysis. The effect of enzyme loading on the enzymatic hydrolysis was also explored in this work. It was concluded that a high glucose yield of 90% was achieved when the enzyme dosage was reduced from 25 to 15 FPU/g cellulose, which was cost-effective for the sugar and ethanol production. The structures of raw material and delignified samples were further characterized by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  13. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  14. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  15. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  16. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  17. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  18. Neuropsychology of Illiteracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rosselli

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that analysis of illiteracy can not only discern the influence of schooling background on neuropsychological test performance, but also contributes to obtaining a better understanding about the cerebral organization of cognitive activity. Brain organization of cognition, and cognitive sequelae of brain pathology in illiterates are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1 cognitive abilities, as measured by standard neuropsychological tests, are significantly influenced by schooling background; and (2 educational and cultural variables may affect the degree (albeit, not the direction of hemispheric dominance for language, and other cognitive abilities. A more bilateral representation of cognitive abilities in illiterates is hypothesized.

  19. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  20. Universal relationship connecting various two-body effective residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuepfer, W.; Huber, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Starting from a momentum space analysis of the two-body matrix elements, a relation has been established between the size of the model space actually used in a specific calculation and the relevant properties of the effective residual interaction. It turns out that the two-body transition density acts like a filter function on the Fourier transform of the force; it exhibits a distinct structure which clearly reflects the size and the detailed properties of the configuration space actually used. From an investigation of this filter function an equivalence criterion for different effective residual two-body interactions has been established both for closed and open shell nuclei. This result can be used to construct simple although realistic effective forces. As an example, a model for a separable residual interaction is proposed in which the corresponding parameters are being clearly related to the nuclear radius (i.e., the mass number), to the quantum numbers (i.e., the angular momentum) of the state under consideration and to the size of the configuration space used. For a number of examples this force has been applied successfully for the description of low energy properties of both closed and open shell nuclei

  1. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  2. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  3. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  4. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  5. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  6. Effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma on the neuropsychological test performance of high school athletes: A comparison of high, moderate, and low contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Siu, Andrea M; Yoshinaga, Kara; Choi, So Yung; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The results revealed that the High Contact group obtained small but statistically poorer performances in ImPACT Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Impulse Control, and Total Symptom scores compared to the Moderate and Low Contact groups. The High Contact group also had poorer Reaction Time scores compared to the Low Contact group. No differences between the Moderate and Low Contact groups were noted. The findings, along with prior similar results, tentatively raise concerns that participant in high contact sports, exposed to repetitive subconcussive head trauma, may be at greater risk for lowered neuropsychological functioning and increased symptoms, compared to other high school athletes. In view of the preliminary nature of this investigation, more research into the effects of frequent head impacts in high school sports is strongly recommended.

  7. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters a...

  8. Neuropsychological diagnostics of neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera B. Nikishina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of neuropsychological studies of the patients with neurosarcoidosis. The obtained results show that typical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis are disorders of motor functions. They appear in the speed reduction of actions and their accuracy, which prove peripheral neuropathy and myopathy at the functional level as clinical signs of neurosarcoidosis. Specific manifestations of neurosarcoidosisare determinedby topographical localization of granulomatoma.

  9. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  10. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  11. HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Varako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The article reviews the history of neuropsychological rehabilitation. It begins with the description of first rehabilitation programs developed by Paul Broca and Shepherd Franz. Franz’s experimental work for motor recovery in monkeys and correlation between active movement or affected limb immobilization and rehabilitation outcomes are described in further details. Special focus is given on ideas of famous German neurologist and psychiatrist Kurt Goldstein, who laid the foundation for modern approach in rehabilitation. Goldstein developed the idea of connection between rehabilitation and patient’s daily life. He also pointed out the necessity of psychological care of patients with brain damage.Russian neuropsychological approach is presented by its founders L.S. Vygotskiy and A.R. Luriya. Aspects of higher mental processes structure and options of its correction such as “cognitive prosthesis” are described in the sense of the approach.Y. Ben-Yishay, G. Prigatano, B. Wilson represent neuropsychological rehabilitation of the second half of the 20th century. The idea of a holistic approach for rehabilitation consists of such important principles as patient’s active involvement in a process of rehabilitation, work of a special team of rehabilitation professionals, inclusion of patient’s family members. The short review of a new rehabilitation approach for patients in coma, vegetative states and critical patients under resuscitation is given. 

  12. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication.

  13. Gender effects in gaming research: a case for regression residuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Numerous recent studies have examined the impact of video gaming on various dependent variables, including the players' affective reactions, positive as well as detrimental cognitive effects, and real-world aggression. These target variables are typically analyzed as a function of game characteristics and player attributes-especially gender. However, findings on the uneven distribution of gaming experience between males and females, on the one hand, and the effect of gaming experience on several target variables, on the other hand, point at a possible confound when gaming experiments are analyzed with a standard analysis of variance. This study uses simulated data to exemplify analysis of regression residuals as a potentially beneficial data analysis strategy for such datasets. As the actual impact of gaming experience on each of the various dependent variables differs, the ultimate benefits of analysis of regression residuals entirely depend on the research question, but it offers a powerful statistical approach to video game research whenever gaming experience is a confounding factor.

  14. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  15. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, P [Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author).

  17. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  18. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  19. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  20. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  2. The Effect of Crop Residue Application to Soil Fauna Community and Mungbean Growth (Vigna radata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Litterbag experiment was carried out to determine the effect of crop residue application to soil fauna community and mungbean growth. The experiment arranged in randomized complete design with triplicate. The four treatment application of crotalarian, rice straw and banana’s aerial stem residues as well as without residue application as control. Soil fauna community and mungbean growth measured at 8 weeks after mungbean sown. Soil fauna extracted by modified Barless-Tullgren extractor apparatus. Height and dry weight of mungbean measured as crop growth parameters. The results indicated that the soil fauna densities and diversities as well as the growth of mungbean tended to increase by the application of crop residues. The effect of the treatment decreasing in the following order: banana’s aerial stem residue > crotalarian residue > rice straw > without residue application. There were high correlation between mungbean growth and soil fauna diversities.© 2001 Jurusan Biologi FMIPA UNS SurakartaKey words:

  3. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... testing and use in the field, consequences and recommendations are given. Failures, caused by harsh[1] customer environments, are not covered in this paper....

  5. [Neuropsychological performance in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Castillo, Lilia; Martínez Bermejo, Antonio; Portellano Pérez, José Antonio; Tirado Requero, Pilar; Garriz Luis, Alexandra; Velázquez Fragua, Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children. A comparison was made between the neuropsychological performance of a group of 23 boys and girls with a mean age of 8.7 years (+/-1.39) and diagnosed with NF1, and a control group consisting of 21 healthy children, with mean age of 8.9 years (+/- 1.41) and with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was applied to evaluate the subjects of both groups. The group of patients affected with NF1 showed a lower performance in every primary index of WISC IV: Verbal Comprehension Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and full Scale IQ. Only in two subscales were no statistically significant differences observed: similarities and coding. The results show subtle and generalised neuropsychological alterations in the sample of children affected with NF1, which affect most of cognitive domains that have been evaluated. Proper specific and early neuropsychological treatment should be provided in order to prevent the high risk for these children of presenting learning difficulties and school failure. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Asi, M.R.; Tahira, R.; Chudhary, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity and some nitrogen transformations in a loam soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The soil samples containing bound residues arising from 10 mg g-1 of the applied malathion were mixed in equal quantity with fresh soil and compared with solvent extracted control soil without bound residues (extracted in the same way as soil containing bound residues). Another control comprising un extracted fresh soil without bound residues was also kept to study the effect of solvent extraction on the biological activity. Rate of Carbon mineralization (CO/sub 2/ evolution) was decreased in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. Bound residues also affected dehydrogenase activity of soil. Over 40% inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed after 4 days and the inhibition persisted at least for 12 days. Nitrogen mineralization was stimulated in soil containing bound residues of malathion and this stimulatory effect increased with time of incubation. Nitrification was partially inhibited in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. The inhibitory effect of the soil-bound residues on nitrification did not show much variation with time. The soil-bound residues did not affect denitrification rate (N/sub 2/O evolution). Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was partially inhibited in soil amended with bound residues of malathion and the inhibitory effect persisted for at least one week. In general, soil bound residues of malathion inhibited CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, nitrification and nitrogen fixation while mineralization of nitrogen was stimulated. Denitrification was not affected by the applied insecticide. (author)

  7. Effects of brain-directed nutrients on cerebral blood flow and neuropsychological testing: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Daniel G; Taylor, Derek V; Ojala, Kristine; Kaur, Jasleen; Willeumier, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    In a prior open trial of professional football players who displayed the effects of traumatic brain injury, the current reserach team reported significant improvements in clinical symptoms, neuropsychological testing and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) following the use of brain-directed nutrients (BDNs) and lifestyle interventions. The current study intended to determine whether supplementation with BDNs improved rCBF and neuropsychological function in healthy individuals. The current study was a randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, which was a more rigorous reseach design than the prior study and did not include lifestyle interventions. Participants underwent evaluation and testing at the Amen Clinics, Inc, a private medical facility in Newport Beach, CA. Thirty healthy adult (15 male and 15 female) participants were recruited from the community though local advertising and met the requirements for eligibility into the study. Twenty-five individuals completed the study, with dropout due to events unrelated to the study itself. The participants were randomly assigned to a treatment order for intervention, either placebo or brain supplements first. The BDNs treatment was comprised of three supplements: fish oil; a high-potency, multiple vitamin/mineral supplement; and a brainenhancement supplement. The placebo treatment was two supplements comprised of rice flour to replace the multiple vitamin/mineral complex and the brain-enhancement supplement and one supplement made of other oils to replace the fish-oil mixture. After 2 mo of this first intervention, a crossover intervention occurred for a final 2 mo, in which participants formerly receiving BDNs received a placebo treatment and participants formerly treated with placebo received the BDNs treatment. Primary outcome measures included (1) an analysis of the changes in rCBF using SPECT and (2) an assessment of the differences in cognitive and emotional function using the Micro

  8. Effect of applied stress on the compressive residual stress introduced by laser peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Rie; Tazawa, Toshiyuki; Narazaki, Chihiro; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Peening is the process which is able to be generated compressive residual stress and is known to be effective for preventing SCC initiation and improvement of fatigue strength. Laser peening is used for the nuclear power plant components in order to prevent SCC initiation. Although it is reported that the compressive residual stress decreases due to applied stresses under general operating condition, the change of residual stress might be large under excessive loading such as an earthquake. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relaxation behavior of the compressive residual stress due to laser peening and to confirm the surface residual stress after loading. Therefore laser peened round bar test specimens of SUS316L which is used for the reactor internals of nuclear power plant were loaded at room temperature and elevated temperature and then surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method. In the results of this test, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stress remained after applying uniform stress larger than 0.2% proof stress, and the effect of cyclic loading on the residual stress was small. The effect of applying compressive stress on the residual stress relaxation was confirmed to be less than that of applying tensile stress. Plastic deformation through a whole cross section causes the change in the residual stress distribution. As a result, the surface compressive residual stress is released. It was shown that the effect of specimen size on residual stress relaxation and the residual stress relaxation behavior in the stress concentration region can be explained by assumed stress relaxation mechanism. (author)

  9. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual...... measured at PACU entry. Zero out of 74 sugammadex patients and 33 out of 76 (43.4%) usual care patients had TOF-Watch® SX-assessed residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission (odds ratio 0.0, 95% CI [0-0.06], P

  10. Initial contents of residue quality parameters predict effects of larger soil fauna on decomposition of contrasting quality residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratikorn Sanghaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A 52-week decomposition study employing the soil larger fauna exclusion technique through litter bags of two mesh sizes (20 and 0.135 mm was conducted in a long-term (18 yr field experiment. Organic residues of contrasting quality of N, lignin (L, polyphenols (PP and cellulose (CL all in grams per kilogram: rice straw (RS: 4.5N, 22.2L, 3.9PP, 449CL, groundnut stover (GN: 21.2N, 71.4L, 8.1PP, 361CL, dipterocarp leaf litter (DP: 5.1N, 303L, 68.9PP, 271CL and tamarind leaf litter (TM: 11.6N, 190L, 27.7PP, 212CL were applied to soil annually to assess and predict soil larger fauna effects (LFE on decomposition based on the initial contents of the residue chemical constituents. Mass losses in all residues were not different under soil fauna inclusion and exclusion treatments during the early stage (up to week 4 after residue incorporation but became significantly higher under the inclusion than the exclusion treatments during the later stage (week 8 onwards. LFE were highest (2–51% under the resistant DP at most decomposition stages. During the early stage (weeks 1–4, both the initial contents of labile (N and CL and recalcitrant C, and recalcitrant C interaction with labile constituents of residues showed significant correlations (r = 0.64–0.90 with LFE. In the middle stage (week 16, LFE under resistant DP and TM had significant positive correlations with L, L + PP and L/CL. They were also affected by these quality parameters as shown by the multiple regression analysis. In the later stages (weeks 26–52, the L/CL ratio was the most prominent quality parameter affecting LFE. Keywords: Mesofauna and macrofauna, Microorganisms, Recalcitrant and labile compounds, Residue chemical composition, Tropical sandy soil

  11. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  12. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive......-acute rehabilitation. Outcome measures included selected scales from the Symptom Checklist Revised 90 (SCL-90-R), the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and a visual analogue quality of life scale. The intervention group showed a significant decrease in anxiety scores from the acute to the sub-acute setting (= 2.70 = 0.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  13. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  14. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  15. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  16. Effect of mungbean residue and nitrogen levels on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, A.; Muhammad, Z.; Daur, I.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate response of barley to mungbean residue (0, 10, 20 and 30 Mg ha/sup -1/), nitrogen levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and their interaction. Emergence m/sup -2/ (50), plant height (109 cm), leaf area tiller-1 (106 cm/sup 2/), lodging score (5.55), termites attack (3.4%), grains spike-1 (67), biological yield (12.80 Mg ha/sup -1/) and grain yield (2.32 Mg ha/sup -1/) were significantly (p=0.05) higher for 30 Mg ha/sup -1/ mungbean residue compared to other levels. Similarly plant height (110 cm), lodging score (5.29) and biological yield (13.75 Mg ha/sup -1/) were higher at 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N compared to other levels of N. Productive tillers m/sup -2/, grains spike/sup -1/, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and harvest index were optimum at 50 kg ha-1 N as compared to 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N that encouraged lodging. Interaction between residue and nitrogen indicated that 10 Mg residue and 50 kg N ha/sup -1/ is recommended to achieve maximum net return under comparable conditions. (author)

  17. The allelopathic effects of three crop residues on the germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... maize inflorescences showed significant differences when compared to the control. No growth was recorded in the radicle until 96 hrs of the experiment in all the extract – treated seeds from the three crop residues while the control germinated at 72 hours. Keywords: Allelopathy, allelochemical, biomolecules, Sphenostylis ...

  18. Hastelloy X fuel element creep relaxation and residual effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, R.A.

    1971-01-01

    A worst case, seven element, asymmetric fuel, thermal environment was assumed and a creep relaxation analysis generated. The fuel element clad is .020 inch Hastelloy X. The contact load decreased from 11.6 pounds to 5.87 pounds in 100,000 hours. The residual stresses were then computed for various shutdown times. (U.S.)

  19. Effect of process parameters on the residual stresses in AA5083-H321 friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, H. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hattingh, D.G. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Steuwer, A. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); FaME38 at the ILL-ESRF, 6 rue J Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steuwer@ill.fr; James, M.N. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    This paper investigates the effect of varying welding parameters on the residual stress profiles in friction stir welds of aluminium alloy AA5083-H321, which were created on a fully instrumented friction welding machine. The residual stresses were determined non-destructively using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width and maximum of the residual stress profile show clear correlation with the heat input, and in particular feed rate, which was found to be the dominant parameter.

  20. The earthworm gastrointestinal effect on the release of organic bound residues in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    Earthworm activities promote the release of bound residues and the digestive activities of earthworms contribute to the process. Earthworm digestive effects on bound residues can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Physical effects include gastrointestinal abrasion and mixing. The abrasion of soil and litter residues in earthworm gizzards and intestine can grind the food into fine particles, which increase the contact surface with microbial and promote the desorption of bound residues. Chemical effects are attributed to the secreted surfactant substances and digestive enzymes. The surfactants, especially at levels that lead to micellization, can enhance the desorption process of the organic contaminants that sored in the soil. The enzymes in earthworm digestive tracts can decompose the humus in soil, which may promote the release of organic residues that bind with humus.

  1. Sequential processing deficits in schizophrenia: relationship to neuropsychology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S Kristian; Bjorkquist, Olivia; Carrathers, Tarra; Roseberry, Jarett E; Hochberger, William C; Bishop, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing a combination of neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience approaches may be essential for characterizing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and eventually assessing cognitive outcomes. This study was designed to compare the stability of select exemplars for these approaches and their correlations in schizophrenia patients with stable treatment and clinical profiles. Reliability estimates for serial order processing were comparable to neuropsychological measures and indicate that experimental serial order processing measures may be less susceptible to practice effects than traditional neuropsychological measures. Correlations were moderate and consistent with a global cognitive factor. Exploratory analyses indicated a potentially critical role of the Met allele of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism in externally paced sequential recall. Experimental measures of serial order processing may reflect frontostriatal dysfunction and be a useful supplement to large neuropsychological batteries. © 2013.

  2. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  3. Cover crop residue effects on machine-induced soil compaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ess, Daniel R.

    1994-01-01

    Crop production systems which utilize the biomass produced by rye (Secale cereale ) to suppress weed growth and conserve soil moisture have been developed at Virginia Tech. The success of alternative, reduced-input crop production systems has encouraged research into the potential for breaking the traffic-tillage cycle associated with conventional tillage crop production systems. The fragile residues encountered in agricultural crop production, whether incorporated into the ...

  4. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  5. Cyber-Neuropsychology: application of new technologies in neuropsychological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Ramos, Mercedes; Franco-Martín, Manuel A; Soto-Pérez, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluation deals with the study of cerebral functioning through the persons' performance. It makes it possible to collaborate the clinical diagnosis and to provide information on deficit and skills. Specialized care in rural environments is uncommon, and often means impossibility to access some services. This study has aimed to evaluate the possibility of using neuropsychological evaluation by internet videoconferences. Our research was based on the traditional and online application of the SCIP-S to 30 subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. The 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups (Group A and B). Both groups underwent the two conditions inversely. The results show some differences and similarities when the results in both types of applications SCIP-S are compared. In conclusion, cyber-neuropsychology is possible and may be a complement and alternative to traditional assessment when they cannot develop.

  6. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  7. The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation during anodization of aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, M.W.; Chung, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al films of varying residual stress were prepared by sputtering. •Variation of the residual stress in the Al films influences pore growth during anodization. •The change in average pore size with residual stress is fairly small. •Interaction of residual stress with oxide growth stress leads to change in structure. •Residual tensile stress increases the pore density of porous alumina. -- Abstract: The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) have been investigated into anodizing the various-residual-stresses aluminium films. The plane stresses were characterised by X-ray diffraction with sin 2 ψ method. The pore density roughly linearly increased with residual stress from 64.6 (−132.5 MPa) to 90.5 pores/μm 2 (135.9 MPa). However, the average pore size around 40 nm was not changed significantly except for the rougher film. The tensile residual stress lessened the compressive oxide growth stress to reduce AAO plastic deformation for higher pore density. The findings provide new foundations for realizing AAO films on silicon

  8. Residual stresses due to weld repairs, cladding and electron beam welds and effect of residual stresses on fracture behavior. Annual report, September 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.

    1978-11-01

    The study is divided into three tasks. Task I is concerned with predicting and understanding the effects of residual stresses due to weld repairs of pressure vessels. Task II examines residual stresses due to an electron beam weld. Task III addresses the problem of residual stresses produced by weld cladding at a nozzle vessel intersection. The objective of Task I is to develop a computational model for predicting residual stress states due to a weld repair of pressure vessel and thereby gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the creation of the residual stresses. Experimental data from the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) is used to validate the computational model. In Task II, the residual stress model is applied to the case of an electron beam weld of a compact tension freacture specimen. The results in the form of residual stresses near the weld are then used to explain unexpected fracture behavior which is observed in the testing of the specimen. For Task III, the residual stress model is applied to the cladding process used in nozzle regions of nuclear pressure vessels. The residual stresses obtained from this analysis are evaluated to determine their effect on the phenomena of under-clad cracking

  9. How effective are common household preparations on removing pesticide residues from fruit and vegetables? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wc

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest control in crops, especially for fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases, washing and soaking can only lead to a certain degree of reduction in residue level, while other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aims to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  11. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses

  12. The effect of residual stress on polymer pipe lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Frank, A.; Náhlík, Luboš; Kučera, J.; Pinter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, SI (2013), s. 98-108 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack paths 2012. Gaeta, 19.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual stress * Linear elastic fracture mechanics * Lifetime estimation * Polyethylene pipes * Slow crack growth Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013

  13. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  14. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  15. Evaluation of machining effect for the residual stress of SA508 by hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kun; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Song, Ki O; Kim, Young Shin

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses on a surface of the material are welcome or undesirable since it's direction, compression or tensile. But especially for the fatigue, it is not negligible effect on the material strength. These residual stresses developed during the manufacturing processes involving material deformation, heat treatment, machining. The object of this paper is verifying the effect of machining what is mostly used for SA508. For verifying the effect of machining, three different kind of machining have been achieved, milling, grinding, wire cutting. Also to measure the residual stress, hole drill method and indentation method are used.

  16. Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brännvall, Evelina, E-mail: evelina.brannvall@ltu.se [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Zamora, Carles Belmonte [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Sjöblom, Rolf [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Tekedo AB, Spinnarvägen 10, 611 37 Nyköping (Sweden); Kumpiene, Jurate [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Beneficial combination of fly ash and biosolids. • Nutrient availability increase. • Potentially toxic element availability decrease. • Measured element availability was differed from the calculated leaching potential. - Abstract: Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g., N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  17. Effects of Bio-char on Soil Microbes in Herbicide Residual Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gen-lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on soil microbial community were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment, which clarifed the improvement of biochar and its structural properties on soil microenvironment. The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes had the same effect tendency within 0~0.72 mg·kg-1 in clomazone residue which increased the role of stimulation with crop growth process prolonged, especially in high residue treatment, but strong inhibitory effect on bacteria community was occured early which returned to normal until sugar beet growth to fiftieth day. Soil fungi community decreased with bio-char adding, but had no significant difference with the control. When clomazone residue in soil was below 0.24 mg·kg-1, soil actinomycetes community was higher than control without bio-char, bacteria increased first and then reduced after adding carbon as below 0.12 mg·kg-1. Biochar was ‘deep hole’ structure containing C, O, S and other elements. The results showed that a certain concentration clomazone residue in soil would stimulate soil fungi and actinomycetes to grow. After adding the biochar, the inhibition effect of high herbicides residual on bacterial would be alleviated.

  18. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  19. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  20. The Effect of Creep on the Residual Stresses Generated During Silicon Sheet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. W.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The modeling of stresses generated during the growth of thin silicon sheets at high speeds is an important part of the EFG technique since the experimental measurement of the stresses is difficult and prohibitive. The residual stresses which arise in such a growth process lead to serious problems which make thin Si ribbons unsuitable for fabrication. The constitutive behavior is unrealistic because at high temperature (close to the melting point) Si exhibits considerable creep which significantly relaxes the residual stresses. The effect of creep on the residual stresses generated during the growth of Si sheets at high speeds was addressed and the basic qualitative effect of creep are reported.

  1. Reliability assessment of underground pipelines under the combined effect of active corrosion and residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirat, A.; Mohamed-Chateauneuf, A.; Chaoui, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. Reliability analysis is recognized as a powerful decision-making tool for risk-based design and maintenance. Both the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and in-service corrosion reduce the ability to resist internal and external loading. In this study, the residual stress distribution in large diameter pipes has been characterized experimentally in order to be coupled with the corrosion model. During the pipe lifetime, residual stress relaxation occurs due to the loss of pipe thickness as material layers are consumed by corrosion. The reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. It has been found that the residual stress greatly increases the failure probability, especially in the early stage of the pipe lifetime

  2. The effect of processing on veterinary residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A

    1999-01-01

    Heat stability of antibiotics in foods to cooking has been determined by a variety of methods. These include heating in such liquid media as milk, water, buffers and meat extracts, and in solids such as buffered meat homogenates and various sausages. Inactivation of incurred residues in tissues and eggs was also studied. Time and temperature of heating were more easily controlled in liquid media, but results in actual meat products are more indicative of actual cooking processes. Ordinary cooking procedures for meat, even to "well-done", cannot be relied on to inactivate even the more heat sensitive compounds such as penicillins and tetracyclines. More severe heating as for canning or prolonged cooking with moist heat can inactivate the more heat sensitive compounds. The relevance to food safety is uncertain since the nature of the degradation products is unknown in most cases.

  3. The Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Postcancer Fatigue on Perceived Cognitive Disabilities and Neuropsychological Test Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedendorp, Martine M.; Knoop, Hans; Gielissen, Marieke F. M.; Verhagen, Constans A. H. H. V. M.; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    Context. After successful cancer treatment, a substantial number of survivors continue to experience fatigue and related concentration and memory problems. Severe fatigue after cancer treatment can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but it is unclear whether CBT has an

  4. Residual stress effects on the impact resistance and strength of fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Equations have been derived to predict degradation effects of microresidual stresses on impact resistance of unidirectional fiber composites. Equations also predict lamination residual stresses in multilayered angle ply composites.

  5. Acute effects of high-dose furosemide on residual renal function in CAPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olden, Rudolf W.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Arisz, Lambertus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of furosemide can increase urine volume in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. However, no information is available about effects on urinary solute excretion in relation to residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary furosemide excretion, and peritoneal solute

  6. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  7. Characterization of Residual Stress Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; James, Mark A.; Brazill, Richard L.; Schultz, Robert W.; Donald, J. Keith; Blair, Amy

    2015-01-01

    An on-line compliance-based method to account for residual stress effects in stress-intensity factor and fatigue crack growth property determinations has been evaluated. Residual stress intensity factor results determined from specimens containing friction stir weld induced residual stresses are presented, and the on-line method results were found to be in excellent agreement with residual stress-intensity factor data obtained using the cut compliance method. Variable stress-intensity factor tests were designed to demonstrate that a simple superposition model, summing the applied stress-intensity factor with the residual stress-intensity factor, can be used to determine the total crack-tip stress-intensity factor. Finite element, VCCT (virtual crack closure technique), and J-integral analysis methods have been used to characterize weld-induced residual stress using thermal expansion/contraction in the form of an equivalent delta T (change in local temperature during welding) to simulate the welding process. This equivalent delta T was established and applied to analyze different specimen configurations to predict residual stress distributions and associated residual stress-intensity factor values. The predictions were found to agree well with experimental results obtained using the crack- and cut-compliance methods.

