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Sample records for residual microscopic disease

  1. Analysis of failures and clinical outcome of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in patients with microscopic residual disease at second-look reassessment following primary cytoreductive surgery and first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, A; Tana, R; Landoni, F; Ferrari, F; Peiretti, M; Perrone, F; Sartori, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess the pattern of failure and survival of advanced ovarian cancer patients with microscopic residual disease at second-look following cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nine-five women were retrospectively analyzed. Residual disease after initial surgery was > one cm in 58 (61.1%) patients, first-line chemotherapy was paclitaxel/platinum-based in 70 (73.7%) patients, second-look findings showed no macroscopic residuum but positive random peritoneal biopsies and/or positive washing ("true" microscopic residual disease) in 79 (83.2%) patients, and a macroscopic residuum which was completely resected (converted complete response) in 16(16.8%) patients. Eight-one (85.2%) patients developed recurrent disease after a median time of 14 months (range four to 51). The abdomen (29.6%) and the pelvis (28.4%) were the most common sites of failure. Two- and five-year survival after second-look were 78.1% and 31.0%, respectively. The clinical and pathological features with prognostic relevance at presentation (age, histotype, and tumor grade), as well as type of first-line chemotherapy and treatment after second-look were not related to the clinical outcome. There was a trend for a better survival in patients with optimal primary cytoreduction compared with those with suboptimal primary cytoreduction (five-year survival = 42.7% vs 23.4%). There was no significant difference in survival between the converted complete responders and the patients with "true" microscopic residual disease. These data confirm the unsatisfactory clinical outcome of patients with microscopic residual disease after first-line chemotherapy and the limited benefit of second-look reassessment.

  2. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E. J.; Karrenbeld, A.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Dijkstra, G.

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy

  3. A lensless, automated microscope for disease diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available using a conventional bright field microscope. Applications of this work are targeted towards the implementation of a full blood count, which could provide resource-limited areas with improved healthcare facilities and diagnosis times....

  4. A lensless, automated microscope for disease diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available microscope. Applications of this work are targeted towards the implementation of a full blood count, which could provide resource-limited areas with improved healthcare facilities and diagnosis times....

  5. MRI findings associated with microscopic residual tumor following unplanned excision of soft tissue sarcomas in the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lee; Chelala, Lydia; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K.; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan; Kerr, Darcy A.; Yang, Xuan

    2018-01-01

    MRI is often used to determine the presence of residual disease following unplanned excisions (UPE) of soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We sought to identify MRI features associated with histologic evidence of residual disease after TBE. This was an IRB-approved retrospective review of 27 patients with R1-type UPE of STS over a 32-month period, with subsequent MRI and TBE. MRI studies were retrospectively evaluated to determine depth of tissue involvement, presence of nodular enhancement, and maximum length of soft tissue edema normalized to extremity size. MRI findings were correlated with histology from unplanned excision and TBE. Among the 21 subjects, there were 13 males and 8 females, mean age 58. Eighteen of 21 STS were grade 2 or 3. Deep compartments were involved in 5/21 cases. Original margins were positive in 17/21 UPE, with inadequate margin assessment in the remaining 4 cases. Residual tumor was present at TBE in 11/21 cases; it was found in 4/6 cases with nodular enhancement and 7/15 cases without nodular enhancement (sensitivity = 0.36; specificity = 0.80; PPV = 0.67; NPV = 0.53). Increased extent of soft tissue edema increased the likelihood of residual tumor at TBE (OR = 35.0; 95% CI = 1.6 to 752.7; p = 0.023). Nodular enhancement is neither sensitive nor specific in predicting residual microscopic tumor in TBE following UPE. Extensive soft tissue edema on MRI after UPE increases the likelihood of finding a residual microscopic tumor, justifying ample margins at TBE and consideration of adjuvant therapy. (orig.)

  6. Formation, Fate, and Impacts of Microscopic and Macroscopic Oil-Sediment Residues in Nearshore Marine Environments: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustitus, Sarah A.; Clement, T. Prabhakar

    2017-12-01

    Crude oil that is spilled in marine environments often interacts with suspended sediments to form residues that can impact the recovery of the affected nearshore ecosystems. When spilled oil and sediment interact, they can form either small microscopic aggregates, commonly referred to as oil-particle aggregates, or large macroscopic agglomerates, referred to as sediment-oil agglomerates or sediment-oil mats. Although these different sized oil-sediment residues have similar compositions, they are formed under different conditions and have different fates in nearshore environments; the goal of this review is to synthesize our current understanding of these two types of residues. We believe that researchers who focus solely on studying either microscopic aggregates or macroscopic agglomerates could benefit from understanding the research findings available in the other field. In this study, we compare and contrast various processes that control the formation, fate, and impacts of these two types of residues in nearshore environments and point out some of the knowledge gaps in this field. Additionally, these residues have been referred to by many names in the past, leading to confusion and misconceptions at times. In this effort, we recommend a uniform nomenclature to distinguish them based on their physical size. Our overall aim is to bridge the gap between microscopic and macroscopic oil-sediment residue literature to foster a robust exchange of ideas, which we believe can lead to the development of efficient strategies for managing oil spills that affect nearshore environments.

  7. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vela, José Antonio; García Marco, José Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an important endpoint in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It is highly predictive of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival and could be considered a surrogate for PFS in the context of chemoimmunotherapy based treatment. Evaluation of MRD level by flow cytometry or molecular techniques in the era of the new BCR and Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors could identify the most cost-effective and durable treatment sequencing. A therapeutic approach guided by the level of MRD might also determine which patients would benefit from an early stop or consolidation therapy. In this review, we discuss the different MRD methods of analysis, which source of tumour samples must be analysed, the future role of the detection of circulating tumour DNA, and the potential role of MRD negativity in clinical practice in the modern era of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  9. Prognostic significance of residual disease after radiation therapy of stage III breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, J.; Toth, J.; Szentirmay, Z.; Gyenes, G.

    1987-01-01

    239 Consecutive women with stage III carcinoma of the breast were treated by primary radiation therapy (RT) from 1977 to 1985. The response rate was 89%, the 5-year survival 40% and the local-regional tumor control (LTC) 59%. For the 27 non-responders, postirradiation chemotherapy was initiated but they died within 3 years. 105 Patients were subjected to mastectomy and axillary dissection after RT. In 107 cases, the RT was not followed by surgery. Systemic treatment consisted of hormonal therapy in both groups. The RT plus surgery group had better survival rate, 58% vs. 35% at 5 years. However, the incidence of less favorable cases was higher in the RT alone group. Histological findings in the operated group are analysed to determine prognostic significance of residual disease. No residual or only damaged microscopic disease was found in the breast in 36% of the cases. The axillary lymph nodes (ALN) were free of disease in 42% of the women. Patients with negative ALN after RT had significantly better 5-year survival (82% vs. 43%) and LTC (85% vs. 60%) rates. Decreased chest wall recurrence rate was associated with no residual or damaged microscopic disease in the breast (5% vs. 21%). The disease-free ALN were more common after 50-80 Gy telecobalt than after 40-50 Gy kV irradiation (51% vs. 33%). Primary tumor size ( 5 cm) had no significant impact on histological findings or on prognosis. Residual disease is mainly a marker of tumor-host relationship which indicates the biological aggressiveness of the disease. 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  11. Microscopic Examination of the Corroded Hagan Container Used to Store Molten Salt Extraction Residue XBPS333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Kennard Virden Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    A microscopic examination was performed on a Hagan container after corrosion and a white powder were found on the outside surface of the lid and filter cover while in storage in the vault. The inside surfaces of the container were covered by a wipeable brown coating. The coating was removed and portions of the container were sectioned and imaged with optical microscopy. General corrosion was found throughout the inside of the container, and pitting corrosion was observed in several locations on the lid and sidewall. This report describes the type and extent of the corrosion observed and its impact on the storage lifetime of the container.

  12. Eliminating Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have disease-related symptoms that require treatment will be randomly assigned to receive cladribine with either concurrent rituximab or rituximab at least 6 months after completing cladribine therapy.

  13. The Microscopic Origin of Residual Stress for Flat Self-Actuating Piezoelectric Cantilevers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Kyo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, flat piezoelectric microcantilevers were fabricated under low-stress Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT film conditions. They were analyzed using the Raman spectrum and wafer curvature methods. Based on the residual stress analysis, we found that a thickness of 1 μm was critical, since stress relaxation starts to occur at greater thicknesses, due to surface roughening. The (111 preferred orientation started to decrease when the film thickness was greater than 1 μm. The d33 value was closely related to the stress relaxation associated with the preferred orientation changes. We examined the harmonic response at different PZT cantilever lengths and obtained a 9.4-μm tip displacement at 3 Vp-p at 1 kHz. These analyses can provide a platform for the reliable operation of piezoelectric microdevices, potentially nanodevice when one needs to have simultaneous control of the residual stress and the piezoelectric properties.

  14. Microscopic analysis of patients with chronic diarrhea without macroscopic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Santos Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colonoscopy is part of the current diagnostic armamentarium. However, in some patients with chronic diarrhea, a colonoscopy may show normal mucosa; in these cases, serial biopsies can provide important information for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Aim: To analyze patients with chronic diarrhea having a macroscopically normal colonoscopy, by evaluating histological changes. Methods: 30 patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopy were prospectively evaluated and submitted to serial biopsies of the terminal ileum, ascending colon and rectum. Results: The sample of 30 patients showed a ratio of 18 men (60% and 12 women (40%. On histological types, it was found that 13 patients (43.3% had lymphoid hyperplasia, eosinophilic inflammation in 4 (13.3%, nonspecific inflammation in 4 (13.3%, regenerative changes in 3 (10%, lymphocytic colitis in 2 (6.6% and changes consistent with Crohn's disease in 1 (3.3%. Conclusions: One can observe that even chronic diarrhea patients, without other associated factors, benefited from colonoscopy with biopsy, because it held the etiologic diagnosis in some cases as also excluded by histopathology. It was noticed that the frequency of patients with altered biopsy and less dragged diarrheal episodes (84.2% was large, should consider their achievement. Resumo: Introdução: A colonoscopia faz parte do arsenal de diagnóstico atual. Porém, em alguns pacientes com diarreia crônica, a colonoscopia pode evidenciar mucosa normal; nesses casos biópsias seriadas podem trazer informações importantes para o diagnóstico e tratamento dos pacientes. Objetivo: Analisar pacientes com diarreia crônica submetidos à colonoscopia macroscopicamente normal, avaliando assim histologicamente as alterações. Métodos: Análise prospectiva da histologia 30 pacientes com diarreia crônica e colonoscopias normais, submetidos a biópsias seriadas de íleo terminal, cólon ascendente e reto. Resultados: A

  15. Electron microscopic examination of skin and conjunctival biopsy specimens in neuronal storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, T; Shimada, M; Okada, S; Yutaka, T; Yabuuchi, H; Nakao, Y

    1979-01-01

    Skin and conjunctival biopsy specimens from fourteen patients with neuronal storage diseases were investigated using an electron microscope. The diseases were Tay-Sachs disease, ceroid-lipofuscinosis (Jansky-Bielschowsky type), Niemann-Pick disease (type B), highly suspected adrenoleukodystrophy, I-cell disease, mucolipidosis of the beta-galactosidase deficient type, Hurler disease, Hunter disease and Morquio disease. This examination provided valuable diagnostic information on some neuronal storage diseases but not on Morquio disease or highly suspected adrenoleukodystrophy. False negative results may sometimes occur using this examination method. However, this examination suggests the usefulness of skin and conjunctival biopsy specimens as a diagnostic tool in some neuronal storage diseases.

  16. Macroscopic and microscopic assessments of the glenohumeral and subacromial synovitis in rotator cuff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Chris H; Shin, Ji Sun; Kim, Ji Eun; Oh, Sohee

    2015-09-30

    Whereas synovitis is one of most common findings during arthroscopic surgery in patients with rotator cuff diseases, no study has investigated its characteristics. We propose a macroscopic assessment system for investigating the characteristics of synovitis. Fifty-four patients with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with an average age of 62.5 ± 7.0 years were included. For the macroscopic assessment, 3 parameters, villous hypertrophy, hyperemia, and density, were measured and translated into grades in 3 regions-of-interest (ROI) in the glenohumeral joint and 4 ROIs in the subacromial space. For the microscopic assessments, 4 commonly used microscopic assessment systems were used. The reliability and association between the macroscopic and microscopic assessments were investigated. The inter- and intra-observer reliability of all of the macroscopic and microscopic assessments were excellent. The severity of synovitis was significantly greater in the glenohumeral joint than that in the subacromial space, 1.54 ± 0.61 versus 0.94 ± 0.56 (p system. Meanwhile, none of the microscopic assessment systems demonstrated differences between different ROIs in both the glenohumeral joint and the subacromial space. The macroscopic assessment system for synovitis in rotator cuff disease in this study showed excellent reliability. It critically described characteristics of synovitis that microscopic assessment systems could not. Therefore, this system could be a useful tool for investigating synovitis in rotator cuff disease.

  17. Microscopic residual stress evolution during deformation process of an Fe---Mn---Si---Cr shape memory alloy investigated using white X-ray microbeam diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, E.P.; Sato, S.; Fujieda, S.; Shinoda, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Sato, M.; Suzuki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic residual stress evolution in different austenite (γ) grains during shape memory process in an Fe---Mn---Si---Cr alloy was investigated using the white X-ray microbeam diffraction technique. The use of high-energy white X-ray microbeam with small beam size allowed us to measure the microscopic residual stress in coarse γ grains with specific orientation. After tensile deformation large compressive residual stress was evolved in γ grains due to the formation of stress-induced ε martensite, but upon recovery heating it almost disappeared as a result of reverse transformation of martensite. The magnitude of compressive residual stress was higher in grains with orientations close to 〈144〉 and 〈233〉 orientations than in a grain with near 〈001〉 orientation. Analysis of the microstructure of each grain using electron backscattering diffraction suggested that the difference in the magnitude of compressive residual stress could be attributed to different martensitic transformation characteristics in the grains

  18. Minimal Residual Disease Assessment in Lymphoma: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alex F; Armand, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Standard methods for disease response assessment in patients with lymphoma, including positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans, are imperfect. In other hematologic malignancies, particularly leukemias, the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) is increasingly influencing treatment paradigms. However, in many subtypes of lymphoma, the application of MRD assessment techniques, like flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, has been challenging because of the absence of readily detected circulating disease or canonic chromosomal translocations. Newer MRD detection methods that use next-generation sequencing have yielded promising results in a number of lymphoma subtypes, fueling the hope that MRD detection may soon be applicable in clinical practice for most patients with lymphoma. MRD assessment can provide real-time information about tumor burden and response to therapy, noninvasive genomic profiling, and monitoring of clonal dynamics, allowing for many possible applications that could significantly affect the care of patients with lymphoma. Further validation of MRD assessment methods, including the incorporation of MRD assessment into clinical trials in patients with lymphoma, will be critical to determine how best to deploy MRD testing in routine practice and whether MRD assessment can ultimately bring us closer to the goal of personalized lymphoma care. In this review article, we describe the methods available for detecting MRD in patients with lymphoma and their relative advantages and disadvantages. We discuss preliminary results supporting the potential applications for MRD testing in the care of patients with lymphoma and strategies for including MRD assessment in lymphoma clinical trials.

  19. Automatic detection of the hippocampal region associated with Alzheimer's disease from microscopic images of mice brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaidhani, Tahseen; Hawkes, Cheryl; Jassim, Sabah; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2016-05-01

    The hippocampus is the region of the brain that is primarily associated with memory and spatial navigation. It is one of the first brain regions to be damaged when a person suffers from Alzheimer's disease. Recent research in this field has focussed on the assessment of damage to different blood vessels within the hippocampal region from a high throughput brain microscopic images. The ultimate aim of our research is the creation of an automatic system to count and classify different blood vessels such as capillaries, veins, and arteries in the hippocampus region. This work should provide biologists with efficient and accurate tools in their investigation of the causes of Alzheimer's disease. Locating the boundary of the Region of Interest in the hippocampus from microscopic images of mice brain is the first essential stage towards developing such a system. This task benefits from the variation in colour channels and texture between the two sides of the hippocampus and the boundary region. Accordingly, the developed initial step of our research to locating the hippocampus edge uses a colour-based segmentation of the brain image followed by Hough transforms on the colour channel that isolate the hippocampus region. The output is then used to split the brain image into two sides of the detected section of the boundary: the inside region and the outside region. Experimental results on a sufficiently number of microscopic images demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed solution.

  20. IgG4-related disease: a systemic condition with characteristic microscopic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke

    2013-01-01

    the observation that many patients suffering from autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a specific type of chronic pancreatitis, had elevated serum levels of IgG4, it was reported that these patients also had increased numbers of IgG4-positive cells in the inflamed pancreatic tissue. In 2003, it was noted...... diseases on their own, others have been included under the umbrella of "multifocal fibrosclerosis". Biopsies or resection specimens from affected organs in IgG4-RD reveal several common microscopic features irrespective of the site of the lesion. Cellular and storiform fibrosis, lymphoplasmacytic...... on the microscopic features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the different organ manifestations of IgG4-RD, and the current concepts of its pathogenesis will also be addressed....

  1. Current challenges in glioblastoma: intratumour heterogeneity, residual disease and models to predict disease recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Patricia Ellis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GB is the most common malignant primary brain tumour, and despite the availability of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to combat the disease, overall survival remains low with a high incidence of tumour recurrence. Technological advances are continually improving our understanding of the disease and in particular our knowledge of clonal evolution, intratumour heterogeneity and possible reservoirs of residual disease. These may inform how we approach clinical treatment and recurrence in GB. Mathematical modelling (including neural networks, and strategies such as multiple-sampling during tumour resection and genetic analysis of circulating cancer cells, may be of great future benefit to help predict the nature of residual disease and resistance to standard and molecular therapies in GB.

  2. Minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Previously we have reported our results on minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Briefly, B M-aspirates were collected from 817 patients at primary surgery. Tumor cells in B M were detected by immunocytochemistry using anticytokeratin-antibodies (A E1/ A E3). Analyses of the primary tumor included histological grading, vascular invasion and immunohistochemical detection of cerbB2, cathepsin D, p53 and ER/PgRexpression. These analyses were compared to clinical outcome. Median follow-up was 49 months. ITC were detected in 13.2% of the patients. The detection rate rose with increasing tumor size (p=0.011) and lymph node involvement (p<0.001). Systemic relapse and death from breast cancer occurred in 31.7% and 26.9% of the B M-positive versus 13.7% and 10.9% of B M-negative patients, respectively (p<0.001). Analyzing node-positive and node-negative patients separately, ITC-positivity was associated with poor prognosis in the node-positive group and in node-negative patients not receiving adjuvant therapy (T1N0). In multivariate analysis, ITC in B M was an independent prognostic factor together with N-, T-, ER/Pg R-status, histological grade and vascular invasion. Combination of several independent prognostic factors can classify subgroups of patients into excellent and high-risk prognosis groups. Like other groups we have investigated the clinical role of monitoring minimal residual disease before and after adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. One hundred and eighteen high risk stage II breast cancer patients entering the Scandinavian Study Group multicenter trial were randomized to 9 cycles of dose escalated and tailored FEC (5-flurouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) or standard FEC followed by high dose chemotherapy. B M samples at diagnosis and 6 months after completion of chemotherapy were assessed for the presence of I CT. Median observation time for patients was 68 months. ITC positivity in bone marrow was evaluated as a prognostic and predictive marker and

  3. Microscopic Study of Skin Diseases in Horses from the Bogota Savanna, Colombia

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    Iovana Castellanos Londoño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Horses hold third place in number of cases of skin disease after cats and dogs; however, there is little information about the demographic aspects of dermatological diseases in this species in Colombia. The purpose of this work was to carry out a preliminary study in order to determine the dermatological diseases that affect horses in the Bogota Savanna, through biopsy, skin scraping and trichogram, in order to approach the diagnosis and thus to establish therapeutic and prophylactic measures that benefit the animal’s health and productivity in commercial farms. Thirty-nine skin biopsies, thirty-nine cutaneous scraping and thirtyseven samples of hairy peel from horses with some kind of skin disease were received, all of which were processed by the Histopathology Laboratory from La Salle University. The inflammatory injuries were sorted taking into account the histological patterns of inflammatory skin disease and tumors, according to the classification by the World Health Organization (WHO. Allergic dermatitis was the most common pathology (46% and neoplasia was observed in 13% of the cases; fungal spores in ectothrix position were found in 10% of the cutaneous scrapes. Mites of the type Psoroptes spp were identified in one of the trichograms. This is the first report of microscopic diagnosis of skin diseases of horses in the country with the goal of contributing with the demographic knowledge of skin diseases in the Bogota Savanna.

  4. Microscopic and macroscopic models for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, Michiel; Franchi, Bruno; Carla Tesi, Maria; Tosin, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    In the first part of this paper we review a mathematical model for the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that was developed in subsequent steps over several years. The model is meant to describe the evolution of AD in vivo. In Achdou et al (2013 J. Math. Biol. 67 1369-92) we treated the problem at a microscopic scale, where the typical length scale is a multiple of the size of the soma of a single neuron. Subsequently, in Bertsch et al (2017 Math. Med. Biol. 34 193-214) we concentrated on the macroscopic scale, where brain neurons are regarded as a continuous medium, structured by their degree of malfunctioning. In the second part of the paper we consider the relation between the microscopic and the macroscopic models. In particular we show under which assumptions the kinetic transport equation, which in the macroscopic model governs the evolution of the probability measure for the degree of malfunctioning of neurons, can be derived from a particle-based setting. The models are based on aggregation and diffusion equations for β-Amyloid (Aβ from now on), a protein fragment that healthy brains regularly produce and eliminate. In case of dementia Aβ monomers are no longer properly washed out and begin to coalesce forming eventually plaques. Two different mechanisms are assumed to be relevant for the temporal evolution of the disease: (i) diffusion and agglomeration of soluble polymers of amyloid, produced by damaged neurons; (ii) neuron-to-neuron prion-like transmission. In the microscopic model we consider mechanism (i), modelling it by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration (describing the agglomeration phenomenon), with the addition of a diffusion term as well as of a source term on the neuronal membrane. At the macroscopic level instead we model processes (i) and (ii) by a system of Smoluchowski equations for the amyloid concentration, coupled to a kinetic-type transport equation for the distribution function of the

  5. Microscopic Inner Retinal Hyper-Reflective Phenotypes in Retinal and Neurologic Disease

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    Scoles, Drew; Higgins, Brian P.; Cooper, Robert F.; Dubis, Adam M.; Summerfelt, Phyllis; Weinberg, David V.; Kim, Judy E.; Stepien, Kimberly E.; Carroll, Joseph; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We surveyed inner retinal microscopic features in retinal and neurologic disease using a reflectance confocal adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). Methods. Inner retinal images from 101 subjects affected by one of 38 retinal or neurologic conditions and 11 subjects with no known eye disease were examined for the presence of hyper-reflective features other than vasculature, retinal nerve fiber layer, and foveal pit reflex. The hyper-reflective features in the AOSLO images were grouped based on size, location, and subjective texture. Clinical imaging, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and fundus photography was analyzed for comparison. Results. Seven categories of hyper-reflective inner retinal structures were identified, namely punctate reflectivity, nummular (disc-shaped) reflectivity, granular membrane, waxy membrane, vessel-associated membrane, microcysts, and striate reflectivity. Punctate and nummular reflectivity also was found commonly in normal volunteers, but the features in the remaining five categories were found only in subjects with retinal or neurologic disease. Some of the features were found to change substantially between follow up imaging months apart. Conclusions. Confocal reflectance AOSLO imaging revealed a diverse spectrum of normal and pathologic hyper-reflective inner and epiretinal features, some of which were previously unreported. Notably, these features were not disease-specific, suggesting that they might correspond to common mechanisms of degeneration or repair in pathologic states. Although prospective studies with larger and better characterized populations, along with imaging of more extensive retinal areas are needed, the hyper-reflective structures reported here could be used as disease biomarkers, provided their specificity is studied further. PMID:24894394

  6. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Still a Work in Progress?

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    Federico Mosna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimal residual disease evaluation refers to a series of molecular and immunophenotypical techniques aimed at detecting submicroscopic disease after therapy. As such, its application in acute myeloid leukemia has greatly increased our ability to quantify treatment response, and to determine the chemosensitivity of the disease, as the final product of the drug schedule, dose intensity, biodistribution, and the pharmakogenetic profile of the patient. There is now consistent evidence for the prognostic power of minimal residual disease evaluation in acute myeloid leukemia, which is complementary to the baseline prognostic assessment of the disease. The focus for its use is therefore shifting to individualize treatment based on a deeper evaluation of chemosensitivity and residual tumor burden. In this review, we will summarize the results of the major clinical studies evaluating minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia in adults in recent years and address the technical and practical issues still hampering the spread of these techniques outside controlled clinical trials. We will also briefly speculate on future developments and offer our point of view, and a word of caution, on the present use of minimal residual disease measurements in “real-life” practice. Still, as final standardization and diffusion of the methods are sorted out, we believe that minimal residual disease will soon become the new standard for evaluating response in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  7. Macroscopic and Microscopic Changes in Turkey Embryos Infected with Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD; Gumboro Disease) Virus

    OpenAIRE

    BEYTUT, Enver

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of turkey embryos to the chicken isolate of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and to investigate the morphologic changes occured particularly in bursa of Fabricius (BF) and some visceral organs. In the study, 178 embryonated turkey eggs and 28th passage of the virus from chicken embryo were used. Doses of 0.1 ml from the viral suspension were inoculated into yolk sac (YS) and allantoic cavity (AC), respectively on 13th and 15...

  8. Microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has...... been rising over the last decades, research has been sparse and our knowledge about MC remains limited. Specialists in the field have initiated the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) with the primary goal to create awareness on MC. The EMCG is furthermore a forum with the intention to promote...

  9. Low-residue and low-fiber diets in gastrointestinal disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauwaert, Erika; Matthys, Christophe; Verdonck, Lies; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-11-01

    Recently, low-residue diets were removed from the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Nutrition Care Manual due to the lack of a scientifically accepted quantitative definition and the unavailability of a method to estimate the amount of food residue produced. This narrative review focuses on defining the similarities and/or discrepancies between low-residue and low-fiber diets and on the diagnostic and therapeutic values of these diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Diagnostically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is used in bowel preparation. A bowel preparation is a cleansing of the intestines of fecal matter and secretions conducted before a diagnostic procedure. Therapeutically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is part of the treatment of acute relapses in different bowel diseases. The available evidence on low-residue and low-fiber diets is summarized. The main findings showed that within human disease research, the terms "low residue" and "low fiber" are used interchangeably, and information related to the quantity of residue in the diet usually refers to the amount of fiber. Low-fiber/low-residue diets are further explored in both diagnostic and therapeutic situations. On the basis of this literature review, the authors suggest redefining a low-residue diet as a low-fiber diet and to quantitatively define a low-fiber diet as a diet with a maximum of 10 g fiber/d. A low-fiber diet instead of a low-residue diet is recommended as a diagnostic value or as specific therapy for gastrointestinal conditions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass studied by in situ scratch testing inside the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on material removal mechanism is meaningful for precision and ultra-precision manufacturing. In this paper, a novel scratch device was proposed by integrating the parasitic motion principle linear actuator. The device has a compact structure and it can be installed on the stage of the scanning electron microscope (SEM to carry out in situ scratch testing. Effect of residual chips on the material removal process of the bulk metallic glass (BMG was studied by in situ scratch testing inside the SEM. The whole removal process of the BMG during the scratch was captured in real time. Formation and growth of lamellar chips on the rake face of the Cube-Corner indenter were observed dynamically. Experimental results indicate that when lots of chips are accumulated on the rake face of the indenter and obstruct forward flow of materials, materials will flow laterally and downward to find new location and direction for formation of new chips. Due to similar material removal processes, in situ scratch testing is potential to be a powerful research tool for studying material removal mechanism of single point diamond turning, single grit grinding, mechanical polishing and grating fabrication.

  11. Low-Residue and Low-Fiber Diets in Gastrointestinal Disease Management12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauwaert, Erika; Matthys, Christophe; Verdonck, Lies; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Recently, low-residue diets were removed from the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ Nutrition Care Manual due to the lack of a scientifically accepted quantitative definition and the unavailability of a method to estimate the amount of food residue produced. This narrative review focuses on defining the similarities and/or discrepancies between low-residue and low-fiber diets and on the diagnostic and therapeutic values of these diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Diagnostically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is used in bowel preparation. A bowel preparation is a cleansing of the intestines of fecal matter and secretions conducted before a diagnostic procedure. Therapeutically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is part of the treatment of acute relapses in different bowel diseases. The available evidence on low-residue and low-fiber diets is summarized. The main findings showed that within human disease research, the terms “low residue” and “low fiber” are used interchangeably, and information related to the quantity of residue in the diet usually refers to the amount of fiber. Low-fiber/low-residue diets are further explored in both diagnostic and therapeutic situations. On the basis of this literature review, the authors suggest redefining a low-residue diet as a low-fiber diet and to quantitatively define a low-fiber diet as a diet with a maximum of 10 g fiber/d. A low-fiber diet instead of a low-residue diet is recommended as a diagnostic value or as specific therapy for gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:26567203

  12. [Investigation of the relationship between chronic diseases and residual symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjie; Fu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Ye; Ge, Ying

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prognosis-related influence factors of the residual symptoms after the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the second affiliated hospital of dalian medical university. Among patients who were diagnosed with BPPV and treated by CRP, the one that still show residual symptoms were enrolled in our study, then make a follow-up irregularly about the tendency of their residual symptoms' self-healing,and respectively record in their gender, age and chronic diseases and so on. Single-factor analysis and multi-factors analysis was utilized to investigate the residual symptoms' related influencing factors. In this study, 149 cases of patients were in record, for the residual symptoms, 71 patients can go to self-healing, 78 patients can not; age is 23-88, 30 cases in the young group, 46 cases in the middle aged group, 47 cases in the young elderly group, 26 cases in the elderly group; patients suffering from high blood pressure are 76 cases, 76 cases had diabetes, 47 cases had hyperlipidemia, 110 cases had heart disease, 43 cases had ischemic encephalopathy. The residual symptoms in the elderly females patients and patients suffering from the hypertension, diabetes, heart disease patients and ischemic encephalopathy are not easy to heal by itself, in which, the older and the fact suffering from the hypertension and diabetes are the risk factors influencing the prognosis of the residual symptoms.

  13. How to preserve residual renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease and on dialysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2006-01-01

    A review is given on various aspects of GFR in patients with chronic kidney disease and in dialysis patients. These include the measurement of GFR, measures to preserve GFR in chronic kidney disease and dialysis, the importance of residual GFR in dialysis patients and factors that influence GFR in

  14. Residual herniated disc material following hemilaminectomy in chondrodystrophic dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, W J; Thomas, M; Weh, J M; Bleedorn, J; Wells, K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of residual disc material within the vertebral canal following hemilaminectomy in chondrodystrophic dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease. Forty dogs were treated by hemilaminectomy. Computed tomography was performed preoperatively and immediately postoperatively. The vertebral canal height, width, area, and herniated disc material area were measured. Maximum filling percentage (MFP), residual disc percentage (RDP), maximum residual filling percentage (MRFP), and residual filling percentage (RFP) were calculated. Clinical outcome was determined by telephone interviews. Residual disc material was present in 100% of the dogs. Mean MFP = 55.4% (range 25.9-82.3%; median 56.9%). Mean RDP = 50.3% (range 2.6-155.8%; median 47.9%). Mean MRFP = 30.8% (range 4.9-60%; median 30.1%). Mean RFP = 19.8% (range 4.8-45%; median 19.0%). All dogs were ambulatory with voluntary urination at the long-term follow-up (range: 88-735 days). Residual disc was present in all dogs following hemilaminectomy for intervertebral disc disease. Residual disc was not associated with failure to achieve functional recovery in these cases.

  15. Automated detection of residual cells after sex-mismatched stem-cell transplantation – evidence for presence of disease-marker negative residual cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tilman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new chimerism analysis based on automated interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH evaluation was established to detect residual cells after allogene sex-mismatched bone marrow or blood stem-cell transplantation. Cells of 58 patients were characterized as disease-associated due to presence of a bcr/abl-gene-fusion or a trisomy 8 and/or a simultaneous hybridization of gonosome-specific centromeric probes. The automatic slide scanning platform Metafer with its module MetaCyte was used to analyse 3,000 cells per sample. Results Overall 454 assays of 58 patients were analyzed. 13 of 58 patients showed residual recipient cells at one stage of more than 4% and 12 of 58 showed residual recipient cells less than 4%, respectively. As to be expected, patients of the latter group were associated with a higher survival rate (48 vs. 34 month. In only two of seven patients with disease-marker positive residual cells between 0.1–1.3% a relapse was observed. Besides, disease-marker negative residual cells were found in two patients without relapse at a rate of 2.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusion The definite origin and meaning of disease-marker negative residual cells is still unclear. Overall, with the presented automatic chimerism analysis of interphase FISH slides, a sensitive method for detection of disease-marker positive residual cells is on hand.

  16. Control of postharvest diseases of fruit by heat and fungicides: efficacy, residue levels, and residue persistence. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2011-08-24

    Extensive research has been done in recent years to reduce the heavy dependence on chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases and disorders of horticultural crops. Alternative strategies were based on improved cultural practices, biological control, plant-defense promoters, and physical treatments such as UV illumination, radiofrequency treatment, heat therapy, and storage technologies. Among these, postharvest heat treatments such as hot water dips, short hot water rinsing and brushing, and hot air conditioning have reduced rot development and enhanced fruit resistance to chilling injury in sensitive cultivars while retaining fruit quality during cold storage and shelf life. Additive or synergistic increases in effectiveness were observed by integrating heat therapy with various chemical compounds, thus leading to significant reductions in the application of active ingredients to protect produce from decay. This paper highlights the knowledge on this topic with emphasis on heat therapy effects and factors affecting the uptake, persistence, and performance of fungicide residues when they are applied in combination with hot water.

  17. Competitive PCR for quantification of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, C; Madsen, H O; Ryder, L P

    2000-01-01

    A very precise and reproducible polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed in order to quantify minimal residual disease (MRD) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). A clone-specific competitor was constructed by introducing a restriction site in a PCR product identical...... under identical conditions. After restriction enzyme cleavage, the PCR products originating from the competitor and the malignant clone can be distinguished by size in a gel electrophoresis step and the amount of residual disease can be determined. The method is very sensitive with a detection limit...

  18. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD, without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%, whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%. Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. Conclusion: PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  19. Hepatocytes Contribute to Residual Glucose Production in a Mouse Model for Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, Brenda S.; Boss, Andreas; van Dijk, Theo H.; Soty, Maud; Wolters, Henk; Mutel, Elodie; Groen, Albert K.; Derks, Terry G. J.; Mithieux, Gilles; Heerschap, Arend; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Rajas, Fabienne; Oosterveer, Maaike H.

    2017-01-01

    It is a long-standing enigma how glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I patients retain a limited capacity for endogenous glucose production despite the loss of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Insight into the source of residual endogenous glucose production is of clinical importance given the risk

  20. Stability of PCR Targets for Monitoring Minimal Residual Disease in Neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutterheim, Janine; Zappeij-Kannegieter, Lily; Ora, Ingrid; van Sluis, Peter G.; Bras, Johannes; den Ouden, Emmy; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Tytgat, Godelieve A. M.

    2012-01-01

    In neuroblastoma (NB) patients, minimal residual disease (MRD) can be detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using NB-specific target genes, such as PHOX2B and TH. However, it is unknown whether the mRNA levels of these targets vary either during treatment or at relapse. If marker genes are

  1. Minimal residual disease diagnostics in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Need for sensitive, fast, and standardized technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); M. Brüggemann (Monika); A. Orfao (Alberto)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMonitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) has become routine clinical practice in frontline treatment of virtually all childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in many adult ALL patients. MRD diagnostics has proven to be the strongest prognostic factor, allowing for risk group

  2. Prognostic value of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, JJM; Seriu, T; Panzer-Grumayer, ER; Biondi, A; Pongers-Willemse, MJ; Corral, L; Stolz, F; Schrappe, M; Masera, G; Kamps, WA; Gadner, H; van Wering, ER; Ludwig, WD; Basso, G; de Bruijn, MAC; Cazzaniga, G; Hettinger, A; van der Does-van den Berg, A; Hop, WCJ; Riehm, H; Bartram, CR

    1998-01-01

    Background Sensitive techniques for detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) at degrees of one leukaemic cell per 10(3)-10(6) cells (10(-3)-10(-6)) during follow-up of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) can provide insight into the effectiveness of cytotoxic treatment. However, it

  3. Iron storage in liver, bone marrow and splenic Gaucheroma reflects residual disease in type 1 Gaucher disease patients on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenboog, Martine; Bohte, Anneloes E; Akkerman, Erik M; Stoker, Jaap; Hollak, Carla E M

    2017-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the storage of glycosphingolipids in macrophages. Despite effective therapy, residual disease is present in varying degrees and may be associated with late complications, such as persistent bone or liver disease and increased cancer risk. Gaucher macrophages are capable of storing iron and locations of residual disease may thus be detectable with iron imaging. Forty type 1 GD (GD1) patients and 40 matched healthy controls were examined using a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging protocol consisting of standard sequences, allowing analysis of iron content per organ, expressed as R2* (Hz). Median R2* values were significantly elevated in GD1 patients as compared to healthy controls in liver [41 Hz (range 29-165) vs. 38 Hz (range 28-53), P iron levels in liver and bone marrow, which may carry a risk for liver fibrosis and cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Breast MR imaging for the assessment of residual disease following initial surgery for breast cancer with positive margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, Julia [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Price, Elissa R. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Division of Women' s Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S.; Watson, Elizabeth; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Murray, Melissa P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the accuracy of post-operative MR in predicting residual disease in women with positive margins, emphasizing the size thresholds at which residual disease can be confidently identified. This IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 175 patients with MR after positive margins following initial surgery for breast cancer. Two expert readers independently re-evaluated MR images for evidence of residual disease at the surgical cavity and multifocal/multicentric disease. All patients underwent definitive surgery and MR findings were correlated to histopathology. 139/175 (79.4%) patients had residual disease at surgery. Average overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for residual disease at the surgical cavity were 73%, 72%, 91% and 45%, respectively. The readers identified 42/45 (93%, reader 1) and 43/45 (95%, reader 2) patients with residual invasive disease at the cavity of ≥5 mm and 22/22 (100%, both readers) patients with disease ≥10 mm. Average sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for unknown multifocal/multicentric disease were 90%, 96%, 93% and 86%, respectively. Post-operative breast MR can accurately depict ≥5-mm residual disease at the surgical cavity and unsuspected multifocal/multicentric disease. These findings have the potential to lead to more appropriate selection of second surgical procedures in women with positive margins. (orig.)

  5. A mind map for managing minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher B; Ravandi, Farhad

    2017-11-01

    Advances in detecting traces of leukemia that were previously unidentifiable have increasingly led to the incorporation of information about residual disease into clinical decision making for patients with leukemia in both the postinduction and consolidation settings. This review discusses current concepts related to minimal residual disease (MRD), which is defined as submicroscopic disease detected during morphologic complete remission. The focus is on acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Basic methods for detecting MRD include flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and mutation analysis. Several studies using these assays have demonstrated prognostic implications based on MRD-positive vs MRD-negative status. As our understanding of the biological factors responsible for MRD in AML evolves, residual disease should be evaluated in the context of other prognostic markers. Current therapeutic options for managing MRD in AML are limited, and the clinical implications of a positive MRD test result can be significant. Regarding individual patients, an evidence-based approach must be applied while the institution- and assay-specific differences that currently exist are considered. Challenges associated with MRD assessment, such as the limited standardization of available assays and the paucity of effective agents to eradicate MRD, will need to be overcome before physicians who treat leukemia can use MRD as a tool for clinical management.

  6. The Influence of Repeat Surgery and Residual Disease on Recurrence After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Anne; Bjerre, Karsten; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of women who have breast-conserving surgery (BCS) subsequently undergo re-excision or proceed to mastectomy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with residual disease after repeat surgery and to determine their effect on ipsilateral breast tumor...... recurrence (IBTR) and survival. METHODS: The study cohort was identified within the national population-based registry of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, including women who underwent BCS for unilateral invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2009. RESULTS: The study investigated 12,656 women...... interval (CI) 1.57-5.62] or DCIS (HR, 2.58; 95 % CI 1.50-4.45). However, no difference was seen in overall survival comparing patients receiving one excision with those having repeat surgery with or without residual disease (p = 0.96). CONCLUSION: A higher risk of IBTR seen after re-excision was associated...

  7. Minimal residual disease after surgery of HPV 16-associated tumours as target for immunotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, Supplement 1 (2006), - ISSN 1107-3756. [World Congress on Advances in Oncology /11./ and International Symposium on Molecular Medicine /9./. 12.10.2006-14.10.2006, Hersonissos] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : minimal residual disease * HPV16 * immunotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Depletion of Treg cells inhibits minimal residual disease after surgery of HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Bieblová, Jana; Rosalia, Rodney Alexander; Frič, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2006), s. 1567-1571 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * residual tumour disease * Treg cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2006

  9. HPV16-associated tumours: Therapy of surgical minimal residual disease with dendritic cell-based vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Indrová, Marie; Mendoza, Luis; Mikyšková, Romana; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2004), s. 1165-1170 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV 16 * minimal residual tumour disease * dendritic cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  10. Minimal residual disease as the target for immunotherapy and gene therapy of cancer (Review)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2005), s. 1377-1380 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA MZd(CZ) NR8004; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : residual tumour disease * gene therapy * cytokines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2005

  11. Morgellons disease: Analysis of a population with clinically confirmed microscopic subcutaneous fibers of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia R Savely; Raphael B Stricker

    2010-01-01

    Virginia R Savely1, Raphael B Stricker21TBD Medical Associates, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Morgellons disease is a controversial illness in which patients complain of stinging, burning, and biting sensations under the skin. Unusual subcutaneous fibers are the unique objective finding. The etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, and diagnostic criteria have yet to be established. Our goal was to identify prevalen...

  12. Food residue granuloma mimicking metastatic disease on FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucitti, Antonio; Grossi, Ugo; Leccisotti, Lucia; Maggi, Fabio; Ricci, Riccardo; Mazzari, Andrea; Tomaiuolo, Pasquina M C; Giordano, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    A 31-year-old woman presenting with acute abdomen underwent an emergency Hartmann's procedure for fecal peritonitis due to perforated adenocarcinoma of the left colon. Shortly after a 7-month course of adjuvant chemotherapy, follow-up contrast-enhanced CT showed multiple peritoneal and hepatic nodules, showing focal intense and homogeneous FDG uptake on FDG-PET/CT, highly suspected for recurrence of disease. Excisional biopsy of the nodules revealed foreign body granulomas made up of alimentary materials surrounded by a fibrous wall. We report a unique case of a false-positive finding secondary to food residues mimicking metastatic disease on FDG-PET in a patient with colon cancer.

  13. Diagnosis of Plasma Cell Dyscrasias and Monitoring of Minimal Residual Disease by Multiparametric Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kah Teong; Tario, Joseph D.; Wallace, Paul K.

