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Sample records for residual liver volume

  1. Assessment of liver volume with spiral computerized tomography scanning: predicting liver volume by age and height

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Sharma; Abhishek Singh; Shewtank Goel; Setu Satani; Kavita Mudgil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Estimation of liver size has critical clinical implication. Precise knowledge of liver dimensions and volume is prerequisite for clinical assessment of liver disorders. Liver span as measured by palpation and USG is prone to inter-observer variability and poor repeatability. The aim was to assess the normal liver volume of healthy adults using spiral computed tomography scans and to observe its relationship with various body indices. Methods: In this prospective study, all the...

  2. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  3. Tissue hepatic blood volume and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyama, Mamoru

    1997-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scan has an advantage that it can measure regional organ blood flow and volume not only quantitatively but also non-invasively. In order to estimate the liver function, tissue hepatic blood volume was measured using C 15 O inhalation in conjunction with positron emission tomography. PET scans of the liver were performed after the single breath inhalation of 20 mCi of high specific activity 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide in 105 patients which were classified 3 groups; normal, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. They consist of 61, 14, and 30 patients, respectively. Significant differences between normal and cirrhotic patients were noted in tissue hepatic blood volume (mean 20.4, 18.2, 16.0 ml/100 g, respectively). Tissue hepatic blood volume (tHBV) correlated with the reaction of the peripheral reticuloendothelial compartment and protein synthesis, because there was a potent correlation between tHBV and hepatic fibrosis. In normal livers, we were able to demonstrate significant differences in tissue hepatic blood volume among liver segments. (author)

  4. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  5. Measurement of liver volume by emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, M.K.; Hopkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    In 22 volunteers without clinical or laboratory evidence of liver disease, liver volume was determined using single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT). This technique provided excellent object contrast between the liver and its surroundings and permitted calculation of liver volume without geometric assumptions about the liver's configuration. Reproducibility of results was satisfactory, with a root-mean-square error of less than 6% between duplicate measurements in 15 individuals. The volume measurements were validated by the use of phantoms

  6. Radiographic determination of urinary bladder volume and residual urine volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumair, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of a long study the author has tested most of the methods for determination of urinary bladder volume. A radiographic method which can state bladder volume exactly in cc's is attainable only with great time and effort. In the author's experience, however, it is possible, by means of a pattern in connection with a IVP, to estimate residual urine volume from a post-void picture of the bladder with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. An account is given of the production of this pattern and of two relatively simple calculations for residual volume based on AP and lateral views of circular- and ellipsoid-shaped bladders. Also discussed is the radiation exposure which varies with the radiographic methods used. In male patients, the radiation exposure appears to be negligible, especially when the testicles are protected by a radiation shield. In female patients - which make up only a small fraction of all patients -, radiation exposure is higher but must be accepted. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Vest-over-Pant Method for Closure of Residual Cavity of Liver Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Behdad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although several therapeutic strategies have proven to be effective for hydatid cyst of liver, but surgery is still the most common therapy despite its morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, a variety of technique has been recommended for managing the residual cavity after cystectomy. We report here a new technical method for the reconstruction of hydatid cyst residual cavity with using overlapping flaps of liver edges (Vest over Pant. Methods. In this technique after removing the cyst, the edges of one side of cyst cavity were sutured to the base of the cavity using three to four mattress sutures, and edges of other side of liver was overlapped on the dorsal part of previous layer using four to five mattress sutures. Therefore residual cavity dead space was obliterated with two surfaces of cavity. Results. Fifty males were treated by our method. The average cyst volume was 423±110 mL. There was no intraabdominal sepsis, bile leakage, or hepatic necrosis. In follow-up ultrasound study, residual cavities were disappeared one month after operation. Conclusion. Overlapping flaps of liver edges (Vest over Pant provides easy, safe closure of cyst with preservation of the liver anatomy.

  8. Automatic liver volume segmentation and fibrosis classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Evgeny; Klang, Eyal; Amitai, Michal; Greenspan, Hayit

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present an automatic method for liver segmentation and fibrosis classification in liver computed-tomography (CT) portal phase scans. The input is a full abdomen CT scan with an unknown number of slices, and the output is a liver volume segmentation mask and a fibrosis grade. A multi-stage analysis scheme is applied to each scan, including: volume segmentation, texture features extraction and SVM based classification. Data contains portal phase CT examinations from 80 patients, taken with different scanners. Each examination has a matching Fibroscan grade. The dataset was subdivided into two groups: first group contains healthy cases and mild fibrosis, second group contains moderate fibrosis, severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. Using our automated algorithm, we achieved an average dice index of 0.93 ± 0.05 for segmentation and a sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.81for classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first end to end automatic framework for liver fibrosis classification; an approach that, once validated, can have a great potential value in the clinic.

  9. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  10. Preoperative Right Portal Vein Embolization in Patients with metastatic liver disease. Metastatic liver volumes after RPVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, B.; Stasi, C.D.I.; Marano, P.; Nuzzo, G.; Vellone, M.; Giuliante, F.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose:To quantify liver metastases and future remnant liver (FRL) volumes in patients who underwent right portal vein embolization (RPVE) and to evaluate the effects of this procedure on metastase growth. Material and Methods:Nine patients with liver metastases from primary colon (n = 5), rectal lesions (n = 1) and carcinoid tumors (n = 3) underwent spiral CT to evaluate the ratio of the non-tumorous parenchymal volume of the resected liver to that of the whole liver volume (R2). Hand tracing was used to isolate the entire liver, the resected liver and metastase volumes. All patients with R2 > 60% underwent RPVE. Results:FRL exhibited a 101-336 cm3 (average 241 cm3) increase in volume 1 month after RPVE. One patient refused surgery for 2 months and before surgery the increase in volume of the FRL was similar to that of other patients (180.64 cm3). Percent metastases volume from colorectal carcinoma in embolized liver parenchyma increased from 62.4% to 138.4% at 1 month and to 562% at 2 months after RPVE. Metastase volume from carcinoid tumors was unchanged. Conclusion:One month after RPVE, hypertrophy of the FRL is evident. In the embolized liver, there was a progressive increase in metastase volume from colorectal carcinoma while metastase volume from carcinoid tumor was unchanged in embolized and non-embolized liver

  11. Prognostic and predictive value of liver volume on colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Su; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Young Suk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Joon Oh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prognostic and predictive value of liver volume in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases. Sixteen patients received whole liver radiotherapy (WLRT) between January 1997 and June 2013. A total dose of 21 Gy was delivered in 7 fractions. The median survival time after WLRT was 9 weeks. In univariate analysis, performance status, serum albumin and total bilirubin level, liver volume and extrahepatic metastases were associated with survival. The mean liver volume was significantly different between subgroups with and without pain relief (3,097 and 4,739 mL, respectively; p = 0.002). A larger liver volume is a poor prognostic factor for survival and also a negative predictive factor for response to WLRT. If patients who are referred for WLRT have large liver volume, they should be informed of the poor prognosis and should be closely observed during and after WLRT.

  12. Prognostic and predictive value of liver volume on colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Su; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Young Suk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Joon Oh [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To determine the prognostic and predictive value of liver volume in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases. Sixteen patients received whole liver radiotherapy (WLRT) between January 1997 and June 2013. A total dose of 21 Gy was delivered in 7 fractions. The median survival time after WLRT was 9 weeks. In univariate analysis, performance status, serum albumin and total bilirubin level, liver volume and extrahepatic metastases were associated with survival. The mean liver volume was significantly different between subgroups with and without pain relief (3,097 and 4,739 mL, respectively; p = 0.002). A larger liver volume is a poor prognostic factor for survival and also a negative predictive factor for response to WLRT. If patients who are referred for WLRT have large liver volume, they should be informed of the poor prognosis and should be closely observed during and after WLRT.

  13. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of standard liver volume in Chinese adult living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Gui, L; Lu-Nan, Y; Bo, L; Yong, Z; Tian-Fu, W; Ming-Qing, X; Wen-Tao, W; Zhe-Yu, C

    2009-12-01

    To determine a formula predicting the standard liver volume based on body surface area (BSA) or body weight in Chinese adults. A total of 115 consecutive right-lobe living donors not including the middle hepatic vein underwent right hemi-hepatectomy. No organs were used from prisoners, and no subjects were prisoners. Donor anthropometric data including age, gender, body weight, and body height were recorded prospectively. The weights and volumes of the right lobe liver grafts were measured at the back table. Liver weights and volumes were calculated from the right lobe graft weight and volume obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on computed tomography. By simple linear regression analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, we correlated calculated liver volume and body height, body weight, or body surface area. The subjects had a mean age of 35.97 +/- 9.6 years, and a female-to-male ratio of 60:55. The mean volume of the right lobe was 727.47 +/- 136.17 mL, occupying 55.59% +/- 6.70% of the whole liver by computed tomography. The volume of the right lobe was 581.73 +/- 96.137 mL, and the estimated liver volume was 1053.08 +/- 167.56 mL. Females of the same body weight showed a slightly lower liver weight. By simple linear regression analysis and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, a formula was derived based on body weight. All formulae except the Hong Kong formula overestimated liver volume compared to this formula. The formula of standard liver volume, SLV (mL) = 11.508 x body weight (kg) + 334.024, may be applied to estimate liver volumes in Chinese adults.

  15. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  16. Clinical evaluation of preoperative measurement of liver volume by CT volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Ryoko; Kato, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    The utility of measuring liver volume by CT volumetry prior to hepatectomy for treatment of hepatobiliary diseases was assessed by investigating the relationship between liver volume and perioperative hepatic function, and some perioperative factors. Both residual liver volume (RLV) and functional residual liver volume rate (%FRLV) had a significant negative correlation with maximum postoperative total bilirubin (T. Bil) (r=-0.318, r=-0.477, respectively). Further, RLV and %FRLV exhibited a negative correlation with length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (r=-0.297, r=-0.397, respectively). The ratio of patients with maximum postoperative T. Bil≥10 mg/dl among patients with RLV<500 ml was significantly higher than that among patients with RLV≥500 ml (p<0.05). Similarly, the ratio of patients with maximum postoperative T. Bil≥10 mg/dl among patients with %FRLV<40% was significantly higher than that among patients with %FRLV≥40% (p<0.05). Among patients with %FRLV<40%, maximum T. Bil for patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE) was significantly lower than that for patients who did not undergo PVE (p<0.05). When performing hepatectomy, the risk of severe postoperative liver failure is low as long as %FRLV and RLV are above 40% and 500 ml, respectively, and PVE is useful for performing extended hepatectomy when %FRLV is <40%. (author)

  17. Impact of future remnant liver volume on post-hepatectomy regeneration in non-cirrhotic livers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio ePagano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study is to detect if some parameters can be considered as predictors of liver regeneration in two different patient populations composed of in living donors for adult to adult living donor liver transplant and patients with hepatic malignancies within a single institution.Summary Background Data: Preoperative multi-detector computed tomography volumetry is an essential tool to assess the volume of the remnant liver. Methods: a retrospective analysis from an ongoing clinical study on 100 liver resections, between 2004 and 2010. 70 patients were right lobe living donors for liver transplantation and 30 patients were resected for treatment of tumors. Pre-surgical factors such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI, original liver volume, future remnant liver volume (FRLV, spleen volume, liver function tests, creatinine, platelet count, steatosis, portal vein embolization (PVE and number of resected segments were analyzed to evidence potential markers for liver regeneration. Results: Follow-up period did not influence the amount of liver regenerated: the linear regression evidenced that there is no correlation between percentage of liver regeneration and time of follow-up (p=0.88. The pre-surgical variables that resulted markers of liver regeneration include higher preoperative values of BMI (p=0.01, bilirubin(p=0.04, glucose (p=0.05 and GGT (p=0.014; the most important association was revealed regarding the lower FRLV (pConclusions: Liver regeneration follows similar pathway in living donor and in patients resected for cancer. Small FRLV tends to regenerate more and faster, confirming that a larger resections may lead to a greater promotion of liver regeneration in patients with optimal conditions in terms of body habitus, preoperative liver function tests and glucose level.

  18. Endoscopic stenting in bile duct cancer increases liver volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, In Hee; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae Ghon; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul; Cho, Baik Hwan; Lee, Seung Ok

    2014-09-01

    Objective evaluation tools for assessing the effectiveness of stenting in palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction are not satisfactory. Effects of biliary stenting on liver volume change have never been studied. We aimed to use volumetry to analyze liver volume changes after endoscopic stenting in bile duct cancer according to the location and number of stents. Retrospective review. University hospital. Patients with a diagnosis of hilar or distal bile duct cancer and who underwent biliary metal stenting. ERCP with self-expandable metal stent placement. Liver volume change after biliary stenting and its comparison according to the location (hilar vs distal common bile duct) and number (hilar bilateral vs hilar unilateral). There were 60 patients; 31 were treated for hilar bile duct cancer (13 for bilateral stent and 18 for unilateral stent) and 29 for distal bile duct cancer. Overall mean follow-up duration was 11.7 ± 4.9 weeks. Liver volume increased 17.4 ± 24.1%. The rate of liver growth was rapid during the early period from 4 to 8 weeks. Stenting in hilar bile duct cancer tended to increase liver volume more than distal biliary stents (22.5% vs 11.9%, P = .091). In hilar bile duct cancer, unilateral and bilateral stents showed similar liver volume increases (20.1% and 25.8%, respectively; P = .512). Single center, retrospective. Biliary stenting markedly increased liver volume in both hilar and distal bile duct cancer. Our data suggest that liver volume assessment could be a useful tool for evaluating stent efficacy. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

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    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  20. Dosimetric Implications of Residual Tracking Errors During Robotic SBRT of Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Mark; Grehn, Melanie; Cremers, Florian; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Wurster, Stefan; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Dunst, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Guido; Schweikard, Achim; Rades, Dirk; Ernst, Floris

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although the metric precision of robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy in the presence of breathing motion is widely known, we investigated the dosimetric implications of breathing phase–related residual tracking errors. Methods and Materials: In 24 patients (28 liver metastases) treated with the CyberKnife, we recorded the residual correlation, prediction, and rotational tracking errors from 90 fractions and binned them into 10 breathing phases. The average breathing phase errors were used to shift and rotate the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) for each phase to calculate a pseudo 4-dimensional error dose distribution for comparison with the original planned dose distribution. Results: The median systematic directional correlation, prediction, and absolute aggregate rotation errors were 0.3 mm (range, 0.1-1.3 mm), 0.01 mm (range, 0.00-0.05 mm), and 1.5° (range, 0.4°-2.7°), respectively. Dosimetrically, 44%, 81%, and 92% of all voxels differed by less than 1%, 3%, and 5% of the planned local dose, respectively. The median coverage reduction for the PTV was 1.1% (range in coverage difference, −7.8% to +0.8%), significantly depending on correlation (P=.026) and rotational (P=.005) error. With a 3-mm PTV margin, the median coverage change for the CTV was 0.0% (range, −1.0% to +5.4%), not significantly depending on any investigated parameter. In 42% of patients, the 3-mm margin did not fully compensate for the residual tracking errors, resulting in a CTV coverage reduction of 0.1% to 1.0%. Conclusions: For liver tumors treated with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy, a safety margin of 3 mm is not always sufficient to cover all residual tracking errors. Dosimetrically, this translates into only small CTV coverage reductions.

  1. Dosimetric Implications of Residual Tracking Errors During Robotic SBRT of Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Mark [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Grehn, Melanie [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Cremers, Florian [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Siebert, Frank-Andre [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Wurster, Stefan [Saphir Radiosurgery Center Northern Germany, Güstrow (Germany); Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Saphir Radiosurgery Center Northern Germany, Güstrow (Germany); Dunst, Jürgen [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Department for Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medicine Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Schweikard, Achim [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Rades, Dirk [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Ernst, Floris [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); and others

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: Although the metric precision of robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy in the presence of breathing motion is widely known, we investigated the dosimetric implications of breathing phase–related residual tracking errors. Methods and Materials: In 24 patients (28 liver metastases) treated with the CyberKnife, we recorded the residual correlation, prediction, and rotational tracking errors from 90 fractions and binned them into 10 breathing phases. The average breathing phase errors were used to shift and rotate the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) for each phase to calculate a pseudo 4-dimensional error dose distribution for comparison with the original planned dose distribution. Results: The median systematic directional correlation, prediction, and absolute aggregate rotation errors were 0.3 mm (range, 0.1-1.3 mm), 0.01 mm (range, 0.00-0.05 mm), and 1.5° (range, 0.4°-2.7°), respectively. Dosimetrically, 44%, 81%, and 92% of all voxels differed by less than 1%, 3%, and 5% of the planned local dose, respectively. The median coverage reduction for the PTV was 1.1% (range in coverage difference, −7.8% to +0.8%), significantly depending on correlation (P=.026) and rotational (P=.005) error. With a 3-mm PTV margin, the median coverage change for the CTV was 0.0% (range, −1.0% to +5.4%), not significantly depending on any investigated parameter. In 42% of patients, the 3-mm margin did not fully compensate for the residual tracking errors, resulting in a CTV coverage reduction of 0.1% to 1.0%. Conclusions: For liver tumors treated with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy, a safety margin of 3 mm is not always sufficient to cover all residual tracking errors. Dosimetrically, this translates into only small CTV coverage reductions.

  2. Relationships between residue Voronoi volume and sequence conservation in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Yu-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yu; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Yen, Shih-Chung

    2018-02-01

    Functional and biophysical constraints can cause different levels of sequence conservation in proteins. Previously, structural properties, e.g., relative solvent accessibility (RSA) and packing density of the weighted contact number (WCN), have been found to be related to protein sequence conservation (CS). The Voronoi volume has recently been recognized as a new structural property of the local protein structural environment reflecting CS. However, for surface residues, it is sensitive to water molecules surrounding the protein structure. Herein, we present a simple structural determinant termed the relative space of Voronoi volume (RSV); it uses the Voronoi volume and the van der Waals volume of particular residues to quantify the local structural environment. RSV (range, 0-1) is defined as (Voronoi volume-van der Waals volume)/Voronoi volume of the target residue. The concept of RSV describes the extent of available space for every protein residue. RSV and Voronoi profiles with and without water molecules (RSVw, RSV, VOw, and VO) were compared for 554 non-homologous proteins. RSV (without water) showed better Pearson's correlations with CS than did RSVw, VO, or VOw values. The mean correlation coefficient between RSV and CS was 0.51, which is comparable to the correlation between RSA and CS (0.49) and that between WCN and CS (0.56). RSV is a robust structural descriptor with and without water molecules and can quantitatively reflect evolutionary information in a single protein structure. Therefore, it may represent a practical structural determinant to study protein sequence, structure, and function relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in liver and spleen volume in various types of compensated liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hiroshi; Tarao, Kazuo; Ito, Yoshihiko

    1988-01-01

    Liver and spleen volume were measured by computed tomography in 8 healthy voluneteers and in 21 patients of various types of compensated liver cirrhosis. Patients were divided into 3 groups (8 of viral group, 6 of alcoholic group and 6 of combined group) according to the histopathological findings of the liver and also according to the history of blood transfusion, HBs-Ag and alcohol drinking habit. Each volume was calculated by adding together the area measurements obtained from successive transverse abdominal scans. In the liver volume (mean±S.E.) alcoholic group (1381±86cm 3 ) was significantly larger than the healthy volunteers (1027±27cm 3 ) (p 3 ) (p 3 ) (p 3 ) was significantly larger than the healthy volunteers (84±4.7cm 3 ) (p 3 ) was significantly larger than the viral group (302±10um 2 ) (p 2 ) was also significantly larger than viral group (p<0.04). (author)

  4. Study of liver volume measurement and its clinical application for liver transplantation using multiple-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhiyi; Yu Zhefeng; Kuang Pingding; Xiao Shengxiang; Huang Dongsheng; Zheng Shusen; Wu Jian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the accuracy of liver volume measurement using MSCT and its application in liver transplantation. Methods: (1) Experimental study. Ten pig livers were scanned using MSCT with two collimations (3.2 mm and 6.5 mm) and pitch 1.25. Semi-automatic method was used to reconstruct 3D liver models to measure the liver volume. (2) Clinical study. Twenty-three patients received MSCT scan with collimation of 6.5 mm before liver transplantation. Same method was used to calculate the liver volume and the measurement was repeated by the same observer after 1 month. Results: (1) Experimental study. Actual liver volumes were (1134.1 ± 288.0) ml. Liver volumes by MSCT with two collimations were (1125.0 ± 282.5) ml (3.2 mm) and (1101.6 ± 277.6) ml (6.5 mm). The accuracy was (99.5 ± 0.8)% and (97.4 ± 0.8)%, respectively. Both showed same good agreement with actual liver volume: r=0.999, P<0.01 (2) Clinical study. Actual liver volumes were (1455.7±730.0) ml. Liver volume by MSCT was (1462.7 ± 774.1) ml. The accuracy was (99.5±9.6)%, r=0.986, P<0.01. Liver volume measured again was (1449.4 ± 768.9) ml, r=0.991 (P<0.01). Conclusion: MSCT can assess the liver volume correctly, and could be used as a routine step for evaluations before liver transplantation

  5. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume ({gamma}= 0.637 for total liver and {gamma}= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  6. Feasibility of Commercially Available, Fully Automated Hepatic CT Volumetry for Assessing Both Total and Territorial Liver Volumes in Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Cheong Il; Kim, Se Hyung; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yi, Nam Joon; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2013-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of commercially-available, fully automated hepatic CT volumetry for measuring both total and territorial liver volumes by comparing with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume. For the assessment of total and territorial liver volume, portal phase CT images of 77 recipients and 107 donors who donated right hemiliver were used. Liver volume was measured using both the fully automated and interactive manual methods with Advanced Liver Analysis software. The quality of the automated segmentation was graded on a 4-point scale. Grading was performed by two radiologists in consensus. For the cases with excellent-to-good quality, the accuracy of automated volumetry was compared with interactive manual volumetry and measured ex-vivo liver volume which was converted from weight using analysis of variance test and Pearson's or Spearman correlation test. Processing time for both automated and interactive manual methods was also compared. Excellent-to-good quality of automated segmentation for total liver and right hemiliver was achieved in 57.1% (44/77) and 17.8% (19/107), respectively. For both total and right hemiliver volumes, there were no significant differences among automated, manual, and ex-vivo volumes except between automate volume and manual volume of the total liver (p = 0.011). There were good correlations between automate volume and ex-vivo liver volume (γ= 0.637 for total liver and γ= 0.767 for right hemiliver). Both correlation coefficients were higher than those with manual method. Fully automated volumetry required significantly less time than interactive manual method (total liver: 48.6 sec vs. 53.2 sec, right hemiliver: 182 sec vs. 244.5 sec). Fully automated hepatic CT volumetry is feasible and time-efficient for total liver volume measurement. However, its usefulness for territorial liver volumetry needs to be improved.

  7. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  8. Preoperative evaluation of liver volume parameters in living related donors by spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, M.; Pacho, R.; Pruszynski, B.; Paluszkiewicz, R.; Hevelke, P.; Krawczyk, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the use of spiral computed tomography in the evaluation of the volume of the liver, its lobes, and selected segments in the preoperative period and to validate the used measurements. Thirty five potential donors (15 women and 20 men) aged 21-65 years were included. Based on the CT liver findings in the venous-portal phase and segment division of the liver according Couinaud the liver volume was calculated manually be a planimetric method, after making outlines of all liver sections. The volumes of lobes and selected segments were assessed by the same technique. The volumes of the resected liver segments calculated based on the CT findings were compared with appropriate measurements made during the operation. The total liver volume ranged between 804 and 1842 cm 3 (mean - 1456 cm 3 , standard deviation [SD] - 247). The volume of the right liver lobe including caudate lobe was 555 cm 3 to 1382 cm 3 (mean - 1024, SD - 186) that is in average 70.4% of the total liver volume. The volume of the left liver lobe ranged between 156 and 778 cm 3 (mean - 431, SD - 123) that is in average 29.6% of the total liver volume. The volume of segments 2+3 was 72 to 426 cm 3 (mean - 237 cm 3 , SD - 79) that is in average 16.2% of the total liver volume. The volume of the segment 4 ranged between 84 and 366 cm 3 (mean - 196, SD - 70) that is in average 13.4% of the total liver volume. CT makes possible to assess the volume of the liver, of its lobes and selected segments and it is an important modality for the classification of method of operation (segmentectomy, left hepatectomy, right hepatectomy). This method is accurate and reproducible. The liver part volumes calculated preoperatively in the majority of cases revealed to be smaller than in reality in average of 12.1%. (author)

  9. Circulating lipocalin 2 is neither related to liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease nor to residual liver function in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elisabeth M; Pohl, Rebekka; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Schacherer, Doris; Eisinger, Kristina; Wiest, Reiner; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-09-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is induced in the injured liver and associated with inflammation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum LCN2 is a non-invasive marker to assess hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, LCN2 was measured by ELISA in serum of 32 randomly selected patients without fatty liver (controls), 24 patients with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis mainly due to alcohol. Systemic LCN2 was comparable in patients with liver steatosis, those with liver cirrhosis and controls. LCN2 negatively correlated with bilirubin in both cohorts. In cirrhosis, LCN2 was not associated with more advanced liver injury defined by the CHILD-PUGH score and model for end-stage liver disease score. Resistin but not C-reactive protein or chemerin positively correlated with LCN2. LCN2 levels were not increased in patients with ascites or patients with esophageal varices. Consequently, reduction of portal pressure by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt did not affect LCN2 levels. Hepatic venous blood (HVS), portal venous blood and systemic venous blood levels of LCN2 were similar. HVS LCN2 was unchanged in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis compared to those with well-compensated disease arguing against increased hepatic release. Current data exclude that serum LCN2 is of any value as steatosis marker in patients with NAFLD and indicator of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintenance of Minute Circulation Volume during Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Levit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to optimize procedures to maintain minute circulation volume at different stages of orthotopic liver transplantation. Subjects and methods. In the period 2005—2010, Sverdlovsk Regional Clinical Hospital One performed 32 orthotopic liver transplantations, including one retransplantation. The patients’ ASA class was (4—5. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. The mean duration of surgery was 8.1 (range 5.8—10.5 hours. The investigators applied anesthesia based on iso-fluorane 0.6—0.9 MAC (by monitoring the anesthesia depth index with cerebral state index (CSI-40-60, as well as extended central hemodynamic monitoring (prepulmonary hemodilution. All the operations were made via portofemoroaxillary bypass, by using a centrifugal Biopump. Eight surgical stages were identified: 1 run-in (after tracheal intubation; 2 liver mobilization; 3 partial bypass; 4 complete bypass (hepatectomy, a liver-free period; 5 reperfusion; 6 a postreperfusion period (bypass end; 7 biliary repair; 8 the end of an operation. The concentrations of blood parameters, electrolytes, acid-base balance, and the levels of lactate and glucose were examined. The data were processed statistically. Central hemodynamics was monitored by prepulmonary thermodilution, by calculating cardiac index (CI, stroke index, and total peripheral vascular resistance index (TPVRI at the stages: liver mobilization, postreperfusion period (bypass end, and the end of surgery. Results. Even during partial bypass, there was a significant drop in mean blood pressure (MBP as compared to the baseline levels (p<0.05. Reperfusion was also accompanied by a significant decrease in MBP and an increase in heart rate. At the end of reperfusion and in the postreperfusion period, TPVRI was halved (689.2±68.0 as compared to the baseline levels. In the postreperfusion period, central venous and pulmonary artery pressures were significantly increased by 32 and 21%, respectively

  11. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  12. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki

    1983-01-01

    Liver and spleen volume were measured by computed tomography (CT) using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indication the accuracy and usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 48 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 subjects with non-hepatobiliary discase. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis but not in alcoholic cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. Alcoholic cirrhosis showed significantly larger liver volume than non-alcoholic cirrhosis. In alcoholic fibrosis, the mean hepatic volume was significantly larger than non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volumes both in alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis were significantly larger than in other disease. A significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiology of chronic liver disease. (author)

  13. Estimation of selected residual antibiotics in muscle, kidney, liver, and egg of layer chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, H.; Iqbal, J.; Naeem, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present studies were conducted for the estimation of quinolone residues in our local poultry products. The poultry products included muscle, kidney, liver and egg (yolk and white). The quinolones included in this study were, oxolonic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. An assessment of the variation of each analyte (quinolones antibiotic residues) in these products was made. A comparison was made among the analyte (quinolones) concentrations in different tissues/organs and their internationally permissible safer maximum residue limits (MRLS'). Infra Red spectra were used to detect the presence and identification of different quinolones. HPLC with ODS Column and U.V. detector was used for the quantification. (author)

  14. Luminescence screening of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in swine liver after dispersive liquid - liquid microextraction cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid luminescence method was developed to screen residues of enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), in swine liver. Target analytes were extracted in acetonitrile-2.5% trifluoroacetic acid-NaCl, cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and finally de...

  15. Estimation of the volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, Atushi

    1988-01-01

    The volume and percent uptake of the liver and spleen were estimated with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 99m Tc-phytate. Clinical usefulness of these parameters was evaluated by comparison with other liver function tests in 87 patients including 25 normal controls, 24 liver cirrhosis and 16 other chronic liver diseases. SPECT images were obtained by Maxi Camera 400T. Cut-off level for reconstruction of images and relationship between counts and activity (mCi) were obtained from phantom studies. Volumes estimated using SPECT and computed tomography were compared in 16 patients. Results obtained were as follows. 1) Optimal cut-off level for measurement of volumes for the liver was 37 % and for the spleen was 42 %. 2) Correlation between organ volumes estimated with CT and SPECT was good (r = 0.92 for the liver and r = 0.96 for the spleen), although volumes measured with SPECT were larger than those with CT. 3) Significant differences of percent uptake were observed between normal controls and liver cirrhosis. 4) Better correlation between spleen volumes and uptake was recognized in cases without liver cirrhosis than in cases with liver cirrhosis. The spleen uptake in liver cirrhosis was higher than those in others in comparison with the volume. 5) The liver/spleen ratio of 99m Tc-phytae uptake could most clearly differentiate liver cirrhosis from others. 6) Negative correlation was observed between liver volume or uptake and ICG (R 15 ). Estimation of volume and uptake of the liver and spleen could be a useful procedure to assess liver function, probably related with effective hepatic blood flow in liver cirrhosis. (author)

  16. Postprandial hepatic volume change: spiral CT evaluation in case of liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Kwang Suk; Moon, Jang Il; Ko, Myong Kwan; Byun, Joo Nam; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Young Chol; Oh, Jae Hee

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of evaluating liver cirrhosis through the measurement of liver volume. In a control group(20 normal subjects) and 20 cirrhotic patients, variations in liver volume before and after a meal were obtained. A case-control study was conducted between the two groups. In the control group, the range of increased liver volume after the meal was 67-186ml. Mean increased liver volume was 119.3ml, the range of percentage increase was 6-12.4% and the mean percentage increase was 9.89%. In cirrhotic patients, the range of increased liver volume after the meal was 1-20ml. Mean increase liver volume was 6.9ml, the range of percentage increase was 0-1.9% and the mean percentage increase was 0.65%. Compared with the control group, cirrhotic patients showed a much smaller increase in liver volume(p<0.01). Difference in variation of liver volume between a control group and cirrhotic patients before and after a meal can be used for the evaluation of liver cirrhosis

  17. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  18. Unbiased estimation of the liver volume by the Cavalieri principle using magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Buenyamin; Emirzeoglu, Mehmet; Uzun, Ahmet; Incesu, Luetfi; Bek, Yueksel; Bilgic, Sait; Kaplan, Sueleyman

    2003-01-01

    Objective: It is often useful to know the exact volume of the liver, such as in monitoring the effects of a disease, treatment, dieting regime, training program or surgical application. Some non-invasive methodologies have been previously described which estimate the volume of the liver. However, these preliminary techniques need special software or skilled performers and they are not ideal for daily use in clinical practice. Here, we describe a simple, accurate and practical technique for estimating liver volume without changing the routine magnetic resonance imaging scanning procedure. Materials and methods: In this study, five normal livers, obtained from cadavers, were scanned by 0.5 T MR machine, in horizontal and sagittal planes. The consecutive sections, in 10 mm thickness, were used to estimate the whole volume of the liver by means of the Cavalieri principle. The volume estimations were done by three different performers to evaluate the reproducibility. Results: There are no statistical differences between the performers and real liver volumes (P>0.05). There is also high correlation between the estimates of performers and the real liver volume (r=0.993). Conclusion: We conclude that the combination of MR imaging with the Cavalieri principle is a non-invasive, direct and unbiased technique that can be safely applied to estimate liver volume with a very moderate workload per individual

  19. The change of volume of each hepatic segment in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kazunori; Takashima, Tsutomu; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Kameyama, Tomiaki; Nishijima, Hiroshi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi

    1986-01-01

    We studied morphological changes of liver due to liver cirrhosis by evaluating the volume of liver and each hepatic segments (left lateral, left medial, right anterior, right posterior, and caudate lobe) divided using dynamic sequential CT during arterial portography. In liver cirrhosis, left lateral segment and caudate lobe were relatively enlarged, while right lobe and left medial segment showed significant shrinkage. But when posterior inferior right hepatic vein was evident on CT, right posterior segment did not shrink. (author)

  20. Does acid-base equilibrium correlate with remnant liver volume during stepwise liver resection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golriz, Mohammad; Abbasi, Sepehr; Fathi, Parham; Majlesara, Ali; Brenner, Thorsten; Mehrabi, Arianeb

    2017-10-01

    Small for size and flow syndrome (SFSF) is one of the most challenging complications following extended hepatectomy (EH). After EH, hepatic artery flow decreases and portal vein flow increases per 100 g of remnant liver volume (RLV). This causes hypoxia followed by metabolic acidosis. A correlation between acidosis and posthepatectomy liver failure has been postulated but not studied systematically in a large animal model or clinical setting. In our study, we performed stepwise liver resections on nine pigs to defined SFSF limits as follows: step 1: segment II/III resection, step 2: segment IV resection, step 3: segment V/VIII resection (RLV: 75, 50, and 25%, respectively). Blood gas values were measured before and after each step using four catheters inserted into the carotid artery, internal jugular vein, hepatic artery, and portal vein. The pH, [Formula: see text], and base excess (BE) decreased, but [Formula: see text] values increased after 75% resection in the portal and jugular veins. EH correlated with reduced BE in the hepatic artery. Pco 2 values increased after 75% resection in the jugular vein. In contrast, arterial Po 2 increased after every resection, whereas the venous Po 2 decreased slightly. There were differences in venous [Formula: see text], BE in the hepatic artery, and Pco 2 in the jugular vein after 75% liver resection. Because 75% resection is the limit for SFSF, these noninvasive blood evaluations may be used to predict SFSF. Further studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate this correlation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to evaluate acid-base parameters in major central and hepatic vessels during stepwise liver resection. The pH, [Formula: see text], and base excess (BE) decreased, but [Formula: see text] values increased after 75% resection in the portal and jugular veins. Extended hepatectomy correlated with reduced BE in the hepatic artery. Because 75% resection is the limit for small for size and flow

  1. Determination and depletion of residues of carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle of pigs in feeding experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, M G; Lund, C; Jacobsen, M

    1988-01-01

    The results of residue determinations of the growth promotors carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle from pigs in feeding experiments are described as well as the analytical methods used. Residues of the carbadox metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid were found in liver from pigs fed 20 mg/kg in the diet with a withdrawal time of 30 days. No residues were detected in muscle with zero withdrawal time. The limit of determination was 0.01 mg/kg for both tissues. No residues of virginiamycin and tylosin were found in pigs fed 50 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, in the diet, even with zero withdrawal time. Residues of tylosin of 0.06 mg/kg and below were detected in liver and kidney from pigs fed 200 or 400 mg/kg and slaughtered within 3 h after the last feeding.

  2. Rationale and design of the RESOLVE trial: lanreotide as a volume reducing treatment for polycystic livers in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, T.J.G.; Chrispijn, M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) suffers from polycystic liver disease. Symptoms arise when liver volume increases. The somatostatin analogue lanreotide has proven to reduce liver volume in patients with polycystic liver disease.