  8. Effects of magnetic core geometry on false detection in residual current sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Bruno; Chillet, Christian; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Mas, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Under high-supply current, residual circuit breakers are subject to abnormal tripping, caused by false residual currents. Geometric or magnetic anomalies in the circuit breaker ring core seem to be responsible for these abnormal currents. This paper studies a few anomalies (spiral shape effect, conductor eccentricity, lamination effect) and calculates different contributions using the finite element simulations. The results show that the ring core, made of thin wound magnetic tape, is particularly sensitive to primary conductor eccentricity

  9. Effects of advanced laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of H13 tool steel

    OpenAIRE

    Trojan, Karel; Ocelík, Václav; Ganev, Nikolaj; Němeček, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of laser cladded H13 tool steel on the classical construct steel S355 substrate. This research paper concludes that in this case of laser cladding, phase transformation and not shrinkage is likely to be a dominant effect on the formation of compressive residual stresses along the clad. Furthermore, martensitic structure and unequal concentration of alloying elements was observed on...

  10. Neuropsychological Assessment in Schools. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, William R., Sr.; And Others

    The nature of neuropsychological assessment and its application in the school environment are discussed. Neuropsychology is the study of how the brain and nervous system affect thinking and behavior. A complete neuropsychological assessment requires gathering and analyzing information on a child's: (1) physical, social, and psychological…

  11. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  12. The Neuropsychology of Imagery Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-25

    B. (1985). Agnosia . In K. M. Heilman and E. Valenstein (Eds.), Clinical Neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Biederman, I. (1987...Campion, J. (1987). Apperceptive agnosia : the specification and description of constructs. In Humphreys, G. W., and Riddoch, M. J. (1987a) (Eds...R. (1986). Disorders of complex visual processing: agnosias , achromatopsia, Balint’s syndrome and related difficulties of orientation and

  13. History of neuropsychology in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Barr, W.B.; Bielauskas, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    German neuroscientists played a crucial role in the foundation of neuropsychology. In the 19th century, Gall formulated new assumptions with respect to the nature and localization of mental functions in the brain. Wernicke popularized an approach in which mental functions were represented as

  14. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  15. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  16. Neuropsychological Aspects of Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, R. S.; Manor, O.; Gross-Tsur, V.

    1997-01-01

    Classification of arithmetic disorders is predicated on neuropsychological features and associated learning disabilities. Assesses the compatibility of these classifications on a nonreferred, population-based cohort of children (N=139) with developmental dyscalculia. Concludes that children with dyscalculia and disabilities in reading and/or…

  17. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  18. Effect of residual stresses on fatigue strength of plasma nitrided 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazadeh, J.; Amidi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Almost every method that has been presented to determine residual stress has some limitation and complexities. The aim of this work is to present a new, yet simple method so called strain indentation for measuring the residual stresses particularly in thin layers. In this method in addition to the precision measurements, components of residual stress at different directions may be determined. AISI 4140 steel specimens nitrided at 350 d ig C , 450 d ig C and 550 d ig C for 5 hours in the mixture of 75% nitrogen- 25% hydrogen gas. The, components of residual stress in the radials axial and hoop directions in the nitrided layer were determined considering the elastic strain recovery after removal of residual stress inducer(i.e. the nitrided layer). Fatigue strength of the nitrided specimens was obtained by plotting the S-N curves and fractographic studies carried out on the fracture surface of the specimens. The effect of residual stress on the stress pattern was simulated. The calculated residual stress components were in the range of 40-210 Mpa and the radial components of residual stress were more than the other two directions. Maximum fatigue strength improvement of up to 110% was observed in the plasma nitrided specimens at 550 d ig C and also 40% improvement in fatigue strength was detected by increasing the nitriding temperature from 350 d ig C to 550 d ig C . This was due to 100% increase in residual stress. Fatigue crack growth velocity in the hoop direction was more than that of radial direction. This seems to be due to higher radial residual stress component compared with the hoop stress component in the sub layer

  19. [Cognitive performance in schizophrenia (paranoid vs residual subtype)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Taragano, Fernando; Sarasola, Diego; Iturry, Mónica; Serrano, Cecilia; Raczkowski, Amalia; Allegri, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Several studies refer to the relationship between schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunctions. The most frequent disturbances accepted are the deficits in the executive, memory and verbal tests. However, there are few comparative data about the cognitive functioning of the different subtypes of schizophrenia. Analyze and compare the neuropsychological disturbances present in patients with paranoid and residual schizophrenia. Eleven patients with paranoid schizophrenia, eleven patients with residual schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria), and thirty one normal subjects matched by age, educational level, and general cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination (Folstein, 1975), were assessed with a semistructured psychiatric examination and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Significant differences were found in memory, language, and executive functions when schizophrenics were compared with normal subjects. Differences in similarities were found between paranoid and residual schizophrenics. Residual schizophrenics had more disturbances in neuropsychological tests in comparison with paranoid schizophrenics. Schizophrenics demonstrated disturbances in memory, language, executive functions and attention. Residual schizophrenics had more impairment in neuropsychological tests than paranoid schizophrenics.

  20. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zer Cindy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL and sulfamethazine (SM2 are low molecular weight ( Results The artificial antigens were spotted on microarray slides. Standard concentrations of the compounds were added to compete with the spotted antigens for binding to the antisera to determine the IC50. Our microarray assay showed the IC50 were 39.6 ng/ml for CL and 48.8 ng/ml for SM2, while the traditional competitive indirect-ELISA (ci-ELISA showed the IC50 were 190.7 ng/ml for CL and 156.7 ng/ml for SM2. We further validated the two methods with CL fortified chicken muscle tissues, and the protein microarray assay showed 90% recovery while the ci-ELISA had 76% recovery rate. When tested with CL-fed chicken muscle tissues, the protein microarray assay had higher sensitivity (0.9 ng/g than the ci-ELISA (0.1 ng/g for detection of CL residues. Conclusions The protein microarrays showed 4.5 and 3.5 times lower IC50 than the ci-ELISA detection for CL and SM2, respectively, suggesting that immunodetection of small molecules with protein microarray is a better approach than the traditional ELISA technique.

  1. Effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, I; Hormazabal, V; Yndestad, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle, skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed. Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures reached when cooking the fish. However, fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from reservoirs in the fish.

  2. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  3. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress of repaired weldment in surge nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang Young; Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In the welding process, weldments usually include repair weld during the manufacturing process. Repair welds is supposed to cause strong tensile residual stress. Moreover weldments, usually made by Alloy 82/182, is susceptible to PWSCC. Therefore, mitigation of welding residual stress in weldments is important for reliable operating. PWOL is one of the methods for mitigation and verified for over twenty years. In this paper, residual stress distribution of repaired weldments and the effect of PWOL on mitigation is examined for surge nozzle.

  4. The effect of delignification process with alkaline peroxide on lactic acid production from furfural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residues produced from the furfural industry were investigated as a substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Alkaline peroxide was used for delignification of furfural residues to improve the final lactic acid concentration. The residue was treated with 1.3% to 1.7% hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C for 1 h with a substrate concentration of 3.33%. SSF of furfural residues with different delignification degrees were carried out to evaluate the effect of delignification degree on lactic acid production. Using corn hydrolysates/ furfural residues as substrates, SSF with different media were carried out to investigate the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria had a negative effect on cellulase, thus resulting in the reduction of enzyme activity. Lignin and nutrients slowed down the decreasing trend of enzyme activity. A higher delignification resulted in a slower fermentation rate and lower yield due to degradation products of lignin and the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. For the purpose of lactic acid production, a moderate delignification (furfural residues with the lignin content of 14.8% was optimum.

  5. Brain Connectivity and Neuropsychological Functioning in Recently Treated Testicular Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amidi, Ali; Agerbæk, Mads; Leemans, Alexander

    neuropsychological functioning. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has well-known neurotoxic side effects and neural populations such as progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and hippocampal neurons are exceptionally vulnerable to even small concentrations of cisplatin. The aim of the present study was to investigate...... the possible adverse effects of BEP on brain white matter connectivity and neuropsychological functioning in recently treated men with TC....

  6. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  7. Effects of processing treatment on pesticide residues in fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xuefei; Jiao Bining; Fu Chenmei; Qian Yongzhong; Wang Jing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of processing treatments on pesticide residues in fruits and their products was reviewed. The effects on pesticide residues and relative control treatments for each processing step, including peeling, washing, sterilization, juicing, clarification, filtration, drying and fermentation, were discussed, respectively. Meanwhile we analyzed the future development prospectin of this field, in order to provide some suggestions for commercial fruit industry and consumers' health. (authors)

  8. Effect of processing on residues of chlorpyrifos in stored corn and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, A.W.; Calumpang, S.M.F.; Gambalan, N.B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of processing on residues of chlorpyrifos in rice and corn was determined. Chlorpyrifos solution (0.1%) sprayed on jute sacks containing corn resulted in absorption of residues in kernel and cob up to six months. A similar trend was observed in rice. Radiotracer studies revealed very low levels of bound residues (0.2 - 0.8 mg/kg) present in rice only. The usual practice of washing rice and corn before cooking reduced chlorpyrifos residues as much as 57% to 100%. Residues in wash water declined with each washing. Cooking further reduced the residues of chlorpyrifos only when volatilization was possible. Chlorpyrifos appeared to be persistent. Cooking rice in plot with the lid on did not produce any substantial reduction in the chlorpyrifos content. The practice of storing rice and corn in the Philippines does not give rice to chlorpyrifos residues which may exceed the recommended daily intake of 0.01 mg/kg-bw. (Auth.) 13 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao

    2012-01-01

    Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.

  10. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO 3 ) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO 3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm 2 . LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO 3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO 3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO 3 , thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO 3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application

  11. Functional brain imaging in neuropsychology over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-11-01

    Outline effects of functional neuroimaging on neuropsychology over the past 25 years. Functional neuroimaging methods and studies will be described that provide a historical context, offer examples of the utility of neuroimaging in specific domains, and discuss the limitations and future directions of neuroimaging in neuropsychology. Tracking the history of publications on functional neuroimaging related to neuropsychology indicates early involvement of neuropsychologists in the development of these methodologies. Initial progress in neuropsychological application of functional neuroimaging has been hampered by costs and the exposure to ionizing radiation. With rapid evolution of functional methods-in particular functional MRI (fMRI)-neuroimaging has profoundly transformed our knowledge of the brain. Its current applications span the spectrum of normative development to clinical applications. The field is moving toward applying sophisticated statistical approaches that will help elucidate distinct neural activation networks associated with specific behavioral domains. The impact of functional neuroimaging on clinical neuropsychology is more circumscribed, but the prospects remain enticing. The theoretical insights and empirical findings of functional neuroimaging have been led by many neuropsychologists and have transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience. Thus far they have had limited effects on the clinical practices of neuropsychologists. Perhaps it is time to add training in functional neuroimaging to the clinical neuropsychologist's toolkit and from there to the clinic or bedside. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranius, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Aino; Egnell, Gustaf; Olsson, Bengt; Eklöf, Karin; Stendahl, Johan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sténs, Anna; Felton, Adam

    2018-03-01

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization

  13. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  14. The effect of tensioning and sectioning on residual stresses in aluminium AA7749 friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenkirch, J.; Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.; Richards, D.G.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction the residual stress distribution has been measured in a series of AA7449-W51 aluminium friction stir welds that had been tensioned to different loads during welding. By modifying the stress accumulation path, the application of a tensioning stress has reduced the tensile magnitude of the final residual weld stresses. In the present case the residual stresses were minimised when the applied load is ∼35% of the room temperature yield stress of the parent material. Subsequent sectioning of the weld into shorter test lengths, as might be necessary for weld testing, resulted in a progressive and significant relaxation of the residual stress field. The effect of tensioning on the weld component distortion also has been investigated

  15. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  16. Effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hiroko; Tawara, Mari; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy. Twenty-six patients who underwent excisional biopsy of a tumor or calcified lesion of the breast underwent gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI by the fat-saturated 2D fast spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence (group 1), 24 patients by the spectral IR enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (Efgre3d) sequence (group 2). Pericicatricial residual cancer was confirmed histologically in 29 of the 50 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for residual cancer diagnosis was 66, 81, 72, 83 and 63%. A nodular, thick and discontinuous enhanced rim around the scar is indicative of a residual tumor. However, false-positive findings due to granulation or proliferative fibrocystic change remain limitations

  17. Effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Hiroko E-mail: hirokok@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Tawara, Mari; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy. Twenty-six patients who underwent excisional biopsy of a tumor or calcified lesion of the breast underwent gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI by the fat-saturated 2D fast spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence (group 1), 24 patients by the spectral IR enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (Efgre3d) sequence (group 2). Pericicatricial residual cancer was confirmed histologically in 29 of the 50 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for residual cancer diagnosis was 66, 81, 72, 83 and 63%. A nodular, thick and discontinuous enhanced rim around the scar is indicative of a residual tumor. However, false-positive findings due to granulation or proliferative fibrocystic change remain limitations.

  18. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exact means of humidity interacting with hydropho- bic graphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene surfaces with surface ... temperature quantum Hall effect, linear electron dispersion at the vicinity of the ...

  19. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  20. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  1. Neuropsychological rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Chantsoulis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI. More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy.

  2. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, W David; Harrison, David W; Wright, James W

    2008-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the potential health-related benefits of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich dark chocolate and cocoa. The objective of the study was to examine the short-term (6 wk) effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health in healthy older adults. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel-group clinical trial was used. Participants (n = 101) were randomly assigned to receive a 37-g dark chocolate bar and 8 ounces (237 mL) of an artificially sweetened cocoa beverage or similar placebo products each day for 6 wk. No significant group (dark chocolate and cocoa or placebo)-by-trial (baseline, midpoint, and end-of-treatment assessments) interactions were found for the neuropsychological, hematological, or blood pressure variables examined. In contrast, the midpoint and end-of-treatment mean pulse rate assessments in the dark chocolate and cocoa group were significantly higher than those at baseline and significantly higher than the midpoint and end-of-treatment rates in the control group. Results of a follow-up questionnaire item on the treatment products that participants believed they had consumed during the trial showed that more than half of the participants in both groups correctly identified the products that they had ingested during the experiment. This investigation failed to support the predicted beneficial effects of short-term dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on any of the neuropsychological or cardiovascular health-related variables included in this research. Consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa was, however, associated with significantly higher pulse rates at 3- and 6-wk treatment assessments.

  3. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    The accumulated body of scientific evidence regarding intellectual function, presence of learning disorders, and specific neuropsychological deficits in TS suggests that difficulties in these areas are present in a significant percentage of patients with TS. Despite the numerous methodological shortcomings of past neuropsychological studies of TS, relatively robust and consistent findings have emerged. The literature to date has suggested that intellectual ability is normally distributed in TS. Whether or not individuals with TS have significant discrepancies between their verbal and nonverbal abilities remains unclear. The prevalence of learning disabilities in TS has been reported to be similar to the base rates reported for the general population, although there is evidence to suggest that the prevalence of LDs in children with TS may actually be lower and specific for difficulties in math and written language. Specific cognitive deficits in TS consist of visuomotor integration problems, impaired fine motor skill, and executive dysfunction. The presence of comorbid conditions, notably ADHD and OCD, appears to significantly increase the likelihood that an individual with TS will also have learning problems or some demonstrable cognitive impairment. The presence of a learning disability, specific academic deficiency, or cognitive deficit may pose a greater obstacle for persons with TS than the tic disorder itself. This is particularly salient for children with TS, who may be at a higher risk for poor school performance and academic failure. The psychosocial impact of these problems is also far-reaching. Given the recent emphasis on the early detection of academic and learning problems, it would seem prudent that children with TS who are suspected of having neuropsychological difficulties be evaluated as soon as possible. There are numerous educational interventions and accommodations available to children with LDs and/or specific academic weaknesses that can work

  4. A signal detection-item response theory model for evaluating neuropsychological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L; Brown, Gregory G; Gur, Ruben C; Moore, Tyler M; Patt, Virginie M; Risbrough, Victoria B; Baker, Dewleen G

    2018-02-05

    Models from signal detection theory are commonly used to score neuropsychological test data, especially tests of recognition memory. Here we show that certain item response theory models can be formulated as signal detection theory models, thus linking two complementary but distinct methodologies. We then use the approach to evaluate the validity (construct representation) of commonly used research measures, demonstrate the impact of conditional error on neuropsychological outcomes, and evaluate measurement bias. Signal detection-item response theory (SD-IRT) models were fitted to recognition memory data for words, faces, and objects. The sample consisted of U.S. Infantry Marines and Navy Corpsmen participating in the Marine Resiliency Study. Data comprised item responses to the Penn Face Memory Test (PFMT; N = 1,338), Penn Word Memory Test (PWMT; N = 1,331), and Visual Object Learning Test (VOLT; N = 1,249), and self-report of past head injury with loss of consciousness. SD-IRT models adequately fitted recognition memory item data across all modalities. Error varied systematically with ability estimates, and distributions of residuals from the regression of memory discrimination onto self-report of past head injury were positively skewed towards regions of larger measurement error. Analyses of differential item functioning revealed little evidence of systematic bias by level of education. SD-IRT models benefit from the measurement rigor of item response theory-which permits the modeling of item difficulty and examinee ability-and from signal detection theory-which provides an interpretive framework encompassing the experimentally validated constructs of memory discrimination and response bias. We used this approach to validate the construct representation of commonly used research measures and to demonstrate how nonoptimized item parameters can lead to erroneous conclusions when interpreting neuropsychological test data. Future work might include the

  5. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  6. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  7. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified...

  8. Effects of fluoride residue on thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Nakamura, T. [FUJITSU LABORATORIES Ltd., 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan)

    2014-06-19

    We have investigated the effects of fluoride residue on the thermal stability of a Cu/barrier metal (BM)/porous low-k film (k < 2.3) structure. We confirmed that the Cu agglomerated more on a BM/inter layer dielectric (ILD) with a fluoride residue. To consider the effect of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration, the structural state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with a cross-section transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, the chemical bonding state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with the interface peeling-off method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, we confirmed the ionization of fluoride residue and oxidation of Cu with fluoride and moisture to clarify the effect of fluoride residue on Cu. Our experimental results indicated that the thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects was degraded by enhancement of Cu oxidation with fluoride ions diffusion as an oxidizing catalyst.

  9. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  10. Fatigue life estimation of welded components considering welding residual stress relaxation and its mean stress effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  11. Accounting for the residual stress effects on the creep deformation of channel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, Yu.N.; Platonov, P.A.; Ul'yanov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the first kind residual stresses arising in the walls of the zirconium base alloy fules in the process of fabrication on the RBMK type reactor channel tube creep is investigated. Models for calculation of the reactor component creep with account for the relaxation of residual stresses distributed by the wall thickness as well as the radiation and temperature fields are developed. On the basis of the analysis of the data obtained it is concluded that the effect of the residual stresses on the RBMK channel tube deformation for a long-term operation is negligible. But for the short-term fests the results can be noticeably distorted by this factor. The role of internal stresses can also manifest when determining the deformation of radiation elongation of the zirconium base alloy samples

  12. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  13. Intermolecular Modes between LH2 Bacteriochlorophylls and Protein Residues: The Effect on the Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, André; De Vico, Luca; Hansen, Thorsten

    2017-06-08

    Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) executes the primary processes of photosynthesis in purple bacteria; photon absorption, and energy transportation to the reaction center. A detailed mechanistic insight into these operations is obscured by the complexity of the light-harvesting systems, particularly by the chromophore-environment interaction. In this work, we focus on the effects of the protein residues that are ligated to the bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and construct potential energy surfaces of the ground and first optically excited state for the various BChl-residue systems where we in each case consider two degrees of freedom in the intermolecular region. We find that the excitation energies are only slightly affected by the considered modes. In addition, we see that axial ligands and hydrogen-bonded residues have opposite effects on both excitation energies and oscillator strengths by comparing to the isolated BChls. Our results indicate that only a small part of the chromophore-environment interaction can be associated with the intermolecular region between a BChl and an adjacent residue, but that it may be possible to selectively raise or lower the excitation energy at the axial and planar residue positions, respectively.

  14. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  15. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  16. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury : Acute versus chronic disturbances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M.; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully

  17. Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, M.; Bakht, J.; Attaullah; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation

  18. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  19. Fractionating the Binding Process: Neuropsychological Evidence from Reversed Search Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; Hodsoll, John; Riddoch, M. Jane

    2009-01-01

    The authors present neuropsychological evidence distinguishing binding between form, color, and size (cross-domain binding) and binding between form elements. They contrasted conjunctive search with difficult feature search using control participants and patients with unilateral parietal or fronto/temporal lesions. To rule out effects of task…

  20. Prospective study of neuropsychological sequelae in children with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordeaux, J.D.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Francis, D.J.; van Eys, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surgery and radiotherapy are the primary modalities of treatment for pediatric brain tumors. Despite the widespread use of these treatments, little is known of their acute effects (within one year posttreatment) on neuropsychological functions. An understanding of acute treatment effects may provide valuable feedback to neurosurgeons and a baseline against which delayed sequelae may be evaluated. This study compares pre- and posttherapy neuropsychological test performance of pediatric brain tumor patients categorized into two groups on the basis of treatment modalities: surgery (n = 7) and radiotherapy (n = 7). Treatment groups were composed of children aged 56 to 196 months at the time of evaluation with heterogeneous tumor diagnoses and locations. Comparisons of pretherapy findings with normative values using confidence intervals indicated that both groups performed within the average range on most measures. Outstanding deficits at baseline were observed on tests of fine-motor, psychomotor, and timed language skills, and are likely to be attributable to tumor-related effects. Comparisons of pre- versus posttherapy neuropsychological test findings indicated no significant interval changes for either group. Results suggest that surgery and radiotherapy are not associated with acute effects on neuropsychological functions

  1. Effect of processing conditions on residual stress distributions by bead-on-plate welding after surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Residual stress is important factor for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that has been observed near the welded zone in nuclear power plants. Especially, surface residual stress is significant for SCC initiation. In the joining processes of pipes, butt welding is conducted after surface machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes, and residual stress distribution due to surface machining is varied by the subsequent butt welding. In previous paper, authors reported that residual stress distribution generated by bead on plate welding after surface machining has a local maximum residual stress near the weld metal. The local maximum residual stress shows approximately 900 MPa that exceeds the stress threshold for SCC initiation. Therefore, for the safety improvement of nuclear power plants, a study on the local maximum residual stress is important. In this study, the effect of surface machining and welding conditions on residual stress distribution generated by welding after surface machining was investigated. Surface machining using lathe machine and bead on plate welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc under various conditions were conducted for plate specimens made of SUS316L. Then, residual stress distributions were measured by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). As a result, residual stress distributions have the local maximum residual stress near the weld metal in all specimens. The values of the local maximum residual stresses are almost the same. The location of the local maximum residual stress is varied by welding condition. It could be consider that the local maximum residual stress is generated by same generation mechanism as welding residual stress in surface machined layer that has high yield stress. (author)

  2. Effect of cooking on14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cooking on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos in stored vicia faba beans was studied. The results indicated that over 50% of the dose originally present inside the grains (37 ppm), could be recovered in the aqueous extract of the cooked grains. Considerable portion of radioactivity (About 22%) was associated with the grains in a non-extractable from. Residues in cooked beans included, in addition to a small amount of the parent insecticide, desmethyl tetrachlorvinphos, mono methyl phosphate and dimethyl phosphate. The results obtained indicate that tetrachlorvinphos residues are not appreciably affected by cooking. 1 tab

  3. Effects of coffee processing residues on anaerobic microorganisms and corresponding digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sossa, Juan Pablo; Murillo-Roos, Mariana; Uribe, Lidieth; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Marsh, Terence; Larsen, Niels; Chen, Rui; Miranda, Alberto; Solís, Kattia; Rodriguez, Werner; Kirk, Dana; Liao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of different coffee processing residues on the anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. The results elucidated that mucilage-rich feed enhanced the accumulation of methanogens, which consequently led to better digestion performance of biogas production. Fifty percent more methane and up to 3 times more net energy (heat and electricity) output were achieved by the digestion of the mucilage-rich feed (M3). The microbial community and statistical analyses further elucidated that different residues in the feed had significant impact on microbial distribution and correspondingly influenced the digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  5. Effect of residual ascorbate on determination of nitrite in commercial cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J B; Doerr, R C; Gates, R

    1984-01-01

    Residual ascorbate in cured meat slurries results in different amounts of pigment being produced from different Griess reagent combinations. The phenomenon was used to study residual ascorbate in commercial cured meat products which had a variety of textures, acidities, moisture and meat content, fat, homogeneity, initial nitrite, and processing conditions. Diluting and heating the samples according to the AOAC procedure did not completely eliminate the ascorbate interference, but making the sample alkaline did. Determining nitrite separately in supernate and precipitate from the first dilution showed the effect of heating to be the elimination of interferences and solubilization or extraction of nitrite from the precipitate.

  6. The effect of residual stresses induced by prestraining on fatigue life of notched specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeler, R.; Ozel, A.; Kaymaz, I.; Totik, Y.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of tensile prestraining-induced residual stress on the fatigue life of notched steel parts was investigated. The study was performed on AISI 4140 steel. Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on semicircular notched specimens with different notch radii in the as-quenched and tempered conditions. Metallography of the specimens was performed by means of light optical microscopy. The finite-element method was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution near the notch region. Fatigue tests revealed fatigue life improvement for notched specimens, which changes depending on the notch radii and applied stress. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the fracture surfaces of the specimens.

  7. Reclamation of Herb Residues Using Probiotics and Their Therapeutic Effect on Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjing Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residues from herbal medicine processing in pharmaceutical plants create a large amount of waste (herb residues, which consists mainly of environmental pollution and medicinal waste. In order to resolve this problem, probiotics of Bacillus (B. subtilis, Aspergillus (A. oryzae, and Lactobacillus (L. plantarum M3 are selected to reuse herb residue of Jianweixiaoshi tablets (JT, and an antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD mouse model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the herb residue fermentation supernatant. Our results indicated that the fermentation supernatant had scavenged 77.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 78% of O2•−, 36.7% of •OH, 39% of Fe2+ chelation, and 716 mg/L reducing power. The inhibition zones for Salmonella (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, Shigella (Sh. flexneri, Escherichia (E. coli, Listeria (L. monocytogenes, Sh. dysenteriae 301, and Staphylococcus (S. aureus were 17, 14, 19, 18, 20, 19, and 20 mm, respectively. The in vivo results indicated that the fermentation supernatant resulted in a high diarrhea inhibition rate (56%, p<0.05, greatly enhanced the disruption of bacterial diversity caused by antibiotics, and restored the dominant position of L. johnsonii in the treatment and recovery stages. Therefore, the combination of the herb residue and probiotics suggests a potential to explore conversion of these materials for the possible development of therapies for AAD.