    2018-01-01

    Synopsis Plasma cell dyscrasia (PCD) is a heterogeneous disease which has seen a tremendous change in outcomes due to improved therapies. Over the last few decades, multiparametric flow cytometry has played an important role in the detection and monitoring of PCDs. Flow cytometry is a high sensitivity assay for early detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) that correlates well with progression-free survival and overall survival. Before flow cytometry can be effectively implemented in the clinical setting sample preparation, panel configuration, analysis, and gating strategies must be optimized to ensure accurate results. Current consensus methods and reporting guidelines for MRD testing are discussed. PMID:29128071

  14. Pre-transplantation minimal residual disease with cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic features improves risk stratification in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oran, Betül; Jorgensen, Jeff L; Marin, David; Wang, Sa; Ahmed, Sairah; Alousi, Amin M; Andersson, Borje S; Bashir, Qaiser; Bassett, Roland; Lyons, Genevieve; Chen, Julianne; Rezvani, Katy; Popat, Uday; Kebriaei, Partow; Patel, Keyur; Rondon, Gabriela; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Champlin, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to improve outcome prediction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia by combining cytogenetic and molecular data at diagnosis with minimal residual disease assessment by multicolor flow-cytometry at transplantation. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission in whom minimal residual disease was assessed at transplantation were included and categorized according to the European LeukemiaNet classification. The primary outcome was 1-year relapse incidence after transplantation. Of 152 patients eligible, 48 had minimal residual disease at the time of their transplant. Minimal residual disease-positive patients were older, required more therapy to achieve first remission, were more likely to have incomplete recovery of blood counts and had more adverse risk features by cytogenetics. Relapse incidence at 1 year was higher in patients with minimal residual disease (32.6% versus 14.4%, P=0.002). Leukemia-free survival (43.6% versus 64%, P=0.007) and overall survival (48.8% versus 66.9%, P=0.008) rates were also inferior in patients with minimal residual disease. In multivariable analysis, minimal residual disease status at transplantation independently predicted 1-year relapse incidence, identifying a subgroup of intermediate-risk patients, according to the European LeukemiaNet classification, with a particularly poor outcome. Assessment of minimal residual disease at transplantation in combination with cytogenetic and molecular findings provides powerful independent prognostic information in acute myeloid leukemia, lending support to the incorporation of minimal residual disease detection to refine risk stratification and develop a more individualized approach during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Viehland, Christian; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Keller, Brenton; Vajzovic, Lejla; Izatt, Joseph A; Toth, Cynthia A

    2017-05-01

    Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained traction as an important adjunct for clinical decision making during vitreoretinal surgery, and OCT angiography (OCTA) has provided novel insights in clinical evaluation of retinal diseases. To date, these two technologies have not been applied in combination to evaluate retinal vascular disease in the operating suite. To conduct microscope-integrated, swept-source OCTA (MIOCTA) in children with retinal vascular disease. In this case report analysis, OCT imaging in pediatric patients, MIOCTA images were obtained during examination under anesthesia from a young boy with a history of idiopathic vitreous hemorrhage and a female infant with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Side-by-side comparison of research MIOCT angiograms and clinically indicated fluorescein angiograms. In 2 young children with retinal vascular disease, the MIOCTA images showed more detailed vascular patterns than were visible on the fluorescein angiograms although within a more posterior field of view. The MIOCTA system allowed visualization of small pathological retinal vessels in the retinal periphery that were obscured in the fluorescein angiograms by fluorescein staining from underlying, preexisting laser scars. This is the first report to date of the use of MIOCTA in the operating room for young children with retinal vascular disease. Further optimization of this system may allow noninvasive detailed evaluation of retinal vasculature during surgical procedures and in patients who could not cooperate with in-office examinations.

  16. Outcome of Microscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery in Cushing Disease: A Case Series of 96 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Manochehr; Motiei-Langroudi, Rouzbeh; Sadeghian, Homa

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the results of transsphenoidal surgery in patients with Cushing disease and outcome. Retrospective analysis of the records of 96 patients with Cushing disease from 1997 to 2012. There were 73 females and 23 males, with a mean follow-up of 44 months (range, 3-13 years). The sex ratio was significantly different in children and teenagers versus adults. Magnetic resonance imaging showed microadenoma, macroadenoma, and no adenoma in 66, 18, and 12 patients, respectively. There was no surgical mortality. Early remission (normal 24-hour urinary free cortisol and basal serum cortisol Cushing disease. Macroadenomas, cavernous sinus invasion, and harder tumor consistencies, however, are associated with lower remission rates (higher disease persistence) and younger age, higher preoperative cortisol levels, and longer follow-up periods are associated with higher recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia in dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmakova, Medora B; Piccione, Julie; Bishop, Micah A; Nelson, Whitney R; Lawhon, Sara D

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples from dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease for detection of bactibilia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 31 dogs and 21 cats with hepatobiliary disease for which subsequent microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples was performed from 2004 through 2014. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records of included dogs and cats were reviewed to extract data regarding diagnosis, antimicrobials administered, and results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples. Agreement between these 2 diagnostic tests was assessed by calculation of the Cohen κ value. RESULTS 17 (33%) dogs and cats had bactibilia identified by microscopic examination of bile samples, and 11 (21%) had bactibilia identified via bacterial culture. Agreement between these 2 tests was substantial (percentage agreement [positive and negative results], 85%; κ = 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.89) and improved to almost perfect when calculated for only animals that received no antimicrobials within 24 hours prior to sample collection (percentage agreement, 94%; κ = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia is optimized when dogs and cats are not receiving antimicrobials at the time of sample collection. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.

  18. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  19. Morgellons disease: Analysis of a population with clinically confirmed microscopic subcutaneous fibers of unknown etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Virginia R; Stricker, Raphael B

    2010-05-13

    Morgellons disease is a controversial illness in which patients complain of stinging, burning, and biting sensations under the skin. Unusual subcutaneous fibers are the unique objective finding. The etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, and diagnostic criteria have yet to be established. Our goal was to identify prevalent symptoms in patients with clinically confirmed subcutaneous fibers in order to develop a case definition for Morgellons disease. Patients with subcutaneous fibers observed on physical examination (designated as the fiber group) were evaluated using a data extraction tool that measured clinical and demographic characteristics. The prevalence of symptoms common to the fiber group was then compared with the prevalence of these symptoms in patients with Lyme disease and no complaints of skin fibers. The fiber group consisted of 122 patients. Significant findings in this group were an association with tick-borne diseases and hypothyroidism, high numbers from two states (Texas and California), high prevalence in middle-aged Caucasian women, and an increased prevalence of smoking and substance abuse. Although depression was noted in 29% of the fiber patients, pre-existing delusional disease was not reported. After adjusting for nonspecific symptoms, the most common symptoms reported in the fiber group were: crawling sensations under the skin; spontaneously appearing, slow-healing lesions; hyperpigmented scars when lesions heal; intense pruritus; seed-like objects, black specks, or "fuzz balls" in lesions or on intact skin; fine, thread-like fibers of varying colors in lesions and intact skin; lesions containing thick, tough, translucent fibers that are highly resistant to extraction; and a sensation of something trying to penetrate the skin from the inside out. This study of the largest clinical cohort reported to date provides the basis for an accurate and clinically useful case definition for Morgellons disease.

  20. Morgellons disease: Analysis of a population with clinically confirmed microscopic subcutaneous fibers of unknown etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R Savely

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Virginia R Savely1, Raphael B Stricker21TBD Medical Associates, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USABackground: Morgellons disease is a controversial illness in which patients complain of stinging, burning, and biting sensations under the skin. Unusual subcutaneous fibers are the unique objective finding. The etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, and diagnostic criteria have yet to be established. Our goal was to identify prevalent symptoms in patients with clinically confirmed subcutaneous fibers in order to develop a case definition for Morgellons disease.Methods: Patients with subcutaneous fibers observed on physical examination (designated as the fiber group were evaluated using a data extraction tool that measured clinical and demographic characteristics. The prevalence of symptoms common to the fiber group was then compared with the prevalence of these symptoms in patients with Lyme disease and no complaints of skin fibers.Results: The fiber group consisted of 122 patients. Significant findings in this group were an association with tick-borne diseases and hypothyroidism, high numbers from two states (Texas and California, high prevalence in middle-aged Caucasian women, and an increased prevalence of smoking and substance abuse. Although depression was noted in 29% of the fiber patients, pre-existing delusional disease was not reported. After adjusting for nonspecific symptoms, the most common symptoms reported in the fiber group were: crawling sensations under the skin; spontaneously appearing, slow-healing lesions; hyperpigmented scars when lesions heal; intense pruritus; seed-like objects, black specks, or “fuzz balls” in lesions or on intact skin; fine, thread-like fibers of varying colors in lesions and intact skin; lesions containing thick, tough, translucent fibers that are highly resistant to extraction; and a sensation of something trying to penetrate the skin from

  1. Microscopic lumbar hernietomiya under CT control, experience in the treatment of disk-articular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choneva, I.; Amoreti, N.; Kujelstadt, P.

    2013-01-01

    result in 79 % of treated posterolateral and foraminal disc hernia is observed (> 70% reduction in pain as compared to baseline ) and at only 50% of the operated medial disc herniation. Conclusion: This study provides a new method for treatment of disc herniation through a percutaneous access with thin probe needle, in combination with X-ray and CT control and represents micro-invasive surgery of the spine, which may be regarded as an alternative to traditional surgery. Microscopic Lumbar herniotomy has several advantages: a small diameter probe used, which reduces the risk of ligament lesions and not to cause damage to the bone structures of the arc or the rear of the adjacent muscular structures and allows transchannel access

  2. Microscope basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Greenfield; Nordberg, Joshua J

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides information on how microscopes work and discusses some of the microscope issues to be considered in using a video camera on the microscope. There are two types of microscopes in use today for research in cell biology-the older finite tube-length (typically 160mm mechanical tube length) microscopes and the infinity optics microscopes that are now produced. The objective lens forms a magnified, real image of the specimen at a specific distance from the objective known as the intermediate image plane. All objectives are designed to be used with the specimen at a defined distance from the front lens element of the objective (the working distance) so that the image formed is located at a specific location in the microscope. Infinity optics microscopes differ from the finite tube-length microscopes in that the objectives are designed to project the image of the specimen to infinity and do not, on their own, form a real image of the specimen. Three types of objectives are in common use today-plan achromats, plan apochromats, and plan fluorite lenses. The concept of mounting video cameras on the microscope is also presented in the chapter. Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Postural stability in vestibular neuritis: age, disease duration, and residual vestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Chisato; Egami, Naoya; Kinoshita, Makoto; Sugasawa, Keiko; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    To assess the influence of factors that can affect postural instability in vestibular neuritis (VN). Retrospective data collection study. Foam posturography was performed in 58 VN patients. We examined six variables: the velocity of movement of the center of pressure and the envelopment area in eyes closed/foam rubber condition, Romberg's ratios of velocity and area with foam rubber, and the foam ratios of velocity and area with eyes closed. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the relationship between these variables and the following independent variables: gender, age, canal paresis (CP) percentage, and disease duration. All six variables were positively associated with age, CP percentage, and a disease duration of 10 days or less (P  .05). VN patients show poor postural performance, which is affected by age, residual vestibular function, and disease duration. Once a VN patient passes the acute phase of the vertigo attack, it is likely that age and residual vestibular function make a greater contribution to postural control. 3b. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. A multigene array for measurable residual disease detection in AML patients undergoing SCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, M; McGowan, K S; Lu, K; Jain, N; Candia, J; Hensel, N F; Tang, J; Calvo, K R; Battiwalla, M; Barrett, A J; Hourigan, C S

    2015-01-01

    AML is a diagnosis encompassing a diverse group of myeloid malignancies. Heterogeneous genetic etiology, together with the potential for oligoclonality within the individual patient, have made the identification of a single high-sensitivity marker of disease burden challenging. We developed a multiple gene measurable residual disease (MG-MRD) RQ–PCR array for the high-sensitivity detection of AML, retrospectively tested on 74 patients who underwent allo-SCT at the NHLBI in the period 1994–2012. MG-MRD testing on peripheral blood samples prior to transplantation demonstrated excellent concordance with traditional BM-based evaluation and improved risk stratification for post-transplant relapse and OS outcomes. Pre-SCT assessment by MG-MRD predicted all clinical relapses occurring in the first 100 days after allo-SCT compared with 57% sensitivity using WT1 RQ–PCR alone. Nine patients who were negative for WT1 prior to transplantation were correctly reclassified into a high-risk MG-MRD-positive group, associated with 100% post-transplant mortality. This study provides proof of principle that a multiple gene approach may be superior to the use of WT1 expression alone for AML residual disease detection. PMID:25665046

  5. An electron microscopic study of clinical Paget's disease of the nipple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, H; Osther, P J; Nielsen, E H

    1995-01-01

    An ultrastructural study of the epidermis from eight patients with clinical Paget's disease of the nipple supports the epidermotropic theory. There was no evidence that the Paget's cells originated from keratinocytes. We propose the hypothesis that Paget's cells represent transformed ductal cells......, from the subjacent lactiferous ducts of the nipple, which have migrated into the epidermis, either as neoplastic cells or as normal ductal cells with secondary in situ transformation in the epidermis....

  6. Minimal residual disease after long-term interferon-alpha2 treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utke Rank, Cecilie; Weis Bjerrum, Ole; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer

    2016-01-01

    burden by a highly sensitive quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay appears to be a useful tool for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) and evaluating treatment efficacy. This report expands and substantiates existing data, showing that IFN-alpha2 is a highly potent immunomodulating agent capable...... of inducing MRD with low-burden JAK2 V617F, major molecular response (MMR), complete hematological remission (CHR) and complete histomorphological normalization of the bone marrow in a sub-set of patients with ET and PV after long-term treatment (≥ 3.5 years). Furthermore, long-lasting hematological...

  7. Hepatocytes contribute to residual glucose production in a mouse model for glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmans, Brenda S; Boss, Andreas; van Dijk, Theo H; Soty, Maud; Wolters, Henk; Mutel, Elodie; Groen, Albert K; Derks, Terry G J; Mithieux, Gilles; Heerschap, Arend; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Rajas, Fabienne; Oosterveer, Maaike H

    2017-12-01

    It is a long-standing enigma how glycogen storage disease (GSD) type I patients retain a limited capacity for endogenous glucose production despite the loss of glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Insight into the source of residual endogenous glucose production is of clinical importance given the risk of sudden death in these patients, but so far contradictory mechanisms have been proposed. We investigated glucose-6-phosphatase-independent endogenous glucose production in hepatocytes isolated from a liver-specific GSD Ia mouse model (L-G6pc -/- mice) and performed real-time analysis of hepatic glucose fluxes and glycogen metabolism in L-G6pc -/- mice using state-of-the-art stable isotope methodologies. Here we show that G6pc-deficient hepatocytes are capable of producing glucose. In vivo analysis of hepatic glucose metabolism revealed that the hepatic glucokinase flux was decreased by 95% in L-G6pc -/- mice. It also showed increased glycogen phosphorylase flux in L-G6pc -/- mice, which is coupled to the release of free glucose through glycogen debranching. Although the ex vivo activities of debranching enzyme and lysosomal acid maltase, two major hepatic α-glucosidases, were unaltered in L-G6pc -/- mice, pharmacological inhibition of α-glucosidase activity almost completely abolished residual glucose production by G6pc-deficient hepatocytes. Our data indicate that hepatocytes contribute to residual glucose production in GSD Ia. We show that α-glucosidase activity, i.e. glycogen debranching and/or lysosomal glycogen breakdown, contributes to residual glucose production by GSD Ia hepatocytes. A strong reduction in hepatic GCK flux in L-G6pc-/- mice furthermore limits the phosphorylation of free glucose synthesized by G6pc-deficient hepatocytes, allowing the release of glucose into the circulation. The almost complete abrogation of GCK flux in G6pc-deficient liver also explains the contradictory reports on residual glucose production in GSD Ia patients. (Hepatology

  8. Prediction of residual valvular lesions in rheumatic heart disease: role of adhesion molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Mona; Yahia, Sohier; Eldars, Waleed; Eldegla, Heba; Matter, Mohamed; Attia, Gehan; Hawas, Samia

    2013-03-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic condition characterized by fibrosis and scarring of the cardiac valves and damage to the heart muscle, leading to congestive heart failure and death. This prospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the possible relation between the levels of serum adhesion molecules and acute rheumatic fever (ARF) carditis, valvular insult severity, and residual valvular lesion after improvement of rheumatic activity. Serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin were assayed by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for 50 children with ARF carditis during activity and after improvement and for 50 healthy children as control subjects. After the acute attack, patients were followed up regularly to detect residual valvular lesion. The serum levels of these adhesion molecules were significantly higher in the patients than in the control group (p valvular lesion (ICAM-1, >1,032.3 μg/ml; VCAM-1, >3,662.3 μg/ml; E-selectin, >104.8 μg/ml). Finally, by combining the three adhesion molecules in a single prediction model, the highest area under the curve (AUC) ± standard error (SE) was obtained (0.869 ± 0.052), and the positive likelihood ratio for having a residual valvular lesion was increased (17.33). Levels of serum adhesion molecules could predict residual valvular lesions in RHD patients. The authors recommend that the serum level of adhesion molecules be measured in all cases of ARF carditis.

  9. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  10. Proposal for the standardization of flow cytometry protocols to detect minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Maura Rosane Valério; Beltrame, Miriam Perlingeiro; Ferreira, Silvia Inês Alejandra Cordoba Pires; Souto, Elizabeth Xisto; Malvezzi, Mariester; Yamamoto, Mihoko

    2015-01-01

    Minimal residual disease is the most powerful predictor of outcome in acute leukemia and is useful in therapeutic stratification for acute lymphoblastic leukemia protocols. Nowadays, the most reliable methods for studying minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction. Both provide similar results at a minimal residual disease level of 0.01% of normal cells, that is, detection of one leukemic cell in up to 10,000 normal nucleated cells. Currently, therapeutic protocols establish the minimal residual disease threshold value at the most informative time points according to the appropriate methodology employed. The expertise of the laboratory in a cancer center or a cooperative group could be the most important factor in determining which method should be used. In Brazil, multiparametric flow cytometry laboratories are available in most leukemia treatment centers, but multiparametric flow cytometry processes must be standardized for minimal residual disease investigations in order to offer reliable and reproducible results that ensure quality in the clinical application of the method. The Minimal Residual Disease Working Group of the Brazilian Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (SBTMO) was created with that aim. This paper presents recommendations for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on the literature and expertise of the laboratories who participated in this consensus, including pre-analytical and analytical methods. This paper also recommends that both multiparametric flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction are complementary methods, and so more laboratories with expertise in immunoglobulin/T cell receptor (Ig/TCR) gene assays are necessary in Brazil. PMID:26670404

  11. Precision and prognostic value of clone-specific minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Pierre; Tang, Ruoping; Abermil, Nassera; Flandrin, Pascale; Moatti, Hannah; Favale, Fabrizia; Suner, Ludovic; Lorre, Florence; Marzac, Christophe; Fava, Fanny; Mamez, Anne-Claire; Lapusan, Simona; Isnard, Françoise; Mohty, Mohamad; Legrand, Ollivier; Douay, Luc; Bilhou-Nabera, Chrystele; Delhommeau, François

    2017-07-01

    The genetic landscape of adult acute myeloid leukemias (AML) has been recently unraveled. However, due to their genetic heterogeneity, only a handful of markers are currently used for the evaluation of minimal residual disease (MRD). Recent studies using multi-target strategies indicate that detection of residual mutations in less than 5% of cells in complete remission is associated with a better survival. Here, in a series of 69 AMLs with known clonal architecture, we design a clone-specific strategy based on fluorescent in situ hybridization and high-sensitivity next generation sequencing to detect chromosomal aberrations and mutations, respectively, in follow-up samples. The combination of these techniques allows tracking chromosomal and genomic lesions down to 0.5-0.4% of the cell population in remission samples. By testing all lesions in follow-up samples from 65 of 69 evaluable patients, we find that initiating events often persist and appear to be, on their own, inappropriate markers to predict short-term relapse. In contrast, the persistence of two or more lesions in more than 0.4% of the cells from remission samples is strongly associated with lower leukemia-free and overall survivals in univariate and multivariate analyses. Although larger prospective studies are needed to extend these results, our data show that a personalized, clone-specific, MRD follow up strategy is feasible in the vast majority of AML cases. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. [Determination of antibiotics residues in the raw fresh milk of farms in the Miyun County of Beijing with Mg2+ -sensitized metacycline fluorescence microscopic imaging technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yang, Le

    2010-05-01

    Mg(2+) -sensitized metacycline fluorescence microscopic imaging technique was applied to detect the raw fresh milk of four cows breeding farms in the Miyun County of Beijing based on the capillary effect of solvent on solid supports. In the presence of NH3-NH4 Cl buffer solution (pH 9.99) and PVA-124, Mg2+ and metacycline can form a strong fluorescence complex of 1 : 1, and Mg(2+) -metacycline complex can form an SOR on the hydrophobic supports with the diameter of 0.93 mm and its ring belt width of 26.2 microm. By measuring the fluorescence intensity of the ring, the quantitative analysis of metacycline was achieved with the detection limit (3sigma) of 8.8 x 10(-14) mol x ring(-1) (1.8 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1)) and linear range of 2.2 x 10(-13) -3.6 x 10(-12) mol x ring(-1) (4.4 x 10(-7) -7.2 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1)) when 0.50 microL droplet was spotted. This method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of metacycline in the raw fresh milk samples with the recovery of 93.8%-108% and RSD less than 4.3%.

  13. Geographical variation of Crohn's disease residual incidence in the Province of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowe Anne-Marie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crohn's disease (CD is clinically expressed as a chronic affection of the gastrointestinal tract currently known to have a multifactorial etiology involving a complex pathophysiological host response modulated by genetic susceptibilities, demographic determinants and environmental factors. With more than 20 cases per 100,000 person-years, the province of Quebec, Canada is among regions of the world with highest reported occurrence of CD in relation to other places where comparable estimates are available. This ecological study was designed to provide a medium-scale spatial exploration of CD incidence after accounting for the influence of known population and regional determinants. Health records of consulting patients in southern Quebec were compiled from 1995 to 2000 and used to estimate age and sex standardized rates per health area (n = 156. Various statistical models taking into account the regional effect of Jewish ethnicity, aboriginal ancestry, material deprivation, prescription for oral contraceptives, reportable enteric infection incidence, smoking as well as latitude and longitude locations were fitted. Results The final regression model presented a coefficient of determination of 22.8% and there was evidence of an eastern trend in the residual incidence (p = 0.018. Overall, the smoothed residual incidence presented a heterogeneous spatial pattern with evidence of patches (multiple health areas of high, low and contrasting values. Health areas with most extreme incidence residuals where also distributed over the whole province including one area in the metropolitan area of Montreal and others in surrounding areas. Conclusions These findings suggest that known populational and regional factors derived through census information only explain a limited fraction of the geographical variation of CD incidence and lead to speculate that the effects of these factors may be incompletely captured (imperfect construction of

  14. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Residual Smear Layer Following Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using Hand Instrumentation or Two Engine-Driven Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Abbasali; Saatchi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaei, Badri

    2015-01-01

    In this experimental study, the amount of smear layer (SL) remnants in curved root canals after chemomechanical instrumentation with two engine-driven systems or hand instrumentation was evaluated. Forty-eight mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25 and 35 degrees (according to Schneider's method) were divided into three groups (n=16) which were prepared by either the ProTaper Universal file series, Reciproc single file system or hand instrumentation. The canals were intermittently irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA, followed by distilled water as the final rinse. The roots were split longitudinally and the apical third of the specimens were evaluated under 2500× magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean scores of the SL were calculated and analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The mean scores of the SL were 2.00±0.73, 1.94±0.68 and 1.44±0.63 µm for the ProTaper Universal, Reciproc and hand instrumentation, respectively. Mean score of SL was significantly less in the hand instrumentation group than the ProTaper (P=0.027) and Reciproc (P=0.035) groups. The difference between the two engine-driven systems, however, was not significant (P=0.803). The amount of smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals prepared with both engine-driven systems was similar and greater than the hand instrumentation technique. Complete cleanliness was not attained.

  15. Screening for Residual Disease in Pediatric Burkitt Lymphoma Using Consensus Primer Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Agsalda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing molecular persistent or minimal residual disease (PD/MRD in childhood Burkitt lymphoma (BL is challenging because access to original tumor is usually needed to design patient-specific primers (PSPs. Because BL is characterized by rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH genes, IgVH primer pools from IgVH1–IgVH7 regions were tested to detect PD/MRD, thus eliminating the need for original tumor. The focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility of using IgVH primer pools to detect disease in clinical specimens. Fourteen children diagnosed with B-NHL had follow-up repository specimens available to assess PD/MRD. Of the 14 patients, 12 were PD/MRD negative after 2 months of therapy and remained in remission at the end of therapy; 2/14 patients were PD/MRD positive at 2-3 months and later relapsed. PSP-based assays from these 14 patients showed 100% concordance with the current assay. This feasibility study warrants further investigation to assess PD/MRD using IgVH primer pools, which could have clinical significance as a real-time assessment tool to monitor pediatric BL and possibly other B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma therapy.

  16. Martian Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  17. Morphological and immunological criteria of minimal residual disease detection in children with B-cell precursors acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznos, O. A.; Grivtsova, L. Yu; Popa, A. V.; Shervashidze, M. A.; Serebtyakova, I. N.; Tupitsyn, N. N.; Selchuk, V. U.; Grebennikova, O. P.; Titova, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    One of the key factors of prognosis and risk stratification in patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is minimal residual disease (MRD). Identification of MRD on the day 15th is one of the most significant in prognosis of the disease. We compared data of a morphological and flow cytometry results of assessment of a bone marrow (BM) at the day 15th of induction chemotherapy in children with BCP-ALL.

  18. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komocsi, Andras; Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin; Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  19. Minimal Residual Disease Diagnostics and Chimerism in the Post-Transplant Period in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the selection of poor-risk patients for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is associated with rather high post-transplant relapse rates. As immunotherapeutic intervention is considered to be more effective before the cytomorphologic manifestation of relapse, post-transplant monitoring gains increasing attention in stem cell recipients with a previous diagnosis of AML. Different methods for detection of chimerism (e.g., microsatellite analysis or quantitative real-time PCR are available to quantify the ratio of donor and recipient cells in the post-transplant period. Various studies demonstrated the potential use of mixed chimerism kinetics to predict relapse of the AML. CD34+-specific chimerism is associated with a higher specificity of chimerism analysis. Nevertheless, a decrease of donor cells can have other causes as well. Therefore, efforts continue to introduce minimal residual disease (MRD monitoring based on molecular mutations in the post-transplant period. The NPM1 (nucleophosmin mutations can be monitored by sensitive quantitative real-time PCR in subsets of stem cell recipients with AML, but for approximately 20% of patients, suitable molecular mutations for post-transplant MRD monitoring are not available so far. This emphasizes the need for an expansion of the panel of MRD markers in the transplant setting.

  20. Prognostic value of multicenter flow cytometry harmonized assessment of minimal residual disease in acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Francis; Campos, Lydia; Allou, Kaoutar; Arnoulet, Christine; Delabarthe, Adrienne; Dumezy, Florent; Feuillard, Jean; Geneviève, Franck; Guérin, Estelle; Guy, Julien; Jouault, Hélène; Lepelley, Pascale; Maynadié, Marc; Solly, Françoise; Ballon, Orianne Wagner; Preudhomme, Claude; Baruchel, André; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert; Béné, Marie C

    2017-12-07

    The assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloblastic leukemia is of growing interest as a prognostic marker of patients' outcome. Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC), tracking leukemia-associated immunophenotypic patterns, has been shown in several studies to be a useful tool to investigate MRD. Here, we report a multicenter prospective study which allowed to define a harmonized analysis strategy, as well as the efficacy of MFC MRD to predict outcome. This study included 276 patients, in 10 different MFC centers, of whom 268 had at least 1 MRD check point. The combination of a CD45, CD34, and CD33 backbone, with the addition of CD117, CD13, CD7, and CD15 in 2 five-color tubes allowed to define each patient's multiparameter immunophenotypic characteristics at diagnosis, according to a Boolean combination of gates. The same individual diagnosis gating strategy was then applied at each MRD time point for each patient. MRD levels were stratified according to log by log thresholds, from 5 × 10 -2 (the classical morphological threshold to define remission) down to MRD1) as well as when considering all time points together. Finally, MRD levels were independent of cytogenetics and allowed in fact to further stratify all cytogenetics risk groups. In summary, this multicenter study demonstrates that a simple combination of immunophenotypic markers successfully allows for the detection of MRD in acute myeloblastic leukemia patients, with a strong correlation to outcome. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The prognostic significance of minimal residual disease in adult Egyptian patients with precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Mohamed A; Mahmoud, Hossam K; Abdelhamid, Thoraya M; El Sharkawy, Nahla M; Elnahass, Yasser H; Elgammal, Mossaad; Abdelfattah, Rafaat M; Eid, Salem; Ghaleb, Fayek M; Kamel, Azza M

    2013-09-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) studies in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) give highly significant prognostic information superior to other standard criteria as age, gender and total leucocytic count (TLC) in distinguishing patients at high and low risk of relapse. We aimed to determine the value of MRD monitoring by flowcytometry (FCM) in predicting outcome in adult Precursor ALL patients. Bone marrow (BM) samples were analyzed by 4-color FCM collected at diagnosis and after induction therapy (MRD1) to correlate MRD positivity with disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Study included 57 adult ALL patients (44 males and 13 females) with a median age of 22 years (18-49). DFS showed no significant difference with age, gender and initial TLC (p=0.838, 0.888 and 0.743, respectively). Cumulative DFS at 2 years was 34% for B-lineage ALL (n: 35) and 57% for T-lineage ALL (n: 18) (p = 0.057). Cumulative DFS at 2 years was 7% for MRD1 positive (high risk, HR) versus 57% for MRD1 negative patients (Low risk, LR) (p MRD1, OS at 2 years was 18% for MRD1 HR (n: 17) versus 65% for MRD1 LR (n: 38) (p < 0.001). OS was 35% for high-risk patients (n: 30) and 62% for low-risk patients (n: 27) classified according to GMALL risk stratification (p = 0.017). MRD by FCM is a strong independent predictor of outcome in terms of DFS and OS and is a powerful informative parameter in guiding individual treatment in ALL patients. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  3. Long-term follow-up of residual mediastinal masses in treated Hodgkin's disease using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Forsgren, G.; Glimelius, B.

    1995-01-01

    Ten patients, with substantial residual mediastinal masses of low signal intensity (SI) in the T2-weighted image (T2WI), were reinvestigated with MR 19-79 months after completing treatment of Hodgkin's disease. All patients were in complete remission. During the follow-up period, the masses had decreased in size by 0-95% (median 67%) as compared to their initial post-therapy size. The SI continued to be low in the T2WI and was unaffected by the degree of size reduction. It is speculated that these mainly fibrotic residual masses undergo slow degradation of the fibrotic part and/or resorption of remaining inflammatory tissue. It is important to understand the natural, long-term MR imaging changes of these residual masses in order more easily to recognize tumour recurrence or other pathologic conditions. (orig.)

  4. Pattern of and reason for postoperative residual disease in patients with advanced ovarian cancer following upfront radical debulking surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; Alesina, Piero F; Walz, Martin K; Lorenz, Dietmar; Groeben, Harald; Heikaus, Sebastian; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Anette; Schneider, Stephanie; Ataseven, Beyhan; Kurzeder, Christian; Prader, Sonia; Beutel, Bianca; Traut, Alexander; du Bois, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Describing the pattern of and reasons for post-operative tumor residuals in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (AOC) operated in a specialized gynecologic cancer center following a strategy of maximum upfront debulking followed by systemic chemotherapy. All consecutive AOC-patients treated between 2005 and 2015 due to stages FIGO IIIB/IV were included in this single-center analysis. 739 patients were included in this analysis. In 81 (11.0%) patients, chemotherapy had already started before referral. Of the remaining 658 patients, upfront debulking was indicated in 578 patients (87.8%), while 80 patients (12.8%) were classified ineligible for upfront debulking; mostly due to comorbidities. A complete tumor resection was achieved in 66.1% of the 578 patients with upfront surgery, 25.4% had residuals 1-10mm and 8.5% had residuals exceeding 10mm, and 12.5% of patients had multifocal residual disease. Most common localization was small bowel mesentery and serosa (79.8%), porta hepatis/hepatoduodenal ligament (10.1%), liver parenchyma (4.3%), pancreas (8.0%), gastric serosa (3.2%), and tumor surrounding/infiltrating the truncus coeliacus (2.7%); 14.9% of the patients had non-resectable supra diaphragmatic lesions. Size of residual tumor was significantly associated with progression-free and overall survival. Upfront debulking for AOC followed by systemic chemotherapy was our main treatment strategy in almost 90% of all patients. The majority experienced a benefit by this approach; while 11.7% of patients probably did not. Understanding sites and reason for residual disease may help to develop adequate surgical training programs but also to identify patients that would better benefit from alternative treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80......% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...

  6. SU-F-R-25: Automatic Identification of Suspicious Recurrent/residual Disease Regions After Prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N A; Abramowitz, M; Pollack, A; Stoyanova, R [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To automatically identify and outline suspicious regions of recurrent or residual disease in the prostate bed using Dynamic Contrast Enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) in patients after prostatectomy. Methods: Twenty-two patients presenting for salvage radiotherapy and with identified Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) in the prostate bed were retrospectively analyzed. The MRI data consisted of Axial T2weighted-MRI (T2w) of the pelvis: resolution 1.25×1.25×2.5 mm; Field of View (FOV): 320×320 mm; slice thickness=2.5mm; 72 slices; and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI)–12 series of T1w with identical spatial resolution to T2w and at 30–34s temporal resolution. Unsupervised pattern recognition was used to decompose the 4D DCE data as the product W.H of weights W of k patterns H. A well-perfused pattern Hwp was identified and the weight map Wwp associated to Hwp was used to delineate suspicious volumes. Threshold of Wwp set at mean(Wwp)+S*std(Wwp), S=1,1.5,2 and 2.5 defined four volumes labeled as DCE1.0 to DCE2.5. These volumes were displayed on T2w and, along with GTV, were correlated with the highest pre-treatment PSA values, and with pharmacokinetic analysis constants. Results: GTV was significantly correlated with DCE2.0(ρ= 0.60, p<0.003), and DCE 2.5 (ρ=0.58, p=0.004)). Significant correlation was found between highest pre-treatment PSA and GTV(ρ=0.42, p<0.049), DCE2.0(ρ= 0.52, p<0.012), and DCE 2.5 (ρ=0.67, p<<0.01)). Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed that Ktrans median value was statistically different between non-specific prostate bed tissue NSPBT and both GTV (p<<0.001) and DCE2.5 (p<<0.001), but while median Ve was statistically different between DCE2.5 and NSPBT (p=0.002), it was not statistically different between GTV and NSPBT (p=0.054), suggesting that automatic volumes capture more accurately the area of malignancy. Conclusion: Software developed for identification and visualization of suspicions regions in DCE-MRI from post-prostatectomy patients has

  7. Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic-Veljanoski, O.; Pham, B.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Krahn, M.; Higgins, Caroline; Bielecki, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing by higher performance techniques such as flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect the proportion of remaining leukemic cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood during and after the first phases of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The results of MRD testing are used to reclassify these patients and guide changes in treatment according to their future risk of relapse. We conducted a systematic review of the economic literature, cost-effectiveness analysis, and budget-impact analysis to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of MRD testing by flow cytometry for management of childhood precursor B-cell ALL in Ontario. Methods A systematic literature search (1998–2014) identified studies that examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing by either flow cytometry or PCR. We developed a lifetime state-transition (Markov) microsimulation model to quantify the cost-effectiveness of MRD testing followed by risk-directed therapy to no MRD testing and to estimate its marginal effect on health outcomes and on costs. Model input parameters were based on the literature, expert opinion, and data from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Using predictions from our Markov model, we estimated the 1-year cost burden of MRD testing versus no testing and forecasted its economic impact over 3 and 5 years. Results In a base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, compared with no testing, MRD testing by flow cytometry at the end of induction and consolidation was associated with an increased discounted survival of 0.0958 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and increased discounted costs of $4,180, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,613/QALY gained. After accounting for parameter uncertainty, incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing was associated with an ICER of $50,249/QALY gained. In

  8. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80...

  9. Minimal Residual Disease and Childhood Leukemia: Standard of Care Recommendations From the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario MRD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athale, Uma H; Gibson, Paul J; Bradley, Nicole M; Malkin, David M; Hitzler, Johann

    2016-06-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is an independent predictor of relapse risk in children with leukemia and is widely used for risk-adapted treatment. This article summarizes current evidence supporting the use of MRD, including clinical significance, current international clinical practice, impact statement, and recommended indications. The proposed MRD recommendations have been endorsed by the MRD Working Group of the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario and provide the foundation for a strategy that aims at equitable access to MRD evaluation for children with leukemia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Could (Disseminated and Residual Minimal Disease be a useful prognostic marker in non-Hodgkin paediatric Lymphomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Mussolin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimal Disseminated Disease (MDD represents the small number of tumour cells in the patients' bone marrow at the time of diagnosis, whereas Minimal Residual Disease (MRD represents the small number of tumour cells remaining in the bone marrow during treatment. Generally, MDD and MRD are measured by polymerase chain reaction, a highly sensitive technique. For a long time, bone marrow involvement has been considered an uncommon event in solid tumours. However, in recent years, several studies demonstrated that MDD and MRD could be powerful tools in paediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma for stratifying patients in different prognostic groups. Risk stratification in future clinical trials on non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on these newly identified risk categories should be useful to improve therapies in order to increase survival for high-risk patients and decrease toxicity for low-risk patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/cmi.v8i2.902 

  11. The Prognostic Value of Residual Volume/Total Lung Capacity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae Rim; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Park, Joo Hun; Lee, Keu Sung; Oh, Sunghee; Kang, Dae Ryoung; Sheen, Seungsoo; Seo, Joon Beom; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lim, Seong Yong; Yoon, Ho Il; Rhee, Chin Kook; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Sang-Do

    2015-10-01

    The prognostic role of resting pulmonary hyperinflation as measured by residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the factors related to resting pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD and to determine whether resting pulmonary hyperinflation is a prognostic factor in COPD. In total, 353 patients with COPD in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort recruited from 16 hospitals were enrolled. Resting pulmonary hyperinflation was defined as RV/TLC ≥ 40%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that older age (P = 0.001), lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (P pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD. RV/TLC is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in COPD.

  12. Assessing genetic effects in survival data by correlating martingale residuals with an application to age at onset of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintrebert, Claire M A; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Maat-Kievit, Anneke; Roos, Raymund A; van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2006-09-30

    Genetic models for survival data are hard to formulate and hard to fit. For example, the popular gamma-frailty model for sib-pair data does not generalize easily to extended pedigrees and is not easy to fit. In this paper we show how martingale residuals from a (marginal) Cox model can be employed to estimate the presence of a genetic effect and to estimate genetic correlations depending on the genetic distance (kinship). The methodology is applied to age at onset of Huntington disease (HD) in carriers of the HD gene. The number of CAG repeats in the HD gene is a well-known predictor for age at onset of the disease. However, there is an indication that other genes might be involved as well; leading to unexplained familial clustering. Using our methodology, we found a clearly significant genetic association between the martingale residuals with correlations of about 0.6 for relatives that share 50 per cent of their genes (sib-pairs and parent-child) and about 0.3 for relatives that share 25 per cent of their genes (grandparent-grandchild, uncle/aunt-niece/nephew).

  13. Fasting serum concentration of short-chain fatty acids in subjects with microscopic colitis and celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Bjerregaard, Jens Holst; Skovbjerg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, have been shown to have many positive health effects. The amount and type of SCFAs formed from dietary fibre by the colonic microbiota depends on the substrate available and is reflected in blood. The total intake and type...... of dietary fibre in people with gastrointestinal diseases differs considerably from healthy subjects....

  14. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  15. Low Residual CBF Variability in Alzheimer's Disease after Correction for CO(2) Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders Bertil; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested the claim that inter-individual CBF variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is substantially reduced after correction for arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Specifically, we tested whether the variability of CBF in brain of patients with AD differed significantly from brain of age...

  16. DNA Methylation Adds Prognostic Value to Minimal Residual Disease Status in Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borssén, Magnus; Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite increased knowledge about genetic aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), no clinically feasible treatment-stratifying marker exists at diagnosis. Instead patients are enrolled in intensive induction therapies with substantial side effects....... In modern protocols, therapy response is monitored by minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis and used for postinduction risk group stratification. DNA methylation profiling is a candidate for subtype discrimination at diagnosis and we investigated its role as a prognostic marker in pediatric T......-ALL. PROCEDURE: Sixty-five diagnostic T-ALL samples from Nordic pediatric patients treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ALL 2008 (NOPHO ALL 2008) protocol were analyzed by HumMeth450K genome wide DNA methylation arrays. Methylation status was analyzed in relation...

  17. Substitutions of PrP N-terminal histidine residues modulate scrapie disease pathogenesis and incubation time in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Eigenbrod

    Full Text Available Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC at octapeptide repeat (OR and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo. Novel transgenic mice expressing PrP(TetraH>G at levels comparable to wild-type (wt controls were susceptible to mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML but showed significantly prolonged incubation times. In contrast, amino acid replacement at residue 95 accelerated disease progression in corresponding PrP(H95G mice. Neuropathological lesions in terminally ill transgenic mice were similar to scrapie-infected wt controls, but less severe. The pattern of PrPSc deposition, however, was not synaptic as seen in wt animals, but instead dense globular plaque-like accumulations of PrPSc in TgPrP(TetraH>G mice and diffuse PrPSc deposition in (TgPrP(H95G mice, were observed throughout all brain sections. We conclude that OR and site 5 histidine substitutions have divergent phenotypic impacts and that cis interactions between the OR region and the site 5 region modulate pathogenic outcomes by affecting the PrP globular domain.

  18. Substitutions of PrP N-terminal histidine residues modulate scrapie disease pathogenesis and incubation time in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Sabina; Frick, Petra; Bertsch, Uwe; Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Gerda; Mielke, Janina; Maringer, Marko; Piening, Niklas; Hepp, Alexander; Daude, Nathalie; Windl, Otto; Levin, Johannes; Giese, Armin; Sakthivelu, Vignesh; Tatzelt, Jörg; Kretzschmar, Hans; Westaway, David

    2017-01-01

    Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo. Novel transgenic mice expressing PrP(TetraH>G) at levels comparable to wild-type (wt) controls were susceptible to mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML but showed significantly prolonged incubation times. In contrast, amino acid replacement at residue 95 accelerated disease progression in corresponding PrP(H95G) mice. Neuropathological lesions in terminally ill transgenic mice were similar to scrapie-infected wt controls, but less severe. The pattern of PrPSc deposition, however, was not synaptic as seen in wt animals, but instead dense globular plaque-like accumulations of PrPSc in TgPrP(TetraH>G) mice and diffuse PrPSc deposition in (TgPrP(H95G) mice), were observed throughout all brain sections. We conclude that OR and site 5 histidine substitutions have divergent phenotypic impacts and that cis interactions between the OR region and the site 5 region modulate pathogenic outcomes by affecting the PrP globular domain.