  3. Residual volume on land and when immersed in water: effect on percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu

    2006-08-01

    There is a large residual volume (RV) error when assessing percent body fat by means of hydrostatic weighing. It has generally been measured before hydrostatic weighing. However, an individual's maximal exhalations on land and in the water may not be identical. The aims of this study were to compare residual volumes and vital capacities on land and when immersed to the neck in water, and to examine the influence of the measurement error on percent body fat. The participants were 20 healthy Japanese males and 20 healthy Japanese females. To assess the influence of the RV error on percent body fat in both conditions and to evaluate the cross-validity of the prediction equation, another 20 males and 20 females were measured using hydrostatic weighing. Residual volume was measured on land and in the water using a nitrogen wash-out technique based on an open-circuit approach. In water, residual volume was measured with the participant sitting on a chair while the whole body, except the head, was submerged . The trial-to-trial reliabilities of residual volume in both conditions were very good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.98). Although residual volume measured under the two conditions did not agree completely, they showed a high correlation (males: 0.880; females: 0.853; P body fat computed using residual volume measured in both conditions was very good for both sexes (males: r = 0.902; females: r = 0.869, P body fat: -3.4 to 2.2% for males; -6.3 to 4.4% for females). We conclude that if these errors are of no importance, residual volume measured on land can be used when assessing body composition.

  4. Residu Deltamethrin Terlacak pada Hati Ayam Pedaging yang Dipasarkan di Yogyakarta (DETECTION OF DELTAMETHRIN RESIDUE IN BROILER LIVER TRADED IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagak Donny Satria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The consumer assurance to get safe, hygienic, whole, and halal food is an important concern. Analysisof chemical residue is one of some ways  to examine food safety. The objective of this research was to detectdeltamethrin residue in broiler liver sold in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The isocratic HPLC method was usedin this research, using Shimadzu 6.1, 80% of Acetonitrile in Aquabides as mobile phase, with 1ml/minutesof flow rate. C-18 was used as column and the wavelength of UV-Vis detector was 270 nm. The result of theresearch was get from HPLC’s analyses. Deltamethrin’s peak area would be presented in retention time 8-12minutes with specific profile of curve. The result of the research showed that deltamethrin was positivelydetected in 13 broiler livers. It’s concluded that broiler livers that sold in Yogyakarta are detected to containdeltamethrin-contaminated.

  5. Detection of Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Residuals in Pork Liver Using a Customized Surface Plasmon Resonance Bioanalyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiandong; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Shun; Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Jianwei; Hu, Xinran; Liang, Hao; Zhu, Juanhua; Sun, Xiaohui; Ma, Liuzheng; Jiang, Min

    2015-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay with an immobilization of self-assembled molecular identification membrane for the detection of residual Clenbuterol Hydrochloride (CLB) in pork liver was systematically investigated and experimentally validated for its high performance. SPR immunoassay with a regular competitive inhibition assay cannot be directly verified to detect CLB residuals. In this study, the binding of Au film with mercaptopropionic acid was investigated using the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. After that, the immunoglobulin IgG of swine (SwIgG-CLB) was bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. The modified comprehensive analysis of how the membrane structure works was introduced together with the customized SPR bioanalyzer. In order to evaluate the performance of this biomembrane structure, the concentrations of CLB-contained solutions of 0 ng•mL-1, 10 ng•mL-1, 20 ng•mL-1, 33.3 ng•mL-1, and 40 ng•mL-1 were prepared by adding CLB reagents into the solutions of CLB antibody (Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Antibody, CLB-Ab), successively and then the response unit (RU) was measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the fitting curve was established with the R-Square value of 0.9929. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 88.48% to 103.21% was experimented and the limit of detection of CLB in 1.26 ng•mL-1 was obtained efficiently. It was concluded that the detection method associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to the determination of residual CLB in pork liver quantitatively by using the customized SPR bioanalyzer. PMID:25799327

  6. Detection of clenbuterol hydrochloride residuals in pork liver using a customized surface plasmon resonance bioanalyzer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Hu

    Full Text Available A surface plasmon resonance (SPR immunoassay with an immobilization of self-assembled molecular identification membrane for the detection of residual Clenbuterol Hydrochloride (CLB in pork liver was systematically investigated and experimentally validated for its high performance. SPR immunoassay with a regular competitive inhibition assay cannot be directly verified to detect CLB residuals. In this study, the binding of Au film with mercaptopropionic acid was investigated using the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. After that, the immunoglobulin IgG of swine (SwIgG-CLB was bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. The modified comprehensive analysis of how the membrane structure works was introduced together with the customized SPR bioanalyzer. In order to evaluate the performance of this biomembrane structure, the concentrations of CLB-contained solutions of 0 ng · mL(-1, 10 ng · mL(-1, 20 ng · mL(-1, 33.3 ng · mL(-1, and 40 ng · mL(-1 were prepared by adding CLB reagents into the solutions of CLB antibody (Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Antibody, CLB-Ab, successively and then the response unit (RU was measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the fitting curve was established with the R-Square value of 0.9929. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 88.48% to 103.21% was experimented and the limit of detection of CLB in 1.26 ng · mL(-1 was obtained efficiently. It was concluded that the detection method associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to the determination of residual CLB in pork liver quantitatively by using the customized SPR bioanalyzer.

  7. Market Competition and Density in Liver Transplantation: Relationship to Volume and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Joel T; Yeh, Heidi; Markmann, James F; Nguyen, Louis L

    2015-08-01

    Liver transplantation centers are unevenly distributed within the Donor Service Areas (DSAs) of the United States. This study assessed how market competition and liver transplantation center density are associated with liver transplantation volume within individual DSAs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 53,156 adult liver transplants in 45 DSAs with 110 transplantation centers identified from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients between 2003 and 2012. The following measures were derived annually for each DSA: market competition using the Herfindahl Hirschman Index, transplantation center density by the Average Nearest Neighbor method, liver quality by the Liver Donor Risk Index, and patient risk by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease. A hierarchical mixed effects negative binomial regression model of the relationship between liver transplants and market factors was created annually. Patient and graft survival were investigated with a Cox proportional hazards model. Transplantation center density was associated with market competition (p market competition (IRR = 1.36; p = 0.02), increased listings (IRR = 1.14; p market variables were associated with increased mortality after transplantation. After controlling for demographic and market factors, a greater concentration of centers was associated with more liver transplants without impacting overall survival. These results warrant additional investigation into the relationship between geospatial factors and liver transplantation volume with consideration for the optimization of scarce resources. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  9. Use of multidetector row CT with volume renderings in right lobe living liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishifuro, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Kushima, Toshio; Horiguchi, Jun; Nakashige, Aya; Tamura, Akihisa; Marukawa, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ono, Chiaki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2002-01-01

    Multidetector row CT is a feasible diagnostic tool in pre- and postoperative liver partial transplantation. We can assess vascular anatomy and liver parenchyma as well as volumetry, which provide useful information for both donor selection and surgical planning. Disorders of the vascular and biliary systems are carefully observed in recipients. In addition, we evaluate liver regeneration of both the donor and the recipient by serial volumetry. We present how multidetector row CT with state-of-the-art three-dimensional volume renderings may be used in right lobe liver transplantation. (orig.)

  10. 3D CT modeling of hepatic vessel architecture and volume calculation in living donated liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frericks, Bernd B.; Caldarone, Franco C.; Savellano, Dagmar Hoegemann; Stamm, Georg; Kirchhoff, Timm D.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Galanski, Michael; Nashan, Bjoern; Klempnauer, Juergen; Schenk, Andrea; Selle, Dirk; Spindler, Wolf; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a software tool for non-invasive preoperative volumetric assessment of potential donors in living donated liver transplantation (LDLT). Biphasic helical CT was performed in 56 potential donors. Data sets were post-processed using a non-commercial software tool for segmentation, volumetric analysis and visualisation of liver segments. Semi-automatic definition of liver margins allowed the segmentation of parenchyma. Hepatic vessels were delineated using a region-growing algorithm with automatically determined thresholds. Volumes and shapes of liver segments were calculated automatically based on individual portal-venous branches. Results were visualised three-dimensionally and statistically compared with conventional volumetry and the intraoperative findings in 27 transplanted cases. Image processing was easy to perform within 23 min. Of the 56 potential donors, 27 were excluded from LDLT because of inappropriate liver parenchyma or vascular architecture. Two recipients were not transplanted due to poor clinical conditions. In the 27 transplanted cases, preoperatively visualised vessels were confirmed, and only one undetected accessory hepatic vein was revealed. Calculated graft volumes were 1110±180 ml for right lobes, 820 ml for the left lobe and 270±30 ml for segments II+III. The calculated volumes and intraoperatively measured graft volumes correlated significantly. No significant differences between the presented automatic volumetry and the conventional volumetry were observed. A novel image processing technique was evaluated which allows a semi-automatic volume calculation and 3D visualisation of the different liver segments. (orig.)

  11. Transporting large volumes of residual radioactive material: FUSRAP solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressnell, T.; McDaniel, P.; Darby, J.

    1997-01-01

    During the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, many sites in the United States were used by the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission for processing and storing uranium and thorium ores and metals. Some of the sites were owned by the federal government; others were owned by universities or other institutions; and still others, such as chemical plants, were privately owned. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is one of several U.S. Department of Energy programs created to address radioactive contamination in excess of guidelines at these sites. FUSRAP currently includes 46 sites in 14 states. This article includes the following topics in describing FUSRAP work: Logistics challenges; engineering challenges (package inspection, equipment compatability, moisture content requirements, waste volume estimation); Traffic management

  12. Residual volume measurements in CAPD patients with exogenous and endogenous solutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imholz, A. L.; Koomen, G. C.; Struijk, D. G.; Arisz, L.; Krediet, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate residual volume (RV) measurements are needed in studies on fluid kinetics during CAPD. In this study 10 stable CAPD patients were examined twice within 1 week. On both occasions RV after drainage was calculated by the indicator dilution method. Exogenous (dextran 70, inulin) and endogenous

  13. Measurement properties and usability of non-contact scanners for measuring transtibial residual limb volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, Rianne; Beekman, Anna M; Emmelot, Cornelis H; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2018-06-01

    Non-contact scanners may have potential for measurement of residual limb volume. Different non-contact scanners have been introduced during the last decades. Reliability and usability (practicality and user friendliness) should be assessed before introducing these systems in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the measurement properties and usability of four non-contact scanners (TT Design, Omega Scanner, BioSculptor Bioscanner, and Rodin4D Scanner). Quasi experimental. Nine (geometric and residual limb) models were measured on two occasions, each consisting of two sessions, thus in total 4 sessions. In each session, four observers used the four systems for volume measurement. Mean for each model, repeatability coefficients for each system, variance components, and their two-way interactions of measurement conditions were calculated. User satisfaction was evaluated with the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire. Systematic differences between the systems were found in volume measurements. Most of the variances were explained by the model (97%), while error variance was 3%. Measurement system and the interaction between system and model explained 44% of the error variance. Repeatability coefficient of the systems ranged from 0.101 (Omega Scanner) to 0.131 L (Rodin4D). Differences in Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire scores between the systems were small and not significant. The systems were reliable in determining residual limb volume. Measurement systems and the interaction between system and residual limb model explained most of the error variances. The differences in repeatability coefficient and usability between the four CAD/CAM systems were small. Clinical relevance If accurate measurements of residual limb volume are required (in case of research), modern non-contact scanners should be taken in consideration nowadays.

  14. Volume measurement variability in three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound images of murine liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtzfeld, L A; Graham, K C; Groom, A C; MacDonald, I C; Chambers, A F; Fenster, A; Lacefield, J C

    2006-01-01

    The identification and quantification of tumour volume measurement variability is imperative for proper study design of longitudinal non-invasive imaging of pre-clinical mouse models of cancer. Measurement variability will dictate the minimum detectable volume change, which in turn influences the scheduling of imaging sessions and the interpretation of observed changes in tumour volume. In this paper, variability is quantified for tumour volume measurements from 3D high-frequency ultrasound images of murine liver metastases. Experimental B16F1 liver metastases were analysed in different size ranges including less than 1 mm 3 , 1-4 mm 3 , 4-8 mm 3 and 8-70 mm 3 . The intra- and inter-observer repeatability was high over a large range of tumour volumes, but the coefficients of variation (COV) varied over the volume ranges. The minimum and maximum intra-observer COV were 4% and 14% for the 1-4 mm 3 and 3 tumours, respectively. For tumour volumes measured by segmenting parallel planes, the maximum inter-slice distance that maintained acceptable measurement variability increased from 100 to 600 μm as tumour volume increased. Comparison of free breathing versus ventilated animals demonstrated that respiratory motion did not significantly change the measured volume. These results enable design of more efficient imaging studies by using the measured variability to estimate the time required to observe a significant change in tumour volume

  15. Iron storage in liver, bone marrow and splenic Gaucheroma reflects residual disease in type 1 Gaucher disease patients on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenboog, Martine; Bohte, Anneloes E; Akkerman, Erik M; Stoker, Jaap; Hollak, Carla E M

    2017-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the storage of glycosphingolipids in macrophages. Despite effective therapy, residual disease is present in varying degrees and may be associated with late complications, such as persistent bone or liver disease and increased cancer risk. Gaucher macrophages are capable of storing iron and locations of residual disease may thus be detectable with iron imaging. Forty type 1 GD (GD1) patients and 40 matched healthy controls were examined using a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging protocol consisting of standard sequences, allowing analysis of iron content per organ, expressed as R2* (Hz). Median R2* values were significantly elevated in GD1 patients as compared to healthy controls in liver [41 Hz (range 29-165) vs. 38 Hz (range 28-53), P Gaucher lesions known as Gaucheroma were found to have increased R2* values. R2* values of liver, spleen and vertebral bone marrow strongly correlated with serum ferritin levels. GD1 patients with persistent hyperferritinaemia demonstrate increased iron levels in liver and bone marrow, which may carry a risk for liver fibrosis and cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Multi-slice CT three dimensional volume measurement of tumors and livers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yuanlong; Li Liangcai; Tang Binghang; Hu Zemin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the accuracy of multi-slice CT (MSCT) three dimensional (3D) volume measurement of tumors and livers in hepatocellular carcinoma cases by using immersion method as the standard. Methods: (1) The volume of 25 porkling livers was measured using immersion method in experiment group in vitro. Then the models were built according to Matsumoto's method and CT scanning and special software were used to measure the volume of the livers. (2) The volume of the tumors in 25 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma was measured using diameter measurement method and special volume measurement software (tissue measurements). Two tumors of them were measured respectively using MSCT 3D measurement, diameter measurement before the operation and immersion method after the operation. The data of the two groups were examined using pairing t test. Results: (1) The volume range of 25 porkling livers was 68.50-1150.10 ml using immersion method and 69.78-1069.97 ml using MSCT 3D measurement. There was no significant difference of the data in these two groups using t-test (t=1.427, P>0.05). (2) The volume range of 25 hepatocellular tumors was 395.16-2747.7 ml using diameter measurement and 203.10-1463.19 ml using MSCT 3D measurement before the operation. There was significant difference of the data in these two groups using t-test (t=7.689, P<0.001). In 2 ablated tumors, 1 case's volume was (21.75±0.60) ml using MSCT 3D measurement and 33.73 ml using diameter measurement before the operation and 21.50 ml using immersion measurement after the operation. The other case's volume was (696.13±5.30) ml using MSCT 3D measurement and 1323.51 ml using diameter measurement before the operation and 685.50 ml using immersion measurement after the operation. Conclusion: MSCT 3D volume measurement can accurately measure the volume of tumor and liver and has important clinical application value. There is no significant difference between MSCT 3D volume measurement and immersion method

  17. Disappearing or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging: Is local treatment required?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Seung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical course of disappearing colorectal liver metastases (DLM) or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases (RTCLM) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who had colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and received chemotherapy. Among 137 patients who received chemotherapy for CLM and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI between 2010 and 2012, 43 patients with 168 DLMs and 48 RTCLMs were included. The cumulative in situ recurrence rate of DLM and progression rate of RTCLM and their predictive factors were evaluated. A total of 150 DLMs and 26 RTCLMs were followed up without additional treatment. At 1 and 2 years, respectively, the cumulative in situ recurrence rates for DLM were 10.9 % and 15.7 % and the cumulative progression rates for RTCLM were 27.2 % and 33.2 %. The in situ recurrence rate at 2 years was 4.9 % for the DLM group that did not show reticular hypointensity of liver parenchyma on hepatobiliary phase. DLM on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and DWI indicates a high possibility of clinical complete response, especially in patients without chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Thirty-three percent of RTCLMs showed progression at 2 years. (orig.)

  18. Liver volume, portal vein flow, and clearance of indocyanine green and antipyrine in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Court-Payen, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment.......The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment....

  19. A new formula for estimation of standard liver volume using computed tomography-measured body thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ka Wing; Chok, Kenneth S H; Chan, Albert C Y; Tam, Henry S C; Dai, Wing Chiu; Cheung, Tan To; Fung, James Y Y; Lo, Chung Mau

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this article is to derive a more accurate and easy-to-use formula for finding estimated standard liver volume (ESLV) using novel computed tomography (CT) measurement parameters. New formulas for ESLV have been emerging that aim to improve the accuracy of estimation. However, many of these formulas contain body surface area measurements and logarithms in the equations that lead to a more complicated calculation. In addition, substantial errors in ESLV using these old formulas have been shown. An improved version of the formula for ESLV is needed. This is a retrospective cohort of consecutive living donor liver transplantations from 2005 to 2016. Donors were randomly assigned to either the formula derivation or validation groups. Total liver volume (TLV) measured by CT was used as the reference for a linear regression analysis against various patient factors. The derived formula was compared with the existing formulas. There were 722 patients (197 from the derivation group, 164 from the validation group, and 361 from the recipient group) involved in the study. The donor's body weight (odds ratio [OR], 10.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.25-13.60; P Liver Transplantation 23 1113-1122 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Arsenic residues in livers of swine, lamb and poultry and in eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoeppler, H O

    1975-01-01

    The arsenic content of 3651 swine, 180 lamb livers, 420 egg samples and poultry livers from 175 poultry farms were determined colorimetrically. The analyses samples were all derived from bavarian farms. According to the proposed legal standards (3), 1.23% of the swine liver samples and 1.67% of the egg samples were above the tolerated values of 0.5 resp. 0.1 mg/kg. 14 references, 4 tables.

  1. CT liver volumetry using three-dimensional image data in living donor liver transplantation: Effects of slice thickness on volume calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Baron, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate a relationship between slice thickness and calculated volume on CT liver volumetry by comparing the results for images with various slice thicknesses including three-dimensional images. Twenty adult potential liver donors (12 men, 8 women; mean age, 39 years; range, 24–64) underwent CT with a 64-section multi-detector row CT scanner after intra-venous injection of contrast material. Four image sets with slice thicknesses of 0.625 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm, and 10 mm were used. First, a program developed in our laboratory for automated liver extraction was applied to CT images, and the liver boundary was obtained automatically. Then, an abdominal radiologist reviewed all images on which automatically extracted boundaries were superimposed, and edited the boundary on each slice to enhance the accuracy. Liver volumes were determined by counting of the voxels within the liver boundary. Mean whole liver volumes estimated with CT were 1322.5 cm3 on 0.625-mm, 1313.3 cm3 on 2.5-mm, 1310.3 cm3 on 5-mm, and 1268.2 cm3 on 10-mm images. Volumes calculated for three-dimensional (0.625-mm-thick) images were significantly larger than those for thicker images (Pvolumetry. If not, three-dimensional images could be essential. PMID:21850689

  2. Determination of Florfenicol Residues in the Muscle and Liver of Cultured Rainbow Trout in Iran by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firooz Fadaeifard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Florfenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, widely used in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to determine florfenicol residues in the muscle and liver of cultured rainbow trout in Iran by ELISA. The samples were collected from three areas (Kiar, Ardal, and Koohrang, considered as areas with high production of trout in the western part of Iran. Sampling was completed during the spring and summer of 2011. All of the samples were categorized into three weight groups (below 50g, 50 to150g and over 150g and five individuals were randomly selected from fish belonged to each weigh group, and then collected samples sent for determination of antibiotic residues. The highest and the lowest antibiotic residues were 31.42±53.52 ng g-1 (>150 g fish and 10.35±2.33 ng g-1 (<50 g fish for liver samples and 48.84±50.36 ng g-1 (50-150 g fish and 18.20±15.41 ng g-1 (> 150 g fish for muscle samples, respectively. In different areas, the highest antibiotic levels were found in Koohrang and Ardal with mean of 37.00±63.61 and 15.33±10.45 ng g-1 for liver samples and 40.74±40.80 and 28.24±45.91ng g-1 for muscle samples. The results indicated that florfenicol residues are lower than the maximum permissible level has been announced by the European Union.

  3. Volume-assisted estimation of liver function based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR relaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haimerl, Michael; Schlabeck, Mona; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Zeman, Florian [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany); Nickel, Dominik [MR Applications Development, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Barreiros, Ana Paula [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg (Germany); Loss, Martin [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Surgery, Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To determine whether liver function as determined by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance can be estimated quantitatively from hepatic magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry with gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). One hundred and seven patients underwent an ICG clearance test and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including MR relaxometry at 3 Tesla. A transverse 3D VIBE sequence with an inline T1 calculation was acquired prior to and 20 minutes post-Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. The reduction rate of T1 relaxation time (rrT1) between pre- and post-contrast images and the liver volume-assisted index of T1 reduction rate (LVrrT1) were evaluated. The plasma disappearance rate of ICG (ICG-PDR) was correlated with the liver volume (LV), rrT1 and LVrrT1, providing an MRI-based estimated ICG-PDR value (ICG-PDR{sub est}). Simple linear regression model showed a significant correlation of ICG-PDR with LV (r = 0.32; p = 0.001), T1{sub post} (r = 0.65; p < 0.001) and rrT1 (r = 0.86; p < 0.001). Assessment of LV and consecutive evaluation of multiple linear regression model revealed a stronger correlation of ICG-PDR with LVrrT1 (r = 0.92; p < 0.001), allowing for the calculation of ICG-PDR{sub est}. Liver function as determined using ICG-PDR can be estimated quantitatively from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR relaxometry. Volume-assisted MR relaxometry has a stronger correlation with liver function than does MR relaxometry. (orig.)

  4. Relationship between Stroke Volume Variation and Blood Transfusion during Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Moon; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Yoo, Hwanhee; Lee, Sukyung; Kim, Hee Yeong; Kim, Young-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative blood transfusion increases the risk for perioperative mortality and morbidity in liver transplant recipients. A high stroke volume variation (SVV) method has been proposed to reduce blood loss during living donor hepatectomy. Herein, we investigated whether maintaining high SVV could reduce the need for blood transfusion and also evaluated the effect of the high SVV method on postoperative outcomes in liver transplant recipients. We retrospectively analyzed 332 patients who underwent liver transplantation, divided into control (maintaining blood transfusion requirement and hemodynamic parameters, including SVV, as well as postoperative outcomes, such as incidences of acute kidney injury, durations of postoperative intensive care unit and hospital stay, and rates of 1-year mortality. Mean SVV values were 7.0% ± 1.3% in the control group (n = 288) and 11.2% ± 1.8% in the high SVV group (n = 44). The median numbers of transfused packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasmas in the high SVV group were significantly lower than those in control group (0 vs. 2 units, P = 0.003; and 0 vs. 3 units, P = 0.033, respectively). No significant between-group differences were observed for postoperative outcomes. Maintaining high SVV can reduce the blood transfusion requirement during liver transplantation without worsening postoperative outcomes. These findings provide insights into improving perioperative management in liver transplant recipients.

  5. Blood products, volume control, and renal support in the coagulopathy of liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Curtis K; Balogun, Rasheed A

    2009-02-01

    Plasma-based products are commonly used in patients who have chronic liver disease to treat perceived coagulopathy despite unproven efficacy and potentially severe risks, such as transfusion-related acute lung injury, which carries a high mortality rate. Moreover, volume expansion may acutely worsen portal hypertension and increase bleeding from the collateral portal vascular bed. Although factor replacement therapy may be warranted in selected situations, its use should be restricted because of the limitations of target tests, such as international normalized ratio, which poorly reflects presence of bleeding diatheses in patients who have cirrhosis. Renal replacement therapies are frequent adjuncts in patients who have cirrhosis and are acutely decompensated, and may correct uremia-related bleeding diathesis and assist in controlling vascular volume, although they are generally limited to use as a bridge to liver transplantation. Novel extracorporeal therapies are emerging and may also have significant interaction with the hemostatic system. Volume contraction and blood conservation therapies are relatively new and promising approaches to reduce use of blood products in liver transplantation.

  6. The error analysis of Lobular and segmental division of right liver by volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfei; Lin, Weigang; Chi, Yanyan; Zheng, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Guowei; Yu, Shengbo; Li, Chan; Wang, Bin; Sui, Hongjin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the inconsistencies between right liver volume as measured by imaging and the actual anatomical appearance of the right lobe. Five healthy donated livers were studied. The liver slices were obtained with hepatic segments multicolor-infused through the portal vein. In the slices, the lobes were divided by two methods: radiological landmarks and real anatomical boundaries. The areas of the right anterior lobe (RAL) and right posterior lobe (RPL) on each slice were measured using Photoshop CS5 and AutoCAD, and the volumes of the two lobes were calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the volumes of the RAL or RPL as measured by the radiological landmarks (RL) and anatomical boundaries (AB) methods. However, the curves of the square error value of the RAL and RPL measured using CT showed that the three lowest points were at the cranial, intermediate, and caudal levels. The U- or V-shaped curves of the square error rate of the RAL and RPL revealed that the lowest value is at the intermediate level and the highest at the cranial and caudal levels. On CT images, less accurate landmarks were used to divide the RAL and RPL at the cranial and caudal layers. The measured volumes of hepatic segments VIII and VI would be less than their true values, and the measured volumes of hepatic segments VII and V would be greater than their true values, according to radiological landmarks. Clin. Anat. 30:585-590, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Continuous nasogastric tube feeding: monitoring by combined use of refractometry and traditional gastric residual volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W-K; McClave, S-A; Chao, Y-C

    2004-02-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs) is insensitive and cannot distinguish retained enteral formula from the large volume of endogenous secretions. We designed this prospective study to determine whether refractometry and Brix value (BV) measurements could be used to monitor gastric emptying and tolerance in patients receiving continuous enteral feeding. Thirty-six patients on continuous nasogastric tube feeding were divided into two groups; patients with lower GRVs (75 ml) in Group 2. Upon entry, all gastric contents were aspirated, the volume was recorded (Asp GRV), BV measurements were made by refractometry, and then the contents were reinstilled but diluted with 30 ml additional water. Finally, a small amount was reaspirated and repeat BV measurements were made. Three hours later, the entire procedure was repeated a second time. The BV ratio, calculated (Cal) GRV, and volume of formula remaining were calculated by derived equations. Mean BV ratios were significantly higher for those patients in Group 2 compared to those in Group 1. All but one of the 22 patients (95%) in Group 1 had a volume of formula remaining in the stomach estimated on both measurements to be less than the hourly infusion rate (all these patients had BV ratios 70%). Three of the Group 2 patients (21%) whose initial measurement showed evidence for retention of formula, improved on repeat follow-up measurement assuring adequate gastric emptying. The remaining five patients from Group 2 (35%) had a volume of formula remaining that was less than the hourly infusion rate on both measurements. The pattern of Asp GRVs and serial pre- and post-dilution BVs failed to differentiate these patients in Group 2 with potential emptying problems from those with sufficient gastric emptying. Refractometry and measurement of the BV may improve the clinical utilization of GRVs, by its ability to identify the component of formula within gastric contents and track changes in that component related

  8. Effect of oral D-tagatose on liver volume and hepatic glycogen accumulation in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, C; Ith, M; Jung, B; Bruegger, K; Erban, S; Diamantis, I; Kreis, R; Bär, A

    2001-04-01

    Standard toxicity tests with high levels of D-tagatose showed a reversible enlargement of the liver in Sprague-Dawley rats without increase of liver enzymes. The present study tests the hypotheses that partial substitution of dietary sucrose by D-tagatose for 28 days increases the volume of human liver and the concentration of liver glycogen. Twelve healthy, male volunteers were studied in a double-blind crossover study with ingestion of D-tagatose (3x15 g daily) and placebo (sucrose, 3x15 g daily) for periods of 28 days each. Liver volume and glycogen concentration have been determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and spectroscopy, which were accompanied by routine medical examinations. MR examinations before and after the treatments revealed no effects (P>0.05) of treatment, period, or subject for changes in liver volume or glycogen concentration. A steady increase of liver volumes, independent of the D-tagatose or placebo intake, has been observed over the study in parallel with a slight increase in body weight. The treatment with D-tagatose was not associated with clinically relevant changes of the examined clinico-chemical and hematological parameters, including liver enzymes and uric acid. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Characterization and Profiling of Liver microRNAs by RNA-sequencing in Cattle Divergently Selected for Residual Feed Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan Al-Husseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser. In total, 23,628,103 high quality short sequence reads were obtained and more than half of these reads were matched to the bovine genome (UMD 3.1. We identified 305 known bovine miRNAs. Bta-miR-143, bta-miR-30, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-378, and bta-let-7 were the top five most abundant miRNAs families expressed in liver, representing more than 63% of expressed miRNAs. We also identified 52 homologous miRNAs and 10 novel putative bovine-specific miRNAs, based on precursor sequence and the secondary structure and utilizing the miRBase (v. 21. We compared the miRNAs profile between high and low RFI animals and ranked the most differentially expressed bovine known miRNAs. Bovine miR-143 was the most abundant miRNA in the bovine liver and comprised 20% of total expressed mapped miRNAs. The most highly expressed miRNA in liver of mice and humans, miR-122, was the third most abundant in our cattle liver samples. We also identified 10 putative novel bovine-specific miRNA candidates. Differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI cattle were identified with 18 miRNAs being up-regulated and 7 other miRNAs down-regulated in low RFI cattle. Our study has identified comprehensive miRNAs expressed in bovine liver. Some of the expressed miRNAs are novel in cattle. The differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI

  10. Influence of postsurgical residual tumor volume on local control in radiotherapy for maxillary sinus cancer

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    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Satoshi [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan). Hospital East; Itai, Yuji

    2001-05-01

    The aim was to study the influence of postsurgical gross residual tumor volume on local control of maxillary sinus cancer treated with radiotherapy combined with debulking surgery. Forty-three patients who underwent combined surgery and radiotherapy (50-72 Gy, median 60 Gy) for squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus were reviewed. Gross residual tumor volume (GRTV) after surgery was measured on computed tomograms obtained during the radiotherapy planning. Patients were classified according to GRTV as follows: group AA, GRTV=0 (microscopic residual, n=2); group A, GRTV <10 cm{sup 3} (n=24); group B, 10-40 cm{sup 3} (n=9); and group C, {>=}40 cm{sup 3} (n=8). The relationship between local control and GRTV was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. The 2-year local control rate for all patients was 62%. The differences in local control rates between groups AA, A and B were not significant (P<0.05), but the rate was significantly lower in group C than in the other groups (69% at 2 years vs 31% at 1 year, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that GRTV (P=0.002) and histological differentiation (poorly differentiated histology was favorable, P=0.035) were independent prognostic factors and that intraarterial chemotherapy and administered total dose were not. Local control in groups A and B significantly depended on the total dose of radiotherapy, with 2-year control rates of patients receiving 50 Gy (n=6) and {>=}60 Gy (n=27) of 17% vs 79%, respectively (P<0.001). Our data suggest that adequate, not complete, debulking associated with a total radiotherapy dose of {>=}60 Gy can provide satisfactory local control for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus. (author)

  11. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure: An open randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine; Rasmussen, Allan; Isoniemi, Helena; Patel, Vishal C; Triantafyllou, Evangelos; Bernal, William; Auzinger, Georg; Shawcross, Debbie; Eefsen, Martin; Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Clemmesen, Jens Otto; Hockerstedt, Krister; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen; Hansen, Bent Adel; Antoniades, Charalambos G; Wendon, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15% of ideal body weight with fresh frozen plasma in case series improves systemic, cerebral and splanchnic parameters. In this prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial we randomly assigned 182 patients with ALF to receive either standard medical therapy (SMT; 90 patients) or SMT plus HVP for three days (92 patients). The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. The primary endpoint was liver transplantation-free survival during hospital stay. Secondary-endpoints included survival after liver transplantation with or without HVP with intention-to-treat analysis. A proof-of-principle study evaluating the effect of HVP on the immune cell function was also undertaken. For the entire patient population, overall hospital survival was 58.7% for patients treated with HVP vs. 47.8% for the control group (hazard ratio (HR), with stratification for liver transplantation: 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.86; p=0.0083). HVP prior to transplantation did not improve survival compared with patients who received SMT alone (CI 0.37 to 3.98; p=0.75). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in the two groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores fell in the treated group compared to control group, over the study period (pHVP improves outcome in patients with ALF by increasing liver transplant-free survival. This is attributable to attenuation of innate immune activation and amelioration of multi-organ dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of residue hematoma volume on inflammation factors in hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-san ZHANG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  In this study, the relationships of residue hematoma volume to brain edema and inflammation factors were studied after intracerebral hematoma was evacuated with a frameless stereotactic aspiration. Methods  Eighty-nine patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH were treated by frameless stereotactic aspiration. According to residual volume of the hematoma, the patients were divided into gross-total removal of hematoma (GTRH (≤5ml and sub-total removal of hematoma (STRH (≥10ml groups after the operation. The pre-operative and postoperative data of the patients were compared between the two groups. The pre-operative data included age, sex, hematoma volume, time interval from the ictus to the operation, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores. The post-operative information included edema grade, level of thromboxane B2 (TXB2, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α(6-K-PGF1α, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α and endothelin (ET in hematoma cavity or cerebral spinal fluid (CSF. Results  There were 46 patients in GTRH group and 43 in STRH group respectively. There was no statistical difference in the pre-operative data between the two groups. The levels of TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α, TNF-αand ET were significantly lower in the GTRH group than in the STRH group at different post-operative time points. There was a significant difference between the two groups. The post-operative CT scan at different time points showed that the brain edema grades were better in the GTRH group than in the STRH group. Conclusions  GTRH is helpful for decreasing ICH-induced injury to brain tissue, which is related to decreased perihematomal edema formation and secondary injury by coagulation end products activated inflammatory cascade. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.12

  13. Small animal magnetic resonance imaging: an efficient tool to assess liver volume and intrahepatic vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloul, Emmanuel; Raptis, Dimitri A; Boss, Andreas; Pfammater, Thomas; Tschuor, Christoph; Tian, Yinghua; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Lesurtel, Mickael

    2014-04-01

    To develop a noninvasive technique to assess liver volumetry and intrahepatic portal vein anatomy in a mouse model of liver regeneration. Fifty-two C57BL/6 male mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver using a 4.7 T small animal MRI system after no treatment, 70% partial hepatectomy (PH), or selective portal vein embolization. The protocol consisted of the following sequences: three-dimensional-encoded spoiled gradient-echo sequence (repetition time per echo time 15 per 2.7 ms, flip angle 20°) for volumetry, and two-dimensional-encoded time-of-flight angiography sequence (repetition time per echo time 18 per 6.4 ms, flip angle 80°) for vessel visualization. Liver volume and portal vein segmentation was performed using a dedicated postprocessing software. In animals with portal vein embolization, portography served as reference standard. True liver volume was measured after sacrificing the animals. Measurements were carried out by two independent observers with subsequent analysis by the Cohen κ-test for interobserver agreement. MRI liver volumetry highly correlated with the true liver volume measurement using a conventional method in both the untreated liver and the liver remnant after 70% PH with a high interobserver correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-0.98 for untreated liver [P anatomy was excellent (Cohen κ value = 0.925). This protocol may be used for noninvasive liver volumetry and visualization of portal vein anatomy in mice. It will serve the dynamic study of new strategies to enhance liver regeneration in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Semi-Automatic Anatomical Tree Matching for Landmark-Based Elastic Registration of Liver Volumes

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    Klaus Drechsler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One promising approach to register liver volume acquisitions is based on the branching points of the vessel trees as anatomical landmarks inherently available in the liver. Automated tree matching algorithms were proposed to automatically find pair-wise correspondences between two vessel trees. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of the existing automatic methods are completely error free. After a review of current literature and methodologies on the topic, we propose an efficient interaction method that can be employed to support tree matching algorithms with important pre-selected correspondences or after an automatic matching to manually correct wrongly matched nodes. We used this method in combination with a promising automatic tree matching algorithm also presented in this work. The proposed method was evaluated by 4 participants and a CT dataset that we used to derive multiple artificial datasets.