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

    2006-08-01

    The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

  9. Effects of the magnesium oxide thin films' microstructures on the residual stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-jun, E-mail: helijun4@126.com [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Li-yan [Electronic Information and Networking Research Institute, Collaborative Innovation Center for Information Communication Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Chen, Wei-Zhong [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Liu, Xing-zhao [The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The MgO thin films are deposited at various inclined angles. The morphology investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the MgO thin films deposited at high inclined angles have columnar grain. The relationships between full width high maximum (FWHM) of ω-scan, residual stresses and the inclined angles are studied. The results show the smallest FWHM of MgO (002) is 4.968°, the residual stress of MgO thin films is compressive stress, and the residual stress of MgO thin films deposited at the inclined angle of 55° is the smallest. So the microstructures of MgO thin films fabricated by the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique effectively control the residual stresses. - Highlights: • MgO thin films are deposited by oblique angle deposition technique. • The FWHMs of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°. • Residual stress of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°.

  10. Toxic effects of ethylene oxide residues on bovine embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, G R; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Bunch, T D

    1996-04-15

    The potential of ethylene oxide (EtO) residues in exposed plastic tissue culture dishes to adversely affect bovine oocyte maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development was monitored. In experiment 1, the effects of aeration time and aeration combined with washing of EtO-gassed culture dishes on the extent of residual toxicity were investigated. There was no cleavage in any treatment in which oocytes were matured and fertilized in dishes exposed to EtO. EtO residues caused functional degeneration of oocytes even when culture dishes were aerated for more than 12 days post EtO-exposure and repeatedly washed. In experiment 2, the residual toxicity of EtO gas on in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were evaluated. Cleavage rate significantly decreased and post-cleavage development was retarded in ova maintained in dishes treated with EtO either during IVM or IVF. EtO residues may be more detrimental to spermatozoa than to oocytes which may have been the primary cause of fertilization failure during IVF.

  11. Effect of cryogenic treatment on distribution of residual stress in case carburized En 353 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensely, A.; Venkatesh, S.; Mohan Lal, D.; Nagarajan, G.; Rajadurai, A.; Junik, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cryogenic treatment on the distribution of residual stress in the case carburized steel (En 353) was studied using X-ray diffraction technique. Two types of cryogenic treatment: shallow cryogenic treatment (193 K) and deep cryogenic treatment (77 K) were adopted, as a supplement to conventional heat treatment. The amount of retained austenite in conventionally heat-treated, shallow cryogenically treated and deep cryogenically treated samples was found to be 28%, 22% and 14%, respectively. The conventionally heat-treated, shallow cryogenically treated and deep cryogenically treated samples in untempered condition had a surface residual stress of -125 MPa, -115 MPa and -235 MPa, respectively. After tempering the conventionally heat-treated, shallow cryogenically treated and deep cryogenically treated samples had a surface residual stress of -150 MPa, -80 MPa and -80 MPa, respectively. A comparative study of the three treatments revealed that there was an increase in the compressive residual stress in steel that was subjected to cryogenic treatment prior to tempering. The experimental investigation revealed that deep cryogenically treated steel when subjected to tempering has undergone a reduction in compressive residual stress. Such stress relieving behaviour was mainly due to the increased precipitation of fine carbides in specimens subjected to DCT with tempering

  12. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  13. Effects of organic additives on preferred plane and residual stress of copper electroplated on polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Heesan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the preferred plane and the residual stress of an electroplated copper on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3-N,N-dimethylaminodithiocarbamoyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (DPS) were studied. Polyimide film coated with sputtered copper was used as a substrate. Preferred plane, residual stress, and impurity level in the electroplated copper were measured by an X-ray diffractometry (XRD), calculated by Stoney's equation, and analyzed with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SMS), respectively. With increasing the concentration of PEG, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) while with increasing the concentration of DPS, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 1 0), (1 0 0), and (1 1 1). Based on the modified preferred growth model, where the amount of additive adsorbed on a plane is newly assumed to be proportional to its surface energy in vacuum, the predicted preferred planes correspond to the experimental results. The residual stress of the electroplated copper depended on the type of additive as well as its concentration but was independent of the preferred plane. For example, PEG and DPS induced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the electroplated copper, respectively, and their magnitudes increased with their concentrations. The dependency of residual stress on the additives was explained by the incorporated additives into the electroplated copper.

  14. The Effect of Kaffir Lime Leaves Distillation Residue Oleoresin Concentration on Active Paper Packaging Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiji; Utami, R.; Ulum, S.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-03-01

    Oleoresin of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue still contains some active compounds such as Citronellal, β-Citronellol, and Linalool which potential to incorporated on the active paper packaging. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin concentration on the physical characteristics, sensory characteristics, and antimicrobial activity of the active paper packaging incorporated with kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin and to determine the functional groups of active paper packaging. The concentration of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin were varied at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%. The result showed that the addition of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin increased the thickness and moisture content of the paper and decreased the tensile strengths and folding endurances of active paper packaging. The microbial inhibition tends to increase along with the higher oleoresin concentration addition. Aromatic CH group were found at a wavelength of 897.90 cm-1 of on paper packaging with 2% oleoresin indicated as functional aromatic functional group allegedly obtained from the kaffir lime leaves oleoresin.

  15. Thermodynamic effects of replacements of Pro residues in helix interiors of maltose-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, R S; Lingaraju, G M; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-12-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a function of pH and by isothermal urea denaturation studies as a function of temperature. The P48S and P48A mutants were found to be marginally more stable than the wild-type protein. In the pH range of 5-9, there is an average increase in T(m) values of P48A and P48S of 0.4 degrees C and 0.2 degrees C, respectively, relative to the wild-type protein. The other mutants are less stable than the wild type. Analysis of the effects of such Pro substitutions in MBP and in three other proteins studied to date suggests that substitutions are more likely to be stabilizing if the carbonyl group i-3 or i-4 to the mutation site is not hydrogen bonded in the wild-type protein. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White clover grows naturally all over the Himalayan regions including the hilly areas of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of white clover residues alone or in combination with phosphorus (P) fertilizer on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, nutrient uptake and ...

  17. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The residual effects of white clover on soil properties indicated a significant increase in saturation percentage (17–23%) and .... determined by leaching the soil with KCl followed by extraction of ...... accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. ... of the Final Workshop of the Farming System Integrated Pest.

  18. A new method for weakening the combined effect of residual errors on multibeam bathymetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhu; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Aixue

    2014-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric system (MBS) has been widely applied in the marine surveying for providing high-resolution seabed topography. However, some factors degrade the precision of bathymetry, including the sound velocity, the vessel attitude, the misalignment angle of the transducer and so on. Although these factors have been corrected strictly in bathymetric data processing, the final bathymetric result is still affected by their residual errors. In deep water, the result usually cannot meet the requirements of high-precision seabed topography. The combined effect of these residual errors is systematic, and it's difficult to separate and weaken the effect using traditional single-error correction methods. Therefore, the paper puts forward a new method for weakening the effect of residual errors based on the frequency-spectrum characteristics of seabed topography and multibeam bathymetric data. Four steps, namely the separation of the low-frequency and the high-frequency part of bathymetric data, the reconstruction of the trend of actual seabed topography, the merging of the actual trend and the extracted microtopography, and the accuracy evaluation, are involved in the method. Experiment results prove that the proposed method could weaken the combined effect of residual errors on multibeam bathymetric data and efficiently improve the accuracy of the final post-processing results. We suggest that the method should be widely applied to MBS data processing in deep water.

  19. Effects of advanced laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of H13 tool steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojan, Karel; Ocelík, Václav; Ganev, Nikolaj; Němeček, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of laser cladded H13 tool steel on the classical construct steel S355 substrate. This research paper concludes that in this case of laser cladding, phase transformation and not shrinkage

  20. Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on mungbean (Vigna mungo L.Hepper) local cultivar. An experiment [using randomized complete block design (RCBD) design] with three replications was conducted in 2010. The trial comprised of four treatments such as mulching, incorporation into ...

  1. [Formula: see text]Official Position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN): Guidelines for Practicum Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron P; Roper, Brad L; Slomine, Beth S; Morrison, Chris; Greher, Michael R; Janusz, Jennifer; Larson, Jennifer C; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Ready, Rebecca E; Rivera Mindt, Monica; Whiteside, Doug M; Willment, Kim; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Practical experience is central to the education and training of neuropsychologists, beginning in graduate school and extending through postdoctoral fellowship. However, historically, little attention has been given to the structure and requirements of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. A working group of senior-level neuropsychologists, as well as a current postdoctoral fellow, all from a diverse range of settings (The AACN Practicum Guidelines Workgroup), was formed to propose guidelines for practicum training in clinical neuropsychology. The Workgroup reviewed relevant literature and sought input from professional organizations involved in education and training in neuropsychology. The proposed guidelines provide a definition of practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, detail entry and exit criteria across competencies relevant to practicum training in clinical neuropsychology, and discuss the relationship between doctoral training programs and practicum training sites. The proposed guidelines also provide a methodology for competency-based evaluation of clinical neuropsychology practicum trainees and outline characteristics and features that are integral to an effective training environment. Although the guidelines discussed below may not be implemented in their entirety across all clinical neuropsychology practicum training sites, they are consistent with the latest developments in competency-based education.

  2. Effects of material non-linearity on the residual stresses in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sujit K.; Utku, Senol

    1990-01-01

    Thermal stresses developed in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon have been shown to cause plastic deformation and residual stresses in the ribbon. This paper presents an implementation of a numerical model proposed for thermoelastoplastic behavior of a material. The model has been used to study the effects of plasticity of silicon on the residual stresses. The material properties required to implement this model are all assumed, and the response of the material to the variations in these assumed parameters of the constitutive law and in the finite element mesh is investigated. The steady state growth process is observed to be periodic with nonzero residual stresses. Numerical difficulties are also encountered in the computer solution process, resulting in sharp jumps and large oscillations in the stress responses.

  3. Hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ graft procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2011-01-01

    lower limb ischemia were obtained. Direct measurements of proximal and distal blood pressures in the graft were taken and simultaneous determinations of volume blood flow proximally and distally in the graft with ultrasound transit time technique before and after closure of residual fistulae were made......The objective was to study the intraoperative hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ saphenous vein graft procedures. Data on 60 residual arteriovenous fistulae in nine patients (five men) with a median age of 74 years (range 64-83 years) with critical....... Closure of a fistula with blood flow around or below 100 mL/min did not increase distal outflow, whereas closure of fistulae with higher blood flow resulted in unpredictable changes in distal outflow. Only fistulae with a blood flow above approximately 100 mL/min may be of hemodynamic significance....

  4. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  5. Language and Dementia: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Daniel; Goral, Mira

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent evidence for the relationship between extralinguistic cognitive and language abilities in dementia. A survey of data from investigations of three dementia syndromes (Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia) reveals that, more often than not, deterioration of conceptual organization appears associated with lexical impairments, whereas impairments in executive function are associated with sentence- and discourse-level deficits. These connections between extralinguistic functions and language ability also emerge from the literature on cognitive reserve and bilingualism that investigates factors that delay the onset and possibly the progression of neuropsychological manifestation of dementia.

  6. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400{sub Y}15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  7. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction. The effectiveness of these programs is well documented in the field of emotional response regulation in depression (relapse prevention), anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or eating disorders. Furthermore, converging lines of evidence support the hypothesis that mindfulness practice improves cognition, especially the ability to sustain attention and think in a more flexible manner. Nevertheless, formal rehabilitation programs targeting cognitive disturbances resulting from psychiatric (depression, disorder bipolar, schizophrenia) or neurologic conditions (brain injury, dementia) seldom rely on MBI principles. This review of literature aims at discussing possible links between MBI and clinical neuropsychology. We conducted a review of literature using electronic databases up to December 2016, screening studies with variants of the keywords ("Mindfulness", "MBI", "MBSR", "Meditation") OR/AND ("Cognition", "Attention", "Executive function", "Memory", "Learning") RESULTS: In the first part, we describe key concepts of the neuropsychology of attention in the light of Posner's model of attention control. We also underline the potential scope of different therapeutic contexts where disturbances of attention may be clinically relevant. Second, we review the efficacy of MBI in the field of cognition (thinking disturbances, attention biases, memory and executive processes impairment or low metacognitive abilities

  8. Norepinephrine transporter function and desipramine: residual drug effects versus short-term regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Gregory A; Jia, Weihong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Mandela, Prashant; Pan, Jun

    2005-04-30

    Previous research has shown that exposure of norepinephrine transporter (NET)-expressing cells to desipramine (DMI) downregulates the norepinephrine transporter, although changes in the several transporter parameters do not demonstrate the same time course. Exposures to desipramine for effects of residual desipramine on norepinephrine transporter binding and uptake were re-evaluated following exposures of PC12 cells to desipramine using different methods to remove residual drug. Using a method that minimizes residual drug, exposure of intact PC12 cells to desipramine for 4h had no effect on uptake capacity or [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter, while exposures for > or =16 h reduced uptake capacity. Desipramine-induced reductions in binding to the transporter required >24 h or greater periods of desipramine exposure. This study confirms that uptake capacity of the norepinephrine transporter is reduced earlier than changes in radioligand binding, but with a different time course than originally shown. Special pre-incubation procedures are required to abolish effects of residual transporter inhibitor when studying inhibitor-induced transporter regulation.

  9. Effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber packing on deformation of metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suresh, S.

    1993-01-01

    The combined effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber spatial distribution on the deformation of a 6061 aluminum alloy containing a fixed concentration unidirectional boron fibers have been analyzed using detailed finite element models. The geometrical structure includes perfectly periodic, uniformly space fiber arrangements in square and hexagonal cells, as well as different cells in which either 30 or 60 fibers are randomly placed in the ductile matrix. The model involves an elastic-plastic matrix, elastic fibers, and mechanically bonded interfaces. The results indicate that both fiber packing and thermal residual stresses can have a significant effect on the stress-strain characteristics of the composite. The thermal residual stresses cause pronounced matrix yielding which also influences the apparent overall stiffness of the composite during the initial stages of subsequent far-field loading along the axial and transverse direction. Furthermore, the thermal residual stresses apparently elevate the flow stress of the composite during transverse tension. Such effects can be traced back to the level of constraint imposed on the matrix by local fiber spacing. The implications of the present results to the processing of the composites are also briefly addressed

  10. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  11. Effect of pretreatment on biomass residue structure and the application of pyrolysed and composted biomass residues in soilless culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Suo

    Full Text Available The changes in the structural characteristics of biomass residues during pyrolysis and composting were investigated. The biomass residues particles were prepared by pyrolysing at temperatures ranging from 350 to 400. For soilless production of the ornamental plant Anthurium andraeanum, pure sphagnum peat moss (P has traditionally been used as the growing medium. This use of P must be reduced, however, because P is an expensive and nonrenewable resource. The current study investigated the use of biomass residues as substitutes for P in A. andraeanum production. Plants were grown for 15 months in 10 soilless media that contained different proportions of pyrolysed corn cobs (PC, composted corn cobs (C, pyrolysed garden wastes (PG, and P. Although the media altered the plant nutrient content, A. andraeanum growth, development, and yield were similar with media consisting of 50% P+50% PC, 50% P+35% PC+15% PG, and 100% P. This finding indicates that, when pyrolysed, organic wastes, which are otherwise an environmental problem, can be used to reduce the requirement for peat in the soilless culture of A. andraeanum.

  12. Effect of constraint condition and internal medium on residual stress under overlay welding for dissimilar metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jin Weon

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, residual stress of dissimilar metal weld propagates cracks in the weld metal which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Overlay welding is a process widely used to mitigate residual stress replacing inside tensile stress by compression stress. However, according to the result of this study the effect of overlay welding on residual stress depends on both internal medium and constraint condition. The purpose of this study is to maximize the positive effect of overlay welding by finite element analyses

  13. Effectiveness of stress release geometries on reducing residual stress in electroforming metal microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang; Du, Liqun; Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Heqing; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Weitai

    2018-04-01

    Micro electroforming, as a mature micromachining technology, is widely used to fabricate metal microdevices in micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). However, large residual stress in the local positions of the micro electroforming layer often leads to non-uniform residual stress distributions, dimension accuracy defects and reliability issues during fabrication of the metal microdevice. To solve this problem, a novel design method of presetting stress release geometries in the topological structure of the metal microstructure is proposed in this paper. First, the effect of stress release geometries (circular shape, annular groove shape and rivet shape) on the residual stress in the metal microstructure was investigated by finite element modeling (FEM) analysis. Two evaluation parameters, stress concentration factor K T and stress non-uniformity factor δ were calculated. The simulation results show that presetting stress release geometries can effectively reduce and homogenize the residual stress in the metal microstructures were measured metal microstructure. By combined use with stress release geometries of annular groove shape and rivet shape, the stress concentration factor K T and the stress non-uniformity factor δ both decreased at a maximum of 49% and 53%, respectively. Meanwhile, the average residual stress σ avg decreased at a maximum of 20% from  -292.4 MPa to  -232.6 MPa. Then, micro electroforming experiments were carried out corresponding to the simulation models. The residual stresses in the metal microstructures were measured by micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) method. The results of the experiment proved that the stress non-uniformity factor δ and the average residual stress σ avg also decreased at a maximum with the combination use of annular groove shape and rivet shape stress release geometries, which is in agreement with the results of FEM analysis. The stress non-uniformity factor δ has a maximum decrease of 49% and the

  14. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. One of the most common routes of pesticide exposure in consumers is via food consumption. Most foods are consumed after passing through various culinary and processing treatments. A few literature reviews have indicated the general trend of reduction or concentration of pesticide residues by certain methods of food processing for a particular active ingredient. However, no review has focused on combining the obtained results from different studies on different active ingredients with differences in experimental designs, analysts and analysis equipment. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of response ratios as a possible method of combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residue levels. Reduction of residue levels was indicated by blanching, boiling, canning, frying, juicing, peeling and washing of fruits and vegetables with an average response ratio ranging from 0.10 to 0.82. Baking, boiling, canning and juicing indicated both reduction and increases for the 95% and 99.5% confidence intervals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective sorption of atrazine by biochar colloids and residues derived from different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Yan; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying

    2018-04-26

    Biochar has attracted much attention, which owns many environmental and agronomic benefits, including carbon sequestration, improvement of soil quality, and immobilization of environmental contaminants. Biochar has been also investigated as an effective sorbent in recent publications. Generally, biochar particles can be divided into colloids and residues according to particle sizes, while understanding of adsorption capacities towards organic pollutants in each section is largely unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap in evaluations on the effectiveness of biochar for water treatment application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method are used to examine the structures and surface properties of biochar colloids and residues derived from corn straws prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures. Also, their roles in atrazine (a typical organic pollutant) removal are investigated by batch adsorption experiments and fitted by different kinetic and thermodynamic models, respectively. The adsorption capacities of biochar colloids are much more than those of residues, resulting from the colloids containing abundant oxygen functional groups and mineral substances, and the adsorption capacities of biochar colloids and residues increase with the increase of pyrolysis temperatures. The highest adsorption performance of 139.33 mg g -1 can be obtained in biochar colloids prepared at 700 °C, suggesting the important functions of biochar colloids in the application of atrazine removal by biochar.

  16. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  17. Effects of residual stress on fatigue strength of small diameter welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Hattori, Takahiro; Nomoto, Toshiharu; Iida, Kunihiro; Sato, Masanobu

    1996-01-01

    A power plant consists of many welded components, therefore, it is essential in establishing the reliability of the power plant to maintain the reliability of all welded components. The fatigue failure caused by mechanical vibrations of small diameter welded joints, which is represented by socket welded joints, is one of the major causes of trouble for the welded parts of the power plant. Here, bending fatigue tests were conducted to investigate the fatigue strength of small diameter socket welded pipe joints. In the most cases of large diameter socket joints, a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet weld though the stress amplitude at the root was smaller than that at the toe of fillet weld. Additionally, the fatigue strength was affected by the weld bead sequence. The residual stress was considered to be one of the important parameters governing fatigue strength, therefore, its effects were investigated. In several types of pipe joints, the local stress and residual stress distributions were calculated by finite element analysis. The residual stresses were compressive at the toe and tensile at the root of the socket welded joints. Based on these results, the effects of residual stresses on the fatigue strength are discussed for small diameter welded pipe joints in the present work

  18. Construct Validity of Neuropsychological Tests in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Aldarondo, Felito; Goldstein, Gerald; Huegel, Stephen G.; Gilbertson, Mark; van Kammen, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    The construct validity of neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia was studied with 39 patients who were evaluated with a battery of six tests assessing attention, memory, and abstract reasoning abilities. Results support the construct validity of the neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia. (SLD)

  19. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although uraemic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little information exists concerning the identification of some of the neuropsychological processes. underlying overt behaviour that affect adjustment to ESRD. The results of a neuropsychological investigation of a ...

  20. The effect of radiation on the function of the residual pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    For patients with carcinomas of the bile duct and the pancreas, a pancreatoduodenectomy is generally the first choise of treatment. In our institute, the residual pancreas after surgery is transplanted into the abdominal wall in order to prevent diabetes mellites. We irradiated the residual pancreas postoperatively with a dosage of 15 to 43 Gy in order to inhibit the exocrine function. We then removed the drainage catheter from the residual pancreas. In the treatment, the endocrine function can be preserved. With respect to the radiation effect on the exocrine function, the amount of pancreatic secretion showed a transient increase in the first few days after the start of the irradiation, followed by a mild decrease. The serum amylase decreased immediatelly after the start of irradiation and increased sequentially during long-term observations. The amylase in the pancreatic juice showed a remarkable decrease immediatelly after the start of irradiation, and this decrease was maintained during long-term observations (The minimum level was observed from the dosage of 20 to 30 Gy). In order to analyse the radiation effect on the endocrine function, 50 g OGTTs were performed before and after irradiation in thirteen patients. In two of the thirteen patients, the results of the tests showed a new diabetic pattern after irradiation, which required insulin in one patient. It was concluded from our study that irradiation to the residual pancreas with in the dosage of 15 to 43 Gy the catheters in the residual pancreas could be removed in fourteen of fifteen patients without any unfavorable effect. (author)

  1. The Neuropsychology of Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J Megan; Duperrouzel, Jacqueline; Vega, Melanie; Gonzalez, Raul

    2016-07-01

    Engagement in risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a significant public health concern. A growing body of literature is elucidating the role of brain systems and neuropsychological constructs implicated in RSB, which may pave the way for novel insights and prevention efforts. In this article, we review studies incorporating neuropsychology into the study of RSB across the lifespan. The review of the literature on the neuropsychology of RSB is separated into three different sections by age of participants. Background is presented on research associating RSB with neurocognitive processes and the brain systems involved. Given the overlap between RSBs and substance use, studies addressing these problems in tandem are also discussed. Neurocognitive constructs are implicated in RSB, including impulsivity, decision-making, and working memory. Thus far, evidence suggest that neuropsychological factors are associated with engagement in RSB. More research on the influence of neuropsychological factors on engagement in RSB is necessary and may help inform future prevention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 586-594).

  2. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  3. Effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened waterglass-containing moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a preliminary research of the effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands, containing sodium waterglass. Strength was determined at ambient temperature, on cylindrical specimens baked in an oven. Moulding sands for examinations were based on high-silica sand with addition of 2.5 % of non-modified, domestic-made waterglass grade 145. The prepared standard cylindrical specimens were hardened using the innovative microwave heating process and next baked for 30 minutes at temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C. Strength parameters of the specimens were determined on the specimens cooled- down to ambient temperature. The obtained results were compared with literature data to evaluate the effect of the applied hardening method and of the special additive on residual strength as a function of baking temperature. A favourable effect was found of both the innovative heating process and the applied bentonite addition.

  4. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as Reproduction II ( b = -.0020, p = .026) and log of the Trail Making Test, Part B (b = .0001, p = .044). Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  7. Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Residual Properties of Quartzite, Granite and Basalt Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, A.; Shariq, M.; Alam, M. Masroor; Ahmad, T.; Beg, A.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, experimental investigations have been carried out to determine the effect of elevated temperature on the residual properties of quartzite, granite and basalt aggregate concrete mixes. Ultrasonic pulse velocity and unstressed residual compressive strength tests on cube specimens have been conducted at ambient and after single heating-cooling cycle of elevated temperature ranging from 200 to 600 °C. The relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity and residual compressive strength of all concrete mixes have been developed. Scanning electron microscopy was also carried out to study micro structure of quartzite, granite and basalt aggregate concrete subjected to single heating-cooling cycle of elevated temperature. The results show that the residual compressive strength of quartzite aggregate concrete has been found higher than granite and basalt aggregate concrete at ambient and at all temperatures. It has also been found that the loss of strength in concrete is due to the development of micro-cracks result in failure of cement matrix and coarse aggregate bond. Further, the basalt aggregate concrete has been observed lower strength due to low affinity with Portland cements ascribed to its ferro-magnesium rich mineral composition.

  8. Effects of hydrated lime on radionuclides stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J; Snyder, Michelle M V; Bowden, Mark E; Triplett, Mark B; Buck, Edgar C

    2017-10-01

    Chemical stabilization of tank residual waste is part of a Hanford Site tank closure strategy to reduce overall risk levels to human health and the environment. In this study, a set of column leaching experiments using tank C-104 residual waste were conducted to evaluate the leachability of uranium (U) and technetium (Tc) where grout and hydrated lime were applied as chemical stabilizing agents. The experiments were designed to simulate future scenarios where meteoric water infiltrates through the vadose zones into the interior of the tank filled with layers of grout or hydrated lime, and then contacts the residual waste. Effluent concentrations of U and Tc were monitored and compared among three different packing columns (waste only, waste + grout, and waste + grout + hydrated lime). Geochemical modeling of the effluent compositions was conducted to determine saturation indices of uranium solid phases that could control the solubility of uranium. The results indicate that addition of hydrated lime strongly stabilized the uranium through transforming uranium to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO 4 ) or similar phase, whereas no significant stabilization effect of grout or hydrated lime was observed on Tc leachability. The result implies that hydrated lime could be a great candidate for stabilizing Hanford tank residual wastes where uranium is one of the main concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on total energy, dry organic matter digestibility and on digestible energy of organic matter for some agricultural residues (maize straw, lentils straw, cottonwood, residues of apple-tree pruning, olive-cake first and second treatment). Sample were irradiated at 0, 50 and 100 KGy. Total energy was estimated by calorimeter. Digestibility was estimated in vitro by the method of Tilly and Terry (1963). Two sheep with rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donating animals. Irradiation resulted in increasing the digestion of organic and dry matter and also the digestible energy of organic matter in all residues used except lentils straw and olive-cake first treatment. The increase in digestible energy values of organic matter (kJ) at dose of 100 KGy were: 155, 105, 71 and 25 for residue of apple-tree pruning, maize straw, cottonwood and olive-cake second treatment, respectively. (author).28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Effects of microstructure and residual stress on fatigue crack growth of stainless steel narrow gap welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Changheui; Cho, Pyung-Yeon; Kim, Minu; Oh, Seung-Jin; Yang, Jun-Seog

    2010-01-01

    The effects of weld microstructure and residual stress distribution on the fatigue crack growth rate of stainless steel narrow gap welds were investigated. Stainless steel pipes were joined by the automated narrow gap welding process typical to nuclear piping systems. The weld fusion zone showed cellular-dendritic structures with ferrite islands in an austenitic matrix. Residual stress analysis showed large tensile stress in the inner-weld region and compressive stress in the middle of the weld. Tensile properties and the fatigue crack growth rate were measured along and across the weld thickness direction. Tensile tests showed higher strength in the weld fusion zone and the heat affected zone compared to the base metal. Within the weld fusion zone, strength was greater in the inner weld than outer weld region. Fatigue crack growth rates were several times greater in the inner weld than the outer weld region. The spatial variation of the mechanical properties is discussed in view of weld microstructure, especially dendrite orientation, and in view of the residual stress variation within the weld fusion zone. It is thought that the higher crack growth rate in the inner-weld region could be related to the large tensile residual stress despite the tortuous fatigue crack growth path.