  19. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Does Not Underdose the Microscopic Disease and has the Potential to Increase Tumor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Flentje, Michael; Partridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate doses to the microscopic disease (MD) in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for locally advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to model tumor control probability (TCP). Methods and Materials: In a retrospective planning study, three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were adapted to shape and volume changes of the gross tumor volume (GTV) once or twice during conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses of 66 Gy; doses in the ART plans were escalated using an iso-mean lung dose (MLD) approach compared to non-adapted treatment. Dose distributions to the volumes of suspect MD were simulated for a scenario with synchronous shrinkage of the MD and GTV and for a scenario of a stationary MD despite GTV shrinkage; simulations were performed using deformable image registration. TCP calculations considering doses to the GTV and MD were performed using three different models. Results: Coverage of the MD at 50 Gy was not compromised by ART. Coverage at 60 Gy in the scenario of a stationary MD was significantly reduced from 92% ± 10% to 73% ± 19% using ART; however, the coverage was restored by iso-MLD dose escalation. Dose distributions in the MD were sufficient to achieve a TCP >80% on average in all simulation experiments, with the clonogenic cell density the major factor influencing TCP. The combined TCP for the GTV and MD was 19.9% averaged over all patients and TCP models in non-adaptive treatment with 66 Gy. Iso-MLD dose escalation achieved by ART increased the overall TCP by absolute 6% (adapting plan once) and by 8.7% (adapting plan twice) on average. Absolute TCP values were significantly different between the TCP models; however, all TCP models suggested very similar TCP increase by using ART. Conclusions: Adaptation of radiotherapy to the shrinking GTV did not compromise dose coverage of volumes of suspect microscopic disease and has the potential to increase TCP by >40% compared

  20. A 12-residue epitope displayed on phage T7 reacts strongly with antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chuan Loo; Yong, Chean Yeah; Muhamad, Azira; Syahir, Amir; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Wen Siang

    2018-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Despite constant surveillance and effective vaccination, the perpetual mutations of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) pose a huge challenge to FMD diagnosis. The immunodominant region of the FMDV VP1 protein (residues 131-170) displayed on phage T7 has been used to detect anti-FMDV in bovine sera. In the present study, the functional epitope was further delineated using amino acid sequence alignment, homology modelling and phage display. Two highly conserved regions (VP1 145-152 and VP1 159-170 ) were identified among different FMDV serotypes. The coding regions of these two epitopes were fused separately to the T7 genome and displayed on the phage particles. Interestingly, chimeric phage displaying the VP1 159-170 epitope demonstrated a higher antigenicity than that displaying the VP1 131-170 epitope. By contrast, phage T7 displaying the VP1 145-152 epitope did not react significantly with the anti-FMDV antibodies in vaccinated bovine sera. This study has successfully identified a smaller functional epitope, VP1 159-170 , located at the C-terminal end of the structural VP1 protein. The phage T7 displaying this shorter epitope is a promising diagnostic reagent to detect anti-FMDV antibodies in vaccinated animals.

  1. Transmission positron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Kogure, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Miyoshi; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Oshima, Ryuichiro; Matsuya, Miyuki

    2006-01-01

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons

  2. Acute cutaneous graft-vs.-host disease compared to drug hypersensitivity reaction with vacuolar interface changes: a blinded study of microscopic and immunohistochemical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Julia S; Gibson, Lawrence E; el-Azhary, Rokea A; Chavan, Rahul N; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Lohse, Christine M; Flotte, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Complications from graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD), a major contributor to morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation, may be mitigated by early diagnosis and intervention. However, differentiation between acute cutaneous GVHD and other common skin eruptions that develop in the post-transplantation period, such as drug hypersensitivity reaction, can be challenging clinically and microscopically. Because recent evidence indicates that CD123, a marker of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, can help to distinguish gastrointestinal GVHD from the clinicopathologic mimic cytomegalovirus colitis, we aimed to determine whether CD123 could aid in the diagnosis of acute cutaneous GVHD. We studied 12 skin specimens of patients with grades I-II cutaneous GVHD and 12 from patients who had drug hypersensitivity reaction with vacuolar interface changes on biopsy. No differences were seen between the two groups with regards to density or distribution of CD123 expression. Specimens representing GVHD showed significantly less spongiosis (P < 0.001) and fewer dermal eosinophils (P = 0.03) compared to those representing drug hypersensitivity reaction. We conclude that CD123 does not appear to be a useful ancillary test in the diagnosis of acute cutaneous GVHD. Careful correlation between clinical findings and features with microscopy remains the cornerstone of accurate diagnosis of acute cutaneous GVHD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  4. Residual disease and HPV persistence after cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 in HIV-positive women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo De Vuyst

    Full Text Available To assess residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3 disease and clearance of high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV infections at 6 months after cryotherapy among HIV-positive women.Follow-up study.79 HIV-positive women received cryotherapy for CIN2/3 in Nairobi, Kenya, and underwent conventional cytology 6 months later. Biopsies were performed on high grade cytological lesions and hrHPV was assessed before (cervical cells and biopsy and after cryotherapy (cells.At 6 months after cryotherapy CIN2/3 had been eliminated in 61 women (77.2%; 95% Confidence Interval, (CI: 66.4-85.9. 18 women (22.8% had residual CIN2/3, and all these women had hrHPV at baseline. CD4 count and duration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART were not associated with residual CIN2/3. CIN3 instead of CIN2 was the only significant risk factor for residual disease (odds ratio, OR vs CIN2 = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.2-15.0 among hrHPV-positive women after adjustment for age and HPV16 infection. Persistence of hrHPV types previously detected in biopsies was found in 77.5% of women and was associated with residual CIN2/3 (OR = 8.1, 95% CI: 0.9-70. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of hrHPV test in detecting residual CIN2/3 were 0.94, 0.36, and 0.96 respectively.Nearly one quarter of HIV-positive women had residual CIN2/3 disease at 6 months after cryotherapy, and the majority had persistent hrHPV. CD4 count and cART use were not associated with residual disease or hrHPV persistence. The value of hrHPV testing in the detection of residual CIN2/3 was hampered by a low specificity.

  5. Residual Disease and HPV Persistence after Cryotherapy for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2/3 in HIV-Positive Women in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Hugo; Mugo, Nelly R.; Franceschi, Silvia; McKenzie, Kevin; Tenet, Vanessa; Njoroge, Julia; Rana, Farzana S.; Sakr, Samah R.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Chung, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 disease and clearance of high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections at 6 months after cryotherapy among HIV-positive women. Design Follow-up study. Methods 79 HIV-positive women received cryotherapy for CIN2/3 in Nairobi, Kenya, and underwent conventional cytology 6 months later. Biopsies were performed on high grade cytological lesions and hrHPV was assessed before (cervical cells and biopsy) and after cryotherapy (cells). Results At 6 months after cryotherapy CIN2/3 had been eliminated in 61 women (77.2%; 95% Confidence Interval, (CI): 66.4–85.9). 18 women (22.8%) had residual CIN2/3, and all these women had hrHPV at baseline. CD4 count and duration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were not associated with residual CIN2/3. CIN3 instead of CIN2 was the only significant risk factor for residual disease (odds ratio, OR vs CIN2 = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.2–15.0) among hrHPV-positive women after adjustment for age and HPV16 infection. Persistence of hrHPV types previously detected in biopsies was found in 77.5% of women and was associated with residual CIN2/3 (OR = 8.1, 95% CI: 0.9–70). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of hrHPV test in detecting residual CIN2/3 were 0.94, 0.36, and 0.96 respectively. Conclusions Nearly one quarter of HIV-positive women had residual CIN2/3 disease at 6 months after cryotherapy, and the majority had persistent hrHPV. CD4 count and cART use were not associated with residual disease or hrHPV persistence. The value of hrHPV testing in the detection of residual CIN2/3 was hampered by a low specificity. PMID:25343563

  6. Control of spread of Augusta disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in tulip by composting residual waste of small bulbs, tunics, roots and soil debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asjes, C.J.; Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the elimination of the infectious virus/fungus complex of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV; cause of Augusta disease in tulip) and Olpidium brassicae in different soil types and residual waste material of soil debris, small tulip bulbs, roots and tunics by temperature treatments of

  7. Fusion gene transcripts and Ig/TCR gene rearrangements are complementary but infrequent targets for PCR-based detection of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckx, N.; M.J. Willemse; T. Szczepanski (Tomasz); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent); A.W. Langerak (Anton); P. Vandekerckhove (Philippe); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPCR-based monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute leukemias can be achieved via detection of fusion gene transcripts of chromosome aberrations or detection of immunoglobulin (lg) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements. We wished to assess whether both PCR targets are

  8. Immunoglobulin kappa deleting element rearrangements in precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia are stable targets for detection of minimal residual disease by real-time quantitative PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, V. H. J.; Willemse, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Hählen, K.; van Wering, E. R.; van Dongen, J. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin gene rearrangements are used as PCR targets for detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We Investigated the occurrence of monoclonal immunoglobulin kappa-deleting element (IGK-Kde) rearrangements by Southern blotting and PCR/heteroduplex

  9. Successful Therapy Reduction and Intensification for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Based on Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring : Study ALL10 From the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rob; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester; Van der Velden, Vincent; Fiocco, Marta; van den Berg, Henk; Bont, de Evelien; Egeler, R. Maarten; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Kaspers, Gertjan; Van der Schoot, Ellen; De Haas, Valerie; Van Dongen, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) improved greatly by intensifying chemotherapy for all patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD) levels during the first months predict outcome and may select patients for therapy reduction or intensification. Methods Patients 1 to 18

  10. Prolonged persistence of PCR-detectable minimal residual disease after diagnosis or first relapse predicts poor outcome in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, E. J.; Verhagen, O. J.; van Leeuwen, E. F.; van den Berg, H.; Behrendt, H.; Slater, R. M.; von dem Borne, A. E.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The follow up of minimal residual disease (MRD) in childhood B-precursor ALL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be of help for further stratification of treatment protocols, to improve outcome. However, the clinical relevance of this approach has yet to be defined. We report the retrospective

  11. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komocsi, Andras [Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie, Universitaet Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologische, Universitaet Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 7, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin [Poliklinik fuer Rheumatologie, Universitaet Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Rheumaklinik Bad Bramstedt, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  12. Intensified external-beam radiation therapy improves the outcome of stage 4 neuroblastoma in children > 1 year with residual local disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.; Hero, B.; Berthold, F.; Bongartz, R.; Mueller, R.P.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: in neuroblastoma, the value of radiation therapy in high-intensive first-line treatment protocols is still not exactly known but radiation-associated long-term effects need to be considered. The impact of external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) of stage 4 neuroblastoma patients of the NB97 trial was analyzed. Patients and methods: the authors retrospectively analyzed data of 110 stage 4 neuroblastoma patients ≥ 1 year who underwent induction therapy and high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation without relapse. Intensified local EBRT (36 Gy) of the residual tumor volume was reserved for patients with residual viable tumor documented by MRI and corresponding metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake. Results: 13 patients who received EBRT for local residual disease had similar outcome (3-year EFS 85 ± 10%, 3-year OS 92 ± 7%) as 74 patients without any MIBG residual (3-year EFS 61 ± 6%, 3-year OS 75 ± 6%). Outcome was worse in 23 children without EBRT to residual primary (3-year EFS 25 ± 10%, 3-year OS 51 ± 11%). Separate analysis of 14 patients with isolated localized residual disease found far better outcome of eight patients with EBRT (3-year EFS 100%, 3-year OS 100%) compared to six patients without EBRT (3-year EFS 20 ± 18%, 3-year OS 20 ± 18%). Multivariate analysis identified EBRT as influential on EFS (hazard ratio 0.27) and OS (hazard ratio 0.17) in addition to MYCN amplification and presence of primary tumor site MIBG residual. Conclusion: EBRT appeared effective in high-intensive treatment of stage 4 neuroblastoma. It seems to compensate the disadvantage of incomplete response to induction chemotherapy. These retrospective results need confirmation by a prospective randomized trial. (orig.)

  13. Time point-dependent concordance of flow cytometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for minimal residual disease detection in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaipa, Giuseppe; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Buldini, Barbara; Silvestri, Daniela; Karawajew, Leonid; Maglia, Oscar; Ratei, Richard; Benetello, Alessandra; Sala, Simona; Schumich, Angela; Schrauder, Andre; Villa, Tiziana; Veltroni, Marinella; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Conter, Valentino; Schrappe, Martin; Biondi, Andrea; Dworzak, Michael N; Basso, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes and polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of antigen-receptor genes rearrangements are reliable methods for monitoring minimal residual disease. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of these two methodologies in the detection of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry were simultaneously applied for prospective minimal residual disease measurements at days 15, 33 and 78 of induction therapy on 3565 samples from 1547 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia enrolled into the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 trial. The overall concordance was 80%, but different results were observed according to the time point. Most discordances were found at day 33 (concordance rate 70%) in samples that had significantly lower minimal residual disease. However, the discordance was not due to different starting materials (total versus mononucleated cells), but rather to cell input number. At day 33, cases with minimal residual disease below or above the 0.01% cut-off by both methods showed a very good outcome (5-year event-free survival, 91.6%) or a poor one (5-year event-free survival, 50.9%), respectively, whereas discordant cases showed similar event-free survival rates (around 80%). Within the current BFM-based protocols, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction cannot simply substitute each other at single time points, and the concordance rates between their results depend largely on the time at which they are used. Our findings suggest a potential complementary role of the two technologies in optimizing risk stratification in future clinical trials.

  14. Flow cytometric minimal residual disease monitoring in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by regimens with reduced intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 191 consecutive unselected children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged from 1 to 16 years were enrolled in the study. Bone marrow samples were obtained at the time of initial diagnostics as well as at days 15 (n = 188, 36 (n = 191, and 85 (n = 187 of remission induction. Minimal residual disease (MRD was assessed by 6–10-color flow cytometry. Flow cytometry data at day 15 allowed distinguishing three patients groups with significantly different outcome (p ˂ 0.0001: 35.64 % patients with MRD < 0.1 % represented 5-year event-free survival (EFS of 100 %; 48.40 % cases with 0.1 % ≤ MRD< 10 % had EFS 84.6 ± 4.2 %; 15.96 % patients with very high MRD (≥ 10 % belonged to group with poor outcome (EFS 56.7 ± 9.0 %. At the end of remission induction (day 36 36 children (18.85 % with MRD higher than 0.1 % had significantly worse outcome compared to remaining ones (EFS 49.4 ± 9.0 and 93.5 ± 2.1 % respectively; p ˂ 0.0001. From a clinical standpoint it is relevant to evaluate both low-risk and high-risk criteria. Multivariate analysis showed that day 15 MRD data is better for low-risk patients definition while end-induction MRD is the strongest unfavorable prognostic factor.

  15. Long-Term Outcomes after Imatinib Mesylate Discontinuation in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients with Undetectable Minimal Residual Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhim, Ho-Young; Lee, Na-Ri; Song, Eun-Kee; Yim, Chang-Yeol; Jeon, So Yeon; Lee, Bohee; Kim, Jeong-A; Kim, Hee Sun; Cho, Eun Hae; Kwak, Jae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) discontinuation is under active investigation in chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase (CML-CP) patients with undetectable minimal residual disease (UMRD). However, limited data exist on the long-term outcomes following IM discontinuation in patients treated with frontline IM therapy. We consecutively enrolled patients with CML-CP who discontinued IM after achieving UMRD for ≥12 months between June 2009 and January 2013. Nineteen patients (8 male, 11 female) were included. After IM discontinuation, 14 patients (74%) lost UMRD after a median of 4.0 months. Of the 14 patients with molecular relapses, 12 (86%) relapsed within the first 9 months after IM discontinuation and 2 (14%) relapsed at 20.5 and 22.8 months, respectively. No molecular relapse was observed after 2 years of IM discontinuation. With a median follow-up of 58.1 months (range 23.0-66.5), the estimated UMRD persistence rate at 5 years was 23.7%. IM was readministered in all patients with molecular relapse, and 12 patients (86%) reachieved UMRD at a median of 5.3 months. A high-risk Sokal score, delayed UMRD achievement and short-term IM therapy were significantly associated with molecular relapse. These findings suggest that IM discontinuation in patients who achieved UMRD after frontline IM therapy resulted in favorable long-term outcomes in terms of safety and feasibility. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring of Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Massively Multiplex Digital PCR in Patients with NPM1 Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencia-Trinchant, Nuria; Hu, Yang; Alas, Maria Antonina; Ali, Fatima; Wouters, Bas J; Lee, Sangmin; Ritchie, Ellen K; Desai, Pinkal; Guzman, Monica L; Roboz, Gail J; Hassane, Duane C

    2017-07-01

    The presence of minimal residual disease (MRD) is widely recognized as a powerful predictor of therapeutic outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but methods of measurement and quantification of MRD in AML are not yet standardized in clinical practice. There is an urgent, unmet need for robust and sensitive assays that can be readily adopted as real-time tools for disease monitoring. NPM1 frameshift mutations are an established MRD marker present in half of patients with cytogenetically normal AML. However, detection is complicated by the existence of hundreds of potential frameshift insertions, clonal heterogeneity, and absence of sequence information when the NPM1 mutation is identified using capillary electrophoresis. Thus, some patients are ineligible for NPM1 MRD monitoring. Furthermore, a subset of patients with NPM1-mutated AML will have false-negative MRD results because of clonal evolution. To simplify and improve MRD testing for NPM1, we present a novel digital PCR technique composed of massively multiplex pools of insertion-specific primers that selectively detect mutated but not wild-type NPM1. By measuring reaction end points using digital PCR technology, the resulting single assay enables sensitive and specific quantification of most NPM1 exon 12 mutations in a manner that is robust to clonal heterogeneity, does not require NPM1 sequence information, and obviates the need for maintenance of hundreds of type-specific assays and associated plasmid standards. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microscopic Colitis Evolved Into Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Is Characterized by Increased Th1/Tc1 Cells in Colonic Mucosal Lamina Propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Yan, Yuchu; Meng, Ziran; Liu, Shuhong; Beck, Paul L; Ghosh, Subrata; Qian, Jiaming; Gui, Xianyong

    2017-10-01

    An association between microscopic colitis (MC), i.e., lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC), and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been noticed. A subset of MC cases may evolve into IBD, and IBD in remission may present as MC in a histologic pattern. Moreover, MC and IBD may coexist in different regions of the bowel. A link between MC and IBD in their pathogenesis is, therefore, suggested. Abnormal mucosal immunity is likely the key. We reviewed 2324 MC cases in Calgary over 14 years and identified 20 cases evolved into IBD (IBD transformers). 13 of them were further investigated for colonic mucosal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNCs), as opposed to 22 cases whose MC resolved. On their index colonic biopsy immunohistochemistry was performed to detect major T cell subsets characterized by key cytokines and master transcription factors (IFNγ and T-bet for Th1/Tc1, GATA-3 for Th2/Tc2, IL-17 and RORc for Th17/Tc17, FoxP3 for Treg/Tcreg) as well as TNFα + cells (partly representing Th1). LPMNCs positive for each marker were counted (average number per high-power field). IBD transformers had increased IFNγ + , T-bet + , TNF-α + , and GATA-3 + LPMNCs compared to the MC-resolved cases. The LC-to-IBD subgroup had increased IFNγ + and GATA-3 + cells compared to the LC-resolved subgroup. The CC-to-IBD subgroup had increased T-bet + , TNF-α + , and GATA-3 + cells compared to the CC-resolved subgroup. Among MC-resolved patients, more TNF-α + and RORc + cells were seen in LC than in CC. Th1/Tc1- and TNFα-producing cells, and likely a subset of Th2/Tc2 cells as well, may be involved in the MC-to-IBD transformation.

  18. Analysis of Margin Index as a Method for Predicting Residual Disease After Breast-Conserving Surgery in a European Cancer Center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2011-06-03

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) × 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  19. Analysis of margin index as a method for predicting residual disease after breast-conserving surgery in a European cancer center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) x 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  20. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Matthew J; Danish, Hasan; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Deng, Claudia; George, Bradley A; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Wasilewski, Karen J; Cash, W Thomas; Khan, Mohammad K; Eaton, Bree R; Esiashvili, Natia

    2017-03-15

    To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse-free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse-free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Matthew J., E-mail: mjferri@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Danish, Hasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deng, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); George, Bradley A.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Wasilewski, Karen J.; Cash, W. Thomas [Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K.; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse–free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse–free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Conclusions: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances.

  2. Anti Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein associated Immunoglobulin G (AntiMOG-IgG)-associated Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder with Persistent Disease Activity and Residual Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Lekha; Nakashima, Ichiro; Mustafa, Sharik; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Kimhiko

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies targeting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) have been recently reported in association with idiopathic inflammatory central nervous system disorders. Initially believed to be a benign disorder, anti MOG-IgG was noted to cause steroid responsive recurrent optic neuritis and isolated longitudinally extensive myelitis. However, there is growing evidence that the disease may be predominantly relapsing, often producing severe visual loss and involving regions other than the spinal cord and optic nerve. We report an adolescent male with an aggressive disease course previously undescribed in anti MOG-IgG-associated disease that left him with residual cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Behçet disease-associated MHC class I residues implicate antigen binding and regulation of cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrello, Michael J; Kirino, Yohei; de Bakker, Paul I W; Gül, Ahmet; Kastner, Daniel L; Remmers, Elaine F

    2014-06-17

    The HLA protein, HLA-B*51, encoded by HLA-B in MHC, is the strongest known genetic risk factor for Behçet disease (BD). Associations between BD and other factors within the MHC have been reported also, although strong regional linkage disequilibrium complicates their confident disentanglement from HLA-B*51. In the current study, we examined a combination of directly obtained and imputed MHC-region SNPs, directly obtained HLA-B locus types, and imputed classical HLA types with their corresponding polymorphic amino acid residues for association with BD in 1,190 cases and 1,257 controls. SNP mapping with logistic regression of the MHC identified the HLA-B/MICA region and the region between HLA-F and HLA-A as independently associated with BD (P MHC class I (MHC-I) amino acid residues, including anchor residues that critically define the selection and binding of peptides to MHC-I molecules, residues known to influence MHC-I-killer immunoglobulin-like receptor interactions, and a residue located in the signal peptide of HLA-B. The locations of these variants collectively implicate MHC-I peptide binding in the pathophysiology of BD. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest a role for altered regulation of cellular cytotoxicity in BD pathogenesis.

  4. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  5. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  6. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  7. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  8. Treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery or chemotherapy in mice carrying HPV16-associated tumours: cytokine and gene therapy with IL-2 and GM-CSF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Šímová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa; Bieblová, Jana; Jinoch, P.; Bubeník, Jan; Vonka, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2004), s. 161-167 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA MZd NC7552; GA ČR GA301/01/0985 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * gene therapy * minimal residual tumour disease Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  9. Genetically modified cellular vaccines against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-associated tumors: adjuvant treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery/chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2009), s. 169-173 ISSN 1107-0625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774; GA ČR GA301/07/1410 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : residual tumour disease * HPV 16 * cellular vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2009

  10. The Light Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the function of the various parts of the microscope and their integration in the formation of an optical image. Presents a procedure for setting up a microscope to obtain maximum resolution and contrast for each objective lens at all magnifications. (JRH)

  11. Mailing microscope slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many insects feed agriculturally important crops, trees, and ornamental plants and cause millions of dollars of damage annually. Identification for some of these require the preparation of a microscope slide for examination. There are times when a microscope slide may need to be sent away to a speci...

  12. Detección molecular de enfermedad mínima residual en melanoma y otros tumores sólidos Molecular detection of minimal residual disease in melanoma and solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Vázquez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available La disponibilidad de métodos altamente sensibles y específicos para la detección de enfermedad mínima residual en pacientes con tumores sólidos podría tener importantes consecuencias pronósticas y terapéuticas. Uno de los métodos más usados para la detección molecular de células cancerosas es la técnica de RT-PCR, que permite la amplificación de secuencias de ARNm específicas de distintos tejidos. La misma fue aplicada por primera vez en la detección de células tumorales circulantes en sangre periférica de pacientes con melanoma avanzado, poco tiempo después fue adaptada para la búsqueda de enfermedad mínima residual en otros tumores sólidos. El objetivo de la presente revisión es evaluar la información publicada desde el primer estudio sobre este tema en 1991 y analizar el valor clínico de los hallazgos obtenidos. Se discute también la importancia del manejo de la muestra y de la estandarización de los procedimientos de RT-PCR.The availability of highly sensitive and specific methods for the detection of minimal residual disease in patients with solid tumors may have important prognostic and therapeutic implications. One of the most widely used methods for the molecular detection of cancer cells is the RT-PCR technique, which leads to the amplification of tissue-specific mRNA. It was firstly applied in the detection of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of patients with advanced melanoma; and soon it was adapted for the detection of minimal residual disease in other solid tumors. The aim of the present review is to evaluate the published data since the first study in 1991 and to analyze the clinical value of the findings obtained. The importance of sample handling and standardization of RT-PCR procedures is also discussed.

  13. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Can Be Used Safely to Boost Residual Disease in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddock, Jonathan, E-mail: jmfedd0@uky.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Arnold, Susanne M. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Shelton, Brent J. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Sinha, Partha; Conrad, Gary [Department of Radiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Chen, Li [Department of Biostatistics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Rinehart, John [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); McGarry, Ronald C. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a prospective, single-institution study evaluating the feasibility of conventional chemoradiation (CRT) followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a means of dose escalation for patients with stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with residual disease. Methods and Materials: Patients without metastatic disease and with radiologic evidence of limited residual disease (≤5 cm) within the site of the primary tumor and good or complete nodal responses after standard CRT to a target dose of 60 Gy were considered eligible. The SBRT boost was done to achieve a total combined dose biological equivalent dose >100 Gy to the residual primary tumor, consisting of 10 Gy × 2 fractions (20 Gy total) for peripheral tumors, and 6.5 Gy × 3 fractions (19.5 Gy total) for medial tumors using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0813 definitions. The primary endpoint was the development of grade ≥3 radiation pneumonitis (RP). Results: After a median follow-up of 13 months, 4 patients developed acute grade 3 RP, and 1 (2.9%) developed late and persistent grade 3 RP. No patients developed grade 4 or 5 RP. Mean lung dose, V2.5, V5, V10, and V20 values were calculated for the SBRT boost, and none were found to significantly predict for RP. Only advancing age (P=.0147), previous smoking status (P=.0505), and high CRT mean lung dose (P=.0295) were significantly associated with RP development. At the time of analysis, the actuarial local control rate at the primary tumor site was 82.9%, with only 6 patients demonstrating recurrence. Conclusions: Linear accelerator-based SBRT for dose escalation of limited residual NSCLC after definitive CRT was feasible and did not increase the risk for toxicity above that for standard radiation therapy.

  15. Assessing genetic effects in survival data by correlating martingale residuals with an application to age at onset of Huntington disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintrebert, Claire M. A.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Maat-Kievit, Anneke; Roos, Raymund A.; van Houwelingen, Hans C.

    2006-01-01

    Genetic models for survival data are hard to formulate and hard to fit. For example, the popular gamma-frailty model for sib-pair data does not generalize easily to extended pedigrees and is not easy to fit. In this paper we show how martingale residuals from a (marginal) Cox model can be employed

  16. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  17. Locally advanced breast cancer: comparison of mammography, sonography and MR imaging in evaluation of residual disease in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londero, Viviana; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Del Frate, Chiara; Francescutti, Giuliana; Zuiani, Chiara [Institute of Radiology, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100, Udine (Italy); Puglisi, Fabio [Department of Oncology, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100, Udine (Italy); Di Loreto, Carla [Institute of Pathology, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100, Udine (Italy)

    2004-08-01

    The accuracy of mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is evaluated and imaging findings are correlated with pathologic findings. Fifteen patients enrolled in an experimental protocol of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent clinical examination, mammography, sonography and dynamic MRI, performed in this order, before and respectively after 2 and 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four radiologists, two for mammography, one for sonography and one for MR, examined the images, blinded to the results of the other examinations. All patients underwent radical or conservative surgery, and imaging findings were compared with pathologic findings. MRI identified 2/15 (13.3.%) clinically complete response (CR), 9/15 (60%) partial response (PR), 3/15 (20%) stable disease (SD) and 1/15 (6.7%) progressive disease. Mammography identified 1/15 (6.7%) clinically CR, 8/15 (53.3%) PR and 4/15 (27%) SD, and was not able to evaluate the disease in 2/15 (13%) cases. Sonography presented the same results as MRI. Therefore, MRI and sonography compared to mammography correctly identified residual disease in 100 vs. 86%. MRI resulted in two false-negative results because of the presence of microfoci of in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (LCI). MRI was superior to mammography in cases of multifocal or multicentric disease (83 vs. 33%). Sonography performed after MRI improves the accuracy in evaluation of uncertain foci of multifocal disease seen on MR images with an increase of diagnostic accuracy from 73 to 84.5%. MRI assesses response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy better than traditional methods of physical examination and mammography. (orig.)

  18. Locally advanced breast cancer: comparison of mammography, sonography and MR imaging in evaluation of residual disease in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londero, Viviana; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Del Frate, Chiara; Francescutti, Giuliana; Zuiani, Chiara; Puglisi, Fabio; Di Loreto, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is evaluated and imaging findings are correlated with pathologic findings. Fifteen patients enrolled in an experimental protocol of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent clinical examination, mammography, sonography and dynamic MRI, performed in this order, before and respectively after 2 and 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four radiologists, two for mammography, one for sonography and one for MR, examined the images, blinded to the results of the other examinations. All patients underwent radical or conservative surgery, and imaging findings were compared with pathologic findings. MRI identified 2/15 (13.3.%) clinically complete response (CR), 9/15 (60%) partial response (PR), 3/15 (20%) stable disease (SD) and 1/15 (6.7%) progressive disease. Mammography identified 1/15 (6.7%) clinically CR, 8/15 (53.3%) PR and 4/15 (27%) SD, and was not able to evaluate the disease in 2/15 (13%) cases. Sonography presented the same results as MRI. Therefore, MRI and sonography compared to mammography correctly identified residual disease in 100 vs. 86%. MRI resulted in two false-negative results because of the presence of microfoci of in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (LCI). MRI was superior to mammography in cases of multifocal or multicentric disease (83 vs. 33%). Sonography performed after MRI improves the accuracy in evaluation of uncertain foci of multifocal disease seen on MR images with an increase of diagnostic accuracy from 73 to 84.5%. MRI assesses response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy better than traditional methods of physical examination and mammography. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of Petrological Microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison, Charter Innes

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a set of procedures designed to check the design, ergonomics, illumination, function, optics, accessory equipment, and image quality of a microscope being considered for purchase. Functions for use in a petrology or mineralogy laboratory are stressed. (CW)

  20. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for automatic detection of foci @]@of residual or recurrent disease after prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N.A.; Orman, Amber; Abramowitz, Matthew; Pollack, Alan; Stoyanova, Radka [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, FL (United States); Padgett, Kyle [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, FL (United States); University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Casillas, Victor [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Punnen, Sanoj [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This study aimed to develop an automated procedure for identifying suspicious foci of residual/recurrent disease in the prostate bed using dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) in prostate cancer patients after prostatectomy. Data of 22 patients presenting for salvage radiotherapy (RT) with an identified gross tumor volume (GTV) in the prostate bed were analyzed retrospectively. An unsupervised pattern recognition method was used to analyze DCE-MRI curves from the prostate bed. Data were represented as a product of a number of signal-vs.-time patterns and their weights. The temporal pattern, characterized by fast wash-in and gradual wash-out, was considered the ''tumor'' pattern. The corresponding weights were thresholded based on the number (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) of standard deviations away from the mean, denoted as DCE1.0,.., DCE2.5, and displayed on the T2-weighted MRI. The resultant four volumes were compared with the GTV and maximum pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Pharmacokinetic modeling was also carried out. Principal component analysis determined 2-4 significant patterns in patients' DCE-MRI. Analysis and display of the identified suspicious foci was performed in commercial software (MIM Corporation, Cleveland, OH, USA). In general, DCE1.0/DCE1.5 highlighted larger areas than GTV. DCE2.0 and GTV were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). DCE2.0/DCA2.5 were also significantly correlated with PSA (r = 0.52, 0.67, p < 0.05). K{sup trans} for DCE2.5 was statistically higher than the GTV's K{sup trans} (p < 0.05), indicating that the automatic volume better captures areas of malignancy. A software tool was developed for identification and visualization of the suspicious foci in DCE-MRI from post-prostatectomy patients and was integrated into the treatment planning system. (orig.) [German] Entwicklung eines automatischen Analyseverfahrens, um nach Prostatektomie mittels dynamischer kontrastmittelverstaerkter

  2. Evaluation of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia on IFN-alpha 2b therapy using conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Rashmi; Choudhry, V P; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Kucheria, Kiran

    2002-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a haematopoietic malignancy characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome that results from balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 leading to the formation of the bcr/abl fusion gene. Studies have shown that interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy induces both cytogenetic (reduction in Ph+ cells) and molecular response (reduction in the bcr/abl positive cells) in a large proportion of patients, thereby improving their prognosis and survival. There are no reports available from India on the clinical management of CML patients using IFN-alpha therapy and molecular methods for the evaluation of residual disease. We evaluated the efficacy of IFN-alpha 2b therapy bysequential cytogenetic and molecularanalysis. Karyotypingwas done from G-banded metaphases obtained from 24-hour culture of bone marrow aspirates of 45 patients. Cytogenetic analysis was repeated at intervals of 4-6 months during the course of IFN-alpha therapy. Dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using specific probes for bcr and abl genes was done to assess the molecular response. Eight patients achieved complete cytogenetic response with no Ph+ cells. Using FISH analysis, 4 of these patients were negative for the fusion gene implying a complete response, while the remaining 4 patients showed bcr/abl fusion signals that represent residual disease. Our study emphasizes the need for sequential cytogenetic and molecular analysis in the management of patients with CML and for the evaluation of minimal residual disease in patients on IFN-alpha therapy.

  3. The PICS Technique: A Novel Approach for Residual Curvature Correction During Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Patients With Severe Peyronie's Disease Using the Collagen Fleece TachoSil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristodoulou, Georgios

    2018-03-01

    Correction of residual curvature during inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implantation in patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) by plaque incision and grafting is a common approach. To present a novel technique for residual curvature correction during IPP implantation using collagen fleece (TachoSil, Baxter Healthcare Corp, Deerfield, IL, USA). After the IPP (Titan Touch, Coloplast, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is placed, the implant is inflated maximally. When residual curvature exceeds 40°, the PICS (penile implant in combination with the Sealing technique) technique is performed. The device is deflated, and a circumcising skin incision and penile degloving are performed. After elevation of the neurovascular bundle, the device is reinflated maximally. Plaque incision is performed at the point of maximum curvature using electrocautery. This leads to penile straightening because the tension is removed. In the next step, the defect of the tunica is closed with collagen fleece, which sticks to the tunica and defect without any sutures needed. The neurovascular bundle is reapproximated and the Buck fascia is closed. This is followed by closure of penile skin. Primary outcome measurements were straightening rates, operative times, 5-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scores at follow-up, immediate and late complications, and patient satisfaction. The PICS technique was applied to 15 patients. Mean patient age was 61.7 years (52-79 years). Mean residual curvature after IPP was 66.7° (50-90°). Mean operative time was 117.3 minutes (100-140 minutes). Mean follow-up was 15.1 months (1-29 months). 12 of 15 patients (80%) showed a totally straight penis. 3 patients (20%) had residual curvature of 10° at follow-up, which did not interfere with sexual intercourse. Mean IIEF-5 score at follow-up was 24.2 (22-25). No immediate or late complications occurred. All patients were satisfied with the surgical outcomes. This novel technique prevents puncture or

  4. Residual signal auto-correlation to evaluate speech in Parkinson’s disease patients Auto-correlação do sinal residual para avaliação da fala em pacientes com doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pereira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the maximum residual signal auto-correlation also known as pitch amplitude (PA values in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. METHOD: The signals of 21 Parkinson’s patients were compared with 15 healthy individuals, divided according age and gender. RESULTS: Statistical difference was seen between groups for PA, 0.39 for controls and 0.25 for PD. Normal value threshold was set as 0.3; (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar autocorrelação do sinal residual também denominado como amplitude do pitch (PA em pacientes com doença de Parkinson (PD. MÉTODO: Os valores de PA, estratificados de acordo com idade e sexo, em 21 pacientes com doença de Parkinson foram analisados e comparados aos dados obtidos em 15 indivíduos sadios. RESULTADOS: Foi determinada diferença estatística para a PA entre os dois grupos (p0,3. Nos pacientes com PD 80,77% dos pacientes tinham a PA <0,3, enquanto que entre os controles somente 12,28% apresentavam valores abaixo de 0,3. O diagrama de dispersão para idade e sexo para os doentes com PD mostraram um p=0,001 e r=0,54. Não houve diferença em relação a sexo e idade entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A significativa diferença da PA entre pacientes com PD e controles demonstra a especificidade da análise. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de estudos controlados, prospectivos, para implementar o uso e indicações da determinação da amplitude do pitch na avaliação da fala em pacientes com doença de Parkinson.

  5. Prognostic Implication of Functional Incomplete Revascularization and Residual Functional SYNTAX Score in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, Joo Myung; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Rhee, Tae-Min; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Hu, Xinyang; Wang, Jianan; Ye, Fei; Chen, Shaoliang; Yang, Junqing; Chen, Jiyan; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Akasaka, Takashi

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic implication of functional incomplete revascularization (IR) and residual functional SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score (rFSS) in comparison with 3-vessel fractional flow reserve (FFR) and residual SYNTAX score. IR is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 385 patients who underwent 3-vessel FFR measurement after stent implantation were included in this study. The rFSS was defined as residual SYNTAX score measured only in vessels with FFR ≤0.8. The study population was divided into the functional IR group (rFSS ≥1) and the functional complete revascularization (CR) group (rFSS = 0). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven revascularization) at 2 years. Functional CR was achieved in 283 patients (73.5%). At 2-year follow-up, the functional IR group showed a significantly higher risk for MACEs (functional IR vs. CR, 14.6% vs. 4.2%; hazard ratio: 4.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.82 to 9.21; p system (rFSS) after stent implantation better discriminated the risk for adverse events than anatomic or physiological assessment alone. (Clinical Implication of 3-Vessel Fractional Flow Reserve [FFR]; NCT01621438). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  7. Electron microscope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-01-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations

  8. Residual disease detected by flow cytometry is an independent predictor of survival in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia; results of the NOPHO-AML 2004 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierens, Anne; Bjørklund, Elizabeth; Siitonen, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Early response after induction is a prognostic factor for disease outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Residual disease (RD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) was performed at day 15 and before consolidation therapy in 101 patients enrolled in the Nordic Society...... of Paediatric Haemato-Oncology AML 2004 study. A multicentre laboratory approach to RD analysis was used. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was significantly different in patients with and without RD at both time points, using a 0·1% RD cut-off level. RD-negative and -positive patients after...... first induction showed a 5-year EFS of 65 ± 7% and 22 ± 7%, respectively (P consolidation therapy had a 5-year EFS of 57 ± 7% and 11 ± 7%, respectively (P

  9. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  10. A complementary role of multiparameter flow cytometry and high-throughput sequencing for minimal residual disease detection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an European Research Initiative on CLL study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rawstron, A C

    2016-04-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy is an independent predictor of outcome. Given the increasing number of new agents being explored for CLL therapy, using MRD as a surrogate could greatly reduce the time necessary to assess their efficacy. In this European Research Initiative on CLL (ERIC) project we have identified and validated a flow-cytometric approach to reliably quantitate CLL cells to the level of 0.0010% (10(-5)). The assay comprises a core panel of six markers (i.e. CD19, CD20, CD5, CD43, CD79b and CD81) with a component specification independent of instrument and reagents, which can be locally re-validated using normal peripheral blood. This method is directly comparable to previous ERIC-designed assays and also provides a backbone for investigation of new markers. A parallel analysis of high-throughput sequencing using the ClonoSEQ assay showed good concordance with flow cytometry results at the 0.010% (10(-4)) level, the MRD threshold defined in the 2008 International Workshop on CLL guidelines, but it also provides good linearity to a detection limit of 1 in a million (10(-6)). The combination of both technologies would permit a highly sensitive approach to MRD detection while providing a reproducible and broadly accessible method to quantify residual disease and optimize treatment in CLL.

  11. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  12. MICROSCOPIC, PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peters

    MICROSCOPIC, PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC. FINGERPRINTS OF LEAVES OF NIGERIAN CASSIA TORA LINN. Fatokun Omolola T1*., EsievoKevwe B2., Ugbabe Grace E3. and Kunle Oluyemisi F4. Department of Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine, National Institute for.

  13. SPM: Scanning positron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dickmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Munich scanning positron microscope, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München and the Technische Universität München, located at NEPOMUC, permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution in the µm range and within an energy range of 1 – 20 keV.

  14. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  15. Making Art with Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedis-Grab, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teaching is a great way to focus on overarching concepts and help students make connections across disciplines. Historically, art and science have been connected disciplines. The botanical prints of the 18th and 19th centuries and early work with microscopes are two examples of a need for strong artistic skills in the science…

  16. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  17. A guide to the effects of a large portion of the residues of triosephosphate isomerase on catalysis, stability, druggability, and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Illana, Vanesa; Riveros-Rosas, Hector; Cabrera, Nallely; Tuena de Gómez-Puyou, Marietta; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; Costas, Miguel; Gómez-Puyou, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) is a ubiquitous enzyme, which appeared early in evolution. TIM is responsible for obtaining net ATP from glycolysis and producing an extra pyruvate molecule for each glucose molecule, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It is placed in a metabolic crossroad that allows a quick balance of the triose phosphate aldolase produced by glycolysis, and is also linked to lipid metabolism through the alternation of glycerol-3-phosphate and the pentose cycle. TIM is one of the most studied enzymes with more than 199 structures deposited in the PDB. The interest for this enzyme stems from the fact that it is involved in glycolysis, but also in aging, human diseases and metabolism. TIM has been a target in the search for chemical compounds against infectious diseases and is a model to study catalytic features. Until February 2017, 62% of all residues of the protein have been studied by mutagenesis and/or using other approaches. Here, we present a detailed and comprehensive recompilation of the reported effects on TIM catalysis, stability, druggability and human disease produced by each of the amino acids studied, contributing to a better understanding of the properties of this fundamental protein. The information reviewed here shows that the role of the noncatalytic residues depend on their molecular context, the delicate balance between the short and long-range interactions in concerted action determining the properties of the protein. Each protein should be regarded as a unique entity that has evolved to be functional in the organism to which it belongs. Proteins 2017; 85:1190-1211. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Changes in serum CA-125 can predict optimal cytoreduction to no gross residual disease in patients with advanced stage ovarian cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Noah; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro; Shoni, Melina; Berkowitz, Ross S; Muto, Michael G; Feltmate, Colleen; Schorge, John O; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Matulonis, Ursula A; Horowitz, Neil S

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive power of serum CA-125 changes in the management of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NACT-IDS) for a new diagnosis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC). Using the Cancer Registry databases from our institutions, a retrospective review of patients with FIGO stage IIIC and IV EOC who were treated with platinum-based NACT-IDS between January 2006 and December 2009 was conducted. Demographic data, CA-125 levels, radiographic data, chemotherapy, and surgical-pathologic information were obtained. Continuous variables were evaluated by Student's t test or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. One hundred-three patients with stage IIIC or IV EOC met study criteria. Median number of neoadjuvant cycles was 3. Ninety-nine patients (96.1%) were optimally cytoreduced. Forty-seven patients (47.5%) had resection to no residual disease (NRD). The median CA-125 at diagnosis and before interval debulking was 1749U/mL and 161U/mL, respectively. Comparing patients with NRD v. optimal macroscopic disease (OMD), there was no statistical difference in the mean CA-125 at diagnosis (1566U/mL v. 2077U/mL, p=0.1). There was a significant difference in the mean CA-125 prior to interval debulking, 92 v. 233U/mL (p=0.001). In the NRD group, 38 patients (80%) had preoperative CA-125≤100U/mL compared to 33 patients (63.4%) in the OMD group (p=0.04). Patients who undergo NACT-IDS achieve a high rate of optimal cytoreduction. In our series, after treatment with taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy, patients with a preoperative CA-125 of ≤100U/mL were highly likely to be cytoreduced to no residual disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection and localization of residual or recurrent disease in patients with multiple myeloma after stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlin, Thorsten; Wisotzki, Christian; Klutmann, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Weber, Christoph; Habermann, Christian R.; Herrmann, Jochen [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Ayuk, Francis; Wolschke, Christine; Kroeger, Nicolaus [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic for Stem Cell Transplantation, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for the detection and localization of residual or recurrent disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after stem cell transplantation. A total of 197 whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 99 patients with MM at different time points in the course of disease after autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Post-transplant PET/CT scans and clinical remission status as determined by the clinical gold standard (Uniform Response Criteria) were analysed and compared. A total of 576 focal osseous and extramedullary lesions were detected in 79 scans. Additional diffuse bone marrow involvement was detected in 17 patients. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT had a sensitivity of 54.6%, a specificity of 82.1%, a positive predictive value of 82.3%, a negative predictive value of 54.2% and an overall accuracy of 65.5%. The sensitivity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was shown to depend on the disease category according to the Uniform Response Criteria for myeloma. In patients with MM in the post-transplant setting, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may (1) contribute to the detection and localization of disease, (2) provide information about the extent of distinct myeloma manifestations and the total disease burden and (3) add information about the metabolic activity of disease, but (4) has substantially lower sensitivity for this purpose compared to the pretreatment setting. (orig.)