  15. Microinvasion of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: predictive factors and application for determining clinical target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yang; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Ji, Yuan; Xiao, Yin-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the microscopic characteristics of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (LMCRC) invasion and provides a reference for expansion from gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical targeting volume (CTV). Data from 129 LMCRC patients treated by surgical resection at our hospital between January 2008 and September 2009 were collected for study. Tissue sections used for pathology and clinical data were reviewed. Patient information used for the study included gender, age, original tumor site, number of tumors, tumor size, levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, and whether patients received chemotherapy. The distance of liver microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured microscopically by two senior pathologists. Of 129 patients evaluated, 81 (62.8 %) presented microinvasion distances from the tumor boundary ranging between 1.0 − 7.0 mm. A GTV-to-CTV expansion of 5, 6.7, or 7.0 mm was required to provide a 95, 99, or 100 % probability, respectively, of obtaining clear resection margins by microscopic observation. The extent of invasion was not related to gender, age, synchronous or metachronous liver metastases, tumor size, CA199 level, or chemotherapy. The extent of invasion was related to original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. A scoring system was established based on the latter three positive predictors. Using this system, an invasion distance less than 3 mm was measured in 93.4 % of patients with a score of ≤1 point, but in only 85.7 % of patients with a score of ≤2 points. The extent of tumor invasion in our LMCRC patient cohort correlated with original tumor site, CEA level, and number of tumors. These positive predictors may potentially be used as a scoring system for determining GTV-to-CTV expansion

  16. Measurement of hepatic volume and effective blood flow with radioactive colloids: Evaluation of development in liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Uchino, H.; Kyoto Univ.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in hepatic volume and the blood flow effectively perfusing the liver parenchyma were studied as an assessment of the severity of liver diseases. Hepatic effective blood flow was estimated as the hepatic fractional clearance of radioactive colloids, obtained from the disappearance rate multiplied by the fraction of injected dose taken up by the liver. The hepatic fractional clearance was normal or not markedly decreased in patients with acute hepatitis which had developed favorably, but was severely decreased in patients with fulminant hepatitis. In liver diseases, the ratio of hepatic volume to fractional clearance was found to increase as the clearance decreased. In subjects with normal clearance, hepatic fractional clearance was correlated significantly with liver volume, indicating that hepatic effective blood flow is proportional to parenchymal volume in an unanesthetized, resting state. In biopsied cases changes in volume and blood flow accorded well with changes indicated by morphological criteria. In chronic persistent hepatitis, effective hepatic blood flow is not diminished. However, hepatic blood flow were observed between the cirrhosis or chronic aggressive hepatitis, and normal control groups. Extension of chronic inflammatory infiltration into the parenchyma distinguishes chronic aggressive hepatitis from chronic persistent hepatitis. Architecture is often disturbed in the former. These changes should be accompanied by disturbance of microcirculation. The present study indicates that the decrease in effective hepatic blood flow in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis has two aspects: one is a summation of microcirculatory disturbances, and the other is a decrease in liver cell mass. (orig.)

  17. Studies on the hepatosplenic volume and the accumulation rate of 99mTc Sn colloid in patients with liver cirrhosis by using single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shizou; Mimura, Hisashi; Noda, Takuo; Hamazaki, Keisuke; Takakura, Norio; Tsuge, Hiroshi; Awai, Sachio; Hiraki, Yoshio; Orita, Kunzo

    1988-01-01

    The method using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for measurement of the hepatosplenic volume and the accumulation rate of 99m Tc Sn colloid was studied, and applied to patients with liver cirrhosis. The hepatosplenic volume calculated by this method was well correlated with that by computed tomography (r = 0.938). The accumulation rate obtained by this method was almost equal to that by whole body scintigraphy. In liver cirrhosis (Child B and C group) the liver volume was atrophic and the splenic volume hypertrophic. The liver accumulation rate was decreased corresponding with the degree of liver cirrhosis, but the accumulation rate per volume was decreased in Child B and C. The splenic accumulation rate was increased in Child B and C, but the accumulation rate per volume was not significant between control group and liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatosplenic volume and accumulation rate by SPECT is useful to evaluate the hepatosplenic function. (author)

  18. The development of a practical and uncomplicated predictive equation to determine liver volume from simple linear ultrasound measurements of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Jessie T.; Thoirs, Kerry A.; Esterman, Adrian J.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to develop a practical and uncomplicated predictive equation that could accurately calculate liver volumes, using multiple simple linear ultrasound measurements combined with measurements of body size. Penalized (lasso) regression was used to develop a new model and compare it to the ultrasonic linear measurements currently used clinically. A Bland–Altman analysis showed that the large limits of agreement of the new model render it too inaccurate to be of clinical use for estimating liver volume per se, but it holds value in tracking disease progress or response to treatment over time in individuals, and is certainly substantially better as an indicator of overall liver size than the ultrasonic linear measurements currently being used clinically. - Highlights: • A new model to calculate liver volumes from simple linear ultrasound measurements. • This model was compared to the linear measurements currently used clinically. • The new model holds value in tracking disease progress or response to treatment. • This model is better as an indicator of overall liver size.

  19. Noninvasive Assessment of Advanced Fibrosis Based on Hepatic Volume in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Satoshi; Fukuzawa, Kei; Tsuji, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Junji; Kawamura, Yusuke; Akuta, Norio; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kenji; Fujii, Takeshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-09-15

    Noninvasive liver fibrosis evaluation was performed in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We used a quantitative method based on the hepatic volume acquired from gadoxetate disodium-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. A total of 130 patients who were diagnosed with NAFLD and underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were retrospectively included. Histological data were available for 118 patients. Hepatic volumetric parameters, including the left hepatic lobe to right hepatic lobe volume ratio (L/R ratio), were measured. The usefulness of the L/R ratio for diagnosing fibrosis ≥F3-4 and F4 was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify variables (age, body mass index, serum fibrosis markers, and histological features) that were associated with the L/R ratio. The L/R ratio demonstrated good performance in differentiating advanced fibrosis (AUROC, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 0.88) from cirrhosis (AUROC, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.99). Multiple regression analysis showed that only fibrosis was significantly associated with the L/R ratio (coefficient, 0.121; p<0.0001). The L/R ratio, which is not influenced by pathological parameters other than fibrosis, is useful for diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with NAFLD.

  20. Evidence for the existence of a tyrosyl residue in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding site of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Nishino, T.

    1987-01-01

    Xanthine-NAD and NADH-methylene blue oxidoreductase activities of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase were inactivated by incubation with 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine (5'-FSBA), an active site directed reagent for nucleotide binding sites. The inactivation reaction displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics. A double-reciprocal plot of inactivation velocity vs. 5'-FSBA concentration showed that 5'-FSBA and enzyme formed a complex prior to inactivation. NAD protected the enzyme from inactivation by 5'-FSBA in a competitive fashion. The modified enzyme had the same xanthine-dichlorophenolindophenol and xanthine-O 2 oxidoreductase activities as the native enzyme, and on addition of xanthine to the modified enzyme, bleaching of the spectrum occurred in the visible region. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the enzyme by incubation with [ 14 C]-5'-FSBA was parallel to the loss of xanthine-NAD oxidoreductase activity, and the stoichiometry was 1 mol/mol of enzyme-bound FAD for complete inactivation. These results indicated that 5'-FSBA modified specifically the binding site for NAD of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase. The incorporated radioactivity was released slowly from 14 C-labeled enzyme by incubation with dithiothreitol with concomitant restoration of catalytic activity. The modified residue responsible for inactivation was identified as a tyrosine

  1. Unnoticed Post-Void Residual Urine Volume in People with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, K. H.; Tinselboer, B. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Increased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations. Aims: To investigate in adults with ID: (1) Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning; (2) Prevalence of PVR; and (3) Relations with proposed…

  2. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  3. Integrating respiratory-gated PET-based target volume delineation in liver SBRT planning, a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riou, Olivier; Thariat, Juliette; Serrano, Benjamin; Azria, David; Paulmier, Benoit; Villeneuve, Remy; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Artenie, Antonella; Ortholan, Cécile; Faraggi, Marc

    2014-01-01

    To assess the feasibility and benefit of integrating four-dimensional (4D) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) – computed tomography (CT) for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) planning. 8 patients with 14 metastases were accrued in the study. They all underwent a non-gated PET and a 4D PET centered on the liver. The same CT scan was used for attenuation correction, registration, and considered the planning CT for SBRT planning. Six PET phases were reconstructed for each 4D PET. By applying an individualized threshold to the 4D PET, a Biological Internal Target Volume (BITV) was generated for each lesion. A gated Planning Target Volume (PTVg) was created by adding 3 mm to account for set-up margins. This volume was compared to a manual Planning Target Volume (PTV) delineated with the help of a semi-automatic Biological Target Volume (BTV) obtained from the non-gated exam. A 5 mm radial and a 10 mm craniocaudal margins were applied to account for tumor motion and set-up margins to create the PTV. One undiagnosed liver metastasis was discovered thanks to the 4D PET. The semi-automatic BTV were significantly smaller than the BITV (p = 0.0031). However, after applying adapted margins, 4D PET allowed a statistically significant decrease in the PTVg as compared to the PTV (p = 0.0052). In comparison to non-gated PET, 4D PET may better define the respiratory movements of liver targets and improve SBRT planning for liver metastases. Furthermore, non respiratory-gated PET exams can both misdiagnose liver metastases and underestimate the real internal target volumes

  4. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  5. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  6. Gastric residual volume in critically ill patients: a dead marker or still alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elke, Gunnar; Felbinger, Thomas W; Heyland, Daren K

    2015-02-01

    Early enteral nutrition (EN) is consistently recommended as first-line nutrition therapy in critically ill patients since it favorably alters outcome, providing both nutrition and nonnutrition benefits. However, critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation are at risk for regurgitation, pulmonary aspiration, and eventually ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). EN may increase these risks when gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is present. Gastric residual volume (GRV) is considered a surrogate parameter of GI dysfunction during the progression of enteral feeding in the early phase of critical illness and beyond. By monitoring GRV, clinicians may detect patients with delayed gastric emptying earlier and intervene with strategies that minimize or prevent VAP as one of the major risks of EN. The value of periodic GRV measurements with regard to risk reduction of VAP incidence has frequently been questioned in the past years. Increasing the GRV threshold before interrupting gastric feeding results in marginal increases in EN delivery. More recently, a large randomized clinical trial revealed that abandoning GRV monitoring did not negatively affect clinical outcomes (including VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. The results have revived the discussion on the role of GRV monitoring in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients receiving early EN. This review summarizes the most recent clinical evidence on the use of GRV monitoring in critically ill patients. Based on the clinical evidence, it discusses the pros and cons and further addresses whether GRV is a dead marker or still alive for the nutrition management of critically ill patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. A simple, fast and cheap non-SPE screening method for antibacterial residue analysis in milk and liver using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Magda Targa; Melo, Jéssica; Barreto, Fabiano; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Jank, Louise; Bittencourt, Michele Soares; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Schapoval, Elfrides Eva Scherman

    2014-11-01

    In routine laboratory work, screening methods for multiclass analysis can process a large number of samples in a short time. The main challenge is to develop a methodology to detect as many different classes of residues as possible, combined with speed and low cost. An efficient technique for the analysis of multiclass antibacterial residues (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and trimethoprim) was developed based on simple, environment-friendly extraction for bovine milk, cattle and poultry liver. Acidified ethanol was used as an extracting solvent for milk samples. Liver samples were treated using EDTA-washed sand for cell disruption, methanol:water and acidified acetonitrile as extracting solvent. A total of 24 antibacterial residues were detected and confirmed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), at levels between 10, 25 and 50% of the maximum residue limit (MRL). For liver samples a metabolite (sulfaquinoxaline-OH) was also monitored. A validation procedure was conducted for screening purposes in accordance with European Union requirements (2002/657/EC). The detection capability (CCβ) false compliant rate was less than 5% at the lowest level for each residue. Specificity and ruggedness were also discussed. Incurred and routine samples were analyzed and the method was successfully applied. The results proved that this method can be an important tool in routine analysis, since it is very fast and reliable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Influence of Residual Tumor Volume and Radiation Dose Coverage in Outcomes for Clival Chordoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: markmcdonaldmd@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Linton, Okechukwu R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Moore, Michael G.; Ting, Jonathan Y. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A.; Shah, Mitesh V. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Goodman Campbell Brain and Spine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with tumor control in clival chordomas. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 39 patients treated with surgery and proton therapy for clival chordomas between 2004 and 2014 was performed. The median prescribed dose was 77.4 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]); range was 70.2-79.2 Gy (RBE). Minimum and median doses to gross tumor volume (GTV), radiation dose received by 1 cm{sup 3} of GTV (D1cm{sup 3}), and the equivalent uniform dose were calculated. Receiver operating characteristics curves evaluated the predictive sensitivity and specificity for local failure of potential cutpoint values for GTV and D1cm{sup 3}. Results: After a median follow-up of 51 months, the 5-year estimate of local control (LC) was 69.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50.0%-89.2%), and overall survival (OS) was 81.4% (95% CI: 65.3%-97.5%). Tumor histology, GTV at the time of radiation, and prescribed radiation dose were significantly associated with local control on multivariate analysis, whereas D1cm{sup 3} was associated with overall survival. Compared to those patients whose conditions remained controlled, patients experiencing tumor failure had statistically significant larger GTVs and lower D1cm{sup 3}, and prescribed and median doses to GTV. A subset of 21 patients with GTV of ≤20 cm{sup 3} and D1cm{sup 3} of >67 Gy (RBE) had a median follow-up of 47 months. The 5-year estimate of local control in this subset was 81.1% (95% CI: 61.7%-100%; P=.004, overall comparison by GTV ≤20 cm{sup 3} stratified by D1cm{sup 3}). A D1cm{sup 3} of 74.5 Gy (RBE) had 80% sensitivity for local control and 60% specificity, whereas a GTV of 9.3 cm{sup 3} had 80% sensitivity for local control and 66.7% specificity. Conclusions: Local control of clival chordomas was associated with both smaller size of residual tumor and more complete high-dose coverage of residual tumor. Multidisciplinary care should seek

  9. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  10. Residual limb fluid volume change and volume accommodation: Relationships to activity and self-report outcomes in people with trans-tibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; Youngblood, Robert T; Hafner, Brian J; Ciol, Marcia A; Allyn, Katheryn J; Gardner, David; Cagle, John C; Redd, Christian B; Dietrich, Colin R

    2018-02-01

    Fluctuations in limb volume degrade prosthesis fit and require users to accommodate changes using management strategies, such as donning and doffing prosthetic socks. To examine how activities and self-report outcomes relate to daily changes in residual limb fluid volume and volume accommodation. Standardized, two-part laboratory protocol with an interim observational period. Participants were classified as "accommodators" or "non-accommodators," based on self-report prosthetic sock use. Participants' residual limb fluid volume change was measured using a custom bioimpedance analyzer and a standardized in-laboratory activity protocol. Self-report health outcomes were assessed with the Socket Comfort Score and Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Activity was monitored while participants left the laboratory for at least 3 h. They then returned to repeat the bioimpedance test protocol. Twenty-nine people were enrolled. Morning-to-afternoon percent limb fluid volume change per hour was not strongly correlated to percent time weight-bearing or to self-report outcomes. As a group, non-accommodators ( n = 15) spent more time with their prosthesis doffed and reported better outcomes than accommodators. Factors other than time weight-bearing may contribute to morning-to-afternoon limb fluid volume changes and reported satisfaction with the prosthesis among trans-tibial prosthesis users. Temporary doffing may be a more effective and satisfying accommodation method than sock addition. Clinical relevance Practitioners should be mindful that daily limb fluid volume change and prosthesis satisfaction are not dictated exclusively by activity. Temporarily doffing the prosthesis may slow daily limb fluid volume loss and should be investigated as an alternative strategy to sock addition.

  11. Validity and reliability of a novel 3D scanner for assessment of the shape and volume of amputees' residual limb models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Seminati

    Full Text Available Objective assessment methods to monitor residual limb volume following lower-limb amputation are required to enhance practitioner-led prosthetic fitting. Computer aided systems, including 3D scanners, present numerous advantages and the recent Artec Eva scanner, based on laser free technology, could potentially be an effective solution for monitoring residual limb volumes.The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Artec Eva scanner (practical measurement against a high precision laser 3D scanner (criterion measurement for the determination of residual limb model shape and volume.Three observers completed three repeat assessments of ten residual limb models, using both the scanners. Validity of the Artec Eva scanner was assessed (mean percentage error <2% and Bland-Altman statistics were adopted to assess the agreement between the two scanners. Intra and inter-rater reliability (repeatability coefficient <5% of the Artec Eva scanner was calculated for measuring indices of residual limb model volume and shape (i.e. residual limb cross sectional areas and perimeters.Residual limb model volumes ranged from 885 to 4399 ml. Mean percentage error of the Artec Eva scanner (validity was 1.4% of the criterion volumes. Correlation coefficients between the Artec Eva and the Romer determined variables were higher than 0.9. Volume intra-rater and inter-rater reliability coefficients were 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Shape percentage maximal error was 2% at the distal end of the residual limb, with intra-rater reliability coefficients presenting the lowest errors (0.2%, both for cross sectional areas and perimeters of the residual limb models.The Artec Eva scanner is a valid and reliable method for assessing residual limb model shapes and volumes. While the method needs to be tested on human residual limbs and the results compared with the current system used in clinical practice, it has the potential to quantify shape and volume

  12. Improved hepatocyte function of future liver remnant of cirrhotic rats after portal vein ligation: a bonus other than volume shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Liao, Chien-Hung; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chen, Tse-Ching; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2009-02-01

    Preoperative portal vein embolization is increasingly employed for those with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis to gain a volume-shifting effect. However, the alterations of histologic architecture and hepatocyte function of future liver remnant (FLR) remain unexplored. Portal vein ligation (PVL) was performed in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic rats. Regeneration indices that include the DNA synthesis index, restituted liver mass, and the redistributed volume ratio were measured. The indocyanine green 15' retention test (ICG-R15), histologic changes, total Knodell score, and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were measured before and after PVL. Tc-99m sulfur-colloid liver single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and diisopropyl iminoacetic acid (DISIDA) SPECT were conducted. The redistributed volume ratio of cirrhotic rats was less than noncirrhotic rats (63% vs 80%, P baseline (6.0 +/- 4.1% vs 15.8 +/- 4.6%, P baseline. The redistributed volume ratio of noncirrhotic and cirrhotic rats based on 99mTc sulfur-colloid SPECT were 79% and 64%, respectively. The clearance T(1/2) of FLR in cirrhotic rats based on DISIDA SPECT was decreased compared with baseline (5.2 +/- 1.9 min vs 8.6 +/- 3.1 min). The regenerated functional liver mass of cirrhotic rats after PVL is less than noncirrhotic rats, whereas the hepatocyte function of FLR in cirrhotic rats is improved relevant to tissue remodeling.

  13. Elevated postvoid residual urine volume predicting recurrence of urinary tract infections in toilet-trained children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Jen; Tsai, Li-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Kai; Yang, Stephen S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether toilet-trained children with a history of febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) and elevated postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume according to a recently published PVR nomogram were at greater risk of UTI recurrence. One month after recovery from febrile UTI, constipation was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria, and lower urinary tract (LUT) function was evaluated with two sets of uroflowmetry and PVR by ultrasonography. For children aged ≦ 6 and ≧ 7 years, elevated PVR is defined as >20 and >10 ml, respectively. Cox proportion hazards regression was used to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of UTI. Between 2005 and 2011, 60 children aged 6.5 ± 2.5 years (boy:girl ratio 27:33) were enrolled for analysis. Univariate analysis showed that recurrent febrile UTI was more commonly observed in children with elevated PVR [repetitive elevated PVR: hazard ratio (HR) 5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-23.4; one elevated PVR: HR 4.53, 95% CI 1.01-20.2] and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR; HR 4.53, 95% CI 1.46-14.07). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.82, p UTI--but not gender, presence of high-grade VUR and constipation. Elevated PVR defined by the new PVR nomogram predicted recurrent UTI in children with history of febrile UTI. Care should be taken to manage children with elevated PVR.

  14. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell' orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  15. Evaluation of potential internal target volume of liver tumors using cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akino, Yuichi; Oh, Ryoong-Jin; Masai, Norihisa; Shiomi, Hiroya; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2014-11-01

    Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is widely used for evaluating moving tumors, including lung and liver cancers. For patients with unstable respiration, however, the 4DCT may not visualize tumor motion properly. High-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences (cine-MRI) permit direct visualization of respiratory motion of liver tumors without considering radiation dose exposure to patients. Here, the authors demonstrated a technique for evaluating internal target volume (ITV) with consideration of respiratory variation using cine-MRI. The authors retrospectively evaluated six patients who received stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Before acquiring planning CT, sagittal and coronal cine-MRI images were acquired for 30 s with a frame rate of 2 frames/s. The patient immobilization was conducted under the same condition as SBRT. Planning CT images were then acquired within 15 min from cine-MRI image acquisitions, followed by a 4DCT scan. To calculate tumor motion, the motion vectors between two continuous frames of cine-MRI images were calculated for each frame using the pyramidal Lucas-Kanade method. The target contour was delineated on one frame, and each vertex of the contour was shifted and copied onto the following frame using neighboring motion vectors. 3D trajectory data were generated with the centroid of the contours on sagittal and coronal images. To evaluate the accuracy of the tracking method, the motion of clearly visible blood vessel was analyzed with the motion tracking and manual detection techniques. The target volume delineated on the 50% (end-exhale) phase of 4DCT was translated with the trajectory data, and the distribution of the occupancy probability of target volume was calculated as potential ITV (ITV Potential). The concordance between ITV Potential and ITV estimated with 4DCT (ITV 4DCT) was evaluated using the Dice's similarity coefficient (DSC). The distance between blood vessel positions

  16. Evaluation of potential internal target volume of liver tumors using cine-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi, E-mail: akino@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan and Miyakojima IGRT Clinic, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka 5340021 (Japan); Oh, Ryoong-Jin; Masai, Norihisa; Shiomi, Hiroya; Inoue, Toshihiko [Miyakojima IGRT Clinic, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka 5340021 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is widely used for evaluating moving tumors, including lung and liver cancers. For patients with unstable respiration, however, the 4DCT may not visualize tumor motion properly. High-speed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences (cine-MRI) permit direct visualization of respiratory motion of liver tumors without considering radiation dose exposure to patients. Here, the authors demonstrated a technique for evaluating internal target volume (ITV) with consideration of respiratory variation using cine-MRI. Methods: The authors retrospectively evaluated six patients who received stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to hepatocellular carcinoma. Before acquiring planning CT, sagittal and coronal cine-MRI images were acquired for 30 s with a frame rate of 2 frames/s. The patient immobilization was conducted under the same condition as SBRT. Planning CT images were then acquired within 15 min from cine-MRI image acquisitions, followed by a 4DCT scan. To calculate tumor motion, the motion vectors between two continuous frames of cine-MRI images were calculated for each frame using the pyramidal Lucas–Kanade method. The target contour was delineated on one frame, and each vertex of the contour was shifted and copied onto the following frame using neighboring motion vectors. 3D trajectory data were generated with the centroid of the contours on sagittal and coronal images. To evaluate the accuracy of the tracking method, the motion of clearly visible blood vessel was analyzed with the motion tracking and manual detection techniques. The target volume delineated on the 50% (end-exhale) phase of 4DCT was translated with the trajectory data, and the distribution of the occupancy probability of target volume was calculated as potential ITV (ITV {sub Potential}). The concordance between ITV {sub Potential} and ITV estimated with 4DCT (ITV {sub 4DCT}) was evaluated using the Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC). Results

  17. Inhibition by etomoxir of rat liver carnitine octanoyltransferase is produced through the co-ordinate interaction with two histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, M; Clotet, J; Rubí, B; Serra, D; Ariño, J; Hegardt, F G; Asins, G

    2000-10-15

    Rat peroxisomal carnitine octanoyltransferase (COT), which facilitates the transport of medium-chain fatty acids through the peroxisomal membrane, is irreversibly inhibited by the hypoglycaemia-inducing drug etomoxir. To identify the molecular basis of this inhibition, cDNAs encoding full-length wild-type COT, two different variant point mutants and one variant double mutant from rat peroxisomal COT were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism devoid of endogenous COT activity. The recombinant mutated enzymes showed activity towards both carnitine and decanoyl-CoA in the same range as the wild type. Whereas the wild-type version expressed in yeast was inhibited by etomoxir in an identical manner to COT from rat liver peroxisomes, the activity of the enzyme containing the double mutation H131A/H340A was completely insensitive to etomoxir. Individual point mutations H131A and H340A also drastically reduced sensitivity to etomoxir. Taken together, these results indicate that the two histidine residues, H131 and H340, are the sites responsible for inhibition by etomoxir and that the full inhibitory properties of the drug will be shown only if both histidines are intact at the same time. Our data demonstrate that both etomoxir and malonyl-CoA inhibit COT by interacting with the same sites.

  18. Gastric pH and residual volume after 1 and 2 h fasting time for clear fluids in children†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A R; Buehler, P; Seglias, L; Stark, T; Brotschi, B; Renner, T; Sabandal, C; Klaghofer, R; Weiss, M; Schmitz, A

    2015-03-01

    Current guidelines suggest a fasting time of 2 h for clear fluids, which is often exceeded in clinical practice, leading to discomfort, dehydration and stressful anaesthesia induction to patients, especially in the paediatric population. Shorter fluid fasting might be a strategy to improve patient comfort but has not been investigated yet. This prospective clinical trial compares gastric pH and residual volume after 1 vs 2 h of preoperative clear fluid fasting. Children (1-16 yr, ASA I or II) undergoing elective procedures in general anaesthesia requiring tracheal intubation were randomized into group A with 60 min or B with 120 min preoperative clear fluid fasting. To determine gastric pH and residual volume, the gastric content was sampled in supine, left and right lateral patient position using an oro-gastric tube after intubation. Data are median (interquartile range) for group A or B (PPatient characteristic data were similar between the two groups, except for gender (46/33 males in group A/B; P=0.02). Despite significantly shorter fasting times for clear fluids in group A compared with group B (76/136 min; P<0.001), no significant difference was observed regarding gastric pH [1.43 (1.30-1.56)/1.44 (1.29-1.68), P=0.66] or residual volume [0.43 (0.21-0.84)/0.46 (0.19-0.78) ml kg(-1), P=0.47]. One hour clear fluid fasting does not alter gastric pH or residual volume significantly compared with 2 h fasting. The study was approved by the local ethics committee (KEK-ZH-Nr. 2011-0034) and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01516775). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Influence of the temperature, volume and type of solution in the mercury vaporization of dental amalgam residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Raquel dalla [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)], E-mail: raqueldc_eng@yahoo.com.br; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Tavares, Celia Regina Granhen [Department of Chemical Engineering, State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    One of the qualitative methods for the identification of mercury vapor is what it occurs as a way of chemical reaction between palladium chloride and metallic mercury. Palladium chloride ribbons with yellowish coloration put in contact with the vaporized mercury of dental amalgam residue, liberates palladium and forms mercury chloride in your surface, and starts to have black coloration; this form identify the presence of the mercury vapor in the system. This work studies the influence of temperature, volume and type of barrier-solution in the vaporization of mercury during the period of storage of dental amalgam residues, aiming to establish the best conditions for storage of these residues. It was found that for all tested solutions, the longest storage times without any occurrence of mercury vaporization were obtained in the lowest temperatures tested and the largest solution volumes of barrier-solution. The radiographic effluent presented bigger efficacy in the reduction of the volatilization, increasing the period when the residue was stored, however the analysis of this solution after the vaporization test showed the presence of organic mercury. These results show that water is the most efficient barrier against the vaporization of mercury, since it did not result in organic mercury formation in the effluent solution from the storage process.

  20. Influence of the temperature, volume and type of solution in the mercury vaporization of dental amalgam residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Raquel dalla; Cossich, Eneida Sala; Tavares, Celia Regina Granhen

    2008-01-01

    One of the qualitative methods for the identification of mercury vapor is what it occurs as a way of chemical reaction between palladium chloride and metallic mercury. Palladium chloride ribbons with yellowish coloration put in contact with the vaporized mercury of dental amalgam residue, liberates palladium and forms mercury chloride in your surface, and starts to have black coloration; this form identify the presence of the mercury vapor in the system. This work studies the influence of temperature, volume and type of barrier-solution in the vaporization of mercury during the period of storage of dental amalgam residues, aiming to establish the best conditions for storage of these residues. It was found that for all tested solutions, the longest storage times without any occurrence of mercury vaporization were obtained in the lowest temperatures tested and the largest solution volumes of barrier-solution. The radiographic effluent presented bigger efficacy in the reduction of the volatilization, increasing the period when the residue was stored, however the analysis of this solution after the vaporization test showed the presence of organic mercury. These results show that water is the most efficient barrier against the vaporization of mercury, since it did not result in organic mercury formation in the effluent solution from the storage process

  1. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F{<=}f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less

  2. Computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in CT by means of geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Epstein, Mark L.; Obajuluwa, Ademola M.; Xu Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Computerized liver extraction from hepatic CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided measurement of liver volumes in hepatic CT. Methods: The authors developed a computerized liver extraction scheme based on geodesic active contour segmentation coupled with level-set contour evolution. First, an anisotropic diffusion filter was applied to portal-venous-phase CT images for noise reduction while preserving the liver structure, followed by a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance the liver boundaries. Then, a nonlinear grayscale converter enhanced the contrast of the liver parenchyma. By using the liver-parenchyma-enhanced image as a speed function, a fast-marching level-set algorithm generated an initial contour that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic active contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour evolution refined the initial contour to define the liver boundaries more precisely. The liver volume was then calculated using these refined boundaries. Hepatic CT scans of 15 prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multidetector CT system. The liver volumes extracted by the computerized scheme were compared to those traced manually by a radiologist, used as ''gold standard.''Results: The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1504 cc, whereas the mean gold standard manual volume was 1457 cc, resulting in a mean absolute difference of 105 cc (7.2%). The computer-estimated liver volumetrics agreed excellently with the gold-standard manual volumetrics (intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (F=0.77; p(F≤f)=0.32). The average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and percent volume error were 98.4%, 91.1%, 99.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. Computerized CT liver volumetry would require substantially less completion time

  3. High Center Volume Does Not Mitigate Risk Associated with Using High Donor Risk Organs in Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Eliza W; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid; Hayes, Don; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Washburn, Kenneth; Tumin, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    High-risk donor allografts increase access to liver transplant, but potentially reduce patient and graft survival. It is unclear whether the risk associated with using marginal donor livers is mitigated by increasing center experience. The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for adult first-time liver transplant recipients between 2/2002 and 12/2015. High donor risk was defined as donor risk index >1.9, and 1-year patient and graft survival were compared according to donor risk index in small and large centers. Multivariable Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with using high-risk donor organs, according to a continuous measure of annual center volume. The analysis included 51,770 patients. In 67 small and 67 large centers, high donor risk index predicted increased mortality (p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, high-donor risk index allografts predicted greater mortality hazard at centers performing 20 liver transplants per year (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.22, 1.49; p donor risk index and center volume was not statistically significant (p = 0.747), confirming that the risk associated with using marginal donor livers was comparable between smaller and larger centers. Results were consistent when examining graft loss. At both small and large centers, high-risk donor allografts were associated with reduced patient and graft survival after liver transplant. Specific strategies to mitigate the risk of liver transplant involving high-risk donors are needed, in addition to accumulation of center expertise.

  4. Rationale and design of the RESOLVE trial: lanreotide as a volume reducing treatment for polycystic livers in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Tom JG

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD suffers from polycystic liver disease. Symptoms arise when liver volume increases. The somatostatin analogue lanreotide has proven to reduce liver volume in patients with polycystic liver disease. However, this study also included patients with isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD. The RESOLVE trial aims to assess the efficacy of lanreotide treatment in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. In this study we present the design of the RESOLVE trial. Methods/design This open-label clinical trial evaluates the effect of 6 months of lanreotide in ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers. Primary outcome is change in liver volume determined by computerised tomography-volumetry. Secondary outcomes are changes in total kidney volume, kidney intermediate volume and renal function. Furthermore, urinary (NGAL, α1-microglobulin, KIM-1, H-FABP, MCP-1 and serum (fibroblast growth factor 23 biomarkers associated with ADPKD disease severity are assessed to investigate whether these biomarkers predict treatment responses to lanreotide. Moreover, safety and tolerability of the drug in ADPKD patients will be assessed. Discussion We anticipate that lanreotide is an effective therapeutic option for ADPKD patients with symptomatic polycystic livers and that this trial aids in the identification of patient related factors that predict treatment response. Trial registration number Clinical trials.gov NCT01354405

  5. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongers, M.N.; Stefan, N.; Fritsche, A.; Haering, H.U.; Nikolaou, K.; Schick, F.; Machann, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m 2 were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volumeliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.) [de

  6. Quantitative in vivo assessment of radiation injury of the liver using Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI: tolerance dose of small liver volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Maciej

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Hepatic radiation toxicity restricts irradiation of liver malignancies. Better knowledge of hepatic tolerance dose is favourable to gain higher safety and to optimize radiation regimes in radiotherapy of the liver. In this study we sought to determine the hepatic tolerance dose to small volume single fraction high dose rate irradiation. Materials and methods 23 liver metastases were treated by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy. MRI was performed 3 days, 6, 12 and 24 weeks after therapy. MR-sequences were conducted with T1-w GRE enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted Gd-EOB-DTPA. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D-dosimetry data. The reviewer indicated the border of hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function or hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema. Based on the volume data, a dose-volume-histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for edema or function loss as the D90, i.e. the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results At six weeks post brachytherapy, the hepatocyte function loss reached its maximum extending to the former 9.4Gy isosurface in median (i.e., ≥9.4Gy dose exposure led to hepatocyte dysfunction. After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunctional volume had decreased significantly to a median of 11.4Gy and 14Gy isosurface, respectively, as a result of repair mechanisms. Development of edema was maximal at six weeks post brachytherapy (9.2Gy isosurface in median, and regeneration led to a decrease of the isosurface to a median of 11.3Gy between 6 and 12 weeks. The dose exposure leading to hepatocyte dysfunction was not significantly different from the dose provoking edema. Conclusion Hepatic injury peaked 6 weeks after small volume irradiation. Ongoing repair was observed up to 6 months. Individual dose sensitivity may differ as demonstrated by a relatively high standard deviation of threshold values in our own as well as all other published data.

  7. Preoperative selective desensitization of live donor liver transplant recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease score, and graft liver volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Geun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Suk-won; Yoo, Tae; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Choi, YoungRok; Lee, Kyungbun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Park, Myoung Hee; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have suggested that a positive lymphocyte cross-matching (XM) is associated with low graft survival rates and a high prevalence of acute rejection after adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) using a small-for-size graft. However, there is still no consensus on preoperative desensitization. We adopted the desensitization protocol from ABO-incompatible LDLT. We performed desensitization for the selected patients according to the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and graft liver volume. We retrospectively evaluated 230 consecutive ALDLT recipients for 5 yr. Eleven recipients (4.8%) showed a positive XM. Among them, five patients with the high titer (> 1:16) by antihuman globulin-augmented method (T-AHG) and one with a low titer but a high MELD score of 36 were selected for desensitization: rituximab injection and plasmapheresis before the transplantation. There were no major side effects of desensitization. Four of the patients showed successful depletion of the T-AHG titer. There was no mortality and hyperacute rejection in lymphocyte XM-positive patients, showing no significant difference in survival outcome between two groups (P=1.000). In conclusion, this desensitization protocol for the selected recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, MELD score, and graft liver volume is feasible and safe.

  8. Complex Liver Resections for Colorectal Metastases: Are They Safe in the Low-Volume, Resource-Poor Caribbean Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamir O. Cawich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although many authorities suggest that major liver resections should only be carried out in high-volume specialized centres, many patients in the Caribbean do not have access to these health care systems. Presentation of a Case. A 50-year-old woman with a solitary colorectal metastasis invading the inferior vena cava underwent an extended left hepatectomy with caval resection and reconstruction. Several technical maneuvers were utilized that were suited to the resource-poor environment. Conclusion. We suggest that good outcomes can still be attained in the resource-poor, low-volume centres once dedicated and appropriately trained teams are available.