  11. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shikui; Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D 99 (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D 99 was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a clinically

  12. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shikui, E-mail: shktang@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D{sub 99} (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D{sub 99} was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a

  13. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-01-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained. (paper)

  14. Ethical considerations in geriatric neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas A; Bush, Shane S

    2008-01-01

    The practice of geriatric neuropsychology demands specialized training and experience that enables the practitioner to appreciate the unique challenges and opportunities that are encountered when working with older adults. In addition to maintaining advanced knowledge regarding medical and psychological conditions, assessment issues, and treatment needs specific to older persons, clinicians working with older adults must be prepared to recognize and confront ethical dilemmas that arise. For example, ethical challenges related to professional competence, informed consent, assessment, and privacy and confidentiality may be prominent when working with older persons. Maintaining an emphasis on "positive ethics" and utilizing an ethical decision-making model will promote the practitioner's ability to avoid, identify, and resolve ethical challenges. The present article reviews (1) the concept of positive ethics, (2) a comprehensive ethical decision-making model, and (3) ethical issues that are commonly encountered by geriatric neuropsychologists. A case vignette is presented to illustrate the application of the aforementioned tools to promote ethical practice.

  15. Estimation of average causal effect using the restricted mean residual lifetime as effect measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    with respect to their survival times. In observational studies where the factor of interest is not randomized, covariate adjustment is needed to take into account imbalances in confounding factors. In this article, we develop an estimator for the average causal treatment difference using the restricted mean...... residual lifetime as target parameter. We account for confounding factors using the Aalen additive hazards model. Large sample property of the proposed estimator is established and simulation studies are conducted in order to assess small sample performance of the resulting estimator. The method is also......Although mean residual lifetime is often of interest in biomedical studies, restricted mean residual lifetime must be considered in order to accommodate censoring. Differences in the restricted mean residual lifetime can be used as an appropriate quantity for comparing different treatment groups...

  16. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  17. Modeling the residual effects and threshold saturation of training: a case study of Olympic swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Millet, Gregoire; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frederic; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to model the residual effects of training on the swimming performance and to compare a model that includes threshold saturation (MM) with the Banister model (BM). Seven Olympic swimmers were studied over a period of 4 +/- 2 years. For 3 training loads (low-intensity w(LIT), high-intensity w(HIT), and strength training w(ST)), 3 residual training effects were determined: short-term (STE) during the taper phase (i.e., 3 weeks before the performance [weeks 0, 1, and 2]), intermediate-term (ITE) during the intensity phase (weeks 3, 4, and 5), and long-term (LTE) during the volume phase (weeks 6, 7, and 8). ITE and LTE were positive for w(HIT) and w(LIT), respectively (p measures indicated that MM compares favorably with BM. Identifying individual training thresholds may help individualize the distribution of training loads.

  18. The Technology Crisis in Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Justin B; Barr, William B

    2017-08-01

    Neuropsychology has fallen reliant on outdated and labor intensive methods of data collection that are slow, highly inefficient, and expensive, and provide relatively data-poor estimates of human behavior despite rapid technological advance in most other fields of medicine. Here we present a brief historical overview of current testing practices in an effort to frame the current crisis, followed by an overview of different settings in which technology can and should be integrated. Potential benefits of laboratory based assessments, remote assessments, as well as passive and high-frequency data collection tools rooted in technology are discussed, along with several relevant examples and how these technologies might be deployed. Broader issues of data security and privacy are discussed, as well as additional considerations to be addressed within each setting. Some of the historical barriers to adoption of technology are also presented, along with a brief discussion of the remaining uncertainties. While by no means intended as a comprehensive review or prescriptive roadmap, our goal is to show that there are a tremendous number of advantages to technologically driven data collection methods, and that technology should be embraced by the field. Our predictions are that the comprehensive assessments of the future will likely entail a combination of lab-based assessments, remote assessments, and passive data capture, and leading the development of these efforts will cement the role of neuropsychology at the forefront of cognitive and behavioral science. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  20. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. The Effect of Residual Stress on the Electromechanical Behavior of Electrostatic Microactuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work simulates the nonlinear electromechanical behavior of different electrostatic microactuators. It applies the differential quadrature method, Hamilton's principle, and Wilson-θ integration method to derive the equations of motion of electrostatic microactuators and find a solution to these equations. Nonlinear equation difficulties are overcome by using the differential quadrature method. The stresses of electrostatic actuators are determined, and the residual stress effects of electrostatic microactuators are simulated.

  2. Developments in clinical neuropsychology: implications for school psychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michael J; Scott, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    According to the 2000 Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health, a significant percentage of children and adolescents have emotional or behavioral problems serious enough to merit a mental health diagnosis. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 reemphasized the schools' importance in supporting cognitive and behavioral development in students, particularly those identified with learning problems. In this article, we examine the growing specialty of clinical neuropsychology and provide suggestions for integrating this field into school-based psychological services. This article provides a review of the neuropsychological bases for many childhood learning disorders and addresses how school psychologists can work with clinical neuropsychologists to better address the needs of exceptional children through neuropsychological testing. There is substantial neurological evidence for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as disorders of reading, language, and mathematics. Close collaborative partnerships between clinical neuropsychologists and school psychologists will help develop assessment protocols that are likely to result in more effective intervention services for students with neuropsychological conditions. Schools are being asked to support the physical, cognitive, and emotional development in students, particularly those identified with chronic physical and mental health challenges. Dissatisfaction with minimal screenings, the growing awareness of the neurology of learning disorders, and the passage of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 obliges all school-based mental health providers to consider how to fully integrate the tools of clinical neuropsychology into school-based psychological services. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  3. White matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20-50% as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE. We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years old (100% female, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner. A broad neuropsychological battery was administered, tapping attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. The Total z-score consisted of the combined sum of all neuropsychological measures. In control subjects, we found no significant FA-Total z-score correlations. NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects differed significantly in terms of Total z-score (NPSLE = -2.25+/-1.77, non-NPSLE = -1.22+/-1.03, Controls = -0.10+/-.57; F = 13.2, p<.001. In non-NPSLE subjects, FA within the right external capsule was significantly correlated with Total z-score. In NPSLE subjects, the largest FA-Total z-score clusters were observed within the left anterior thalamic radiation and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subsequent analyses the largest number of significant voxels linked FA with the Processing Speed z-score in NPSLE. The current results reflect objective white matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in both NPSLE and (to a lesser degree in non-NPSLE. non-NPSLE and NPSLE subjects did not differ significantly in terms of depression, as measured by the GDI; thus, previous hypotheses suggesting moderating effects of depression upon neuropsychological performance do not impact the current FA results.

  4. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substances measured in breast milk and child neuropsychological development in a Norwegian birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forns, J.; Iszatt, N.; White, R.A.; Mandal, S.; Sabaredzovic, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Thomsen, C.; Haug, L.S.; Stigum, H.; Eggesbo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are chemicals with potential neurotoxic effects although the current evidence is still limited. This study investigated the association between perinatal exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and neuropsychological

  6. Effect of corn residue harvest method with ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on performance of growing calves and fiber digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T M; Bondurant, R G; Jolly-Breithaupt, M L; Gramkow, J L; Klopfenstein, T J; MacDonald, J C

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of corn residue harvest method on animal performance and diet digestibility. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments using 60 individually fed crossbred steers (280 kg [SD 32] initial BW; = 12). Factors were the corn residue harvest method (high-stem and conventional) and supplemental RUP at 2 concentrations (0 and 3.3% diet DM). A third harvest method (low-stem) was also evaluated, but only in diets containing supplemental RUP at 3.3% diet DM because of limitations in the amount of available low-stem residue. Therefore, the 3 harvest methods were compared only in diets containing supplemental RUP. In Exp. 2, 9 crossbred wethers were blocked by BW (42.4 kg [SD 7] initial BW) and randomly assigned to diets containing corn residue harvested 1 of 3 ways (low-stem, high-stem, and conventional). In Exp. 1, steers fed the low-stem residue diet had greater ADG compared with the steers fed conventionally harvested corn residue ( = 0.03; 0.78 vs. 0.63 kg), whereas steers fed high-stem residue were intermediate ( > 0.17; 0.69 kg), not differing from either conventional or low-stem residues. Results from in vitro OM digestibility suggest that low-stem residue had the greatest ( RUP content (40% of CP) and RUP digestibility (60%) among the 3 residues ( ≥ 0.35). No interactions were observed between harvest method and the addition of RUP ( ≥ 0.12). The addition of RUP tended to result in improved ADG (0.66 ± 0.07 vs. 0.58 ± 0.07 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.08) and G:F (0.116 ± 0.006 vs. 0.095 ± 0.020 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.02) compared with similar diets without the additional RUP. In Exp. 2, low-stem residue had greater DM and OM digestibility and DE ( < 0.01) than high-stem and conventional residues, which did not differ ( ≥ 0.63). Low-stem residue also had the greatest NDF digestibility (NDFD; < 0.01), whereas high-stem residue had greater

  7. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR.

  9. Effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation at 200 C in a welded joint austenitic stainless steel - ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouane, A.I.; Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of heterogeneous welded joints between austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels is evaluated for reactor components and more particularly effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation in a heterogeneous welded joint. Residual stress is measured by the hole method in which a hole is drilled through the center of a strain gage glued the surface of the materials. In the non uniform stress field a transmissibility function is used for residual stress calculation. High compression residual stress in the ferritic metal near the interface ferritic steel/weld slow down fatigue crack propagation. 5 tabs., 15 figs., 19 refs [fr

  10. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR

  11. The effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Genyuan; Wang Huaguo; Qi Mengwen; Wang Fujun; Zhou Changjiu

    1994-01-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with 14 C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with 14 C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit

  12. The effect of commercial processing procedures on {sup 14}C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyuan, Peng; Huaguo, Wang; Mengwen, Qi; Fujun, Wang; Changjiu, Zhou [Laboratory for the Application of Nuclear Techniques, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    1994-06-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with {sup 14}C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with {sup 14}C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit.

  13. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  14. Effects of thinning, residue mastication, and prescribed fire on soil and nutrient budgets in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of thinning followed by residue mastication (THIN), prescribed fire (BURN), and thinning plus residue mastication plus burning (T+B) on nutrient budgets and resin-based (plant root simulator [PRS] probe) measurements of soil nutrient availability in a mixed-conifer forest were measured. ...

  15. The effects of forest residual debris disposal on perennial grass emergence, growth, and survival in a ponderosa pine ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin J. Law; Peter F. Kolb

    2007-01-01

    Soil surface conditions can have profound effects on plant seedling emergence and subsequent seedling survival. To test the hypothesis that different soil-surface treatments with logging residue affect range grass seedling emergence and survival, 6 alternative forest-residual treatments were established in the summer of 1998 following thinning of mature trees from...

  16. The effect of heat treatment on the magnitude and composition of residual gas in sealed silica glass ampoules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, W.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The residual gas pressure and composition in sealed silica glass ampoules as a function of different treatment procedures has been investigated. The dependence of the residual gas on the outgassing and annealing parameters has been determined. The effects of the fused silica brand, of the ampoule fabrication, and of post-outgassing procedures have been evaluated.

  17. Release time of residual oxygen after dental bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide: effect of a catalase-based neutralizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasso, Bárbara; Salomone, Paloma; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    This article assessed the effect of a catalase-based agent on residual oxygen (O2) release from teeth exposed to 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The use of the catalase-based neutralizer agent for 2-3 minutes was able to release residual O2 5 days after exposure to a 35% H2O2-based bleaching gel.

  18. Effect of torrefaction conditions on greenhouse crop residue: Optimization of conditions to upgrade solid characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iáñez-Rodríguez, Irene; Martín-Lara, María Ángeles; Blázquez, Gabriel; Pérez, Antonio; Calero, Mónica

    2017-11-01

    This work investigated the possibility of using a greenhouse crop waste as a fuel, since it is an abundant residue in the Mediterranean area of Spain. The residue is mainly composed by biomass with a little quantity of plastic. The physical and chemical characteristics of the biomass were determined by elemental analysis, proximate analysis, FT-IR, FE-SEM and thermogravimetry. Additionally, a torrefaction process was carried out as a pre-treatment to improve the energy properties of the biomass material. The optimal conditions (time and temperature) of torrefaction were found to be 263°C and 15min using the gain and loss method. Further studies were carried out with the sample prepared with the nearest conditions to the optimal in order to determine the effect of the plastic fraction in the characteristics and torrefaction process of the waste studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabpai, S.; Charerntanyarak, L.; Siri, B.; Moore, M.R.; Noller, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  20. Petroleum residue upgrading with dispersed catalysts: Part 2. Effect of operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, N.; Del Bianco, A.; Del Piero, G. [ENITECNOLOGIE S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Marchionna, M. [SNAMPROGETTI S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Carniti, P. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dip. Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, Via Celoria 20, Milan (Italy)

    2000-12-04

    The hydrotreatment of a petroleum residue in the presence of dispersed molybdenite was carried out within a wide range of operating conditions and catalyst loading. The effect of reaction severity as well as of molybdenum concentration on product distribution and quality was studied. Based on the experimental results, a simplified reaction scheme was proposed. The hydroprocessing of the residue was described in terms of the competition between two reactions: the direct conversion of the feedstock to distillate and coke, and the catalytic hydrogenation. Compared to thermal conditions, the presence of dispersed molybdenite controls very well coke formation; however, a trend of increasing formation of solids was observed at high catalyst concentrations. The overall upgrading of the feedstock requires significant amounts of molybdenum as well as relatively high hydrogen pressure.

  1. Effect of annealing induced residual stress on the resonance frequency of SiO2 microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, effect of residual stress, induced due to annealing of SiO2 microcantilevers (MCs) on their resonance frequency is studied. SiO2MCs of various dimensions were fabricated using direct laser writer & wet chemical etching method and were annealed at 800 °C in oxygen environment, post release. The residual stress was estimated from the deflection profile of the MCs measured using 3D optical microscope, before and after annealing. Resonance frequency of the MCs was measured using nano-vibration analyzer and was found to change after annealing. Further the frequency shift was found to depend on the MC dimensions. This is attributed to the large stress gradients induced by annealing and associated stiffness changes.

  2. Effects on residual stresses of aluminum alloy LC4 by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Lu, Jin-zhong; Kong, De-jun; Yao, Hui-xue; Yang, Chao-jun

    2007-12-01

    The influences of processing parameters on laser-induced shock waves in metal components are discussed and analyzed. The effects of different parameters of laser shock processing (LSP) on residual stress of aerospace aluminum alloy LC4 were investigated. LSP was performed by using an Nd: glass phosphate laser with 23 ns pulse width and up to ~45 J pulse energy at power densities above GW/mm -2. Special attention is paid to the residual stresses from laser shock processing. Modification of microstructure, surface morphology by laser shock processing is also discussed. Results to date indicate that laser shock processing has great potential as a means of improving the mechanical performance of components.

  3. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-01-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions...... including ‘as-large-as-possible’ changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer...... coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely...

  4. Effects of location, thermal stress and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.L.; Cohen, L.M.; Besuner, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (K 1 ) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions both with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute K 1 values from the uncracked stress distribution. For each type of loading K 1 values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for 6 crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced K 1 values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on K 1 of crack location, thermal stress and residual stress, as compared with pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that K 1 for small crack depths is maximised early in the transient, while K 1 for large cracks is maximised later under steady state conditions. Computation should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum K 1 for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on K 1 of location, thermal stresses and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The utilised combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (author)

  5. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. For each type of loading Ksub(I) values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for six crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced Ksub(I) values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on Ksub(I) of crack location, thermal stress, and residual stress as compared to pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that Ksub(I) for small crack depths is maximized early in the transient while Ksub(I) for large cracks is maximized later, under steady state conditions. Ksub(I) computations should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum Ksub(I) for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evalute without advanced numerical procedures. The utilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH APPROACHES TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Mukhitova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the Russian and British approaches to restoration of the highest mental functions in patients with neurological disorders.The applicability of development of effective programs for neuropsychological rehabilitation of neurological patients is represented, where one of the main directions is the reconstruction of higher mental functions.Results. This article shows the importance of cooperation and understanding of specialists among the multidisciplinary team in medical rehabilitation system. The history of origin of the concept «multidisciplinary approach» is cited, it was spoken about by V. M. Bekhterev for the first time, emphasizing the necessity of multidisciplinary study of neuropsychic system of a healthy and ill person. Special aspects of rehabilitation process in Russia and in England were considered. Results of the comparison of neuropsychological rehabilitation models of two countries were presented. Conclusions. Further guidelines of cooperation between Russian and foreign neuropsychologists were identified. The attention is focused on determination of rehabilitation potential and inclusion of the patient and his family in rehabilitation process as it allows to solve problems of insufficiency of motivation, a self-assessment and to prevent emotional violations, increasing quality of life of patients. 

  7. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the Residual Heat Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) transfer heat from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) to the reactor plant Component Cooling System (CCS) to reduce the temperature of the RCS at a controlled rate during the second part of normal plant cooldown and maintains the desired temperature until the plant is restarted. By the use of an analytic tool, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the RHRS, because of its redundant two train design, is able to accommodate any credible component single failure with the only effect being an extension in the required cooldown time, thus demonstrating the reliability of the RHRS to perform its intended function

  8. Effect of the weld groove shape and pass number on residual stresses in butt-welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari-Far, I.; Farahani, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This study used finite element techniques to analyze the thermo-mechanical behaviour and residual stresses in butt-welded pipes. The residual stresses were also measured in some welds by using the Hole-Drilling method. The results of the finite element analysis were compared with experimentally measured data to evaluate the accuracy of the finite element modelling. Based on this study, a finite element modelling procedure with reasonable accuracy was developed. The developed FE modelling was used to study the effects of weld groove shape and weld pass number on welding residual stresses in butt-welded pipes. The hoop and axial residual stresses in pipe joints of 6 and 10 mm thickness of different groove shapes and pass number were studied. It is shown that these two parameters may have significant effects on magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in welded pipes.

  9. A Simplified Model for the Effect of Weld-Induced Residual Stresses on the Axial Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Qiao; Guedes Soares, C.

    2018-03-01

    The present work investigates the compressive axial ultimate strength of fillet-welded steel-plated ship structures subjected to uniaxial compression, in which the residual stresses in the welded plates are calculated by a thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis that is used to fit an idealized model of residual stress distribution. The numerical results of ultimate strength based on the simplified model of residual stress show good agreement with those of various methods including the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Common Structural Rules (CSR), leading to the conclusion that the simplified model can be effectively used to represent the distribution of residual stresses in steel-plated structures in a wide range of engineering applications. It is concluded that the widths of the tension zones in the welded plates have a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the plate slenderness. The effect of residual stress on the axial strength of the stiffened plate is analyzed and discussed.

  10. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  11. Effective deleting of residual photoconductivity in high-resistance layers GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaev, B.S.; Kadirova, I.T.; Sharipov, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of residual photoconductivity as the storage of optical memory (OM) represents practical interest in micro and optoelectronics. The finding - out of the nature OM represents undoubtedly and scientific interest. Now residual photoconductivity (RPC) is explained by potential barriers arising because of non-monocharacteristical of distribution components of the semiconductor or carriers of a current in volume. Depending on a nature non-monocharacteristical the time relaxation RPC changes in a wide limit. The special interest represents RPC created by impurity. In the given work the results of research of a nature RPC created photos by ionization of the filled centres of chrome in compensated epitaxilogic layers arsenide galls are resulted. Epitaxilogic layers were brought up by a vertical method ZFE. Highness was reached (achieved) by special indemnification of the residual donors deep acceptors of chrome. Substrates served n-GoAs. Lassitude of i-layers has made 70-80 microns. Specific resistance of layers has made (1/3) 108 om·sm. (T= 300 K). The structures were photosensitive as at low (T = 77 K) and at room temperatures. The photosensitivity of structures in impurity to a strip of absorption chrome (= 1,4 microns) was comparable (compared) with own. The researches show, that the structures have RPC. Size RPC the greatest ambassador impurity of illumination is carrying out photoionization Cr2 + - of the centres. That is established, RPC impurity of a photocurrent is effectively erased only at certain length of a wave of external illumination

  12. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The ulilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (Auth.)

  13. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  14. The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.

  15. Effectiveness of control strategies against Botrytis cinerea in vineyard and evaluation of the residual fungicide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriolotto, Chiara; Monchiero, Matteo; Negre, Michele; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2009-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to test different control strategies against Botrytis cinerea vineyards. Two commercial vineyards, "Barbera" and "Moscato," located in Piedmont (Northern Italy) were divided into seven plots and treated with different combinations of fungicides including fenhexamid, pyrimethanil, fludioxonil + cyprodinil, iprodione, and boscalid, a new carboxamide compound. An integrated strategy including a chemical (pyrimethanil) and a biocontrol agent (Trichoderma spp. t2/4ph1) was also included. At harvest, the percentage of bunches and berries attacked by B. cinerea and the concentration of the chemical fungicides were determined. All the pesticide residues at harvest were below the maximum residue level (MRL), except when two applications of pyrimethanil per season were applied. Boscalid was the most effective active ingredient against B. cinerea among the tested chemicals. When boscalid application was followed by a treatment with pyrimethanil, its efficacy was similar to that shown by two treatments of pyrimethanil. However, this second strategy was not feasible due to the risks of resistance development in the pathogen and to the residue accumulation as indicated by the analysis.

  16. Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig L; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Peters, Sarika U; Prager, Thomas C; Zou, Yali L; Rozelle, Judith C; Turcich, Marie R; Fraley, J Kennard; Anderson, Robert E; Heird, William C

    2010-12-01

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women were assigned to receive identical capsules containing either a high-DHA algal oil (∼200 mg/d of DHA) or a vegetable oil (containing no DHA) from delivery until 4 months postpartum. Primary outcome variables at 5 years of age were measures of gross and fine motor function, perceptual/visual-motor function, attention, executive function, verbal skills, and visual function of the recipient children at 5 years of age. There were no differences in visual function as assessed by the Bailey-Lovie acuity chart, transient visual evoked potential or sweep visual evoked potential testing between children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo. Children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo performed significantly better on the Sustained Attention Subscale of the Leiter International Performance Scale (46.5 ± 8.9 vs 41.9 ± 9.3, P DHA supplementation versus placebo for the first 4 months of breastfeeding performed better on a test of sustained attention. This, along with the previously reported better performance of the children of DHA-supplemented mothers on a test of psychomotor development at 30 months of age, suggests that DHA intake during early infancy confers long-term benefits on specific aspects of neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermodynamic Effects of Replacements of Pro Residues in Helix Interiors of Maltose-Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, RS; Lingaraju, GM; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by...

  18. Efeito residual de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência em diferentes solos Residual effect of herbicides applied in pre-emergence in different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Inoue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar o efeito residual dos herbicidas ametryne, clomazone e diuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, utilizando amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico e de um Latossolo Vermelho, com texturas e composições contrastantes. Para isso, foram conduzidos seis bioensaios em casa de vegetação, com amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico (textura arenosa e de um Latossolo Vermelho (textura argilosa. Foi avaliado o efeito residual de ametryne (0, 1,60 e 2,40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0,90 e 1,10 kg ha-1 e diuron (0, 1,60 e 3,20 kg ha-1, por meio de semeadura de bioindicador previamente selecionado (Cucumis sativus ou Brachiaria decumbens aos 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a aplicação (DAA. Verificou-se que ametryne proporcionou 80% de controle até os 40 DAA, independentemente do solo e da dose. O clomazone apresentou efeito residual satisfatório quando aplicado na dose recomendada em solo argiloso, mantendo o controle acima de 80% até os 71 DAA. Em solo arenoso, o controle não foi satisfatório já aos 25 DAA, mesmo na dose recomendada para solo argiloso. Diuron apresentou alta estabilidade em solo argiloso, observando-se controle superior a 91% até os 100 DAA na dose recomendada e controle acima de 80% até os 54 DAA na dose recomendada para solo arenoso. No entanto, em solo arenoso não houve aumento do efeito residual, mesmo com a aplicação da dose recomendada para solo argiloso.The objective of this work was to monitor the residual effect of the herbicides ametryne, clomazone and diuron, applied in pre-emergence, using Psament and Red Latosol with contrasting texture and composition. Thus, six experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions with samples of Psament (sandy texture and Red Latosol (clay texture. The residual effect of ametryne (0, 1.60 and 2.40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0.90 and 1.10 kg ha-1 and diuron (0, 1.60 and 3.20 kg ha 1 was evaluated by sowing the test plant (Cucumis sativus or

  19. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  20. Efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha Residual effect of sewage sludge on off-season corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Moraes de Cesare Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Das opções de disposição final do lodo de esgoto, a reciclagem agrícola tem sido uma das mais utilizadas em diversos países desenvolvidos, sendo considerada a forma mais adequada em termos técnicos, econômicos e ambientais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha, após dois anos de aplicação consecutiva desse resíduo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. O experimento foi realizado em campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, e os tratamentos foram os seguintes: testemunha e adubações com lodo de esgoto nas doses de 6, 12, 24 e 36 t ha-1 (peso de matéria seca. Houve efeito residual do uso do lodo de esgoto caleado na produtividade de milho safrinha; a dose de 36 t ha-1 foi estatisticamente superior às doses de 6 e 12 t ha-1.Among the possibilities of final disposal of sewage sludge, agricultural recycling has become one of the most widely used in several developed countries, and is considered the most appropriate in technical, economical and environmental terms. This study aimed at evaluating the sewage sludge residual effect on off-season corn yield on an Eutroferric Red Latossol (Oxisol. The field experiment was in a randomized block design with three replications, with treatments consisting of increasing doses of sewage sludge (0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 t ha-1, on a dry weight basis, applied in the two previous cropping seasons.. The residual effect of the application of lime-stabilized sewage sludge increased the yield of off-season corn; the grain yield under a rate of 36 t ha-1 was statistically higher than those under 6 and 12 t ha-1.