  20. Microscopic dynamical Casimir effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Reinaldo de Melo e.; Impens, François; Neto, Paulo A. Maia

    2018-03-01

    We consider an atom in its ground state undergoing a nonrelativistic oscillation in free space. The interaction with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum leads to two effects to leading order in perturbation theory. When the mechanical frequency is larger than the atomic transition frequency, the dominant effect is the motion-induced transition to an excited state with the emission of a photon carrying the excess energy. We compute the angular distribution of emitted photons and the excitation rate. On the other hand, when the mechanical frequency is smaller than the transition frequency, the leading-order effect is the parametric emission of photon pairs, which constitutes the microscopic counterpart of the dynamical Casimir effect. We discuss the properties of the microscopic dynamical Casimir effect and build a connection with the photon production by an oscillating macroscopic metallic mirror.

  1. Microscopic approach to polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between excitons and light has been investigated in detail. The perturbational approach turns out to be invalid. However, an exact solution can be obtained directly from the Schrödinger equation for a fixed light field. This solution corresponds to a nonlinear optical response...... contrary to experimental experience. In order to remove this absurdity the semiclassical approach must be abandoned and the electromagnetic field quantized. A simple microscopic polariton model is then derived. From this the wave function for the interacting exciton-photon complex is obtained...... of light of the crystal. The introduction of damping smears out the excitonic spectra. The wave function of the polariton, however, turns out to be very independent of damping up to large damping values. Finally, this simplified microscopic polariton model is compared with the exact solutions obtained...

  2. Ion photon emission microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  3. Neuromorphic Data Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naegle, John H.; Suppona, Roger A.; Aimone, James Bradley; James, Conrad D.; Follett, David R.; Townsend, Duncan C.M.; Follett, Pamela L.; Karpman, Gabe D.

    2017-08-01

    In 2016, Lewis Rhodes Labs, (LRL), shipped the first commercially viable Neuromorphic Processing Unit, (NPU), branded as a Neuromorphic Data Microscope (NDM). This product leverages architectural mechanisms derived from the sensory cortex of the human brain to efficiently implement pattern matching. LRL and Sandia National Labs have optimized this product for streaming analytics, and demonstrated a 1,000x power per operation reduction in an FPGA format. When reduced to an ASIC, the efficiency will improve to 1,000,000x. Additionally, the neuromorphic nature of the device gives it powerful computational attributes that are counterintuitive to those schooled in traditional von Neumann architectures. The Neuromorphic Data Microscope is the first of a broad class of brain-inspired, time domain processors that will profoundly alter the functionality and economics of data processing.

  4. Laparoscopy-assisted versus transabdominal reoperation in Hirschprung's disease for residual aganglionosis and transition zone pathology after transanal pull-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xue; Li, Ning; Wei, Jia; Zhang, Wen; Yu, Donghai; Zhu, Tianqi; Feng, Jiexiong

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe laparoscopic reoperation (LSR) and compare its outcomes with transabdominal reoperation (TAR) for treating Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Eighteen patients with HD underwent reoperation for recurring constipation due to residual aganglionosis and transition zone pathology after an initial transanal procedure (LSR, n=10; TAR, n=8). Preoperative, operative and postoperative data were collected through patient follow-ups ranging from 13 to 75months to compare operative characteristics and postoperative outcomes between the two groups. Ten patients underwent laparoscopic reoperation in our institution without major complications. On average, blood loss was significantly lower in the LSR group (mean±standard deviation, 83±32.7mL) than in the TAR group (185±69mL) (P=0.001). The LSR group had a shorter hospitalization time (12±2days) than the TAR group (15±2.1days) (P=0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups. LSR is safe and technically feasible in HD for recurring constipation due to residual aganglionosis and transition zone pathology, when initial transanal procedure fails. Although RA and TZP can be cured by reoperation, great efforts should be made to diminish the necessity of reoperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  6. Virtual pinhole confocal microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, J.S.; Rector, D.M.; Ranken, D.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Biophysics Group; Peterson, B. [SciLearn Inc. (United States); Kesteron, J. [VayTech Inc. (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Scanned confocal microscopes enhance imaging capabilities, providing improved contrast and image resolution in 3-D, but existing systems have significant technical shortcomings and are expensive. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel approach--virtual pinhole confocal microscopy--that uses state of the art illumination, detection, and data processing technologies to produce an imager with a number of advantages: reduced cost, faster imaging, improved efficiency and sensitivity, improved reliability and much greater flexibility. Work at Los Alamos demonstrated proof of principle; prototype hardware and software have been used to demonstrate technical feasibility of several implementation strategies. The system uses high performance illumination, patterned in time and space. The authors have built functional confocal imagers using video display technologies (LCD or DLP) and novel scanner based on a micro-lens array. They have developed a prototype system for high performance data acquisition and processing, designed to support realtime confocal imaging. They have developed algorithms to reconstruct confocal images from a time series of spatially sub-sampled images; software development remains an area of active development. These advances allow the collection of high quality confocal images (in fluorescence, reflectance and transmission modes) with equipment that can inexpensively retrofit to existing microscopes. Planned future extensions to these technologies will significantly enhance capabilities for microscopic imaging in a variety of applications, including confocal endoscopy, and confocal spectral imaging.

  7. Thermal Lens Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Kenji; Hibara, Akihide; Kimura, Hiroko; Sawada, Tsuguo; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2000-09-01

    We developed a novel laser microscope based on the thermal lens effect induced by a coaxial beam comprised of excitation and probe beams. The signal generation mechanism was confirmed to be an authentic thermal lens effect from the measurement of signal and phase dependences on optical configurations between the sample and the probe beam focus, and therefore, the thermal lens effect theory could be applied. Two-point spatial resolution was determined by the spot size of the excitation beam, not by the thermal diffusion length. Sensitivity was quite high, and the detection ability, evaluated using a submicron microparticle containing dye molecules, was 0.8 zmol/μm2, hence a distribution image of trace chemical species could be obtained quantitatively. In addition, analytes are not restricted to fluorescent species, therefore, the thermal lens microscope is a promising analytical microscope. A two-dimensional image of a histamine molecule distribution, which was produced in mast cells at the femtomole level in a human nasal mucous polyp, was obtained.

  8. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  9. Q: How do Microscopes Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimov, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Microscopes allow scientists to examine everyday objects in extraordinary ways. They provide high-resolution images that show objects in fine detail. This brief article describes the many types of microscopes and how they are used in different scientific venues.

  10. Use of Wilms Tumor 1 Gene Expression as a Reliable Marker for Prognosis and Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring in Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Normal Karyotype Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Irena; Karan-Djurasevic, Teodora; Ugrin, Milena; Virijevic, Marijana; Vidovic, Ana; Tomin, Dragica; Suvajdzic Vukovic, Nada; Pavlovic, Sonja; Tosic, Natasa

    2017-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype (AML-NK) represents the largest group of AML patients classified with an intermediate prognosis. A constant need exists to introduce new molecular markers for more precise risk stratification and for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring. Quantitative assessment of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene transcripts was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The bone marrow samples were collected at the diagnosis from 104 AML-NK patients and from 34 of these patients during follow-up or disease relapse. We found that overexpression of the WT1 gene (WT1 high status), present in 25.5% of patients, was an independent unfavorable factor for achieving complete remission. WT1 high status was also associated with resistance to therapy and shorter disease-free survival and overall survival. Assessment of the log reduction value of WT1 expression, measured in paired diagnosis/complete remission samples, revealed that patients with a log reduction of < 2 had a tendency toward shorter disease-free survival and overall survival and a greater incidence of disease relapse. Combining WT1 gene expression status with NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutational status, we found that the tumor behavior of intermediate patients (FLT3-ITD - /NPM1 - double negative) with WT1 high status is almost the same as the tumor behavior of the adverse risk group. WT1 expression status represents a good molecular marker of prognosis, response to treatment, and MRD monitoring. Above all, the usage of the WT1 expression level as an additional marker for more precise risk stratification of AML-NK patients could lead to more adapted, personalized treatment protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neutron microscope with refractive wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masalovich, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A possibility of applying a refractive element in a mirror-neutron microscope using ultracold neutrons to reduce neutron aberrations is considered. Application of a refractive element in a neutron microscope with horizontal optical axis is studied. A scheme of neutron microscope with a refractive wedge is presented, evaluation of quartz wedge parameters is made. It is stressed that application of refractive elements in neutron microscopes facilitates aberration reduction in neutron-optical systems

  12. Surgical treatment of residual osgood-schlatter disease in young adults: role of the mobile osseous fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Gabriel; Falah, Mazen; Keren, Yaniv; Eidelman, Mark

    2011-03-11

    Osgood-Schlatter disease is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain over the tibial tubercle. This condition usually resolves spontaneously at skeletal maturity. Few patients develop pain over the tibial tubercle. Radiological examination demonstrates a round regular ossification over the tubercle. Treatment is usually symptomatic, but occasionally surgical treatment is necessary, usually due to the development of a painful ossicle. This article reports our experience with refractory Osgood-Schlatter disease in 22 patients. Most patients were operated under local anesthesia. A midline longitudinal skin incision was used, followed by subperiosteal dissection of the osseous fragment. The knee was put in soft dressing. Patients were encouraged to resume daily activity immediately postoperatively. No wound complications were noted. All patients returned to their previous level of physical activity within 12 weeks postoperatively. All but 1 were free of pain on kneeling or direct pressure over the knee joint. Based on our experience, we devised a treatment algorithm. We believe that the key factors for successful surgical treatment are clear visualization of separation on lateral knee radiographic view and a clinical mobility positive test (firm grasping of the prominent part of the tubercle and its sliding movement). Our results are uniformly good; the only failure related to mistaken inclusion criteria where the lateral radiograph did not show a distinctly separated fragment. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  14. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kones R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard KonesCardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Residual risk, the ongoing appreciable risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE in statin-treated patients who have achieved evidence-based lipid goals, remains a concern among cardiologists. Factors that contribute to this continuing risk are atherogenic non-low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles and atherogenic processes unrelated to LDL cholesterol, including other risk factors, the inherent properties of statin drugs, and patient characteristics, ie, genetics and behaviors. In addition, providers, health care systems, the community, public policies, and the environment play a role. Major statin studies suggest an average 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol and a 31% reduction in relative risk, leaving a residual risk of about 69%. Incomplete reductions in risk, and failure to improve conditions that create risk, may result in ongoing progression of atherosclerosis, with new and recurring lesions in original and distant culprit sites, remodeling, arrhythmias, rehospitalizations, invasive procedures, and terminal disability. As a result, identification of additional agents to reduce residual risk, particularly administered together with statin drugs, has been an ongoing quest. The current model of atherosclerosis involves many steps during which disease may progress independently of guideline-defined elevations in LDL cholesterol. Differences in genetic responsiveness to statin therapy, differences in ability of the endothelium to regenerate and repair, and differences in susceptibility to nonlipid risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, hypertension, and molecular changes associated with obesity and diabetes, may all create residual risk. A large number of inflammatory and metabolic processes may also provide eventual therapeutic targets to lower residual risk. Classically, epidemiologic and other evidence suggested that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol

  15. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  16. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  17. Photography with a Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Fred; Oldfield, Ron

    2000-03-01

    This beautifully illustrated book describes the methods used to record images viewed through a microscope. The text describes the principles and practices of photomicrography, and is written for all who take photomicrographs, beginners and/or experienced practitioners. The authors describe techniques that may be applied to many disciplines for teaching, research, archives, or pleasure. The book includes chapters on standard photography, modern digital techniques, methods for improving contrast, and a short chapter on drawing. In addition to its value as a work of reference, the authors' clear, didactic style makes this book suitable as a textbook for courses in photomicrography and/or elementary light microscopy.

  18. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  19. Effects of intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy with idarubicin and high dose cytarabine on minimal residual disease levels in newly diagnosed adult precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Bradstock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An intensive induction regimen, consisting of idarubicin and high dose cytarabine, was assessed in 19 adult patients, median age 44 years, with newly diagnosed precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Patients achieving a complete response (CR were given an attenuated consolidation course. The primary endpoints were induction death rate and incidence of serious non-hematological toxicity. Grades 3–4 diarrhoea occurred in 47% of patients during induction. Two patients (11% died during induction therapy, and 2 were withdrawn due to resistant disease or prolonged marrow hypoplasia. Fifteen patients achieved CR (79%, but levels of minimal residual disease (MRD after induction were comparable with those previously observed using a modified pediatric protocol. Overall survival at 5 years was 36.8% while leukemia-free survival was 44.1%. An intensive AML protocol used in adults with ALL resulted in substantial toxicity and provided similar levels of cytoreduction to conventional ALL protocols, without improving long-term outcomes.

  20. Predictive role of minimal residual disease and log clearance in acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilm's tumor 1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giovanni; Minervini, Maria Marta; Melillo, Lorella; di Nardo, Francesco; de Waure, Chiara; Scalzulli, Potito Rosario; Perla, Gianni; Valente, Daniela; Sinisi, Nicola; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) as well as the degree of log clearance similarly identifies patients with poor prognosis. No comparison was provided between the two approaches in order to identify the best one to monitor follow-up patients. In this study, MRD and clearance were assessed by both multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression at different time points on 45 AML patients achieving complete remission. Our results by WT1 expression showed that log clearance lower than 1.96 after induction predicted the recurrence better than MRD higher than 77.0 copies WT1/10(4) ABL. Conversely, on MFC, MRD higher than 0.2 % after consolidation was more predictive than log clearance below 2.64. At univariate and multivariate analysis, positive MRD values and log clearance below the optimal cutoffs were associated with a shorter disease-free survival (DFS). At the univariate analysis, positive MRD values were also associated with overall survival (OS). Therefore, post-induction log clearance by WT1 and post-consolidation MRD by MFC represented the most informative approaches to identify the relapse. At the optimal timing of assessment, positive MRD and log-clearance values lower than calculated thresholds similarly predicted an adverse prognosis in AML.

  1. Early recovery of circulating immature B cells in B-lymphoblastic leukemia patients after CD19 targeted CAR T cell therapy: A pitfall for minimal residual disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenbin; Salem, Dalia; McCoy, Catharine S; Lee, Daniel; Shah, Nirali N; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yuan, Constance M

    2017-09-09

    CD19-targeted chimeric-antigen receptor-modified T-cells (CAR-T) are promising in the treatment of refractory B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) is critical to distinguish B-ALL MRD from regenerating, non-neoplastic B-cell populations. FCM was performed on samples from 9 patients with B-ALL treated with CAR-T. All 9 patients showed response to CAR-T. Additionally, FCM revealed circulating CD10 + B cells, potentially mimicking MRD. Circulating CD10+ B-cells were detected in blood from 3 days to 3 months after CAR-T, comprising 73% (median) of B-cells (52-83%, 95%CI). They expressed CD19, CD10, CD20, bright CD9, CD22, CD24, moderate CD38 and dim CD58, but were CD34 (-), with bright CD45 and polyclonal surface light chain immunoglobulin (sIg) expression. A similar CD10 + B-cell subpopulation was detected by marrow FCM, amidst abundant B-cell precursors. These circulating CD10 + B-cells are compatible with immature B-cells, and are a reflection of B-cell recovery within the marrow. They are immunophenotypically distinguishable from residual B-ALL. Expression of light chain sIg and key surface antigens characterizing regenerating B-cell precursors can distinguish immature B-cells from B-ALL MRD and prevent misdiagnosis. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. A multicenter assessment of the ability of preoperative computed tomography scan and CA-125 to predict gross residual disease at primary debulking for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Rudy S; Ramirez, Pedro T; Sarasohn, Debra M; Teitcher, Jerrold B; Iyer, Revathy B; Zhou, Qin; Iasonos, Alexia; Denesopolis, John; Zivanovic, Oliver; Long Roche, Kara C; Sonoda, Yukio; Coleman, Robert L; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Hricak, Hedvig; Chi, Dennis S

    2017-04-01

    To assess the ability of preoperative computed tomography scan and CA-125 to predict gross residual disease (RD) at primary cytoreduction in advanced ovarian cancer. A prospective, non-randomized, multicenter trial of patients who underwent primary debulking for stage III-IV epithelial ovarian cancer previously identified 9 criteria associated with suboptimal (>1cm residual) cytoreduction. This is a secondary post-hoc analysis looking at the ability to predict any RD. Four clinical and 18 radiologic criteria were assessed, and a multivariate model predictive of RD was developed. From 7/2001-12/2012, 350 patients met eligibility criteria. The complete gross resection rate was 33%. On multivariate analysis, 3 clinical and 8 radiologic criteria were significantly associated with the presence of any RD: age≥60years (OR=1.5); CA-125≥600U/mL (OR=1.3); ASA 3-4 (OR=1.6); lesions in the root of the superior mesenteric artery (OR=4.1), splenic hilum/ligaments (OR=1.4), lesser sac >1cm (OR=2.2), gastrohepatic ligament/porta hepatis (OR=1.4), gallbladder fossa/intersegmental fissure (OR=2); suprarenal retroperitoneal lymph nodes (OR=1.3); small bowel adhesions/thickening (OR=1.1); and moderate-severe ascites (OR=2.2). All ORs were significant with p<0.01. A 'predictive score' was assigned to each criterion based on its multivariate OR, and the rate of having any RD for patients who had a total score of 0-2, 3-5, 6-8, and ≥9 was 45%, 68%, 87%, and 96%, respectively. We identified 11 criteria associated with RD, and developed a predictive model in which the rate of having any RD was directly proportional to a predictive score. This model may be helpful in treatment planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron and cell death in Parkinson's disease: a nuclear microscopic study into iron-rich granules in the parkinsonian substantia nigra of primate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thong, P.S.P.; Watt, F.; Ponraj, D.; Leong, S.K.; He, Y.; Lee, T.K.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a degenerative brain disease characterised by a loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain and accompanying biochemical changes such as inhibition of mitochondrial function, increased iron concentrations and decreased glutathione levels in the parkinsonian SN. Though the aetiology of the disease is still unknown, the observed biochemical changes point to the involvement of oxidative stress. In particular, iron is suspected to play a role by promoting free radical production, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. The increase in iron in the parkinsonian SN has been confirmed by several research groups, both in human post-mortem brains and in brain tissue from parkinsonian animal models. However, the question remains as to whether the observed increase in iron is a cause or a consequence of the SN cell death process. Our previous study using unilaterally 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys in a time sequence experiment has shown that the increase in bulk iron concentrations follow rather than precede dopaminergic cell death. However, changes in the localised iron concentrations, which may play a more direct role in SN cell death, may not be reflected at the bulk level. Indeed, we have observed iron-rich granules in parkinsonian SNs. From this time sequence study into the iron content of iron-rich granules in the SNs of an untreated control and unilaterally MPTP-lesioned parkinsonian models, we present the following observations: (1) Iron-rich granules are found in both control and parkinsonian SNs and are variable in size and iron content in any one model. (2) These iron-rich granules may be associated with neuromelanin granules found in the SN and are known to accumulate transition metal ions such as iron. (3) The early onset of bulk SN cell loss (35%) was accompanied by a significant elevation of iron in granules found in the MPTP-injected SN compared to the contra-lateral SN. This

  4. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  5. Circulating lipocalin 2 is neither related to liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease nor to residual liver function in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elisabeth M; Pohl, Rebekka; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Schacherer, Doris; Eisinger, Kristina; Wiest, Reiner; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-09-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is induced in the injured liver and associated with inflammation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum LCN2 is a non-invasive marker to assess hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, LCN2 was measured by ELISA in serum of 32 randomly selected patients without fatty liver (controls), 24 patients with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis mainly due to alcohol. Systemic LCN2 was comparable in patients with liver steatosis, those with liver cirrhosis and controls. LCN2 negatively correlated with bilirubin in both cohorts. In cirrhosis, LCN2 was not associated with more advanced liver injury defined by the CHILD-PUGH score and model for end-stage liver disease score. Resistin but not C-reactive protein or chemerin positively correlated with LCN2. LCN2 levels were not increased in patients with ascites or patients with esophageal varices. Consequently, reduction of portal pressure by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt did not affect LCN2 levels. Hepatic venous blood (HVS), portal venous blood and systemic venous blood levels of LCN2 were similar. HVS LCN2 was unchanged in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis compared to those with well-compensated disease arguing against increased hepatic release. Current data exclude that serum LCN2 is of any value as steatosis marker in patients with NAFLD and indicator of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conformation-Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy of the Amino Acid Glutamine: Amide-Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding in AN Important Residue in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; Dean, Jacob C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease (HD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). An intriguing aspect of the structure of glutamine is its incorporation of an amide group in its side chain, thereby opening up the possibility of forming amide-amide H-bonds between the peptide backbone and side chain. In this study the conformational preferences of two capped gluatamines Z(carboxybenzyl)-Glutamine-X (X=OH, NHMe) are studied under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase in order to unlock the intrinsic structural motifs that are favored by this flexible sidechain. Conformational assignments are made by comparing the hydride stretch ( 3100-3700 cm-1) and amide I and II ( 1400-1800 cm-1) resonant ion-dip infrared spectra with predictions from harmonic frequency calculations. Assigned structures will be compared to previously published results on both natural and unnatural residues. Particular emphasis will be placed on the comparison between glutamine and unconstrained γ-peptides due to the similar three-carbon spacing between backbone and side chain in glutamine to the backbone spacing in γ-peptides. The ability of the glutamine side-chain to form amide stacked conformations will be a main focus, along with the prevalence of extended backbone type structures. W. H. James, III, C W. Müller, E. G. Buchanan, M. G. D. Nix, L. Guo, L. Roskop, M. S. Gordon, L. V. Slipchenko, S. H. Gellman, and T. S. Zwier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131(40), 14243-14245.

  7. Microscopic entropy and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, E.; Ordonets, G.; Petroskij, T.; Prigozhin, I.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a microscopic expression for entropy in terms of H function based on nonunitary Λ transformation which leads from the time evolution as a unitary group to a Markovian dynamics and unifies the reversible and irreversible aspects of quantum mechanics. This requires a new representation outside the Hilbert space. In terms of H, we show the entropy production and the entropy flow during the emission and absorption of radiation by an atom. Analyzing the time inversion experiment, we emphasize the importance of pre- and postcollisional correlations, which break the symmetry between incoming and outgoing waves. We consider the angle dependence of the H function in a three-dimensional situation. A model including virtual transitions is discussed in a subsequent paper

  8. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  10. Microscopic Theory of Transconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Jauho

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of momentum transfer between two closely spaced mesoscopic electronic systems, which couple via Coulomb interaction but where tunneling is inhibited, have proven to be a fruitful method of extracting information about interactions in mesoscopic systems. We report a fully microscopic theory for transconductivity σ12, or, equivalently, momentum transfer rate between the system constituents. Our main formal result expresses the transconductivity in terms of two fluctuation diagrams, which are topologically related, but not equivalent to, the Azlamazov-Larkin and Maki-Thompson diagrams known for superconductivity. In the present paper the magnetic field dependence of σ12 is discussed, and we find that σ12(B is strongly enhanced over its zero field value, and it displays strong features, which can be understood in terms of a competition between density-of-states and screening effects.

  11. Comparison between Three Promising ß-emitting Radionuclides, 67Cu, 47Sc and 161Tb, with Emphasis on Doses Delivered to Minimal Residual Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele A.; Morgat, Clément; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radionuclide therapy is increasingly seen as a promising option to target minimal residual disease. Copper-67, scandium-47 and terbium-161 have a medium-energy β- emission which is similar to that of lutetium-177, but offer the advantage of having diagnostic partner isotopes suitable for pretreatment imaging. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 67Cu, 47Sc and 161Tb to irradiate small tumors. METHODS: The absorbed dose deriving from a homogeneous distribution of 67Cu, 47Sc or 161Tb in water-density spheres was calculated with the Monte Carlo code CELLDOSE. The diameters of the spheres ranged from 5 mm to 10 µm, thus simulating micrometastases or single tumor cells. All electron emissions, including β- spectra, Auger and conversion electrons were taken into account. Because these radionuclides differ in electron energy per decay, the simulations were run assuming that 1 MeV was released per µm3, which would result in a dose of 160 Gy if totally absorbed. RESULTS: The absorbed dose was similar for the three radionuclides in the 5-mm sphere (146-149 Gy), but decreased differently in smaller spheres. In particular, 161Tb delivered higher doses compared to the other radionuclides. For instance, in the 100-µm sphere, the absorbed dose was 24.1 Gy with 67Cu, 14.8 Gy with 47Sc and 44.5 Gy with 161Tb. Auger and conversion electrons accounted for 71% of 161Tb dose. The largest dose differences were found in cell-sized spheres. In the 10-µm sphere, the dose delivered by 161Tb was 4.1 times higher than that from 67Cu and 8.1 times that from 47Sc. CONCLUSION: 161Tb can effectively irradiate small tumors thanks to its decay spectrum that combines medium-energy β- emission and low-energy conversion and Auger electrons. Therefore 161Tb might be a better candidate than 67Cu and 47Sc for treating minimal residual disease in a clinical setting. PMID:27446495

  12. Touch-down reverse transcriptase-PCR detection of IgV(H) rearrangement and Sybr-Green-based real-time RT-PCR quantitation of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peková, Soňa; Marková, J.; Pajer, Petr; Dvořák, Michal; Cetkovský, P.; Schwarz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2005), s. 23-34 ISSN 1084-8592 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : minimal residual disease * chronic lymphocytic leukaemia * IgV(H) rearrangement Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2003

  13. The TEL-AML1 real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) might replace the antigen receptor-based genomic PCR in clinical minimal residual disease studies in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, V.; Breunis, W. B.; dee, R.; Verhagen, O. J. H. M.; Kroes, W.; van Wering, E. R.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; van den Berg, H.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Prospective studies in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have shown that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) using immunoglobin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements as targets can be used to identify patients

  14. Molecular detection of minimal residual disease is a strong predictive factor of relapse in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia with medium risk features. A case control study of the International BFM study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biondi, A; Valsecchi, MG; Seriu, T; D'Aniello, E; Willemse, MJ; Fasching, K; Pannunzio, A; Gadner, H; Schrappe, M; Kamps, WA; Bartram, CR; van Dongen, JJM; Panzer-Grumayer, ER

    2000-01-01

    The medium-risk B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) accounts for 50-60% of total childhood ALL and comprises the largest number of relapses still unpredictable with diagnostic criteria. To evaluate the prognostic impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) in this specific group, a case

  15. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett

    2013-01-01

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect

  16. Microscopic Disease Extension in Three Dimensions for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Development of a Prediction Model Using Pathology-Validated Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, Judith van; Siedschlag, Christian; Stroom, Joep; Blauwgeers, Hans; Suylen, Robert-Jan van; Knegjens, Joost; Rossi, Maddalena; Baardwijk, Angela van; Boersma, Liesbeth; Klomp, Houke; Vogel, Wouter; Burgers, Sjaak; Gilhuijs, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One major uncertainty in radiotherapy planning of non–small-cell lung cancer concerns the definition of the clinical target volume (CTV), meant to cover potential microscopic disease extension (MDE) around the macroscopically visible tumor. The primary aim of this study was to establish pretreatment risk factors for the presence of MDE. The secondary aim was to establish the impact of these factors on the accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) to assess the total tumor-bearing region at pathologic examination (CTV path ). Methods and Materials: 34 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer who underwent CT and PET before lobectomy were included. Specimens were examined microscopically for MDE. The gross tumor volume (GTV) on CT and PET (GTV CT and GTV PET , respectively) was compared with the GTV and the CTV at pathologic examination, tissue deformations being taken into account. Using multivariate logistic regression, image-based risk factors for the presence of MDE were identified, and a prediction model was developed based on these factors. Results: MDE was found in 17 of 34 patients (50%). The MDE did not exceed 26 mm in 90% of patients. In multivariate analysis, two parameters (mean CT tumor density and GTV CT ) were significantly associated with MDE. The area under the curve of the two-parameter prediction model was 0.86. Thirteen tumors (38%, 95% CI: 24–55%) were identified as low risk for MDE, being potential candidates for reduced-intensity therapy around the GTV. In the low-risk group, the effective diameter of the GTV CT/PET accurately represented the CTV path . In the high-risk group, GTV CT/PET underestimated the CTV path with, on average, 19.2 and 26.7 mm, respectively. Conclusions: CT features have potential to predict the presence of MDE. Tumors identified as low risk of MDE show lower rates of disease around the GTV than do high-risk tumors. Both CT and PET accurately visualize the CTV path in low

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  18. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides the capability to examine surfaces microscopically with high resolution (5 nanometers), perform micro chemical analyses of these surfaces, and...

  20. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois F Maree

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces.

  1. Major impact of an early bone marrow checkpoint (day 21) for minimal residual disease in flow cytometry in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveillard, Marion; Robillard, Nelly; Arnoux, Isabelle; Garand, Richard; Rialland, Fanny; Thomas, Caroline; Strullu, Marion; Michel, Gérard; Béné, Marie C; Fossat, Chantal; Loosveld, Marie

    2017-06-01

    The early persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) is considered a poor prognostic factor indicative of chemoresistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In French children, chemosensitivity is assessed at day 21 post-induction by cytomorphology. Here, it was investigated whether a more precise evaluation could be obtained at this time point with multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). This study enrolled 123 children with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MRD0 was investigated at day 21 in MFC with a combination of antibodies based on the immunophenotype of diagnosis. It was also evaluated at day 35 by immunoglobulin/T-cell receptor quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (MRD1). Three risk groups could be delineated based on MRD0. Patients with MFC/MRD0 levels >10 -2 (n = 25) were considered high risk, those with levels between 10 -2 and 10 -4 (n = 46) intermediate risk, and those MRD1 levels, compared with 112 patients, were consistent (-/- or +/+) in 57.2% of the cases. Both MRD0+/MRD1+ and MRD0+/MRD1- patients had a significantly worse EFS (p = 0.0001) than those with undetectable MRD at both MRD0 and MRD1. This study confirms the usefulness and superiority of an early point of MRD detection by MFC. In addition, MRD0 in MFC identifies a subgroup of patients with poorer prognosis (MRD0+/MRD1-). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Design and analytic validation of BCR-ABL1 quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for monitoring minimal residual disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Lawrence J; Smith, Frederick A; Halling, Kevin C; Persons, Diane L; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring minimal residual disease by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has proven clinically useful, but as yet there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved tests. Guidelines have been published that provide important information on validation of such tests; however, no practical examples have previously been published. To provide an example of the design and validation of a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test. To describe the approach used by an individual laboratory for development and validation of a laboratory-developed quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test for BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts. Elements of design and analytic validation of a laboratory-developed quantitative molecular test are discussed using quantitative detection of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts as an example. Validation of laboratory-developed quantitative molecular tests requires careful planning and execution to adequately address all required analytic performance parameters. How these are addressed depends on the potential for technical errors and confidence required for a given test result. We demonstrate how one laboratory validated and clinically implemented a quantitative BCR-ABL1 assay that can be used for the management of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  3. Photon scanning tunneling microscope in combination with a force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Tack, R.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1994-01-01

    The simultaneous operation of a photon scanning tunneling microscope with an atomic force microscope is presented. The use of standard atomic force silicon nitride cantilevers as near-field optical probes offers the possibility to combine the two methods. Vertical forces and torsion are detected

  4. Lithic Residue Survival and Characterisation at Star Carr: a burial experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Croft

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK, and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre. During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM. SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  5. Residual disease detected by flow cytometry is an independent predictor of survival in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia; results of the NOPHO-AML 2004 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierens, Anne; Bjørklund, Elizabeth; Siitonen, Sanna; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke; Wulff-Juergensen, Gitte; Pelliniemi, Tarja-Terttu; Forestier, Erik; Hasle, Henrik; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Lausen, Birgitte; Jonsson, Olafur G; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bem; Fogelstrand, Linda; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2016-08-01

    Early response after induction is a prognostic factor for disease outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Residual disease (RD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) was performed at day 15 and before consolidation therapy in 101 patients enrolled in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haemato-Oncology AML 2004 study. A multicentre laboratory approach to RD analysis was used. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was significantly different in patients with and without RD at both time points, using a 0·1% RD cut-off level. RD-negative and -positive patients after first induction showed a 5-year EFS of 65 ± 7% and 22 ± 7%, respectively (P < 0·001) and an OS of 77 ± 6% (P = 0·025) and 51 ± 8%. RD-negative and -positive patients at start of consolidation therapy had a 5-year EFS of 57 ± 7% and 11 ± 7%, respectively (P < 0·001) and an OS of 78 ± 6% and 28 ± 11%) (P < 0·001). In multivariate analysis only RD was significantly correlated with survival. RD before consolidation therapy was the strongest independent prognostic factor for EFS [hazard ratio (HR):5·0; 95% confidence interval (CI):1·9-13·3] and OS (HR:7·0; 95%CI:2·0-24·5). In conclusion, RD before consolidation therapy identifies patients at high risk of relapse in need of intensified treatment. In addition, RD detection can be performed in a multicentre setting and can be implemented in future trials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  7. Expression of the C- KIT Molecule in Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Implications of the Immuno phenotypes CD117 and CD15 in the Detection of Minimal Residual Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S.

    2001-01-01

    Study of the c-kit proto-oncogene (CD117) may be of help for the identification of phenotypic profiles that are absent or present at very low frequencies on normal human blast cells and therefore might be of great value for the detection of leukemic cells displaying such immuno phenotypes in patients in complete remission. Design and methods: Ninety patients with acute myeloid leukemias, diagnosed according to FAB criteria and immunological marker studies, were studied for the dual expression on blast cells of the CD117/CD15 immuno phenotype co expression by direct immunofluorescence assay using dual staining combination flow cytometry. Results: In 69/90 acute myeloid leukemia patients analyzed (77%), blast cells expressed the CD117 antigen. Moreover, in 38 of them (42% of acute myeloid leukemia cases), leukemic blasts co expressed the CD117 and CD15 antigens. There was no significant correlation between the FAB classification and the CD117 and CD15 expression in acute myeloid leukemia cases. Conclusions: These results suggest that immunological methods for the detection of MRD based on the existence of aberrant phenotypes could be used in the majority of AML patients. This phenotype CD117/CD15, present in acute myeloid leukemia cases at a relatively high frequency (42%), represents an aberrant phenotype, because it was not detected on normal human blast cells, suggesting that the use of these combinations of monoclonal antibodies could be of help in detecting residual leukemic blasts among normal blast cells. The use of the CD117 antigen in different monoclonal antibodies combinations may be of great help for the detection of minimal residual disease in a high proportion of acute myeloid leukemia cases, especially in those patients displaying the CD117+/CD15+ immuno phenotype, because cells co expressing both antigens in normal blasts, if present, are at very low frequencies. The simultaneous assessment of two or more markers in single cells has facilitated the

  8. Microscopic colitis : prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, WJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH; Kolkman, JJ

    Background: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease.

  9. The Latest in Handheld Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2004-01-01

    Around 1590, Zacharias Jansenn of Holland invented the microscope. Jansenn, an eyeglass maker by trade, experimented with lenses and discovered that things appeared closer with combinations of lenses. Over the past 400 years, several refinements to microscopes have occurred, making it possible to magnify objects between 200 and 1,500 times their…

  10. Midfield microscope : Exploring the extraordinary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docter, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the development of the midfield microscope is presented. This is a microscope in which the extraordinary transmission (EOT) through sub-wavelength hole-arrays is applied. Before trying to combine microscopy and EOT, we look at them separately. In chapter 1 an overview is given of the

  11. Positively charged residues at the five-fold symmetry axis of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus permit novel receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Clark, Stuart; Kakker, Naresh K; Silk, Rhiannon; Seago, Julian; Wadsworth, Jemma; Chamberlain, Kyle; Knowles, Nick J; Jackson, Terry

    2013-08-01

    Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have a restricted cell tropism which is limited by the need for certain RGD-dependent integrin receptors. In contrast, cell culture-adapted viruses use heparan sulfate (HS) or other unidentified molecules as receptors to initiate infection. Here, we report several novel findings resulting from cell culture adaptation of FMDV. In cell culture, a virus with the capsid of the A/Turkey/2/2006 field isolate gained the ability to infect CHO and HS-deficient CHO cells as a result of a single glutamine (Q)-to-lysine (K) substitution at VP1-110 (VP1-(Q)110(K)). Using site-directed mutagenesis, the introduction of lysine at this same site also resulted in an acquired ability to infect CHO cells by type O and Asia-1 FMDV. However, this ability appeared to require a second positively charged residue at VP1-109. CHO cells express two RGD-binding integrins (α5β1 and αvβ5) that, although not used by FMDV, have the potential to be used as receptors; however, viruses with the VP1-(Q)110(K) substitution did not use these integrins. In contrast, the VP1-(Q)110(K) substitution appeared to result in enhanced interactions with αvβ6, which allowed a virus with KGE in place of the normal RGD integrin-binding motif to use αvβ6 as a receptor. Thus, our results confirmed the existence of nonintegrin, non-HS receptors for FMDV on CHO cells and revealed a novel, non-RGD-dependent use of αvβ6 as a receptor. The introduction of lysine at VP1-110 may allow for cell culture adaptation of FMDV by design, which may prove useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves intractable.

  12. Minimal residual disease (MRD detection with translocations and T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Sayitoglu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Monitoring minimal residual disease has become increasingly important in clinical practice of ALL management. Break-point fusion regions of leukaemia related chromosomal aberrations and rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig and T cell-receptor (TCR genes are used as leukaemia specific markers in genetic studies of MRD.Material and Methods: A total of 31 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ALL were screened for eligibility criteria. Of those 26 were included in the study. One patient with partial response following induction therapy and four patients who were lost to follow-up after induction were excluded from the study; thus 21 patients were evaluated for MRD by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, heteroduplex analysis, sequencing and quantitative real time PCR techniques. Results: Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 5 (24% of the patients and were used for MRD monitoring. Three patients had t(9;22 translocation, the other 2 had t(4;11 and t(1;19. MRD-based risk stratification of the16 patients analysed for Ig/TCR rearrangements revealed 3 low-risk, 11 intermediate-risk and 2 high-risk patients.Conclusion: MRD monitoring is progressively getting to be a more important predictive factor in adult ALL patients. As reported by others confirmed by our limited data there is a good correlation between MRD status and clinical outcome in patients receiving chemotherapy. The pilot-study presented here is the first that systematically and consecutively performs a molecular MRD monitoring of ALL patients in Turkey.

  13. Minimal residual disease-based risk stratification in Chinese childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by flow cytometry and plasma DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Hang Cheng

    Full Text Available Minimal residual disease, or MRD, is an important prognostic indicator in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In ALL-IC-BFM 2002 study, we employed a standardized method of flow cytometry MRD monitoring for multiple centers internationally using uniformed gating, and determined the relevant MRD-based risk stratification strategies in our local patient cohort. We also evaluated a novel method of PCR MRD quantitation using peripheral blood plasma. For the bone marrow flow MRD study, patients could be stratified into 3 risk groups according to MRD level using a single time-point at day-15 (Model I (I-A: 10%, or using two time-points at day-15 and day-33 (Model II (II-A: day-15<10% and day-33<0.01%, II-B: day-15 ≥ 10% or day-33 ≥ 0.01% but not both, II-C: day-15 ≥ 10% and day-33 ≥ 0.01%, which showed significantly superior prediction of relapse (p = .00047 and <0.0001 respectively. Importantly, patients with good outcome (frequency: 56.0%, event-free survival: 90.1% could be more accurately predicted by Model II. In peripheral blood plasma PCR MRD investigation, patients with day-15-MRD ≥ 10(-4 were at a significantly higher risk of relapse (p = 0.0117. By multivariate analysis, MRD results from both methods could independently predict patients' prognosis, with 20-35-fold increase in risk of relapse for flow MRD I-C and II-C respectively, and 5.8-fold for patients having plasma MRD of ≥ 10(-4. We confirmed that MRD detection by flow cytometry is useful for prognostic evaluation in our Chinese cohort of childhood ALL after treatment. Moreover, peripheral blood plasma DNA MRD can be an alternative where bone marrow specimen is unavailable and as a less invasive method, which allows close monitoring.

  14. Minimal residual disease-based risk stratification in Chinese childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia by flow cytometry and plasma DNA quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Suk Hang; Lau, Kin Mang; Li, Chi Kong; Chan, Natalie P H; Ip, Rosalina K L; Cheng, Chi Keung; Lee, Vincent; Shing, Matthew M K; Leung, Alex W K; Ha, Shau Yin; Cheuk, Daniel K L; Lee, Anselm C W; Li, Chak Ho; Luk, Chung Wing; Ling, Siu Cheung; Hrusak, Ondrej; Mejstrikova, Ester; Leung, Yonna; Ng, Margaret H L

    2013-01-01

    Minimal residual disease, or MRD, is an important prognostic indicator in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In ALL-IC-BFM 2002 study, we employed a standardized method of flow cytometry MRD monitoring for multiple centers internationally using uniformed gating, and determined the relevant MRD-based risk stratification strategies in our local patient cohort. We also evaluated a novel method of PCR MRD quantitation using peripheral blood plasma. For the bone marrow flow MRD study, patients could be stratified into 3 risk groups according to MRD level using a single time-point at day-15 (Model I) (I-A: 10%), or using two time-points at day-15 and day-33 (Model II) (II-A: day-15<10% and day-33<0.01%, II-B: day-15 ≥ 10% or day-33 ≥ 0.01% but not both, II-C: day-15 ≥ 10% and day-33 ≥ 0.01%), which showed significantly superior prediction of relapse (p = .00047 and <0.0001 respectively). Importantly, patients with good outcome (frequency: 56.0%, event-free survival: 90.1%) could be more accurately predicted by Model II. In peripheral blood plasma PCR MRD investigation, patients with day-15-MRD ≥ 10(-4) were at a significantly higher risk of relapse (p = 0.0117). By multivariate analysis, MRD results from both methods could independently predict patients' prognosis, with 20-35-fold increase in risk of relapse for flow MRD I-C and II-C respectively, and 5.8-fold for patients having plasma MRD of ≥ 10(-4). We confirmed that MRD detection by flow cytometry is useful for prognostic evaluation in our Chinese cohort of childhood ALL after treatment. Moreover, peripheral blood plasma DNA MRD can be an alternative where bone marrow specimen is unavailable and as a less invasive method, which allows close monitoring.