  9. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization of Liver Tumors: Effects of Embolization Protocol on Injectable Volume of Chemotherapy and Subsequent Arterial Patency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.; Ramsey, Douglas E.; Wal, B.C.H. van der; Kobeiter, Hicham; Juluru, Krishna; Hartnell, George G.; Choti, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) protocol affects the total volume of chemotherapy injected into the liver as well as subsequent arterial patency. A total of 160 patients with primary or secondary liver cancer were treated with 3 different chemoembolization protocols at a single institution. Data were analyzed retrospectively.Group 1 (n = 36) consisted of slurry of chemotherapy,oil and polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA), group 2 (n =91), chemotherapy and oil followed by PVA, and group 3(n = 33), chemotherapy and oil followed by Gelfoampledgets. The total volume of chemotherapy injected into the liver was recorded. Arterial patency was determined during subsequent chemoembolizations. The mean percentage of total intended chemotherapydose administered was 54.6% for group 1, 75.3% for group 2, and 80.6% for group 3. Arterial patency at follow-up angiography was 56% for group 1, 74% for group 2, and 81% for group 3. The slurry protocol (group 1) significantly reduced arterial patency and injectable volume of chemotherapy during TACE

  10. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav; Duras, Petr; Třeška, Vladislav; Matoušková, Táňa; Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub; Lysák, Daniel; Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  11. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav, E-mail: ludvikj@fnplzen.cz; Duras, Petr [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Třeška, Vladislav [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Matoušková, Táňa [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Lysák, Daniel [Charles University, Department of Haemato-Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  12. Quantifying the residual volume transport through a multiple-inlet system in response to wind forcing: The case of the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duran-Matute, M.; Gerkema, T.; Sassi, M.

    2016-01-01

    In multiple-inlet coastal systems like the western Dutch Wadden Sea, the tides (and their interaction with the bathymetry), the fresh water discharge, and the wind drive a residual flow through the system. In the current paper, we study the effect of the wind on the residual volume transport through

  13. Liver Resections in a High-Volume Center: Form Standard Procedures to Extreme Surgery and Ultrasound-guided Resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botea, Florin; Ionescu, Mihnea; Braşoveanu, Vladislav; Hrehoreţ, Doina; Alexandrescu, Sorin; Grigorie, Mihai; Stanciulea, Oana; Nicolaescu, Diana; Tomescu, Dana; Droc, Gabriela; Ungureanu, Daniela; Fota, Ruxandra; Croitoru, Adina; Gheorghe, Liana; Gheorghe, Cristian; Lupescu, Ioana; Grasu, Mugur; Boroş, Mirela; Dumitru, Radu; Toma, Mihai; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Liver resection (LR) is the treatment of choice for most benign and malignant focal liver lesions, as well as in selected patients with liver trauma. Few other therapies can compete with LR in selected cases, such as liver transplantation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and ablative therapies in small HCCs or liver metastases. The present paper analyses a single center experience in LR, reviewing the indications of LR, the operative techniques and their short-term results. Between January 2000 and December 2016, in "œDan Setlacec" Center of General Surgery and Liver Transplantation were performed 3165 LRs in 3016 patients, for pathologic conditions of the liver. In the present series, liver resections for living-donor liver transplantation were excluded. The median age of the patients was 56 years (mean 58 years; range 1-88), with male/female ratio 1524/1492 and adult/pediatric patient ratio 2973/43. Results: Malignant lesions were the main indication for LR (2372 LRs; 74.9%). Among these, colorectal liver metastases were the most frequent indication (952 LRs; 30.1%), followed by hepatocellular carcinoma (575 patients, 18.2%). The highest number of resected tumors per patient was 21, and the median diameter of the largest tumor was 40 mm (mean 51 mm; range 3-250). Major resections rate was 18.6% (588 LRs) and anatomical LRs were performed in 789 patients (24.9%). The median operative time was 180 minutes (mean 204 minutes; range 45-920). The median blood loss was 500 ml (mean 850 ml; range 500-9500), with a transfusion rate of 41.6% (1316 LRs). The morbidity rate was 40.1% (1270 LRs) and the rate of major complications (Dindo-Clavien IIIa or more) was 13.2% (418 LRs). Mortality rate was 4.2% (127 pts). LRs should be performed in specialized high-volume centers to achieve the best results (low morbidity and mortality rates). Celsius.

  14. Hepatic blood flow and splanchnic oxygen consumption in patients with liver failure. Effect of high-volume plasmapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmesen, J O; Gerbes, A L; Gülberg, V; Hansen, B A; Larsen, F S; Skak, C; Tygstrup, N; Ott, P

    1999-02-01

    Liver failure represents a major therapeutic challenge, and yet basic pathophysiological questions about hepatic perfusion and oxygenation in this condition have been poorly investigated. In this study, hepatic blood flow (HBF) and splanchnic oxygen delivery (DO2, sp) and oxygen consumption (VO2,sp) were assessed in patients with liver failure defined as hepatic encephalopathy grade II or more. Measurements were repeated after high-volume plasmapheresis (HVP) with exchange of 8 to 10 L of plasma. HBF was estimated by use of constant infusion of D-sorbitol and calculated according to Fick's principle from peripheral artery and hepatic vein concentrations. In 14 patients with acute liver failure (ALF), HBF (1.78 +/- 0.78 L/min) and VO2,sp (3.9 +/- 0.9 mmol/min) were higher than in 11 patients without liver disease (1.07 +/- 0.19 L/min, P HVP, HBF increased from 1.67 +/- 0.72 to 2.07 +/- 1.11 L/min (n=11) in ALF, and from 1.89 +/- 1.32 to 2.34 +/- 1.54 L/min (n=7) in AOCLD, P HVP. Blood flow was redirected to the liver as the systemic vascular resistance index increased (1,587 +/- 650 vs. 2, 020 +/- 806 Dyne. s. cm-5. m2, P HVP, but as cardiac output increased from 9.1 +/- 2.8 to 10.1 +/- 2.9 L/min (P HVP (n=18), DO2,sp increased by 15% (P HVP. Changes of ET-1 were positively correlated with changes in HBF (P HVP (P HVP did not correlate. Our data suggest that liver failure is associated with increased HBF and VO2, sp. HVP further increased HBF and DO2,sp but VO2,sp was unchanged, indicating that splanchnic hypoxia was not present.

  15. [Preoperative imaging/operation planning for liver surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, W N; Denecke, T; Neumann, U P

    2015-12-01

    The currently established standard for planning liver surgery is multistage contrast media-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CM-CT), which as a rule enables an appropriate resection planning, e.g. a precise identification and localization of primary and secondary liver tumors as well as the anatomical relation to extrahepatic and/or intrahepatic vascular and biliary structures. Furthermore, CM-CT enables the measurement of tumor volume, total liver volume and residual liver volume after resection. Under the condition of normal liver function a residual liver volume of 25 % is nowadays considered sufficient and safe. Recent studies in patients with liver metastases of colorectal cancer showed a clear staging advantage of contrast media-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CM-MRI) versus CM-CT. In addition, most recent data showed that the use of liver-specific MRI contrast media further increases the sensitivity and specificity of detection of liver metastases. This imaging technology seems to lead closer to the ideal "one stop shopping" diagnostic tool in preoperative planning of liver resection.

  16. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  17. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drooge, Barend van; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-01-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for ΣPCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors

  18. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability

  19. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fowler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  20. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 ± 0.38 µmol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 ± 0.45 µmol/g liver) of taurine ... flowing, stagnant and polluted water bodies of ponds, lakes ... dehydration arising out of such extreme environmental situations. Thus ... of 28 ± 2ºC in plastic aquaria with 12 h:12 h light and.

  1. Giant liver hemangioma resected by trisectorectomy after efficient volume reduction by transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akamatsu Nobuhisa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors, usually small in size and requiring no treatment. Giant hemangiomas complicated with consumptive coagulopathy (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome or causing severe incapacitating symptoms, however, are generally considered an absolute indication for surgical resection. Here, we present the case of a giant hemangioma, which was, to the best of our knowledge, one of the largest ever reported. Case presentation A 38-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital with complaints of severe abdominal distension and pancytopenia. Examinations at the first visit revealed a right liver hemangioma occupying the abdominal cavity, protruding into the right diaphragm up to the right thoracic cavity and extending down to the pelvic cavity, with a maximum diameter of 43 cm, complicated with "asymptomatic" Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Based on the tumor size and the anatomic relationship between the tumor and hepatic vena cava, primary resection seemed difficult and dangerous, leading us to first perform transcatheter arterial embolization to reduce the tumor volume and to ensure the safety of future resection. The tumor volume was significantly decreased by two successive transcatheter arterial embolizations, and a conventional right trisectorectomy was then performed without difficulty to resect the tumor. Conclusions To date, there have been several reports of aggressive surgical treatments, including extra-corporeal hepatic resection and liver transplantation, for huge hemangiomas like the present case, but because of its benign nature, every effort should be made to avoid life-threatening surgical stress for patients. Our experience demonstrates that a pre-operative arterial embolization may effectively enable the resection of large hemangiomas.

  2. Paradoxical impact of the remnant pancreatic volume and infectious complications on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Rie; Kishiwada, Masashi; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Azumi, Yoshinori; Mizuno, Shugo; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Masami; Yamada, Tomomi; Isaji, Shuji

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate perioperative risk factors for development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), paying special attention to remnant pancreatic volume (RPV) and postoperative infection. We reviewed the charts of 110 patients who had been followed more than 6 months after PD. These patients were classified into the two groups according to RPV measured by CT volumetry at one month: large-volume group (LVG) (10 ml or more, n = 75) and small-volume group (SVG) (less than 10 ml, n = 35). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease developed in 44 (40.0%), being significantly higher in SVG than in LVG: 54.2% vs. 33.3% (P = 0.037). SVG was characterized as significantly higher incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, while LVG was characterized as significantly higher incidences of soft pancreas, postoperative infection and pancreatic fistula. In LVG, the incidence of NAFLD was significantly higher in patients with suspicion of infection than in those without it: 45.2% vs. 18.1% (P = 0.014), while not different in SVG. By multivariate analysis, independent risk factor was determined as RPV and suspicion of infection in the whole patients, and in LVG it was suspicion of infection, while in SVG it was not identified. After PD, RPV and status of postoperative infection paradoxically influenced the development of NAFLD. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  3. Changes of the liver volume and the Child-Pugh score after high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Park, Hyo Jung; Park, Su Yeon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Young Yih; Kang, Sang Won; Paik, Seung Woon

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the safety of high dose hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function. We retrospectively reviewed 16 patients with small HCC who were treated with high dose hypofractionated RT between 2006 and 2009. The serial changes of the liver volumetric parameter were analyzed from pre-RT and follow-up (FU) computed tomography (CT) scans. We estimated linear time trends of whole liver volume using a linear mixed model. The serial changes of the Child-Pugh (CP) scores were also analyzed in relation to the volumetric changes. Mean pre-RT volume of entire liver was 1,192.2 mL (range, 502.6 to 1,310.2 mL) and mean clinical target volume was 14.7 mL (range, 1.56 to 70.07 mL). Fourteen (87.5%) patients had 4 FU CT sets and 2 (12.5%) patients had 3 FU CT sets. Mean interval between FU CT acquisition was 2.5 months. After considering age, gender and the irradiated liver volume as a fixed effects, the mixed model analysis confirmed that the change in liver volume is not significant throughout the time course of FU periods. Majority of patients had a CP score change less than 2 except in 1 patient who had CP score change more than 3. The high dose hypofractionated RT for small HCC is relatively safe and feasible in terms of liver volumetric changes and clinical liver function.

  4. CT- and MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen: Comparison to intraoperative volume and weight measurements and calculation of conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlo, C.; Reiner, C.S.; Stolzmann, P.; Breitenstein, S.; Marincek, B.; Weishaupt, D.; Frauenfelder, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare virtual volume to intraoperative volume and weight measurements of resected liver specimen and calculate appropriate conversion factors to reach better correlation. Methods: Preoperative (CT-group, n = 30; MRI-group, n = 30) and postoperative MRI (n = 60) imaging was performed in 60 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Intraoperative volume and weight of the resected liver specimen was measured. Virtual volume measurements were performed by two readers (R1,R2) using dedicated software. Conversion factors were calculated. Results: Mean intraoperative resection weight/volume: CT: 855 g/852 mL; MRI: 872 g/860 mL. Virtual resection volume: CT: 960 mL(R1), 982 mL(R2); MRI: 1112 mL(R1), 1115 mL(R2). Strong positive correlation for both readers between intraoperative and virtual measurements, mean of both readers: CT: R = 0.88(volume), R = 0.89(weight); MRI: R = 0.95(volume), R = 0.92(weight). Conversion factors: 0.85(CT), 0.78(MRI). Conclusion: CT- or MRI-based volumetry of resected liver specimen is accurate and recommended for preoperative planning. A conversion of the result is necessary to improve intraoperative and virtual measurement correlation. We found 0.85 for CT- and 0.78 for MRI-based volumetry the most appropriate conversion factors.

  5. Residual Tumor After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Outside the Radiation Therapy Target Volume: A New Prognostic Factor for Survival in Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muijs, Christina; Smit, Justin; Karrenbeld, Arend; Beukema, Jannet; Mul, Veronique; Dam, Go van; Hospers, Geke; Kluin, Phillip; Langendijk, Johannes; Plukker, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation and clinical target volume (CTV) margins for neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (neo-CRT) in esophageal carcinoma at pathologic examination and to determine the impact on survival. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 63 esophageal cancer patients treated with neo-CRT. GTV and CTV borders were demarcated in situ during surgery on the esophagus, using anatomical reference points to provide accurate information regarding tumor location at pathologic evaluation. To identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), a Cox regression analysis was performed. Results: After resection, macroscopic residual tumor was found outside the GTV in 7 patients (11%). Microscopic residual tumor was located outside the CTV in 9 patients (14%). The median follow-up was 15.6 months. With multivariate analysis, only microscopic tumor outside the CTV (hazard ratio [HR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-15.36), and perineural growth (HR, 5.77; 95% CI, 1.27-26.13) were identified as independent prognostic factors for OS. The 1-year OS was 20% for patients with tumor outside the CTV and 86% for those without (P<.01). For DFS, microscopic tumor outside the CTV (HR, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.89-18.54) and ypN+ (HR, 3.36; 95% CI, 1.33-8.48) were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. The 1-year DFS was 23% versus 77% for patients with or without tumor outside the CTV (P<.01). Conclusions: Microscopic tumor outside the CTV is associated with markedly worse OS after neo-CRT. This may either stress the importance of accurate tumor delineation or reflect aggressive tumor behavior requiring new adjuvant treatment modalities

  6. Solid-Phase Extraction and Large-Volume Sample Stacking-Capillary Electrophoresis for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Islas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase extraction in combination with large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-LVSS-CE was applied to measure chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method had a linear range of 29 to 200 µg·L−1, with limits of detection ranging from 18.6 to 23.8 µg·L−1 with inter- and intraday repeatabilities < 10% (as a relative standard deviation in all cases. The enrichment factors obtained were from 50.33 to 70.85 for all the TCs compared with a conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. This method is adequate to analyze tetracyclines below the most restrictive established maximum residue limits. The proposed method was employed in the analysis of 15 milk samples from different brands. Two of the tested samples were positive for the presence of oxytetracycline with concentrations of 95 and 126 µg·L−1. SPE-LVSS-CE is a robust, easy, and efficient strategy for online preconcentration of tetracycline residues in complex matrices.

  7. Everolimus and long acting octreotide as a volume reducing treatment of polycystic livers (ELATE: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispijn Melissa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic liver disease (PLD is defined as having more than 20 liver cysts and can present as a severe and disabling condition. Most symptoms are caused by the mass effect of the liver size and include abdominal pain and distension. The somatostatin analogues octreotide and lanreotide have proven to reduce polycystic liver volume. mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus inhibit cell proliferation and might thereby reduce growth of liver cysts. This trial aims to assess the benefit of combination therapy of everolimus and octreotide compared to octreotide monotherapy. In this study we present the structure of the trial and the characteristics of the included patients. Methods/design This is a randomized open-label clinical trial comparing the effect of 12 months of everolimus and octreotide to octreotide monotherapy in PLD patients. Primary outcome is change in liver volume determined by CT-volumetry. Secondary outcomes are changes in abdominal symptoms and quality of life. Moreover, safety and tolerability of the drugs will be assessed. Discussion This trial will compare the relative efficacy of combination therapy with octreotide and everolimus to octreotide monotherapy. Since they apply to different pathways of cystogenesis we expect that combining octreotide and everolimus will result in a cumulative reduction of polycystic liver volume. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01157858

  8. In vivo assessment of the tolerance dose of small liver volumes after single-fraction HDR irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Jens; Seidensticker, Max; Luedemann, Lutz; Pech, Maciej; Wieners, Gero; Hengst, Susanne; Mohnike, Konrad; Cho, Chie Hee; Lopez Haenninen, Enrique; Al-Abadi, Hussain; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess a dose-response relationship for small volumes of liver parenchyma after single-fraction irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five liver metastases were treated by computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial brachytherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 1 day before and 3 days and 6, 12, and 24 weeks after therapy. MR sequences included T1-w gradient echo (GRE) enhanced by hepatocyte-targeted gadobenate dimeglumine. All MRI data sets were merged with 3D dosimetry data and evaluated by two radiologists. The reviewers indicated the border of hyperintensity on T2-w images (edema) or hypointensity on T1-w images (loss of hepatocyte function). Based on the total 3D data, a dose-volume histogram was calculated. We estimated the threshold dose for either edema or function loss as the D 90 , i.e., the dose achieved in at least 90% of the pseudolesion volume. Results: Between 3 days and 6 weeks, the extension of the edema increased significantly from the 12.9 Gy isosurface to 9.9 Gy (standard deviation [SD], 3.3 and 2.6). No significant change was detected between 6 and 12 weeks. After 24 weeks, the edematous tissue had shrunk significantly to 14.7 Gy (SD, 4.2). Three days postbrachytherapy, the D 90 for hepatocyte function loss reached the 14.9 Gy isosurface (SD, 3.9). At 6 weeks, the respective zone had increased significantly to 9.9 Gy (SD, 2.3). After 12 and 24 weeks, the dysfunction volume had decreased significantly to the 11.9 Gy and 15.2 Gy isosurface, respectively (SD, 3 and 4.1). Conclusions: The 95% interval from 7.6 to 12.2 Gy found as the minimal hepatocyte tolerance after 6 weeks accounts for the radiobiologic variations found in CT-guided brachytherapy, including heterogeneous dose rates by variable catheter arrays

  9. Comparison the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriari M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Proper nutritional support is one of the important caring aspects in patients who were hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Although the several studies have been done concerning the selection of proper nutrition method for patients, but there is no agreement on this issue. The aim of current study was the compare the effect of two ways of tube feeding including bolus and continuous infusion on gastric residual volume and diarrhea in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit.  Materials and Method: The current clinical trial was conducted on patients who were hospitalized in intensive care unit in Alzahra hospital in Isfahan, 2013. Fifty patients were selected through convenient sampling and were randomly assigned into two groups of 25 people of intervention and control. Nutrition was done through infusion pump in intervention group and by bolus in control group. Gastric residual volume and diarrhea was assessed each four hours for four days. Data were gathered through checklist and were analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential statistics including independent T-test, Fisher's exact test and repeated measures ANOVA.  Results: The results showed that the mean of gastric residual volume in control group was more than the intervention group on the third day (p=0.04. Also, the mean of gastric residual volume did not show significant difference at different times in intervention group, but the mean of gastric residual volume was significantly increased in control group at different times (p=0.04. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between two groups concerning the diarrhea frequency.  Conclusion: In nutritional support with continuous infusion method, gastric residual volume was not increased and gastric emptying rate was not diminished. Therefore, this method can be used as an appropriate nutritional support in intensive care unit.

  10. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHODS....... Twenty-six per cent had a maximum flow rate less than 15 ml/s, but only 4% at a voided volume > or =200 ml. Residual urine more than 149 ml was found in 6%. Two women had chronic retention with overflow incontinence. Both had typical symptoms with continuous leakage, stranguria and chronic cystitis...

  11. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Luccichenti, Giacomo; Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics [it

  12. How many sets of 4DCT images are sufficient to determine internal target volume for liver radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Mian; Liu Mengzhong; Zhang Li; Li Qiaoqiao; Huang Xiaoyan; Liu Hui; Hu Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the feasibility of using limited four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) images for treatment planning. Materials and methods: The 4DCT scans of 16 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were analyzed. Gross tumor volumes (GTVs) were manually contoured on all 10 respiratory phases, and different internal clinical target volumes (ICTVs) were derived by encompassing volumes of the respective CTVs. Volume, position, and shape of ICTVs were calculated and compared. Results: The ICTV 2phases , ICTV 3phases , ICTV 4phases , and ICTV 6phases all showed excellent agreement with ICTV 10phases , and the ICTV 2phases encompassed ICTV 10phases by 94.1 ± 1.8% on average. The 3D shift between the centers of mass of the ICTVs was only 0.6 mm. The surface distance between ICTV 10phases and ICTV 2phases was 1.7 ± 0.8 mm in the left-right (LR) and anteroposterior (AP) directions. Conclusions: Contouring two extreme phases at end-inhalation and end-exhalation is a reasonably safe and labor-saving method of deriving ITV for liver radiotherapy with low and medium tumor motion amplitude (≤1.6 cm). Whether the larger tumor movement affects the results is the subject of ongoing research.

  13. Dietary pattern associated with selenoprotein P and MRI-derived body fat volumes, liver signal intensity, and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Borggrefe, Jan; Both, Marcus; Müller, Hans-Peter; Kassubek, Jan; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2018-02-14

    The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease. In this cross-sectional study, serum SELENOP levels were measured in 853 individuals. In a subsample of 553 participants, whole-body MRI was performed to assess body fat distribution and liver fat. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the dietary pattern identified using reduced-rank regression (RRR). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between dietary pattern score and metabolic traits. Characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidant beverages, the RRR-derived dietary pattern displayed inverse associations with VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes in multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines. Each unit increase in dietary pattern score was associated with 31% higher SELENOP levels, 12% lower VAT (95% CI: - 19%; - 5%), 13% (95% CI: - 20%; - 6%) lower SAT values and 46% (95% CI: 27%; 60%) and 53% (95% CI: 22%; 72%) lower odds of having MetS or diabetes, respectively. No meaningful relations were observed between the dietary pattern and liver traits. Our observations propose diet-related regulation in SELENOP levels and that the identified dietary pattern is inversely related to VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes.

  14. Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for the determination of ethopabate residues in poultry liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Rodrigo H M M; Niño, Alfredo M Montes; Zucchetti, Roberto A M; Niño, Rosario E Montes; Salerno, Alessandro G

    2008-01-01

    Ethopabate is frequently used in the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. Residues of this drug in food present a potential risk to consumers. A simple, rapid, and sensitive column high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV detection for determination of ethopabate in poultry liver is presented. The drug is extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation, the residue is dissolved with an acetone-hexane mixture and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using Florisil columns. The analyte is then eluted with methanol. LC analysis is carried out on a C18 5 microm Gemini column, 15 cm x 4.6 mm. Ethopabate is quantified by means of UV detection at 270 nm. Parameters such as decision limit, detection capability, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and measurement uncertainty were calculated according to method validation guidelines provided in 2002/657/EC and ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Decision limit and detection capability were determined to be 2 and 3 microg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries from poultry samples fortified with 10, 15, and 20 microg/kg levels of ethopabate were 100-105%. A complete statistical analysis was performed on the results obtained, including an estimation of the method uncertainty. The method is to be implemented into Brazil's residue monitoring and control program for ethopabate.

  15. The prediction of radiofrequency ablation zone volume using vascular indices of 3-dimensional volumetric colour Doppler ultrasound in an in vitro blood-perfused bovine liver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, Anthony C; McCarter, Martin D; Roberts, Katherine M; Glueck, Deborah H; Dodd, Gerald D

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the most reliable predictor of radiofrequency (RF) ablation zone volume among three-dimensional (3D) volumetric colour Doppler vascular indices in an in vitro blood-perfused bovine liver model. Methods: 3D colour Doppler volume data of the local hepatic parenchyma were acquired from 37 areas of 13 bovine livers connected to an in vitro oxygenated blood perfusion system. Doppler vascular indices of vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) were obtained from the volume data using 3D volume analysis software. 37 RF ablations were performed at the same locations where the ultrasound data were obtained from. The relationship of these vascular indices and the ablation zone volumes measured from gross specimens were analyzed using a general linear mixed model fit with random effect for liver and backward stepwise regression analysis. Results: FI was significantly associated with ablation zone volumes measured on gross specimens (p = 0.0047), but explained little of the variance (Rβ2 = 0.21). Ablation zone volume decreased by 0.23 cm3 (95% confidence interval: −0.38, −0.08) for every 1 increase in FI. Neither VI nor VFI was significantly associated with ablation zone volumes (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Although FI was associated with ablation zone volumes, it could not sufficiently explain their variability, limiting its clinical applicability. VI, FI and VFI are not clinically useful in the prediction of RF ablation zone volume in the liver. Advances in knowledge: Despite a significant association of FI with ablation zone volumes, VI, FI and VFI cannot be used for their prediction. Different Doppler vascular indices need to be investigated for clinical use. PMID:27925468

  16. High resolution T2 weighted liver MR imaging using functional residual capacity breath-hold with a 1.0-Tesla scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Akihiko; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Mitani, Masahiko; Takeda, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: During acquisition of rapid high resolution (HR) T2 weighted (T2W) liver magnetic resonance (MR) images using a 1.0-Tesla (T) scanner, the liver is segmented into odd and even sections that are acquired at two different times using the multi-breath-hold (MBH) strategy. Misalignment between the two breath-hold (B-H) images may result in the occurrence of a blind area and a decrease in diagnostic accuracy. Here, a functional residual capacity (FRC) B-H method was developed to overcome this problem. Material and methods: Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled. The sagittal images were reconstructed from whole liver transverse images. When the B-H phases are different, misalignment may occur in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In this study, misalignments of the abdominal wall were measured in the AP direction. The misalignment was compared between four B-H phases, maximum inspiration (MI), maximum expiration (ME), voluntary expiration (VE) and FRC using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Differences between groups were compared using the t-test for multi-group comparisons. In addition, qualitative analysis of misalignment was performed between VE and FRC in 52 clinical patients and the χ 2 test was performed. Results: The misalignment widths of FRC, ME, MI and VE B-Hs were 2.7 ± 3.8, 6.4 ± 7.4, 9.1 ± 8.4 and 6.0 ± 6.7 mm, respectively. Misalignment of the liver position using FRC was significantly smaller than for the other B-H methods (p < 0.05). Significant differences between the VE B-H and FRC B-H were also observed in the qualitative analysis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The liver positions obtained when using FRC B-H were significantly more reproducible than when using the other B-H methods. The FRC B-H method resulted in a reduction in the blind area and an extension of the diagnostic area to the whole liver.

  17. Involved Node, Site, Field and Residual Volume Radiotherapy for Lymphoma: A Comparison of Organ at Risk Dosimetry and Second Malignancy Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L; Sethugavalar, B; Robertshaw, H; Bayman, E; Thomas, E; Gilson, D; Prestwich, R J D

    2015-07-01

    Recent radiotherapy guidelines for lymphoma have included involved site radiotherapy (ISRT), involved node radiotherapy (INRT) and irradiation of residual volume after full-course chemotherapy. In the absence of late toxicity data, we aim to compare organ at risk (OAR) dose-metrics and calculated second malignancy risks. Fifteen consecutive patients who had received mediastinal radiotherapy were included. Four radiotherapy plans were generated for each patient using a parallel pair photon technique: (i) involved field radiotherapy (IFRT), (ii) ISRT, (iii) INRT, (iv) residual post-chemotherapy volume. The radiotherapy dose was 30 Gy in 15 fractions. The OARs evaluated were: breasts, lungs, thyroid, heart, oesophagus. Relative and absolute second malignancy rates were estimated using the concept of organ equivalent dose. Significance was defined as P risks of second cancers were significantly higher with IFRT compared with ISRT for lung, breast and thyroid; INRT and residual volume resulted in significantly lower relative risks compared with ISRT for lung, breast and thyroid. The median excess absolute risks of second cancers were consistently lowest for the residual technique and highest for IFRT in terms of thyroid, lung and breast cancers. The risk of oesophageal cancer was similar for all four techniques. Overall, the absolute risk of second cancers was very similar for ISRT and INRT. Decreasing treatment volumes from IFRT to ISRT, INRT or residual volume reduces radiation exposure to OARs. Second malignancy modelling suggests that this reduction in treatment volumes will lead to a reduction in absolute excess second malignancy. Little difference was observed in second malignancy risks between ISRT and INRT, supporting the use of ISRT in the absence of a pre-chemotherapy positron emission tomography scan in the radiotherapy treatment position. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of foetal liver volume by three-dimensional ultrasound in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Gülşah; Gültekin, Hüseyin; Kubat, Ayça; Gokmen Karasu, Ayse Filiz; Güngör, Emre Sinan; Zebitay, Galip Ali; Verit Atmaca, Fatma Ferda

    2018-03-19

    The aim of the study was to assess the standard foetal biometric measurements and foetal liver volume (FLV) in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) at the time of GDM screening and to compare the results with foetuses in normal pregnancies. Ninety-seven pregnant women with normal singleton uncomplicated pregnancies between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation were allocated into GDM (+) (n: 33) and GDM (-) (n: 64) groups based on their 75 g oral glucose tolerance test results. Foetal biometric measurements and FLV measurements of the groups were compared. Although there were no significant differences in the standard biometric measurements between the two groups, FLV was significantly higher in the women with GDM (p liver length and foetal liver volume (FLV) have been evaluated as ultrasound parameters of glycaemic control. While the evaluation of foetal liver dimensions has a role in identifying foetal growth acceleration, previous studies addressed patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus rather than gestational diabetes mellitus, utilised two-dimensional ultrasound and did not argue the diagnostic value of these findings. What do the results of this study add? In our study, besides the standard biometric measurements, the FLV measurements were evaluated by a three-dimensional ultrasound. Although there were no significant differences in the standard biometric measurements between the GDM (+) and GDM (-) groups, the FLV was significantly higher in women with GDM. The FLV was found to be a potential predictive factor for GDM. The ROC analysis implied that as a cut-off value of FLV of 32.72 cm 3 for GDM prediction, the sensitivity was 78.8% and the specificity was 56.3%. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practise and/or further research? Screening for GDM with oral glucose tolerance test within the limited weeks of gestation may not always be feasible. On the other hand, the mid-trimester ultrasound scanning

  19. Patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation and transurethral indwelling catheterisation for treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume after vaginal prolapse surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, R. A.; Nieuwkerk, P. T.; Burger, M. P.; Emanuel, M. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) relative to transurethral indwelling catheterisation (TIC) as the treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume (PVR) following vaginal prolapse surgery. Scenario-based preference assessment during face-to-face

  20. Radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses of repeated single-fraction hdr-irradiation of intersecting small liver volumes for recurrent hepatic metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wust Peter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.

  1. Assessment of the residual tumour of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted MR magnetic resonance imaging in the peripheral and entire tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Doblas, Sabrina; Giraudeau, Celine [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Ronot, Maxime; Van Beers, Bernard; Vilgrain, Valerie [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Belghiti, Jacques [Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Paradis, Valerie [Pathology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (<3 months) including DWI were retrospectively included. CLMs were classified into three response groups on pathology: (1) major histological (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. (orig.)

  2. Significant correlation between spleen volume and thrombocytopenia in liver transplant patients: a concept for predicting persistent thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Masahiro; Ishifuro, Minoru; Ide, Kentaro; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki; Asahara, Toshimasa; Ohdan, Hideki

    2009-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy with or without ribavirin treatment is well established as a standard antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, susceptibility to thrombocytopenia is a major obstacle for initiating or continuing this therapy, particularly in liver transplant (LTx) recipients with HCV. Studies have reported that splenectomy performed concurrently with LTx is a feasible strategy for conditioning patients for anti-HCV IFN therapy. However, the relationship between the severity of splenomegaly and alterations in the blood cytopenia in LTx recipients remains to be clarified. Here, we analyzed the relationship between spleen volume (SV) and thrombocytopenia in 45 patients who underwent LTx at Hiroshima University Hospital. The extent of pre-LTx splenomegaly [the SV to body surface area (BSA) ratio in an individual] was inversely correlated with both the post-LTx white blood cell count and platelet (PLT) count (P or= 400), persistent thrombocytopenia is predictable after LTx. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  3. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-11-15

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  4. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  5. Effects of high-volume plasmapheresis on ammonia, urea, and amino acids in patients with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmesen, J O; Kondrup, J; Nielsen, L B; Larsen, F S; Ott, P

    2001-04-01

    In acute liver failure (ALF), urea production is severely impaired, and detoxification of ammonia by glutamine synthesis plays an important protective role. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of therapeutic high-volume plasmapheresis (HVP) on arterial concentrations and splanchnic exchange rates of ammonia, urea, and amino acids-in particular, glutamine. A quantity of 8 L of plasma was exchanged over the course of 7 h in 11 patients with ALF after development of hepatic encephalopathy grade III-IV. Splanchnic exchange rates of ammonia, urea, and amino acids were measured by use of liver vein catheterization. HVP removed ammonia and glutamine at a rate of 1 micromol/min and 27 micromol/min, respectively. Arterial ammonia decreased from 160 +/- 65 to 114 +/- 50 micromol/L (p HVP) were as follows: for ammonia, -93 +/- 101 versus -70 +/- 80 micromol/min (NS); urea-nitrogen, 0.08 +/- 1.64 versus -0.31 +/- 0.45 mmol/min (NS); alanine, -73 +/- 151 versus 12 +/- 83 micromol/min (p HVP in patients with ALF. The data suggest that this effect of HVP could be explained by increased hepatic urea synthesis and possibly by increased glutamine synthesis in muscle tissue.

  6. Preoperative volume calculation of the hepatic venous draining areas with multi-detector row CT in adult living donor liver transplantation: impact on surgical procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frericks, Bernd B.J.; Kirchhoff, Timm D.; Shin, Hoen-Oh; Stamm, Georg; Merkesdal, Sonja; Abe, Takehiko; Galanski, Michael; Schenk, Andrea; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Klempnauer, Juergen; Nashan, Bjoern

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the volumes of the different hepatic territories and especially the drainage of the right paramedian sector in adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). CT was performed in 40 potential donors of whom 28 underwent partial living donation. Data sets of all potential donors were postprocessed using dedicated software for segmentation, volumetric analysis and visualization of liver territories. During an initial period, volumes and shapes of liver parts were calculated based on the individual portal venous perfusion areas. After partial hepatic congestion occurring in three grafts, drainage territories with special regard to MHV tributaries from the right paramedian sector, and the IRHV were calculated additionally. Results were visualized three-dimensionally and compared to the intraoperative findings. Calculated graft volumes based on hepatic venous drainage and graft weights correlated significantly (r=0.86,P<0.001). Mean virtual graft volume was 930 ml and drained as follows: RHV: 680 ml, IRHV: 170 ml (n=11); segment 5 MHV tributaries: 100 ml (n=16); segment 8 MHV tributaries: 110 ml (n=20). When present, the mean aberrant venous drainage fraction of the right liver lobe was 28%. The evaluated protocol allowed a reliable calculation of the hepatic venous draining areas and led to a change in the hepatic venous reconstruction strategy at our institution. (orig.)

  7. Increase in Volume of Ablation Zones during Follow-up Is Highly Suggestive of Ablation Site Recurrence in Colorectal Liver Metastases Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kele, Petra G.; de Jong, Koert P.; van der Jagt, Eric J.

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that volume changes of ablation zones (AZs) on successive computed tomography (CT) scans could predict ablation site recurrences (ASRs) in patients with colorectal liver metastases treated by radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Materials and Methods: RF ablation was

  8. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  9. Comparison between total lung capacity and residual volume values obtained by pletysmography and single breath methods with methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed pulmonary function tests of twenty asthmatic patients from Gaffrée e Guinle University Hospital, classified according to Brazilian Guidelines for Asthma (2002, similar to GINA, into mild persistent or moderate (9 or severe (11 asthma. We obtained parameters from spirometry, plethysmograph(PL and single breath technique for diffusion capacity (SB, with methane. Total lung capacity and residual volume were called TLCPL and RVPL when measured by pletysmography and TLCSB and RVSB when determined by single breath test. There were 13 women and 7 men with mean age of 47.6 years. The pulmonary dysfunction degree to FEV1/FVC was 58.8% with CI95=53.9 to 63.6. The mean values in litres for TLCPL (5.94 and RVPL (2.55 were significantly higher than for TLCSB (4.73 and RVSB (1.66. Multiple regression equations were determined for TLCPL e RVPL using only single breath values, TLCSB or RVSB, and spirographic parameters, with significant regression coefficients. However, the inclusion of spirometric parameters, except for FVC, did not improve the predicted capacity for the equations. Considering only the TLCSB, r2=0.79, the equation is: TLCPL=(TLCSB*1.025+1.088, with EPE=0.64. The regression for RVPL, r2=0.23, is: RVPL=(RVSB*0.9268+1.012. The results obtained after bronchodilation with 400 mcg of salbutamol did not improve the regression. We concluded that the SB technique did not obtain the same results as pletysmography for TLC and RV, but for TLC this difference can be predicted. Resumo: Foram analisados exames de função pulmonar de 20 asmáticos, em acompanhamento no HU Gaffrée Guinle, classificados, segundo o Consenso Brasileiro (2002, em asma leve persistente ou moderada (9 e grave (11. Foram obtidos os valores dos parâmetros da espirografia, da pletismografia e da técnica de respiração única, com metano, para a medida da difusão pulmonar (DLco. Assim, a capacidade pulmonar total e o volume residual, quando

  10. Liver volume measurement: reason of the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and intraoperative ex vivo determination and how to cope it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehues, Stefan M; Unger, J K; Malinowski, M; Neymeyer, J; Hamm, B; Stockmann, M

    2010-08-20

    Volumetric assessment of the liver regularly yields discrepant results between pre- and intraoperatively determined volumes. Nevertheless, the main factor responsible for this discrepancy remains still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and ex vivo volumetry in a pig animal model. Eleven pigs were studied. Liver density assessment, CT-volumetry and water displacement volumetry was performed after surgical removal of the complete liver. Known possible errors of volume determination like resection or segmentation borders were eliminated in this model. Regression analysis was performed and differences between CT-volumetry and water displacement determined. Median liver density was 1.07g/ml. Regression analysis showed a high correlation of r(2) = 0.985 between CT-volumetry and water displacement. CT-volumetry was found to be 13% higher than water displacement volumetry (pvolumetry and ex vivo water displacement volumetry seems to be blood perfusion of the liver. The systematic difference of 13 percent has to be taken in account when dealing with those measures.