  1. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  2. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  3. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  4. Soluble carbon in oxisol under the effect of organic residue rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lúcia Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic residues to the soil can increase soluble organic carbon (SOC and affect the pH and electrolytic conductivity (EC of the soil. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of residue and the applied dose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing C rates contained in organic residue on the pH, EC, water-extractable total carbon (WETC, water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC, and water-extractable inorganic carbon (WEIC in soil treated with manure (chicken, swine, and quail, sawdust, coffee husk, and sewage sludge. The levels of total C (TC- KH2PO4, organic carbon (OC- KH2PO4, and inorganic C (IC- KH2PO4 extractable by a 0.1 mol L-1 KH2PO4 solution were also quantified in soil under the effect of increasing rates of chicken and quail manures. The following rates of organic residue C were applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol sample: 0, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 mg kg-1. The addition of organic residues to the soil increased pH, except in the case of sewage sludge, which acidified the soil. The acidity correction potential of chicken and quail manure was highest, dependent on the manure rate applied; regardless of the dose used, sawdust barely alters the soil pH. At all tested rates, the EC of the soil treated with swine manure, coffee husk, and sawdust remained below 2.0 dS m-1, which is a critical level for salinity-sensitive crops. However, the application of chicken or quail manure and sewage sludge at certain rates increased the EC to values above this threshold level. Highest levels of WETC, WEOC, and WEIC were obtained when chicken and quail manure and coffee husk were applied to the Oxisol. The quantities of SOC extracted by KH2PO4 were higher than the quantities extracted by water, demonstrating the ability of soil to adsorb C into its colloids.

  5. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  6. Efeito residual de sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen em três solos Residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.D Melo

    2010-12-01

    oxyfluorfen, que apresentou controle praticamente constante em todas as épocas avaliadas, e do sulfentrazone, que mostrou elevado efeito residual ao longo do período avaliado. As características inerentes a cada herbicida, bem como as diferenças nos teores de matéria orgânica e de textura entre os solos, influenciam na persistência do sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen no solo. Maior efeito residual de oxyfluorfen foi observado no solo franco-arenoso e de isoxaflutole no solo argiloso com alto teor de matéria orgânica. Já o sulfentrazone apresentou elevado efeito residual nos três solos estudados.The physical and chemical properties of soils, as well as climatic conditions, influence the behavior of herbicides applied in pre-emergence. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils. The trial was conducted in a protected environment in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications. The treatments for each soil were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial, being three herbicides and five sowing periods after herbicide application. Sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen were applied at 0.5 kg ha-1, 0.72 kg ha-1 and 0.113 kg ha-1, respectively, on plastic pots with 250 mL volume, previously filled with the two clay texture soils and the sandy loam texture soil. Subsequently, the bioindicator species Sorghum bicolor was sown at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after application (DAA. A control with no herbicide treatment was sown at different times for each soil and used as a comparison in the evaluations. At 21 days after sowing in each season, intoxication and plant growth were evaluated by means of shoot dry mass. Sorghum plants in the clay soil with 9.0 dag kg-1 of organic matter (O.M., submitted to the application of isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone and oxyfluorfen, produced shoot dry mass over the control to 34, 20 and 40%, respectively, at 60 DAA. In the sandy loam soil, it was observed a high

  7. Exposure to metals during pregnancy and neuropsychological development at the age of 4 years

    OpenAIRE

    Forns, Joan; Fort, Marta; Casas, Maribel; Cáceres, Alejandro; Guxens, M.; Gascón, Mireia I.; García-Esteban, R.; Júlvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is insufficient epidemiological evidence for deciding whether prenatal exposure to the current low-levels of metals in developed countries may affect neuropsychological function in early childhood. Objectives: Our goal was to evaluate potential neurotoxic effects of prenatal exposure to seven metals (cobalt, copper, arsenic, cadmium, antimony, thallium and lead), during the 1st and 3rd trimester of pregnancy, on child neuropsychological development at 4 years of age. Materia...

  8. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  9. Nonlinear Model of Pseudoelastic Shape Memory Alloy Damper Considering Residual Martensite Strain Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Parulekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increasing interest in using superelastic shape memory alloys for applications in seismic resistant-design. Shape memory alloys (SMAs have a unique property by which they can recover their original shape after experiencing large strains up to 8% either by heating (shape memory effect or removing stress (pseudoelastic effect. Many simplified shape memory alloy models are suggested in the past literature for capturing the pseudoelastic response of SMAs in passive vibration control of structures. Most of these models do not consider the cyclic effects of SMA's and resulting residual martensite deformation. Therefore, a suitable constitutive model of shape memory alloy damper which represents the nonlinear hysterical dynamic system appropriately is essential. In this paper a multilinear hysteretic model incorporating residual martensite strain effect of pseudoelastic shape memory alloy damper is developed and experimentally validated using SMA wire, based damper device. A sensitivity analysis is done using the proposed model along with three other simplified SMA models. The models are implemented on a steel frame representing an SDOF system and the comparison of seismic response of structure with all the models is made in the numerical study.

  10. Effect of residual stresses on the reliability of components under fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestenberg, I.

    1995-01-01

    The assurance of the reliability of mechanical components relative to a variety of failure mechanisms is of decisive technical, industrial, and economic importance. In this dissertation, the reliability, i.e. the probability that the lifetime does not fall below a given value, is examined with respect to the particularly important failure mechanisms of fracture and fatigue. The general problem of uniaxial fatigue is studied on the basis of both continuum damage mechanics and crack mechanics. In particular, the mechanisms of crack initiation, as characterized by the Coffin-Manson-Neuber local strain-life equations for notched components as well as the mechanism of crack growth, as governed by the Paris-Erdogang relation, are taken into account. The nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation process for components subjected to general, cyclic loading histories is modeled by a multilinear damage law which allows, in principle, to characterize the subsequent activation of different fatigue mechanisms. Explicit equations are developed for quintuple-, quadruple-, and triple-linear damage accumulation. Particularly promising appears the triple-linear damage approach which allows, in principle, the identification of a nucleation, an initiation, and a final growth stage up to rupture of fatigue cracks. The beneficial effect of intentionally induced compressive residual stresses on the lifetime of the component is investigated. To this end, an elasto-plastic contact problem, based on Prandtl-Reuss' constitutive equations, is numerically solved, and the residual stress field, as it is typically produced by the mechanical process of cold rolling, is established. Assessments of the effect of adaptation, i.e. the subsequent reduction of the residual stresses due to cyclic in-service loading as well as of the effect of unavoidable surface roughness, introduced by manufacturing processes like forging, are carried out. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  11. Effects of fatigue and environment on residual strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of fatigue, moisture conditioning, and heating on the residual tension strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels were evaluated using specimens made with T300/5208 graphite epoxy in a 16-ply quasi-isotropic layup, with two different buffer strip materials, Kevlar-49 or S-glass. It was found that, for panels subjected to fatigue loading, the residual strengths were not significantly affected by the fatigue loading, the number of repetitions of the loading spectrum, or the maximum strain level. The moisture conditioning reduced the residual strengths of the S-glass buffer strip panels by 10 to 15 percent below the ambient results, but increased the residual strengths of the Kevlar-49 buffer strip panels slightly. For both buffer strip materials, the heat increased the residual strengths of the buffer strip panels slightly over the ambient results.

  12. The effect of crack branching on the residual lifetime of machine components containing stress corrosion cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdowski, R.M.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Speidel, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is presented of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations concerning the effect of crack branching on the reduction of stress intensity at the tip of single cracks. The results indicate that the division of a single crack into n branches reduces the stress intensity at the branch tips by a factor of about 1/√n. This permits branched cracks to grow to larger depths before becoming critical. The implication is that longer residual lifetimes and longer operating times between inspections can be calculated for machine components with growing branched stress corrosion cracks. (author)

  13. Effect of Cover Crop Residues on Some Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Emergence Rate of Potato

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghaffari; G. Ahmadvand; M.R. Ardakani; M.R. Mosaddeghi; F. Yeganehehpoor; M. Gaffari; M. Mirakhori

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study, was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crop residues on speed of seed  potato emergence and percentage of organic carbon, soil specific weight and soil temperature. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu-AliSinaUniversity, in 2008-2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Winter cover crops consisted of rye, barley and oilseed rape, each one with common plant density (rye and barley at...

  14. Effect of Applied Stress and Temperature on Residual Stresses Induced by Peening Surface Treatments in Alloy 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, A.; Gnäupel-Herold, T.; Gill, A.; Vasudevan, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of applied tensile stress and temperature on laser shock peening (LSP) and cavitation shotless peening (CSP)-induced compressive residual stresses were investigated using neutron and x-ray diffraction. Residual stresses on the surface, measured in situ, were lower than the applied stress in LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600 samples (2 mm thick). The residual stress averaged over the volume was similar to the applied stress. Compressive residual stresses on the surface and balancing tensile stresses in the interior relax differently due to hardening induced by LSP. Ex situ residual stress measurements, using XRD, show that residual stresses relaxed as the applied stress exceeded the yield strength of the LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600. Compressive residual stresses induced by CSP and LSP decreased by 15-25% in magnitude, respectively, on exposure to 250-450 °C for more than 500 h with 10-11% of relaxation occurring in the first few hours. Further, 80% of the compressive residual stresses induced by LSP and CSP treatments in Alloy 600 were retained even after long-term aging at 350 °C for 2400 h.

  15. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  16. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachi, Elaine Cristina; Taub, Anita; Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2008-01-01

    Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (Precovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  17. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasri, M R [Department of Radiation Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commision, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs.

  20. Activity and Residual Effect of Two Formulations of Lambdacyhalothrin Sprayed on Palm Leaves to Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazariego-Arana Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity and residual effect of two formulations of lambdacyhalothrin were evaluated with Rhodnius prolixus;laboratory and field tests were conducted in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. The results indicate that the lethal concentrations of the active ingredient of SC (LC50 = 2.37 and LC90 = 8.5 mg, a.i./m² were 4-8 times than those with the insecticide WP applied on R. prolixus bugs in palm leaves, a common building material for thatched roofs. Other investigators in South America recommended applying 30 mg a.i./m² in porous materials; we obtained that the products WP and SC were 3.5 and 16 times more effective on palm leaves. Regarding the evaluation of the residual effects in field spraying, there was up to 15 months persistence after the application of WP in two doses (8.6 mg a.i./m² and 3.752 mg a.i./m² with SC. We consider R. prolixus highly susceptible to the employed pyrethroids; they could be used to control this vector in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

  1. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Ming, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also can recycle agricultural wastes and transform them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue. Physical and chemical characteristics were measured over the course of 63 days of composting. The data indicate that higher temperatures and more rapid moisture removal generally result from a turning treatment of once every 2-4 days than in fewer, or no, turning treatments. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium contents increased in all windrows as the organic matter content decreased, but both the increases and decrease were greater in windrows that were turned more frequently. The reduction of the organic matter mass by 53.7-66.0% for a turning of once every 2-8 days is significantly higher than that for the static windrow (39.1%). Although there is an increase in nitrogen mass loss with an increased turning frequency, lower nitrogen mass losses (12.7-25.7%) in all treatments were noted compared with previous studies. A final compost product with less moisture, less weight, higher nutrient content (N, P, and K), and greater stability was obtained in windrows with turning frequencies of once every 2-4 days, which is recommended when composting pig manure and fungus residue. Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but recycling of agricultural wastes transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for

  2. Differential Effects of Visual-Acoustic Biofeedback Intervention for Residual Speech Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Campbell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors. Eleven child/adolescent participants received ten sessions of visual-acoustic biofeedback and 10 sessions of traditional treatment, with the order of biofeedback and traditional phases counterbalanced across participants. Probe measures eliciting untreated rhotic words were administered in at least three sessions prior to the start of treatment (baseline), between the two treatment phases (midpoint), and after treatment ended (maintenance), as well as before and after each treatment session. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed by outside listeners in a blinded, randomized fashion. Results were analyzed using a combination of visual inspection of treatment trajectories, individual effect sizes, and logistic mixed-effects regression. Effect sizes and visual inspection revealed that participants could be divided into categories of strong responders (n = 4), mixed/moderate responders (n = 3), and non-responders (n = 4). Individual results did not reveal a reliable pattern of stronger performance in biofeedback versus traditional blocks, or vice versa. Moreover, biofeedback versus traditional treatment was not a significant predictor of accuracy in the logistic mixed-effects model examining all within-treatment word probes. However, the interaction between treatment condition and treatment order was significant: biofeedback was more effective than traditional treatment in the first phase of treatment, and traditional treatment was more effective

  3. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.

  4. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.M

    2009-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15 N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  5. Effects of lysine residues on structural characteristics and stability of tau proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsang; Baek, Inchul; Choi, Hyunsung; Kim, Jae In; Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: nass@korea.ac.kr

    2015-10-23

    Pathological amyloid proteins have been implicated in neuro-degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lewy-body diseases and prion related diseases. In prion related diseases, functional tau proteins can be transformed into pathological agents by environmental factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, Aβ-mediated toxicity and covalent modification. These pathological agents are stable under physiological conditions and are not easily degraded. This un-degradable characteristic of tau proteins enables their utilization as functional materials to capturing the carbon dioxides. For the proper utilization of amyloid proteins as functional materials efficiently, a basic study regarding their structural characteristic is necessary. Here, we investigated the basic tau protein structure of wild-type (WT) and tau proteins with lysine residues mutation at glutamic residue (Q2K) on tau protein at atomistic scale. We also reported the size effect of both the WT and Q2K structures, which allowed us to identify the stability of those amyloid structures. - Highlights: • Lysine mutation effect alters the structure conformation and characteristic of tau. • Over the 15 layers both WT and Q2K models, both tau proteins undergo fractions. • Lysine mutation causes the increment of non-bonded energy and solvent accessible surface area. • Structural instability of Q2K model was proved by the number of hydrogen bonds analysis.

  6. Effects of lysine residues on structural characteristics and stability of tau proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongsang; Baek, Inchul; Choi, Hyunsung; Kim, Jae In; Na, Sungsoo

    2015-01-01

    Pathological amyloid proteins have been implicated in neuro-degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lewy-body diseases and prion related diseases. In prion related diseases, functional tau proteins can be transformed into pathological agents by environmental factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, Aβ-mediated toxicity and covalent modification. These pathological agents are stable under physiological conditions and are not easily degraded. This un-degradable characteristic of tau proteins enables their utilization as functional materials to capturing the carbon dioxides. For the proper utilization of amyloid proteins as functional materials efficiently, a basic study regarding their structural characteristic is necessary. Here, we investigated the basic tau protein structure of wild-type (WT) and tau proteins with lysine residues mutation at glutamic residue (Q2K) on tau protein at atomistic scale. We also reported the size effect of both the WT and Q2K structures, which allowed us to identify the stability of those amyloid structures. - Highlights: • Lysine mutation effect alters the structure conformation and characteristic of tau. • Over the 15 layers both WT and Q2K models, both tau proteins undergo fractions. • Lysine mutation causes the increment of non-bonded energy and solvent accessible surface area. • Structural instability of Q2K model was proved by the number of hydrogen bonds analysis.

  7. Modeling the residual effects and threshold saturation of training: a case study of Olympic swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Millet, Grégoire; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to model the residual effects of training on the swimming performance and to compare a model including threshold saturation (MM) to the Banister model (BM). Seven Olympic swimmers were studied over a period of 4 ± 2 years. For three training loads (low-intensity wLIT, high-intensity wHIT and strength training wST), three residual training effects were determined: short-term (STE) during the taper phase, i.e. three weeks before the performance (weeks 0, −1, −2), intermediate-term (ITE) during the intensity phase (weeks −3, −4 and −5) and long-term (LTE) during the volume phase (weeks −6, −7, −8). ITE and LTE were positive for wHIT and wLIT, respectively (P < 0.05). wLIT during taper was related to performances by a parabolic relationship (P < 0.05). Different quality measures indicated that MM compares favorably with BM. Identifying individual training thresholds may help individualizing the distribution of training loads. PMID:15705048

  8. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  9. Effects of residual aberrations explored on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biskupek, Johannes; Hartel, Peter; Haider, Maximilian; Kaiser, Ute

    2012-01-01

    The effects of geometric residual aberrations such as coma B 2 and two-fold astigmatism A 1 on the contrast in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images are investigated on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The individual aberrations are adjusted and set up manually using an imaging C S -corrector. We demonstrate how coma B 2 can be recognized by an experienced user directly in the image and how it blurs the contrast. Even with uncorrected (resolution limiting) spherical aberration C S the coma B 2 has to be considered and must be minimized. Limits for a tolerable coma are given. The experiments are confirmed by image simulations. -- Highlights: ► Individual effects of residual aberrations such as B 2 , A 1 , and C S are demonstrated. ► Experimental HRTEM and simulated images of carbon nanotubes are compared. ► A detection limit of 50 nm B 2 in a single HRTEM image is determined.

  10. Impact of neuropsychological rehabilitation on activities of daily living and community reintegration of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchan, Amrita; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Khan, Nawab Akhtar; Jahan, Masroor; Raman, Rajesh; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2018-01-01

    The present study was targeted to observe the impact of neuropsychological rehabilitation on activities of daily living (ADL) and community reintegration of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Based on purposive sampling technique, ten patients with TBI falling in the age range of 20-40 years and fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were chosen from All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysuru, India. A quasi-experimental design, i.e., nonequivalent control group design was chosen for the study. Patients were assessed on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery for Adults, Cognitive Symptoms Checklist, and Community Integration Questionnaire. Patients in experimental group were given neuropsychological rehabilitation for 6 months. Brainwave-R and Talking Pen were used as rehabilitative tools. Patients with TBI have significant neuropsychological deficits observed in memory, visuo-spatial organization, arithmetic, spelling, writing, fine motor coordination, and executive functioning. Neuropsychological deficits have a major impact on ADL and community reintegration. Neuropsychological rehabilitation is effective in rehabilitating neuropsychological deficits, which in turn leads to improvement in ADL and community reintegration. Neuropsychological rehabilitation should be one of the major goals in rehabilitation procedures for patients with TBI in order to bring overall improvement in them.

  11. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Zachi

    Full Text Available Abstract Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives: The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods: Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results: At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (P<0.05. Paired comparisons of neuropsychological functioning within the exposed group at baseline and 1.5 years later showed poorer immediate memory performance (P<0.05. There were no differences on other measures. Conclusions: Although the literature show signs of recovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  12. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  13. Effects of shot peening on the residual stress of welded SS400 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Hyung; Cheong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of structures is usually determined by welding zone. The tensile residual stress, which is induced by welding, reduces the fatigue life and fatigue strength of welded structures. If we remove the tensile residual stress or induce the compressive residual stress, the fatigue life of welded structures will be improved. The change of hardness and compressive residual stress of welded zone after shot peening was investigated in this paper. The results show that the hardness was increased by shot peening. The residual stress was reduced by shot peening

  14. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds and pesticides residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fkih, Sana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effects of this process of conservation on the polyphenol rate and the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols of quince, of the cocoa and those of sage, then to study its effects on the pesticides residues in the sage sheets. The irradiation of quince polyphenols, increased the polyphenols rate as well as the antioxidant capacity. In the case of cocoa polyphenols, we don't have ace observed many differences between the irradiated and not irradiated samples, and in the case of sage polyphenols, the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity decreased. Finally, irradiation of parathion caused degradation of this molecule, and the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity pf polyphenols of the sheets of sage soaked with parathion was a less decreased than polyphenols of the sheets not soaked with parathion. (Author). 37 refs

  15. Experimental study on effect of roasting, boiling and microwave cooking methods on enrofloxacin antibiotic residues in edible poultry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different cooking processes such as boiling, roasting and microwaving on enrofloxacin residues in muscle, liver and gizzard tissues of broiler chickens. Each of chicks was fed by routine diet and water with %0.05 of enrofloxacine for consecutive 5 days .Then; three locations including breast muscle, liver and gizzard were sampled aseptically from each carcass. Enrofloxacin residue was analyzed using microbial method by plates seeded with Escherichia coli. After doing different phases of the test on raw samples, the positive raw samples cooked by various cooking procedures and we surveyed cooked samples with similar method again for present of residue. The results were show reduction in concentration of enrofloxacin residue after different cooking processes. The most reduction of the residue in cooked meat and gizzard samples related to boiling process and roasting process for cooked liver samples and the highest detectable amount of residue belonged to microwaving process in all cooked samples. Regarding to the results of this study, we can conclude that cooking processes can’t annihilate total amounts of these drug and it can only decrease their amounts and the most of residue in boiling process excreted from tissue to cooking fluid.

  16. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  17. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  18. Effect of residual nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on sugar beet production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veikko Brummer

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary determinations for NO3- and NH4-N in topsoil from nitrogen field experiments are discussed. The amounts of residual nitrogen as well as the dates and depth for sampling are considerd in order to investigate the need of fertilizer-N for continuous sugar beet. Tops ploughed down as manure increased the available soil nitrogen by about 50 kg/ha. In practice nitrogen from fertilizer and farmyard manure given to previous beet crops seems to accumulate in the beet soils of Finland. The concentrations of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in topsoil were low in the spring of 1972 and 1973. NO3-N increased in topsoil during the early summer, and the highest concentrations were found at the beginning of July. Starting from the middle of July the amount of NH4-N began to increase both in topsoil and in subsoil. With increasing amounts of nitrogen in the topsoil the sugar content decreases continuously. Also the α-amio N content of beets correlates with the soil nitrogen. There is experimental evidence that 150 180 kg/ha nitrate nitrogen in topsoil (residual + fertilizer N in early July gives the best economic result. The effects of fertilizer and accumulated soil nitrogen on the sugar beet quality together with som other experimental data have been statistically analysed. Regression coefficients indicated that both forms of nitrogen affected the suger content, the α-amino N concentration and clear juice purity, in a similar way.

  19. Effect of heteroscedasticity treatment in residual error models on model calibration and prediction uncertainty estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruochen; Yuan, Huiling; Liu, Xiaoli

    2017-11-01

    The heteroscedasticity treatment in residual error models directly impacts the model calibration and prediction uncertainty estimation. This study compares three methods to deal with the heteroscedasticity, including the explicit linear modeling (LM) method and nonlinear modeling (NL) method using hyperbolic tangent function, as well as the implicit Box-Cox transformation (BC). Then a combined approach (CA) combining the advantages of both LM and BC methods has been proposed. In conjunction with the first order autoregressive model and the skew exponential power (SEP) distribution, four residual error models are generated, namely LM-SEP, NL-SEP, BC-SEP and CA-SEP, and their corresponding likelihood functions are applied to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model over the Huaihe River basin, China. Results show that the LM-SEP yields the poorest streamflow predictions with the widest uncertainty band and unrealistic negative flows. The NL and BC methods can better deal with the heteroscedasticity and hence their corresponding predictive performances are improved, yet the negative flows cannot be avoided. The CA-SEP produces the most accurate predictions with the highest reliability and effectively avoids the negative flows, because the CA approach is capable of addressing the complicated heteroscedasticity over the study basin.

  20. Effect of residual stress in layered ceramic microcomposites on crack propagation during fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, H.; Strzeszewski, J.; Gebicki, W.

    1998-01-01

    Laminar composites, containing layers of Y-ZrO 2 and either Al 2 O 3 or a mixture of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 have been fabricated using a sequential centrifuging technique of water solutions containing of suspended particles. Controlled crack growth experiments with notched beams of composites were done and showed the significant effect of barrier layer thickness and composition of the crack propagation path during fracture. Distinct crack deflection in alumina layers was observed. The increase of crack deflection angle with the alumina layer thickness was also found. In the case of the barrier layer made of mixture, crack deflection did not occur independently on layer thickness. The observed changes have been correlated with the radial distribution of residual stresses in barrier layers created during cooling of sintered composites from fabrication temperature. The stress found were the result of the differences in the thermal expansion and sintering shrinkage of alumina and zirconia and the crystallographically anisotropic thermal expansion of the alumina. The residual stress distribution has been measured by piezo-spectroscopy based on the optical fluorescence of Cr + dopants in alumina. (author)

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1992-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of doses of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs, as an attempt to improve the nutritive value of these residues in order to utilize theme in animal diets. Ground samples of six residues were irradiated by 137 Cs gamma source (Gammator) at doses of 0, 1, 10, 40, 50, and 100 kilo gray (KGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity, and analysed for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), and Acid detergent Lignin (ADL). The results indicate that gamma irradiation has no effect on crude protein whereas decreased crude fat content. Gamma irradiation has a pronounced effect on decreasing crude fibre contents especially at the highest dose (100 KGy) reaching (%): 30, 21, 15, 17, 21 and 16 for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs respectively with increases in NFE values. NDF decreased by 19.7%, 13%, and 11.5% for wheat straw and maize straw respectively, by 9.3% for maize cobs and barley straw and by 6.6% for cottonwood. The reductions in ADF values were: 8% for cottonwood, 7.3% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 5.7% for wheat straw and barley straw. Gamma irradiation lowered ADL content by 29% for maize cobs, 17.2% for barley straw and by 20.8% and 7.4 for wheat straw and cottonwood respectively. Gamma irradiation (100 KGy) has no effect on ADF, ADL, and cellulose for lentils straw and on hemicellulose for cottonwood. (author). 24 refs., 20 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Marshall L; Mavrolefteros, George; Close, David

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship between premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia, this report examined retrospective ratings of social and school adjustment during three age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) as predictors of neurocognitive performance in 61 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized schizophrenia outpatients. Results indicated greater cognitive deficits when premorbid adjustment was unfavorable, particularly for measures of attention and executive functions. Premorbid number and quality of peer relationships and psychosocial adaptation to the school environment were more closely related to neuropsychological performance during adulthood than were premorbid withdrawal and premorbid academic performance. Early onset of poor premorbid adjustment rather than deterioration from childhood to adolescence was associated with greater neuropsychological disturbance in adulthood. It is suggested that childhood onset of premorbid deficits in selective areas of social and academic adjustment appears to influence the cognitive performance seen in adult schizophrenia. This study is consistent with findings from other related reports; it extends these findings to a larger and clinically stabilized sample.

  3. The neuropsychological profile of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H; Salmon, David P

    2012-04-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from "normal," age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease.

  4. The Neuropsychological Profile of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H.; Salmon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from “normal,” age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22474609

  5. Improved performance and stability of field-effect transistors with polymeric residue-free graphene channel transferred by gold layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Trung, Tran Quang; Jung, Jin-Heak; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-03-07

    One of the most significant issues that occurs when applying chemical-vapor deposited (CVD) graphene (Gr) to various high-performance device applications is the result of polymeric residues. Polymeric residues remain on the Gr surface during Gr polymer support transfer to an arbitrary substrate, and these residues degrade CVD Gr electrical properties. In this paper, we propose that a thin layer of gold be used as a CVD Gr transfer layer, instead of a polymer support layer, to enable a polymer residue-free transfer. Comparative investigation of the surface morphological and qualitative analysis of residues on Gr surfaces and Gr field-effect transistors (GFETs) using two transfer methods demonstrates that gold-transferred Gr, with uniform, smooth, and clean surfaces, enable GFETs to perform better than Gr transferred by the polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In GFETs fabricated by the gold transfer method, field-effect carrier mobility was greatly enhanced and the position of the Dirac point was significantly reduced compared to GFETs fabricated by the PMMA transfer method. In addition, compared to the PMMA-transferred GFETs, the gold-transferred GFETs showed greatly increased stability with smaller hysteresis and higher resistance to gate bias stress effects. These results suggest that the gold transfer method for Gr provides significant improvements in GFET performance and reliability by minimizing the polymeric residues and defects on Gr.