  15. RT-qPCR and RT-Digital PCR: A Comparison of Different Platforms for the Evaluation of Residual Disease in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikian, Mary; Whale, Alexandra S; Akiki, Susanna; Piechocki, Kim; Torrado, Celia; Myint, Thet; Cowen, Simon; Griffiths, Michael; Reid, Alistair G; Apperley, Jane; White, Helen; Huggett, Jim F; Foroni, Letizia

    2017-02-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the cornerstone of successful clinical management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Quantitative monitoring of the percentage of the fusion transcript BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region-c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) BCR-ABL1 IS (%BCR-ABL1 IS ) by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard strategy for evaluating patient response to TKIs and classification into prognostic subgroups. However, this approach can be challenging to perform in a reproducible manner. Reverse-transcription digital PCR (RT-dPCR) is an adaptation of this method that could provide the robust and standardized workflow needed for truly standardized patient stratification. BCR-ABL1 and ABL1 transcript copy numbers were quantified in a total of 102 samples; 70 CML patients undergoing TKI therapy and 32 non-CML individuals. 3 commercially available digital PCR platforms (QS3D, QX200 and Raindrop) were compared with the platform routinely used in the clinic for RT-qPCR using the EAC (Europe Against Cancer) assay. Measurements on all instruments correlated well when the %BCR-ABL1 IS was ≥0.1%. In patients with residual disease below this level, greater variations were measured both within and between instruments limiting comparable performance to a 4 log dynamic range. RT-dPCR was able to quantify low-level BCR-ABL1 transcript copies but was unable to improve sensitivity below the level of detection achieved by RT-qPCR. However, RT-dPCR was able to perform these sensitive measurements without use of a calibration curve. Adaptions to the protocol to increase the amount of RNA measured are likely to be necessary to improve the analytical sensitivity of BCR-ABL testing on a dPCR platform. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  16. Association of germline genetic variants in RFC, IL15 and VDR genes with minimal residual disease in pediatric B-cell precursor ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowska, Małgorzata; Kosmalska, Maria; Sędek, Łukasz; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Twardoch, Magdalena; Sonsala, Alicja; Szarzyńska-Zawadzka, Bronisława; Derwich, Katarzyna; Lejman, Monika; Pawelec, Katarzyna; Obitko-Płudowska, Agnieszka; Pawińska-Wąsikowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecińska, Kinga; Kołtan, Andrzej; Dyla, Agnieszka; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Kowalczyk, Jerzy R; Szczepański, Tomasz; Ziętkiewicz, Ewa; Witt, Michał

    2016-07-18

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) enables reliable assessment of risk in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, little is known on association between MRD status and germline genetic variation. We examined 159 Caucasian (Slavic) patients with pediatric ALL, treated according to ALL-IC-BFM 2002/2009 protocols, in search for association between 23 germline polymorphisms and MRD status at day 15, day 33 and week 12, with adjustment for MRD-associated clinical covariates. Three variants were significantly associated with MRD: rs1544410 in VDR (MRD-day15); rs1051266 in RFC (MRD-day33, MRD-week12), independently and in an additive effect with rs10519613 in IL15 (MRD-day33). The risk alleles for MRD-positivity were: A allele of VDR (OR = 2.37, 95%CI = 1.07-5.21, P = 0.03, MRD-day15); A of RFC (OR = 1.93, 95%CI = 1.05-3.52, P = 0.03, MRD-day33 and MRD-week12, P RFC and IL15 loci than in patients with risk alleles in one locus or no risk alleles: 2 vs. 1 (OR = 3.94, 95% CI = 1.28-12.11, P = 0.024), 2 vs. 0 (OR = 6.75, 95% CI = 1.61-28.39, P = 0.012). Germline variation in genes related to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of anti-leukemic drugs and to anti-tumor immunity of the host is associated with MRD status and might help improve risk assessment in ALL.

  17. History of consolidation is prognostic in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in minimal residual disease-negative first complete remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Armin; Linden, Michael A; DeFor, Todd E; Warlick, Erica; Bejanyan, Nelli; Yohe, Sophia; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Ustun, Celalettin

    2017-10-01

    Prognostic factors among acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) in minimal residual disease (MRD)-negative first complete remission (CR1) are unknown. We retrospectively attempted to answer the following question: In AML patients undergoing allo-HCT in MRD-negative CR1, does a history of prior consolidation provide additional prognostic information? The inclusion criteria were: (i) Age > 18 years, (ii) AML in CR1 after 1-2 cycles of intensive induction chemotherapy, with or without consolidation, (iii) Allo-HCT between 1/2003 and 4/2016 at our institution, (iv) Available standard-sensitivity 4-color flow cytometry results from a bone marrow aspiration at diagnosis and after completion of all previous chemotherapy within one month prior to HCT, (v) Flow cytometry-based MRD-negative status at the time of HCT. A history of prior consolidation was associated with favorable overall survival (Hazard Ratio [95% Confidence Interval]: 0.59 [0.35-0.99], P = .046), relapse-free survival (0.60 [0.37-0.96], P = .036), and relapse (0.50 [0.27-0.92], P = .025). Analysis of potential sources of bias was unrevealing. In AML patients undergoing allo-HCT in MRD-negative CR1, a history of prior consolidation was associated with favorable outcomes. If the path to pre-HCT MRD negativity includes consolidation, it may identify patients with improved prognosis following HCT in MRD-negative state. These results warrant validation in larger cohorts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Inverse Association Between Helicobacter pylori Gastritis and Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Genta, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is known to be inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection of the upper gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that a similar inverse association also applied to microscopic colitis. The associations between microscopic colitis and presence of H. pylori-positive chronic active gastritis (CAG), H. pylori-negative CAG, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric atrophy were expressed as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to adjust these associations for sex, age, percentage residents per ZIP code with white, black, Hispanic, or Asian ethnicity, percentage with college education, average housing values, annual income, and population size of individual ZIP codes. H. pylori-positive CAG was less common among patients with than without microscopic colitis (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.70). Intestinal metaplasia also occurred less frequently among patients with than without microscopic colitis (0.75, 0.65-0.86). These inverse associations remained unaffected by adjustments for parameters of ethnicity and socioeconomic status. In contradistinction with H. pylori-positive CAG, H. pylori-negative CAG was more common in patients with than without microscopic colitis (1.54, 1.17-1.97). H. pylori infection and microscopic colitis are inversely associated. This observation is consistent with similar inverse associations found between H. pylori and inflammatory bowel disease. These relationships may provide clues about the yet unknown etiology of microscopic colitis.

  20. Mobile microscope complex GIB-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, A.V.; Gorbachev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    To study microstructure in operating pipelines of power units a mobile microscope system is developed and successfully used. The system includes a portable microscope, a monitor, power supply and a portable computer. The monitor is used for surveying images from a video camera mounted on the microscope. The magnification on visual examination constitutes x 100 and x 500. Diameters of pipelines examined should not be less than 130 mm. Surface preparation for microstructural studies includes routine mechanical rough grinding and polishing with subsequent etching [ru

  1. [Prevalence and distribution of asbestos lung residue in a Spanish urban population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-García, María Isabel; Recuero, Raquel; Cruz, María Jesús; Panades, Rafael; Martí, Gabriel; Ferrer, Jaume

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyse the prevalence and distribution of asbestos lung residue in the Barcelona urban population. Lung autopsy samples were obtained from 35 individuals who had lived in Barcelona. The close family were interviewed in order to rule out asbestos exposure. Samples were obtained from three areas of the right lung during the autopsy: upper lobe apex, lower lobe apex, and lower lobe base. The samples were treated to remove organic material. The inorganic residue was analysed using a light microscope. The results were expressed as asbestos bodies (AB) per gram of dry tissue. Levels greater than 1000AB/g of dry tissue were considered as potentially causing disease. AB were detected in 29(83%) of the subjects, of which 86% had levels less than 300AB/g. Only one individual (3%) had values greater than 1000AB/g dry tissue. The asbestos residue was higher in the lower lung lobe in 17 individuals (48%) than in the rest, although no significant differences were seen as regards AB residue in the three lung areas studied. The results of this study show that the urban population of Barcelona have asbestos levels in the lung that vary between 0 and 300AB/g dry tissue. No differences in the asbestos residues were detected in the lung areas studied in this population. Copyright (c) 2009 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Microscopic examination of deteriorated concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Concrete petrography is the integrated microscopic and mesoscale (hand specimen size) investigation of hardened concrete, that can provide information on the composition of concrete, the original relationships between the concrete's various constituents, and any changes therein, whether as a result

  3. Center of excellence: Microlaser microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. H.

    This Center-of-Excellence grant has two components: development of an imaging system based on microlaser arrays forms a central project among a group of laser diagnostic and therapeutic efforts primarily funded outside the grant. In these first 8 months we have set up the Microlaser Microscope using small microlaser arrays. We have emphasized the basics of microlaser handling and electronic addressing and the optics of the microscope. Details of electronics and optics given here will be used in the larger arrays which should be available soon. After a description of the central Microlaser Microscope project, we touch briefly on the other projects of the Center, which have been outstandingly fruitful this year. Publications are necessarily concerned with the smaller projects, since the Microlaser Microscope is in its early stages.

  4. Microscopic vision modeling method by direct mapping analysis for micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuezong; Zhao, Zhizhong; Wang, Junshuai

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel and high-precision microscopic vision modeling method, which can be used for 3D data reconstruction in micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope. This method consists of four parts: image distortion correction, disparity distortion correction, initial vision model and residual compensation model. First, the method of image distortion correction is proposed. Image data required by image distortion correction comes from stereo images of calibration sample. The geometric features of image distortions can be predicted though the shape deformation of lines constructed by grid points in stereo images. Linear and polynomial fitting methods are applied to correct image distortions. Second, shape deformation features of disparity distribution are discussed. The method of disparity distortion correction is proposed. Polynomial fitting method is applied to correct disparity distortion. Third, a microscopic vision model is derived, which consists of two models, i.e., initial vision model and residual compensation model. We derive initial vision model by the analysis of direct mapping relationship between object and image points. Residual compensation model is derived based on the residual analysis of initial vision model. The results show that with maximum reconstruction distance of 4.1mm in X direction, 2.9mm in Y direction and 2.25mm in Z direction, our model achieves a precision of 0.01mm in X and Y directions and 0.015mm in Z direction. Comparison of our model with traditional pinhole camera model shows that two kinds of models have a similar reconstruction precision of X coordinates. However, traditional pinhole camera model has a lower precision of Y and Z coordinates than our model. The method proposed in this paper is very helpful for the micro-gripping system based on SLM microscopic vision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  6. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  7. IKZF1plusDefines a New Minimal Residual Disease-Dependent Very-Poor Prognostic Profile in Pediatric B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanulla, Martin; Dagdan, Elif; Zaliova, Marketa; Möricke, Anja; Palmi, Chiara; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Eckert, Cornelia; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Bornhauser, Beat; Koehler, Rolf; Bartram, Claus R; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Bleckmann, Kirsten; Groeneveld-Krentz, Stefanie; Schewe, Denis; Junk, Stefanie V; Hinze, Laura; Klein, Norman; Kratz, Christian P; Biondi, Andrea; Borkhardt, Arndt; Kulozik, Andreas; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Basso, Giuseppe; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Izraeli, Shai; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Franke, Andre; Dörge, Petra; Steinemann, Doris; Haas, Oskar A; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Cavé, Hélène; Houlston, Richard S; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Zimmermann, Martin

    2018-03-02

    Purpose Somatic deletions that affect the lymphoid transcription factor-coding gene IKZF1 have previously been reported as independently associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have now refined the prognostic strength of IKZF1 deletions by analyzing the effect of co-occurring deletions. Patients and Methods The analysis involved 991 patients with BCP ALL treated in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (AIEOP-BFM) ALL 2000 trial with complete information for copy number alterations of IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, EBF1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Xp22.33/Yp11.31 (PAR1 region; CRLF2, CSF2RA, and IL3RA), and ERG; replication of findings involved 417 patients from the same trial. Results IKZF1 deletions that co-occurred with deletions in CDKN2A, CDKN2B, PAX5, or PAR1 in the absence of ERG deletion conferred the worst outcome and, consequently, were grouped as IKZF1 plus . The IKZF1 plus group comprised 6% of patients with BCP ALL, with a 5-year event-free survival of 53 ± 6% compared with 79 ± 5% in patients with IKZF1 deletion who did not fulfill the IKZF1 plus definition and 87 ± 1% in patients who lacked an IKZF1 deletion ( P ≤ .001). Respective 5-year cumulative relapse incidence rates were 44 ± 6%, 11 ± 4%, and 10 ± 1% ( P ≤ .001). Results were confirmed in the replication cohort, and multivariable analyses demonstrated independence of IKZF1 plus . The IKZF1 plus prognostic effect differed dramatically in analyses stratified by minimal residual disease (MRD) levels after induction treatment: 5-year event-free survival for MRD standard-risk IKZF1 plus patients was 94 ± 5% versus 40 ± 10% in MRD intermediate- and 30 ± 14% in high-risk IKZF1 plus patients ( P ≤ .001). Corresponding 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse rates were 6 ± 6%, 60 ± 10%, and 60 ± 17% ( P ≤ .001). Conclusion IKZF1 plus describes a new MRD-dependent very

  8. Axiomatic electrodynamics and microscopic mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1981-04-01

    A new approach to theoretical physics, along with the basic formulation of a new MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS for the motion of small charged particles is described in this set of lecture notes. Starting with the classical (Newtonian) mechanics and classical fields, the important but well known properties of Classical Electromagnetic field are discussed up to section 4. The next nection describes the usual radiation damping theory and its difficulties. It is argued that the usual treatment of radiation damping is not valid for small space and time intervals and the true description of motion requires a new type of mechanics - the MICROSCOPIC MECHANICS: Section 6 and 7 are devoted to showing that not only the new microscopic mechanics goes over to Newtonian mechanics in the proper limit, but also it is closely connected with Quantum Mechanics. All the known results of the Schroedinger theory can be reproduced by microscopic mechanics which also gives a clear physical picture. It removes Einstein's famous objections against Quantum Theory and provides a clear distinction between classical and Quantum behavior. Seven Axioms (three on Classical Mechanics, two for Maxwell's theory, one for Relativity and a new Axiom on Radiation damping) are shown to combine Classical Mechanics, Maxwellian Electrodynamics, Relativity and Schroedinger's Quantum Theory within a single theoretical framework under Microscopic Mechanics which awaits further development at the present time. (orig.)

  9. Computational characterization of residue couplings and micropolymorphism-induced changes in the dynamics of two differentially disease-associated human MHC class-I alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serçinoğlu, Onur; Ozbek, Pemra

    2018-02-01

    Human major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) - or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) - proteins present intracellularly processed peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the adaptive immune response to pathogens. A high level of polymorphism in human MHC I proteins defines the peptide-binding specificity of thousands of different MHC alleles. However, polymorphism as well as the peptide ligand can also affect the global dynamics of the complex. In this study, we conducted classical molecular dynamics simulations of two HLA alleles, the ankylosing spondylitis (AS) associated/tapasin-dependent HLA-B*27:05 and nondisease-associated/tapasin-independent HLA-B*27:09, both in peptide-free forms as well as complex with four different peptides ligands. Our results indicate that in peptide-free form, the single amino acid substitution distinguishing the two alleles (D116H), leads to a weaker dynamic coupling of residues in the tapasin-dependent HLA-B*27:05. In peptide-bound form, several residues of the binding-groove, mostly in A and B pockets, show hinge-like behavior in the global motion of the MHC. Moreover, allele-dependent changes are shown in residue interactions, affecting the B-pocket as well as the beta-2-microglobulin (β2m)-facing residues of the HLA chain.

  10. Microscope and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electronically focusing and electronically scanning microscopic specimens are given. In the invention, visual images of even moving, living, opaque specimens can be acoustically obtained and viewed with virtually no time needed for processing (i.e., real time processing is used). And planar samples are not required. The specimens (if planar) need not be moved during scanning, although it will be desirable and possible to move or rotate nonplanar specimens (e.g., laser fusion targets) against the lens of the apparatus. No coupling fluid is needed, so specimens need not be wetted. A phase acoustic microscope is also made from the basic microscope components together with electronic mixers.

  11. [Real-time quantitative detection of E2A-PBX1 fusion gene in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its clinical application in minimal residual disease monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Liao, Jing; Li, Ge; Sun, Huai-Qiang; Shi, Yu-Jun; Yang, Ji-Yun

    2013-06-01

    To establish a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for quantitative detection of E2A-PBX1 fusion gene mRNA in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children and to explore its clinical significance in minimal residual disease monitoring and prognosis evaluation. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantitatively detect the mRNA expression of E2A-PBX1 gene in 11 newly diagnosed ALL patients at diagnosis (11 cases), complete remission (11 cases) and periods of relapse (3 cases). Ten children with normal bone marrow cell morphology and without hematopathy or tumor diseases were used as the control group. The median expression levels of E2A-PBX1 fusion gene in the ALL group at diagnosis and the relapse group were significantly higher than in the control and complete remission groups (PE2A-PBX1 negative patients on day 33 during induction of remission, the recurrence rate increased and disease free survival rate at 3 year decreased significantly in E2A-PBX1 positive patients decreased (PE2A-PBX1 levels by real-time RT-PCR is useful for monitoing minimal residual disease, prediction of relapse and individual treatment. The expression level of E2A-PBX1 gene on day 33 during induction of remission can be used for prognosis evaluation.

  12. Atomic force microscope featuring an integrated optical microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to image the surface of both conductors and nonconductors. Biological specimens constitute a large group of nonconductors. A disadvantage of most AFM's is the fact that relatively large areas of the sample surface have to be scanned to pinpoint a biological

  13. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...... component (100) has an entrance pupil with a first diameter D1, and an optical component system which is arranged for forming an external image (136) of the back-focal plane (132) of the objective optical component (100), which has a diameter (given by the diameter of a circle enclosing all optical paths...

  14. Treatment reduction for children and young adults with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia defined by minimal residual disease (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Ajay; Goulden, Nick; Wade, Rachel; Mitchell, Chris; Hancock, Jeremy; Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Richards, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive and specific predictor of relapse risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during remission. We assessed whether treatment intensity could be adjusted for children and young adults according to MRD risk stratification. Between Oct 1, 2003 and June 30, 2011, consecutive children and young adults (aged 1-25 years) with ALL from the UK and Ireland were recruited. Eligible patients were categorised into clinical standard, intermediate, and high risk groups on the basis of a combination of National Cancer Institute (NCI) criteria, cytogenetics, and early response to induction therapy, which was assessed by bone marrow blast counts taken at days 8 (NCI high-risk patients) and 15 (NCI standard-risk patients) after induction began. Clinical standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients were assessed for MRD. Those classified as MRD low risk (undetectable MRD at the end of induction [day 29] or detectable MRD at day 29 that became undetectable by week 11) were randomly assigned to receive one or two delayed intensification courses. Patients had received induction, consolidation, and interim maintenance therapy before they began delayed intensification. Delayed intensification consisted of pegylated asparaginase on day 4; vincristine, dexamethasone (alternate weeks), and doxorubicin for 3 weeks; and 4 weeks of cyclophosphamide and cytarabine. Computer randomisation was done with stratification by MRD result and balancing for sex, age, and white blood cell count at diagnosis by method of minimisation. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was event-free survival (EFS), which was defined as time to relapse, secondary tumour, or death. Our aim was to rule out a 7% reduction in EFS in the group given one delayed intensification course relative to that given two delayed intensification courses. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is

  15. Research on improving performance to metallographic microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Socaciu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Precision optical components from an old optical microscope can be improved and emphasized with a dedicated digital microscope camera. This is an affordable way to obtain a high performance metallographic or biological microscope, with minimum of spending. This paper study those ways and adapts a camera to existing microscopes for researchers use, Optimizing visualization by projecting the image and improving the microscope use by different options of capture and image processing.

  16. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  17. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  18. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  19. Micro-Slotting Technique for Reliable Measurement of Sub-Surface Residual Stress in Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    measuring local residual stresses in a variety of materials. The micro-slotting method relies on a Scanning Electron Microscope – Focused Ion Beam (SEM...residual stresses in a variety of materials. The micro-slotting method relies on a Scanning Electron Microscope – Focused Ion Beam (SEM-FIB) system for...between milled slots for ə% error in the stress calculations. Residual stress measurements The three series of micro-slotting measurements show

  20. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  1. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are effective in therapy of minimal residual tumour disease after chemotherapy or surgery in a murine model of MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2007), s. 1247-1251 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA ČR GA301/06/0774 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině, Praha(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV16 * minimal residual tumour disease * CpG oligonucleotides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2007

  2. Planarization Profile Measurement Using A Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian R.; Bennett, Simon D.; Lindow, James T.; Monahan, Kevin

    1986-08-01

    The use of planarizing layers to improve the performance of photolithography for micron and submicron devices is being actively explored by a number of semiconductor companies. The usefulness of the procedure depends critically upon the degree to which residual surface undulations can be controlled. This paper describes how a confocal scanning optical microscope may be used to measure surface profiles of planarizing layers and discusses the factors which influence the accuracy of measurement. Experimental measurements, using a SiScan-I system, of resist and P.S.G. planarizing layers are presented, demonstrating a sensitivity to surface height changes of 50 nm. The technique may be improved upon by careful design of the microscope and selection of the imaging wavelength. These factors are discussed.

  3. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of gametes...

  4. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J J; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-11

    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution.

  5. Differential magnetic force microscope imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Zuobin; Liu, Jinyun; Hou, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging based on a two-pass scanning procedure to extract differential magnetic forces and eliminate or significantly reduce background forces with reversed tip magnetization. In the work, the difference of two scanned images with reversed tip magnetization was used to express the local magnetic forces. The magnetic sample was first scanned with a low lift distance between the MFM tip and the sample surface, and the magnetization direction of the probe was then changed after the first scan to perform the second scan. The differential magnetic force image was obtained through the subtraction of the two images from the two scans. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the proposed method for differential magnetic force microscope imaging is able to reduce the effect of background or environment interference forces, and offers an improved image contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...... component (100) has an entrance pupil with a first diameter D1, and an optical component system which is arranged for forming an external image (136) of the back-focal plane (132) of the objective optical component (100), which has a diameter (given by the diameter of a circle enclosing all optical paths...... at the plane of the 10 external image) which is denominated D2 and wherein D1 is larger than a second diameter D2....

  7. Avaliação laboratorial da doença residual mínima na leucemia mielóide crônica por Real-Time PCR Evaluation diagnosis of minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia by Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyne Cristina Grando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia mielóide crônica (LMC representa 15% das leucemias e apresenta três fases: crônica, acelerada e crise blástica. A partir da análise citogenética, pode ser identificado o cromossomo Philadelphia, característico da LMC. O transplante de células-tronco é o único tratamento curativo, mas é acompanhado de altas taxas de morbimortalidade, dificultando sua aplicação. A doença residual mínima é de grande importância para avaliar a resposta ao tratamento, tanto na verificação de doença residual, quanto na identificação de pacientes com alto risco de recaída. Muitas técnicas específicas têm sido introduzidas para detectar as translocações ou os produtos do cromossomo Philadelphia. A mais sensível é a Real-Time PCR, que detecta uma célula leucêmica em 10(5 células normais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a LMC, dando ênfase à utilização da técnica por Real-Time PCR.Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML represents about 15% of all leukemias and has three phases: the chronic phase, accelerated phase and blast crisis. After cytogenetic analysis, the Philadelphia chromosome, characteristic of CML, can be identificated. Stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for CML, but it is accompanied by high levels of morbimortality, difficulting its application. The minimal residual disease is very important for the evaluation of the response to treatment, to verify the residual disease and also to identify patients with a high risk of relapse. Many specific techniques have been introduced for the detection of translocations or products of the Philadelphia chromosome; the most sensitive being Real-Time PCR which detects 1 leukemia cell in 10(5 normal cells. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliographic review of CML, with emphasis on the utilization of the Real-Time PCR technique.

  8. Duties to Extraterrestrial Microscopic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    Formulating a normative axiology for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms, should they ever be found, requires an extension of environmental ethics to beyond the Earth. Using an ethical framework for the treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms, this paper elaborates a similar ethic for the treatment of extraterrestrial microscopic organisms. An ethic of `teloempathy' allows for the moral considerability of any organism that has `interests', based on rudimentary qualities of conativism, and therefore allows for an identical treatment of all life, related or not related to life on Earth. Although, according to this ethic, individual extraterrestrial microscopic organisms have a good of their own and even `rights', at this level the ethic can only be theoretical, allowing for the inevitable destruction of many individual organisms during the course of human exploratory missions, similarly to the daily destruction of microbes by humans on Earth. A holistic teloempathy, an operative ethic, not only provides a framework for human exploration, but it also has important implications for planetary protection and proposals to implement planetary-scale atmospheric alterations on other bodies. Even prior to the discovery of extraterrestrial life, or the discovery of a complete absence of such life, this exercise yields important insights into the moral philosophy that guides our treatment of terrestrial micro-organisms.

  9. Literature survey on microscopic friction modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand contact and friction conditions, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed in order to take microscopic dependencies into account. Friction is developed on microscopic level by adhesion between contacting asperities, the ploughing effect between asperities and the

  10. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  11. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  12. Microscopic polyangiitis secondary to silica exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Miranda, Juliana; Pinto Peñaranda, Luis Fernando; Márquez Hernández, Javier Darío; Velásquez Franco, Carlos Jaime

    2014-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence of the capacity of silica to induce autoimmunity in patients with some type of genetic susceptibility. There are several autoimmune diseases related to this exposure (rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis). Nodular silicosis (clinical expression of this exposure in lungs) generates apoptosis, inflammation, loss of tolerance and a respiratory burst. There is evidence that relates silica with induction of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, but, until it is better explained, the reports of systemic vasculitis secondary to silica exposure are inconclusive. We describe a case of a patient with a history of occupational exposure to silica who developed microscopic polyangiitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  14. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  15. Disease-causing mutations affecting surface residues of mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase impair stability, heteromeric complex formation and mitochondria architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiesing, Jessica; Lohmöller, Benjamin; Schweizer, Michaela; Tidow, Henning; Gersting, Søren W; Muntau, Ania C; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris

    2017-02-01

    The neurometabolic disorder glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding the mitochondrial matrix protein glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes. Twenty percent of all pathogenic mutations affect single amino acid residues on the surface of GCDH resulting in a severe clinical phenotype. We report here on heterologous expression studies of 18 missense mutations identified in GA1 patients affecting surface amino acids. Western blot and pulse chase experiments revealed that the stability of half of the GCDH mutants was significantly reduced. In silico analyses showed that none of the mutations impaired the 3D structure of GCDH. Immunofluorescence co-localisation studies in HeLa cells demonstrated that all GCDH mutants were correctly translocated into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the expression of p.Arg88Cys GCDH as well as further substitutions by alanine, lysine, or methionine but not histidine or leucine resulted in the disruption of mitochondrial architecture forming longitudinal structures composed of stacks of cristae and partial loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The expression of mitochondrial fusion or fission proteins was not affected in these cells. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer analyses revealed that all GCDH mutants exhibit an increased binding affinity to electron transfer flavoprotein beta, whereas only p.Tyr155His GCDH showed a reduced interaction with dihydrolipoamide succinyl transferase. Our data underscore the impact of GCDH protein interactions mediated by amino acid residues on the surface of GCDH required for proper enzymatic activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Microscopic structure for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    1995-01-01

    The microscopic structure for light nuclei e.g. 4 He, 7 Li and 8 Be is considered in the frame work of the generator coordinate method (GCM). The physical interpretation of our GCM is also discussed. The GC amplitudes are used to calculate the various properties like charge and magnetic RMS radii, form factors, electromagnetic moments, astrophysical S-factor, Bremsstrahlung weighted cross sections, relative wavefunctions and vertex functions etc. All the calculated quantities agree well with the values determined experimentally. (author). 30 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Microscopic structure of liquid hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, M

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen makes the simplest molecular liquid. Nonetheless, due to several different reasons, measuring its microscopic structure has been one of the most challenging tasks in neutron diffraction experiments. The recent development of modern pulsed neutron sources triggered a renewed experimental interest which, in turn, led to new knowledge and also to a more effective use of the classic reactor-based experimental data. The contemporary development of quantum mechanical computer simulation techniques, and a critical comparison among the results of different experiments using steady and pulsed neutron sources, resulted in a quantitatively reliable solution of the problem. (topical review)

  18. Diagnostic Yield of Microscopic Colitis in Open Access Endoscopy Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Derek; Miick, Ronald; Chang, Faye; Hillard, Robert; Choudhary, Abhishek; Ashraf, Imran; Bechtold, Matthew; Diaz-Arias, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The diagnostic yield in open access endoscopy has been evaluated which generally support the effectiveness and efficiency of open access endoscopy. With a few exceptions, diagnostic yield studies have not been performed in open access endoscopy for more specific conditions. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the efficiency of open access endoscopy in the detection of microscopic colitis as compared to traditional referral via a gastroenterologist. A retrospective search of the pathology database at the University of Missouri for specimens from a local open access endoscopy center was conducted via SNOMED code using the terms: "microscopic", "lymphocytic", "collagenous", "spirochetosis", "focal active colitis", "melanosis coli" and "histopathologic" in the diagnosis line for the time period between January 1, 2004 and May 25, 2006. Specimens and colonoscopy reports were reviewed by a single pathologist. Of 266 consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopies, the number of patients with microscopic disease are as follows: Lymphocytic colitis (n = 12, 4.5%), collagenous colitis (n = 17, 6.4%), focal active colitis (n = 15, 5.6%), and spirochetosis (n = 2, 0.4%). The diagnostic yield of microscopic colitis in this study of an open access endoscopy center does not differ significantly from that seen in major medical centers. In terms of diagnostic yield, open access endoscopy appears to be as effective in diagnosing microscopic colitis.

  19. X-ray microscopes at BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttmann, P.; Niemann, B.; Thieme, J.; Wiesemann, U.; Rudolph, D.; Schmahl, G.

    2000-01-01

    The undulator U41 at BESSY II will be used as source for X-ray microscopes. An overview of the X-ray microscopy area is presented. After finishing the construction phase a transmission X-ray microscope, a scanning transmission X-ray microscope and an X-ray test chamber will be available. The transmission X-ray microscope will allow investigations with high lateral resolution at moderate energy resolution while the scanning transmission X-ray microscope will allow high energy resolution at moderate lateral resolution of the same specimen

  20. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1-4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  1. Wolter x-ray microscope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerassimenko, M.

    1986-06-01

    A 22 x Wolter microscope was calibrated after several months of operation in the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion program. Placing a point x-ray source at the microscope focus, I recorded the image plane spectrum, as well as the direct spectrum, and from the ratio of these two spectra derived an accurate estimate of the microscope solid angle in the 1 to 4 keV range. The solid angle was also calculated using the microscope geometry and composition. Comparison of this calculated value with the solid angle that was actually measured suggests contamination of the microscope surface

  2. The illumination characteristics of operative microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Christopher A; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Michaelides, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Modern operative microscopes use light sources which possess the power to severely damage underlying tissue. Currently, manufacturers provide a safety warning of this possibility. However, they are unable to suggest specific settings due to a stated "lack of scientific publications on this topic". We aim to radiometrically evaluate multiple otologic microscopes at variables which effect irradiance in order to determine reference emissions levels and provide guidelines for improved intraoperative safety. The optical radiance of four otologic microscopes was evaluated at variable field illumination sizes (spot size), intensity settings and working distances. The spectral emission of each microscope was separately measured. The energy absorbed in skin with representative properties was then calculated as a function of time for each microscope by accounting for the emission spectrum of the microscope and the absorption spectrum of skin. Microscopes showed a wide range of optical radiance based on model, spots size, intensity setting and working distances. Spectral emission of all four microscopes was centered in the visible spectrum with minimal ultraviolet or infrared contribution. A large amount of energy is absorbed by skin during usage of operative microscopes. The highest calculated absorption at 200 min of use was 736.26 J/cm(2). Operative microscopes have the ability to cause patient morbidity secondary to the energy they impart. In an effort to decrease potential injury we recommend that physicians be aware of their microscopes properties and how to control variables which effect irradiance of the skin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Robotic autopositioning of the operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenlander, Mark E; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Merkl, Brandon; Hattendorf, Guido M; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-06-01

    Use of the operating microscope has become pervasive since its introduction to the neurosurgical world. Neuronavigation fused with the operating microscope has allowed accurate correlation of the focal point of the microscope and its location on the downloaded imaging study. However, the robotic ability of the Pentero microscope has not been utilized to orient the angle of the microscope or to change its focal length to hone in on a predefined target. To report a novel technology that allows automatic positioning of the operating microscope onto a set target and utilization of a planned trajectory, either determined with the StealthStation S7 by using preoperative imaging or intraoperatively with the microscope. By utilizing the current motorized capabilities of the Zeiss OPMI Pentero microscope, a robotic autopositioning feature was developed in collaboration with Surgical Technologies, Medtronic, Inc. (StealthStation S7). The system is currently being tested at the Barrow Neurological Institute. Three options were developed for automatically positioning the microscope: AutoLock Current Point, Align Parallel to Plan, and Point to Plan Target. These options allow the microscope to pivot around the lesion, hover in a set plane parallel to the determined trajectory, or rotate and point to a set target point, respectively. Integration of automatic microscope positioning into the operative workflow has potential to increase operative efficacy and safety. This technology is best suited for precise trajectories and entry points into deep-seated lesions.

  4. Microscopical advances in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2004-01-01

    In a series of papers carried out by this laboratory it was demonstrated that the quality of sterile males sperm, assessed submicroscopically and mathematically, is closely correlated with the success of the various procedures of assisted reproduction. If we attempt to select hypothetically optimal spermatozoa destined to the ICSI by light inverted microscopy, a considerable amount of ultrastructural information is lost and our selection is merely based on the motility. In this study we apply polarization microscopy to the ICSI technique, introducing polarizing and analyzing lenses in an inverted microscope model, operating in a transparent container. The retardation of the birefringence in the various organelles is evaluated by compensators, and the images are transmitted to a video system, and stored in a computer. Spermatozoa are maintained alive and perfectly motile in this polarizing inverted microscope, and the character of the birefringence is the same as in fixed and sectioned biological material examined by polarization microscopy. The birefringence of the sperm structures allows a sperm analysis closer to TEM than to phase contrast light microscopy analysis.

  5. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  6. Risk of osteoporosis in microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, Signe; Munck, Lars K; Becker, Sabine; Brockstedt, Helle; Bonderup, Ole K; Hitz, Mette F

    2018-04-01

    Patients with microscopic colitis (MC) have several risk factors for osteoporosis. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in MC is unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate bone mineral status in MC. Patients with MC and disease activity within the last 2 years were included. Bone turnover markers were analyzed and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at inclusion and after one year. Medical history, demographics, risk factors for osteoporosis, disease activity and treatment with cumulative budesonide dosage at least 3 years before inclusion was registered. Adrenal function was tested by adrenocortico-tropic hormone (ACTH) and an ACTH stimulation test at inclusion. Results were compared with age and sex-matched controls. Fifty MC patients (44 women) were included. Median age 67 (range 45-93); median disease duration 28 month (range 2-163); median cumulative budesonide dosage 702 mg (range 0-5400). No difference in number of patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia and BMD was detected between groups. The bone mineral formation marker specific alkaline phosphatase was lower in MC than controls 12 (5-69) µg/l versus 16 (10-35) µg/l (p <   0.005). Patients more often smoked (34% versus 10%, p = 0.001). Disease duration and cumulative budesonide dose was associated with lower BMD and T-score in hip (Spearman's rho; p < 0.05) with a cut of point of 2500 mg budesonide predicting osteopenia. Budesonide treatment did not affect adrenal gland function. The risk of osteoporosis in patients with MC is not increased. However, DXA scan is recommended in MC patients with known risk factors or active disease requiring longstanding budesonide treatment. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin-D in patients treated with budesonide is recommended.

  7. Role of pH in determining the cell-type-specific residual activity of glucocerebrosidase in type 1 Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weely, S.; van den Berg, M.; Barranger, J. A.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Tager, J. M.; Aerts, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The properties of control and 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase, the frequently encountered mutated form of the enzyme in type 1 Gaucher disease, were studied in vitro as well as in situ. The catalytic properties of purified 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase were highly dependent on the assay

  8. Azathioprine and mercaptopurine in the management of patients with chronic, active microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, A; Fernandez-Banares, F; Munck, L K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common chronic diarrhoeal disease, and remission can be induced with budesonide. However, diarrhoea relapses frequently when budesonide is tapered and a few patients become budesonide intolerant. AIM: To examine retrospectively the effect of azathioprine ...

  9. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  10. Design of a transmission electron positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, Masao; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshii, T.; Kurihara, T.; Tsuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the plans and design of positron-electron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan. A used electron microscope is altered. The kinetic energies of positrons produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays are not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam is guided to a transmission electron microscope (JEM100SX). Positrons are moderated by a tungsten foil, are accelerated and are focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam is injected into an electron microscope. The focusing and aberration of positrons are the same as electrons in a magnetic system which are used in commercial electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (author)

  11. Testing microscopes between market and scientific strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliff, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This paper claims that the testing of microscopes during the eighteenth century reveals specific types of interaction between makers and users and links between scientific and economic interests. Basic procedures for the comparison and test of microscopes existed already in the Enlightenment although many historians thought that these were invented during the nineteenth century. The paper discusses three kinds of tests, advertising, the admission of a microscope in the laboratory, and finally...

  12. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  13. Microscopic description of magnetized plasma: quasiparticle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    A quasiparticle concept is developed systematically, from first principles, within the context of microscopic description of magnetized plasma. It is argued that the zeroth velocity-gyroangle harmonic of the microscopic particle distribution function under the gyrokinetic change of variables can be taken as a microscopic quasi-particle density in a reduced phase space. The nature of quasiparticles is discussed and equations of their motion are derived within both exact and reduced microscopic descriptions. The reduced one employs explicitly the separation of interesting time scales. (orig.)

  14. Foldscope: origami-based paper microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Cybulski

    Full Text Available Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education.

  15. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  16. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  17. Scanning Microscopes Using X Rays and Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    Scanning microscopes that would be based on microchannel filters and advanced electronic image sensors and that utilize x-ray illumination have been proposed. Because the finest resolution attainable in a microscope is determined by the wavelength of the illumination, the xray illumination in the proposed microscopes would make it possible, in principle, to achieve resolutions of the order of nanometers about a thousand times as fine as the resolution of a visible-light microscope. Heretofore, it has been necessary to use scanning electron microscopes to obtain such fine resolution. In comparison with scanning electron microscopes, the proposed microscopes would likely be smaller, less massive, and less expensive. Moreover, unlike in scanning electron microscopes, it would not be necessary to place specimens under vacuum. The proposed microscopes are closely related to the ones described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles; namely, Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43; and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002) page 6a. In all of these microscopes, the basic principle of design and operation is the same: The focusing optics of a conventional visible-light microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. A microchannel plate containing parallel, microscopic-cross-section holes much longer than they are wide is placed between a specimen and an image sensor, which is typically the CCD. The microchannel plate must be made of a material that absorbs the illuminating radiation reflected or scattered from the specimen. The microchannels must be positioned and dimensioned so that each one is registered with a pixel on the image sensor. Because most of the radiation incident on the microchannel walls becomes absorbed, the radiation that reaches the

  18. Postinduction Minimal Residual Disease Predicts Outcome and Benefit From Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia With NPM1 Mutation: A Study by the Acute Leukemia French Association Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsat, Marie; Renneville, Aline; Thomas, Xavier; de Botton, Stéphane; Caillot, Denis; Marceau, Alice; Lemasle, Emilie; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Nibourel, Olivier; Berthon, Céline; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Pigneux, Arnaud; Rodriguez, Céline; Vey, Norbert; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Hayette, Sandrine; Braun, Thorsten; Coudé, Marie Magdeleine; Terre, Christine; Celli-Lebras, Karine; Dombret, Hervé; Preudhomme, Claude; Boissel, Nicolas

    2017-01-10

    Purpose This study assessed the prognostic impact of postinduction NPM1-mutated ( NPM1m) minimal residual disease (MRD) in young adult patients (age, 18 to 60 years) with acute myeloid leukemia, and addressed the question of whether NPM1m MRD may be used as a predictive factor of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) benefit. Patients and Methods Among 229 patients with NPM1m who were treated in the Acute Leukemia French Association 0702 (ALFA-0702) trial, MRD evaluation was available in 152 patients in first remission. Patients with nonfavorable AML according to the European LeukemiaNet (ELN) classification were eligible for ASCT in first remission. Results After induction therapy, patients who did not achieve a 4-log reduction in NPM1m peripheral blood-MRD (PB-MRD) had a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (subhazard ratio [SHR], 5.83; P benefit was not observed in those with a > 4-log reduction in PB-MRD, with a significant interaction between ASCT effect and PB-MRD response ( P = .024 and .027 for disease-free survival and OS, respectively). Conclusion Our study supports the strong prognostic significance of early NPM1m PB-MRD, independent of the cytogenetic and molecular context. Moreover, NPM1m PB-MRD may be used as a predictive factor for ASCT indication.

  19. A transmission positron microscope and a scanning positron microscope being built at KEK, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Kogure, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Yagishita, A.; Shidara, T.; Nakahara, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the plans of positron microscopes being built at KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization), Tsukuba, Japan improving used electron microscopes. The kinetic energies of positron produced by accelerators or by nuclear decays have not a unique value but show a spread over in a wide range. Positron beam will be guided near electron microscopes, a transmission electron microscope (JEM100S) and a scanning electron microscope (JSM25S). Positrons are slowed down by a tungsten foil, accelerated and focused on a nickel sheet. The monochromatic focused beam will be injected into an electron microscope. The focusing of positrons and electrons is achieved by magnetic system of the electron microscopes. Imaging plates are used to record positron images for the transmission electron microscope. (orig.)

  20. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-09-21

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential.

  1. Hamiltonian mechanics limits microscopic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James; Gilz, Lukas; Thesing, Eike

    2015-05-01

    We propose a definition of fully microscopic engines (micro-engines) in terms of pure mechanics, without reference to thermodynamics, equilibrium, or cycles imposed by external control, and without invoking ergodic theory. This definition is pragmatically based on the observation that what makes engines useful is energy transport across a large ratio of dynamical time scales. We then prove that classical and quantum mechanics set non-trivial limits-of different kinds-on how much of the energy that a micro-engine extracts from its fuel can be converted into work. Our results are not merely formal; they imply manageable design constraints on micro-engines. They also suggest the novel possibility that thermodynamics does not emerge from mechanics in macroscopic regimes, but rather represents the macroscopic limit of a generalized theory, valid on all scales, which governs the important phenomenon of energy transport across large time scale ratios. We propose experimental realizations of the dynamical mechanisms we identify, with trapped ions and in Bose-Einstein condensates (``motorized bright solitons'').