  11. Liver volume measurement: reason of the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and intraoperative ex vivo determination and how to cope it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niehues SM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Volumetric assessment of the liver regularly yields discrepant results between pre- and intraoperatively determined volumes. Nevertheless, the main factor responsible for this discrepancy remains still unclear. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and ex vivo volumetry in a pig animal model. Material and Methods Eleven pigs were studied. Liver density assessment, CT-volumetry and water displacement volumetry was performed after surgical removal of the complete liver. Known possible errors of volume determination like resection or segmentation borders were eliminated in this model. Regression analysis was performed and differences between CT-volumetry and water displacement determined. Results Median liver density was 1.07 g/ml. Regression analysis showed a high correlation of r2 = 0.985 between CT-volumetry and water displacement. CTvolumetry was found to be 13% higher than water displacement volumetry (p Conclusion In this study the only relevant factor leading to the difference between in vivo CT-volumetry and ex vivo water displacement volumetry seems to be blood perfusion of the liver. The systematic difference of 13 percent has to be taken in account when dealing with those measures.

  12. Bone marrow response in treated patients with Gaucher disease: evaluation by T1-weighted magnetic resonance images and correlation with reduction in liver and spleen volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terk, M.R.; Dardashti, S.; Liebman, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images can demonstrate response in the marrow of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and to determine whether a relationship exists between liver and spleen volume reductions and visible marrow changes.Patients. Forty-two patients with type 1 Gaucher disease were evaluated on at least two occasions. Thirty-two patients received ERT. Of these patients, 15 had a baseline examination prior to the initiation of ERT. The remaining 10 patients did not receive ERT.Design. T1-weighted and gradient recalled echo (GRE) coronal images of the femurs and hips were obtained. Concurrently, liver and spleen volumes were determined using contiguous breath-hold axial gradient-echo images. T1-weighted images of the hips and femurs were evaluated to determine change or lack of change in the yellow marrow.Results. Of the 32 patients receiving ERT, 14 (44%) demonstrated increased signal on T1-weighted images suggesting an increase in the amount of yellow marrow. If only the 15 patients with a baseline examination were considered, the response rate to ERT was 67%. Using Student's t-test a highly significant correlation (P<0.005) was found between marrow response and reduction in liver and spleen volume.Conclusions. Marrow changes in patients receiving ERT can be detected by T1-weighted images. This response correlated with reductions in visceral volumes (P<0.0005). (orig.)

  13. Clearance of hepatitis C virus after living-donor liver transplantation in spite of residual viremia on end date of interferon therapy before transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Nakao, Kazuhiko; Hamasaki, Keisuke; Honda, Takuya; Shibata, Hidetaka; Akahoshi, Mana; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Kanematsu, Takashi; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) therapy is the only treatment strategy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplantation (LT), but prophylactic and treatable IFN therapy after LT has been shown to be insufficient due to the adverse effects of IFN and rivabirin. In this paper, we describe the disappearance of HCV after LT without IFN therapy in the presence of residual viremia on the day of LT. We herein report our findings since this is considered an important case for the anti-HCV strategy of post LT. A 60-year old woman with LC and HCC was referred to Nagasaki University Hospital in August 2004. After she underwent LT on February 18, 2005, we injected peg-IFN-α-2a the 11th time at 18 wk and HCV-RNA was still positive in the serum at LT. The serum HCV-RNA was negative one month after operation and subsequently dissolved 15 mo after operation without IFN therapy. As a result, we speculate that if HCV-RNA is positive while HCV core antigen is negative before LT, then it may lead to clearance of HCV after LT. Therefore long acting peg-IFN-α-2a is thus considered a potentially effective agent for the treatment of HCV-related cirrhosis before LT. PMID:17696240

  14. Prenatal MRI fetal lung volumes and percent liver herniation predict pulmonary morbidity in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Irving J; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Cass, Darrell L; Fallon, Sara C; Lazar, David A; Cassady, Christopher I; Mehollin-Ray, Amy R; Welty, Stephen E; Ruano, Rodrigo; Belfort, Michael A; Lee, Timothy C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether prenatal imaging parameters are predictive of postnatal CDH-associated pulmonary morbidity. The records of all neonates with CDH treated from 2004 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients requiring supplemental oxygen at 30 days of life (DOL) were classified as having chronic lung disease (CLD). Fetal MRI-measured observed/expected total fetal lung volume (O/E-TFLV) and percent liver herniation (%LH) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and multivariate regression were applied to assess the prognostic value of O/E-TFLV and %LH for development of CLD. Of 172 neonates with CDH, 108 had fetal MRIs, and survival was 76%. 82% (89/108) were alive at DOL 30, 46 (52%) of whom had CLD. Neonates with CLD had lower mean O/E-TFLV (30 vs.42%; p=0.001) and higher %LH (21.3±2.8 vs.7.1±1.8%; p20% (AUC=0.78; p20% were highly associated with indicators of long-term pulmonary sequelae. On multivariate analysis, %LH was the strongest predictor of CLD in patients with CDH (OR: 10.96, 95%CI: 2.5-48.9, p=0.002). Prenatal measurement of O/E-TFLV and %LH is predictive of CDH pulmonary morbidity and can aid in establishing parental expectations of postnatal outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  16. Effect of intra-abdominal volume increment technique for the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension on the liver after resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang WANG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD assisted intra-abdominal volume increment (IAVI technique on the liver in the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in pigs. Methods  Twelve healthy mini-pigs (Bama, Guangxi were selected for bloodletting from the femoral artery to reproduce hemorrhagic shock model (mean arterial blood pressure, 50mmHg, 1h, and IAH model was successfully reproduced in eight pigs by partial occlusion of portal vein. The eight pigs were randomly divided into the intra-abdominal volume increment treatment (IT group (n=4 and sham operation control (SC group (n=4. Vesical pressure (VP and inferior vena cava pressure (IVCP were observed before shock, 2h after IAH, and 22h after IAVI treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured. In addition, the ratio of the abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter was assessed, and the liver CT values were measured after enhanced CT scanning. The pigs were sacrificed 26h after operation. Liver specimens were collected to measure the ratio of wet weight to dry weight and pathological examination. Results  The VP in 8 IAH pigs was 21.16±4.63mmHg. The ratio of abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter increased remarkably 2h after IAH compared with that before shock (1.22±1.41 vs 0.96±0.08, PPvs 42.73±4.92HU, PPPvs 5.14±0.71, PConclusions  The established model could better reproduce the symptoms of IAH after hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation, accompanied by liver damage. IAVI helps to relieve liver functional disturbance after IAH, which is related to decreased intra-abdominal pressure and hypoxia-ischemia of the liver.

  17. WE-AB-BRA-02: Development of Biomechanical Models to Describe Dose-Volume Response to Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, M; Polan, D; Feng, M; Lawrence, T; Haken, R Ten; Brock, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that radiotherapy treatment for liver metastases causes marked liver hypertrophy in areas receiving low dose and atrophy/fibrosis in areas receiving high dose. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a biomechanical model-based dose-response model to describe these liver responses to SBRT. Methods: In this retrospective study, a biomechanical model-based deformable registration algorithm, Morfeus, was expanded to include dose-based boundary conditions. Liver and tumor volumes were contoured on the planning images and CT/MR images three months post-RT and converted to finite element models. A thermal expansion-based relationship correlating the delivered dose and volume response was generated from 22 patients previously treated. This coefficient, combined with the planned dose, was applied as an additional boundary condition to describe the volumetric response of the liver of an additional cohort of metastatic liver patients treated with SBRT. The accuracy of the model was evaluated based on overall volumetric liver comparisons and the target registration error (TRE) using the average deviations in positions of identified vascular bifurcations on each set of registered images, with a target accuracy of the 2.5mm isotropic dose grid (vector dimension 4.3mm). Results: The thermal expansion coefficient models the volumetric change of the liver to within 3%. The accuracy of Morfeus with dose-expansion boundary conditions a TRE of 5.7±2.8mm compared to 11.2±3.7mm using rigid registration and 8.9±0.28mm using Morfeus with only spatial boundary conditions. Conclusion: A biomechanical model has been developed to describe the volumetric and spatial response of the liver to SBRT. This work will enable the improvement of correlating functional imaging with delivered dose, the mapping of the delivered dose from one treatment onto the planning images for a subsequent treatment, and will further provide information to assist

  18. Reproducibility of functional volume and activity concentration in 18F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmen, Linda; de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; de Wilt, Johannes H W; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu; Visser, Eric P; Bussink, Johan; Punt, Cornelis J A; Oyen, Wim J G; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M

    2012-12-01

    Several studies showed potential for monitoring response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Before (18)F-FDG PET can be implemented for response evaluation the repeatability should be known. This study was performed to assess the magnitude of the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV), volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in colorectal liver metastases and validate the biological basis of (18)F-FDG PET in colorectal liver metastases. Twenty patients scheduled for liver metastasectomy underwent two (18)F-FDG PET scans within 1 week. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess repeatability of SUV(max), SUV(mean), volume and TLG. Tumours were delineated using an adaptive threshold method (PET(SBR)) and a semiautomatic fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) delineation method. Coefficient of repeatability of SUV(max) and SUV(mean) were ∼39 and ∼31 %, respectively, independent of the delineation method used and image reconstruction parameters. However, repeatability was worse in recently treated patients. The FLAB delineation method improved the repeatability of the volume and TLG measurements compared to PET(SBR), from coefficients of repeatability of over 85 % to 45 % and 57 % for volume and TLG, respectively. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression correlated to the SUV(mean). Vascularity (CD34 expression) and tumour hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX expression) did not correlate with (18)F-FDG PET parameters. In conclusion, repeatability of SUV(mean) and SUV(max) was mainly affected by preceding systemic therapy. The repeatability of tumour volume and TLG could be improved using more advanced and robust delineation approaches such as FLAB, which is recommended when (18)F-FDG PET is utilized for volume or TLG measurements. Improvement of repeatability of PET measurements, for instance by dynamic PET scanning protocols, is probably necessary to effectively

  19. Reproducibility of functional volume and activity concentration in 18F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijmen, Linda; Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Visser, Eric P.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Wilt, Johannes H.W. de; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu; Bussink, Johan; Punt, Cornelis J.A.; Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Several studies showed potential for monitoring response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Before 18 F-FDG PET can be implemented for response evaluation the repeatability should be known. This study was performed to assess the magnitude of the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV), volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in colorectal liver metastases and validate the biological basis of 18 F-FDG PET in colorectal liver metastases. Twenty patients scheduled for liver metastasectomy underwent two 18 F-FDG PET scans within 1 week. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess repeatability of SUV max , SUV mean , volume and TLG. Tumours were delineated using an adaptive threshold method (PET SBR ) and a semiautomatic fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) delineation method. Coefficient of repeatability of SUV max and SUV mean were ∝39 and ∝31 %, respectively, independent of the delineation method used and image reconstruction parameters. However, repeatability was worse in recently treated patients. The FLAB delineation method improved the repeatability of the volume and TLG measurements compared to PET SBR , from coefficients of repeatability of over 85 % to 45 % and 57 % for volume and TLG, respectively. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression correlated to the SUV mean . Vascularity (CD34 expression) and tumour hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX expression) did not correlate with 18 F-FDG PET parameters. In conclusion, repeatability of SUV mean and SUV max was mainly affected by preceding systemic therapy. The repeatability of tumour volume and TLG could be improved using more advanced and robust delineation approaches such as FLAB, which is recommended when 18 F-FDG PET is utilized for volume or TLG measurements. Improvement of repeatability of PET measurements, for instance by dynamic PET scanning protocols, is probably necessary to effectively use PET for

  20. Intraprocedural blood volume measurement using C-arm CT as a predictor for treatment response of malignant liver tumours undergoing repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Schaefer, Patrik; Lehnert, Thomas; Mbalisike, Emmanuel; Hammerstingl, Renate; Eichler, Katrin; Zangos, Stephan; Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A.; Ackermann, Hanns; Naguib, Nagy N.N.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility of measuring parenchymal blood volume (PBV) of malignant hepatic tumours using C-arm CT, test the changes in PBV following repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and correlate these changes with the change in tumour size in MRI. 111 patients with liver malignancy were included. Patients underwent MRI and TACE in a 4- to 6-week interval. During intervention C-arm CT was performed. Images were post-processed to generate PBV maps. Blood volume data in C-arm CT and change in size in MRI were evaluated. The correlation between PBV and size was tested using Spearman rank test. Pre-interventional PBV maps showed a mean blood volume of 84.5 ml/1000 ml ± 62.0, follow-up PBV maps after multiple TACE demonstrated 61.1 ml/1000 ml ± 57.5. The change in PBV was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Patients with initial tumour blood volume >100 ml/1000 ml dropped 7.1 % in size and 47.2 % in blood volume; 50-100 ml/1000 ml dropped 4.6 % in size and 25.7 % in blood volume; and <50 ml/1000 ml decreased 2.8 % in size and increased 82.2 % in blood volume. PBV measurement of malignant liver tumours using C-arm CT is feasible. Following TACE PBV decreased significantly. Patients with low initial PBV show low local response rates and further increase in blood volume, whereas high initial tumour PBV showed better response to TACE. (orig.)

  1. Successful introduction of Model for End-stage Liver Disease scoring in deceased donor liver transplantation in Korea: analysis of first 1 year experience at a high-volume transplantation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Soo-Min; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Kim, Ki-Hun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Namgung, Jungman; Kang, Woo-Hyoung; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jwa, Eunkyoung; Kwon, Jae-Hyeon; Cho, Hui-Dong; Jung, Yong-Kyu; Kang, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2017-11-01

    Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was adopted in June 2016 in Korea. We analyzed changes in volumes and outcomes of deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for 1 year before and after introduction of MELD scoring at Asan Medical Center. There were 64 cases of DDLT in 1 year before MELD introduction and 106 in 1 year after MELD introduction, an increase of 65%. The volume of DDLTs abruptly increased during first 3 months, but then returned to its usual level before MELD introduction, which indicated 3-month depletion of accumulated recipient pool with high MELD scores. The number of pediatric DDLT cases increased from 3 before MELD introduction to 11 after it, making up 21.4% and 47.8% of all cases of pediatric liver transplantation, respectively. The number of cases of retransplanted DDLTs increased from 4 to 27, representing 6.3% and 25.5% of all DDLT cases, respectively. The number of status 1 DDLT cases increased from 5 to 12, being 7.8% and 11.3% of all cases. Patient survival outcomes were similar before and after MELD introduction. The number of DDLTs temporarily increased after adoption of MELD scoring due to accumulated recipient pool with high MELD scores. The numbers of retransplanted and pediatric DDLT cases significantly increased. Patient survival in adult and pediatric DDLT was comparable before and after adoption of MELD scoring. These results imply that Korean MELD score-based allocation system was successfully established within its first year.

  2. cExternal beam radiation results in minimal changes in post void residual urine volumes during the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orio, Peter F III; Merrick, Gregory S; Allen, Zachariah A; Butler, Wayne M; Wallner, Kent E; Kurko, Brian S; Galbreath, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of external beam radiation therapy (XRT) on weekly ultrasound determined post-void residual (PVR) urine volumes in patients with prostate cancer. 125 patients received XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer. XRT was delivered to the prostate only (n = 66) or if the risk of lymph node involvement was greater than 10% to the whole pelvis followed by a prostate boost (n = 59). All patients were irradiated in the prone position in a custom hip-fix mobilization device with an empty bladder and rectum. PVR was obtained at baseline and weekly. Multiple clinical and treatment parameters were evaluated as predictors for weekly PVR changes. The mean patient age was 73.9 years with a mean pre-treatment prostate volume of 53.3 cc, a mean IPSS of 11.3 and a mean baseline PVR of 57.6 cc. During treatment, PVR decreased from baseline in both cohorts with the absolute difference within the limits of accuracy of the bladder scanner. Alpha-blockers did not predict for a lower PVR during treatment. There was no significant difference in mean PVR urine volumes or differences from baseline in either the prostate only or pelvic radiation groups (p = 0.664 and p = 0.458, respectively). Patients with a larger baseline PVR (>40 cc) had a greater reduction in PVR, although the greatest reduction was seen between weeks one and three. Patients with a small PVR (<40 cc) had no demonstrable change throughout treatment. Prostate XRT results in clinically insignificant changes in weekly PVR volumes, suggesting that radiation induced bladder irritation does not substantially influence bladder residual urine volumes

  3. cExternal beam radiation results in minimal changes in post void residual urine volumes during the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallner Kent E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the impact of external beam radiation therapy (XRT on weekly ultrasound determined post-void residual (PVR urine volumes in patients with prostate cancer. Methods 125 patients received XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer. XRT was delivered to the prostate only (n = 66 or if the risk of lymph node involvement was greater than 10% to the whole pelvis followed by a prostate boost (n = 59. All patients were irradiated in the prone position in a custom hip-fix mobilization device with an empty bladder and rectum. PVR was obtained at baseline and weekly. Multiple clinical and treatment parameters were evaluated as predictors for weekly PVR changes. Results The mean patient age was 73.9 years with a mean pre-treatment prostate volume of 53.3 cc, a mean IPSS of 11.3 and a mean baseline PVR of 57.6 cc. During treatment, PVR decreased from baseline in both cohorts with the absolute difference within the limits of accuracy of the bladder scanner. Alpha-blockers did not predict for a lower PVR during treatment. There was no significant difference in mean PVR urine volumes or differences from baseline in either the prostate only or pelvic radiation groups (p = 0.664 and p = 0.458, respectively. Patients with a larger baseline PVR (>40 cc had a greater reduction in PVR, although the greatest reduction was seen between weeks one and three. Patients with a small PVR ( Conclusion Prostate XRT results in clinically insignificant changes in weekly PVR volumes, suggesting that radiation induced bladder irritation does not substantially influence bladder residual urine volumes.

  4. Role of residual kidney function and convective volume on change in beta2-microglobulin levels in hemodiafiltration patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penne, E. Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; van den Dorpel, Marinus A.; Grooteman, Muriel P. C.; Nubé, Menso J.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Lévesque, Renée; Bots, Michiel L.

    2010-01-01

    Removal of beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) can be increased by adding convective transport to hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the change in beta2M levels after 6-mo treatment with hemodiafiltration (HDF) and to evaluate the role of residual kidney function (RKF) and the

  5. Role of residual kidney function and convective volume on change in β2-microglobulin levels in hemodiafiltration patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Penne (Lars); N.C. van der Weerd (Neelke); P.J. Blankestijn (Peter); M.A. van den Dorpel (Marinus); M.P.C. Grooteman (Muriel); M.J. Nubé (Menso); P.M. ter Wee (Piet); R. Lévesque (Renée); M.L. Bots (Michiel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground and objectives: Removal of β2-microglobulin (β2M) can be increased by adding convective transport to hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the change in β2M levels after 6-mo treatment with hemodiafiltration (HDF) and to evaluate the role of residual

  6. Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelmann, S.; Buenger, T.; Fusban, H.U.; Ruehle, H.; Viertel, H.; Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs [de

  7. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Chamuleau, R. A.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schipper, H. G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; van der Heyde, M. N.

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single-photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99mTc-colloid as tracer. The method was

  8. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C; Wallis, B; Reimers, W

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 mu m and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth tau to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented.

  9. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, Ch.; Stock, C.; Wallis, B.; Reimers, W.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 μm and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth τ to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented

  10. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Anindya Sundar; Bandopadhyay, Bidyut; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-01-01

    Protein thermostability is an important field for its evolutionary perspective of mesophilic versus thermophilic relationship and for its industrial/ therapeutic applications. Presently, a total 400 (200 thermophilic and 200 mesophilic homologue) proteins were studied utilizing several software/databases to evaluate their amino acid preferences. Randomly selected 50 homologous proteins with available PDB-structure of each group were explored for the understanding of the protein charges, isoelectric-points, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, tyrosine phosphorylation and salt-bridge occurrences. These 100 proteins were further probed to generate Ramachandran plot/data for the gross secondary structure prediction in and comparison between the thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. Present results strongly suggest that nonpolar smaller volume amino acids Ala (χ2 = 238.54, psalt bridges in this study. The average percentage of salt-bridge of thermophiles is found to be higher by 20% than their mesophilic homologue. The GLU-HIS and GLU-LYS salt-bridge dyads are calculated to be significantly higher (psalt-bridges and smaller volume nonpolar residues (Gly, Ala and Val) and lesser occurrence of bulky polar residues in the thermophilic proteins. A more stoichiometric relationship amongst these factors minimized the hindrance due to side chain burial and increased compactness and secondary structural stability in thermophilic proteins.

  11. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and aims Determination of plasma volume (PV) is important in several clinical situations. Thus, patients with liver disease often have augmented PV as part of their sodium–water retention. This study was undertaken to compare PV determination by two indicators: technetium......-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without...... In all patients, a close correlation was present between PV determined by the two indicators (r = 0·89, Pdetermined with 99mTc-HSA exceeded PV determined with 125I-HSA by 367 ml (5·2 ml kg...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls as inducers of hepatic porphyria in Japanese quail, with special reference to δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity, fluorescence, and residues in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Strik, J.T.W.A.; Holsteyn, C.W.M. van; Pennings, J.H.

    1971-01-01

    Male Japanese quail were orally dosed, daily for 7 days, with 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, and 0 mg PCB (Aroclor 1260) per kg body weight. The birds receiving 1000 mg/kg died. A dose-related increase in liver and liver: body weight ratio was found. Macroscopic and microscopic examination under

  13. Use of radioactive glucosamine in the perfused rat liver to prepare α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) with 3H- or 14C-labelled sialic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, N.N. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed whereby [1- 14 C]glucosamine was used in a perfused rat liver system to prepare over 2 mg of α 1 -acid glycoprotein with highly radioactive sialic acid and glucosamine residues. The liver secreted radioactive α 1 -acid glycoprotein over a 4-6 h period, and this glycoprotein was purified from the perfusate by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH3.6. The sialic acid on the isolated glycoprotein had a specific radioactivity of 3.1 Ci/mol, whereas the glucosamine-specific radioactivity was 4.3 Ci/mole. The latter amino-sugar residues on the isolated protein were only 13-fold less radioactive than the initially added [1- 14 C]glucosamine. Orosomucoid with a specific radioactivity of 31.3 μCi/mg of protein was obtainable by using [6- 3 H]glucosamine. Many other radioactive glycoproteins were found to be secreted into the perfusate by the liver. Thus this experimental system should prove useful for obtaining other serum glycoproteins with highly radioactive sugar moieties. (author)

  14. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  15. Reproducibility of functional volume and activity concentration in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT of liver metastases in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijmen, Linda [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology 452, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee de; Visser, Eric P.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wilt, Johannes H.W. de [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu [LaTIM, INSERM U1101, Brest (France); Bussink, Johan [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Punt, Cornelis J.A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laarhoven, Hanneke W.M. van [Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology 452, PO Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Several studies showed potential for monitoring response to systemic therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Before {sup 18}F-FDG PET can be implemented for response evaluation the repeatability should be known. This study was performed to assess the magnitude of the changes in standardized uptake value (SUV), volume and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in colorectal liver metastases and validate the biological basis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in colorectal liver metastases. Twenty patients scheduled for liver metastasectomy underwent two {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans within 1 week. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to assess repeatability of SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, volume and TLG. Tumours were delineated using an adaptive threshold method (PET{sub SBR}) and a semiautomatic fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) delineation method. Coefficient of repeatability of SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean} were {proportional_to}39 and {proportional_to}31 %, respectively, independent of the delineation method used and image reconstruction parameters. However, repeatability was worse in recently treated patients. The FLAB delineation method improved the repeatability of the volume and TLG measurements compared to PET{sub SBR}, from coefficients of repeatability of over 85 % to 45 % and 57 % for volume and TLG, respectively. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression correlated to the SUV{sub mean}. Vascularity (CD34 expression) and tumour hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase IX expression) did not correlate with {sup 18}F-FDG PET parameters. In conclusion, repeatability of SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} was mainly affected by preceding systemic therapy. The repeatability of tumour volume and TLG could be improved using more advanced and robust delineation approaches such as FLAB, which is recommended when {sup 18}F-FDG PET is utilized for volume or TLG measurements. Improvement of repeatability of PET measurements

  16. Volume Change and Liver Parenchymal Signal Intensity in Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Portal Vein Embolization prior to Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Akiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the liver volume change and the potential of early evaluation by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA after portal vein embolization (PVE. Materials and Methods. Retrospective evaluations of computed tomography (CT volumetry of total liver and nonembolized areas were performed before and 3 weeks after PVE in 37 cases. The percentage of future liver remnant (%FLR and the change ratio of %FLR (%FLR ratio were calculated. Prospective evaluation of signal intensities (SIs was performed to estimate the role of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI as a predictor of hypertrophy in 16 cases. The SI contrast between embolized and nonembolized areas was calculated 1 week after PVE. The change in SI contrast before and after PVE (SI ratio was also calculated in 11 cases. Results. %FLR ratio significantly increased, and SI ratio significantly decreased (both P<0.01. There were significant negative correlations between %FLR and SI contrast and between %FLR and SI ratio (both P<0.01. Conclusion. Hypertrophy in the nonembolized area after PVE was indicated by CT volumetry, and measurement of SI contrast and SI ratio in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI early after PVE may be useful to predict the potential for hepatic hypertrophy.

  17. Cyst infection in hospital-admitted autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients is predominantly multifocal and associated with kidney and liver volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbo, B.E.P. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R. [Divisão de Medicina Nuclear, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Jayanthi, S.K. [Divisão de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dettoni, J.B. [Divisão de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, I.; Onuchic, L.F. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-13

    Positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has improved cyst infection (CI) management in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The determinants of kidney and/or liver involvement, however, remain uncertain. In this study, we evaluated clinical and imaging factors associated with CI in kidney (KCI) and liver (LCI) in ADPKD. A retrospective cohort study was performed in hospital-admitted ADPKD patients with suspected CI. Clinical, imaging and surgical data were analyzed. Features of infected cysts were evaluated by PET/CT. Total kidney (TKV) and liver (TLV) volumes were measured by CT-derived multiplanar reconstruction. CI was detected in 18 patients who experienced 24 episodes during an interval of 30 months (LCI in 12, KCI in 10 and concomitant infection in 2). Sensitivities of CT, magnetic resonance imaging and PET/CT were 25.0, 71.4, and 95.0%. Dysuria (P<0.05), positive urine culture (P<0.01), and previous hematuria (P<0.05) were associated with KCI. Weight loss (P<0.01) and increased C-reactive protein levels (P<0.05) were associated with LCI. PET/CT revealed that three or more infected cysts were present in 70% of the episodes. TKV was higher in kidney-affected than in LCI patients (AUC=0.91, P<0.05), with a cut-off of 2502 mL (72.7% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity). TLV was higher in liver-affected than in KCI patients (AUC=0.89, P<0.01) with a cut-off of 2815 mL (80.0% sensitivity, 87.5% specificity). A greater need for invasive procedures was observed in LCI (P<0.01), and the overall mortality was 20.8%. This study supports PET/CT as the most sensitive imaging method for diagnosis of cyst infection, confirms the multifocal nature of most hospital-admitted episodes, and reveals an association of kidney and liver volumes with this complication.

  18. Effects of delayed cord clamping on residual placental blood volume, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels in term infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J S; Erickson-Owens, D A; Collins, J; Barcelos, M O; Parker, A B; Padbury, J F

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the effects of a 5-min delay (DCC) versus immediate cord clamping (ICC) on residual placental blood volume (RPBV) at birth, and hemoglobin and serum bilirubin at 24 to 48 h of age. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 73 women with term (37 to 41 weeks) singleton fetuses were randomized to DCC (⩾5 min; n=37) or ICC (protocol violations. Cord milking was the proxy for DCC (n=11) when the provider could not wait. Infants randomized to DCC compared with ICC had significantly less RPBV (20.0 versus 30.8 ml kg -1 , Phemoglobin levels (19.4 versus 17.8 g dl -1 , P=0.002) at 24 to 48 h, with no difference in bilirubin levels. Term infants had early hematological advantage of DCC without increases in hyperbilirubinemia or symptomatic polycythemia.

  19. Excellent survival after liver transplantation for isolated polycystic liver disease : an European Liver Transplant Registry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, Rene; Porte, Robert J.; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Becker, Thomas; Kirkegaard, Preben; Metselaar, Herold J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR)

  20. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.L.M.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.; Leeuwen, D.J. van; Schippor, H.G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; Heyde, M.N. van der

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99m Tc-colloid as tracer. The method was assessed in 11 patients by comparing the pre- and post-operative volume measurement with the volume of the resected liver mass. Liver function was determined by measuring the galactose elimination capacity and the caffeine clearance. After a postoperative follow-up period of 50 days, the liver had regenerated maximally to a volume of 75 ± 2% of the preoperative liver mass. Maximal restoration of liver function was achieved 120 days after operation and amounted to 75 ± 10% for the caffeine clearance and to 100 ± 25% for the galactose elimination capacity. This study shows that SPECT is a useful method for assessing liver regeneration in patients after partial hepatectomy. The study furthermore shows that caffeine clearance correlates well with total liver volume, whereas the galactose elimination capacity overestimates total liver volume after partial hepatectomy. 22 refs

  1. A Novel Predictor of Posttransplant Portal Hypertension in Adult-To-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Increased Estimated Spleen/Graft Volume Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoten, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Shugo; Kato, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasuhiro; Tanemura, Akihiro; Azumi, Yoshinori; Kuriyama, Naohisa; Kishiwada, Masashi; Usui, Masanobu; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-10-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT), graft-to-recipient weight ratio of less than 0.8 is incomplete for predicting portal hypertension (>20 mm Hg) after reperfusion. We aimed to identify preoperative factors contributing to portal venous pressure (PVP) after reperfusion and to predict portal hypertension, focusing on spleen volume-to-graft volume ratio (SVGVR). In 73 recipients with ALDLT between 2002 and 2013, first we analyzed survival according to PVP of 20 mm Hg as the threshold, evaluating the efficacy of splenectomy. Second, we evaluated various preoperative factors contributing to portal hypertension after reperfusion. All of the recipients with PVP greater than 20 mm Hg (n = 19) underwent PVP modulation by splenectomy, and their overall survival was favorable compared with 54 recipients who did not need splenectomy (PVP ≤ 20 mm Hg). Graft-to-recipient weight ratio had no correlation with PVP.Multivariate analysis revealed that estimated graft and spleen volume were significant factors contributing to PVP after reperfusion (P portal hypertension was 0.95. In ALDLT, preoperative assessment of SVGVR is a good predictor of portal hypertension after reperfusion can be used to indicate the need for splenectomy before reperfusion.

  2. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua G Choudhury

    Full Text Available The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (a bacterial endotoxin, and (b to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted

  3. Liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex on 70-cm wide-bore and 60-cm conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hashido, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the uniformity of fat suppression and image quality between liver acquisition with volume acceleration flex (LAVA-Flex) and LAVA on 60-cm conventional-bore and 70-cm wide-bore 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The uniformity of fat suppression by LAVA-Flex and LAVA was assessed as the efficiency of suppression of superficial fat at the levels of the liver dome, porta, and renal hilum. Percentage standard deviation (%SD) was calculated using the following equation: %SD (%) = 100 × SD of the regions of interest (ROIs)/mean value of the signal intensity (SI) in the ROIs. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast ratio (CR) were calculated. In the LAVA sequence, the %SD in all slices on wide-bore 3.0-T MRI was significantly higher than that on conventional-bore 3.0-T MRI (P 3.0-T MRI.

  4. In vivo assessment of the gastric mucosal tolerance dose after single fraction, small volume irradiation of liver malignancies by computed tomography-guided, high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitparth, Florian; Pech, Maciej; Boehmig, Michael; Ruehl, Ricarda; Peters, Nils; Wieners, Gero; Steinberg, Johannes; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the tolerance dose of gastric mucosa for single-fraction computed tomography (CT)-guided, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy of liver malignancies. Methods and Materials: A total of 33 patients treated by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy of liver malignancies in segments II and/or III were included. Dose planning was performed upon a three-dimensional CT data set acquired after percutaneous applicator positioning. All patients received gastric protection post-treatment. For further analysis, the contours of the gastric wall were defined in every CT slice using Brachyvision Software. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for each treatment and correlated with clinical data derived from questionnaires assessing Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). All patients presenting symptoms of upper GI toxicity were examined endoscopically. Results: Summarizing all patients the minimum dose applied to 1 ml of the gastric wall (D 1ml ) ranged from 6.3 to 34.2 Gy; median, 14.3 Gy. Toxicity was present in 18 patients (55%). We found nausea in 16 (69%), emesis in 9 (27%), cramping in 13 (39%), weight loss in 12 (36%), gastritis in 4 (12%), and ulceration in 5 patients (15%). We found a threshold dose D 1ml of 11 Gy for general gastric toxicity and 15.5 Gy for gastric ulceration verified by an univariate analysis (p = 0.01). Conclusions: For a single fraction, small volume irradiation we found in the upper abdomen a threshold dose D 1ml of 15.5 Gy for the clinical endpoint ulceration of the gastric mucosa. This in vivo assessment is in accordance with previously published tolerance data

  5. Can volumetric modulated arc therapy with flattening filter free beams play a role in stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver lesions? A volume-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reggiori, Giacomo; Mancosu, Pietro; Castiglioni, Simona; Alongi, Filippo; Pellegrini, Chiara; Lobefalo, Francesca; Catalano, Maddalena; Fogliata, Antonella; Arcangeli, Stefano; Navarria, Piera; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy with flattening filter free (FFF) and flattening filter (FF) beams in patients with hepatic metastases subject to hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT). Methods: A planning study on 13 virtual lesions of increasing volume was performed. Two single arc plans were optimized with the RapidArc technique using either FFF or FF beams. A second planning study was performed on ten patients treated for liver metastases to validate conclusions. In all cases, a dose of 75 Gy in 3 fractions was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV) and plans were evaluated in terms of coverage, homogeneity, conformity, mean dose to healthy liver and to healthy tissue. For each parameter, results were expressed in relative terms as the percentage ratio between FFF and FF data. Results: In terms of PTV coverage, conformity index favored FFF for targets of intermediate size while FF resulted more suitable for small ( 3 ) and large (>300 cm 3 ) targets. Plans optimized with FFF beams resulted in increased sparing of healthy tissue in ≅85% of cases. Despite the qualitative results, no statistically significant differences were found between FFF and FF results. Plans optimized with un-flattened beams resulted in higher average MU/Gy than plans with FF beams. A remarkable and significant difference was observed in the beam-on time (BOT) needed to deliver plans. The BOT for FF plans was 8.2 ± 1.0 min; for FFF plans BOT was 2.2 ± 0.2 min. Conclusions: RapidArc plans optimized using FFF were dosimetrically equivalent to those optimized using FF beams, showing the feasibility of SBRT treatments with FFF beams. Some improvement in healthy tissue sparing was observed when using the FFF modality due to the different beam's profile. The main advantage was a considerable reduction of beam-on time, relevant for SBRT techniques.