  6. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    population. This study was rated as low quality. One study assessed a specialist nurse intervention in an adult population. This study was rating as very low quality.We rated one study as having unclear risk of bias and one study as having high risk of bias.The CBI study indicated that this intervention could significantly reduce depressive symptoms in people with subthreshold depressive disorder. However, the study assessing the effectiveness of a nurse intervention found no significant benefit for depressive symptoms,but did find that in individuals with the least knowledge of epilepsy, a nurse intervention could increase their knowledge of epilepsy scores. Meta-analysis was not possible as we identified only two studies and they utilised different interventions and outcome measures.Previous research has highlighted the impact of psychological and neuropsychological difficulties experienced by people with epilepsy and the negative effect this has on their quality of life. The main finding of this review is that there is a paucity of research assessing possible neuropsychological and psychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

  7. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Sami F.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Ferrer-Villada, Tania; López-Izquierdo, Angelica; Pandit, Sandeep; Calvo, Conrado J.; Grzeda, Krzysztof R.; Berenfeld, Omer; Sánchez Chapula, José A.; Jalife, José

    2010-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias can be perpetuated by up-regulation of inward rectifier potassium channels. Thus, it may be beneficial to block inward rectifier channels under conditions in which their function becomes arrhythmogenic (e.g., inherited gain-of-function mutation channelopathies, ischemia, and chronic and vagally mediated atrial fibrillation). We hypothesize that the antimalarial quinoline chloroquine exerts potent antiarrhythmic effects by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (IK1), Kir3.1 (IKACh), or Kir6.2 (IKATP) and reducing inward rectifier potassium currents. In isolated hearts of three different mammalian species, intracoronary chloroquine perfusion reduced fibrillatory frequency (atrial or ventricular), and effectively terminated the arrhythmia with resumption of sinus rhythm. In patch-clamp experiments chloroquine blocked IK1, IKACh, and IKATP. Comparative molecular modeling and ligand docking of chloroquine in the intracellular domains of Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir6.2 suggested that chloroquine blocks or reduces potassium flow by interacting with negatively charged amino acids facing the ion permeation vestibule of the channel in question. These results open a novel path toward discovering antiarrhythmic pharmacophores that target specific residues of the cytoplasmic domain of inward rectifier potassium channels.—Noujaim, S. F., Stuckey, J. A., Ponce-Balbuena, D., Ferrer-Villada, T., López-Izquierdo, A., Pandit, S., Calvo, C. J., Grzeda, K. R., Berenfeld, O., Sánchez Chapula, J. A., Jalife, J. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets. PMID:20585026

  8. Effect of residual stress on the integrity of a branch connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Kirstein, O.; Luzin, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new connection to an existing gas pipeline was made by hot-tapping, welding directly onto a pressurised pipeline. The welds were not post-weld heat treated, causing significant residual stresses. The critical weld had residual stresses determined by neutron diffraction using ANSTO's residual stress diffractometer, Kowari. The maximum measured residual stress (290 MPa) was 60% of the yield strength. The magnitudes of errors from a number of sources were estimated. An integrity assessment of the welded branch connection was performed with the measured residual stress values and with residual stress distributions from the BS 7910 and API 579 analysis codes. Analysis using estimates of residual stress from API 579 overestimated the critical crack size. Highlights: ► Residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction in a thick section, non post-weld heat treated ferritic weld. ► There is little published data on these welds. ► The work compares the measured residual stresses with code-based residual stress distributions.

  9. Effect of processing conditions and methods on residual stress in CeO2 buffer layers and YBCO superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Qin Wenfeng; Cui Xumei; Tao Bowan; Tang Jinlong; Li Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    CeO 2 layers have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on (1 1 0 2) sapphire substrate. Microstructure of CeO 2 layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction as functions of substrate temperature. The effects of the substrate temperature on the residual stress have been studied. The results show that residual stress in CeO 2 film decreased with increasing substrate temperature, not the same development tendency as that of thermal stress. This means that the thermal stress is only a fraction of the residual stress. Moreover, YBCO superconducting films were prepared by direct current (DC) sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The residual stress and thermal stress of both YBCO films were measured. PLD processing apparently generated higher intrinsic compressive stresses in comparison to DC sputtering

  10. Effect of cooldown and residual magnetic field on the performance of niobium–copper clad superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present the results of rf measurements on a niobium–copper clad superconducting radio-frequency cavity with different cooldown conditions and residual magnetic field in a vertical test Dewar in order to explore the effect of thermal current induced magnetic field and its trapping on the performance of the cavity. The residual resistance, extracted from the Q 0 (T) curves in the temperature range 4.3–1.5 K, showed no dependence on a temperature gradient along the cavity during the cooldown across the critical temperature up to ~50 K m –1 . The rf losses due to the trapping of residual magnetic field during the cavity cooldown were found to be ~4.3 nΩ μT –1 , comparable to the values measured in bulk niobium cavities. An increase of residual resistance following multiple cavity quenches was observed along with evidence of trapping of magnetic flux generated by thermoelectric currents.

  11. Effect of rolling on the residual stresses and magnetic properties of a 0.5% Si electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.F. de; Sablik, M.J.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Hirsch, T.K.; Machado, R.; Magnabosco, R.; Gutierrez, C.J.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2008-01-01

    Cold-rolled (0-19% of reduction) 0.5% Si electrical steel sheets were studied in detail, including macro and micro residual stress measurements, crystallographic texture, dc-hysteresis curves and iron losses. Even for the smallest deformation, losses increase significantly, with large increase of the hysteresis losses, whereas the anomalous losses reduce slightly. The residual microstresses are ∼150-350 MPa, whereas residual macrostresses are compressive, ∼50 MPa. The large increase of the hysteresis losses is attributed to the residual microstresses. The dislocation density estimated by X-ray diffraction is in reasonable agreement with that predicted from the Sablik et al. model for effect of plastic deformation on hysteresis. The intensity of the texture fibers {1 1 1} and //RD (RD=rolling direction) increases with the reduction

  12. Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, M.; Toparli, M.B.; Smyth, N.; Cini, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Irving, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of laser peen intensity on local residual stress fields in 2024 aluminium. ► Peening induces significant changes in surface topography and local hardness. ► Residual stress at peen spot centre in tension, spot overlap in compression. ► Notched fatigue lives increased; crack morphology correlated to residual stress field. ► Large peening power densities can cause fatigue life reduction in notched samples. - Abstract: Laser peening at a range of power densities has been applied to 2 mm-thick sheets of 2024 T351 aluminium. The induced residual stress field was measured using incremental hole drilling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Fatigue samples were subjected to identical laser peening treatments followed by scribing at the peen location to introduce stress concentrations, after which they were fatigue tested. The residual stresses were found to be non-biaxial: orthogonal to the peen line they were tensile at the surface, moving into the desired compression with increased depth. Regions of peen spot overlap were associated with large compression strains; the centre of the peen spot remaining tensile. Fatigue lives showed moderate improvement over the life of unpeened samples for 50 μm deep scribes, and slight improvement for samples with 150 μm scribes. Use of the residual stress intensity K resid approach to calculate fatigue life improvement arising from peening was unsuccessful at predicting the relative effects of the different peening treatments. Possible reasons for this are explored.

  13. Separation and effect of residual moisture in liquid phase adsorption of xylene on y zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lahot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of p-xylene and m-xylene from C8 aromatic hydrocarbon feed using Y zeolites is investigated. Effect of residual moisture on p-xylene adsorption on BaY was measured in order to optimize the activation temperature of the adsorbent. The results show that with an increase in temperature the moisture on the adsorbent decreases. An optimum loading of moisture is required for adsorption of xylene on the adsorbents. The Everett equation is used to determine the adsorption capacity and selectivity. It has been found that the adsorbents best suited for the separation of p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene and ethyl benzene from the mixture of C8 aromatics are NaY, NaY, BaY and KY, respectively. The XRD results show that the crystallinity of the adsorbent decreases upon exchanging the zeolites to K+ and Ba2+ ions.

  14. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in Zambia. ... The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of age, education and reading ability on neuropsychological tests in Zambia. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Online cognition : Factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, H.E.M.; Vermeulen, I.E.; Murre, J.M.J.; Schagen, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  16. Online cognition : factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Heleen E M; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Murre, Jaap M J; Schagen, Sanne B

    OBJECTIVE: Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper,

  17. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  18. Effect of paste processing on residue levels of imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and fipronil in winter jujube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Zhao, Liuwei; Liu, Fengmao; Xue, Jiaying; Li, Huichen; Shi, Kaiwei

    2014-01-01

    The changes of imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and fipronil residues were studied to investigate the carryover of pesticide residues in winter jujube during paste processing. A multi-residue analytical method for winter jujube was developed based on the QuEChERS approach. The recoveries for the pesticides were between 87.5% and 116.2%. LODs ranged from 0.002 to 0.1 mg kg(-1). The processing factor (Pf) is defined as the ratio of pesticide residue concentration in the paste to that in winter jujube. Pf was higher than 1 for the removal of extra water, and other steps were generally less than 1, indicating that the whole process resulted in lower pesticide residue levels in paste. Peeling would be the critical step for pesticide removal. Processing factors varied among different pesticides studied. The results are useful to address optimisation of the processing techniques in a manner that leads to considerable pesticide residue reduction.

  19. Effects on Machining on Surface Residual Stress of SA 508 and Austenitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Jai Hak

    2011-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking has occurred in dissimilar weld areas in nuclear power plants. Residual stress is a driving force in the crack. Residual stress may be generated by weld or surface machining. Residual stress due to surface machining depends on the machining method, e.g., milling, grinding, or EDM. The stress is usually distributed on or near the surface of the material. We present the measured residual stress for machining on SA 508 and austenitic stainless steels such as TP304 and F316. The residual stress can be tensile or compressive depending on the machining method. The depth and the magnitude of the residual stress depend on the material and the machining method

  20. Differential residual effects of zaleplon and zopiclone on actual driving: a comparison with a low dose of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Annemiek; Riedel, Wim J; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Darwish, Mona; Paty, Isabelle; Patat, Alain

    2002-03-15

    To compare residual effects of zaleplon 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg, and placebo, and a social dose of alcohol on car driving, memory, and psychomotor performance. Two-part placebo controlled, crossover study. Part 1 was single blind, Part 2 double blind. University research institute. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men and 15 women, mean age 32 +/- 7 years) In Part 1 alcohol and alcohol-placebo drinks were administered around noon. In Part 2 single oral doses of zaleplon 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg and placebo were administered at bedtime. A highway driving test, laboratory tests of word learning, critical tracking and divided attention, and subjective assessments of sleep, mood, and effects of treatments on driving. Driving started 40 minutes after a second alcohol dose in Part 1, and 10 hours after drug intake in Part 2. The results demonstrated that alcohol, at average plasma concentrations of approximately 0.030 g/dl, significantly impaired performance in all tests. Zaleplon's residual effects did not differ significantly from those of placebo in any test. In contrast, zopiclone had significant residual effects on driving, divided attention, and memory. The magnitude of impairment in the driving test observed the morning after zopiclone 7.5 mg was twice that observed with alcohol. Zaleplon 10 mg has no residual effects on driving when taken at bedtime, 10 hours before driving. In contrast, zopiclone 7.5 mg can cause marked residual impairment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving the morning after zopiclone administration.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on residual nitrate and nitrite in some meat and chicken products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, S.A.; Abdel-Daiem, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish the residual nitrate and nitrite and concentrations of six heavy metals in meat products samples that purchased from retail outlets in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. The possibility of using gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy for reducing residual nitrate and nitrite was studied. The results showed that most of samples under investigation above the maximum permissible limit of nitrate in Egypt. Gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy reduced the levels of nitrate and nitrite proportionally to applied doses. The irradiation dose of 7 KGy was more effective for reducing the level of residual nitrate and nitrite. Heavy metals concentrations were determined using the inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICPS) in non-irradiated samples. The results showed that the concentration of Pb in meat products was ranged between 0.643-0.828, 0.548, 0.598-0.844, 0.574-0.877, 0.324-0.568 and 0.156-0.432 mg/kg (wet weight basis) in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and minced beef meat, respectively, but the values of Hg ranged between 0.0965-0.839, 0.121, 0.147-0.218, 0.114-0.258, 0.087-0.143 and 0.057-0.124 mg/kg in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. The content of iron ranged between 0.336, 0.362-4.284, 0.364-0.611, 0.264-0.336 and 0.276-0.314 mg/kg in chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. However, the results indicated that, the most of meat products under investigation had high concentrations from toxic metals of Pb and Hg than the permissible limits that recommended by FAO/WHO of person daily. Therefore, the consumption of high amount of these commodities dose not pose a health risk for the consumer

  2. Neuropsychological Evaluation in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmon, David C.; Smerz, Jessica M.

    2005-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of Tourettes syndrome is reviewed for the purpose of presenting a clinically relevant account of the neuropsychology of the disorder for the clinician who is behaviorally oriented. The neuropathology and neuropsychological deficits typically found in Tourettes are reviewed, and a neuropsychological test battery is…

  3. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  4. Effect of Residence Time on Hydrothermal Carbonization of Corn Cob Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization is a promising technique for conversion of industrial waste into valuable products. Producing hydrochar from corn cob residual (CCR in a cost-effective way is key, from an economic standpoint. For this purpose, the effect of residence time in the range of 0.5 to 6 h was studied under the optimal temperature of 250 °C. Results showed that the higher heating value (HHV of hydrochar increased approximately 40% in comparison to that of the raw material; however, prolonging the residence time beyond 0.5 h had a negligible effect on the HHV increase. Chemical compositions and H/C and O/C ratios of hydrochars revealed a minimal effect of longer residence time. Furthermore, thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of hydrochars also verified that the pyrolysis behavior and chemical structure of hydrochars with various residence times were similar.

  5. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  6. Effect of prior machining deformation on the development of tensile residual stresses in weld-fabricated nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevey, P.S.; Mason, P.W.; Hornbach, D.J.; Molkenthin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard SCC, depending on their magnitude and sign. A combined x-ray diffraction and mechanical procedure was used to determine the axial and hoop residual stress and yield strength distributions into the inside-diameter surface of a simulated Alloy 600 penetration J-welded into a reactor pressure vessel. The degree of cold working and the resulting yield strength increase caused by prior machining and weld shrinkage were calculated from the line-broadening distributions. Tensile residual stresses on the order of +700 MPa were observed in both the axial and the hoop directions at the inside-diameter surface in a narrow region adjacent to the weld heat-affected zone. Stresses exceeding the bulk yield strength were found to develop due to the combined effects of cold working of the surface layers during initial machining and subsequent weld shrinkage. The residual stress and cold work distributions produced by prior machining were found to influence strongly the final residual stress state developed after welding

  7. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  8. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  9. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  10. Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Neuropsychologic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The neuropsychologic performance of 27 children (about 6 to 13 years old) with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated and correlated with their serum phenylalanine concentrations at several ages. (Author/SEW) Journal Availability: The Journal of Pediatrics; The C. V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, MO 63141.

  11. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  12. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  13. Use of the Rorschach test in neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ožura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Rorschach test is widely used as a part of the assessment in clinical psychology in the world. It is also often used as a part of neuropsychological assessment in our unit at Division of Neurology in Ljubljana. We are presenting a review of clinically relevant information for the use of the Rorschach test in clinical practice with an emphasis on neuropsychology. The Rorschach test was considered a controversial instrument in the past. We are presenting a summary of research on its utility and psychometric characteristics. The number of studies in the field of neuropsychological application of the Rorschach test is limited. We describe theoretical models of cognitive processes involved in the process of solving the Rorschach test as a problem solving test apart from projection processes. The test however still lacks a theoretical basis formed on the brain behavior relations that is needed for every neuropsychological test. Nevertheless we noticed a recent growing interest in the published literature for finding neurological correlates of the response process in this test. Our research with patients with multiple sclerosis performed is described. We state implications for further research.

  14. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A cost-effective screening method for pesticide residue analysis in fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, A; Füzesi, I; Susán, M; Dobi, D; Lantos, J; Zakar, F; Korsós, I; Oláh, J; Beke, B B; Katavics, L

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of studies performed to investigate the potential of applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection in combination with selected extraction and cleanup methods, for providing an alternative cost-effective analytical procedure for screening and confirmation of pesticide residues in plant commodities. The extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and an on-line extraction method applying an acetone-dichloromethane mixture. The extracts were cleaned up with SX-3 gel, an adsorbent mixture of active carbon, magnesia, and diatomaceous earth, and on silica micro cartridges. The Rf values of 118 pesticides were tested in eleven elution systems with UV, and eight biotest methods and chemical detection reagents. Cabbage, green peas, orange, and tomatoes were selected as representative sample matrices for fruits and vegetables, while maize, rice, and wheat represented cereal grains. As an internal quality control measure, marker compounds were applied on each plate to verify the proper elution and detection conditions. The Rf values varied in the different elution systems. The best separation (widest Rf range) was achieved with silica gel (SG)--ethyl acetate (0.05-0.7), SG--benzene, (0.02-0.7) and reverse phase RP-18 F-254S layer with acetone: methanol: water/30:30:30 (v/v) (0.1-0.8). The relative standard deviation of Rf values (CV(Rf)) within laboratory reproducibility was generally less than 20%, except below 0.2 Rf, where the CVRf rapidly increased with decreasing Rf values. The fungi spore inhibition, chloroplast inhibition, and enzyme inhibition were found most suitable for detection of pesticides primarily for confirming their identity or screening for known substances. Their use for determination of pesticide residues in samples of unknown origin is not recommended.

  16. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. Methods We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively. Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. Results During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05. During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  17. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effect of Cover Crop Residues on Some Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Emergence Rate of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crop residues on speed of seed  potato emergence and percentage of organic carbon, soil specific weight and soil temperature. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu-AliSinaUniversity, in 2008-2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Winter cover crops consisted of rye, barley and oilseed rape, each one with common plant density (rye and barley at 190 kg.ha-1 and oilseed rape at 9 kg.ha-1 and triple plant densities(rye and barley 570 kg.ha-1 and oilseed rape, 27 kg.ha-1 and control (without cover crop. The results showed that rye and barley with triple plant densities produced higher biomass (1503.5 and 1392.2 g/m2, respectively than other treatments.Soil physicochemical properties were affected significantly by using cover crops. Rye, barley, and oilseed rape with triple rate and rye with common rape of plant densities produced, the highest organic carbon. Green manure of rye and barley with triple and rye with common rate plant densities, reduced soil specific weights by 17.3, 18 and 18 percent as compared with the control treatment (without cover crop planting. Rye and barley with triple plant densities increased average soil temperature by 12 and 11 percent respectively in comparison with control treatment. These treatments increased speed of seed potato emergence by 20 and 12 percent respectively as compared with that of control treatment, respectively. Other treatments showed no significant difference as compared to control. Cover crop residues increased plants speed of seed potato emergence through improving soil conditions.

  19. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  20. Effects of residual hearing on cochlear implant outcomes in children: A systematic-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2017-09-01

    to investigate if preoperative residual hearing in prelingually deafened children can interfere on cochlear implant indication and outcomes. a systematic-review was conducted in five international databases up to November-2016, to locate articles that evaluated cochlear implantation in children with some degree of preoperative residual hearing. Outcomes were auditory, language and cognition performances after cochlear implant. The quality of the studies was assessed and classified according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence table - 2011. Risk of biases were also described. From the 30 articles reviewed, two types of questions were identified: (a) what are the benefits of cochlear implantation in children with residual hearing? (b) is the preoperative residual hearing a predictor of cochlear implant outcome? Studies ranged from 04 to 188 subjects, evaluating populations between 1.8 and 10.3 years old. The definition of residual hearing varied between studies. The majority of articles (n = 22) evaluated speech perception as the outcome and 14 also assessed language and speech production. There is evidence that cochlear implant is beneficial to children with residual hearing. Preoperative residual hearing seems to be valuable to predict speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation, even though the mechanism of how it happens is not clear. More extensive researches must be conducted in order to make recommendations and to set prognosis for cochlear implants based on children preoperative residual hearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  2. Effects of Cutting Edge Microgeometry on Residual Stress in Orthogonal Cutting of Inconel 718 by FEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Zhanqiang; Hua, Yang; Zhao, Jinfu; Lv, Woyun; Mohsan, Aziz Ul Hassan

    2018-06-14

    Service performance of components such as fatigue life are dramatically influenced by the machined surface and subsurface residual stresses. This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the influence of cutting edge microgeometry on machined surface residual stresses during orthogonal dry cutting of Inconel 718. Numerical and experimental investigations have been conducted in this research. The cutting edge microgeometry factors of average cutting edge radius S¯, form-factor K , and chamfer were investigated. An increasing trend for the magnitudes of both tensile and compressive residual stresses was observed by using larger S¯ or introducing a chamfer on the cutting edges. The ploughing depth has been predicted based on the stagnation zone. The increase of ploughing depth means that more material was ironed on the workpiece subsurface, which resulted in an increase in the compressive residual stress. The thermal loads were leading factors that affected the surface tensile residual stress. For the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 2, the friction between tool and workpiece and tensile residual stress tended to be high, while for the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 0.5, the high ploughing depth led to a higher compressive residual stress. This paper provides guidance for regulating machine-induced residual stress by edge preparation.

  3. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  5. Effectiveness of the compound chlorpyrifos+ cypermethrin+citronellal against Alphitobius diaperinus: laboratory analysis and residue determination in carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness, biological security and the absence of residues in meat and/or eggs must be considered when recommending options for the control Alphitobius diaperinus in poultry production environments. This research study evaluated the effectiveness of cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos+citronellal in the control of A. diaperinus, including analysis for the presence of residues of this compound in poultry carcasses (experimental farm. Two studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. One used paper filters a four dilutions of the compound, and the other used a container including with pulverized broiler litter and the compound. The analysis of carcasses for residues was conducted in broilers that raised in a broiler house treated (floor and/or litter with the compound at a dilution of 1:800. Birds were regularly sacrificed, submitted to necropsy, and liver, muscle and fat fragments were collected. Gas chromatography was used to identify the possible presence of any chemical residue in these samples. High effectiveness rates against A.diaperinus were observed in the two laboratory studies, as well as the absence of residues in the carcasses. This compound, used in the studied concentrations, can be recommended as a valuable alternative for the control and treatment of A. diaperinus.

  6. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element in the environment. Higher levels of As in soils may result from various anthropogenic sources such as use of arsenical pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes, and coal combustion. This is of great environmental and human health concern due to the high toxicity and proven carcinogenicity of several arsenical species. Thus there is a need for developing cost effective technologies capable of lowering bioavailable As concentrations in soils to environmentally acceptable levels. In-situ immobilization of metals using inexpensive amendments such as minerals (apatite, zeolite, or clay minerals) or waste by-products (steel shot, beringite, and iron-rich biosolids) to reduce bioavailability is an inexpensive alternative to the more expensive ex-situ remediation methods. One such emerging in-situ technique is the application of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). WTRs can be classified as a byproduct of drinking water treatment plants and are generally composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. WTRs possess amorphous structure and generally have high positive charge. Because As is chemically similar to phosphorus, the oxyanions As (V) and As (III) may have the potential of being retained by the WTRs. Thus, it is hypothesized that WTRs retain As irreversibly, thereby reducing As biavailability. As mobility of arsenic is controlled by adsorption reactions, knowledge of adsorption of As by WTRs is of primary relevance. Although the overall rate of adsorption is dependent on numerous factors, review of the literature indicates that competing ions in solution play an important role in the overall retention of As; however, little work has been conducted to identify which ions provide the most competition. As arsenic adsorption appears to be influenced by the variable pH-dependent charges developed on the soil particle surfaces, the effect of pH is also of critical importance. Hence, the

  7. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under field conditions and its residuals effects to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, M; Žigon, D; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2017-05-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment. The rates of enrofloxacin degradation and the degree of degradation product formation in the manure heap incubated in the environment were condition specific, both variables depending on the manure sampling depth. The degradation half-lives ranged from 12.7 to 38.1 days for enrofloxacin and from 1.2 to 8.2 days for the main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Only the cucumber showed signs of toxicity when incubated with the composted manure immediately after transfer into field occurred (t = 0). No toxic effects to plants were observed when manure from the last incubation day (60th) of the field study and manure from the last incubation day of the laboratory degradation study were applied. The degradation study under field conditions showed that enrofloxacin and its degradation products degrade fast in the environment. Additionally, the toxic effects to plants decrease with the incubation time of manure containing enrofloxacin residuals.

  8. Effect of the weld joint configuration on stressed components, residual stresses and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, Bekir; Oezer, Alpay; Oezcatalbas, Yusuf [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the weld joint configuration on components has been studied, which are under service loads, under repair or construction and the residual stresses as well as the mechanical properties of the joint have been determined. For this purpose, a horizontal positioned tensile testing device and a semi-automatic MIG welding machine have been used and then the weld joints of the plates were subjected to different elastic stresses. When the temperature of the joined elements decreased to room temperature, applied elastic stresses were released. By this means, the effects of the existing tensile stresses in the joined parts and the tensile stresses created by the welding processes were investigated. The tensile stresses occurring in the joined elements were determined by using the photo-elasticity analysis method and the hole-drilling method. Also, tensile-shear tests were applied in order to determine the effect of permanent tensile loads on the mechanical properties of the joint. Experimental results showed that the application of corner welded lap joints for components under tensile loading significantly decrease the shear strength and yielding capacities of the joint. (orig.)

  9. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.

  10. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery efficiencies in crop production systems of China with and without consideration of the residual effect of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ti, Chaopu; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Vitousek, Peter; Chen, Deli; Leip, Adrian; Cai, Zucong

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest consumer of synthetic nitrogen (N), where very low rates of fertilizer N recovery in crops have been reported, raising discussion around whether fertilizer N use can be significantly reduced without yield penalties. However, using recovery rates as indicator ignores a possible residual effect of fertilizer N—a factor often unknown at large scales. Such residual effect might store N in the soil increasing N availability for subsequent crops. The objectives of the present study were therefore to quantify the residual effect of fertilizer N in China and to obtain more realistic rates of the accumulative fertilizer N recovery efficiency (RE) in crop production systems of China. Long-term spatially-extensive data on crop production, fertilizer N and other N inputs to croplands in China were used to analyze the relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input (or total N input), and to estimate the amount of residual fertilizer N. Measurement results of cropland soil N content in two time periods were obtained to compare the change in the soil N pool. At the provincial scale, it was found that there is a linear relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input or total N input. With the increase in fertilizer N input, annual direct fertilizer N RE decreased and was indeed low (below 30% in recent years), while its residual effect increased continuously, to the point that 40–68% of applied fertilizer was used for crop production sooner or later. The residual effect was evidenced by a buildup of soil N and a large difference between nitrogen use efficiencies of long-term and short-term experiments. (paper)

  12. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment

  13. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment.