  2. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  4. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  5. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  6. Clinical relevance of minimal residual disease monitoring in mature B-cell disorders: role of qualitative and quantitative PCR-based strategies Monitorização e relevância clínica da doença residual mínima nas síndromes linfoproliferativas de células B-maduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Sametti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Although current treatments can induce clinically complete remissions in a high proportion of patients with mature B-cell disorders (MBCD, most of them actually relapse, because of the persistence of residual tumour cells which are undetectable using conventional diagnostic procedures. Qualitative polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR based methods are increasingly used for minimal residual disease (MRD detection, and provide useful prognostic information. In recent years these assays have been integrated by reliable quantitative PCR-approaches that are likely to further increase the prognostic impact of MRD analysis in MBCD. In this review current approaches for qualitative and quantitative detection of MRD in MBCD are summarised. In addition, the prognostic aspects of molecular monitoring in the autologous and allogeneic transplantation setting are summarised. The experience accumulated over the past decade shows that PCR analysis has a prognostic impact in most MBCD especially when treated with high-dose regimens. Major advantages coming from the introduction of molecular monitoring in clinical programs have been: i a rapid evaluation of the anti-tumour activity of innovative treatments; and ii an early identification of patients with a high-risk of disease recurrence.Os tratamentos atuais induzem remissão clínica completa em uma alta percentagem de pacientes portadores de Síndromes linfoproliferativas de células B maduras (SLBM. No entanto, muitos destes pacientes recaem devido a persistência de células tumorais residuais que são indetectáveis pelos métodos de diagnóstico convencionais. Os métodos baseados na reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR qualitativos cada vez mais têm sido utilizados para a detecção da doença residual mínima (DRM e propiciam informações úteis em relação ao prognóstico dos pacientes. Neste relato as condutas atuais em relação a DRM e o emprego dos métodos de PCR qualitativos e quantitativos s

  7. Multibeam scanning electron microscope : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the first results obtained with their multibeam scanning electron microscope. For the first time, they were able to image 196 (array of 14×14) focused beams of a multielectron beam source on a specimen using single beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) optics. The system

  8. Major Components of the Light Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Centonze Frohlich, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    The light microscope is a basic tool for the cell biologist, who should have a thorough understanding of how it works, how it should be aligned for different applications, and how it should be maintained as required to obtain maximum image-forming capacity and resolution. The components of the microscope are described in detail here.

  9. Major components of the light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centonze Frohlich, Victoria

    2008-07-30

    The light microscope is a basic tool for the cell biologist, who should have a thorough understanding of how it works, how it should be aligned for different applications, and how it should be maintained as required to obtain maximum image-forming capacity and resolution. The components of the microscope are described in detail here.

  10. A microscopic model of triangular arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yukihiro; Hatano, Naomichi

    2006-11-01

    We introduce a microscopic model which describes the dynamics of each dealer in multiple foreign exchange markets, taking account of the triangular arbitrage transaction. The model reproduces the interaction among the markets well. We explore the relation between the parameters of the present microscopic model and the spring constant of a macroscopic model that we proposed previously.

  11. Quantum theory and microscopic mechanics. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussouff, M.

    1984-08-01

    The need for theoretical descriptions and experimental observations on 'small' individual systems is emphasized. It is shown that the mathematical basis for microscopic mechanics is very simple in one dimension. The square well problem is discussed to clarify general points about stationary states and the continuity of (p'/p) across potential boundaries in the applications of microscopic mechanics. (author)

  12. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  13. Polymerized LB Films Imaged with a Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Fluorescence Microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, Constant A.J.; Hansma, Helen G.; Gaub, Hermann E.; Hansma, Paul K.

    1992-01-01

    The first results obtained with a new stand-alone atomic force microscope (AFM) integrated with a standard Zeiss optical fluorescence microscope are presented. The optical microscope allows location and selection of objects to be imaged with the high-resolution AFM. Furthermore, the combined

  14. Novel Multiwavelength Microscopic Scanner for Mouse Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlen Alencar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Real-time in vivo imaging of molecular targets at (subcellular resolution is essential in better understanding complex biology. Confocal microscopy and multiphoton microscopy have been used in the past to achieve this goal, but their true capabilities have often been limited by bulky optics and difficult experimental set-ups requiring exteriorized organs. We describe here the development and validation of a unique nearinfrared laser scanning microscope system that uses novel optics with a millimeter footprint. Optimized for use in the far red and near-infrared ranges, the system allows an imaging depth that extends up to 500 Mm from a 1.3-mm-diameter stick objective, which is up to 2 cm in length. We show exceptionally high spatial, temporal, and multiwavelength resolutions of the system and show that it can be applied to virtually any internal organ through a keyhole surgical access. We demonstrate that, when combined with novel far red imaging probes, it is possible to image the cellular details of many organs and disease processes. The new optics, coupled with the use of near-infrared probes, should prove immensely valuable for in vivo cancer imaging.

  15. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  16. Genetic Analysis with the Immunochip Platform in Behçet Disease. Identification of Residues Associated in the HLA Class I Region and New Susceptibility Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Cano, Marco-Antonio; García-Lozano, José-Raúl; Conde-Jaldón, Marta; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Castillo, María Jesús; Sánchez-Bursón, Juan; Juliá, María Rosa; Solans, Roser; Blanco, Ricardo; Barnosi-Marín, Ana-Celia; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Fanlo, Patricia; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Mónica; Camps, Teresa; Castañeda, Santos; Alegre-Sancho, Juan-Jose; Martín, Javier; González-Escribano, María Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is an immuno-mediated vasculitis in which knowledge of its etiology and genetic basis is limited. To improve the current knowledge, a genetic analysis performed with the Immunochip platform was carried out in a population from Spain. A discovery cohort comprising 278 BD cases and 1,517 unaffected controls were genotyped using the Immunochip platform. The validation step was performed on an independent replication cohort composed of 130 BD cases and 600 additional controls. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA class I region, being HLA-B*51 the highest peak (overall P = 6.82E-32, OR = 3.82). A step-wise conditional logistic regression with classical alleles identified HLA-B*57 and HLA-A*03 as additional independent markers. The amino acid model that best explained the association, includes the position 97 of the HLA-B molecule and the position 66 of the HLA-A. Among the non-HLA loci, the most significant in the discovery analysis were: IL23R (rs10889664: P = 3.81E-12, OR = 2.00), the JRKL/CNTN5 region (rs2848479: P = 5.00E-08, OR = 1.68) and IL12A (rs1874886: P = 6.67E-08, OR = 1.72), which were confirmed in the validation phase (JRKL/CNTN5 rs2848479: P = 3.29E-10, OR = 1.66; IL12A rs1874886: P = 1.62E-08, OR = 1.61). Our results confirm HLA-B*51 as a primary-association marker in predisposition to BD and suggest additional independent signals within the class I region, specifically in the genes HLA-A and HLA-B. Regarding the non-HLA genes, in addition to IL-23R, previously reported in our population; IL12A, described in other populations, was found to be a BD susceptibility factor also in Spaniards; finally, a new associated locus was found in the JRKL/CNTN5 region. PMID:27548383

  17. O valor da imunofenotipagem para o diagnóstico do Mieloma Múltiplo e na avaliação da doença residual mínima The value of immunofenotyping for the diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma and for the evaluation of minimal residual disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto P. Falcão

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os plasmócitos normais podem ser diferenciados dos presentes no mieloma múltiplo por imunofenotipagem. Os normais são CD45+, CD19+, CD20+, CD38++, CD56-/fraco, CD138+, mIg-, cIg policlonal. Por outro lado, os plasmócitos do mieloma múltiplo são monoclonais (cIg e aproximadamente 80% são CD19-CD56+ e 20% CD19-CD56-. O perfil na leucemia plasmocitária primária é semelhante ao do mieloma, embora a positividade para o CD56 ocorra em 45% dos casos. Na gamopatia monoclonal de causa indeterminada existe uma mistura de plasmócitos normais e neoplásicos, que têm perfil semelhante ao do mieloma múltiplo. A doença residual na medula é importante para estimar a resposta terapêutica e pode ser avaliada por citometria de fluxo e pela reação da polimerase em cadeia para o rearranjo da cadeia pesada da Ig. A citometria apresenta sensibilidade de 10-4 a 10-5, é realizada em aproximadamente duas horas e a sua aplicabilidade chega a 90%. O PCR qualitativo tem sensibilidade de 10-6 enquanto o quantitativo, 10-5. Em ambos, o tempo para a realização é maior (2-3 dias, com aplicabilidade de 75%.Normal plasma cells can be differentiated from multiple myeloma by their immunophenotype. Normal cells are CD45+, CD19+, CD20+, CD38++, CD56-/dim, CD138+, mIg- and polyclonal cIg. On the other hand, with multiple myeloma, plasma cells are monoclonal (cIg and approximately 80% are CD19- CD56+ and 20% CD19- CD56-. The profile in plasma cell leukemia is similar to myeloma, but the CD56 is positive in 45% of cases. In the monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance there is a mixture of normal and neoplastic plasma cells. Residual disease in bone marrow is important to determine the efficacy of treatment and can be evaluated by flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction of rearranged heavy chains of Ig. Flow cytometry has a sensitivity of 10-4 to 10-5, is performed in 2-3 hours and is applicable in 90% of cases. Qualitative PCR has a sensitivity of 10

  18. A X-ray microscope for stored energy in single grains of cold-rolled steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Castelnau, O.; Chauveau, T.; Bacroix, B.; Schroer, C.; Ungar, T.

    2000-01-01

    A new set-up for X-ray microdiffraction has been developed on the ESRF beamline ID22. This set-up allows microscopic characterization of materials in diffraction mode, the size of the focused beam being only of a few microns. This facilitates the measurement of material quantities as average size of the coherently diffracting volume, local dislocation density, residual stress, local fluctuation of the residual stress, and intragranular misorientation from single grains of a polycrystalline material. The first application on an IF-Ti steel after different thermomechanical treatments (recrystallization, cold-rolling, annealing) is presented

  19. Comparative study of image contrast in scanning electron microscope and helium ion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R; Chen, Y; Zhang, H; Zhou, Y; Fox, D; Maguire, P; Wang, J J; Rodenburg, C

    2017-12-01

    Images of Ga + -implanted amorphous silicon layers in a 110 n-type silicon substrate have been collected by a range of detectors in a scanning electron microscope and a helium ion microscope. The effects of the implantation dose and imaging parameters (beam energy, dwell time, etc.) on the image contrast were investigated. We demonstrate a similar relationship for both the helium ion microscope Everhart-Thornley and scanning electron microscope Inlens detectors between the contrast of the images and the Ga + density and imaging parameters. These results also show that dynamic charging effects have a significant impact on the quantification of the helium ion microscope and scanning electron microscope contrast. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  1. Development and applications of the positron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Progress on the positron microscope during the past year has been steady, and we currently project that initial microscope images can be collected during mid to late summer of 1992. Work during the year has mainly been divided among four areas of effort: hardware construction; power supply and control system development; radioactive source fabrication; and planning of initial experimental projects. Details of progress in these areas will be given below. An initial optical design of the microscope was completed during 1990, but during the past year, significant improvements have been made to this design, and several limiting cases of microscope performance have been evaluated. The results of these evaluations have been extremely encouraging, giving us strong indications that the optical performance of the microscope will be better than originally anticipated. In particular, we should be able to explore ultimate performance capabilities of positron microscopy using our currently planned optical system, with improvements only in the image detector system, and the positron-source/moderator configuration. We should be able to study imaging reemission microscopy with resolutions approaching 10 Angstrom and be able to produce beam spots for rastered microscope work with diameters below the 1000 Angstrom diffusion limit. Because of these exciting new possibilities, we have decided to upgrade several microscope subsystems to levels consistent with ultimate performance earlier in our construction schedule than we had previously intended. In particular, alignment facilities in the optical system, vibration isolation, and power supply and control system flexibility have all been upgraded in their design over the past year

  2. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  3. Operating microscopes: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluç, Kutluay; Kujoth, Gregory C; Başkaya, Mustafa K

    2009-09-01

    The operating microscope is a fixture of modern surgical facilities, and it is a critically important factor in the success of many of the most complex and difficult surgical interventions used in medicine today. The rise of this key surgical tool reflects advances in understanding the principles of optics and vision that have occurred over centuries. The development of reading spectacles in the late 13th century led to the construction of early compound microscopes in the 16th and 17th centuries by Lippershey, Janssen, Galileo, Hooke, and others. Perhaps surprisingly, Leeuwenhoek's simple microscopes of this era offered improved performance over his contemporaries' designs. The intervening years saw improvements that reduced the spherical and chromatic aberrations present in compound microscopes. By the late 19th century, Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe ushered the compound microscope into the beginnings of the modern era of commercial design and production. The introduction of the microscope into the operating room by Nylén in 1921 initiated a revolution in surgical practice that gained momentum throughout the 1950s with multiple refinements, the introduction of the Zeiss OPMI series, and Kurze's application of the microscope to neurosurgery in 1957. Many of the refinements of the last 50 years have greatly improved the handling and practical operation of the surgical microscope, considerations which are equally important to its optical performance. Today's sophisticated operating microscopes allow for advanced real-time angiographic and tumor imaging. In this paper the authors discuss what might be found in the operating rooms of tomorrow.

  4. The Mathematical Microscope - Making the inaccessible accessible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2011-01-01

      In this chapter we introduce a new term, the "Mathematical Microscope", as a method of using mathematics in accessing information about reality when this information is otherwise inaccessible. Furthermore, we discuss how models and experiments are related: none of which are important without...... the other. In the sciences and medicine, a link that is often missing in the chain of a system can be made visible with the aid of the mathematical microscope. The mathematical microscope serves not only as a lens to clarify a blurred picture but more important as a tool to unveil profound truths...

  5. Microscopes for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    One part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer instrument for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is a pair of telescopes with a special wheel (on the right in this photograph) for presenting samples to be inspected with the microscopes. A horizontally mounted optical microscope (on the left in this photograph) and an atomic force microscope will examine soil particles and possibly ice particles. The shapes and the size distributions of soil particles may tell scientists about environmental conditions the material has experienced. Tumbling rounds the edges. Repeated wetting and freezing causes cracking. Clay minerals formed during long exposure to water have distinctive, platy particles shapes.

  6. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  7. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU) regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking ani...

  8. Residu Fungisida Tembaga (Cu pada Pucuk Teh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to know copper residue on tea due to blister blight control by copper fungicides. The experiment was done at Pagilaran Tea Plantation, Batang, Pekalongan. Tea plants were sprayed 8 times, with 8 days interval at the dosages of 0. 75, 150, and 300 g/ha respectively. Shoot sample was taken at 8 and 16 days after spraying. The copper residue war analyzed by Atomic Adsorbtion Spectrophotometer at 324 nm. The result showed that the higher dosage of spraying gives higher copper residue. At the dosage of 300 g/ha was detected 23,52 ppm of copper residue at 8 days after spraying. The residue was reduced to 12,96 ppm at 16 days after spraying. At that dosage the blister blight disease intensity reduced by 59,97%. The detected residue of copper fungicides due to blister blight control is not higher than MRL ( 150 ppm.

  9. Minimal residual disease monitoring by quantitative RT-PCR in core binding factor AML allows risk stratification and predicts relapse: results of the United Kingdom MRC AML-15 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, John A Liu; O'Brien, Michelle A; Hills, Robert K; Daly, Sarah B; Wheatley, Keith; Burnett, Alan K

    2012-10-04

    The clinical value of serial minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by quantitative RT-PCR was prospectively assessed in 278 patients [163 with t(8;21) and 115 with inv(16)] entered in the United Kingdom MRC AML 15 trial. CBF transcripts were normalized to 10(5) ABL copies. At remission, after course 1 induction chemotherapy, a > 3 log reduction in RUNX1-RUNX1T1 transcripts in BM in t(8;21) patients and a > 10 CBFB-MYH11 copy number in peripheral blood (PB) in inv(16) patients were the most useful prognostic variables for relapse risk on multivariate analysis. MRD levels after consolidation (course 3) were also informative. During follow-up, cut-off MRD thresholds in BM and PB associated with a 100% relapse rate were identified: for t(8;21) patients BM > 500 copies, PB > 100 copies; for inv(16) patients, BM > 50 copies and PB > 10 copies. Rising MRD levels on serial monitoring accurately predicted hematologic relapse. During follow-up, PB sampling was equally informative as BM for MRD detection. We conclude that MRD monitoring by quantitative RT-PCR at specific time points in CBF AML allows identification of patients at high risk of relapse and could now be incorporated in clinical trials to evaluate the role of risk directed/preemptive therapy.

  10. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  11. phytochemical and microscopical evaluation of desmodium velutinum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    , transverse and longitudinal sections of the leaves of .... quantity for preliminary screening and biological studies. Microscopical Examination .... subnitrate dissolved in 20ml acetic acid, made up to 100ml with distilled water).

  12. Feedback regulation of microscopes by image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Yuki; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    Computational microscope systems are becoming a major part of imaging biological phenomena, and the development of such systems requires the design of automated regulation of microscopes. An important aspect of automated regulation is feedback regulation, which is the focus of this review. As modern microscope systems become more complex, often with many independent components that must work together, computer control is inevitable since the exact orchestration of parameters and timings for these multiple components is critical to acquire proper images. A number of techniques have been developed for biological imaging to accomplish this. Here, we summarize the basics of computational microscopy for the purpose of building automatically regulated microscopes focus on feedback regulation by image processing. These techniques allow high throughput data acquisition while monitoring both short- and long-term dynamic phenomena, which cannot be achieved without an automated system. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  13. Assessing and benchmarking multiphoton microscopes for biologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Kaitlin; Pinkard, Henry; Peck, Sebastian; Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F

    2014-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become staple tool for tracking cells within tissues and organs due to superior depth of penetration, low excitation volumes, and reduced phototoxicity. Many factors, ranging from laser pulse width to relay optics to detectors and electronics, contribute to the overall ability of these microscopes to excite and detect fluorescence deep within tissues. However, we have found that there are few standard ways already described in the literature to distinguish between microscopes or to benchmark existing microscopes to measure the overall quality and efficiency of these instruments. Here, we discuss some simple parameters and methods that can either be used within a multiphoton facility or by a prospective purchaser to benchmark performance. This can both assist in identifying decay in microscope performance and in choosing features of a scope that are suited to experimental needs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nucleon relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qingbiao; Feng Dachun; Zhuo Yizhong

    1991-01-01

    In this talk, both the phenomenological and microscopic nucleon relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies En=20-1000 MeV has been obtained through automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing effective lagrangian based on popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we have shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. We have concluded that both the phenomenological and microscopic relativistic optical potentials proposed here can be extensively used for intermediate energy nucleon data evaluation. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in RPOP is suggested. (author). 33 refs, 24 figs

  15. Understanding and caring for an operating microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An operating or surgical microscope is an optical instrument that provides the surgeon with a stereoscopic, high quality magnified and illuminated image of the small structures in the surgical area.

  16. Assessing and benchmarking multiphoton microscopes for biologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Kaitlin; Pinkard, Henry; Peck, Sebastian; Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2017-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become staple tool for tracking cells within tissues and organs due to superior depth of penetration, low excitation volumes, and reduced phototoxicity. Many factors, ranging from laser pulse width to relay optics to detectors and electronics, contribute to the overall ability of these microscopes to excite and detect fluorescence deep within tissues. However, we have found that there are few standard ways already described in the literature to distinguish between microscopes or to benchmark existing microscopes to measure the overall quality and efficiency of these instruments. Here, we discuss some simple parameters and methods that can either be used within a multiphoton facility or by a prospective purchaser to benchmark performance. This can both assist in identifying decay in microscope performance and in choosing features of a scope that are suited to experimental needs. PMID:24974026

  17. A pragmatic guide to multiphoton microscope design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael D.; Field, Jeffrey J.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Bartels, Randy A.; Squier, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged as a ubiquitous tool for studying microscopic structure and function across a broad range of disciplines. As such, the intent of this paper is to present a comprehensive resource for the construction and performance evaluation of a multiphoton microscope that will be understandable to the broad range of scientific fields that presently exploit, or wish to begin exploiting, this powerful technology. With this in mind, we have developed a guide to aid in the design of a multiphoton microscope. We discuss source selection, optical management of dispersion, image-relay systems with scan optics, objective-lens selection, single-element light-collection theory, photon-counting detection, image rendering, and finally, an illustrated guide for building an example microscope. PMID:27182429

  18. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  19. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  20. Optics of high-performance electron microscopes*

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, H H

    2016-01-01

    During recent years, the theory of charged particle optics together with advances in fabrication tolerances and experimental techniques has lead to very significant advances in high-performance electron microscopes. Here, we will describe which theoretical tools, inventions and designs have driven this development. We cover the basic theory of higher-order electron optics and of image formation in electron microscopes. This leads to a description of different methods to correct aberrations by...

  1. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  2. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  3. Residues Of Streptomycin Antibiotic In Commercial Layers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the muscle samples recorded residue concentration levels higher than the W.H.O recommended maximum residue level for streptomycin antibiotic in muscle tissue of food animals. In view of the importance of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial diseases in both human and animals, it is advocated that the use of ...

  4. Risk and maximum residue limits: a study of hops production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper examines how maximum residue limits (MRLs) affect the optimal choice by growers of chemical applications to control pests and diseases. In practice, growers who export balance both yield risk and pesticide residue uncertainty when making chemical application decisions. To address these is...

  5. Minimal residual disease or cure in MPNs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic landscape of the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is markedly changing consequent to the development of JAK-inhibitors and the use of ruxolitinib (RUX) in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) and patients with polycythemia vera (PV) who develop...

  6. [Waste over history: perceptions about residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Marta Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Man, over history, felt about the residues produced by human activity. The text is divided into three parts: In the first part it tells the story of the black plague pandemic during the XIV century, showing how this disease was associated with the residues produced by the human body. In the second part it explains how the first notions of waste were, and still are, related to dirt, disease and death. Finally, in the third part, it describes the first measures of hygiene in the Renaissance and refers to the first public health actions at the beginning of the XX century, starting to combat the agents of infectious diseases and their vectors.

  7. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simplified flow cytometric assay to detect minimal residual disease in childhood with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Detecção de doença residual mínima em crianças com leucemia linfoblástica aguda por citometria de fluxo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Delbuono

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The detection of minimal residual disease (MRD is an important prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL providing crucial information on the response to treatment and risk of relapse. However, the high cost of these techniques restricts their use in countries with limited resources. Thus, we prospectively studied the use of flow cytometry (FC with a simplified 3-color assay and a limited antibody panel to detect MRD in the bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood (PB of children with ALL. BM and PB samples from 40 children with ALL were analyzed on days (d 14 and 28 during induction and in weeks 24-30 of maintenance therapy. Detectable MRD was defined as > 0.01% cells expressing the aberrant immunophenotype as characterized at diagnosis among total events in the sample. A total of 87% of the patients had an aberrant immunophenotype at diagnosis. On d14, 56% of the BM and 43% of the PB samples had detectable MRD. On d28, this decreased to 45% and 31%, respectively. The percentage of cells with the aberrant phenotype was similar in both BM and PB in T-ALL but about 10 times higher in the BM of patients with B-cell-precursor ALL. Moreover, MRD was detected in the BM of patients in complete morphological remission (44% on d14 and 39% on d28. MRD was not significantly associated to gender, age, initial white blood cell count or cell lineage. This FC assay is feasible, affordable and readily applicable to detect MRD in centers with limited resources.A detecção de doença residual mínima (DRM é um importante fator prognóstico na leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA infantil e fornece informações sobre a resposta ao tratamento e o risco de recaída. Entretanto, os altos custos das técnicas utilizadas limitam seu uso nos países em desenvolvimento. Desta forma, realizamos um estudo prospectivo para avaliar a citometria de fluxo (CF, utilizando três fluorescências e um painel limitado de anticorpos monoclonais, como método de detec

  9. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  10. Residual Endodontic Filling Material after Post Space Preparation: A Confocal Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yao Teoh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study assessed removability of endodontic alkaline cements and resin sealers using coronal cross-sectional slices of roots with single canals. Materials were labelled with 0.1% (w/w sodium fluorescein prior to mixing so that confocal microscopy could be used to quantify material remaining on the walls of post spaces, to assess cleanliness. Roots of extracted teeth were prepared using rotary NiTi instruments then obturated using lateral condensation with gutta percha and epoxy resin sealers (AH-Plus™ or Zirmix™, or were filled by injecting mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA cement (GC Nex™ MTA or MTAmix™ or a hard-setting calcium hydroxide cement (Supercal™. Brown (#3 ParaPost™ drills were used at 600 rpm with a torque setting of 3 N cm−1 for 2 min to remove 5 mm of the root filling. Roots were embedded and coronal slices examined by confocal microscopy, with the perimeter of the drill channel divided into clean, unclean and non-accessible regions. The choice of material affects cleanliness, with MTA being the most difficult and calcium hydroxide cement the easiest to remove. With epoxy resin-based sealers, almost half of the accessible canal walls remained coated with remnants of sealer after post space preparation.

  11. Microscopic Residual Tumor After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Is Standardization of Pathological Examination Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzomati, Domenico; Perrone, Giuseppe; Nappo, Gennaro; Valeri, Sergio; Amato, Michela; Petitti, Tommasangelo; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Coppola, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    R1 resection rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for cancer is highly variable. The aim of this study was to verify if a standardized histopathological work-up of the specimen affects the rate of R1 resection after PD for cancer. Two groups of specimens were managed with (standardized method [SM] group) or without (non-standardized method [NSM] group) a SM of histopathological work-up. Each group included 50 cases of PD for periampullary cancer. Differences in terms of R1 resection rate between the 2 groups were evaluated. Correlation between R1 status and local recurrence was also evaluated. The cohort of 100 patients consisted of 66 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, 15 cholangiocarcinoma, and 19 ampullary cancer. The R1 resection rate resulted statistically higher in the SM group (66% vs 10%). Local recurrence was more frequently related to R1 resection in the SM group (34.3% of cases) than in NSM group (20% of cases). The use of the SM of pathological evaluation of the specimen after PD for cancer determines a significant increase of R1 resection. This remarkable difference seems to be due to the different definition of minimum clearance. The SM seems to better discriminate patients in terms of risk of local recurrence.

  12. [Microscopic colitis - a frequent cause of chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonciarz, Maciej; Mularczyk, Aldona; Kowalik, Tomasz; Kopała, Marek

    2016-11-25

    Chronic diarrhea is a very common problem in the general population. It requires a physician to differentiate its causes and depending on its etiology referring the patient to a hospital for diagnosis and subsequent treatment. One of the causes of chronic diarrhea may be microscopic colitis, which is characterized by the presence of clinical symptoms without endoscopic or radiological abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on a histopathological examination of the colon and thus clinical suspicion of the disease is so important for further diagnosis and treatment, which is primarily based on the use of topical steroids such as budesonide. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  13. Microscopic Investigation of Reversible Nanoscale Surface Size Dependent Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Carpenter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Aβ1-40 coated 20 nm gold colloidal nanoparticles exhibit a reversible color change as pH is externally altered between pH 4 and 10. This reversible process may contain important information on the initial reversible step reported for the fibrillogenesis of Aβ (a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. We examined this reversible color change by microscopic investigations. AFM images on graphite surfaces revealed the morphology of Aβ aggregates with gold colloids. TEM images clearly demonstrate the correspondence between spectroscopic features and conformational changes of the gold colloid.

  14. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  15. Microscopic stress characterisation of functional iron-based alloys by white X-ray microbeam diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, E. P.; Sato, S.; Fujieda, S.; Shinoda, K.; Kajiwara, K.; Sato, M.; Suzuki, S.

    2018-01-01

    Microscopic residual stress evolution in an austenite (γ) grain during a shape-memory process in an Fe-Mn-Si-Cr alloy was investigated using the white X-ray microbeam diffraction technique. The stresses were measured on a coarse grain, which had an orientation near , parallel to the tensile loading direction with a high Schmid factor for a martensitic transformation. The magnitude of the residual stresses in a grain of the sample, which was subjected to a 23 % tensile strain and subsequent shape-recovery heating, was found to be very small and comparable to that prior to tensile deformation. Measurements of the recovery strain and microstructural analyses using electron backscatter diffraction suggested that the low residual stresses could be attributed to the significant shape recovery caused by a highly reversible martensitic transformation in the grain with a particular orientation.

  16. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  17. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  18. Optical alignment using the Point Source Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Robert E.; Kuhn, William P.

    2005-08-01

    We give an example of a Point Source Microscope (PSM) and describe its uses as an aid in the alignment of optical systems including the referencing of optical to mechanical datums. The PSM is a small package (about 100x150x30 mm), including a point source of light, beam splitter, microscope objective and digital CCD camera to detect the reflected light spot. A software package in conjunction with a computer video display locates the return image in three degrees of freedom relative to an electronic spatial reference point. The PSM also includes a Koehler illumination source so it may be used as a portable microscope for ordinary imaging and the microscope can be zoomed under computer control. For added convenience, the laser diode point source can be made quite bright to facilitate initial alignment under typical laboratory lighting conditions. The PSM is particularly useful in aligning optical systems that do not have circular symmetry or are distributed in space such as off-axis systems. The PSM is also useful for referencing the centers of curvatures of optical surfaces to mechanical datums of the structure in which the optics are mounted. By removing the microscope objective the PSM can be used as an electronic autocollimator because of the infinite conjugate optical design.

  19. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulleau, Patrick P; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2011-07-10

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. A frameless stereotaxic operating microscope for neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friets, E.M.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Hatch, J.F.; Roberts, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new system, which we call the frameless stereotaxic operating microscope, is discussed. Its purpose is to display CT or other image data in the operating microscope in the correct scale, orientation, and position without the use of a stereotaxic frame. A nonimaging ultrasonic rangefinder allows the position of the operating microscope and the position of the patient to be determined. Discrete fiducial points on the patient's external anatomy are located in both image space and operating room space, linking the image data and the operating room. Physician-selected image information, e.g., tumor contours or guidance to predetermined targets, is projected through the optics of the operating microscope using a miniature cathode ray tube and a beam splitter. Projected images superpose the surgical field, reconstructed from image data to match the focal plane of the operating microscope. The algorithms on which the system is based are described, and the sources and effects of errors are discussed. The system's performance is simulated, providing an estimate of accuracy. Two phantoms are used to measure accuracy experimentally. Clinical results and observations are given

  1. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  2. Microscopic fungi as significant sesquiterpene emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    HorváTh, Eszter; Hoffer, AndráS.; SebőK, Flóra; Dobolyi, Csaba; Szoboszlay, SáNdor; Kriszt, BaláZs; GelencséR, AndráS.

    2011-08-01

    Among the volatile organic compounds emitted by vegetation, isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their derivatives are thought to contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. Although it is well known that microscopic fungi globally turn over vast amount of carbon by decomposing the organic matter in the soil, vegetation is considered as the exclusive source of biogenic secondary organic aerosol precursors in various atmospheric models. Secondary fungal metabolites including sesquiterpenes have been recognized as characteristic volatile organic compounds emitted by fungi. In the present study, we investigated the rates of sesquiterpene emission of microscopic fungi to establish their potential significance compared to those from vegetation. To sample the headspace of the pure culture of some common fungi, we used an aseptic flow-through apparatus designed for solid phase microextraction in our laboratory. The identified sesquiterpenes in the headspace extracts were quantified for eight strains of microscopic fungi belonging to four different genera. Our results showed that microscopic fungi emit a considerable amount of sesquiterpenes. Based on our first estimations microscopic fungi may be considered as potentially significant sesquiterpene emission sources whose contribution to secondary organic aerosol formation may be comparable to that of vegetation.

  3. The optics of microscope image formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David E

    2013-01-01

    Although geometric optics gives a good understanding of how the microscope works, it fails in one critical area, which is explaining the origin of microscope resolution. To accomplish this, one must consider the microscope from the viewpoint of physical optics. This chapter describes the theory of the microscope-relating resolution to the highest spatial frequency that a microscope can collect. The chapter illustrates how Huygens' principle or construction can be used to explain the propagation of a plane wave. It is shown that this limit increases with increasing numerical aperture (NA). As a corollary to this, resolution increases with decreasing wavelength because of how NA depends on wavelength. The resolution is higher for blue light than red light. Resolution is dependent on contrast, and the higher the contrast, the higher the resolution. This last point relates to issues of signal-to-noise and dynamic range. The use of video and new digital cameras has necessitated redefining classical limits such as those of Rayleigh's criterion. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Análise microscópica do miocárdio ventricular esquerdo em cães soropositivos para cinomose Microscopic analysis of the left ventricular myocardium in positive serum dogs to distemper disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. de Rezende

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Classificado no gênero Morbillivirus da família Paramixoviridae, o vírus da cinomose possui RNA de fita simples de polaridade negativa, é causador de doença multissistêmica, altamente contagiosa e grave dos cães e carnívoros selvagens, e com elevado índice de mortalidade em animais não vacinados ou com falhas vacinais. Com o objetivo de avaliar as alterações histopatológicas no coração, particularmente na região do miocárdio ventricular esquerdo, de cães naturalmente infectados com o vírus da cinomose, foram estudados 35 animais, de ambos os sexos e com idades variadas. Das 35 amostras enviadas ao Laboratório de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva do Hospital Veterinário de Uberaba, 100% (35/35 mostrou-se soropositivas para a cinomose (técnica de imunoensaio em fase sólida e tiveram no miocárdio ventricular esquerdo as seguintes alterações histopatológicas: miocardite, degeneração hialina, hiperemia e hemorragia, com 42,8% (15/35, 31,4% (11/35, 14,3% (5/35 e 11,4% (4/35, respectivamente. Tendo utilizado o teste Qui-Quadrado com nível de significância de 0,05, conclui-se que existe alta correlação (p=0,02 entre os animais infectados com o vírus da cinomose e as alterações histopatológicas observadas no miocárdio ventricular esquerdo.Classified pertaining to the genus Morbillivirus of the Paramyxoviridae family, the canine distemper virus is a RNA single-stranded virus with negative polarity and causes a multisystemic disease, serious and highly contagious for dogs and wild carnivores, with a high mortality rate in non-vaccinated animals or with vaccine fails. With the objective to evaluate heart histopathological alterations, particularly in the left ventricular myocardium, in dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus, 35 dogs, males and females of different ages, were studied. All the 35 samples sent to the Veterinary Hospital of Uberaba were serum-positive for distemper (immunoassay technique in

  5. Reduced-Intensity Delayed Intensification in Standard-Risk Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Defined by Undetectable Minimal Residual Disease: Results of an International Randomized Trial (AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrappe, Martin; Bleckmann, Kirsten; Zimmermann, Martin; Biondi, Andrea; Möricke, Anja; Locatelli, Franco; Cario, Gunnar; Rizzari, Carmelo; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Bartram, Claus R; Barisone, Elena; Niggli, Felix; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Testi, Anna Maria; Mann, Georg; Ziino, Ottavio; Schäfer, Beat; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Beier, Rita; Parasole, Rosanna; Göhring, Gudrun; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Casale, Fiorina; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Basso, Giuseppe; Conter, Valentino

    2018-01-20

    Purpose Delayed intensification (DI) is an integral part of treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but it is associated with relevant toxicity. Therefore, standard-risk patients of trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 (Combination Chemotherapy Based on Risk of Relapse in Treating Young Patients With ALL) were investigated with the specific aim to reduce treatment intensity. Patients and Methods Between July 2000 and July 2006, 1,164 patients (1 to 17 years of age) with standard-risk ALL (defined as the absence of high-risk cytogenetics and undetectable minimal residual disease on days 33 and 78) were randomly assigned to either experimental reduced-intensity DI (protocol III; P-III) or standard DI (protocol II; P-II). Cumulative drug doses of P-III were reduced by 30% for dexamethasone and 50% for vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide, which shortened the treatment duration from 49 to 29 days. The study aimed at noninferiority of reduced-intensity P-III; analyses were performed according to treatment given. Results For P-III and P-II, respectively, the 8-year rate of disease-free survival (± SE) was 89.2 ± 1.3% and 92.3 ± 1.2% ( P = .04); cumulative incidence of relapse, 8.7 ± 1.2% and 6.4 ± 1.1% ( P = .09); and overall survival, 96.1 ± 0.8% and 98.0 ± 0.6% ( P = .06). Patients with ETV6-RUNX1-positive ALL and patients 1 to 6 years of age performed equally well in both arms. The incidence of death during remission was comparable, which indicates equivalent toxicity. The 8-year cumulative incidence rate of secondary malignancies was 1.3 ± 0.5% and 0.6 ± 0.4% for P-III and P-II, respectively ( P = .37). Conclusion Although the criteria used for the standard-risk definition in this trial identified patients with exceptionally good prognosis, reduction of chemotherapy was not successful mainly because of an increased rate of relapse. The data suggest that treatment reduction is feasible in specific subgroups, which underlines the biologic

  6. The additional benefit of residual spraying and insecticide-treated curtains for dengue control over current best practice in Cuba: Evaluation of disease incidence in a cluster randomized trial in a low burden setting with intensive routine control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Eugenia; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Rosales, Julio Popa; Mirabal, Mayelin; Cabrera, Pedro; Fonseca, Viviana; Gómez Padrón, Tania; Pérez Menzies, Mirtha; Montada, Domingo; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Aedes control interventions are considered the cornerstone of dengue control programmes, but there is scarce evidence on their effect on disease. We set-up a cluster randomized controlled trial in Santiago de Cuba to evaluate the entomological and epidemiological effectiveness of periodical intra- and peri-domiciliary residual insecticide (deltamethrin) treatment (RIT) and long lasting insecticide treated curtains (ITC). Sixty three clusters (around 250 households each) were randomly allocated to two intervention (RIT and ITC) and one control arm. Routine Aedes control activities (entomological surveillance, source reduction, selective adulticiding, health education) were applied in the whole study area. The outcome measures were clinical dengue case incidence and immature Aedes infestation. Effectiveness of tools was evaluated using a generalized linear regression model with a negative binomial link function. Despite significant reduction in Aedes indices (Rate Ratio (RR) 0.54 (95%CI 0.32-0.89) in the first month after RIT, the effect faded out over time and dengue incidence was not reduced. Overall, in this setting there was no protective effect of RIT or ITC over routine in the 17months intervention period, with for house index RR of 1.16 (95%CI 0.96-1.40) and 1.25 (95%CI 1.03-1.50) and for dengue incidence RR of 1.43 (95%CI 1.08-1.90) and 0.96 (95%CI 0.72-1.28) respectively. The monthly dengue incidence rate (IR) at cluster level was best explained by epidemic periods (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 5.50 (95%CI 4.14-7.31)), the IR in bordering houseblocks (IRR 1.03 (95%CI 1.02-1.04)) and the IR pre-intervention (IRR 1.02 (95%CI 1.00-1.04)). Adding RIT to an intensive routine Aedes control programme has a transient effect on the already moderate low entomological infestation levels, while ITC did not have any effect. For both interventions, we didn't evidence impact on disease incidence. Further studies are needed to evaluate impact in settings with high Aedes

  7. Determination of the parameters of a microscopic object from a complex response of a differential microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, D V; Egorov, Alexander A; Zolotov, Evgenii M; Svidzinsky, K K

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the amplitude and phase of a complex response of a heterodyne differential microscope was used to demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of determination of the parameters of a composite microscopic object representing a combination of a step with a groove. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. HANDY MICROSCOPIC CLOSE-RANGE VIDEOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Esmaeili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of small-scale objects is used in different applications such as medicine, industry, and cultural heritage. The capability of modeling small-scale objects using imaging with the help of hand USB digital microscopes and use of videogrammetry techniques has been implemented and evaluated in this paper. Use of this equipment and convergent imaging of the environment for modeling, provides an appropriate set of images for generation of three-dimensional models. The results of the measurements made with the help of a microscope micrometer calibration ruler have demonstrated that self-calibration of a hand camera-microscope set can help obtain a three-dimensional detail extraction precision of about 0.1 millimeters on small-scale environments.

  9. Environmental TEM in an Aberration Corrected Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    ‐resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole‐piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the gas in the environmental...... the microscope column. The effects of gas on the electron wave in the objective lens are not well understood and needs further attention. Imaging samples with a simple geometry, such as gold particles on a flat graphene substrate and analyzing the variations in contrast, provides a means for understanding...... results from imaging in various elemental as well as di‐molecular gases and their effect on imaging and spectroscopy in the environmental transmission electron microscope....

  10. Scanning probe microscope dimensional metrology at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramar, John A; Dixson, Ronald; Orji, Ndubuisi G

    2011-01-01

    Scanning probe microscope (SPM) dimensional metrology efforts at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are reviewed in this paper. The main SPM instruments for realizing the International System of Units (SI) are the Molecular Measuring Machine, the calibrated atomic force microscope and the critical dimension atomic force microscope. These are optimized for long-distance measurements, three-dimensional measurements over conventional SPM distances and critical dimension or linewidth measurements, respectively. 10 mm distances have been measured with the relative standard uncertainty, u c , of 1.5 × 10 −5 ; step heights at the 100 nm scale have been measured with the relative u c of 2.5 × 10 −3 and sub-micrometer linewidths have been measured with u c = 0.8 nm

  11. Neutron relativistic phenomenological and microscopic optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qing-biao; Feng Da-chun; Zhuo Yi-zhong

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, both the phenomenological and microscopic neutron relativistic optical potentials are presented. The global neutron relativistic phenomenological optical potential (RPOP) based on the available experimental data for various nuclei ranging from C to U with incident energies E n =20--1000 MeV has been obtained through an automatic search of the best parameters by computer. Then the nucleon relativistic microscopic optical potential (RMOP) is studied by utilizing the effective Lagrangian based on the popular Walecka model. Through comparison between the theoretical results and experimental data we shed some insight into both the RMOP and RPOP. Further improvement concerning how to combine the phenomenological potential with the microscopic one in order to reduce the number of free parameters appearing in the RPOP is suggested

  12. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  13. CHAMP (Camera, Handlens, and Microscope Probe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S.; Boynton, John E.; Balzer, Mark A.; Beegle, Luther; Sobel, Harold R.; Fisher, Ted; Klein, Dan; Deans, Matthew; Lee, Pascal; Sepulveda, Cesar A.

    2005-01-01

    CHAMP (Camera, Handlens And Microscope Probe)is a novel field microscope capable of color imaging with continuously variable spatial resolution from infinity imaging down to diffraction-limited microscopy (3 micron/pixel). As a robotic arm-mounted imager, CHAMP supports stereo imaging with variable baselines, can continuously image targets at an increasing magnification during an arm approach, can provide precision rangefinding estimates to targets, and can accommodate microscopic imaging of rough surfaces through a image filtering process called z-stacking. CHAMP was originally developed through the Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP) in support of robotic field investigations, but may also find application in new areas such as robotic in-orbit servicing and maintenance operations associated with spacecraft and human operations. We overview CHAMP'S instrument performance and basic design considerations below.

  14. CHAMP - Camera, Handlens, and Microscope Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, G. S.; Beegle, L. W.; Boynton, J.; Sepulveda, C. A.; Balzer, M. A.; Sobel, H. R.; Fisher, T. A.; Deans, M.; Lee, P.