  6. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  7. CORRELATION OF VOLUME BLOOD CIRCULATION IN THE HEPATIC ARTERY AND THE STATE OF MICROCIRCULATORY BLOODSTREAM OF THE TRANSPLANTED LIVER AFTER ITS REVASCULIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Granov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: optimization of the surgical treatment policy with orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT depending on the results of intraoperative fl owmetry and the state of intrahepatic microcirculatory bloodstream according to immunohistochemical (IHC study of microspecimens of the donor’s liver.Materials and methods. 60 patients are included in the study. Group I (n = 30 comprised of patients for whom it was not necessary to perform any additional interventions on the bloodstream in the hepatopancreatobiliary area during OLT. Group II (n = 30 had patients with insuffi cient arterial blood supply for the graft in the intraoperative stage where it was needed to perform additional and/or repeated interventions in the arteries of the hepatopancreatobilliary area. Intraoperative fl owmetry with assessment of the volume blood circulation (VBC in the hepatic artery (HA was carried out in the both studied groups. Reference value of VBC was 100 ml/min and higher. Before and after reperfusion in the liver biopsy material we performed immunohistochemical study with the use of endothelial marker CD 31 with subsequent morphometric estimation of the specifi c square of the microvascular bloodstream.Results. In both groups there was no change in the specifi c square in the areas of portal tract and central vein before and after restoring blood fl ow. In the second group, an 8 times increase of the specifi c square of sinusoids was observed after restoring blood fl ow (р < 0,01.Conclusion. Intraoperative fl owmetric control of the blood fl ow allows in due time to perform surgical correction of the graft arterial blood supply during OLT, and it reduces the risk of thrombosis up to 0%. The value of VBC in the hepatic artery (HA has reliable dependence upon the state of microcirculatory bloodstream of cadaveric donor’s liver after reperfusion.

  8. Biomass production on the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington: updated logging residue ratios, slash pile volume-to-weight ratios, and supply curves for selected locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason C. Cross; Eric C. Turnblom; Gregory J. Ettl

    2013-01-01

    Biomass residue produced by timber harvest operations is estimated for the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington. Scattered residues were sampled in 53 harvest units and piled residues were completely enumerated in 55 harvest units. Production is based on 2008 and 2009 data and is stratified by forest location, ownership type, harvest intensity, and harvest method...

  9. Technical analysis of volume-rendering algorithms: application in low-contrast structures using liver vascularisation as a model; Analisi tecnica degli algoritmi di volume rendering: applicazione alle strutture a basso contrsto usando come modello la vascolarizzazione epatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cademartiri, Filippo [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Luccichenti, Giacomo [Fondazione Biomedica Europea ONLUS, Roma (Italy); Runza, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Midiri, Massimo [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy). Sezione di scienze radiologiche; Gualerzi, Massimo; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Coruzzi, Paolo [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). UO di prevenzione e riabilitazione vascolare, Fondazione Don C. Gnocchi ONLUS; Soliani, Paolo; Sianesi, Mario [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the influence of pre-set volume rendering opacity curves (OC) on image quality and to identify which absolute parameters (density of aorta, hepatic parenchyma and portal vein) affect visualization of portal vascular structures (low-contrast structures). Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients underwent a dual-phase spiral CT with the following parameters: collimation 3 mm, pitch 2, increment 1 mm. Three scans were performed: one without contrast medium and the latter two after the injection of contrast material (conventionally identified as 'arterial' and 'portal'). The images were sent to a workstation running on an NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions to generate volume-rendered images of the vascular supply to the liver. Correlation between the absolute values of aorta, liver and portal vein density, OC parameters, and image quality were assessed. Results: 3D images generated using pre-set OC obtained a much mower overall quality score than those produced with OC set by the operator. High contrast between the liver and the portal vein, for example during the portal vascular phase, allows wider windows, thus improving image quality. Conversely, the OC in the parenchymal phase scans must have a high gradient in order to better differentiate between the vascular structures and the surrounding hepatic parenchyma. Conclusions: Image features considered to be of interest by the operator cannot be simplified by the mean of pre-set OC. Due to their strong individual variability automatic 3D algorithms cannot be universally applied: they should be adapted to both image and patient characteristics. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare l'influenza delle curve di opacit� (CO) preimpostate del volume-rendering sulla qualit� delle immagini, ed identificare quali parametri assoluti (attenzione dell'aorta, del parenchima epatico e della vena porta) influenzano la

  10. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods; Lebervolumen, Leberfettanteil und Koerpergewicht im Verlauf einer Lebensstilinterventionsstudie. Eine Analyse mit quantitativen MR-basierten Methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bongers, M.N. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Stefan, N.; Fritsche, A.; Haering, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Innere Medizin IV - Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie und Klinische Chemie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Nikolaou, K. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Machann, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Diabetesforschung (DZD), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m{sup 2} were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volumeliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.) [German] Lassen sich Zusammenhaenge zwischen den Aenderungen des Lebervolumens, des Anteils intrahepatischer Lipide und des Koerpergewichts waehrend einer Lebensstilintervention feststellen ?In einer prospektiven Interventionsstudie unterzogen sich 150 Probanden mit erhoehtem Diabetesrisiko fuer 6 Monate einer diaetetischen

  11. Elevated post-void residual volume in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in women-associated factors and risk of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Maria S; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo

    2018-04-09

    Multiple factors contribute to elevated post-void residual urine volumes (PVR), but they may indicate detrusor underactivity (DU), especially in older women. The aim here was to examine factors associated with and prognostic significance of elevated PVR in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in a female population. Consecutive female hip fracture patients (n = 409) aged 65 years and older were included. PVR was measured by bladder scanner. PVR of 160 ml or more was deemed elevated. Age-adjusted univariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the domains of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) with elevated PVR. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the age-adjusted association of an elevated PVR with 1-year mortality. Of the patients, 64 (15.6%) had elevated PVR. Having urinary or fecal incontinence, difficulties in physical activities of daily living, malnutrition, poor performance on Timed Up and Go and Elderly Mobility Scale were significantly associated with elevated PVR. Difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living, renal dysfunction, constipation, polypharmacy, nocturia, cognitive impairment and depressive mood were not associated with elevated PVR. Elevated PVR significantly increased the risk of mortality 1 year post hip fracture. Elevated PVR is relatively common in older female hip fracture patients and associated with physical functioning, malnutrition and risk of mortality. Even though a causal relationship cannot be confirmed, the findings may suggest a relationship between DU and physical frailty. PVR deserves to be included in the CGA of frail older patients including women.

  12. Residual gastric volume evaluation with ultrasonography after ingestion of carbohydrate- or carbohydrate plus glutamine-enriched beverages: a randomized, crossover clinical trial with healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar GOMES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Abbreviation of preoperative fasting to 2 hours with maltodextrin (CHO-enriched beverage is a safe procedure and may enhance postoperative recovery. Addition of glutamine (GLN to CHO beverages may include potential benefits to the metabolism. However, by adding a nitrogenous source to CHO beverages, gastric emptying may be delayed and increase the risk of bronchoaspiration during anesthesia. OBJECTIVE In this study of safety, we aimed at investigating the residual gastric volume (RGV 2 hours after the intake of either CHO beverage alone or CHO beverage combined with GLN. METHODS We performed a randomized, crossover clinical trial. We assessed RGV by means of abdominal ultrasonography (US in 20 healthy volunteers (10 males and 10 females after an overnight fast of 8 hours. Then, they were randomized to receive 600 mL (400 mL immediately after US followed by another 200 mL 2 hours afterwards of either CHO (12.5% maltodextrin or CHO-GLN (12.5% maltodextrin plus 15 g GLN. Two sequential US evaluations were done at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of the second dose. The interval of time between ingestion of the two types of beverages was 2 weeks. RESULTS The mean (SD RGV observed after 8 hours fasting (13.56±13.25 mL did not statistically differ (P>0.05 from the RGV observed after ingesting CHO beverage at both 120 (16.32±11.78 mL and 180 minutes (14.60±10.39 mL. The RGV obtained at 120 (15.63±18.83 mL and 180 (13.65±10.27 mL minutes after CHO-GLN beverage also was not significantly different from the fasting condition. CONCLUSION The RGV at 120 and 180 minutes after ingestion of CHO beverage combined with GLN is similar to that observed after an overnight fast.

  13. A survey of spontaneous occurrence of ochratoxin A residues in chicken tissues and concurrence with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Milijan; Matekalosverak, Vesna; Radicevic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Milan M.; Lilic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological and histopathological investigations of tissues of commercially slaughtered chickens were carried out to provide a preliminary evaluation of the incidence of occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in chicken sold in Serbian retail market. In addition, the etiology of nephropathies of these chickens was elucidated. The majority of these tissue samples were not found to contain measurable amounts of OTA. Moreover, the OTA levels found in analyzed tissues were generally low and there was no positive correlation between the presence of OTA and the frequency of histopathological changes. Histopathological changes such as degenerative changes in the kidneys and liver differed from the classical description of the mycotoxic nephropathy, indicating that the chicken nephropathy observed in Serbia may have a multitoxic etiology with possible synergistic effect between microorganisms and natural toxins, usually present in low concentrations. The low OTA results also suggested that chicken meat available in the retail market in Serbia are unlikely to pose any significant adverse health risk to the consumers with respect to OTA toxicity.

  14. Evaluation of Focal Liver Reaction after Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Examined Using Gd-EOB-DTPA Enhanced Hepatic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyuki Takamatsu

    Full Text Available Proton beam therapy (PBT achieves good local control for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, and toxicity tends to be lower than for photon radiotherapy. Focal liver parenchymal damage in radiotherapy is described as the focal liver reaction (FLR; the threshold doses (TDs for FLR in the background liver have been analyzed in stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and brachytherapy. To develop a safer approach for PBT, both TD and liver volume changes are considered clinically important in predicting the extent of damage before treatment, and subsequently in reducing background liver damage. We investigated appearance time, TDs and volume changes regarding FLR after PBT for HCC.Patients who were treated using PBT and were followed up using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI after PBT were enrolled. Sixty-eight lesions in 58 patients were eligible for analysis. MRI was acquired at the end of treatment, and at 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after PBT. We defined the FLR as a clearly depicted hypointense area on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI, and we monitored TDs and volume changes in the FLR area and the residual liver outside of the FLR area.FLR was depicted in all lesions at 3 months after PBT. In FLR expressed as the 2-Gy equivalent dose (α/β = 3 Gy, TDs did not differ significantly (27.0±6.4 CGE [10 fractions [Fr] vs. 30.5±7.3 CGE [20 Fr]. There were also no correlations between the TDs and clinical factors, and no significant differences between Child-Pugh A and B scores. The volume of the FLR area decreased and the residual liver volume increased, particularly during the initial 3 months.This study established the FLR dose for liver with HCC, which might be useful in the prediction of remnant liver volume for PBT.

  15. Alteration of laboratory findings after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship to severity of the underlying liver disease and the ablation volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsTo investigate sequential changes in laboratory markers after radiofrequency ablation (RFA of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and the relationship of these changes to the severity of the underlying liver disease.MethodsThis retrospective analysis included 65 patients (44 males, 21 females who underwent RFA of HCC. Hematologic and biochemical markers were assessed at the pre-RFA period and 1 day, 2-3 days, and 1-2 weeks after RFA. We classified the subjects into two groups: Child-Pugh A (n=41 and Child-Pugh B (n=24. The ablative margin volume (AMV of each patient was measured. We analyzed the changes in laboratory profiles from the baseline, and investigated whether these laboratory changes were correlated with the AMV and the Child-Pugh classification.ResultsMost of the laboratory values peaked at 2-3 days after RFA. AMV was significantly correlated with changes in WBC count, hemoglobin level, and serum total bilirubin level (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.324-0.453; P<0.05. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT level varied significantly over time (P=0.023.ConclusionsMost of the measured laboratory markers changed from baseline, peaking at 2-3 days. The ALT level was the only parameter for which there was a significant difference after RFA between Child-Pugh A and B patients: it increased significantly more in the Child-Pugh A patients.

  16. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kenji; Takai, Koji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hanai, Tatsunori; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-09-22

    Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI) in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm²/m² for women and ≤ 36.0 cm²/m² for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients ( p = 0.007). However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child-Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age ( p = 0.015) and sex ( p < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female) is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child-Pugh score (≥56 years), and enlarged tumor size (<56 years). Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  17. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  18. Metal residues, histopathology and presence of parasites in the liver and gills of fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) near a former lead-zinc mine in East Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Mai [Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7250 (Australia); Nørregaard, Rasmus; Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Søndergaard, Jens; Gustavson, Kim; Aastrup, Peter [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Nowak, Barbara, E-mail: B.Nowak@utas.edu.au [Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania 7250 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Fourhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) have been considered suitable local bioindicators for environmental monitoring studies in the Arctic. Because these species share many characteristics, data from the two species have previously been pooled when assessing marine metal contamination. A chemical and histological study was conducted on fourhorn and shorthorn sculpins collected around a contaminated lead-zinc mine at East Greenland to investigate whether there were any differences in the residues of metals, histopathology and parasites in liver and gills between the two sculpin species. The results demonstrated that concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) were significantly higher in the fourhorn sculpins (p<0.001) while there were no significant differences for arsenic (As) or cadmium (Cd). Furthermore, density of blood vessel fibrosis (p=0.028), prevalence and density of chondroplasia (p=0.002 and p=0.005, respectively), number of mucin-containing mucous cells (p<0.001) and chloride cells (p<0.001) and mean intensity of colonial Peritricha (p<0.001) were significantly higher in fourhorn sculpin. Based on these results we suggest that pooling the two species when conducting environmental assessments is not recommended as it can lead to incorrect conclusions. We propose that a larger study investigating the biological effects of zinc-lead mining in Greenland is needed. - Highlights: • Fourhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) more sensitive to pollution than shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius). • Metal residues, histological changes and presence of parasites were species-specific. • Different sculpin species should not be pooled together as pollution biomarkers.

  19. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  20. Computational Modeling in Liver Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Christ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent. Hence, determining the future liver volume might misestimate the future liver function, especially in cases of hepatic comorbidities such as hepatic steatosis. A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. Such an approach holds promise for better prediction of postoperative liver function and hence improved risk assessment. This review provides an overview of mathematical models related to the liver and its function and explores their potential relevance for computational liver surgery. We first summarize key facts of hepatic anatomy, physiology, and pathology relevant for hepatic surgery, followed by a description of the computational tools currently used in liver surgical planning. Then we present selected state-of-the-art computational liver models potentially useful to support liver surgery. Finally, we discuss the main challenges that will need to be addressed when developing advanced computational planning tools in the context of liver surgery.

  1. 霉菌毒素在肉鸡体内的残留及其控制研究%Study on Mycotoxin Residue in Liver and Kidney of Table poultry and Effect of Mycotoxin Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓琳; 曲道峰; 韩剑众

    2013-01-01

    为研究霉菌毒素在肉鸡体内的残留情况,并对3种霉菌毒素吸附剂的控制吸附效果评价,选用210羽三黄鸡,随机分成7组,每组3个重复,每个重复10羽.试验鸡分为试验组Ⅰ(霉菌毒素含量AFB124.71 ng/g;OTA 12.3 ng/g;ZEA 274.62 ng/g),试验组Ⅱ(AFB1 41.18 ng/g;OTA 20.57 ng/g;ZEA 457.7 ng/g),其他各组分别为对照组和试验组添加霉菌毒素吸附剂A与吸附剂B,试验期21 d.结果表明,霉菌毒素严重影响肉鸡的生长性能,添加吸附剂有效改善肉鸡的生长性能.试验组Ⅰ肉鸡肝内AFB1 、OTA、ZEA的残留量分别为(5.07±0.21)ng/g、(1.17±0.06) ng/g、(16.57±1.00) ng/g,肾脏为(2.57±0.25)ng/g、(2.83±0.25) ng/g、(12.17±1.73) ng/g;试验组Ⅱ肝内残留分别为(7.80±0.36) ng/g、(1.83±0.35) ng/g、(20.60±0.90) ng/g,肾脏为(3.90±0.20) ng/g、(4.50±0.75) ng/g、(18.33±0.85) ng/g.添加霉菌毒素吸附剂后,均可有效减低体内残留;AFB1、OTA、ZEA在肝中的含量分别下降了40.64%、8.74%、15.87%,肾中则降低了24.90%、18.73%、30.98%,而从粪便中排出量分别提高了93.41%、40.24%、72.58%.%In order to investigate the effect of mycotoxin adsorbent on the mycotoxin residue in liver and kidney,a total of 210 table poultry were randomly assigned to seven treatment groups(three replicates per treatment with ten table poultry per replicate):control group,test Group Ⅰ (The mycotoxin content in the feed were AFB1 24.71 ng/g,OTA 12.3 ng/g,ZEA 274.62 ng/g respecticely),test Group lⅡ (AFB1 41.18 ng/g,OTA 20.57 ng/g,ZEA 457.7 ng/g respectively),other groups were test groups in which the feed was mixed with the mycotoxin adsorbent A and adsorbent B respectively.The experiment was lasted for 21 days.The results show that mycotoxin seriously impact on broiler performance,and adding adsorbents can effectively improve broiler performance.The results also show that feeding low level of mycotoxins,can leave (5.07 ±0.21) ng/g AFB1

  2. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  3. Design of planning target volume margin using an active breathing control and Varian image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system in unresectable liver tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jinbo; Yu Jinming; Liu Jing; Liu Tonghai; Yin Yong; Shi Xuetao; Song Jinlong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To define the planning target volume(PTV) margin with an active breathing control (ABC) and the Varian image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system. Methods: Thirteen patients with liver cancer were treated with radiotherapy from May 2006 to September 2006. Prior to radiotherapy, all patients had undergone transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) by infusing a mixture of iodized oil contrast medium and chemotherapeutic agents, kV fluoroscopy was used to measure the potential motion of lipiodol spot positions during ABC breath-holds. ABC was used for planning CT scan and radiation delivery, with the breath held at the same phase of the respiratory cycle (near end-exhalation). Cone beam CT (CBCT) was taken using Varian IGRT system, which was then compared online with planning CT using a 3 D-3 D matching tool. Analysis relied on lipiodol spots on planning CT and CBCT manually. The treatment table was moved to produce acceptable setup before treatment delivery. Repeated CBCT image and another analysis were obtained after irradiation. Results: No motion of the intrahepatic tumor was observed on fluoroscopy during ABC breath-holds. The estimated required PTV margins, calculated according to the Stroom formula, were 4.4 mm, 5.3 mm and 7.8 mm in the x, y and z axis directions before radiotherapy. The corresponding parameters were 2.5m, 2.6 mm and 3.9 mm after radiotherapy. Conclusions: We have adopted a PTV margin of 5 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm in the x, y and z axis directions with ABC, and 3,3 and 4 mm with ABC and on-line kilovoltage CBCT. (authors)

  4. Liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance combined with T2 sequences in the diagnosis of local recurrence of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wuteng; Li, Fangqian; Gong, Jiaying; Liu, Dechao; Deng, Yanhong; Kang, Liang; Zhou, Zhiyang

    2016-11-22

    To investigate the efficacy of liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) sequences and to assess its added accuracy in diagnosing local recurrence (LR) of rectal cancer with conventional T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences. Pelvic MRI, including T2-weighted FSE sequences, gadolinium-enhanced sequences of LAVA and T1-weighted FSE with fat suppression, was performed on 225 patients with postoperative rectal cancer. Two readers evaluated the presence of LR according to "T2" (T2 sequences only), "T2 + LAVA-Gad" (LAVA and T2 imaging), and "T2 + T1-fs-Gad" (T1 fat suppression-enhanced sequence with T2 images). To evaluate diagnostic efficiency, imaging quality with LAVA and T1-fs-Gad by subjective scores and the signal intensity (SI) ratio. In the result, the SI ratio of LAVA was significantly higher than that of T1-fs-Gad (p = 0.0001). The diagnostic efficiency of "T2 + LAVA-Gad" was better than that of "T2 + T1-fs-Gad" (p = 0.0016 for Reader 1, p = 0.0001 for Reader 2) and T2 imaging only (p = 0.0001 for Reader 1; p = 0.0001 for Reader 2). Therefore, LAVA gadolinium-enhanced MR increases the accuracy of diagnosis of LR from rectal cancer and could replace conventional T1 gadolinium-enhanced sequences in the postoperative pelvic follow-up of rectal cancer.

  5. A study on risk factors and diagnostic efficiency of posthepatectomy liver failure in the nonobstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Lu, Shi-Chun; He, Lei; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Liver failure remains as the most common complication and cause of death after hepatectomy, and continues to be a challenge for doctors.t test and χ test were used for single factor analysis of data-related variables, then results were introduced into the model to undergo the multiple factors logistic regression analysis. Pearson correlation analysis was performed for related postoperative indexes, and a diagnostic evaluation was performed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of postoperative indexes.Differences in age, body mass index (BMI), portal vein hypertension, bile duct cancer, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), operation time, cumulative portal vein occlusion time, intraoperative blood volume, residual liver volume (RLV)/entire live rvolume, ascites volume at postoperative day (POD)3, supplemental albumin amount at POD3, hospitalization time after operation, and the prothrombin activity (PTA) were statistically significant. Furthermore, there were significant differences in total bilirubin and the supplemental albumin amount at POD3. ROC analysis of the average PTA, albumin amounts, ascites volume at POD3, and their combined diagnosis were performed, which had diagnostic value for postoperative liver failure (area under the curve (AUC): 0.895, AUC: 0.798, AUC: 0.775, and AUC: 0.903).Preoperative total bilirubin level and the supplemental albumin amount at POD3 were independent risk factors. PTA can be used as the index of postoperative liver failure, and the combined diagnosis of the indexes can improve the early prediction of postoperative liver failure.

  6. The effect of coarse-droplet spraying with double flat fan air induction nozzle and spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted for the purpose of improving the application of fungicides against potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB in processing tomato. The usability of coarse spray quality with double flat fan air induction IDKT12003 nozzle and the impact of fixed and variable spray volume and adjuvants during alternate application of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil were analysed on the basis of plant infestation and fungicide residues. The variable spray volume was calculated based on the number of leaves on a plant. The study was conducted during three vegetation seasons. Spraying of plants with significantly flattened canopies during the peak of the fructification season using an IDKT12003 nozzle was as effective as in the case of fine spraying performed with an XR11003 nozzle and facilitated the increase of fungicides residue. In the case of plants with high-spreading canopy at the beginning of fructification, XR11003 nozzle favoured the reduction of PLB infestation. Both spray volume adjustment systems enabled the same level of protection of tomato against PLB, which could result from alternate application of systemic and contact fungicides. Polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyltrisiloxane adjuvant, which causes siginificant increase in wetting and droplet spreading, facilitated the reduction of tomato PLB infestation during the application of fungicides using an IDKT12003 nozzle.

  7. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  8. Lysine 356 is a critical residue for binding the C-6 phospho group of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Lin, K; Correia, J J; Pilkis, S J

    1992-08-15

    Lysine 356 has been implicated by protein modification studies as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphate binding site residue in the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (Kitajima, S., Thomas, H., and Uyeda, K. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13995-14002). However, Lys-356 is found in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain (Bazan, F., Fletterick, R., and Pilkis, S. J. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9642-9646). In order to ascertain whether Lys-356 is involved in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase catalysis and/or domain/domain interactions of the bifunctional enzyme, Lys-356 was mutated to Ala, expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified to homogeneity. Circular dichroism experiments indicated that the secondary structure of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was not significantly different from that of the wild-type enzyme. The Km for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the Ki for the noncompetitive inhibitor, fructose 6-phosphate, for the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were 2700- and 2200-fold higher, respectively, than those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the maximal velocity and the Ki for the competitive product inhibitor, inorganic phosphate, were unchanged compared to the corresponding values of the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, which exhibits substrate inhibition, there was no inhibition by substrate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant. In the presence of saturating substrate, inorganic phosphate, which acts by relieving fructose-6-phosphate and substrate inhibition, is an activator of the bisphosphatase. The Ka for inorganic phosphate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was 1300-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. The kinetic properties of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were essentially identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. The results demonstrate that: 1) Lys-356 is a critical residue in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase for binding the 6

  9. Excellent survival after liver transplantation for isolated polycystic liver disease: an European Liver Transplant Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, René

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR......) database to extract demographics and outcomes of 58 PCLD patients. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for survival rates. Severe abdominal pain (75%) was the most prominent symptom, while portal hypertension (35%) was the most common complication in PCLD. The explantation of the polycystic liver...

  10. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  11. The Impact of Preradiation Residual Disease Volume on Time to Locoregional Failure in Cutaneous Merkel Cell Carcinoma—A TROG Substudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnigan, Renee [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Hruby, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Poulsen, Michael, E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of margin status and gross residual disease in patients treated with chemoradiation therapy for high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell cancer (MCC). Methods and Materials: Data were pooled from 3 prospective trials in which patients were treated with 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary lesion and draining lymph nodes and 2 schedules of carboplatin based chemotherapy. Time to locoregional failure was analyzed according to the burden of disease at the time of radiation therapy, comparing patients with negative margins, involved margins, or macroscopic disease. Results: Analysis was performed on 88 patients, of whom 9 had microscopically positive resection margins and 26 had macroscopic residual disease. The majority of gross disease was confined to nodal regions. The 5-year time to locoregional failure, time to distant failure, time to progression, and disease-specific survival rates for the whole group were 73%, 69%, 62%, and 66% respectively. The hazard ratio for macroscopic disease at the primary site or the nodes was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.57-2.77), P=.58. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences in time to locoregional failure were identified between patients with negative margins and those with microscopic or gross residual disease. These results must, however, be interpreted with caution because of the limited sample size.

  12. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lorazepam to Reduce Liver Motion in Patients Receiving Upper Abdominal Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Derek S.; Voncken, Francine E.M.; Tse, Regina V. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Sykes, Jenna [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Dinniwell, Rob E.; Kim, John; Ringash, Jolie; Brierley, James D.; Cummings, Bernard J.; Brade, Anthony [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Dawson, Laura A., E-mail: laura.dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Reduction of respiratory motion is desirable to reduce the volume of normal tissues irradiated, to improve concordance of planned and delivered doses, and to improve image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). We hypothesized that pretreatment lorazepam would lead to a measurable reduction of liver motion. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients receiving upper abdominal IGRT were recruited to a double-blinded randomized controlled crossover trial. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 study arms: arm 1 received lorazepam 2 mg by mouth on day 1, followed by placebo 4 to 8 days later; arm 2 received placebo on day 1, followed by lorazepam 4 to 8 days later. After tablet ingestion and daily radiation therapy, amplitude of liver motion was measured on both study days. The primary outcomes were reduction in craniocaudal (CC) liver motion using 4-dimensional kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the proportion of patients with liver motion ≤5 mm. Secondary endpoints included motion measured with cine magnetic resonance imaging and kV fluoroscopy. Results: Mean relative and absolute reduction in CC amplitude with lorazepam was 21% and 2.5 mm respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.9, P=.001), as assessed with CBCT. Reduction in CC amplitude to ≤5 mm residual liver motion was seen in 13% (95% CI 1%-25%) of patients receiving lorazepam (vs 10% receiving placebo, P=NS); 65% (95% CI 48%-81%) had reduction in residual CC liver motion to ≤10 mm (vs 52% with placebo, P=NS). Patients with large respiratory movement and patients who took lorazepam ≥60 minutes before imaging had greater reductions in liver CC motion. Mean reductions in liver CC amplitude on magnetic resonance imaging and fluoroscopy were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Lorazepam reduces liver motion in the CC direction; however, average magnitude of reduction is small, and most patients have residual motion >5 mm.

  14. CT-based liver volumetry in a porcine model: impact on clinical volumetry prior to living donated liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frericks, B.B.J.; Kiene, T.; Stamm, G.; Shin, H.; Galanski, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Exact preoperative determination of the liver volume is of great importance prior to hepatobiliary surgery, especially in living donated liver transplantation (LDLT). In the current literature, a strong correlation between preoperatively calculated and intraoperatively measured liver volumes has been described. Such accuracy seems questionable, primarily due to a difference in the perfusion state of the liver in situ versus after explantation. Purpose of the study was to asses the influence of the perfusion state on liver volume and the validity of the preoperative liver volumetry prior to LDLT. Methods: In an experimental study, 20 porcine livers were examined. The livers were weighted and their volumes were determined by water displacement prior and after fluid infusion to achieve a pressure physiologically found in the liver veins. The liver volumes in the different perfusion states were calculated based on CT-data. The calculated values were compared with the volume measured by water displacement and the weight of the livers. Results: Assessment of calculated CT volumes and water displacements at identical perfusion states showed a tight correlation and differed on average by 4 ± 5%. However, livers before and after fluid infusion showed a 33 ± 8% (350 ± 150 ml) difference in volume. Conclusion: CT-volumetry acquires highly accurate data as confirmed by water displacement studies. However, the perfusion state has major impact on liver volume, which has to be accounted for in clinical use. (orig.) [de

  15. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  16. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  17. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  18. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  19. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  20. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  1. Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

  2. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 St Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Grassi, G. [AREVA NC, 1 place Jean-Millier, 92084 Paris-La-Defense cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  3. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C.; Grassi, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ( 3 He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the 239 Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and 235 U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach

  4. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  5. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  6. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  7. Mean Platelet Volume, Red Cell Distribution Width to Platelet Count Ratio, Globulin Platelet Index, and 16 Other Indirect Noninvasive Fibrosis Scores: How Much Do Routine Blood Tests Tell About Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandassery, Ragesh B; Al Kaabi, Saad; Soofi, Madiha E; Mohiuddin, Syed A; John, Anil K; Al Mohannadi, Muneera; Al Ejji, Khalid; Yakoob, Rafie; Derbala, Moutaz F; Wani, Hamidullah; Sharma, Manik; Al Dweik, Nazeeh; Butt, Mohammed T; Kamel, Yasser M; Sultan, Khaleel; Pasic, Fuad; Singh, Rajvir

    2016-07-01

    Many indirect noninvasive scores to predict liver fibrosis are calculated from routine blood investigations. Only limited studies have compared their efficacy head to head. We aimed to compare these scores with liver biopsy fibrosis stages in patients with chronic hepatitis C. From blood investigations of 1602 patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent a liver biopsy before initiation of antiviral treatment, 19 simple noninvasive scores were calculated. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and diagnostic accuracy of each of these scores were calculated (with reference to the Scheuer staging) and compared. The mean age of the patients was 41.8±9.6 years (1365 men). The most common genotype was genotype 4 (65.6%). Significant fibrosis, advanced fibrosis, and cirrhosis were seen in 65.1%, 25.6, and 6.6% of patients, respectively. All the scores except the aspartate transaminase (AST) alanine transaminase ratio, Pohl score, mean platelet volume, fibro-alpha, and red cell distribution width to platelet count ratio index showed high predictive accuracy for the stages of fibrosis. King's score (cutoff, 17.5) showed the highest predictive accuracy for significant and advanced fibrosis. King's score, Göteborg university cirrhosis index, APRI (the AST/platelet count ratio index), and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) had the highest predictive accuracy for cirrhosis, with the APRI (cutoff, 2) and FIB-4 (cutoff, 3.25) showing the highest diagnostic accuracy.We derived the study score 8.5 - 0.2(albumin, g/dL) +0.01(AST, IU/L) -0.02(platelet count, 10/L), which at a cutoff of >4.7 had a predictive accuracy of 0.868 (95% confidence interval, 0.833-0.904) for cirrhosis. King's score for significant and advanced fibrosis and the APRI or FIB-4 score for cirrhosis could be the best simple indirect noninvasive scores.

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of hepatic volume by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiro; Takada, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic volumes were measured by computed tomography (CT) in 91 patients with chronic liver diseases. Mean hepatic volume in alcoholic liver disease was significantly larger than that in non-alcoholic liver disease. Hepatic volumes in the majority of decompensated liver cirrhosis were significantly smaller than those of compensated liver cirrhosis. In liver cirrhosis, significant correlations between hepatic volume and various hepatic tests which reflect the total functioning hepatic cell masses were found. Combinations of hepatic volume with ICG maximum removal rate and with serum cholinesterase activity were most useful for the assessment of prognosis in liver cirrhosis. These results indicated that estimation of hepatic volume by CT is useful for analysis of pathophysiology and prognosis of chronic liver diseases, and for diagnosis of alcoholic liver diseases. (author)

  9. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ridding your body of toxic substances. Liver disease can be inherited (genetic) or caused by a variety of factors that damage the ... that you can't stay still. Causes Liver disease has many ... or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is ...

  10. Liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy can be classified into 3 major categories according to the properties of the radiopharmaceuticals used, i.e., methods using radiopharmaceuticals which are (1) incorporated by hepatocytes, (2) taken up by reticulo endothelial cells, and (3) distributed in the blood pool of the liver. Of these three categories, the liver scintigraphy of the present research falls into category 2. Radiopharmaceuticals which are taken up by endothelial cells include 198 Au colloids and 99m Tc-labelled colloids. Liver scintigraphy takes advantage of the property by which colloidal microparticles are phagocytosed by Kupffer cells, and reflect the distribution of endothelial cells and the intensity of their phagocytic capacity. This examination is indicated in the following situations: (i) when you suspect a localized intrahepatic lesion (tumour, abscess, cyst, etc.), (ii) when you want to follow the course of therapy of a localized lesion, (iii) when you suspect liver cirrhosis, (iv) when you want to know the severity of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis, (v) when there is hepatomegaly and you want to determine the morphology of the liver, (vi) differential diagnosis of upper abdominal masses, and (vii) when there are abnormalities of the right diaphragm and you want to know their relation to the liver

  11. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  12. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  13. 40 CFR 180.443 - Myclobutanil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Horse, meat byproducts, except liver 0.2 Leafy greens, subgroup 4A, except spinach 9.0 Mango 3.0 Mayhaw... established for residues of the fungicide myclobutanil in connection with use of the pesticide under section...

  14. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  15. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  16. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  17. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  18. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  19. Large-volume multi-tined expandable RF ablation in pig livers: comparison of 2D and volumetric measurements of the ablation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangard, Christopher; Roesgen, Silvia; Lackner, Klaus J.; Wahba, Roger; Stippel, Dirk L.; Wiemker, Rafael; Hellmich, Martin; Reiter, Hannah; Fischer, Juergen H.

    2010-01-01

    To compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) measurements of ablation zones (AZs) related to the shaft of two different large-volume monopolar multi-tined expandable electrodes. Percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed in 12 pigs (81.6±7.8 kg) using two electrodes (LeVeen 5 cm, Rita XL 5 cm; n=6 in each group). Contrast-enhanced CT with the electrode shaft in place evaluated the AZ. The largest sphere centred on the electrode shaft within the AZ was calculated (1) based on the 2D axial CT image in the plane of the shaft assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ and (2) using prototype software and the 3D volume data of the AZ measured with CT. The mean largest diameter of a sphere centred on the electrode shaft was always smaller using the 3D data of the AZ than using 2D CT measurements assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ (3D vs 2D): LeVeen 18.2±4.8 mm; 24.5 ±3.1 mm; p=0.001; Rita XL 20.0±3.7 mm; 28.8±4.9 mm; p=0.0002. All AZ showed indentations around the tines. Two-dimensional CT measurements assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ overestimate the largest ablated sphere centred on the electrode shaft compared with 3D CT measurements. (orig.)

  20. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  1. Volumetric and functional recovery of the remnant liver after major liver resection with prior portal vein embolization : recovery after PVE and liver resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, J.W.; de Graaf, W.; van Lienden, K.P.; Busch, O.R.; Heger, M.; van Delden, O.M.; Gouma, D.J.; Bennink, R.J.; Laméris, J.S.; van Gulik, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Portal vein embolization is an accepted method to increase the future remnant liver preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative portal vein embolization on liver volume and function 3 months after major liver resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is

  2. Possibilities of differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions by computed tomography perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmina Sefić Pašić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate possibilities of computed tomography (CT perfusion in differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions based on their characteristic vascularization through perfusion parameters analysis. Methods Prospective study was conducted on 50 patients in the period 2009-2012. Patients were divided in two groups: benign and malignant lesions. The following CT perfusion parameters were analyzed: blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, capillary permeability surface area product (PS, hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, and impulse residual function (IRF. During the study another perfusion parameter was analyzed: hepatic perfusion index (HPI. All patients were examined on Multidetector 64-slice CT machine (GE with application of perfusion protocol for liver with i.v. administration of contrast agent. Results In both groups an increase of vascularization and arterial blood flow was noticed, but there was no significant statistical difference between any of 6 analyzed parameters. Hepatic perfusion index values were increased in all lesions in comparison with normal liver parenchyma. Conclusion Computed tomography perfusion in our study did not allow differentiation of benign and malignant liver lesions based on analysis of functional perfusion parameters. Hepatic perfusion index should be investigated in further studies as a parameter for detection of possible presence of micro-metastases in visually homogeneous liver in cases with no lesions found during standard CT protocol

  3. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  4. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  5. Amoebic liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lymphadenopathy were noted. The right-sided pleural effusion with relaxation atelectasis was also con- firmed (Fig. 4). The diagnosis of pos- sible amoebic liver abscess complicat- ed by rupture to the gallbladder was made at that stage. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage was done and approximately 300 ml of pus was.