  14. Neuropsychological evaluation of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy or radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasa, S; Olsnes, B T; Mastekaasa, A

    1988-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate possible central nervous system dysfunction in patients treated with chemotherapy. Ninety-five patients with non-small cell lung cancer limited disease were randomized to either radiotherapy (2.8 Gyx15) or combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. In order to evaluate cognitive functions three neuropsychological tests were applied: Trail Making, Benton Visual Retention Test and Verbal Learning. Changes in the patients' test scores before and after treatment were compared. The chemotherapy patients showed reduced performance on some of the neuropsychological tests compared to the radiotherapy group. This indicates a treatment related effect on the central nervous system, possibly caused by the combination chemotherapy.

  15. Neuropsychological evaluation of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with combination chemotherapy or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, S.; Olsnes, B.T.; Mastekaasa, A.

    1988-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests were used to evaluate possible central nervous system dysfunction in patients treated with chemotherapy. Ninety-five patients with non-small cell lung cancer limited disease were randomized to either radiotherapy (2.8 Gyx15) or combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide. In order to evaluate cognitive functions three neuropsychological tests were applied: Trail Making, Benton Visual Retention Test and Verbal Learning. Changes in the patients' test scores before and after treatment were compared. The chemotherapy patients showed reduced performance on some of the neuropsychological tests compared to the radiotherapy group. This indicates a treatment related effect on the central nervous system, possibly caused by the combination chemotherapy. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of effect of post weld heat treatment conditions on residual stress for ITER blanket shield blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun-Chea, E-mail: hcjung@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sa-Woong [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Hee [Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Wook [Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Min-Su; Shim, Hee-Jin [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • PWHT for ITER blanket shield block should be performed for dimensional stability. • Investigation of the effect of PWHT conditions on properties was performed. • Instrumented indentation method for evaluation of properties was used. • Residual stress and hardness decreased with increasing PWHT temperature. • Optimization of PWHT conditions would be needed for satisfaction of requirement. - Abstract: The blanket shield block (SB) shall be required the tight tolerance because SB interfaces with many components, such as flexible support keypads, First Wall (FW) support contact surfaces, FW central bolt, electrical strap contact surfaces and attachment inserts for both FW and Vacuum Vessel (VV). In order to fulfil the tight tolerance requirement, stress relieving shall be performed for dimensional stability after cover welding operation. In this paper, effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) conditions, temperature and holding time, was investigated on the residual stress and hardness. The 316L Stainless Steel (SS) was prepared and welded by manual TIG welding by using filler material with 2.4 mm of diameter. Welded 316L SS plate was machined to prepare the specimen for PWHT. PWHT was implemented at 250, 300, 400 °C for 2 and 3 h (400 °C only) and residual stress after relaxation were determined. The evaluation of residual stress and hardness for each specimen was carried out by instrumented indentation technique. The residual stress and hardness were decreased with increasing the heat treatment temperature and holding time.

  17. Effects of pulse-to-pulse residual species on discharges in repetitively pulsed discharges through packed bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for conversion of toxic and waste gases, and CO2 removal. These discharges are repetitively pulsed having varying flow rates and internal geometries, which results in species from the prior pulse still being in the discharge zone at the time the following discharge pulse occurs. A non-negligible residual plasma density remains, which effectively acts as preionization. This residual charge changes the discharge properties of subsequent pulses, and may impact important PBR properties such as chemical selectivity. Similarly, the residual neutral reactive species produced during earlier pulses will impact the reaction rates on subsequent pulses. We report on results of a computational investigation of a 2D PBR using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM. Results will be discussed for air flowing though an array of dielectric rods at atmospheric pressure. The effects of inter-pulse residual species on PBR discharges will be quantified. Means of controlling the presence of residual species in the reactor through gas flow rate, pulse repetition, pulse width and geometry will be described. Comparisons will be made to experiments. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  18. Effects of the residual proton-neutron interaction in the development of collectivity in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread effects of the residual T=0 proton-neutron (p-n) interaction in the evolution of nuclear structure are discussed. Although these effects in inducing single nucleon configuration mixing, and hence in the development of non-spherical nuclear shapes, collectivity, and the associated shape and phase transitions have been known for four decades, it is only in recent years that their deep ramifications have become more fully appreciated. This had led to a unified phenomenological understanding of the role of the p-n interaction in nuclear collectivity and to, for example, the proposal of the N p N n scheme and the associated concept of the P factor, which is a normalized value of N p N n reflecting the average number of p-n interactions per valence nucleon. Simultaneously, experimentally-determined p-n matrix elements for many nuclei have been extracted: they disclose striking anomalies for N=Z nuclei, and intriguing microstructure. These developments and empirical results will be discussed along with microscopic calculations that can be used to interpret them. 18 refs., 13 figs

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on cell-wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 150 kilogray (kGy) of γ irradiation on cell-wall constituents of cottonwood (CW), lentils straw (LS), apple pruning products (AP) and olive cake (OC) were investigated. Samples were irradiated by γ irradiation at a dose level of 150 kGy under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that γ irradiation decreased CF contents by about 29% for CW, LS and AP and by 17% for OC. NDF values were also decreased by about 4% for CW and OC, and by about 12% for LS and AP. γ irradiation treatment also decreased ADF values only for CW by 8%. ADL contents decreased by 8% for CW and 5% for OC with no effects for LS and AP. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 30, 34, 38 and 20% for CW, LS, AP and OC, respectively. Also, the percentage of hemicellulose (HCL):CF increased for 57% for CW and 16% for OC and decreased by 7% for LS and AP. The percentage of HCL:ADL increased by 22% for CW but decreased by 33% for LS and AP with no changes for OC. There were no changes in CL:ADL ratio for all residues. (Author)

  20. Sex differences in neuropsychological performance and social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Simonsen, Carmen; Hellvin, Tone; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2011-07-01

    To investigate sex differences in neurocognition and social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and the possible role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. Participants with schizophrenia (60 women/94 men), bipolar I disorder (55 women/51 men), and healthy controls (158 women/182 men) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery and a social functioning questionnaire. We found significant main effects of sex for neuropsychological tests (p neuropsychological tests (except attention and working memory). Both clinical groups performed below healthy controls for all neuropsychological tests (except attention). Post hoc comparisons of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls yielded significant interaction effects (p neuropsychological tests (California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Color-Word Interference, and Interference/Switching), with men with schizophrenia being disproportionally disadvantaged compared with their female counterparts. Regression analyses investigating sex as a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning showed that neurocognition predicted social functioning in schizophrenia, whereas sex predicted social functioning in healthy controls. Sex was not a moderator in any of the three groups. This study is the first to find neurocognitive sex differences for bipolar disorder and replicated previous findings for schizophrenia. The data did not support the hypothesis that sex is a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning. Clinical implications include the use of different cognitive remediation strategies based on sex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostics and Neuropsychological Correction of Children with Neurosis-Like Enuresis and Encopresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereskin D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of a work with a group of children with enuresis (six patients and encopresis (one patient both of residual-organic origin is analyzed in this article. Work included psychological diagnostic techniques and psychological correction. Psychological diagnostic evaluation was directed to the measurements of different characteristics of sensorimotor reactions, memory, attention and cognitive functions. Functional characteristics of the central nervous system in children with enuresis and encopresis were approximated to those recorded in their healthy peers, while the cognitive functions in present group of children were lower. Psychological correction has included neuropsychological methods, which were aimed at the development of: visual-motor coordination, spatio-temporal organization relations and logic constructions understanding. Based on children's and parent's self-reports and based on medical records also it can be assumed that proposed psychological correction can be effective in enuresis and encopresis in children with similar characteristics, which can be observed. The significance of the functional indices evaluation of the central nervous system by measuring various characteristics of sensorimotor reactions substantiate by results obtained.

  2. Dynamic effects of soil bulk density on denitrification and mineralisation by 15N labelled lettuce residue and paper wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Cheng Qing; Vinten, A.J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Two laboratory incubation experiments aimed to study the denitrification and mineralisation influenced by different additives ( 15 N labelled lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both) and soil bulk densities were carried out by means of acetylene inhibition at the constant 15 degree C for 107 and 90 days, respectively. The results showed that the changes of N 2 O, CO 2 emission rates, inorganic nitrogen (NO 3 - and NH 4 + ), total N and 15 N abundance in the soils which were affected by adding lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both were investigated. Soil denitrification rate increased after lettuce residue was added into soil for 8 days. The maximum rate of N 2 O emission was 15 times higher than that in soil without any additive. However, paper wastes did not increase N 2 O emission in the first 8 days compared with other treatments, mixed residue and paper wastes could promote soil microbial activity, but N 2 O emission was lower than that in the soil with lettuce residue added and higher than that with paper wastes, indicating that mixture of residue and paper wastes was benefit to soil nitrogen immobilisation. CO 2 emission in all the treatments were declined to the same level on the 107 th day. In the treatment added mixed residues and paper wastes, the released CO 2 quantities were higher than those in other treatments every day. Effect of different bulk density on N 2 O and CO 2 emission were response to the change of bulk density, it seems that N 2 O and CO 2 emission increased with bulk density. High bulk density could affect decomposition of paper wastes and NO 3 - , NH 4 + concentration. (30 ref., 10 tabs.)

  3. Laser quench hardening of steel: Effects of superimposed elastic pre-stress on the hardness and residual stress distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserve, Justin

    Cold drawn AISI 4140 beams were LASER surface hardened with a 2 kW CO2 LASER. Specimens were treated in the free state and while restrained in a bending fixture inducing surface tensile stresses of 94 and 230 MPa. Knoop hardness indentation was used to evaluate the through thickness hardness distribution, and a layer removal methodology was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution. Results showed the maximum surface hardness attained was not affected by pre-stress during hardening, and ranged from 513 to 676 kg/mm2. The depth of effective hardening varied at different magnitudes of pre-stress, but did not vary proportionately to the pre-stress. The surface residual stress, coinciding with the maximum compressive residual stress, increased as pre-stress was increased, from 1040 MPa for the nominally treated specimens to 1270 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. The maximum tensile residual stress observed in the specimens decreased from 1060 MPa in the nominally treated specimens to 760 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. Similarly, thickness of the compressive residual stress region increased and the depth at which maximum tensile residual stress occurred increased as the pre-stress during treatment was increased Overall, application of tensile elastic pre-stress during LASER hardening is beneficial to the development of compressive residual stress in AISI 4140, with minimal impact to the hardness attained from the treatment. The newly developed approach for LASER hardening may support efforts to increase both the wear and fatigue resistance of parts made from hardenable steels.

  4. Allergy medication in Japanese volunteers: treatment effect of single doses on nocturnal sleep architecture and next day residual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julia; Eriksson, Malin; Stanley, Neil; Fujita, Tomoe; Kumagi, Yuji

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of two histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists on nocturnal sleep architecture and on next day cognitive function and psychomotor performance. This was a single-site, randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover study, comparing the effects of a single dose of chlorpheniramine (6 mg), fexofenadine (120 mg) and placebo in 18 healthy (male and female) Japanese volunteers aged 20-55 years. Volunteers were resident for 3 days and each period was separated by a minimum 5-day washout period. The three treatments were administered at 23.00 h. Overnight sleep was measured from 23.00 h to 07.00 h using polysomnography. Residual effects were studied at 07.00 h and 9.00 h the next morning, with the latency to sleep (sleep latency test) measured at 09.30 h. Compared with placebo, chlorpheniramine increased the latencies to sleep onset and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (p < or = 0.05 for both), and reduced the duration of REM sleep (p residual effects the next morning were concerned there were decrements in performance with chlorpheniramine, but not with fexofenadine. Chlorpheniramine 6 mg impaired divided attention (p < 0.001), vigilance (p < 0.05), working memory (p < 0.0001) and sensori-motor performance (p < 0.01), and the latency to daytime sleep was reduced (p < 0.0001). Six adverse events possibly related to study medication were reported during the study, three of which were related to placebo, two to fexofenadine and one to chlorpheniramine. These findings suggest that a single nocturnal dose of fexofenadine has advantages over the first-generation antihistamine chlorpheniramine, being free of disruption of night-time sleep and detrimental effects on cognitive performance the next day. It is likely that this advantage will remain with chronic ingestion, but this would need to be confirmed.

  5. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  7. A pilot study investigating the effects of rosiglitazone on performance in neuropsychological tests in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peers, P.V.; Semple, J.; Lai, R.Y.K.; Smith, G.R.; Altman, J.; Risner, M.; Riedel, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Rosiglitazone (a PPARg agonist) has shown beneficial effects on memory and executive function tasks in Alzheimer’s disease (AD)[1] Objective(s): To examine the use of standard clinical measures (e.g ADAS-cog) and experimental measures of simple and choice reaction time (examining

  8. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  9. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  10. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  11. Modelling the Effects of Surface Residual Stresses on Fatigue Behavior of PM Disk Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A finite element based model will be developed and validated to capture the evolution of residual stresses and cold work at machined features of compressor and...

  12. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  13. Sulphate Removal from Water by Carbon Residue from Biomass Gasification: Effect of Chemical Modification Methods on Sulphate Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Runtti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate removal from mine water is a problem because traditional chemical precipitation does not remove all sulphates. In addition, it creates lime sediment as a secondary waste. Therefore, an inexpensive and environmental-friendly sulphate removal method is needed in addition to precipitation. In this study, carbon residues from a wood gasification process were repurposed as precursors to a suitable sorbent for SO42- ion removal. The raw material was modified using ZnCl2, BaCl2, CaCl2, FeCl3, or FeCl2. Carbon residues modified with FeCl3 were selected for further consideration because the removal efficiency toward sulphate was the highest. Batch sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, initial SO42- ion concentration, and contact time on sulphate removal. The removal of SO42- ions using Fe-modified carbon residue was notably higher compared with unmodified carbon residue and commercially available activated carbon. The sorption data exhibited pseudo-second-order kinetics. The isotherm analysis indicated that the sorption data of Fe-modified carbon residues can be represented by the bi-Langmuir isotherm model.

  14. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: chenxizhang@wzu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University., Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhou, Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components.

  15. Dissimilar friction stir welds in AA5083-AA6082: The effect of process parameters on residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.J.; Withers, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tool traverse and rotation speeds on the residual stresses are quantified for welds between non-age-hardening AA5083 and age-hardening AA6082 and compared to single alloy joints made from each of the two constituents. The residual stresses have been characterised non-destructively by neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The region around the weld line was characterised by significant tensile residual stress fields which are balanced by compressive stresses in the parent material. The rotation speed of the tool has been found to have a substantially greater influence than the transverse speed on the properties and residual stresses in the welds, particularly on the AA5083 side where the location of the peak stress moves from the stir zone to beyond the edge of the tool shoulder. The changes in residual stress are related to microstructural and hardness changes as determined in a previous study . In particular the larger stresses under the weld tool on the AA5083 side compared to the AA6082 side are related to a transient reduction in yield stress due to dissolution of the hardening precipitates during welding prior to natural aging after welding

  16. Residual Nitrite in Some Egyptian Meat Products and the Reduction Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia A. Zahran; Gehan M.A. Kassem

    2011-01-01

    Nitrite, a curing agent of meat products, is a precursor of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines during processing of meat products or under human stomach conditions, as well as having its own toxicity. To investigate the residual nitrite level in meat products marketed in Egyptian markets, 160 samples of cured cooked (luncheon and frankfurter) and cured raw (oriental sausages and pastirma) meat products (40 sample each) were analyzed for residual nitrite by a spectrophotometric method. Samples were s...

  17. Residual volume on land and when immersed in water: effect on percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu

    2006-08-01

    There is a large residual volume (RV) error when assessing percent body fat by means of hydrostatic weighing. It has generally been measured before hydrostatic weighing. However, an individual's maximal exhalations on land and in the water may not be identical. The aims of this study were to compare residual volumes and vital capacities on land and when immersed to the neck in water, and to examine the influence of the measurement error on percent body fat. The participants were 20 healthy Japanese males and 20 healthy Japanese females. To assess the influence of the RV error on percent body fat in both conditions and to evaluate the cross-validity of the prediction equation, another 20 males and 20 females were measured using hydrostatic weighing. Residual volume was measured on land and in the water using a nitrogen wash-out technique based on an open-circuit approach. In water, residual volume was measured with the participant sitting on a chair while the whole body, except the head, was submerged . The trial-to-trial reliabilities of residual volume in both conditions were very good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.98). Although residual volume measured under the two conditions did not agree completely, they showed a high correlation (males: 0.880; females: 0.853; P body fat computed using residual volume measured in both conditions was very good for both sexes (males: r = 0.902; females: r = 0.869, P body fat: -3.4 to 2.2% for males; -6.3 to 4.4% for females). We conclude that if these errors are of no importance, residual volume measured on land can be used when assessing body composition.

  18. Hard water and old food. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating of food residues on pottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Philippsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of the freshwater reservoir effect in the radiocarbon dating of different sample materials, in particular food crusts on pottery. Charred food residue can be used to directly date of the use of the pottery. However, this material is highly complex, which can lead to various dating errors.  

  19. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieters (Marlien); S.A. Barnard (Sunelle A.); D.T. Loots (Du Toit); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDue to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen

  20. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  1. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Banderas, A.; Porro, J.; Morales, M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm 2 with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy

  2. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  3. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.; Isitekhale, H.H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  4. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  5. Effect of projectile structure on evaporation residue yields in incomplete fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Sudarshan, K; Shrivastava, B D; Goswami, A; Tomar, B S

    2003-01-01

    The excitation functions of heavy residues, representing complete and incomplete fusion products, produced in the reaction of sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 3 C on sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta have been measured over the projectile energy range of 5 to 6.5 MeV/nucleon by the recoil catcher method and off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the measured excitation functions with those calculated using the PACE2 code based on the statistical model revealed the occurrence of incomplete fusion reactions in the formation of alpha emission products. The fraction of incomplete fusion cross sections in the sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta reaction was found to be higher, by a factor of approx 2, than that in the sup 1 sup 3 C + sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta reaction. The results have been discussed in terms of the effect of alpha cluster structure of the projectile on incomplete fusion reactions.

  6. Effects of feather wear and temperature on prediction of food intake and residual food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, M; Decuypere, E; Siau, O

    1989-03-01

    Heat production, which accounts for 0.6 of gross energy intake, is insufficiently represented in predictions of food intake. Especially when heat production is elevated (for example by lower temperature or poor feathering) the classical predictions based on body weight, body-weight change and egg mass are inadequate. Heat production was reliably estimated as [35.5-environmental temperature (degree C)] x [Defeathering (=%IBPW) + 21]. Including this term (PHP: predicted heat production) in equations predicting food intake significantly increased accuracy of prediction, especially under suboptimal conditions. Within the range of body weights tested (from 1.6 kg in brown layers to 2.8 kg in dwarf broiler breeders), body weight as an independent variable contributed little to the prediction of food intake; especially within strains its effect was better included in the intercept. Significantly reduced absolute values of residual food consumption were obtained over a wide range of conditions by using predictions of food intake based on body-weight change, egg mass, predicted heat production (PHP) and an intercept, instead of body weight, body-weight change, egg mass and an intercept.

  7. Protein Coexpression Using FMDV 2A: Effect of “Linker” Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Minskaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical applications absolutely require, or are substantially enhanced by, coexpression of multiple proteins from a single vector. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A and “2A-like” sequences (e.g., Thosea asigna virus 2A; T2A are used widely for this purpose since multiple proteins can be coexpressed by linking open reading frames (ORFs to form a single cistron. The activity of F2A “cleavage” may, however, be compromised by both the use of shorter versions of F2A and the sequences (derived from multiple-purpose cloning sites used to link F2A to the upstream protein. To characterise these effects, different lengths of F2A and T2A were inserted between green and cherry fluorescent proteins. Mutations were introduced in the linker region immediately upstream of both F2A- and T2A-based constructs and activities determined using both cell-free translation systems and transfected cells. In shorter versions of F2A, activity may be affected by both the C-terminal sequence of the protein upstream and, equally strikingly, the residues immediately upstream introduced during cloning. Mutations significantly improved activity for shorter versions of F2A but could decrease activity in the case of T2A. These data will aid the design of cloning strategies for the co-expression of multiple proteins in biomedical/biotechnological applications.

  8. Effects of stacking sequence on impact damage resistance and residual strength for quasi-isotropic laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, Ernest F.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Avery, William B.; Coxon, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    Residual strength of an impacted composite laminate is dependent on details of the damage state. Stacking sequence was varied to judge its effect on damage caused by low-velocity impact. This was done for quasi-isotropic layups of a toughened composite material. Experimental observations on changes in the impact damage state and postimpact compressive performance were presented for seven different laminate stacking sequences. The applicability and limitations of analysis compared to experimental results were also discussed. Postimpact compressive behavior was found to be a strong function of the laminate stacking sequence. This relationship was found to depend on thickness, stacking sequence, size, and location of sublaminates that comprise the impact damage state. The postimpact strength for specimens with a relatively symmetric distribution of damage through the laminate thickness was accurately predicted by models that accounted for sublaminate stability and in-plane stress redistribution. An asymmetric distribution of damage in some laminate stacking sequences tended to alter specimen stability. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict this behavior.

  9. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, Saqib Saleem; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to global food security. Biochar amendment could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crop in the season. However, its long-term residual effect on reducing Na+ uptake in latter crops remains unknown. A pot experiment with wheat was conducted...... in a greenhouse. The soil used was from an earlier experiment on potato where the plants were irrigated with tap water (S0), 25 mM (S1) and 50 mM (S2) NaCl solutions and with 0 and 5% (w/w) biochar amendment. At onset of the experiment, three different EC levels at S0, S1 and S2 were established in the non...... by transient Na+ binding due to its high adsorption capacity, decreasing osmotic stress by enhancing soil moisture content, and by releasing mineral nutrients (particularly K+, Ca++, Mg++) into the soil solution. Growth, physiology and yield of wheat were affected positively with biochar amendment...

  10. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue on the oxidative status and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Tai; Ciou, Jhih-Ying; Chiang, Ching-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Yu, Bi

    2012-11-07

    Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR) is a byproduct of the edible portion of the fruiting body. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PESR on the oxidative status and meat quality of broilers. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old male broilers (Arbor Acre) were evenly divided by gender and randomly allocated into control (corn-soybean meal diet) or 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 g/kg dried PESR groups. The results revealed that at 35 d, the dried PESR groups displayed a significantly increased water-holding capacity and decreased storage loss of breast and thigh fillets when compared to the control group. Regarding fillets color, the L* (lightness) values were lower and the a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were higher following dried PESR supplementation. In 5.0-20.0 g/kg PESR supplementation groups, the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly elevated in serum, liver, spleen, and fillet tissues when compared to control group. Additionally, malondialdehyde production was slightly decreased in the PESR supplementation groups. Lower crude fat contents were observed in fillet tissues of 5.0-20.0 g/kg PESR groups when compared with the control group. In conclusion, PESR may potentially be used as an antioxidant to decrease lipid peroxidation and improve meat quality in broilers.

  11. Effect of saponification on the anaerobic digestion of solid fatty residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneimne, A H; Carrère, H; Bernet, N; Delgenès, J P

    2003-10-01

    In France, fatty residues considered as "non-ultimate" waste will not be accepted in landfill from 2002, in accordance with French legislation. Anaerobic digestion appears as an alternative process to mobilize and profitably use such fermentable waste. In this work, the effect of an alkaline pretreatment on the degradation of hexane extractible matter (HEM) and the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was compared in reactors working at pH 6.5 and 8.5. The results obtained showed that 40% (+/- 0.1) of HEM were degraded at pH 8.5 versus 10% (+/- 0.3) at pH 6.5, regardless of the alkali agent used to saponify the greasy wastes. The highest performances of VFA production (8.45% +/- 0.3) were obtained at pH 8.5 with greases saponified by potassium hydroxide, compared to results (4.25% +/- 0.1) with greasy waste saponified by sodium hydroxide. This difference in VFA production might be attributable to biotoxic molecules generated during the saponification of greases by soda, limiting consequently the VFA production process.

  12. Residues effects of isoproturon in mature earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Yahia; Mosleh, Ismaili

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the residues of isoproturon and its metabolites, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl) urea, and 4-isopropylanilin in soil and mature earthworms under laboratory conditions. Mature earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were exposed for various durations (7, 15, 30, and 60 days) to soils contaminated with isoproturon concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg.kg(-1) soil). The decrease in isoproturon concentration in the soil depended on initial concentration it was slower at higher concentrations. The isoproturon and its metabolites accumulated in earthworms it increased during the first 15 days and decreased thereafter. Acute toxicity of isoproturon was determined together with total soluble protein content and glycogen of worms. These parameters were related to isoproturon concentration in soil and earthworms. No lethal effect of isoproturon was observed even at the concentration 1000 mg.kg(-1) soil after 60 days of exposure. A reduction of total soluble protein was observed in all treated worms (maximum 59.54%). This study is suggesting the use of the total soluble protein content and glycogen of earthworms as biomarker of exposure to isoproturon.

  13. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  14. Effect of Young's modulus evolution on residual stress measurement of thermal barrier coatings by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Mao, W.G.; Zhou, Y.C.; Lu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Subjected to thermal cycling, the apparent Young's modulus of air plasma-sprayed (APS) 8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was measured by nanoindentation. Owing to the effects of sintering and porous microstructure, the apparent Young's modulus follows a Weibull distribution and changes from 50 to 93 GPa with an increase of thermal cycling. The evolution of residual stresses in the top coating of an 8YSZ TBC system was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The residual stresses derived from the XRD data are well consistent with that obtained by the Vickers indention. It is shown that the evolution of Young's modulus plays an important role in improving the measurement precision of residual stresses in TBCs by XRD.