    2005-01-01

    CHAMP (Camera, Handlens And Microscope Probe) is a novel field microscope capable of color imaging with continuously variable spatial resolution from infinity imaging down to diffraction-limited microscopy (3 micron/pixel). As an arm-mounted imager, CHAMP supports stereo-imaging with variable baselines, can continuously image targets at an increasing magnification during an arm approach, can provide precision range-finding estimates to targets, and can accommodate microscopic imaging of rough surfaces through a image filtering process called z-stacking. Currently designed with a filter wheel with 4 different filters, so that color and black and white images can be obtained over the entire Field-of-View, future designs will increase the number of filter positions to include 8 different filters. Finally, CHAMP incorporates controlled white and UV illumination so that images can be obtained regardless of sun position, and any potential fluorescent species can be identified so the most astrobiologically interesting samples can be identified.

  15. Development of an ultrasound microscope combined with optical microscope for multiparametric characterization of a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Mototaka; Shikama, Joe; Yoshida, Koki; Nagaoka, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-09-01

    Biomechanics of the cell has been gathering much attention because it affects the pathological status in atherosclerosis and cancer. In the present study, an ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope for characterization of a single cell with multiple ultrasound parameters was developed. The central frequency of the transducer was 375 MHz and the scan area was 80 × 80 μm with up to 200 × 200 sampling points. An inverted optical microscope was incorporated in the design of the system, allowing for simultaneous optical observations of cultured cells. Two-dimensional mapping of multiple ultrasound parameters, such as sound speed, attenuation, and acoustic impedance, as well as the thickness, density, and bulk modulus of specimen/cell under investigation, etc., was realized by the system. Sound speed and thickness of a 3T3-L1 fibroblast cell were successfully obtained by the system. The ultrasound microscope system combined with optical microscope further enhances our understanding of cellular biomechanics.

  16. Compact Microscope Imaging System with Intelligent Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The figure presents selected views of a compact microscope imaging system (CMIS) that includes a miniature video microscope, a Cartesian robot (a computer- controlled three-dimensional translation stage), and machine-vision and control subsystems. The CMIS was built from commercial off-the-shelf instrumentation, computer hardware and software, and custom machine-vision software. The machine-vision and control subsystems include adaptive neural networks that afford a measure of artificial intelligence. The CMIS can perform several automated tasks with accuracy and repeatability . tasks that, heretofore, have required the full attention of human technicians using relatively bulky conventional microscopes. In addition, the automation and control capabilities of the system inherently include a capability for remote control. Unlike human technicians, the CMIS is not at risk of becoming fatigued or distracted: theoretically, it can perform continuously at the level of the best human technicians. In its capabilities for remote control and for relieving human technicians of tedious routine tasks, the CMIS is expected to be especially useful in biomedical research, materials science, inspection of parts on industrial production lines, and space science. The CMIS can automatically focus on and scan a microscope sample, find areas of interest, record the resulting images, and analyze images from multiple samples simultaneously. Automatic focusing is an iterative process: The translation stage is used to move the microscope along its optical axis in a succession of coarse, medium, and fine steps. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the image is computed at each step, and the FFT is analyzed for its spatial-frequency content. The microscope position that results in the greatest dispersal of FFT content toward high spatial frequencies (indicating that the image shows the greatest amount of detail) is deemed to be the focal position.

  17. The microscopic structure of the hydrogen liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, M; Celli, M; Cuello, G J; Formisano, F; Guarini, E; Magli, R; Neumann, M

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the microscopic structure of liquid para-hydrogen by means of a neutron diffraction experiment on the D4C liquids diffractometer at Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France). This is the first direct neutron diffraction measurement of the static structure factor of hydrogen. The present determination of the microscopic structure of hydrogen is consistent with previous experimental determinations carried out on liquid deuterium and with path integral Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison with recent x-ray determinations is also satisfactory.

  18. Optofluidic microscope with 3D spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Marie, Rodolphe; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on-chip based optical detection with three-dimensional spatial resolution by integration of an optofluidic microscope (OFM) in a microfluidic pinched flow fractionation (PFF) separation device. This setup also enables on-chip particle image velocimetry (PIV). The position...... fluorescence microscope readout. The size separated microspheres are detected by OFM with an accuracy of ≤0.92μm. The position in the height of the channel and the velocity of the separated microspheres are detected with an accuracy of 1.4μm and 0.08 mm/s respectively. Throughout the measurements of the height...

  19. Three-dimensional positioning with optofluidic microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Marie, Rodolphe; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on-chip based optical detection with three-dimensional spatial resolution by integration of an optofluidic microscope (OFM) in a microfluidic pinched flow fractionation (PFF) separation device. This setup also enables on-chip particle image velocimetry (PIV). The position...... a conventional fluorescence microscope as readout. The size separated microspheres are detected by OFM with an accuracy of ≤ 0.92 μm. The position in the height of the channel and the velocity of the separated microspheres are detected with an accuracy of 1.4 μm and 0.08 mm/s respectively. Throughout...

  20. The clinical microscope and direct composite veneer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pascotto, Renata C; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the advantages and limitations related to the use of a clinical microscope in restorative dentistry, and it demonstrates the aid of magnification during preparation and restoration of a direct composite veneer. Good illumination and visibility is important to adequately viewin...... the adjacent dental tissues so that the resin composite buildup can mimic natural teeth. The reproduction of details results in a naturally esthetic direct veneer.......This paper presents the advantages and limitations related to the use of a clinical microscope in restorative dentistry, and it demonstrates the aid of magnification during preparation and restoration of a direct composite veneer. Good illumination and visibility is important to adequately viewing...

  1. Microscopic treatment of solute trapping and drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humadi, Harith; Hoyt, J. J.; Provatas, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The long wavelength limit of a recent microscopic phase-field crystal (PFC) theory of a binary alloy mixture is used to derive an analytical approximation for the segregation coefficient as a function of the interface velocity, and relate it to the two-point correlation function of the liquid and the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid phases. Our results offer the first analytical derivation of solute segregation from a microscopic model, and support recent molecular dynamics and numerical PFC simulations. Our results also provide an independent framework, motivated from classical density functional theory, from which to elucidate the fundamental nature of solute drag, which is still highly contested in the literature.

  2. An innovative approach in microscopic endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the dental operating microscope was a turning point in the history of dentistry. It triggered a rapid transition from the conventional world of macro-dentistry to the precise, detailed world of micro-dentistry. However, working at these higher-power magnifications brings the clinician into the realm where even slight hand movements are disruptive. Physiologic hand tremor is a problem resulting in difficulty in mouth mirror placement. Hence, in this paper, a new instrument was designed to overcome the drawback of hand tremors during microscopic endodontics. PMID:24944459

  3. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...... that the detailed behavior of a solitonic mode (fluxon dynamics) in the junction is different from the results of the conventional perturbed sine-Gordon model....

  4. Microscopic model of a phononic refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Chamon, Claudio; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2012-09-01

    We analyze a simple microscopic model to pump heat from a cold to a hot reservoir in a nanomechanical system. The model consists of a one-dimensional chain of masses and springs coupled to a back gate through which a time-dependent perturbation is applied. The action of the gate creates a moving phononic barrier by locally pinning a mass. We solve the problem numerically using a nonequilibrium Green's function technique. For low driving frequencies and for sharp traveling barriers, we show that this microscopic model realizes a phonon refrigerator.

  5. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  6. Small-size low-temperature scanning tunnel microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'tfeder, I.B.; Khajkin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    A small-size scanning tunnel microscope, designed for operation in transport helium-filled Dewar flasks is described. The microscope design contains a device moving the pin to the tested sample surface and a piezoelectric fine positioning device. High vibration protection of the microscope is provided by its suspension using silk threads. The small-size scanning tunnel microscope provides for atomic resolution

  7. 21 CFR 864.3600 - Microscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microscopes and accessories. 864.3600 Section 864... Microscopes and accessories. (a) Identification. Microscopes and accessories are optical instruments used to enlarge images of specimens, preparations, and cultures for medical purposes. Variations of microscopes...

  8. Science 101: How Does an Electron Microscope Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, electron microscopes are not used to look at electrons. They are used to look for structure in things that are too small to observe with an optical microscope, or to obtain images that are magnified much more than is obtainable with an optical microscope. To understand how electron microscopes work, it will help to go…

  9. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  10. High prevalence of sub-microscopic infections in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Andres F; Chaparro, Pablo E; Benavides, Yoldy; Álvarez, Álvaro; Quintero, Juan Pablo; Padilla, Julio; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2015-05-15

    Malaria transmission in Latin America is typically characterized as hypo-endemic and unstable with ~170 million inhabitants at risk of malaria infection. Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to establish the malaria prevalence in three endemic regions of Colombia to aid in designing new interventions for malaria elimination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions of Colombia with different malaria epidemiological profiles: Tierralta (Ta), Tumaco (Tu) and Buenaventura (Bv). The Annual Parasite Index (API) was 10.7, 6.9 and 3.1, respectively. Participants were asked to respond to a sociodemographic questionnaire and then were bled to determine the Duffy genotype and the prevalence of malaria infection by microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The study was conducted between October 2011 and January 2012. Eight sentinel sites with 1,169 subjects from 267 households were included. The overall prevalence of sub-microscopic infections measured by thick blood smear (TBS) was 0.3% (n=4) whereas by qPCR it was 9.7% (n=113), with a greater proportion (13%) in 40-50 years old individuals. Furthermore, different regions displayed different prevalence of sub-microscopic infections: Bv 12%, Ta 15%, and Tu 4%. From these 113 samples (qPCR), 74% were positive for P. vivax and 22% for P. falciparum, and 4% were mixed infections, which correlates to the overall parasite prevalence in Colombia. This study showed that in the southern Pacific coast of Colombia (Bv and Tu), around 56% of the population have a Duffy-negative genotype, compared to the northern region (Ta) where the percentage of Duffy-negative genotype is around 3%. Sub-microscopic infections are prevalent across different regions in Colombia, particularly in areas with

  11. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  12. Point-of-Care Pathology with Miniature Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Loewke, Nathan O.; Mandella, Michael J.; Levenson, Richard M.; Crawford, James M.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in optical designs are enabling the development of miniature microscopes that can examine tissue in situ for early anatomic and molecular indicators of disease, in real time, and at cellular resolution. These new devices will lead to major changes in how diseases are detected and managed, driving a shift from today's diagnostic paradigm of biopsy followed by histopathology and recommended therapy, to non-invasive point-of-care diagnosis with possible same-session definitive treatment. This shift may have major implications for the training requirements of future physicians to enable them to interpret real-time in vivo microscopic data, and will also shape the emerging fields of telepathology and telemedicine. Implementation of new technologies into clinical practice is a complex process that requires bridging gaps between clinicians, engineers and scientists. This article provides a forward-looking discussion of these issues, with a focus on malignant and pre-malignant lesions, by first highlighting some of the clinical areas where point-of-care in vivo microscopy could address unmet needs, and then by reviewing the technological challenges that are being addressed, or need to be addressed, for in vivo microscopy to become a standard clinical tool. PMID:21673433

  13. Point-of-Care Pathology with Miniature Microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. C. Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in optical designs are enabling the development of miniature microscopes that can examine tissue in situ for early anatomic and molecular indicators of disease, in real time, and at cellular resolution. These new devices will lead to major changes in how diseases are detected and managed, driving a shift from today's diagnostic paradigm of biopsy followed by histopathology and recommended therapy, to non-invasive point-of-care diagnosis with possible same-session definitive treatment. This shift may have major implications for the training requirements of future physicians to enable them to interpret real-time in vivo microscopic data, and will also shape the emerging fields of telepathology and telemedicine. Implementation of new technologies into clinical practice is a complex process that requires bridging gaps between clinicians, engineers and scientists. This article provides a forward-looking discussion of these issues, with a focus on malignant and pre-malignant lesions, by first highlighting some of the clinical areas where point-of-care in vivo microscopy could address unmet needs, and then by reviewing the technological challenges that are being addressed, or need to be addressed, for in vivo microscopy to become a standard clinical tool.

  14. Nanoparticle Imaging with Polarization Interferometric Nonlinear Confocal Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Kohei; Egami, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    Polarization interferometric nonlinear confocal microscope has been developed for single nanoparticle analysis of drug delivery system (DDS). The microscope is a system based on a low cost and low power continuous wave (CW) laser light source. Also, the microscope observed shape anisotropy of the 200 nm diameter nanoparticle. According to nanoparticle imaging and CTF (contrast transfer function) curve observation of the microscope, three-dimensional resolution of the microscope measured up to...

  15. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P.; Chernobrod, Boris M.

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  16. A uniform residual tumor (R) classification: integration of the R classification and the circumferential margin status.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittekind, C.; Compton, C.; Quirke, P.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Merkel, S.; Hermanek, P.; Sobin, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of the TNM residual tumor (R) classification, the involvement of resection margins has been defined either as a microscopic (R1) or a macroscopic (R2) demonstration of tumor directly at the resection margin ("tumor transected"). METHODS: The recognition of the

  17. Evaluation of microscopic hematuria: a critical review and proposed algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Matthew A; Cohen, Robert A

    2015-07-01

    Microscopic hematuria (MH), often discovered incidentally, has many causes, including benign processes, kidney disease, and genitourinary malignancy. The clinician, therefore, must decide how intensively to investigate the source of MH and select which tests to order and referrals to make, aiming not to overlook serious conditions while simultaneously avoiding unnecessary tests. Existing professional guidelines for the evaluation of MH are largely based on expert opinion and have weak evidence bases. Existing data demonstrate associations between isolated MH and various diseases in certain populations, and these associations serve as the basis for our proposed approach to the evaluation of MH. Various areas of ongoing uncertainty regarding the appropriate evaluation should be the basis for ongoing research. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MACROSCOPICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia crista leaves are bipinnate of about six pairs with alternate leaflets while the stem us fibrous, cylindrical hollow and prickly. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of strained cuticle, straight-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes, fibres, prisms as well as cluster of ...

  19. Energy electron analyzers raster electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremova, N.N.; Raj, Eh.I.; Robinson, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrometers of back-scattered and secondary electrons used in a raster electron microscope designed to study multilayer structures and potential relief at the solid-state body surface, are described. Their possible applications are demonstrated using microelectronics devices as an example

  20. Wavelet Transform - A New Mathematical Microscope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 3. Wavelet Transform - A New Mathematical Microscope. Sachin P Nanavati Prasanta K Panigrahi. General Article Volume 9 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 50-64. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Microscopic Derivation of Ginzburg-Landau Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We give the first rigorous derivation of the celebrated Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory, starting from the microscopic Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model. Close to the critical temperature, GL arises as an effective theory on the macroscopic scale. The relevant scaling limit is semiclassical...

  2. Exploring the environmental transmission electron microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Jakob B.; Cavalca, Filippo; Damsgaard, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    of the opportunities that the environmental TEM (ETEM) offers when combined with other in situ techniques will be explored, directly in the microscope, by combining electron-based and photon-based techniques and phenomena. In addition, application of adjacent setups using sophisticated transfer methods...

  3. Mesooptical microscope as a tomographical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four regions which are common for the mesooptical microscopes, on the one hand, and for the reconstructed tomography, on the other hand. The following characteristics of the mesooptical microscope show the tomographical properties: the structure of the output data concerning the orientation and the position in space of the straight-line objects going at small angles with the perpendicular to the given tomographic plane, the behaviour of the two-dimensional fourier-transform of the straight-line object in the course of the rotation of this object with respect to the specified axis in space, the scanning algorithm of the nuclear emulsion volume by the fence-like illuminated region in the mesooptical microscope for searching for particle tracks going parallel to the optical axis of the microscope, and, finally, the fact that the mesooptical images of the straight-line particle tracks with a common vertex in the nuclear emulsion lie on the sinogram. 12 refs.; 16 figs

  4. The Titan Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Jinschek, Jörg R.

    2009-01-01

    University of Denmark (DTU) provides a unique combination of techniques for studying materials of interest to the catalytic as well as the electronics and other communities [5]. DTU’s ETEM is based on the FEI Titan platform providing ultrahigh microscope stability pushing the imaging resolution into the sub...

  5. Stick-on microscope for smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. M.

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, I demonstrate a low cost light weight microscope device that is compatible with any smartphone camera. The device amplifies the imaging resolution of a smartphone camera by three orders of magnitude from millimeters to sub-micrometers, while costing approximately USD$ 2.

  6. Compact, common path quantitative phase microscopic techniques ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-05

    Jan 5, 2014 ... One of the ways to retrieve object height/thickness information is to employ quantitative phase microscopic (QPM) techniques. Interferometric QPM techniques are widely used for this. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is one of the stateof-the-art methods for quantitative three-dimensional (3D) imaging.

  7. Microscopic polyangeitis, report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagon, Patricia; Suarez, Martha Lucia

    1998-01-01

    Polyarteritis or microscopic polyangeitis is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis associated with the lung-kidney syndrome. It presents with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with multisystem involvement. A case is presented of a 50 years old male with its clinical and imaging findings

  8. Microscopic Description of Le Chatelier's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…

  9. Of Mechanisms, Microscopes and Methyl isocyanate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Of Mechanisms, Microscopes and Methyl isocyanate. S Sriramachari Sujata Varadarajan. Face to Face Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 292-306. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Wavelet Transform-A New Mathematical Microscope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 3. Wavelet Transform - A New Mathematical Microscope. Sachin P Nanavati Prasanta K Panigrahi. General Article Volume 9 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 50-64. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  12. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges...

  13. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  14. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when brain tissue is viewed under a microscope. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most well-known of the ... when brain tissue is viewed under a microscope. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most well-known of the ...

  15. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal

  16. Microscopic Simulation and Macroscopic Modeling for Thermal and Chemical Non-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Vinokur, Marcel; Clarke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the accurate microscopic simulation and macroscopic modeling of extreme non-equilibrium phenomena, such as encountered during hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere. The state-to-state microscopic equations involving internal excitation, de-excitation, dissociation, and recombination of nitrogen molecules due to collisions with nitrogen atoms are solved time-accurately. Strategies to increase the numerical efficiency are discussed. The problem is then modeled using a few macroscopic variables. The model is based on reconstructions of the state distribution function using the maximum entropy principle. The internal energy space is subdivided into multiple groups in order to better describe the non-equilibrium gases. The method of weighted residuals is applied to the microscopic equations to obtain macroscopic moment equations and rate coefficients. The modeling is completely physics-based, and its accuracy depends only on the assumed expression of the state distribution function and the number of groups used. The model makes no assumption at the microscopic level, and all possible collisional and radiative processes are allowed. The model is applicable to both atoms and molecules and their ions. Several limiting cases are presented to show that the model recovers the classical twotemperature models if all states are in one group and the model reduces to the microscopic equations if each group contains only one state. Numerical examples and model validations are carried out for both the uniform and linear distributions. Results show that the original over nine thousand microscopic equations can be reduced to 2 macroscopic equations using 1 to 5 groups with excellent agreement. The computer time is decreased from 18 hours to less than 1 second.

  17. A MEANS FOR CALIBRATING A MICROSCOPE, A METHOD OF PREPARING THE MEANS AND A METHOD OF CALIBRATING A MICROSCOPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    A means or artefact for calibrating the height/depth or Z axis of a microscope, such as a confocal microscope, an interference microscope or a Scanning Electron Microscope. The artefact comprises a number of tapering or pie-shaped, parallel surfaces each extending from a central axis, whereby all...... surfaces and heights are visible independently of the magnification of the microscope. Thus, the full height range may be calibrated and the linearity thereof checked independently of the magnification....

  18. Visualization of residual organic liquid trapped in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, S.H.; Wilson, J.L.; Mason, W.R.; Peplinski, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons and solvents. The flow visualization experiments described in this study examined the migration of organic liquids through the saturated zone of aquifers, with a primary focus on the behavior of the residual organic liquid saturation, referring to that portion of the organic liquid that is trapped by capillary forces. Etched glass micromodels were used to visually observe dynamic multiphase displacement processes in pore networks. The resulting fluid distributions were photographed. Pore and blob casts were produced by a technique in which an organic liquid was solidified in place within a sand column at the conclusion of a displacement. The columns were sectioned and examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. Photomicrographs of these sections show the morphology of the organic phase and its location within the sand matrix. The photographs from both experimental techniques reveal that in the saturated zone large amounts of residual organic liquid are trapped as isolated blobs of microscopic size. The size, shape, and spatial distribution of these blobs of residual organic liquid affect the dissolution of organic liquid into the water phase and the biotransformation of organic components. These processes are of concern for the prediction of pollution migration and the design of aquifer remediation schemes

  19. The importance of radiographic imaging in the microscopic assessment of bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larousserie, F., E-mail: frederique.larousserie@cch.aphp.fr [Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Department of pathology, Rizzoli Institute, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J.; Gambarotti, M.; Alberghini, M.; Vanel, D. [Department of pathology, Rizzoli Institute, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: Primary bone tumors are rare and require a multidisciplinary approach. Diagnosis involves primarily the radiologist and the pathologist. Bone lesions are often heterogeneous and the microscopic diagnostic component(s) may be in the minority, especially on core needle biopsies. Reactive processes, benign, and malignant tumors may have similar microscopic aspects. For these challenging cases, the correlation of microscopic and radiologic information is critical, or diagnostic mistakes may be made with severe clinical consequences for the patient. The purpose of this article is to explain how pathologists can best use imaging studies to improve the diagnostic accuracy of bone lesions. Diagnosis: Many bone lesions are microscopically and/or radiographically heterogeneous, especially those with both lytic and matrix components. Final diagnosis may require specific microscopic diagnostic features that may be present in the lesion, but not the biopsy specimen. A review of the imaging helps assess if sampling was adequate. The existence of a pre-existing bone lesion, syndrome (such as Ollier disease or multiple hereditary exostosis), or oncologic history may be of crucial importance. Finally, imaging information is very useful for the pathologist to perform accurate local and regional staging during gross examination. Conclusion: Close teamwork between pathologists, radiologists, and clinicians is of utmost importance in the evaluation and management of bone tumors. These lesions can be very difficult to interpret microscopically; imaging studies therefore play a crucial role in their accurate diagnosis.

  20. The importance of radiographic imaging in the microscopic assessment of bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousserie, F.; Kreshak, J.; Gambarotti, M.; Alberghini, M.; Vanel, D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Primary bone tumors are rare and require a multidisciplinary approach. Diagnosis involves primarily the radiologist and the pathologist. Bone lesions are often heterogeneous and the microscopic diagnostic component(s) may be in the minority, especially on core needle biopsies. Reactive processes, benign, and malignant tumors may have similar microscopic aspects. For these challenging cases, the correlation of microscopic and radiologic information is critical, or diagnostic mistakes may be made with severe clinical consequences for the patient. The purpose of this article is to explain how pathologists can best use imaging studies to improve the diagnostic accuracy of bone lesions. Diagnosis: Many bone lesions are microscopically and/or radiographically heterogeneous, especially those with both lytic and matrix components. Final diagnosis may require specific microscopic diagnostic features that may be present in the lesion, but not the biopsy specimen. A review of the imaging helps assess if sampling was adequate. The existence of a pre-existing bone lesion, syndrome (such as Ollier disease or multiple hereditary exostosis), or oncologic history may be of crucial importance. Finally, imaging information is very useful for the pathologist to perform accurate local and regional staging during gross examination. Conclusion: Close teamwork between pathologists, radiologists, and clinicians is of utmost importance in the evaluation and management of bone tumors. These lesions can be very difficult to interpret microscopically; imaging studies therefore play a crucial role in their accurate diagnosis

  1. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  2. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei in a macroscopic-microscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojewski, Z.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of spontaneous fission half-lives of superheavy nuclei in the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic method was performed. The macroscopic-microscopic calculations of the half-lives consist in determining the collective potential energy V which splits into microscopic and smooth average macroscopic parts as well as into a nucleus mass tensor of the nucleus undergoing the fission process. The microscopic part of the energy is calculated using the single-particle Woods-Saxon potential with a universal set of parameters. Two models of the residual pairing interaction were studied. In the first approach we used monopole pairing (with constant matrix elements G). In the second approximation the pairing matrix elements were calculated with ?-force and are state dependent. As the macroscopic part of collective energy we examined four different macroscopic models of nuclear energy: Myers - Swiatecki liquid drop, Droplet expansion, Yukawa-plus-Exponential and the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop model. The analysis covers a wide range of even-even superheavy nuclei from Z = 100 to Z = 126. The calculations of spontaneous fission half-lives were performed by means of a WKB approximation, in the multi-dimensional dynamical-programming method within parameters describe the shape of nuclei. The studies offer an opportunity of a comprehensive approach to a very interesting group of exotic heavier nuclei, which are currently investigated by experimenters

  3. Designs for a quantum electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruit, P.; Hobbs, R.G.; Kim, C-S.; Yang, Y.; Manfrinato, V.R.; Hammer, J.; Thomas, S.; Weber, P.; Klopfer, B.; Kohstall, C.; Juffmann, T.; Kasevich, M.A.; Hommelhoff, P.; Berggren, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This ‘quantum weirdness’ could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or “quantum electron microscope”. A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. - Highlights: • Quantum electron microscopy has the potential of reducing radiation damage. • QEM requires a fraction of the electron wave to pass through the sample

  4. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohr J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Johan Bohr,1,3 Anna Wickbom,1,3 Agnes Hegedus,2 Nils Nyhlin,1,3 Elisabeth Hultgren Hörnquist,3 Curt Tysk1,3 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, 3School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden Abstract: Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, together constituting microscopic colitis, are common causes of chronic diarrhea. They are characterized clinically by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where characteristic histopathological findings are seen. Previously considered rare, they now have emerged as common disorders that need to be considered in the investigation of the patient with chronic diarrhea. The annual incidence of each disorder is five to ten per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence in 60- to 70-year-old individuals and a predominance of female patients in collagenous colitis. The etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood, and the current view suggests an uncontrolled mucosal immune reaction to various luminal agents in predisposed individuals. Clinical symptoms comprise chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and fecal incontinence that may impair the patient's health-related quality of life. An association is reported with other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis. The best-documented treatment, both short-term and long-term, is budesonide, which induces clinical remission in up to 80% of patients after 8 weeks' treatment. However, after successful budesonide therapy is ended, recurrence of clinical symptoms is common, and the best possible long-term management deserves further study. The long-term prognosis is good, and the risk of complications, including colonic cancer, is low. We present an update of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of

  5. Modified cuckoo search algorithm in microscopic image segmentation of hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shouvik; Chatterjee, Sankhadeep; Dey, Nilanjan; Ashour, Amira S; Ashour, Ahmed S; Shi, Fuqian; Mali, Kalyani

    2017-10-01

    Microscopic image analysis is one of the challenging tasks due to the presence of weak correlation and different segments of interest that may lead to ambiguity. It is also valuable in foremost meadows of technology and medicine. Identification and counting of cells play a vital role in features extraction to diagnose particular diseases precisely. Different segments should be identified accurately in order to identify and to count cells in a microscope image. Consequently, in the current work, a novel method for cell segmentation and identification has been proposed that incorporated marking cells. Thus, a novel method based on cuckoo search after pre-processing step is employed. The method is developed and evaluated on light microscope images of rats' hippocampus which used as a sample for the brain cells. The proposed method can be applied on the color images directly. The proposed approach incorporates the McCulloch's method for lévy flight production in cuckoo search (CS) algorithm. Several objective functions, namely Otsu's method, Kapur entropy and Tsallis entropy are used for segmentation. In the cuckoo search process, the Otsu's between class variance, Kapur's entropy and Tsallis entropy are employed as the objective functions to be optimized. Experimental results are validated by different metrics, namely the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), mean square error, feature similarity index and CPU running time for all the test cases. The experimental results established that the Kapur's entropy segmentation method based on the modified CS required the least computational time compared to Otsu's between-class variance segmentation method and the Tsallis entropy segmentation method. Nevertheless, Tsallis entropy method with optimized multi-threshold levels achieved superior performance compared to the other two segmentation methods in terms of the PSNR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Virtual reality microscope versus conventional microscope regarding time to diagnosis: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Rebecca; Ruddle, Roy A; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Thomas, Rhys G; Quirke, Phil; Treanor, Darren

    2013-01-01

      To create and evaluate a virtual reality (VR) microscope that is as efficient as the conventional microscope, seeking to support the introduction of digital slides into routine practice.   A VR microscope was designed and implemented by combining ultra-high-resolution displays with VR technology, techniques for fast interaction, and high usability. It was evaluated using a mixed factorial experimental design with technology and task as within-participant variables and grade of histopathologist as a between-participant variable. Time to diagnosis was similar for the conventional and VR microscopes. However, there was a significant difference in the mean magnification used between the two technologies, with participants working at a higher level of magnification on the VR microscope.   The results suggest that, with the right technology, efficient use of digital pathology for routine practice is a realistic possibility. Further work is required to explore what magnification is required on the VR microscope for histopathologists to identify diagnostic features, and the effect on this of the digital slide production process. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  7. Characteristics and Outcomes of Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegener) and Microscopic Polyangiitis Requiring Renal Replacement Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hruskova, Zdenka; Stel, Vianda S; Jayne, David

    2015-01-01

    providing individual RRT patient data to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry in 1993-2012 participated. PREDICTOR: Cause of primary kidney disease: AAV (ie, granulomatosis with polyangiitis [Wegener] and microscopic polyangiitis) versus 3 separate...

  8. Life under the Microscope: Children's Ideas about Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael; Bridle, Georgina; Briten, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Microbes (by definition) are tiny living things that are only visible through a microscope and include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protoctists (mainly single-celled life forms such as amoebae and algae). Although people are familiar with the effects of microbes, such as infectious disease and food spoilage, because of their lack of visibility,…

  9. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of putrefaction fluid deposits (PFD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Georges, P; Bouchet, F; Huynh-Charlier, I; Carlier, R; Mazel, V; Richardin, P; Brun, L; Blondiaux, J; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the potential interest in physical and forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of residues of putrefaction fluid, a calcified deposit frequently found associated with bone rests. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archeological material (Monterenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan necropolis from the north of Italy dated between the fifth and third century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skull and grave of French King Louis the XI and Charlotte of Savoy dated from 1483 A.D.). All samples were studied by direct optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Many cytological, histological, and elemental analysis were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains and, in some cases, the cause of death.

  10. On machine surface to the unit event causing residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalama, R.M.; Mannanb, M.A.; Spowageca, A.

    2005-01-01

    Integrity and reduce overall costs. Within the framework of surface integrity investigations, special emphasis is given to the measurement of residual stresses because they contribute directly to premature failure of components. Since the highest residual stresses are to be found in surface layers, these deserve special attention when dealing with dynamically, heavily loaded machine parts such as gas turbine components used in aero engines. Of the many techniques available for the measurement of residual stresses, the most highly developed and widely used non-destructive method is based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, it is not possible to use this technique for inspection of all the components, since it is time consuming, complicated as well as expensive. In this paper, a method is being proposed that augments the XRD method but at the same time capable of inspecting all the components. A non-destructive, visual inspection technique has been developed that can correlate the characteristic features on the surface to the unit event causing the residual stress and the type of residual stress generated on the machined surface. Pictures of the machined surfaces have been taken using a digital video microscope at a magnification of 500 and the surface feature correlated to the unit event causing the residual stress. Sharp and well defined long grooves indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a mechanical unit event while appearance of streaks and small areas of smeared material indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a thermal unit event. These trends have been confirmed by measuring the residual stresses using XRD. The proposed technique is an attempt at establishing a simple methodology that would be useful to industries manufacturing aerospace and other components that require good surface integrity. (Author)

  11. The choice of microscopes for use in genitourinary medicine clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, A W

    1990-01-01

    The current wide choice of microscopes and the use of the microscope as a diagnostic tool is discussed. The formation of images and the aberrations which occur with lenses and the ways in which these are corrected are described. The functions of eye pieces and illuminating systems are presented. The requirements for microscopes in every day use, research microscopes and portable microscopes are described, and suggestions made as to how these requirements may be fulfilled. Brief comments on the care and maintenance of microscopes are made, and a list of manufacturers and suppliers appended. PMID:2196218

  12. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  13. EXTRACELLULAR CELLULOLYTIC COMPLEXES PRODUCTION BY MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Syrchin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to screen and to study the effect of inducers on the synthesis of the cellulolytic enzyme complexes by microscopic fungi. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities were determined by reducing sugar with DNS reagent, and β-glucosidase activity by pNPG hydrolysis. The enzyme preparations were obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Among 32 studied strains of microscopic fungi 14 produced cellulo- and xylanolytic enzyme complexes. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 demonstrated the highest levels of all studied enzyme activities. Enzyme preparations with high endo-, exoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activities were obtained from these strains. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 were active producers of cellulase enzyme complexes during growth on natural substrates. It was shown that inductors of cellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 differed from the ones in Trichoderma reesei.

  14. Development of Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscope Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Kimberlee Chiyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Talin, Albert Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michael, Joseph R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Modern semiconductor devices rely on the transport of minority charge carriers. Direct examination of minority carrier lifetimes in real devices with nanometer-scale features requires a measurement method with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Achieving nanometer spatial resolutions at sub-nanosecond temporal resolution is possible with pump-probe methods that utilize electrons as probes. Recently, a stroboscopic scanning electron microscope was developed at Caltech, and used to study carrier transport across a Si p-n junction [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . In this report, we detail our development of a prototype scanning ultrafast electron microscope system at Sandia National Laboratories based on the original Caltech design. This effort represents Sandia's first exploration into ultrafast electron microscopy.

  15. Fluorescence microscope by using computational ghost imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizutani Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a fluorescence microscope by using the computational Ghost imaging (CGI for observing a living cell for a long duration over an hour. There is a problem for observing a cell about light-induced bleaching fora ling-term observation.Toover come the problem, we focused on an advantageof sensitivityof the CGI as second order colleration for an imaging with weak intensity excitation light. Setting for the CGI, a DMD projector was installed at an eye-piece part of a microscope and fluorescent light was detected using a bucket detectorofa photo-multiplier tube.Asaresults,wehaveshownthe imagingadvantageoftheCGI under weak light intensity, in addition, we have demonstrated to detect fluorescence images of biological samples for one day.

  16. Optics of high-performance electron microscopes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H H

    2008-01-01

    During recent years, the theory of charged particle optics together with advances in fabrication tolerances and experimental techniques has lead to very significant advances in high-performance electron microscopes. Here, we will describe which theoretical tools, inventions and designs have driven this development. We cover the basic theory of higher-order electron optics and of image formation in electron microscopes. This leads to a description of different methods to correct aberrations by multipole fields and to a discussion of the most advanced design that take advantage of these techniques. The theory of electron mirrors is developed and it is shown how this can be used to correct aberrations and to design energy filters. Finally, different types of energy filters are described. PMID:27877933

  17. Optics of high-performance electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H H

    2008-01-01

    During recent years, the theory of charged particle optics together with advances in fabrication tolerances and experimental techniques has lead to very significant advances in high-performance electron microscopes. Here, we will describe which theoretical tools, inventions and designs have driven this development. We cover the basic theory of higher-order electron optics and of image formation in electron microscopes. This leads to a description of different methods to correct aberrations by multipole fields and to a discussion of the most advanced design that take advantage of these techniques. The theory of electron mirrors is developed and it is shown how this can be used to correct aberrations and to design energy filters. Finally, different types of energy filters are described.

  18. Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chien; Lyu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM-AM converter, in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 μm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed

  19. Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2016-04-20

    This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.

  20. Scanning microscopic four-point conductivity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Bøggild, Peter

    2002-01-01

    A method for fabricating microscopic four-point probes is presented. The method uses silicon-based microfabrication technology involving only two patterning steps. The last step in the fabrication process is an unmasked deposition of the conducting probe material, and it is thus possible to select...... the conducting material either for a silicon wafer or a single probe unit. Using shadow masking photolithography an electrode spacing (pitch) down to 1.1 mum was obtained, with cantilever separation down to 200 run. Characterisation measurements have shown the microscopic probes to be mechanically very flexible...... and robust. Repeated conductivity measurements on polythiophene films in the same surface area are reproduced within an accuracy of 3%. Automated nanoresolution position control allows scanning across millimetre sized areas, in order to create high spatial resolution maps of the in-plane conductivity....

  1. Portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Tian, Xiaolin; Yu, Wei; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Liu, Fei; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2018-01-01

    To realize portable device with high contrast imaging capability, we designed a quantitative phase microscope using transport of intensity equation method based on a smartphone. The whole system employs an objective and an eyepiece as imaging system and a cost-effective LED as illumination source. A 3-D printed cradle is used to align these components. Images of different focal planes are captured by manual focusing, followed by calculation of sample phase via a self-developed Android application. To validate its accuracy, we first tested the device by measuring a random phase plate with known phases, and then red blood cell smear, Pap smear, broad bean epidermis sections and monocot root were also measured to show its performance. Owing to its advantages as accuracy, high-contrast, cost-effective and portability, the portable smartphone based quantitative phase microscope is a promising tool which can be future adopted in remote healthcare and medical diagnosis.

  2. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  3. Realistic microscopic level densities for spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear level densities play an important role in nuclear reactions such as the formation of the compound nucleus. We develop a microscopic calculation of the level density based on a combinatorial evaluation from a realistic single-particle level scheme. This calculation makes use of a fast Monte Carlo algorithm allowing us to consider large shell model spaces which could not be treated previously in combinatorial approaches. Since our model relies on a microscopic basis, it can be applied to exotic nuclei with more confidence than the commonly used semiphenomenological formuals. An exhaustive comparison of our predicted neutron s-wave resonance spacings with experimental data for a wide range of nuclei is presented

  4. Scanning electron microscope view of iron crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope photograph of iron crystals which grow in a small vug or cavity in a recrystallized breccia (fragmented rock) from the Apollo 15 Hadley-Apennino lunar landing site. The largest crystal is three microns across. Perfectly developed crystals such as these indicate slow formation from a hot vapor as the rock was cooling. The crystals are resting on an interlocking lattice of pyroxene (calsium-magnesium-iron silicate).

  5. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  6. Imaging differential polarization microscope with electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickols, W.; Tinoco, I.; Katz, J.E.; Maestre, M.F.; Bustamante, C.

    1985-01-01

    A differential polarization microscope forms two images: one of the transmitted intensity and the other due to the change in intensity between images formed when different polarizations of light are used. The interpretation of these images for linear dichroism and circular dichroism are described. The design constraints on the data acquisition systems and the polarization modulation are described. The advantage of imaging several biological systems which contain optically anisotropic structures are described

  7. The microscopic magnetization: concept and application*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    In this tutorial review a definition of the magnetization which can be used at the microscopic and quantum-mechanical level is motivated and developed. Its implications for the problem of reconstructing the magnetization in a crystal from magnetic neutron-diffraction data or from band-theoretical calculations are discussed, paying special attention to the relation between spin and orbital contributions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Microscopic Engine Powered by Critical Demixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Falko; Magazzù, Alessandro; Callegari, Agnese; Biancofiore, Luca; Cichos, Frank; Volpe, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a microscopic engine powered by the local reversible demixing of a critical mixture. We show that, when an absorbing microsphere is optically trapped by a focused laser beam in a subcritical mixture, it is set into rotation around the optical axis of the beam because of the emergence of diffusiophoretic propulsion. This behavior can be controlled by adjusting the optical power, the temperature, and the criticality of the mixture.

  9. Digital management of an electron microscope unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elea, N.; Dickson, M.; Munroe, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electron microscope units, especially those such as ours, which operate as a central infrastructural facility are increasingly asked to provide more service, over more instruments with decreasing, or limited, financial resources. We believe that staff time is best used performing electron microscopy, assisting users and maintaining instrumentation rather than in the pursuit of red tape. One solution to this problem has been the creation of a control system which performs all routine acts of data management, such as the archiving and accessing of digital data, providing access to bookings, and most importantly in the era of user pays services, logging time and billing users. The system we have created, developed and expanded allows the users themselves to access our server through any web-browser and make their own bookings or access and manipulate their data. Users themselves must log on to a microscope through swipecard readers before it can be used and log-off after use. Their time is logged precisely and an exquisitely fair user pays systems can be operated by transferring logged usage time to spreadsheets to calculate charges. Furthermore, this system acts as a method of user authentication and can be used to bar incompetent or unauthorised users. The system has recently been upgraded to increase its utility to include sensors that monitor the electron microscope operating environment, such as magnetic field, room temperature, water flow etc, so that if these parameters depart significantly from optimum levels electron microscope unit staff may be alerted. In this presentation the structure of our system will be described and the advantages and disadvantages of such a system will be discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  10. Microscopic optical potential at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning a microscopic optical model for the elastic nuclear collisions at medium energies are discussed. We describe the method for constructing the optical potential which makes use of the particular properties of quantum scattering in the eikonal limit. The resulting potential is expressed in terms of the nuclear wave functions and the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. This potential has a dynamic character since by including the effects of multiple scattering it allows for the possibility of intermediate excitations of the projectile and target nuclei. The use of the potential in the exact wave equation accounts for the most important mechanisms present in the collisions between composite particles. The microscopic optical model was successfully applied in the analysis of elastic scattering of protons and α-particles on atomic nuclei in the energy range of 300-1000 MeV/nucleon. The dynamic optical potential in this case represents a considerable improvement over the eikonal Glauber model and the static optical potential of Watson. The possibilities to extend the microscopic description of the proton-nucleus interaction by considering the spin dependence of the elementary amplitude and the Majorana exchange effects were investigated. (author)

  11. Scanning Probe Microscope-Based Fluid Dispensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna Ghatkesar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in micro and nano fabrication technologies have enabled fabrication of smaller and more sensitive devices for applications not only in solid-state physics but also in medicine and biology. The demand for devices that can precisely transport material, specifically fluids are continuously increasing. Therefore, integration of various technologies with numerous functionalities in one single device is important. Scanning probe microscope (SPM is one such device that has evolved from atomic force microscope for imaging to a variety of microscopes by integrating different physical and chemical mechanisms. In this article, we review a particular class of SPM devices that are suited for fluid dispensing. We review their fabrication methods, fluid-pumping mechanisms, real-time monitoring of dispensing, physics of dispensing, and droplet characterization. Some of the examples where these probes have already been applied are also described. Finally, we conclude with an outlook and future scope for these devices where femtolitre or smaller volumes of liquid handling are needed.

  12. Image inpainting for the differential confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lirong; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dali; Hou, Maosheng; Zhao, Weiqian

    2015-02-01

    In the process of zero-crossing trigger measurement of differential confocal microscope, the sample surface features or tilt will cause the edges can't be triggered. Meanwhile, environment vibration can also cause false triggering. In order to restore the invalid information of sample, and realize high-precision surface topography measurement, Total Variation (TV) inpainting model is applied to restore the scanning images. Emulation analysis and experimental verification of this method are investigated. The image inpainting algorithm based on TV model solves the minimization of the energy equation by calculus of variations, and it can effectively restore the non-textured image with noises. Using this algorithm, the simulation confocal laser intensity curve and height curve of standard step sample are restored. After inpainting the intensity curve below the threshold is repaired, the maximum deviation from ideal situation is 0.0042, the corresponding edge contour of height curve is restored, the maximum deviation is 0.1920, which proves the algorithm is effective. Experiment of grating inpainting indicates that the TV algorithm can restore the lost information caused by failed triggering and eliminate the noise caused by false triggering in zero-crossing trigger measurement of differential confocal microscope. The restored image is consistent with the scanning result of OLYMPUS confocal microscope, which can satisfy the request of follow-up measurement analysis.