  6. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  7. American Liver Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cirrhosis Clinical Trials Galactosemia Gilbert Syndrome Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency(LALD) Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Liver Biopsy Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Liver Function Tests ...

  8. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  9. A logging residue "yield" table for Appalachian hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    An equation for predicting logging-residue volume per acre for Appalachian hardwoods was developed from data collected on 20 timber sales in national forests in West Virginia and Virginia. The independent variables of type-of-cut, products removed, basal area per acre, and stand age explained 95 percent of the variation in residue volume per acre. A "yield"...

  10. The role of 3-D imaging and computer-based postprocessing for surgery of the liver and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Richter, G.M.; Thorn, M.; Vetter, M.; Hassenpflug, P.; Meinzer, H.P.; Knaebel, H.P.; Kraus, T.; Buechler, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging based on navigation and virtual reality planning tools are well-established in the surgical routine in orthopedic surgery and neurosurgery. In various procedures, they have achieved a significant clinical relevance and efficacy and have enhanced the discipline's resection capabilities. In abdominal surgery, however, these tools have gained little attraction so far. Even with the advantage of fast and high resolution cross-sectional liver and pancreas imaging, it remains unclear whether 3D planning and interactive planning tools might increase precision and safety of liver and pancreas surgery. The inability to simply transfer the methodology from orthopedic or neurosurgery is mainly a result of intraoperative organ movements and shifting and corresponding technical difficulties in the on-line applicability of presurgical cross sectional imaging data. For the interactive planning of liver surgery, three systems partly exist in daily routine: HepaVision2 (MeVis GmbH, Bremen), LiverLive (Navidez Ltd. Slovenia) and OrgaNicer (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg). All these systems have realized a half- or full-automatic liver-segmentation procedure to visualize liver segments, vessel trees, resected volumes or critical residual organ volumes, either for preoperative planning or intraoperative visualization. Acquisition of data is mainly based on computed tomography. Three-dimensional navigation for intraoperative surgical guidance with ultrasound is part of the clinical testing. There are only few reports about the transfer of the visualization of the pancreas, probably caused by the difficulties with the segmentation routine due to inflammation or organ-exceeding tumor growth. With this paper, we like to evaluate and demonstrate the present status of software planning tools and pathways for future pre- and intraoperative resection planning in liver and pancreas surgery. (orig.)

  11. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  12. Residues of tritium-labeled morantel in lactating dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.J.; Mosher, F.R.; Burnett, D.M.; Newby, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Residues of morantel and its metabolites were monitored in plasma, urine, and milk of five lactating dairy cattle that received an oral dose of [4,4-pyrimidyl- 3 H 2 ]morantel tartrate at 10 mg/kg. Drug-related radioactivity peaked in plasma at 8 h and in milk by the second milking, postdose, and was 170 and 84 ng/mL, respectively. The fraction of total residues in milk convertible to the marker compound, N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine, was 0.38 on the basis of a comparison of the areas under the curves for total and marker residues. Five days after dosing, 3.9% of the total radioactivity in liver was recovered as tritium water. Total drug-related residues in this target tissue averaged 1.15 μg/g. About half of the drug-related residues in liver was unextractable and was classified by bound

  13. A simple method to approximate liver size on cross-sectional images using living liver models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, D.; Mueller, M.A.; Karlo, C.; Fornaro, J.; Marincek, B.; Frauenfelder, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether a simple. diameter-based formula applicable to cross-sectional images can be used to calculate the total liver volume. Materials and methods: On 119 cross-sectional examinations (62 computed tomography and 57 magnetic resonance imaging) a simple, formula-based method to approximate the liver volume was evaluated. The total liver volume was approximated measuring the largest craniocaudal (cc), ventrodorsal (vd), and coronal (cor) diameters by two readers and implementing the equation: Vol estimated =ccxvdxcorx0.31. Inter-rater reliability, agreement, and correlation between liver volume calculation and virtual liver volumetry were analysed. Results: No significant disagreement between the two readers was found. The formula correlated significantly with the volumetric data (r > 0.85, p < 0.0001). In 81% of cases the error of the approximated volume was <10% and in 92% of cases <15% compared to the volumetric data. Conclusion: Total liver volume can be accurately estimated on cross-sectional images using a simple, diameter-based equation.

  14. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  15. Recellularization of rat liver: An in vitro model for assessing human drug metabolism and liver biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Robertson

    Full Text Available Liver-like organoids that recapitulate the complex functions of the whole liver by combining cells, scaffolds, and mechanical or chemical cues are becoming important models for studying liver biology and drug metabolism. The advantages of growing cells in three-dimensional constructs include enhanced cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions and preserved cellular phenotype including, prevention of de-differentiation. In the current study, biomimetic liver constructs were made via perfusion decellularization of rat liver, with the goal of maintaining the native composition and structure of the extracellular matrix. We optimized our decellularization process to produce liver scaffolds in which immunogenic residual DNA was removed but glycosaminoglycans were maintained. When the constructs were recellularized with rat or human liver cells, the cells remained viable, capable of proliferation, and functional for 28 days. Specifically, the cells continued to express cytochrome P450 genes and maintained their ability to metabolize a model drug, midazolam. Microarray analysis showed an upregulation of genes involved in liver regeneration and fibrosis. In conclusion, these liver constructs have the potential to be used as test beds for studying liver biology and drug metabolism.

  16. Endothelins in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1996-01-01

    renal failure. Studies on liver biopsies have revealed synthesis of ET-1 in hepatic endothelial and other cells, and recent investigations have identified the hepatosplanchnic system as a major source of ET-1 and ET-3 spillover into the circulation, with a direct relation to portal venous hypertension......This review describes recent progress in the accumulation of knowledge about the endothelins (ETs), a family of vasoactive 21-amino acid polypeptides, in chronic liver disease. Particular prominence is given to the dynamics of ET-1 and ET-3 and their possible relation to the disturbed circulation....... In addition, marked associations with disturbance of systemic haemodynamics and with abnormal distribution of blood volume have been reported. Although the pathophysiological importance of the ET system in chronic liver disease is not completely understood, similarities to other vasopressive...

  17. CT Perfusion for Early Response Evaluation of Radiofrequency Ablation of Focal Liver Lesions: First Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, Herman P., E-mail: hermanpaulo.marquezmasquiaran@usz.ch; Puippe, Gilbert; Mathew, Rishi Philip; Alkadhi, Hatem; Pfammatter, Thomas; Fischer, Michael A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    PurposeTo investigate the value of perfusion CT (P-CT) for early assessment of treatment response in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of focal liver lesions.Methods and Materials20 consecutive patients (14 men; mean age 64 ± 14) undergoing P-CT within 24 h after RFA of liver metastases (n = 10) or HCC (n = 10) were retrospectively included. Two readers determined arterial liver perfusion (ALP, mL/min/100 mL), portal liver perfusion (PLP, mL/min/100 mL), and hepatic perfusion index (HPI, %) in all post-RFA lesions by placing a volume of interest in the necrotic central (CZ), the transition (TZ), and the surrounding parenchymal (PZ) zone. Patients were classified into complete responders (no residual tumor) and incomplete responders (residual/progressive tumor) using imaging follow-up with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI after a mean of 57 ± 30 days. Prediction of treatment response was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic analysis.ResultsMean ALP/PLP/HPI of both readers were 4.8/15.4/61.2 for the CZ, 9.9/16.8/66.3 for the TZ and 20.7/29.0/61.8 for the PZ. Interreader agreement of HPI was fair for the CZ (intraclass coefficient 0.713), good for the TZ (0.813), and excellent for the PZ (0.920). For both readers, there were significant differences in HPI of the CZ and TZ between responders and nonresponders (both, P < 0.05). HPI of the TZ showed the highest AUC (0.911) for prediction of residual tumor, suggesting a cut-off value of 76 %.ConclusionIncreased HPI of the transition zone assessed with P-CT after RFA might serve as an early quantitative biomarker for residual tumor in patients with focal liver lesions.

  18. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  20. Logging and Agricultural Residue Supply Curves for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstetter, James D.; Lyons, John Kim

    2001-01-01

    This report quantified the volume of logging residues at the county level for current timber harvests. The cost of recovering logging residues was determined for skidding, yearding, loading, chipping and transporting the residues. Supply curves were developed for ten candidate conversion sites in the Pacific Northwest Region. Agricultural field residues were also quantified at the county level using five-year average crop yields. Agronomic constraints were applied to arrive at the volumes available for energy use. Collection costs and transportation costs were determined and supply curves generated for thirteen candidate conversion sites.

  1. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds ...

  2. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  3. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  4. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Surface Measurement of Liver Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan H; Reistad, Nina; Brange, Hannes; Öberg, Carl-Fredrik; Sturesson, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Liver parenchymal injuries such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can lead to increased morbidity and liver failure after liver resection. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is an optical measuring method that is fast, convenient, and established. DRS has previously been used on the liver with an invasive technique consisting of a needle that is inserted into the parenchyma. We developed a DRS system with a hand-held probe that is applied to the liver surface. In this study, we investigated the impact of the liver capsule on DRS measurements and whether liver surface measurements are representative of the whole liver. We also wanted to confirm that we could discriminate between tumor and liver parenchyma by DRS. The instrumentation setup consisted of a light source, a fiber-optic contact probe, and two spectrometers connected to a computer. Patients scheduled for liver resection due to hepatic malignancy were included, and DRS measurements were performed on the excised liver part with and without the liver capsule and alongside a newly cut surface. To estimate the scattering parameters and tissue chromophore volume fractions, including blood, bile, and fat, the measured diffuse reflectance spectra were applied to an analytical model. In total, 960 DRS spectra from the excised liver tissue of 18 patients were analyzed. All factors analyzed regarding tumor versus liver tissue were significantly different. When measuring through the capsule, the blood volume fraction was found to be 8.4 ± 3.5%, the lipid volume fraction was 9.9 ± 4.7%, and the bile volume fraction was 8.2 ± 4.6%. No differences could be found between surface measurements and cross-sectional measurements. In measurements with/without the liver capsule, the differences in volume fraction were 1.63% (0.75-2.77), -0.54% (-2.97 to 0.32), and -0.15% (-1.06 to 1.24) for blood, lipid, and bile, respectively. This study shows that it is possible to manage DRS

  5. Fluid management guided by stroke volume variation failed to decrease the incidence of acute kidney injury, 30-day mortality, and 1-year survival in living donor liver transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chih Wang

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The outcomes of living donor liver transplant patients who had fluid therapy guided by an SVV less than 10% were similar to those of patients who were given fluids to reach a CVP of 10 mmHg. Our findings suggest that the two measures of vascular filling are similar in liver transplant recipients with demographic characteristics similar to those of our patients.

  6. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  7. Enhancement of liver regeneration and liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Liver regeneration allows surgical resection of up to 75% of the liver and enables curative treatment potential for patients with primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Liver surgery is associated with substantial risks, reflected by considerable morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of

  8. AGE WISE HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN HUMAN LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribeni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC results in between 2.5 lakhs to 1million deaths globally per annum. Liver transplantation nowadays is a well accepted treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. AIMS: Keeping this concept in view, a study was conducted in the Guwahati Zone of Northeast India, to compare the histomorphological features of the human liver in different age groups. SETTING AND DESIGN: Apparently healthy livers were obtained from 21 subjects on whom medicolegal post-mortems had been performed. Their ages varied from newborn to 90 years. Subjects were divided into 3 groups. 7 specimens were taken from each group. (1 Pediatric (2 Adult (3 Old age. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In all the above age groups, immediately after removal of the livers, they were washed in normal saline, dried with blotting paper and weighed in an electronic weighing machine. Sections of liver were fixed, processed, cut and stained with Harris Haematoxylin and Eosin stain. RESULTS: The liver loses weight from 50 years onwards. There appears to be racial and environmental differences in the change in liver weight in old age. Autopsy studies show a diminution of nearly 46% in liver weight between the 3rd and 10th decades of life. The liver decreases in size with age. The hepatocytes are radially disposed in the liver lobule. They are piled up, forming a layer one cell thick (except in young children in a fashion similar to the bricks of a wall. These plates are directed from the periphery of the lobule to its centre and anastomose freely forming a complex labyrinthine and sponge-like structure. CONCLUSIONS: From the findings in the present study it can be concluded that: 1. Nowadays, the measurement of liver volume has gained practical use in relation to liver transplantation. 2. We have compared the histomorphology of adult liver with a child. The findings in both the groups are very similar. This feature is important, since in

  9. Threonine phosphorylation of rat liver glycogen synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino, J.; Arro, M.; Guinovart, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    32 P-labeled glycogen synthase specifically immunoprecipitated from 32 P-phosphate incubated rat hepatocytes contains, in addition to [ 32 P] phosphoserine, significant levels of [ 32 P] phosphothreonine. When the 32 P-immunoprecipitate was cleaved with CNBr, the [ 32 P] phosphothreonine was recovered in the large CNBr fragment (CB-2, Mapp 28 Kd). Homogeneous rat liver glycogen synthase was phosphorylated by all the protein kinases able to phosphorylate CB-2 in vitro. After analysis of the immunoprecipitated enzyme for phosphoaminoacids, it was observed that only casein kinase II was able to phosphorylate on threonine and 32 P-phosphate was only found in CB-2. These results demonstrate that rat liver glycogen synthase is phosphorylated at threonine site(s) contained in CB-2 and strongly indicate that casein kinase II may play a role in the ''in vivo'' phosphorylation of liver glycogen synthase. This is the first protein kinase reported to phosphorylate threonine residues in liver glycogen synthase

  10. Fully automated MR liver volumetry using watershed segmentation coupled with active contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hieu Trung; Le-Trong, Ngoc; Bao, Pham The; Oto, Aytek; Suzuki, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Our purpose is to develop a fully automated scheme for liver volume measurement in abdominal MR images, without requiring any user input or interaction. The proposed scheme is fully automatic for liver volumetry from 3D abdominal MR images, and it consists of three main stages: preprocessing, rough liver shape generation, and liver extraction. The preprocessing stage reduced noise and enhanced the liver boundaries in 3D abdominal MR images. The rough liver shape was revealed fully automatically by using the watershed segmentation, thresholding transform, morphological operations, and statistical properties of the liver. An active contour model was applied to refine the rough liver shape to precisely obtain the liver boundaries. The liver volumes calculated by the proposed scheme were compared to the "gold standard" references which were estimated by an expert abdominal radiologist. The liver volumes computed by using our developed scheme excellently agreed (Intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.94) with the "gold standard" manual volumes by the radiologist in the evaluation with 27 cases from multiple medical centers. The running time was 8.4 min per case on average. We developed a fully automated liver volumetry scheme in MR, which does not require any interaction by users. It was evaluated with cases from multiple medical centers. The liver volumetry performance of our developed system was comparable to that of the gold standard manual volumetry, and it saved radiologists' time for manual liver volumetry of 24.7 min per case.

  11. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes

  12. Target coverage in image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy of liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderink, Wouter; Méndez Romero, Alejandra; Vásquez Osorio, Eliana M; de Boer, Hans C J; Brandwijk, René P; Levendag, Peter C; Heijmen, Ben J M

    2007-05-01

    To determine the effect of image-guided procedures (with computed tomography [CT] and electronic portal images before each treatment fraction) on target coverage in stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver patients using a stereotactic body frame (SBF) and abdominal compression. CT guidance was used to correct for day-to-day variations in the tumor's mean position in the SBF. By retrospectively evaluating 57 treatment sessions, tumor coverage, as obtained with the clinically applied CT-guided protocol, was compared with that of alternative procedures. The internal target volume-plus (ITV(+)) was introduced to explicitly include uncertainties in tumor delineations resulting from CT-imaging artifacts caused by residual respiratory motion. Tumor coverage was defined as the volume overlap of the ITV(+), derived from a tumor delineated in a treatment CT scan, and the planning target volume. Patient stability in the SBF, after acquisition of the treatment CT scan, was evaluated by measuring the displacement of the bony anatomy in the electronic portal images relative to CT. Application of our clinical protocol (with setup corrections following from manual measurements of the distances between the contours of the planning target volume and the daily clinical target volume in three orthogonal planes, multiple two-dimensional) increased the frequency of nearly full (> or = 99%) ITV(+) coverage to 77% compared with 63% without setup correction. An automated three-dimensional method further improved the frequency to 96%. Patient displacements in the SBF were generally small (design, patient stability in the SBF should be verified with portal imaging.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative determination of enrofloxacin residues in fish tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Vesna; Baltić M.; Ćirković M.; Kilibarda Nataša; Glamočlija Nataša; Stefanović S.; Miščević Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Presence of enrofloxacin residues in fish liver, kidney and muscle tissue was investigated after per os application of the drug. For the purpose of determination of enrofloxacin, the following analytical methods were used: microbiological method - plate pH 8 with Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 and HPLC method with fluorescence detection. After a 5-day oral treatment of carps, enrofloxacin residues in tissues were determined up to the 10th day after the end of the drug application. Enrofloxacin c...

  14. CT liver volumetry using geodesic active contour segmentation with a level-set algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Obajuluwa, Ademola; Xu, Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi; Baron, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation on CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. Our purpose was to develop an accurate automated liver segmentation scheme for measuring liver volumes. We developed an automated volumetry scheme for the liver in CT based on a 5 step schema. First, an anisotropic smoothing filter was applied to portal-venous phase CT images to remove noise while preserving the liver structure, followed by an edge enhancer to enhance the liver boundary. By using the boundary-enhanced image as a speed function, a fastmarching algorithm generated an initial surface that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic-active-contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour-evolution refined the initial surface so as to more precisely fit the liver boundary. The liver volume was calculated based on the refined liver surface. Hepatic CT scans of eighteen prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multi-detector CT system. Automated liver volumes obtained were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as "gold standard." The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1,520 cc, whereas the mean manual volume was 1,486 cc, with the mean absolute difference of 104 cc (7.0%). CT liver volumetrics based on an automated scheme agreed excellently with "goldstandard" manual volumetrics (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (p(F<=f)=0.32), and required substantially less completion time. Our automated scheme provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring liver volumes.

  15. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  16. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  17. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver

  18. Liver bioengineering: Current status and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher Booth; Tom Soker; Pedro Baptista; Christina L Ross; Shay Soker; Umar Farooq; Robert J Stratta

    2012-01-01

    The present review aims to illustrate the strategies that are being implemented to regenerate or bioengineer livers for clinical purposes.There are two general pathways to liver bioengineering and regeneration.The first consists of creating a supporting scaffold,either synthetically or by decellularization of human or animal organs,and seeding cells on the scaffold,where they will mature either in bioreactors or in vivo.This strategy seems to offer the quickest route to clinical translation,as demonstrated by the development of liver organoids from rodent livers which were repopulated with organ specific cells of animal and/or human origin.Liver bioengineering has potential for transplantation and for toxicity testing during preclinical drug development.The second possibility is to induce liver regeneration of dead or resected tissue by manipulating cell pathways.In fact,it is well known that the liver has peculiar regenerative potential which allows hepatocyte hyperplasia after amputation of liver volume.Infusion of autologous bone marrow cells,which aids in liver regeneration,into patients was shown to be safe and to improve their clinical condition,but the specific cells responsible for liver regeneration have not yet been determined and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown.A complete understanding of the cell pathways and dynamics and of the functioning of liver stem cell niche is necessary for the clinical translation of regenerative medicine strategies.As well,it will be crucial to elucidate the mechanisms through which cells interact with the extracellular matrix,and how this latter supports and drives cell fate.

  19. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P.; Zeman, F.; Teufel, A.; Lang, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  20. Purification of a large molecular weight transglutaminase substrate from liver plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slife, C.W.; Morris, G.S.; Tyrrell, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Transglutaminases are enzymes which catalyze the covalent crosslinking of proteins by forming epsilon(γ-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide linkages. In earlier studies, the authors reported that a large molecular weight protein aggregate in rat liver plasma membranes served as a substrate for a plasma membrane-associated transglutaminase. The enzyme specifically incorporated a lysine analog, [ 3 H]putrescine, into a protein complex which remained at the top of an acrylamide gel upon electrophoresis in SDS and reducing agents. The complex has now been isolated by extracting the plasma membranes with detergent (octylglucoside) resuspending the detergent insoluble residues in 6 M guanidine HCl and chromatographing the residue on a 4% agarose column in 6 M guanidine HCl. Most of the radioactivity is found in the void volume fractions from the column. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows that these fractions contain mostly proteins that do not enter the acrylamide gel. Since this purification procedure is essentially the same as that used to isolate a rat hepatocyte adhesion factor from rat liver plasma membranes it is possible that the large molecular weight transglutaminase substrate and the adhesion factor are contained in the same protein aggregate

  1. Antimicrobial residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antimicrobial residue in animal food products is an important index of food safety. Antimicrobial residues could result from chemotherapeutic or chemoprophylactic use of drugs in food animals. This occurrence of residue in animal food products has received enormous worldwide attention from some local, international, and public health agencies. A crosssectional study was conducted from July to December 2009 to detect the antibiotic residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Microbial inhibition test (MIT and thin layer chromatography (TLC methods were used to detect antibacterial residues in poultry tissues (liver, kidney, breast, and thigh muscles and eggs. The bacteria and pH of the MIT method were as follows: Bacillus subtilis on test agar medium with a pH of 7.2, Bacillus cereus with a pH of 6.0, and Escherichia coli at pH with an 8.0. Results: The overall prevalence of antibiotic residues detected by MIT was 64% in liver, 63% in kidney, 56% in breast muscle, 50% in thigh muscle, and 60% in eggs. There was significant variation in results between MIT and TLC (p<0.05. Tetracycline residues were found in 48% in liver, 24% in kidneys, 20% in thigh muscles, 26% in breast muscles, and 36% in eggs. Ciprofloxacin residues were found 46% in liver, 42% in kidneys, 34% in thigh muscles, 30% in breast muscles, and 30% in eggs. Enrofloxacin residues were found 40% in livers, 36% in kidneys, 24% in thigh muscles, 20% in breast muscles, and 26% in eggs. Amoxicillin residues were found 48% in livers, 30% in kidneys, 26% in thigh muscles, 22% in breast muscles, and 24% in eggs. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues by both MIT and TLC were found in liver tissue, tetracycline (48%, ciprofloxacin (46%, enrofloxacin (40%, and amoxicillin (42% were found in liver. Breast muscle tissue was least likely to contain antibiotic residues (24%. Tetracycline (p=0.01 and amoxicillin (p=0.03 residues had

  2. Immune mediated liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capac...

  3. Interfraction Liver Shape Variability and Impact on GTV Position During Liver Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Abdominal Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Dawson, Laura A.; Moseley, Joanne L.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: For patients receiving liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), abdominal compression can reduce organ motion, and daily image guidance can reduce setup error. The reproducibility of liver shape under compression may impact treatment delivery accuracy. The purpose of this study was to measure the interfractional variability in liver shape under compression, after best-fit rigid liver-to-liver registration from kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to planning computed tomography (CT) scans and its impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) position. Methods and Materials: Evaluable patients were treated in a Research Ethics Board-approved SBRT six-fraction study with abdominal compression. Kilovoltage CBCT scans were acquired before treatment and reconstructed as respiratory sorted CBCT scans offline. Manual rigid liver-to-liver registrations were performed from exhale-phase CBCT scans to exhale planning CT scans. Each CBCT liver was contoured, exported, and compared with the planning CT scan for spatial differences, by use of in house-developed finite-element model-based deformable registration (MORFEUS). Results: We evaluated 83 CBCT scans from 16 patients with 30 GTVs. The mean volume of liver that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 21.7%. Excluding 1 outlier, the maximum volume that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 36.3% in a single patient. Over all patients, the absolute maximum deformations in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions were 10.5 mm (SD, 2.2), 12.9 mm (SD, 3.6), and 5.6 mm (SD, 2.7), respectively. The absolute mean predicted impact of liver volume displacements on GTV by use of center of mass displacements was 0.09 mm (SD, 0.13), 0.13 mm (SD, 0.18), and 0.08 mm (SD, 0.07) in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Conclusions: Interfraction liver deformations in patients undergoing SBRT under abdominal compression after rigid liver-to-liver

  4. A first look at logging residue characteristics in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1975-01-01

    In 1973 and 1974, the Forest Products Marketing Laboratory obtained some preliminary information about characteristics of logging residues in West Virginia. Sixteen 1-acre plots were measured in conjunction with a test of the line-intersect sampling method. Findings from the 16 plots showed that hardwood residue volumes ranged from 100 to 1,300 cubic feet per acre,...

  5. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  6. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szpinda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age. The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r=0.91, p<0.001 between the liver volumes achieved by hydrostatic (x and indirect (y methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias.

  7. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for monitoring future liver remnant function after portal vein embolization and extended hemihepatectomy: A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Raabe, Philip; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Luedemann, Lutz [Essen University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Essen (Germany); Malinowski, Maciej; Stockmann, Martin; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate changes in liver function after right portal vein embolization (PVE) and extended right hemihepatectomy using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-DTPA-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA) MRI. In this prospective trial, 37 patients undergoing PVE were examined before and 14 and 28 days after PVE and 10 days after extended hemihepatectomy using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Lobar volume, kinetic growth rate (KGR), relative enhancement (RE) as well as hepatocellular uptake index (HUI) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were calculated for each lobe. RE of the left liver lobe (LLL) was steadily increasing after PVE and decreased to 0.48 ± 0.19 10 days after surgery, which is significantly lower than 14 days and 28 days post PVE (P < 0.05). KGR was 14.06 ± 9.82%/week for the period from PVE to 14 days after PVE. HUI of the LLL increased steadily after PVE and was significantly higher at both 14 and 28 days after PVE compared to pre PVE (P < 0.05). HUI of the residual liver after surgery was lower than before. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may be used to monitor the functional increase in the FLR after PVE and to depict the intraoperative liver injury leading to a decrease in liver remnant function. (orig.)

  8. Focal sparing around the gallbladder in fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kemin; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Yunoki, Masanori; Hirano, Yoko

    1989-01-01

    In evaluating fatty liver with CT, the residual normal liver tissues without fat deposits are occasionally detected on CT as high attenuation regions, especially surrounding the gallbladder. This study examined the incidence of this phenomenon in terms of the diagnostic value of CT in fatty liver. Fifty-seven patients with fatty liver were examined with CT. The incidence of focal sparing area was the highest in the gallbladder bed (42/57, 74%), followed by the interlobar fissure or subcapsular area (13, 23%), quadrate lobe (8, 14%), caudate lobe (2, 4%), and right lobe (one, 1.8%). These CT appearances were of spot, band, ring, and the mixed type. In 38 patients, fatty liver was too moderate to be detected without CT attenuation numbers. Among them, 27 patients (71%) had focal sparing area surrounding the gallbladder. This CT appearance seemed to be of significance in preventing the missing of moderate fatty liver. (Namekawa, K)

  9. Detection of residues antibiotics in food using a microbiological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ali, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Antibiotics are effective therapeutic agents because of their property of selective bacterial toxicity which helps controlling infections. Animals, just like humans, can be treated with antibiotics. This use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance. Resistant strains may cause severe infections in humans and animals. In addition, antibiotic residues might represent a problem for human health. Our objective is to develop a microbiological method for the detection of antibiotic residues in poultry(muscle, liver,...). For this purpose, antibiotic sensitive bacteria and selective agar media were used. An inhibition growth zone surrounds each of the food samples containing antibiotic residues after a prescribed incubation time. (Author). 23 refs

  10. Liver scanning in diffuse liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiginger, P.; Atefie, K.; Scherak, O.; Wolf, A.; Hoefer, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of liver scans performed with sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid in 169 patients suffering from diffuse liver diseases and in 48 normal controls were evaluated. The patients with reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis, fatty liver and fibrosis of the liver show only minimal deviations from the scintigraphic pattern. On the contrary, highly increased colloid uptake in the spleen is found in cases of chronic aggressive hepatitis, whilst the intrahepatic distribution of the colloid is approximately normal. In cases of liver cirrhosis, increased colloid uptake is found in the left lobe of the liver as well as in the spleen and in the bone marrow. Either normal findings or cirrhosis-like changes of the colloid distribution are observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  11. The design and analysis of salmonid tagging studies in the Columbia basin. Volume 8: A new model for estimating survival probabilities and residualization from a release-recapture study of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) smolts in the Snake River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowther, A.B.; Skalski, J.

    1997-09-01

    Standard release-recapture analysis using Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate survival probabilities between hydroelectric facilities for Snake river fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) ignore the possibility of individual fish residualizing and completing their migration in the year following tagging. These models do not utilize available capture history data from this second year and, thus, produce negatively biased estimates of survival probabilities. A new multinomial likelihood model was developed that results in biologically relevant, unbiased estimates of survival probabilities using the full two years of capture history data. This model was applied to 1995 Snake River fall chinook hatchery releases to estimate the true survival probability from one of three upstream release points (Asotin, Billy Creek, and Pittsburgh Landing) to Lower Granite Dam. In the data analyzed here, residualization is not a common physiological response and thus the use of CJS models did not result in appreciably different results than the true survival probability obtained using the new multinomial likelihood model

  12. 40 CFR 180.294 - Benomyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.294.../08 Poultry, meat byproducts, except liver 0.1 1/1/08 Pumpkin 1.0 1/1/07 Raspberry 7.0 1/1/08 Rice...

  13. 40 CFR 180.533 - Esfenvalerate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances..., in or on food commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Almond 0.2 Almond, hulls 5.0 Apple... Poultry, meat byproducts, except liver 0.3 Pumpkin 0.5 Radish, roots 0.3 Radish, tops 3.0 Sheep, fat 1.5...

  14. Amiodarone-Induced Liver Injury and Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggey, Jonathan; Kappus, Matthew; Lagoo, Anand S; Brady, Carla W

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of an 80-year-old woman with volume overload thought initially to be secondary to heart failure, but determined to be amiodarone-induced acute and chronic liver injury leading to submassive necrosis and bridging fibrosis consistent with early cirrhosis. Her histopathology was uniquely absent of steatosis and phospholipidosis, which are commonly seen in AIC.

  15. Normal liver tissue sparing by intensity-modulated proton stereotactic body radiotherapy for solitary liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Joergen B. B.; Hansen, Anders T.; Lassen, Yasmin; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Muren, Ludvig P.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is often the preferred treatment for the advanced liver tumours which owing to tumour distribution, size and multi-focality are out of range of surgical resection or radiofrequency ablation. However, only a minority of patients with liver tumours may be candidates for conventional SBRT because of the limited radiation tolerance of normal liver, intestine and other normal tissues. Due to the favourable depth-dose characteristics of protons, intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) may be a superior alternative to photon-based SBRT. The purpose of this treatment planning study was therefore to investigate the potential sparing of normal liver by IMPT compared to photon-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for solitary liver tumours. Material and methods. Ten patients with solitary liver metastasis treated at our institution with multi-field SBRT were retrospectively re-planned with IMRT and proton pencil beam scanning techniques. For the proton plans, two to three coplanar fields were used in contrast to five to six coplanar and non-coplanar photon fields. The same planning objectives were used for both techniques. A risk adapted dose prescription to the PTV surface of 12.5-16.75 Gy x 3 was used. Results. The spared liver volume for IMPT was higher compared to IMRT in all 10 patients. At the highest prescription dose level, the median liver volume receiving less than 15 Gy was 1411 cm 3 for IMPT and 955 cm 3 for IMRT (p D 15 Gy > 700 cm 3 constraint. For the D mean = 15 Gy constraint, nine of 10 cases could be treated at the highest dose level using IMPT whereas with IMRT, only two cases met this constraint at the highest dose level and six at the lowest dose level. Conclusion. A considerable sparing of normal liver tissue can be obtained using proton-based SBRT for solitary liver tumours

  16. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  17. Hepatic Toxicity After Radioembolization of the Liver Using {sup 90}Y-Microspheres: Sequential Lobar Versus Whole Liver Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, Ricarda; Seidensticker, Max; Damm, Robert; Mohnike, Konrad [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie and Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Schuette, Kerstin; Malfertheiner, Peter [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie (Germany); Buskirk, Mark Van [Data Reduction (United States); Pech, Maciej; Amthauer, Holger; Ricke, Jens, E-mail: jens.ricke@med.ovgu.de [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie and Nuklearmedizin (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: {sup 90}Y-radioembolization (RE) is a promising technique for delivering high doses of radiation to liver tumors but may result in compromise of liver function. To gain further perspective, we evaluated the toxicity rates of sequential lobar versus 'whole liver' {sup 90}Y-radioembolization. Methods: Thirty-four patients with liver malignancy in noncirrhotic livers were included; {sup 90}Y-radioembolization was performed as either whole liver or sequential lobar treatment in 17 patients each. Standard clinical and liver specific laboratory parameters as well as MR imaging before treatment and at follow-up (6 and 12 weeks) after radioembolization were evaluated for toxicity using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Volumetry of the liver, tumor, and spleen and measurement of portal vein diameter also were performed. Results: Three months after whole liver RE, 14 liver-related grade 3/4 events were recorded versus 2 events after sequential lobar treatment (P < 0.05). Three patients treated with whole liver RE suffered from radioembolization-induced liver disease (REILD). Pathological increases in bilirubin at 3 months were observed for the whole liver group only (52.3 vs. 18.7 {mu}mol/l, P = 0.012). Total liver volume did not change significantly in either group, but shrinkage of the initially treated hepatic lobe with compensatory hypertrophy of the subsequently treated lobe was observed in the sequential lobar group (P < 0.05). Portal vein diameter increased significantly in whole liver-treated patients only (+17% vs. +6.6%, P = 0.043). Conclusions: Noncirrhotic patients undergoing sequential lobar radioembolization had less hepatic toxicity compared to whole liver embolization. The sequential approach should be the preferred strategy.

  18. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver ...

  19. Diet - liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins normally help the body repair tissue. They also prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells. In people with badly damaged livers, proteins are not properly processed. Waste products may build up and affect the brain. Dietary ...

  20. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  1. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  2. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autoimmune diseases of the liver Hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection Inflammation of the liver that is long-term (chronic) Iron overload in the body ( hemochromatosis ) People with hepatitis B or C are at high risk of ...

  3. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  4. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  5. Liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Paul S; Hillingsø, Jens; Kirkegaard, Preben

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a rare, hereditary, benign disorder. Hepatic failure is uncommon and symptoms are caused by mass effects leading to abdominal distension and pain. Liver transplantation (LTX) offers fully curative treatment, but there is still some controversy about...... whether it is a relevant modality considering the absence of liver failure, relative organ shortage, perioperative risks and lifelong immunosuppression. The purpose of this study was to review our experience of LTX for PLD and to compare the survival with the overall survival of patients who underwent LTX...... from 1992 to 2005. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the journals of 440 patients, who underwent 506 LTXs between 1992 and 2005, showed that 14 patients underwent LTX for PLD. All patients had normal liver function. Three were receiving haemodialysis and thus underwent combined liver...