  15. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  16. The effect of initial stress induced during the steel manufacturing process on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-ung Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A residual stress generated in the steel structure is broadly categorized into initial residual stress during manufacturing steel material, welding residual stress caused by welding, and heat treatment residual stress by heat treatment. Initial residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process is combined with welding residual stress or heat treatment residual stress, and remained as a final residual stress. Because such final residual stress affects the safety and strength of the structure, it is of utmost importance to measure or predict the magnitude of residual stress, and to apply this point on the design of the structure. In this study, the initial residual stress of steel structures having thicknesses of 25 mm and 70 mm during manufacturing was measured in order to investigate initial residual stress (hereinafter, referred to as initial stress. In addition, thermal elastic plastic FEM analysis was performed with this initial condition, and the effect of initial stress on the welding residual stress was investigated. Further, the reliability of the FE analysis result, considering the initial stress and welding residual stress for the steel structures having two thicknesses, was validated by comparing it with the measured results. In the vicinity of the weld joint, the initial stress is released and finally controlled by the weld residual stress. On the other hand, the farther away from the weld joint, the greater the influence of the initial stress. The range in which the initial stress affects the weld residual stress was not changed by the initial stress. However, in the region where the initial stress occurs in the compressive stress, the magnitude of the weld residual compressive stress varies with the compression or tension of the initial stress. The effect of initial stress on the maximum compression residual stress was far larger when initial stress was considered in case of a thickness of 25 mm with a value of 180

  17. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  18. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  19. Residual stress effects on the K parameter of the fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Maria da Conceiccao B. Vieira; Andrade, Arnaldo H. Paes de

    1996-01-01

    Compressive residual stresses are beneficial and improve resistance to fracture and crack growth. Residual stresses can be introduced in fabricated components by a variety of means and a number of methods such as laser surface treatment, cold expanded hole, and shot peening. Neutrons diffraction measurements of residual stress were performed at a pulsed neutron source (ISIS, Didcot, UK), on shot peened plates of nickel base superalloy Udimet 720 and titanium alloy IMI 834. The stress intensity factor (K) of residual stress was evaluated by finite element modeling and weight function method. Finite element modeling of a 2D plate with a single edge-notch was applied and, due to symmetry only half of the plate was actually modeled. The stress intensity factor (K) was evaluated for both case of remote tension stress and residual stress. Crack surface overlapping, which is physically unacceptable, was noted for small cracks under residual and boundary lading. Overlap correction was proposed and applied in order to obtain reliable values for (K). (author)

  20. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  1. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  2. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-01-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years

  3. Neuropsychological and cognitive processes in reading

    CERN Document Server

    Pirozzolo, Francis J

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychological and Cognitive Processes in Reading explores reading and reading disabilities within the context of cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Emphasis is on the roles of brain mechanisms in reading and reading disturbances. In the areas of perception and cognition, theoretical models of the reading process are used to highlight the various psychological processes involved in the act of skilled reading. Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental processes of reading, giving particular attention to a psychological theory that builds on two concepts: that the basic processes of reading are few in number, and that they are separable from one another. A useful and testable information-processing model of reading that consists of three separable, fundamental processes - decoding, word meaning, and sentence comprehension - is described. Subsequent chapters deal with some of the external and internal factors involved in reading; a model of disorders of readi...

  4. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pruša

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychological deficits can be explained with central nervous system impairment and partly also with reactive psychological factors. On account of symptomatic complexity, broad differential diagnostic and unreliable diagnostic technology neuropsychological evaluation can help to correctly diagnose and accurately treat this disease, and thus to enable appropriate cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapeutic assistance.

  5. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  6. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaricha Leyla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°, and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%.

  7. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaricha, Leyla; Henni, Ahmed Djafar; Lancelot, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand) with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°), and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%).

  8. Superior intellectual ability in schizophrenia: neuropsychological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCabe, James H; Brébion, Gildas; Reichenberg, Abraham; Ganguly, Taposhri; McKenna, Peter J; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that neurocognitive impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia. However, it appears that some patients with schizophrenia have intelligence quotients (IQs) in the superior range. In this study, we sought out schizophrenia patients with an estimated premorbid Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of at least 115 and studied their neuropsychological profile. Thirty-four patients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), with mean estimated premorbid IQ of 120, were recruited and divided into two subgroups, according to whether or not their IQ had declined by at least 10 points from their premorbid estimate. Their performance on an extensive neuropsychological battery was compared with that of 19 IQ-matched healthy controls and a group of 16 "typical" schizophrenia patients with estimated premorbid IQ Schizophrenia patients whose estimated premorbid and current IQ both lay in the superior range were statistically indistinguishable from IQ-matched healthy controls on all neurocognitive tests. However, their profile of relative performance in subtests was similar to that of typical schizophrenia patients. Patients with superior premorbid IQ and evidence of intellectual deterioration had intermediate scores. Our results confirm the existence of patients meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia who have markedly superior premorbid intellectual level and appear to be free of gross neuropsychological deficits. We discuss the implications of these findings for the primacy of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  9. Paranoid schizophrenia versus schizoaffective disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough. These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. Objective. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. Methods. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31, inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30 and healthy subjects (n=30. Results. Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. Conclusion. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive deficits were registered.

  10. The neuropsychological function of children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, Kimberley; Tofts, Louise; Benson, Suzanne; Porter, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    The current observational study had three specific objectives: (i) to document any neuropsychological impairment in a sample of children with achondroplasia; (ii) to explore individual variability; and (iii) to determine the functional impact of any impairments. Fourteen children aged between 6 and 15 years with a medically confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia (FGFR 3 mutation positive) underwent a comprehensive standardized neuropsychological evaluation. On average, while generally still within normal limits, significantly lower scores compared to standardized means were identified on: Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, working memory, arithmetic, attention, executive functioning and aspects of day-to-day emotional, social, and behavioral functioning. Clinically significant levels of impairment at a group level were identified on measures of: arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning. There was variability among the group and for most measures scores ranged from impaired to within normal limits. A high percentage of children were impaired on measures of: verbal IQ, attention and executive functioning. Results of this study suggest a need for individual neuropsychological evaluation and monitoring of children with achondroplasia and suggest verbal IQ, arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning are particularly common areas of impairment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Neuropsychological Mechanisms for Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eLiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in – and the prevalence of – falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life.

  12. Behavior, neuropsychology and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean; Hermens, Daniel F; Lagopoulos, Jim

    Cognitive neuroscientists in the late 20th century began the task of identifying the part(s) of the brain concerned with normal behavior as manifest in the psychological capacities as affective powers, reasoning, behaving purposively and the pursuit of goals, following introduction of the 'functional magnetic resonance imaging' (fMRI) method for identifying brain activity. For this research program to be successful two questions require satisfactory answers. First, as the fMRI method can currently only be used on stationary subjects, to what extent can neuropsychological tests applicable to such stationary subjects be correlated with normal behavior. Second, to what extent can correlations between the various neuropsychological tests on the one hand, and sites of brain activity determined with fMRI on the other, be regarded as established. The extent to which these questions have yet received satisfactory answers is reviewed, and suggestions made both for improving correlations of neuropsychological tests with behavior as well as with the results of fMRI-based observations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Paranoid Schizophrenia versus Schizoaffective Disorder: Neuropsychological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leposavić, Ljubica; Leposavić, Ivana; Šaula-Marojević, Bijana; Gavrilović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological aspects of paranoid schizophrenia have still not been examined enough.These disorders are usually not studied separately, but are included in the studies about schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms. Despite the fact that schizophrenia represents a heterogeneous group of mental disorders, usually it is not separated from schizoaffective disorder in neuropsychological researches. The essence of this research is to evaluate cognitive functioning of patients with paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder by applying neuropsychological tests. The research included 91 subjects, right handed, from 30 to 53 years old, who were classified into three groups: inpatients with paranoid schizophrenia in remission (n=31), inpatients with schizoaffective disorder in remission (n=30) and healthy subjects (n=30). Both groups of patients showed poorer achievements than healthy subjects in most of the applied tests. Patients with schizoaffective disorder showed global loss of intellectual efficiency, executive dysfunction and compromised visual-construction organization. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed partial loss of intellectual efficiency with verbal IQ and executive functions preserved. In the remission phase, patients with paranoid schizophrenia expressed cognitive disorders in moderate degree, but when it comes to patients with schizoaffective disorder, more massive cognitive, deficits were registered.

  14. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuropsychology reports for childhood brain tumor survivors: implementation of recommendations at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  17. Major depressive disorder, cognitive symptoms, and neuropsychological performance among ethnically diverse HIV+ men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Robert P; Byrd, Desiree A; Morgello, Susan

    2013-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), cognitive symptoms, and mild cognitive deficits commonly occur in HIV-infected individuals, despite highly active antiretroviral therapies. In this study, we compared neuropsychological performance and cognitive symptoms of 191 HIV-infected participants. Results indicated that participants with a formal diagnosis of current MDD performed significantly worse than participants without MDD in all seven neuropsychological domains evaluated, with the largest effect sizes in information processing speed, learning, and memory. In addition, a brief assessment of cognitive symptoms, derived from a comprehensive neuromedical interview, correlated significantly with neurocognitive functioning. Participants with MDD reported more cognitive symptoms and showed greater neurocognitive deficits than participants without MDD. These findings indicate that HIV-infected adults with MDD have more cognitive symptoms and worse neuropsychological performance than HIV-infected individuals without MDD. The results of this study have important implications for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

  18. Neuropsychological function in patients with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weider, Siri; Indredavik, Marit Saebø; Lydersen, Stian; Hestad, Knut

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the neuropsychological performance of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) compared with healthy controls (HCs). An additional aim was to investigate the effect of several possible mediators on the association between eating disorders (EDs) and cognitive function. Forty patients with AN, 39 patients with BN, and 40 HCs who were comparable in age and education were consecutively recruited to complete a standardized neuropsychological test battery covering the following cognitive domains: verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, speed of information processing, visuospatial ability, working memory, executive function, verbal fluency, attention/vigilance, and motor function. The AN group scored significantly below the HCs on eight of the nine measured cognitive domains. The BN group also showed inferior performance on six cognitive domains. After adjusting for possible mediators, the nadir body mass index (lowest lifetime BMI) and depressive symptoms explained all findings in the BN group. Although this adjustment reduced the difference between the AN and HC groups, the AN group still performed worse than the HCs regarding verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, visuospatial ability, working memory, and executive functioning. Patients with EDs scored below the HCs on several cognitive function measures, this difference being most pronounced for the AN group. The nadir BMI and depressive symptoms had strong mediating effects. Longitudinal studies are needed to identify the importance of weight restoration and treatment of depressive symptoms in the prevention of a possible cognitive decline. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effects of cooking and storage on residues of cyadox in chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2005-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the depletion of residues of cyadox in chicken muscle over time. The heat stabilities of cyadox (CYX) and its two metabolites, 1,4-bisdesoxycyadox (BDCYX) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA), in water, cooking oil, and as incurred residues in chicken muscle were investigated. CYX was shown to be unstable with a half-life of about 37.7 min in 100 degrees C water. In hot cooking oil at 180 degrees C, all three compounds were unstable. CYX decreased quickly and was not able to be detected after heating for 2 min. Diode-array analysis of CYX standard solution in cooking oil indicated that a portion of BDCYX was formed. The residues of CYX and BDCYX deteriorated rapidly in frozen storage, while that of QCA changed slowly. Muscles containing CYX residues were boiled, microwaved, or fried for the specified times. During boiling, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 94% and 81% in 10 min, respectively. During microwave cooking, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 54% and 47% in 2.5 min, respectively. During frying, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 86% and 76%, respectively. No significant reduction of QCA was found for the three cooking methods. The half-lives of CYX residues in cooked chicken muscles were estimated as follows: 2.22 min for CYX and 4.44 min for BDCYX by boiling; 6.66 min for CYX and 9.36 min for BDCYX by microwaving.

  20. Effects of interface edge configuration on residual stress in the bonded structures for a divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagata, K.; Shibui, M.; Tachikawa, N.; Araki, M.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses in the interface region, that developed at the cool down during the brazing, were evaluated for several bonded structures to assess the mechanical strength of the bonded interface, using thermoelasto-plastic stress analysis. Normal stress components of the residual stresses around the interface edge of graphite-copper (C-Cu) bonded structures were compared for three types of bonded features such as flat-type, monoblock-type and saddle-type. The saddle-type structure was found to be favorable for its relatively low residual stress, easy fabrication accuracy on bonded interface and armor replacement. Residual stresses around the interface edge in three armor materials/copper bonded structures for a divertor plate were also examined for the C-Cu, tungsten-copper (W-Cu) and molybdenum alloy-copper (TZM-Cu), varying the interface wedge angle from 45 to 135 . An optimal bonded configuration for the least value of residual stress was found to have a wedge angle of 45 for the C-Cu, and 135 for both the W-Cu and TZM-Cu bonded ones. (orig.)

  1. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  2. Investigation on the effects of geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth in the RPV BMI penetration nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Ra, Myoung Soo; Lee, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of various geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth of RPV BMI penetration nozzles. An FE residual stress analysis procedure was developed and validated from the viewpoint of FFS assessment. The validated FE residual stress analysis procedure and the PWSCC growth assessment procedure in the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI were applied to the BMI penetration nozzles with specified ranges of the geometric variables. The total stresses at steady state during normal operation including welding residual stresses increase with increasing inclination angle of the BMI nozzles, and with tilt angle, depth, and root width of the J-groove weld. The lifetime from the assumed initial crack to the acceptance criteria according to the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI also decreases under these conditions. The total stresses decrease and the lifetime increases with increasing nozzle thickness, but outer radius of the BMI nozzles has an insignificant effect on both of these factors.

  3. Chaperone-like activity of β-casein and its effect on residual in vitro activity of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Olsen, Karsten; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    , as similar experiment with bovine serum albumin resulted in residual activity of horseradish peroxidase that was significantly lower than without any addition. The effect of β-casein on HRP disappears when pH is below the isoelectric point of β-casein. It was also proven by light scattering studies that β...... proteins. Incubating HRP (0.1 mg mL-1) for 10 min at 72 °C resulted in residual activity of 59 ± 5%, while addition of 1 mg mL-1 β-casein resulted in increase in residual activity up to 85 ± 1%. Increased residual activity is not merely attributed to an effect of higher total protein concentration......-casein interacts with horseradish peroxidase when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C whereas interactions seem to cease when temperature was lowered back to 25 °C. This study highlights how specific proteins can influence enzyme activity, which is of potential importance for various industries...

  4. Effects of ion irradiation on the residual stresses in Cr thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.; Fayeulle, S.; Kung, H.; Mitchell, T.E.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cr films sputtered onto {100}thinspSi substrates at room temperature were found to be under residual tension, as revealed by wafer curvature measurements. A 150 nm thick Cr film was bombarded with 300 keV Ar ions after deposition. The intrinsic residual tensile stress increased slightly and then decreased with further increase in the ion dose. For ion doses >1x10 15 thinspions/cm 2 , the stress in the film became compressive and increased with increasing dose. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the grain boundaries in as-deposited Cr have columnar porosity. A Cr film, ion irradiated to a dose of 5x10 15 thinspions/cm 2 , showed no grain boundary porosity. The changes in the residual stress during ion irradiation are explained by considering Ar incorporation in the film and the manner in which irradiation may change the interatomic distances and forces. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  6. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  7. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  8. The effect of Residual Stress on the Stress Intensity Factor of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Ho

    2008-01-01

    As NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) gets aged, the importance of the pressure boundary integrity increases very much to those who are trying to operate their plant beyond its design life. Not long ago, Boric acid crystal was found at the RPV outlet nozzle of V.C. Summer plant during the visual examination in 2000. After this finding, non-destructive examination was taken to find out what's taken place. As a result of this examination, circumferential and axial cracks were found. With Metallurgical structure examination, it was shown that crack had been developed at the mid-point between Inco-alloy buttering and weld metal. It was turned out that high welding residual stress was the main cause of the cracking. Because of the through wall crack, nozzle and welding parts were replaced. Many other nuclear power plants experienced similar pressure boundary stress corrosion cracks (SCCs). KEPRI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) has carried out research projects for managing and preventing these kinds of cracks in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The titles of these research projects are 'Development of Stress Corrosion Cracking Management Technology and Aging Monitor for NPP Main Components' and 'Development of Analysis Technology for Crack Management of Dissimilar Metal Weld'. Through these projects, residual stress measurement techniques have been exercised at various points in mock-up test specimens to simulate nuclear power plant dissimilar base metal and weldment residual stress. X-ray test and hole drilling method have been reviewed to measure residual stresses of the dissimilar metal welds. This paper shows some point of view in residual stress measurement. Fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to explain the importance of residual stress measurement in association with nuclear power plant safety

  9. Efeito residual da silicatagem no solo e na produtividade do capim-marandu sob pastejo Residual effect of silicate application on soil and brachiaria grass yield under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Abreu Faria

    2008-06-01

    calcium silicate and is an alternative for soil acidity correction. This study evaluated the residual effects of calcium silicate application on the chemical properties of a Rhodic Hapludox in a rotation system with Brachiaria grass under different grazing intensities. The experiment was a complete randomized block design, where the plots consisted of grazing intensities, determined by the forage supply of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg t-1 of MS/ PV, respectively, and the subplots of surface applications of calcium silicate in combination with dolomitic limestone ( 0 + 0; 2 + 0; 4 + 0; 6 + 0; 2 + 4; 4 + 2 and 0 + 6 t ha-1, with four replications. Evaluations were carried out in two seasons (summer and winter and at three soil depths (0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. The results of residual calcium silicate and limestone effects 720 days after application were positive for soil pH in CaCl2, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K, concentration, H + Al values, and base saturation. A forage supply of 200 kg t-1 and the limestone treatment (0 + 6 t ha-1 increased pH in CaCl2 and base saturation values, mainly in the 0-10 cm layer. The soil silicon levels were influenced by the applied calcium silicate doses, but they resulted in no significant leaf Si concentration. The chemical-bromatological composition of the forage was affected only by forage supply and seasons. The forage supply, seasons and seasons x supply interaction influenced the pre-grazing dry matter production. The yield was highest at 200 kg t-1 and lowest at 50 kg t-1 forage supply in both seasons. Supply and seasons influenced the after-grazing forage residue. The highest rates of dry matter accumulation were obtained with forage supplies of 50 and 100 kg t-1 and application of 2 t ha-1 calcium silicate.

  10. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  11. Molecular markers of neuropsychological functioning and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Balldin, Valerie Hobson; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2015-03-01

    The current project sought to examine molecular markers of neuropsychological functioning among elders with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) and determine the predictive ability of combined molecular markers and select neuropsychological tests in detecting disease presence. Data were analyzed from 300 participants (n = 150, AD and n = 150, controls) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. Linear regression models were created to examine the link between the top five molecular markers from our AD blood profile and neuropsychological test scores. Logistical regressions were used to predict AD presence using serum biomarkers in combination with select neuropsychological measures. Using the neuropsychological test with the least amount of variance overlap with the molecular markers, the combined neuropsychological test and molecular markers was highly accurate in detecting AD presence. This work provides the foundation for the generation of a point-of-care device that can be used to screen for AD.

  12. Past, present, and future of neuropsychology in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Ferreres, Aldo; Morlett-Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To describe the history, current situation, and future challenges of Argentinian neuropsychology. A brief historical description highlighting the most representative authors and publications is made. In addition, a survey was administered to a sample of 135 neuropsychologists practicing neuropsychology in Argentina. The survey explored the current neuropsychological practices among the respondents. Results show that most Argentinian neuropsychologists are: psychologists, women, and work in the clinical field in the country's major cities. Besides, the practice of neuropsychology is mostly unregulated with few training opportunities. Argentinian neuropsychology emerged from neurology in the early twentieth century and slowly progressed until the 1960s when the first organized research groups were created. Since then, a substantial and steady progress followed. However, more training opportunities and a better regulation of the discipline are needed. No similar studies have been conducted in the past, thus becoming one of the first to describe the development of neuropsychology in Argentina.

  13. Neuropsychology and socioeconomic aspects of Klinefelter syndrome: new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakkebæk, Anne; Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus H

    2015-06-01

    To summarize recent important studies on neuropsychology and epidemiology of Klinefelter syndrome. PubMed was searched for 'Klinefelter', 'Klinefelter's' and 'XXY' in titles and abstracts. Relevant studies were obtained and reviewed, as well as other articles selected by the authors. Klinefelter syndrome is the most common sex-chromosome disorder in humans, affecting one in 660 men. The key findings in Klinefelter syndrome are small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and cognitive impairment. Klinefelter syndrome scores significantly below education matched controls on a range of cognitive tests with verbal skills displaying the largest effects. Boys with Klinefelter syndrome are often in the need of speech therapy and many suffer from learning disability and may benefit from special education. New studies are elucidating aspects of cognitive functioning and suggesting that neuropsychological treatment may be of value. The socioeconomic status and educational level of Klinefelter syndrome is severely affected with many struggling to achieve any or only shorter education, resulting in low-income levels and early retirement. In addition, few become fathers and fewer live with a partner compared with controls. Medical treatment is mainly testosterone replacement therapy in order to alleviate acute and long-term consequences of hypogonadism, as well as, treating or preventing the frequent comorbidity. The neurocognitive phenotype of Klinefelter syndrome is being unraveled and the need for psychological and cognitive treatment in many cases is evident. The neurocognitive deficits no doubt influence the socioeconomic status of many Klinefelter syndrome patients, which is clearly inferior to age-matched controls.

  14. Neuropsychological differences between men and women with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass Umfleet, Laura; Kreiner, David S; Fuller, Amanda M; Paolo, Anthony M

    2018-04-01

    It has been suggested that men and women with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at comparable levels of global cognitive impairment perform differently on neuropsychological measures. Such differences may have practical implications for designing cognitive interventions that address symptoms of dementia. We compared men (n = 86) and women (n = 96) with AD on tests of immediate and delayed prose memory, verbal fluency, semantic fluency, semantic memory and confrontation naming. Mean years for age, education and duration of illness were 70.81 (SD = 7.55), 13.37 (SD = 3.38) and 2.17 (SD = 1.72) for men and 73.11(SD = 8.53), 12.27 (SD = 2.86) and 2.42 (SD = 1.92) for women. The groups were comparable in global cognitive functioning as indicated by Dementia Rating Scale total scores for men of 89.27 (SD = 29.80) and women of 90.86 (SD = 30.20). Men earned significantly better scores in immediate prose memory, semantic verbal fluency, semantic memory and response naming. Men and women performed similarly on the remaining tests. When the variables of age, education and duration of disease were controlled, the significant effect of gender was maintained only on tests of semantic fluency, semantic memory and confrontation naming. The hypothesis of the study was partially confirmed in that women with AD evidenced greater impairment than men with AD on three of six neuropsychological measures even after potentially confounding variables were controlled.

  15. Neuropsychological testing and biomarkers in the management of brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baschnagel, Andrew; Wolters, Pamela L; Camphausen, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Prognosis for patients with brain metastasis remains poor. Whole brain radiation therapy is the conventional treatment option; it can improve neurological symptoms, prevent and improve tumor associated neurocognitive decline, and prevents death from neurologic causes. In addition to whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, neurosurgery and chemotherapy also are used in the management of brain metastases. Radiosensitizers are now currently being investigated as potential treatment options. All of these treatment modalities carry a risk of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity that can lead to neurocognitive impairment in long term survivors. Neuropsychological testing and biomarkers are potential ways of measuring and better understanding CNS toxicity. These tools may help optimize current therapies and develop new treatments for these patients. This article will review the current management of brain metastases, summarize the data on the CNS effects associated with brain metastases and whole brain radiation therapy in these patients, discuss the use of neuropsychological tests as outcome measures in clinical trials evaluating treatments for brain metastases, and give an overview of the potential of biomarker development in brain metastases research

  16. Neuropsychological correlates of complicated grief in older spousally bereaved adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Across many research domains, evidence for complicated grief as a distinct psychopathology continues to grow. Previous research from neuropsychology has shown an increased attentional bias to emotionally relevant stimuli in those suffering from complicated grief. This study furthers our understanding of the characteristics that distinguish complicated grief. We expand on previous research by (a) testing older adults, (b) excluding those with comorbid major depressive disorder, (c) using participant-chosen grief-related stimuli, and (d) using a married, nonbereaved control group. We recruited 76 older adults in 3 groups: spousally bereaved with complicated grief, spousally bereaved with noncomplicated grief, and nonbereaved controls. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Digit Span Backwards, and the emotional counting Stroop was examined. Results indicate longer reaction time across 3 blocks of grief-related words in the complicated grief group but no difference across 3 blocks of the neutral words. The 3 groups performed comparably on the other neurocognitive tasks, indicating no cognitive differences in working memory or set shifting between groups. Furthermore, these effects of complicated grief generalize to older adults and appear independent of major depression. Complicated grief has cognitive interference as a neuropsychological component highlighting it as distinct from noncomplicated grief.

  17. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  18. [Effects of mushroom residue compost on growth and nutrient accumulation of Larix principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Liu, Yong; Lou, Jun Shan; Sun, Qiao Yu; Wan, Fang Fang; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Excessive use of peat may cause some environmental problems. To alleviate the negative effect, an experiment was conducted with the mushroom residue compost to replace peat in Larix principis-rupprechtii containerized transplant production, and the proportion of mushroom residue compost was 0% (T 0 , control), 15% (T 1 ), 18.75% (T 2 ), 25% (T 3 ), 37.50% (T 4 ), 50% (T 5 ), 56.25% (T 6 ) and 60% (T 7 ), respectively. The physical and chemical features of the substrates and its effect on the vegetative growth and nutrient accumulation of L. principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants were studied. The results showed when the proportion of mushroom residue compost in the substrate accounted for 50% or less, there was no significant difference in the transplant height, diameter, and biomass compared with the control, and the nutrient concentration in T 2 , T 4 , T 5 treatments was significantly higher than in T 0 . The pH value was sub-acidic to neutral which was suitable to the transplant growth. When the compost proportion accounted for more than 50%, the pH value was altered to alkali and was not suitable to the transplant growth. When the proportion of mushroom residue compost accounted for 15%, the plant grew best, and the height, diameter, and total biomass got the highest. Therefore, using mushroom residue compost to replace peat in L. principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants cultivation was feasible and the maximum replacement ratio could reach 50%. The high quality transplants could be obtained when the compost replacement ratio was 15%.

  19. Effects of stop–start features on residual stresses in a multipass austenitic stainless steel weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turski, M.; Francis, J.A.; Hurrell, P.R.; Bate, S.K.; Hiller, S.; Withers, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe experiments that characterise and quantify the localised perturbations in residual stress associated with both ramped and abrupt stop–start features in a multipass weld. Residual stress distributions in AISI Grade 304L/308L stainless steel groove-welded specimens, containing weld interruptions that were introduced in a controlled manner, have been characterised using both neutron diffraction and the incremental deep hole drilling method. The extent to which the localised stresses associated with the interruptions were annealed by overlayed passes was also assessed. The results suggest that, regardless of the type of interruption, there can be significant localised increases in residual stress if the stop–start feature is left exposed. If further weld passes are deposited, then the localised increases in stress are likely to persist if the interruption was abrupt, whereas for a ramped interruption they may be dissipated. - Highlights: ► In this study the residual stress-field surrounding weld interruptions was measured. ► Localised stresses were found to increase at weld interruptions. ► Both ramped and abrupt weld interruptions were investigated. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses persisted for abrupt interruptions. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses dissipated for ramped interruptions.

  20. The effect of residual ventricular septal defects on early clinical outcome: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, H.; Cheema, M.A.; Jalal, A.

    2000-01-01

    Residual ventricular septal defect (VSD)after repair of isolated VSD or Fallot's tetralogy is one of the main causes of morbidity and re-operations. In this paper we have presented the results of out initial experience regarding the management of this problem. The data consists of 71 patients (22 isolated VSD and 29 fallout's tetralogy) operate during January 1991 to July, 1993. The incidence of residual VSD as shown by color doppler study at the time of discharge from hospital and at three month's follow-up was 3 out of 60 patients(73%) and 12 out of to (20%) respectively. Six out of these 12 patients were NYHA class III-IV who underwent cardiac catheterization which revealed patch dehiscence in two patients and residual right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in four patients. The two patients, with patch dehiscence were reported successfully with very good outcome. Simple color doppler mapping tends to over-diagnose residual VSDs since it can pick up small haemodynamically insignificant leaks around stitches and needle holes which seal off in due course. The findings of color doppler should, therefore, be correlated with actual clinical outcome in order to proceed with further investigation and re-operation. (author)