  13. Optical microscopic imaging based on VRML language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuedian; Zhang, Zhenyi; Sun, Jun

    2009-11-01

    As so-called VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language), is a kind of language used to establish a model of the real world or a colorful world made by people. As in international standard, VRML is the main kind of program language based on the "www" net building, which is defined by ISO, the kind of MIME is x-world or x-VRML. The most important is that it has no relationship with the operating system. Otherwise, because of the birth of VRML 2.0, its ability of describing the dynamic condition gets better, and the interaction of the internet evolved too. The use of VRML will bring a revolutionary change of confocal microscope. For example, we could send different kinds of swatch in virtual 3D style to the net. On the other hand, scientists in different countries could use the same microscope in the same time to watch the same samples by the internet. The mode of sending original data in the model of text has many advantages, such as: the faster transporting, the fewer data, the more convenient updating and fewer errors. In the following words we shall discuss the basic elements of using VRML in the field of Optical Microscopic imaging.

  14. Microscopic Irreversibility and the H Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magpantay, Jose A.

    2013-02-01

    Time-reversal had always been assumed to be a symmetry of physics at the fundamental level. In this paper we will explore the violations of time-reversal symmetry at the fundamental level and the consequence on thermodynamic systems. First, we will argue from current physics that the universe dynamics is not time-reversal invariant. Second, we will argue that any thermodynamic system cannot be isolated completely from the universe. We then discuss how these two make the dynamics of thermodynamics systems very weakly irreversible at the classical and quantum level. Since time-reversal is no longer a symmetry of realistic systems, the problem of how macroscopic irreversibility arises from microscopic reversibility becomes irrelevant because there is no longer microscopic reversibility. At the classical level of a thermodynamic system, we show that the H theorem of Boltzmann is still valid even without microscopic reversibility. We do this by deriving a modified H theorem, which still shows entropy monotonically increasing. At the quantum level, we explicitly show the effect of CP violation, small irreversible changes on the internal states of the nuclear and atomic energy levels of thermodynamic systems. Thus, we remove Loschmidt's objection to Boltzmann's ideas.

  15. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  16. Hyaline ring granuloma: a case report with histochemical and polarized microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S K; Chiang, C P; Ou, S H; Wang, J T; Liu, B Y; Lan, W H

    1993-11-01

    An unusual case of hyaline ring granuloma arising from the connective tissue wall of a residual apical periodontal cyst is reported. Hyaline rings with foreign-body type giant cell inclusions were a significant feature in the histopathologic diagnosis. Histochemical and polarized light microscopic studies suggested that the introduction of foreign material, possibly cellulose, through the postextraction socket into the cystic wall may have caused the granulomatous reaction and formation of the hyaline ring granuloma. The clinical features of this case and 66 previously reported cases, as well as the pathogenesis of the hyaline rings, are discussed.

  17. Nucleon Isovector Pairing in Nuclei: Microscopic Approach, Boson Representation, and Collective Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolos, R. V.; Kartavenko, V. G.; Kolganova, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    Nucleon pair correlations in atomic nuclei are analyzed within a nuclear microscopic model with residual isovector pairing forces. These are formulated in the boson representation of fermion operators whereby the collective mode of pair excitations can be isolated without restricting the size of the one-particle basis. This method allows one to analyze the fluctuations in the nonsuperfluid phase of nuclear matter, its phase transition to the superfluid phase, and strong pair correlations. The performance of the method is exemplified by numerical results for the nuclei in the vicinity of the doubly magic 56Ni nucleus.

  18. A practical guide to microscope care and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Lara J; Waters, Jennifer C

    2014-01-01

    Optimal microscope performance requires regular maintenance and quality control testing. This chapter is a practical guide to microscope care with an emphasis on preventing, identifying and troubleshooting common issues. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A phase II study of intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy with iodine-131-labeled monoclonal antibody OC-125 in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, M A; Fumoleau, P; Fabbro, M; Guastalla, J P; Faurous, P; Chauvot, P; Chetanoud, L; Classe, J M; Rouanet, P; Chatal, J F

    1999-10-01

    Standard treatment of advanced ovarian cancer is a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. Additional therapies using the i.p. route are considered as a potential means of improving the locoregional control rate. This Phase II study evaluated the efficacy of i.p. radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in patients with minimal residual ovarian adenocarcinoma after primary treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Between February 1995 and March 1996, six patients with residual macroscopic (<5 mm) or microscopic disease as demonstrated by laparotomy and multiple biopsies received i.p. RIT. All had initial stage III epithelial carcinoma and were treated with debulking surgery and one line (four patients) or two lines (two patients) of chemotherapy. RIT was performed with 60 mg of OC 125 F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody labeled with 4.44 GBq (120 mCi) of 131I injected 5-10 days after the surgical procedure. Systematic laparoscopy or laparotomy with multiple biopsies performed 3 months after RIT in five patients (clinical progression was seen in one patient) showed no change in three patients and progression in two patients. Toxicity was mainly hematological, with grade III neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in two patients. Human antimouse antibody production was demonstrated in all six patients. This study showed little therapeutic benefit from i.p. RIT in patients with residual ovarian carcinoma.

  20. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  1. Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Garima Jain; Pushparaja Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. Material and Methods: A questionnaire...

  2. The interplay between microscopic and mesoscopic structures in complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Reichardt

    Full Text Available Understanding a complex network's structure holds the key to understanding its function. The physics community has contributed a multitude of methods and analyses to this cross-disciplinary endeavor. Structural features exist on both the microscopic level, resulting from differences between single node properties, and the mesoscopic level resulting from properties shared by groups of nodes. Disentangling the determinants of network structure on these different scales has remained a major, and so far unsolved, challenge. Here we show how multiscale generative probabilistic exponential random graph models combined with efficient, distributive message-passing inference techniques can be used to achieve this separation of scales, leading to improved detection accuracy of latent classes as demonstrated on benchmark problems. It sheds new light on the statistical significance of motif-distributions in neural networks and improves the link-prediction accuracy as exemplified for gene-disease associations in the highly consequential Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database.

  3. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  4. Integration of a high-NA light microscope in a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonnevylle, A C; Van Tol, R F C; Liv, N; Narvaez, A C; Effting, A P J; Kruit, P; Hoogenboom, J P

    2013-10-01

    We present an integrated light-electron microscope in which an inverted high-NA objective lens is positioned inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM objective lens and the light objective lens have a common axis and focal plane, allowing high-resolution optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy on the same area of a sample simultaneously. Components for light illumination and detection can be mounted outside the vacuum, enabling flexibility in the construction of the light microscope. The light objective lens can be positioned underneath the SEM objective lens during operation for sub-10 μm alignment of the fields of view of the light and electron microscopes. We demonstrate in situ epifluorescence microscopy in the SEM with a numerical aperture of 1.4 using vacuum-compatible immersion oil. For a 40-nm-diameter fluorescent polymer nanoparticle, an intensity profile with a FWHM of 380 nm is measured whereas the SEM performance is uncompromised. The integrated instrument may offer new possibilities for correlative light and electron microscopy in the life sciences as well as in physics and chemistry. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. Material and Methods: A questionnaire based survey done on 50 professionals and technicians who used microscope regularly in pathology, microbiology, hematology and cytology laboratories. Results: Sixty two percent of subjects declared that they were suffering from musculoskeletal problems, most common locations being neck and back. Maximum prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was noted in those using microscope for 11–15 years and for more than 30 h/week. Sixty two percent of subjects were aware of workplace ergonomics. Fifty six percent of microscope users took regular short breaks for stretching exercises and 58% took visual breaks every 15–30 min in between microscope use sessions. As many as 94% subjects reported some form of visual problem. Fourty four percent of microscope users felt stressed with long working hours on microscope. Conclusions: The most common occupational concerns of microscope users were musculoskeletal problems of neck and back regions, eye fatigue, aggravation of ametropia, headache, stress due to long working hours and anxiety during or after microscope use. There is an immediate need for increasing awareness about the various occupational hazards and their irreversible effects to prevent them.

  6. Occupational concerns associated with regular use of microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Garima; Shetty, Pushparaja

    2014-08-01

    Microscope work can be strenuous both to the visual system and the musculoskeletal system. Lack of awareness or indifference towards health issues may result in microscope users becoming victim to many occupational hazards. Our objective was to understand the occupational problems associated with regular use of microscope, awareness regarding the hazards, attitude and practice of microscope users towards the problems and preventive strategies. a questionnaire based survey done on 50 professionals and technicians who used microscope regularly in pathology, microbiology, hematology and cytology laboratories. Sixty two percent of subjects declared that they were suffering from musculoskeletal problems, most common locations being neck and back. Maximum prevalence of musculoskeletal problems was noted in those using microscope for 11-15 years and for more than 30 h/week. Sixty two percent of subjects were aware of workplace ergonomics. Fifty six percent of microscope users took regular short breaks for stretching exercises and 58% took visual breaks every 15-30 min in between microscope use sessions. As many as 94% subjects reported some form of visual problem. Fourty four percent of microscope users felt stressed with long working hours on microscope. The most common occupational concerns of microscope users were musculoskeletal problems of neck and back regions, eye fatigue, aggravation of ametropia, headache, stress due to long working hours and anxiety during or after microscope use. There is an immediate need for increasing awareness about the various occupational hazards and their irreversible effects to prevent them.

  7. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as…

  8. The Digital Microscope and Its Image Processing Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Supardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many institutions, including high schools, own a large number of analog or ordinary microscopes. These microscopes are used to observe small objects. Unfortunately, object observations on the ordinary microscope require precision and visual acuity of the user. This paper discusses the development of a high-resolution digital microscope from an analog microscope, including the image processing utility, which allows the digital microscope users to capture, store and process the digital images of the object being observed. The proposed microscope is constructed from hardware components that can be easily found in Indonesia. The image processing software is capable of performing brightness adjustment, contrast enhancement, histogram equalization, scaling and cropping. The proposed digital microscope has a maximum magnification of 1600x, and image resolution can be varied from 320x240 pixels up to 2592x1944 pixels. The microscope was tested with various objects with a variety of magnification, and image processing was carried out on the image of the object. The results showed that the digital microscope and its image processing system were capable of enhancing the observed object and other operations in accordance with the user need. The digital microscope has eliminated the need for direct observation by human eye as with the traditional microscope.

  9. 21 CFR 878.4700 - Surgical microscope and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical microscope and accessories. 878.4700 Section 878.4700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... microscope and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical microscope and accessories is an AC-powered device...

  10. Portable ophthalmic microscopes in the Philippines: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Anna; Fraser, Clay; Staples, Brian; Mesurier, Richard L; Newland, Henry

    2005-08-01

    Demonstrations were held all over the Philippines to teach local microscope operators basic maintenance skills and troubleshooting for their portable microscopes. Fifteen microscopes were examined and feedback was obtained from 16 microscope operators. The different parameters of the microscope were evaluated as follows: (i) user-friendliness, (ii) demand and availability of technical services and spare parts, (iii) portability and (iv) frequent problems encountered. Some suggestions for improvement are proposed. There was a general satisfaction among the operators with their microscopes; however, there was a lack of technical support services. Most microscopes were portable and the original casing was adequate for transport. Even though most microscopes were functioning, their quality could be improved with maintenance. The three most common problems identified were: mouldy/dirty lenses, expired mould pellets and poor alignment. The portable operating ophthalmic microscope has an important role in the prevention of international blindness. The archaic attitude of sending microscopes to professional technicians for simple maintenance and repair should be abandoned. Instead demonstrations aimed at teaching these skills to local operators and surgeons should be held, in order to improve the technical support available. Different microscope operators can help provide microscope designers with feedback for future improvements. Similar demonstrations could be considered for other countries with a similar scarcity of technical support services.

  11. Designing a curriculum about electron microscope based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, researchers propose 4 objectives and 10 contents about electron microscope learning for undergraduates. The main objects are: An introduction to nanomaterials, a review of optics and lenses, an overview to the optical microscope, an introduction to Electron microscope. Keywords: Nanotechnology; electron ...

  12. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  13. Secret mission of microscopic drones revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Vaccinations of cattle and sheep against insect-borne diseases cost society millions each year. Danish researcher sheds new light on how the little bloodsucking creatures spread disease.......Vaccinations of cattle and sheep against insect-borne diseases cost society millions each year. Danish researcher sheds new light on how the little bloodsucking creatures spread disease....

  14. Improved Scanners for Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye

    2009-01-01

    Improved scanners to be incorporated into hyperspectral microscope-based imaging systems have been invented. Heretofore, in microscopic imaging, including spectral imaging, it has been customary to either move the specimen relative to the optical assembly that includes the microscope or else move the entire assembly relative to the specimen. It becomes extremely difficult to control such scanning when submicron translation increments are required, because the high magnification of the microscope enlarges all movements in the specimen image on the focal plane. To overcome this difficulty, in a system based on this invention, no attempt would be made to move either the specimen or the optical assembly. Instead, an objective lens would be moved within the assembly so as to cause translation of the image at the focal plane: the effect would be equivalent to scanning in the focal plane. The upper part of the figure depicts a generic proposed microscope-based hyperspectral imaging system incorporating the invention. The optical assembly of this system would include an objective lens (normally, a microscope objective lens) and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. The objective lens would be mounted on a servomotor-driven translation stage, which would be capable of moving the lens in precisely controlled increments, relative to the camera, parallel to the focal-plane scan axis. The output of the CCD camera would be digitized and fed to a frame grabber in a computer. The computer would store the frame-grabber output for subsequent viewing and/or processing of images. The computer would contain a position-control interface board, through which it would control the servomotor. There are several versions of the invention. An essential feature common to all versions is that the stationary optical subassembly containing the camera would also contain a spatial window, at the focal plane of the objective lens, that would pass only a selected portion of the image. In one version

  15. Development of an on-site measurement method for residual stress in primary system piping of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    In residual stress measurement for large-scale pipes and vessels in high radiation areas and highly contaminated areas of nuclear plants, it is difficult to bring the radioactivated pipes and vessels out of the areas as they are. If they can brought out, it is very burdensome to handle them for the measurement. Development of an on-site measurement method of residual stress which can be quickly applied and has sufficient measurement accuracy is desirable. In this study, a new method combining an electric discharge skim-cut method with a microscopic strain measurement method using markers was proposed to realize the on-site residual stress measurement on pipes in high radiation areas and highly contaminated areas. In the electric discharge skim-cut method, a boat-type sample is skimmed out of a pipe outer/inner surface using electric discharge machining and released residual stress is measured. The on-site measurement of residual stress by the method can be done using a small, portable electric discharge machine. In the microscopic strain measurement method using markers, the residual stress is estimated by microscopic measurement of the distance between markers after the stress release. The combination of both methods can evaluate the residual stress with the same accuracy as conventional methods offer and it can achieve reduction of radiation exposure in the measurement because the work is done simply and rapidly. In this study, the applicability of the electric discharge skim-cut method was investigated because the applicability of the microscopic strain measurement method using markers was confirmed previously. The experimental examination clarified the applicable conditions for the residual stress measurement with the same accuracy as the conventional methods. Furthermore, the electric discharge machining conditions using pure water as the machining liquid was found to eliminate the amount of liquid radioactive waste completely. (author)

  16. In vivo imaging of middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse guided by SD-OCT combined with a surgical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Nam Hyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    We developed an augmented-reality system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a surgical microscope. By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and OCT, we could simultaneously acquire OCT and microscope views. The system was tested to identify the middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse. Considering the probability of clinical application including otorhinolaryngology, diseases such as middle-ear effusion were visualized using in vivo mouse and OCT images simultaneously acquired through the eyepiece of the surgical microscope during surgical manipulation using the proposed system. This system is expected to realize a new practical area of OCT application. PMID:24787787

  17. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  18. Luttinger liquids from a microscopic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Manuel; Phillips, Lawrence G.; Zinner, Nikolaj T.; Öhberg, Patrik

    2017-09-01

    Luttinger liquid theory is a powerful and widely applicable framework for modelling one-dimensional many-body quantum systems. Within this framework, one supposes that the macroscopic behaviour of such systems is entirely determined by two phenomenological parameters, g 2 and g 4. While there exists an intuitive and seemingly sensible physical interpretation of these parameters in terms of the scattering of the system’s constituent particles, g 2 and g 4 are traditionally either fixed by experiment or calculated using heavy-duty numerical techniques, rather than inferred using scattering theory, and for this reason the interpretation remains untested. By applying Luttinger liquid theory in a simple setting, we show that a widely-held and repeatedly-stated belief, namely that the intrabranch terms appearing in Luttinger’s model originate from microscopic intrabranch interactions, is a misconception. We begin with the microscopic model of an interacting one-dimensional, spin-polarized Fermi gas, which we systematically transform into a Luttinger model by introducing an effective interaction, linearizing the dispersion, and renormalizing. By this method, we are able to show that the usual interpretation of g 4 as a measure of intrabranch scattering implies that it must vanish in the dilute limit. Since this runs contrary to conservation of particle number, we conclude that g 4 cannot be related to intrabranch scattering. Rather, we show that g 4 interactions must be included in the effective model in order to compensate for the deleterious effect that introducing an effective interaction has upon the model’s energetics. We explicitly calculate an approximation to this correction for our simple system, and find that it agrees with the value of g 4 found in the literature. We therefore propose a new fermionic Hamiltonian which agrees with the traditional model after bosonisation, but which better reflects the underlying microscopic physics.

  19. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone–based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications. PMID:24824072

  20. Fiber coupled ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    We report on a scanning tunneling microscope with a photoconductive gate in the tunneling current circuit. The tunneling tip is attached to a coplanar transmission line with an integrated photoconductive switch. The switch is illuminated through a fiber which is rigidly attached to the switch...... waveguide. The measurements show that the probe works as a transient voltage detector in contact and a capacitively coupled transient field detector in tunneling mode. We do not measure the transient voltage change in the ohmic tunneling current. In this sense, the spatial resolution for propagating...

  1. Microscopic optoelectronic defectoscopy of solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallaeva D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopes are powerful tool for micro- or nanoscale diagnostics of defects in crystalline silicon solar cells. Solar cell is a large p-n junction semiconductor device. Its quality is strongly damaged by the presence of defects. If the cell works under low reverse-biased voltage, defects emit a light in visible range. The suggested method combines three different measurements: electric noise measurement, local topography and near-field optical beam induced current and thus provides more complex information. To prove its feasibility, we have selected one defect (truncated pyramid in the sample, which emitted light under low reverse-biased voltage.

  2. Microscope spectrometer for light scattering investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Aude; Lopez-Rios, Tomas; Dumont, Sylvain; Gay, Frédéric; Quémerais, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We describe a setup including a microscope to study volumes of a few mum(3) by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in a backscattering configuration. Light scattered by individual objects of micrometric size can be analyzed in the 400-800?nm spectral range. This setup can also be employed to study both diluted and concentrated colloidal solutions by DLS measurements. For diluted solutions we found evidence of the fluctuations of the number of particles in a confocal volume. We discuss their contribution to the autocorrelation function of the scattered intensity measured as a function of time.

  3. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W [Livermore, CA

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  4. Hardware for digitally controlled scanned probe microscopes

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, S. M.; Baselt, D. R.; Spence, C. F.; Youngquist, M. G.; Baldeschwieler, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    The design and implementation of a flexible and modular digital control and data acquisition system for scanned probe microscopes (SPMs) is presented. The measured performance of the system shows it to be capable of 14-bit data acquisition at a 100-kHz rate and a full 18-bit output resolution resulting in less than 0.02-Å rms position noise while maintaining a scan range in excess of 1 µm in both the X and Y dimensions. This level of performance achieves the goal of making the noise of the mi...

  5. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  6. The interference Linnik type microscope (IM) developed at Inmetro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovski, I; Couceiro, I B; Lima, M S; França, R S; Von der Weid, J P

    2015-01-01

    The interference Linnik type microscope was developed and it design was modernized to provide high resolution nanometrology facility. This microscope can perform length measurement directly relative to wavelength standards such as the frequency stabilized lasers. Thus, one can use interference microscope for primary calibration of the step heights. These step heights can be used to calibrate vertical axis of the other instruments like optical coherence tomography, atomic force microscope, confocal microscope, etc. In all cases the traceability to the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology length primary standards was attempted to be established

  7. [Remote Slit Lamp Microscope Consultation System Based on Web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junfa; Zhuo, Yong; Liu, Zuguo; Chen, Yanping

    2015-11-01

    To realize the remote operation of the slit lamp microscope for department of ophthalmology consultation, and visual display the real-time status of remote slit lamp microscope, a remote slit lamp microscope consultation system based on B/S structure is designed and implemented. Through framing the slit lamp microscope on the website system, the realtime acquisition and transmission of remote control and image data is realized. The three dimensional model of the slit lamp microscope is established and rendered on the web by using WebGL technology. The practical application results can well show the real-time interactive of the remote consultation system.

  8. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  9. Automated gunshot residue particle search and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, W L

    1987-01-01

    The main disadvantage to gunshot residue (GSR) particle analysis utilizing scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) instrumentation has been the excessive operator time required for search and identification. This study uses an automated particle search and characterization program for unattended GSR search and identification. This system allows for automatic matrix search, particle sizing, chemical typing, and spectral aquisition with subsequent storage of data to disk for later operator review and verification. This work describes various aspects of the program, determines appropriate parameters adequate for both unique and characteristic GSR particle identification, and evaluates the reliability of data obtained. Samples are collected via the tape lift method from test-firings of .38, .32, .25, and .22 caliber handguns at time after firing intervals of 0 to 6 h. Unique GSR particles are consistently and correctly identified by this method on tape lift samples taken up to 4 h after firing. False positive results of unique GSR particles are not encountered on control handblank samples. This technique appears to provide the forensic science community with an operator-free method of reliable GSR particle search and an improved analyst-time-per-case ratio.

  10. Adiabatically describing rare earths using microscopic deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Gustavo; Dupuis, Marc; Herman, Michal; Brown, David

    2017-09-01

    Recent works showed that reactions on well-deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region are very well described by an adiabatic method. This assumes a spherical optical potential (OP) accounting for non-rotational degrees of freedom while the deformed configuration is described by couplings to states of the g.s. rotational band. This method has, apart from the global OP, only the deformation parameters as inputs, with no additional fit- ted variables. For this reason, it has only been applied to nuclei with well-measured deformations. With the new computational capabilities, microscopic large-scale calculations of deformation parameters within the HFB method based on the D1S Gogny force are available in the literature. We propose to use such microscopic deformations in our adi- abatic method, allowing us to reproduce the cross sections agreements observed in stable nuclei, and to reliably extend this description to nuclei far from stability, describing the whole rare-earth region. Since all cross sections, such as capture and charge exchange, strongly depend on the correct calculation of absorption from the incident channel (from direct reaction mechanisms), this approach significantly improves the accuracy of cross sections and transitions relevant to astrophysical studies. The work at BNL was sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the US Department of Energy, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC.

  11. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  12. A microscopic study of nuclear deformed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrio, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional models of collective nuclear rotations are phenomenological in nature, relying on a relatively small number of shape variables to characterize the deformation of the nuclear surface. Although generally successful, such models have a number of drawbacks. In particular, the fermionic many-body nature of the nucleus is ignored, and hence such models cannot adequately describe the intrinsic matter flows within the nucleus. Recently, group theoretical techniques have led to algebraic descriptions of nuclear rotation which are microscopically realizable. That is, such models can describe the collective rotation of the nucleus as a whole in terms of the coordinates and momenta of individual nucleons. This thesis describes two such models - the SU(3) model and the Sp(3,R) model - in some detail. Expressions are obtained for physical observables relevant to rotational nuclei, and comparison is made with experimental data for even-mass nuclei. A particular objective is the identification of those representations which play a dominant role in the physical state of the nucleus, and the interpretation of these states in microscopic shell-model terms. Finally, spin and intrinsic single-particle degrees of freedom are included in the SU(3) and Sp(3,R) models, and a prescription is formulated for an eventual comparison with experimental data for odd-mass nuclei

  13. A LEGO Mindstorms Brewster angle microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, Jonathan; Nguyen, Vincent; Wallum, Alison; Benz, Nicholas; Hamlin, Matthew; Pilgram, Jessica; Vanderpoel, Hunter; Lau, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    A Brewster Angle Microscope (BAM) built from a LEGO Mindstorms kit, additional LEGO bricks, and several standard optics components, is described. The BAM was built as part of an undergraduate senior project and was designed, calibrated, and used to image phospholipid, cholesterol, soap, and oil films on the surface of water. A BAM uses p-polarized laser light reflected off a surface at the Brewster angle, which ideally yields zero reflectivity. When a film of different refractive index is added to the surface a small amount of light is reflected, which can be imaged in a microscope camera. Films of only one molecule (approximately 1 nm) thick, a monolayer, can be observed easily in the BAM. The BAM was used in a junior-level Physical Chemistry class to observe phase transitions of a monolayer and the collapse of a monolayer deposited on the water surface in a Langmuir trough. Using a photometric calculation, students observed a change in thickness of a monolayer during a phase transition of 7 Å, which was accurate to within 1 Å of the value determined by more advanced methods. As supplementary material, we provide a detailed manual on how to build the BAM, software to control the BAM and camera, and image processing software.

  14. Statistical mechanics of microscopically thin thermalized shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmrlj, Andrej

    Recent explosion in fabrication of microscopically thin free standing structures made from graphene and other two-dimensional materials has led to a renewed interest in the mechanics of such structures in presence of thermal fluctuations. Since late 1980s it has been known that for flat solid sheets thermal fluctuations effectively increase the bending rigidity and reduce the bulk and shear moduli in a scale-dependent fashion. However, much is still unknown about the mechanics of thermalized flat sheets of complex geometries and about the mechanics of thermalized shells with non-zero background curvature. In this talk I will present recent development in the mechanics of thermalized ribbons, spherical shells and cylindrical tubes. Long ribbons are found to behave like hybrids between flat sheets with renormalized elastic constants and semi-flexible polymers, and these results can be used to predict the mechanics of graphene kirigami structures. Contrary to the anticipated behavior for ribbons, the non-zero background curvature of shells leads to remarkable novel phenomena. In shells, thermal fluctuations effectively generate negative surface tension, which can significantly reduce the critical buckling pressure for spherical shells and the critical axial load for cylindrical tubes. For large shells this thermally generated load becomes big enough to spontaneously crush spherical shells and cylindrical tubes even in the absence of external loads. I will comment on the relevance for crushing of microscopic shells (viral capsids, bacteria, microcapsules) due to osmotic shocks and for crushing of nanotubes.

  15. The poor man's scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2002-01-01

    The Macroscope (Zypman F R and Guerra-Vela C 2001 Eur. J. Phys. 22 17-30), an educational large-scale version of a scanning force microscope's cantilever-tip system, is used in the presence of nonlinear forces. This paper presents quantitative experimental evidence confirming the validity of the beam model (BM) (Eppel S J, Todd B A and Zypman F R 2000 Materials Issues and Modeling for Device Nanofabrication ed L Merhari et al (Pittsburgh, PA: Materials Research Society) pp 584, 189) as a proper reconstruction algorithm. As a teaching laboratory experiment, the force measurements are first done directly with a variety of dynamometer-like setups. Subsequently, the measurements are performed indirectly with the Macroscope from the cantilever resonant frequency shifts and the BM algorithm. Two central results of this work lie in its ability to compare forces obtained by traditional algorithms with known forces, and to illustrate in a hands-on fashion the principles behind the working of a scanning force microscope. (author)

  16. Inquiry based learning with a virtual microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S. P.; Sharples, M.; Tindle, A.; Villasclaras-Fernández, E.

    2012-12-01

    As part of newly funded initiative, the Wolfson OpenScience Laboratory, we are linking a tool for inquiry based learning, nQuire (http://www.nquire.org.uk) with the virtual microscope for Earth science (http://www.virtualmicroscope.co.uk) to allow students to undertake projects and gain from inquiry based study thin sections of rocks without the need for a laboratory with expensive petrological microscopes. The Virtual Microscope (VM) was developed for undergraduate teaching of petrology and geoscience, allowing students to explore rock hand specimens and thin sections in a browser window. The system is based on HTML5 application and allows students to scan and zoom the rocks in a browser window, view in ppl and xpl conditions, and rotate specific areas to view birefringence and pleochroism. Importantly the VM allows students to gain access to rare specimens such as Moon rocks that might be too precious to suffer loss or damage. Experimentation with such specimens can inspire the learners' interest in science and allows them to investigate relevant science questions. Yet it is challenging for learners to engage in scientific processes, as they may lack scientific investigation skills or have problems in planning their activities; for teachers, managing inquiry activities is a demanding task (Quintana et al., 2004). To facilitate the realization of inquiry activities, the VM is being integrated with the nQuire tool. nQuire is a web tool that guides and supports students through the inquiry process (Mulholland et al., 2011). Learners are encouraged to construct their own personally relevant hypothesis, pose scientific questions, and plan the method to answer them. Then, the system enables users to collect and analyze data, and share their conclusions. Teachers can monitor their students' progress through inquiries, and give them access to new parts of inquiries as they advance. By means of the integration of nQuire and the VM, inquiries that involve collecting data

  17. Complex multi-block analysis identifies new immunologic and genetic disease progression patterns associated with the residual β-cell function 1 year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Pörksen, Sven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Danish children 12 months after diagnosis using Latent Factor Modelling. We include three data blocks of dynamic paraclinical biomarkers, baseline clinical characteristics and genetic profiles of diabetes...... related SNPs in the analyses. This method identified a model explaining 21.6% of the total variation in the data set. The model consists of two components: (1) A pattern of declining residual β-cell function positively associated with young age, presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and long duration...

  18. Measuring residual stress in ceramic zirconia-porcelain dental crowns by nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Allahkarami, M; Hanan, J C

    2012-02-01

    Residual stress plays a critical role in failure of ceramic dental crowns. The magnitude and distribution of residual stress in the crown system are largely unknown. Determining the residual stress quantitatively is challenging since the crown has such complex contours and shapes. This work explored the feasibility and validity of measuring residual stress of zirconia and porcelain in ceramic crowns by nanoindentation. Nanoindentation tests were performed on the cross-section of a crown for both porcelain and zirconia along four critical locations: the thickest, thinnest and medium porcelain thicknesses. Zirconia and porcelain pieces, chipped off from the crown and annealed at 400 °C, were used as reference samples. The residual stress was determined by comparing the measured hardness of the stressed sample with that of the reference sample. Nanoindentation impression images were acquired through a scanning probe microscope (SPM) equipped with a Hysitron Triboindenter. Zirconia showed large pile-up. Residual stress is determined along the thickness of crowns at the chosen locations for both porcelain and zirconia. The measured results were compared with the results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and finite element modeling (FEM). Results show there are large amounts of residual stresses in the dental crown and their magnitude differs between locations due to the complex shape of the crown. The average residual stress readings were as high as -637 MPa and 323 MPa for zirconia and porcelain respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance limitations of imaging microscopes for soft x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewotsky, K.L.; Kotha, A.; Harvey, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication of nanometer-scale multilayer structures have yielded high-reflectance mirrors operating at near-normal incidence for soft X-ray wavelengths. These developments have stimulated renewed interest in high-resolution soft X-ray microscopy. The design of a Schwarzschild imaging microscope for soft X-ray applications has been reported by Hoover and Shealy. Based upon a geometrical ray-trace analysis of the residual design errors, diffraction-limited performance at a wavelength of 100 angstrom was predicted over an object size (diameter) of 0.4 mm. In this paper the authors expand upon the previous analysis of the Schwarzschild X-ray microscope design by determining the total image degradation due to diffraction, geometrical aberrations, alignment errors, and realistic assumptions concerning optical fabrication errors. NASA's Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) is used to model the image degradation effects of residual surface irregularities over the entire range of relevant spatial frequencies. This includes small angle scattering effects due to mid spatial frequency surface errors falling between the traditional figure and finish specifications. Performance predictions are presented parametrically to provide some insight into the optical fabrication and alignment tolerances necessary to meet a particular image quality requirement

  20. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  1. Residual stress analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques

  2. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  3. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  4. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking animals, they are mostly present after mastitis treatment. The aim of this work is to stress the importance of the continuous control on antibiotic residues presence in milk, due to the role that milk and dairy products have in human nutrition. In this paper, different groups of antibiotics, mechanisms of theirs action, mistakes occurring in dairy products manufacture as well as the methods for theirs detection are described.

  5. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  6. A landmark-based method for the geometrical 3D calibration of scanning microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, M.

    2007-04-27

    This thesis presents a new strategy and a spatial method for the geometric calibration of 3D measurement devices at the micro-range, based on spatial reference structures with nanometersized landmarks (nanomarkers). The new method was successfully applied for the 3D calibration of scanning probe microscopes (SPM) and confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). Moreover, the spatial method was also used for the photogrammetric self-calibration of scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In order to implement the calibration strategy to all scanning microscopes used, the landmark-based principle of reference points often applied at land survey or at close-range applications has been transferred to the nano- and micro-range in the form of nanomarker. In order to function as a support to the nanomarkers, slope-shaped step pyramids have been developed and fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) induced metal deposition. These FIB produced 3D microstructures have been sized to embrace most of the measurement volume of the scanning microscopes. Additionally, their special design allows the homogenous distribution of the nanomarkers. The nanomarkers were applied onto the support and the plateaus of the slope-step pyramids by FIB etching (milling) as landmarks with as little as several hundreds of nanometers in diameter. The nanomarkers are either of point-, or ring-shaped design. They are optimized so that they can be spatially measured by SPM and CLSM, and, imaged and photogrammetrically analyzed on the basis of SEM data. The centre of the each nanomarker serves as reference point in the measurement data or images. By applying image processing routines, the image (2D) or object (3D) coordinates of each nanomarker has been determined with subpixel accuracy. The correlative analysis of the SPM, CLSM and photogrammetric SEM measurement data after 3D calibration resulted in mean residues in the measured coordinates of as little as 13 nm. Without the coupling factors the mean

  7. Microscopic to macroscopic depletion model development for FORMOSA-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, J.M.; Turinsky, P.J.; Sarsour, H.N.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic depletion has been gaining popularity with regard to employment in reactor core nodal calculations, mainly attributed to the superiority of microscopic depletion in treating spectral history effects during depletion. Another trend is the employment of loading pattern optimization computer codes in support of reload core design. Use of such optimization codes has significantly reduced design efforts to optimize reload core loading patterns associated with increasingly complicated lattice designs. A microscopic depletion model has been developed for the FORMOSA-P pressurized water reactor (PWR) loading pattern optimization code. This was done for both fidelity improvements and to make FORMOSA-P compatible with microscopic-based nuclear design methods. Needless to say, microscopic depletion requires more computational effort compared with macroscopic depletion. This implies that microscopic depletion may be computationally restrictive if employed during the loading pattern optimization calculation because many loading patterns are examined during the course of an optimization search. Therefore, the microscopic depletion model developed here uses combined models of microscopic and macroscopic depletion. This is done by first performing microscopic depletions for a subset of possible loading patterns from which 'collapsed' macroscopic cross sections are obtained. The collapsed macroscopic cross sections inherently incorporate spectral history effects. Subsequently, the optimization calculations are done using the collapsed macroscopic cross sections. Using this approach allows maintenance of microscopic depletion level accuracy without substantial additional computing resources

  8. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Pedro, Francisco Gil [Departamento de Fisica Teórica UAM and Instituto de Fisica Teórica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-21

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  9. Dopant profiling with the scanning electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, S L

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation is a detailed study of dopant profiling with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using secondary electrons. The technique has been applied to a wide variety of doped silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride semiconductor test structures as well as a metal-oxide field effect transistor and several light emitting diodes. A concise set of guide-lines are provided for users of this technique, including the optimum SEM operating conditions that should be used for maximum contrast, an image manipulation procedure, and the resolution and sensitivity limits that can be expected. Dopant contrast observed with the SEM has been studied over the past few years by a number of researchers, and a theory for the contrast has evolved. This theory considers the patch fields outside the specimen to be the dominant factor determining the secondary electron intensity. In this dissertation the contrast mechanism has been further investigated by examining the contrast at different temperatures and after su...

  10. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  11. The resolution limit of scanning capacitance microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lany, S

    2003-01-01

    The contrast formation and the achievable lateral resolution of a scanning capacitance microscope have been simulated using the finite element method. On conducting surfaces, a resolution of about 2 nm is expected with probes with about 5-10 nm radius of curvature. At smaller radii, the resolution degrades due to the decrease of the local contribution to the integral capacitance sensed by the probe. The lateral resolution is less affected by the radius of the tip than by the tip-to-conducting base distance, though sharper tips produce higher contrast. With a tip radius of approximately 25 nm, resolution of features 5 nm in diameter has been achieved on gold-coated silicon.

  12. The Scanning TMR Microscope for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N. Vyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR scanning microscopeset-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sizedelements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedancematching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as 0.006%/Oe. By 3Drastering a mounted TMR sensor over our magnetic barcodes, we are able to characterisethe complex domain structures by displaying the real component, the amplitude and thephase of the sensor’s impedance. The modular design, incorporating a TMR sensor withan optical microscope, renders this set-up a versatile platform for studying and imagingimmobilised magnetic carriers and barcodes currently employed in biosensor platforms,magnetotactic bacteria and other complex magnetic domain structures of micron-sizedentities. The quantitative nature of the instrument and its ability to produce vector maps ofmagnetic stray fields has the potential to provide significant advantages over other commonlyused scanning magnetometry techniques.

  13. Microscopic theory of one-body dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.; Randrup, J.; Hatch, R.; Kolomietz, V.

    1977-01-01

    A microscopic theory is developed for nuclear collective motion in the limit of a long nuclear mean-free path. Linear response techniques are applied to an independent particle model and expressions for the collective kinetic energy and rate of energy dissipation are obtained. For leptodermous systems, these quantities are characterized by mass and dissipation kernels coupling the velocities at different points on the nuclear surface. In a classical treatment, the kernels are given in terms of nucleon trajectories within the nuclear shape. In a quantal treatment, the dissipation kernel is related to the nuclear Green function. The spatial and thermal properties of the kernels are investigated. Corrections for the diffuseness of the potential and shell effects are also discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  15. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, I.-H.; Lee, T.-H.; Yin, G.-C.; Wei, D.-H.; Juang, J.-M.; Dann, T.-E.; Klauser, R.; Chuang, T.J.; Chen, C.T.; Tsang, K.-L.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed

  16. Microscopic origin of volume modulus inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco; Gil Pedro, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    High-scale string inflationary models are in well-known tension with low-energy supersymmetry. A promising solution involves models where the inflaton is the volume of the extra dimensions so that the gravitino mass relaxes from large values during inflation to smaller values today. We describe a possible microscopic origin of the scalar potential of volume modulus inflation by exploiting non-perturbative effects, string loop and higher derivative perturbative corrections to the supergravity effective action together with contributions from anti-branes and charged hidden matter fields. We also analyse the relation between the size of the flux superpotential and the position of the late-time minimum and the inflection point around which inflation takes place. We perform a detailed study of the inflationary dynamics for a single modulus and a two moduli case where we also analyse the sensitivity of the cosmological observables on the choice of initial conditions.

  17. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  18. Microscopic local elements in the phosphating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, D.; Munoz, A.G.; Schultze, J.W

    2003-09-30

    The addition of Ni{sup 2+} to the phosphating bath improves the corrosion stability as well as the adhesion of coating layers. This is caused by the formation of Ni deposits on the base of pores of the phosphate layer. They do not only catalyse the surface reactions but generate a more corrosion resistant surface as well. The deposition of Ni during the phosphating of electrogalvanised steel was studied in aqueous solutions by simultaneous measurement of the rest potential and electrode capacity in dependence on time, temperature and bath composition. The electrochemical response of the system was corroborated with SEM pictures, gravimetric measurements and X-ray fluorescence analysis. Rest potential patterns under different solution and initial surface conditions were interpreted by microscopic local elements. During the deposition of the phosphate layer, the cementation of Ni on the initially corroding Zn gives rise to the formation of surface Ni-Zn alloys, providing cathodic centres where the reduction of H{sup +} and accelerators (NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}) is favoured. The process matches with a quasi-instantaneous displacement of the rest potential from that corresponding to the Zn/Zn{sup 2+} couple towards the corrosion potentials of cementated Ni-rich alloys. The appearance of a simultaneous characteristic capacity peak was analysed in terms of the surface changes due to Ni-cementation together with an increment of the growth rate of phosphate crystals and the formation of oxide films. Microscopic local Ni deposits have an extension of some micrometer and a thickness of few hundred nanometer up to 1 {mu}m.

  19. Ergonomic Microscope: Need of the Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Shubhangi Ashok; Ahmad, Malik Ajaz; Yuwanati, Monal B.; Prabhu, Shweta; Pardhe, Nilesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged use of conventional microscope develops musculo-skeletal injuries like chronic pain syndrome, including shoulder, neck, back aches & fatigue. Since the problems go unnoticed, the injuries can lead to some serious permanent damages. This further leads to a compromise in the health and welfare of the person and the institute. Hence, an understanding about the ergonomics is the need of the hour in this postmodern era. Inspite of few studies and surveys about ergonomics, there is still a steep rise in the musculoskeletal disorders. Aim of the Study The aim of our study was to gauge the general awareness of pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists towards ergonomics in their profession. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey based study was de­signed, which included a questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions with four alternatives. Professionals (pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists) were included in the survey. Teaching faculty (Professors, Associate Professors and Lecturers) and Post graduate students formed the study group. Results and Observations The response to the questionnaire was 100%. Less than 50% of oral pathologists were aware of the importance of ergonomics in their profession. The most common site affected was neck and back. One of the drastic observations was that, Oral Pathologists suffered from a combination of problems affecting neck, back, eyes, headache, shoulders, arms and wrists. Conclusion Increase in our understanding regarding ergonomic­ally designed microscopes can increase our efficiency and in turn improve our general well-being. With improvements in ergonomics, professionals would be able to modify and optimize their working conditions. Certain guidelines need to be followed by the profes­sionals to reduce chances of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26155565

  20. Fission dynamics with microscopic level densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrup, Jørgen; Ward, Daniel; Carlsson, Gillis; Døssing, Thomas; Möller, Peter; Åberg, Sven

    2018-03-01

    Working within the Langevin framework of nuclear shape dynamics, we study the dependence of the evolution on the degree of excitation. As the excitation energy of the fissioning system is increased, the pairing correlations and the shell effects diminish and the effective potential-energy surface becomes ever more liquid-drop like. This feature can be included in the treatment in a formally well-founded manner by using the local level densities as a basis for the shape evolution. This is particularly easy to understand and implement in the Metropolis treatment where the evolution is simulated by means of a random walk on the five-dimensional lattice of shapes for which the potential energy has been tabulated. Because the individual steps between two neighboring lattice sites are decided on the basis of the ratio of the statistical weights, what is needed is the ratio of the local level densities for those shapes, evaluated at the associated local excitation energies. For this purpose, we adapt a recently developed combinatorial method for calculating level densities which employs the same single-particle levels as those that were used for the calculation of the pairing and shell contributions to the macroscopic-microscopic deformation-energy surface. For each nucleus under consideration, the level density (for a fixed total angular momentum) is calculated microscopically for each of the over five million shapes given in the three-quadratic-surface parametrization. This novel treatment, which introduces no new parameters, is illustrated for the fission fragment mass distributions for selected uranium and plutonium cases.