  6. Biophysical model for thorotrast-induced liver cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noesterer, M; Hofmann, W.; Andreev, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany between 1930 and 1950, an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 patients received Thorostrast injections, mostly for angiographic examinations. About 59% of the intravascularly injected Thorotrast was retained by the liver. Based on a mean injected volume of 25 ml and an average exposure time of about 40 years, Thorotrast patients received a mean liver dose of about 9.5 Gy. As a consequence, about 20% of the 2,326 Thorotrast patients examined in the German Thorotrast Study died of liver tumors, while only 2 cases of primary liver tumors were observed in the 1,890 control patients

  7. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  8. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  9. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  10. Morphology and morphometry of fetal liver at 16-26 weeks of gestation by magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison with embryonic liver at Carnegie stage 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamabe, Yui; Hirose, Ayumi; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2013-06-01

    Normal liver growth was described morphologically and morphometrically using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of human fetuses, and compared with embryonic liver to establish a normal reference chart for clinical use. MRI images from 21 fetuses at 16-26 weeks of gestation and eight embryos at Carnegie stage (CS)23 were investigated in the present study. Using the image data, the morphology of the liver as well as its adjacent organs was extracted and reconstructed three-dimensionally. Morphometry of fetal liver growth was performed using simple regression analysis. The fundamental morphology was similar in all cases of the fetal livers examined. The liver tended to grow along the transversal axis. The four lobes were clearly recognizable in the fetal liver but not in the embryonic liver. The length of the liver along the three axes, liver volume and four lobes correlated with the bodyweight (BW). The morphogenesis of the fetal liver on the dorsal and caudal sides was affected by the growth of the abdominal organs, such as the stomach, duodenum and spleen, and retroperitoneal organs, such as the right adrenal gland and right kidney. The main blood vessels such as inferior vena cava, portal vein and umbilical vein made a groove on the surface of the liver. Morphology of the fetal liver was different from that of the embryonic liver at CS23. The present data will be useful for evaluating the development of the fetal liver and the adjacent organs that affect its morphology. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  11. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  12. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  13. Volumetric Growth of the Liver in the Human Fetus: An Anatomical, Hydrostatic, and Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Paruszewska-Achtel, Monika; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Elminowska-Wenda, Gabriela; Dombek, Małgorzata; Szpinda, Anna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, hydrostatic, and statistical methods, liver volumes were assessed in 69 human fetuses of both sexes aged 18–30 weeks. No sex differences were found. The median of liver volume achieved by hydrostatic measurements increased from 6.57 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 14.36 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 20.77 cm3 at 26–30 weeks, according to the following regression: y = −26.95 + 1.74 × age ± Z  × (−3.15 + 0.27 × age). The median of liver volume calculated indirectly according to the formula liver volume = 0.55 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter increased from 12.41 cm3 at 18–21 weeks through 28.21 cm3 at 22–25 weeks to 49.69 cm3 at 26–30 weeks. There was a strong relationship (r = 0.91, p hydrostatic (x) and indirect (y) methods, expressed by y = −0.05 + 2.16x  ± 7.26. The liver volume should be calculated as follows liver volume = 0.26 × liver length × liver transverse diameter × liver sagittal diameter. The age-specific liver volumes are of great relevance in the evaluation of the normal hepatic growth and the early diagnosis of fetal micro- and macrosomias. PMID:26413551

  14. Development of the liver during the fetal period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albay, S.; Malas, Mehmet A.; Cetin, E.; Cankara, N.; Karahan, N.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the development of the liver in human fetuses aged between 9-40 weeks. We studied 121 human fetuses (62 males, 59 females) with no external anomalies aged between 9-40 postmenstrual weeks during 2003-2004 in Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey. The fetuses were divided into four groups as 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters and full term fetuses. We measured fetal weight, length, width, thickness, and volume of the liver. We established localization of the liver and its relation with the neighboring structures, its ligaments, and size of itself and its lobes, shapes of the liver and the localization of the porta hepatis on the visceral surface of the liver. We found significant correlations between the size, weight, volume of the liver, sizes of its lobe and gestational age (p 0.05). However, the proportion of the distance between the porta hepatis and the upper margin to the distance between the porta hepatis and the lower margin decreased significantly with gestational age (p<0.05). Type 3 liver (square) was the most commonly observed type of fetal liver (53%). Our opinion is that the parameters obtained can be useful to diagnose pathologies of liver development and anomalies concerning several branches of medicine such as anatomy, pathologic anatomy (fetopathology), forensic medicine, medical imaging, obstetrics and pediatrics. (author)

  15. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  16. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  18. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  19. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  20. Liver and gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Liver is often a site of a variety of diseases. A palpable liver during a routine clinical examination is an important finding and requires further investigations. The availability of non-invasive liver imaging procedures using nuclear, ultrasound, CT (and now MRI) techniques have immensely enhanced diagnostic accuracy in liver diseases. In this Chapter, a detailed description of routinely practised nuclear medicine procedures related to liver is given. Brief reference is also made to other imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography, only for the purposes of comparison. Most of the information is based on our own clinical experience of past 30 years

  1. Liver and gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, M A

    1993-12-31

    Liver is often a site of a variety of diseases. A palpable liver during a routine clinical examination is an important finding and requires further investigations. The availability of non-invasive liver imaging procedures using nuclear, ultrasound, CT (and now MRI) techniques have immensely enhanced diagnostic accuracy in liver diseases. In this Chapter, a detailed description of routinely practised nuclear medicine procedures related to liver is given. Brief reference is also made to other imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography, only for the purposes of comparison. Most of the information is based on our own clinical experience of past 30 years 12 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  3. Radiology of liver circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermine, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book proposes that careful evaluation of the arterioportogram is the cornerstone in assessing portal flow obstruction, being the most consistent of all observations including liver histology, portal venous pressure, size and number of portosystemic collaterals, and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Very brief chapters cover normal hepatic circulation and angiographic methods. Contrast volumes and flow rates for celiac, hepatic, and superior mesenteric injection are given, with the timing for venous phase radiographs. In the main body of the text, portal obstruction is divided very simply into presinusoidal (all proximal causes) and postsinusoidal (all distal causes, including Budd-Chiari). Changes are discussed regarding the splenic artery and spleen; hepatic artery and its branches; portal flow rate and direction; and arterioportal shunting and portosystemic collateral circulation in minimal, moderate, severe, and very severe portal obstruction and in recognizable entities such as prehepatic portal and hepatic venous obstructions. The major emphasis in this section is the recognition and understanding of flow changes by which level and severity of obstruction are assessed (not simply the anatomy of portosystemic collateral venous flow). Excellent final chapters discuss the question of portal hypertension without obstruction, and the contribution of arterioportography to the treatment of portal hypertension, again with an emphasis on hemodynamics before and after shunt surgery. There is a fascinating final chapter on segmental intrahepatic obstruction without portal hypertension that explains much of the unusual contrast enhancement sometimes seen in CT scanning of hepatic mass lesions

  4. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  5. Hepatosplenic volumetric assessment at MDCT for staging liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Malecki, Kyle; Hunt, Oliver F.; Beaumont, Claire; Kloke, John; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J.; Lubner, Meghan G. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-07-15

    To investigate hepatosplenic volumetry at MDCT for non-invasive prediction of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatosplenic volume analysis in 624 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 311 M/313 F) at MDCT was performed using dedicated software and compared against pathological fibrosis stage (F0 = 374; F1 = 48; F2 = 40; F3 = 65; F4 = 97). The liver segmental volume ratio (LSVR) was defined by Couinaud segments I-III over segments IV-VIII. All pre-cirrhotic fibrosis stages (METAVIR F1-F3) were based on liver biopsy within 1 year of MDCT. LSVR and total splenic volumes increased with stage of fibrosis, with mean(±SD) values of: F0: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 215.1 ± 88.5 mm{sup 3}; F1: 0.25 ± 0.08 and 294.8 ± 153.4 mm{sup 3}; F2: 0.331 ± 0.12 and 291.6 ± 197.1 mm{sup 3}; F3: 0.39 ± 0.15 and 509.6 ± 402.6 mm{sup 3}; F4: 0.56 ± 0.30 and 790.7 ± 450.3 mm{sup 3}, respectively. Total hepatic volumes showed poor discrimination (F0: 1674 ± 320 mm{sup 3}; F4: 1631 ± 691 mm{sup 3}). For discriminating advanced fibrosis (≥F3), the ROC AUC values for LSVR, total liver volume, splenic volume and LSVR/spleen combined were 0.863, 0.506, 0.890 and 0.947, respectively. Relative changes in segmental liver volumes and total splenic volume allow for non-invasive staging of hepatic fibrosis, whereas total liver volume is a poor predictor. Unlike liver biopsy or elastography, these CT volumetric biomarkers can be obtained retrospectively on routine scans obtained for other indications. (orig.)

  6. Automatic liver contouring for radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dengwang; Kapp, Daniel S; Xing, Lei; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    To develop automatic and efficient liver contouring software for planning 3D-CT and four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) for application in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning systems.The algorithm comprises three steps for overcoming the challenge of similar intensities between the liver region and its surrounding tissues. First, the total variation model with the L1 norm (TV-L1), which has the characteristic of multi-scale decomposition and an edge-preserving property, is used for removing the surrounding muscles and tissues. Second, an improved level set model that contains both global and local energy functions is utilized to extract liver contour information sequentially. In the global energy function, the local correlation coefficient (LCC) is constructed based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix both of the initial liver region and the background region. The LCC can calculate the correlation of a pixel with the foreground and background regions, respectively. The LCC is combined with intensity distribution models to classify pixels during the evolutionary process of the level set based method. The obtained liver contour is used as the candidate liver region for the following step. In the third step, voxel-based texture characterization is employed for refining the liver region and obtaining the final liver contours.The proposed method was validated based on the planning CT images of a group of 25 patients undergoing radiation therapy treatment planning. These included ten lung cancer patients with normal appearing livers and ten patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The method was also tested on abdominal 4D-CT images of a group of five patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or liver metastases. The false positive volume percentage, the false negative volume percentage, and the dice similarity coefficient between liver contours obtained by a developed algorithm and a current standard delineated by the expert group

  7. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  8. CT quantitative diagnosis in fatty liver. An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong; Li Binxiang; Zhang Lizhong; Liang Jianfang

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relation between liver fat content and CT value in animal experiment for the diagnosis and treatment of fatty liver in clinical practice. Materials and methods: Fatty liver model was established in 30 Wistar rats (experimental group), 5 rats was used as the control group. The 5 rats of the control group and 5 rats randomly chosen from experimental group at the first, second, third, and the fourth weekends, were measured for the CT number of total liver. Three pieces of liver specimen from each rats were removed from left, central and right lobes for histologic examination. The ratio of liver fat content to liver volume (Vv value) was measured by microscopic image pattern analyzer. Results: Significant linear negative correlation (r = -0.950, t = 12.90, P<0.001) was found between CT and Vv values. Conclusion: Using CT monitoring, the degree and amount of liver fat could be assessed and liver biopsy obviated in the diagnosis and follow up during treatment of fatty liver

  9. Non-operative management of isolated liver trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Yu, Wen-Kui; Wang, Xin-Bo; Ji, Wu; Li, Jie-Shou; Li, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Liver trauma is the most common abdominal emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Now, non-operative management (NOM) is a selective method for liver trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate, mortality and morbidity of NOM for isolated liver trauma. Medical records of 81 patients with isolated liver trauma in our unit were analyzed retrospectively. The success rate, mortality and morbidity of NOM were evaluated. In this series, 9 patients with grade IV-V liver injuries underwent emergent operation due to hemodynamic instability; 72 patients, 6 with grade V, 18 grade IV, 29 grade III, 15 grade II and 4 grade I, with hemodynamic stability received NOM. The overall success rate of NOM was 97.2% (70/72). The success rates of NOM in the patients with grade I-III, IV and V liver trauma were 100%, 94.4% and 83.3%. The complication rates were 10.0% and 45.5% in the patients who underwent NOM and surgical treatment, respectively. No patient with grade I-II liver trauma had complications. All patients who underwent NOM survived. NOM is the first option for the treatment of liver trauma if the patient is hemodynamically stable. The grade of liver injury and the volume of hemoperitoneum are not suitable criteria for selecting NOM. Hepatic angioembolization associated with the correction of hypothermia, coagulopathy and acidosis is important in the conservative treatment for liver trauma.

  10. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  11. Using higher doses to compensate for tubing residuals in extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy J; Bhowmick, Tanaya; Gross, Alan; Vanschooneveld, Trevor C; Weinstein, Melvin P

    2013-06-01

    To mathematically assess drug losses due to infusion line residuals and evaluate methods to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in intravenous pump tubing. Literature was accessed through Ovid MEDLINE (1996-February 2013), using combinations of the search terms tubing residuals, residual volume, residual medication, intravenous infusions, intravenous injections, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, β-lactams, equipment design, infusion pumps, extended infusion, extended administration, and prolonged infusion. In addition, select reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles that involved extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam implementation strategies were included in the review. Infusion pump characteristics and tubing residuals can affect extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam dosing strategies. Two studies addressing tubing residuals were identified. Both studies recommended increasing infusion volumes to compensate for tubing residuals. One study also recommended decreasing infusion-line dead space by using alternative infusion pump systems. Study calculations suggest that higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be used to account for medication left in tubing residuals if alternative infusion pump systems cannot be obtained, and increased infusion volumes are not an option. Extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam has been used as a method of maximizing pharmacodynamic target attainment. Use of higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be a reasonable method to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in large-bore intravenous pump tubing.

  12. Niclosamide residues in milk and organs of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hindi, A.M.; Sidra, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    14 C-Niclosamide was administered to two groups of lactating goats at levels of 2ppm for five consecutive days and 10ppm as a single dose. Residues of the molluscicide in milk, if at all present, did not exceed 0.001 ppm at any time. About 50% of the administered activity was excreted in faeces, while 30% excreted through urine in animals surviving 6 days after withdrawal. The unchanged molluscicide is present only in relatively trace amounts. The highest residues in organs were found in the liver of both groups (0.01-0.04 ppm). From the results it could be concluded that absorbed niclosamide is completely metabolised and rapidly eliminated through urine, leaving little or no residues of the unchanged molluscicide. Little or no residues were detected in lean muscles and milk which are consumed by humans. There is no preferential deposition of the molluscicide or its metabolites in fat

  13. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver: ferumoxide-enhanced MR imaging as a tiebreaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroki; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Osada, Shinji; Goshima, Satoshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2004-09-01

    We examined a 70-year-old male patient with an inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver mimicking a peripheral-type cholangiocellular carcinoma. Ferumoxide-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed residual Kupffer cell function in liver parenchyma in and surrounding the inflammatory pseudotumor involvement, which suggested the diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver. We correlate the MR imaging and pathologic findings in this report. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effect of the Human Amniotic Membrane on Liver Regeneration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Operations are performed for broader liver surgery indications for a better understanding of hepatic anatomy/physiology and developments in operation technology. Surgery can cure some patients with liver metastasis of some tumors. Nevertheless, postoperative liver failure is the most feared complication causing mortality in patients who have undergone excision of a large liver mass. The human amniotic membrane has regenerative effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of the human amniotic membrane on regeneration of the resected liver. Methods. Twenty female Wistar albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups and underwent a 70% hepatectomy. The human amniotic membrane was placed over the residual liver in the experimental group. Relative liver weight, histopathological features, and biochemical parameters were assessed on postoperative day 3. Results. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. No difference in relative liver weight was observed between the groups. Hepatocyte mitotic count was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Hepatic steatosis was detected in the experimental group. Conclusion. Applying the amniotic membrane to residual liver adversely affected liver regeneration. However, mesenchymal stem cell research has the potential to accelerate liver regeneration investigations.

  15. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    exposure to an organochlorine pesticide, the concentrations of residues in the different tissues are ordinarily directly correlated with each other. When the dosage is at lethal levels, or when stored residues are mobilised to lethal levels, the balanced relationship is disrupted. The concentrations of residues in the brain provide the most rigorous criteria for diagnosis of death due to these chemicals, and levels are generally similar across a wide range of species of birds and mammals. Residues in liver are closely correlated with recent dose, either from direct intake or from mobilisation from storage, and so reflect hazardous exposure. Residues in the whole carcass show the storage reserve, and so indicate the potential for adverse effects from lethal mobilisation or from the continuous slow mobilisation that occurs during the normal processes of metabolism and excretion. A synchronous, rapid, and widespread decline in weight and thickness of shells of eggs laid by many species of wild birds occurred in the late 1940's and has persisted. Birds of prey were primarily affected; exceptions apparently are the result of lesser exposure because of different food habits. Many species of fish-eating birds are also affected. Others, however, appear to be more resistant and to accumulate much higher residues before shell-thinning occurs. Seed-eating birds do not appear to have been generally affected; their exposure is ordinarily lower, but physiological factors also seem to be involved. A relationship between shell-thinning and population decline has been established for many species. In exceptional cases, such as the herring gull, persistent re-nesting and other population reactions have overcome adverse effects at the population level. The discovery of shell-thinning among natural populations, and the hypothesis that this thinning was related to the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides, stimulated experimental studies to determine wheth

  16. Correlation between liver morphology and portal pressure in alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Gluud, C; Henriksen, J H

    1984-01-01

    destruction and both wedged hepatic vein pressure (r = 0.72, p less than 0.01) and wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = 0.67, p less than 0.02). Degree of fatty change, fibrosis, inflammation, necrosis and occurrence of Mallory bodies showed no correlation with portal pressure. After morphometrical...... evaluation of liver biopsies, no significant correlation was found between mean hepatocyte volume or relative sinusoidal vascular volume and portal pressure. To test whether an increase in hepatocyte volume compresses the vascular structures and causes portal hypertension, the ratio of relative sinusoidal...... vascular volume to mean hepatocyte volume, which expresses the compression of the vascular structures exerted by enlargement of hepatocytes, was related to portal pressure. No significant correlation was found. Further, mean hepatocyte volume was not significantly correlated to relative sinusoidal vascular...

  17. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  18. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  19. [Liver and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watelet, J

    2008-11-01

    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  20. Robotic liver surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  2. Quantitative radiology: automated CT liver volumetry compared with interactive volumetry and manual volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Garg, Shailesh; Hori, Masatoshi; Oto, Aytekin; Baron, Richard L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate automated CT volumetry in the assessment of living-donor livers for transplant and to compare this technique with software-aided interactive volumetry and manual volumetry. Hepatic CT scans of 18 consecutively registered prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol. Automated liver volumetry was developed on the basis of 3D active-contour segmentation. To establish reference standard liver volumes, a radiologist manually traced the contour of the liver on each CT slice. We compared the results obtained with automated and interactive volumetry with those obtained with the reference standard for this study, manual volumetry. The average interactive liver volume was 1553 ± 343 cm(3), and the average automated liver volume was 1520 ± 378 cm(3). The average manual volume was 1486 ± 343 cm(3). Both interactive and automated volumetric results had excellent agreement with manual volumetric results (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.96 and 0.94). The average user time for automated volumetry was 0.57 ± 0.06 min/case, whereas those for interactive and manual volumetry were 27.3 ± 4.6 and 39.4 ± 5.5 min/case, the difference being statistically significant (p volumetry are accurate for measuring liver volume with CT, but automated volumetry is substantially more efficient.

  3. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  4. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Elhiblu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs. Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG, and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group. Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for

  5. Haemodynamic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma and liver parenchyma under balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Fumie; Murata, Satoru; Ueda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hidenori; Miki, Izumi; Kumita, Shin-ichiro [Nippon Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Advanced Medical Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamoto, Chiaki [Nippon Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, Eiji [Nippon Medical School, Department of Surgery, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate haemodynamic changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver under hepatic artery occlusion. Thirty-eight HCC nodules in 25 patients were included. Computed tomography (CT) during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) with and without balloon occlusion of the hepatic artery was performed. CT attenuation and enhancement volume of HCC and liver with and without balloon occlusion were measured on CTHA. Influence of balloon position (segmental or subsegmental branch) was evaluated based on differences in HCC-to-liver attenuation ratio (H/L ratio) and enhancement volume of HCC and liver. In the segmental group (n = 20), H/L ratio and enhancement volume of HCC and liver were significantly lower with balloon occlusion than without balloon occlusion. However, in the subsegmental group (n = 18), H/L ratio was significantly higher and liver enhancement volume was significantly lower with balloon occlusion; HCC enhancement volume was similar with and without balloon occlusion. Rate of change in H/L ratio and enhancement volume of HCC and liver were lower in the segmental group than in the subsegmental group. There were significantly more perfusion defects in HCC in the segmental group. Hepatic artery occlusion causes haemodynamic changes in HCC and liver, especially with segmental occlusion. (orig.)

  6. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Magariños, O. E.; Alderete, C. E.; Arias, L. E.; Lucca, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate) as a partial substitute of arids (sand) in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand...

  7. Validating New Software for Semiautomated Liver Volumetry--Better than Manual Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noschinski, L E; Maiwald, B; Voigt, P; Wiltberger, G; Kahn, T; Stumpp, P

    2015-09-01

    This prospective study compared a manual program for liver volumetry with semiautomated software. The hypothesis was that the semiautomated software would be faster, more accurate and less dependent on the evaluator's experience. Ten patients undergoing hemihepatectomy were included in this IRB approved study after written informed consent. All patients underwent a preoperative abdominal 3-phase CT scan, which was used for whole liver volumetry and volume prediction for the liver part to be resected. Two different types of software were used: 1) manual method: borders of the liver had to be defined per slice by the user; 2) semiautomated software: automatic identification of liver volume with manual assistance for definition of Couinaud segments. Measurements were done by six observers with different experience levels. Water displacement volumetry immediately after partial liver resection served as the gold standard. The resected part was examined with a CT scan after displacement volumetry. Volumetry of the resected liver scan showed excellent correlation to water displacement volumetry (manual: ρ = 0.997; semiautomated software: ρ = 0.995). The difference between the predicted volume and the real volume was significantly smaller with the semiautomated software than with the manual method (33% vs. 57%, p = 0.002). The semiautomated software was almost four times faster for volumetry of the whole liver (manual: 6:59 ± 3:04 min; semiautomated: 1:47 ± 1:11 min). Both methods for liver volumetry give an estimated liver volume close to the real one. The tested semiautomated software is faster, more accurate in predicting the volume of the resected liver part, gives more reproducible results and is less dependent on the user's experience. Both tested types of software allow exact volumetry of resected liver parts. Preoperative prediction can be performed more accurately with the semiautomated software. The semiautomated software is nearly four times faster than the

  8. [Effect of hepatic resection on development of liver metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, I; Palomares, T; Alonso, A; Portugal, V; Castro, B; Caramés, J; Méndez, J

    2003-11-01

    In the early stages of metastasis, development of the disease is dependent on growth factors produced by the host. There are clinical situations associated with an increase in these factors, such as partial resection of metastasized liver. Given the important role of hepatotrophic factors in liver regeneration, we have studied the effect of partial hepatectomy on the development of residual micrometastases in the liver, and on the neoplastic process as a whole. We used a murine model in which a rabdomiosarcoma was established by subcutaneous inoculation of syngeneic tumor cells in male Wag rats. Subsequently, the primary tumor was resected and/or a 40% hepatectomy was performed. The effect of these two surgical procedures on the tumor process was analyzed on the 25th and 35th days post-inoculation, and the percentage of regenerating hepatocytes was assessed. Both the tumorectomy and liver resection, when not combined, produced an increase in regional adenopathies without modifying the evolution of metastasis in the liver. However, when tumor excision and partial hepatectomy were performed simultaneously, there was a net increase in the metastatic process. In addition to a rapid spread of the disease (lung, mediastinum, retroperitoneum), the number of liver metastases increased by 300%. This development coincided with a steep rise in the percentage of regenerating hepatocytes, which nearly doubled that of the group subjected only to liver resection. We conclude that liver resection, alone or combined with excision of the primary tumor, may enhance tumor progression, both locally and at the metastasic level.

  9. Eosin fluorescence: A diagnostic tool for quantification of liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamid; Ali, Safdar; Mazhar, Maryam; Ali, Amjad; Jahan, Azra; Ali, Abid

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis is one of the most common life threatening diseases. The diagnosis is mainly based on biochemical analysis such as liver function test. However, histopathological evaluation of liver serves far better for more accurate final diagnosis. The goal of our study was to evaluate the eosin fluorescence pattern in CCl 4 -induced liver injury model compared with normal and different treatment groups. For this purpose, liver tissues were stained with H/E and examined under bright field microscope but the fluorescence microscopy of H/E stained slides provided an interesting fluorescence pattern and was quite helpful in identifying different structures. Interesting fluorescence patterns were obtained with FITC, Texas Red and Dual channel filter cubes that were quite helpful in identifying different morphological features of the liver. During the course of hepatic injury, liver cells undergo necrosis, apoptosis and overall cellular microenvironment is altered due to the modification of proteins and other intracellular molecules. Intensified eosin fluorescence was observed around the central vein of injured liver compared to normal indicating enhanced binding of eosin to the more exposed amino acid residues. To conclude, eosin fluorescence pattern varies with the health status of a tissue and can be used further for the diagnosis and quantification of severity of various liver diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Target Coverage in Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderink, Wouter; Romero, Alejandra Mendez; Osorio, Eliana M. Vasquez; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Brandwijk, Rene P.; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of image-guided procedures (with computed tomography [CT] and electronic portal images before each treatment fraction) on target coverage in stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver patients using a stereotactic body frame (SBF) and abdominal compression. CT guidance was used to correct for day-to-day variations in the tumor's mean position in the SBF. Methods and Materials: By retrospectively evaluating 57 treatment sessions, tumor coverage, as obtained with the clinically applied CT-guided protocol, was compared with that of alternative procedures. The internal target volume-plus (ITV + ) was introduced to explicitly include uncertainties in tumor delineations resulting from CT-imaging artifacts caused by residual respiratory motion. Tumor coverage was defined as the volume overlap of the ITV + , derived from a tumor delineated in a treatment CT scan, and the planning target volume. Patient stability in the SBF, after acquisition of the treatment CT scan, was evaluated by measuring the displacement of the bony anatomy in the electronic portal images relative to CT. Results: Application of our clinical protocol (with setup corrections following from manual measurements of the distances between the contours of the planning target volume and the daily clinical target volume in three orthogonal planes, multiple two-dimensional) increased the frequency of nearly full (≥99%) ITV + coverage to 77% compared with 63% without setup correction. An automated three-dimensional method further improved the frequency to 96%. Patient displacements in the SBF were generally small (≤2 mm, 1 standard deviation), but large craniocaudal displacements (maximal 7.2 mm) were occasionally observed. Conclusion: Daily, CT-assisted patient setup may substantially improve tumor coverage, especially with the automated three-dimensional procedure. In the present treatment design, patient stability in the SBF should be verified with portal imaging

  11. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  12. Liver Disease and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The gallbladder is a sac attached below the liver to the common bile duct. Gallstones form when bile (the liquid stored in ... a stone may have passed down the common bile duct to the area where it joins the ... of the liver. Chronic (long term) hepatitis can be from inflammation ...

  13. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  14. Prolactin and liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.C. Bauer (Alexander)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractCirrhosis of the liver is associated with profound endocrinological disturbances. Until recently it was thought that these disturbances were caused mainly by ineffective elimination of hormones by the diseased liver. It is now known that the pathogenesis of disturbed hormonal function in

  15. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Lee, William M; Wendon, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades acute liver failure (ALF) has been transformed from a rare and poorly understood condition with a near universally fatal outcome, to one with a well characterized phenotype and disease course. Complex critical care protocols are now applied and emergency liver...

  16. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  17. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.; Kniess, C.T.; Aguiar, B.M. de; Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K.

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  18. Liver cancer oncogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches....... Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer...... development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could...

  19. Optimizing Perfusion-Decellularization Methods of Porcine Livers for Clinical-Scale Whole-Organ Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To refine the decellularization protocol of whole porcine liver, which holds great promise for liver tissue engineering. Methods. Three decellularization methods for porcine livers (1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 1% Triton X-100 + 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 1% sodium deoxycholate + 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate were studied. The obtained liver scaffolds were processed for histology, residual cellular content analysis, and extracellular matrix (ECM components evaluation to investigate decellularization efficiency and ECM preservation. Rat primary hepatocytes were seeded into three kinds of scaffold to detect the biocompatibility. Results. The whole liver decellularization was successfully achieved following all three kinds of treatment. SDS combined with Triton had a high efficacy of cellular removal and caused minimal disruption of essential ECM components; it was also the most biocompatible procedure for primary hepatocytes. Conclusion. We have refined a novel, standardized, time-efficient, and reproducible protocol for the decellularization of whole liver which can be further adapted to liver tissue engineering.

  20. Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) elevates mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) associated with reduced tumor growth of liver metastases compared to hepatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbert, Christoph; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Roggan, André; Schuppan, Detlef; Ajubi, Navid; Buhr, Heinz Johannes; Hohenberger, Werner; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation and synthesis of hepatocellular tissue after tissue damage are promoted by specific growth factors such as hepatic tissue growth factor (HGF) and connective growth factor (CTGF). Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) for the treatment of liver metastases is deemed to be a parenchyma-saving procedure compared to hepatic resection. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of LITT and hepatic resection on intrahepatic residual tumor tissue and expression levels of mRNA HGF/CTGF within liver and tumor tissue. Two independent adenocarcinomas (CC531) were implanted into 75 WAG rats, one in the right (untreated tumor) and one in the left liver lobe (treated tumor). The left lobe tumor was treated either by LITT or partial hepatectomy. The control tumor was submitted to in-situ hybridization of HGF and CTGF 24-96 hours and 14 days after intervention. Volumes of the untreated tumors prior to intervention were 38+/-8 mm(3) in group I (laser), 39 +/- 7 mm(3) in group II (resection), and 42 +/- 12 mm(3) in group III (control) and did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Fourteen days after the intervention the mean tumor+/-SEM volume of untreated tumor in group I (laser) [223 +/- 36] was smaller than in group II (resection) [1233.28 +/- 181.52; P tumor growth in comparison to hepatic resection. Accelerated tumor growth after hepatic resection is associated with higher mRNA level of HGF and reduced tumor growth after LITT with higher mRNA level of CTGF. The increased CTGF-mediated regulation of ECM may cause reduced residual tumor growth after LITT. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  2. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  3. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  4. Analysis of tissue residues and comparative metabolism of virginiamycin in rats, turkeys, and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschall, D.W.; Gombatz, C.; Wang, R.

    1987-01-01

    Liver tissue samples from turkeys, cattle, and rats given [ 14 C]virginiamycin were examined for the presence of metabolites. Extraction of the liver was performed sequentially with methanol and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. The methanol fraction was further partitioned into chloroform-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The majority of the total liver residue (56-73%) remained intractable following these treatments. The three extracts were fractionated by normal- or reversed-phase HPLC. The results indicated that virginiamycin was metabolized to a large number of fragments and that no single metabolite represented greater than 3.5% of the total liver residue. Due to sample limitations no metabolite identification was possible at this time. Fortification experiments indicated that little, if any, parent virginiamycin was present in the tissue. Additional balance-excretion studies conducted in cattle and rats demonstrated that the majority of the dose (83-94%) was eliminated in the feces

  5. HDHPLUS/SHP : heavy residue hydroconversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F. [Axens, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described an integrated refinery process that achieves nearly full conversion of heavy and refractory residues into ultra high quality and ultra low sulphur transportation fuels with a yield great than 100 volume per cent. The Axens, IFP and Intevep/PDVSA Alliance combined the HDHPLUS vacuum residue slurry technology with Sequential Hydro Processing (SHP) of primary hydrocracked products. Both technologies have undergone extensive testing at a refinery in Puerto La Cruz (RPLC), Venezuela to begin production of 50,000 BPSD in 2012. The demonstration unit at Intevep has been used to investigate production of effluent for the downstream SHP processing. This paper also reviewed the SHP bench unit operations at IFP's Lyon research center in France and disclosed the final product yields and qualities. The test results have shown the expected RPLC deep conversion commercial unit performances and fully secure its design basis. tabs., figs.

  6. Validating new software for semiautomated liver volumetry. Better than manual measurement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noschinski, L.E.; Maiwald, B.; Voigt, P.; Kahn, T.; Stumpp, P. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Wiltberger, G. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery

    2015-09-15

    This prospective study compared a manual program for liver volumetry with semiautomated software. The hypothesis was that the semiautomated software would be faster, more accurate and less dependent on the evaluator's experience. Ten patients undergoing hemihepatectomy were included in this IRB approved study after written informed consent. All patients underwent a preoperative abdominal 3-phase CT scan, which was used for whole liver volumetry and volume prediction for the liver part to be resected. Two different types of software were used: 1) manual method: borders of the liver had to be defined per slice by the user; 2) semiautomated software: automatic identification of liver volume with manual assistance for definition of Couinaud segments. Measurements were done by six observers with different experience levels. Water displacement volumetry immediately after partial liver resection served as the gold standard. The resected part was examined with a CT scan after displacement volumetry. Volumetry of the resected liver scan showed excellent correlation to water displacement volumetry (manual: ρ = 0.997; semiautomated software: ρ = 0.995). The difference between the predicted volume and the real volume was significantly smaller with the semiautomated software than with the manual method (33 % vs. 57 %, p = 0.002). The semiautomated software was almost four times faster for volumetry of the whole liver (manual: 6:59 ± 3:04min; semiautomated: 1:47 ± 1:11 min). Both methods for liver volumetry give an estimated liver volume close to the real one. The tested semiautomated software is faster, more accurate in predicting the volume of the resected liver part, gives more reproducible results and is less dependent on the user's experience.

  7. Validating new software for semiautomated liver volumetry. Better than manual measurement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noschinski, L.E.; Maiwald, B.; Voigt, P.; Kahn, T.; Stumpp, P.; Wiltberger, G.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study compared a manual program for liver volumetry with semiautomated software. The hypothesis was that the semiautomated software would be faster, more accurate and less dependent on the evaluator's experience. Ten patients undergoing hemihepatectomy were included in this IRB approved study after written informed consent. All patients underwent a preoperative abdominal 3-phase CT scan, which was used for whole liver volumetry and volume prediction for the liver part to be resected. Two different types of software were used: 1) manual method: borders of the liver had to be defined per slice by the user; 2) semiautomated software: automatic identification of liver volume with manual assistance for definition of Couinaud segments. Measurements were done by six observers with different experience levels. Water displacement volumetry immediately after partial liver resection served as the gold standard. The resected part was examined with a CT scan after displacement volumetry. Volumetry of the resected liver scan showed excellent correlation to water displacement volumetry (manual: ρ = 0.997; semiautomated software: ρ = 0.995). The difference between the predicted volume and the real volume was significantly smaller with the semiautomated software than with the manual method (33 % vs. 57 %, p = 0.002). The semiautomated software was almost four times faster for volumetry of the whole liver (manual: 6:59 ± 3:04min; semiautomated: 1:47 ± 1:11 min). Both methods for liver volumetry give an estimated liver volume close to the real one. The tested semiautomated software is faster, more accurate in predicting the volume of the resected liver part, gives more reproducible results and is less dependent on the user's experience.

  8. Palliative radiotherapy for liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, M.J.; Gademann, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1993-01-01

    The role of palliative irradiation was analysed in 55 patients with liver metastases from colorectal, breast and lung cancer, treated with irradiation doses more than 10 Gy. In 47 patients irradiation alone was done. In 29 patients the disease involved not only the liver, but was disseminated. A mean dose of 23.8 Gy was delivered, with daily fractions of 1.5, 1.8 or 2 Gy. Complete and near complete pain relief was obtained in six and nine patients. Normalized and near normalized values of bilirubin serum levels were obtained in five and seven patients. Relief of pain as well as normalisation of cholestasis were significantly correlated with the irradiation doses applied. Median survival was 36.5 days for patients with lung cancer, 70.5 and 73 days for patients with breast and colorectal cancer. Irradiation doses given and the status of disease were significantly correlated to prognosis. In the majority of our patients with clinical symptoms, i.e. pain or cholestase, irradiation alone was sufficient for palliation of these symptoms. Prognosis is limited because of the disseminated state of disease in 62% of the patients. In a group of patients, suffering from colorectal cancer with good prognostic criteria, the simultaneous application of radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy was able to increase significantly the survival with minor toxicity. The use of a three-dimensional treatment planning could optimize the radiotherapy, due to the dose-volume histogram analysis. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Anemia of Chronic Liver Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Chung; Lee, Jhung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The pathogenetic mechanisms of anemia in patients with chronic liver disease were observed. Seventeen patients with moderate to advanced hepatic diseases were studied by various methods. Only patients without previous blood loss were included : 14 had cirrhosis, 2 had active chronic hepatitis, and one had inferior vena cava obstruction with associated liver cirrhosis. The followings were the results: 1. The anemia based on red blood cell count, Hb., and Ht. was found in 76.5-78.6% of the patients. 2. Red cell indices indicated that normo-macrocytic and normochromic anemia was present is the majority of the patients. 3. No evidence of megaloblastic anemia was found on the basis of the morphological examinations. 4. Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation and iron content in the bone marrow indicated that iron deficiency anemia was present in about half of the patients. 5. In the view of the erythrocyte dynamics, primary increase in the red cell destruction was ascribed to the cause of the anemia. 6. Decrease in the red cell survival time was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and S.L. ratio. Also, hemoglobin level was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and T{sub 50} Cr. Therefore, multiple causes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia. 7. Anemia as determined by the red cell volume was found in only 60% of the patients. It may be possible that hemodilutional anemia is present.

  10. Anemia of Chronic Liver Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Chung; Lee, Jhung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1971-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms of anemia in patients with chronic liver disease were observed. Seventeen patients with moderate to advanced hepatic diseases were studied by various methods. Only patients without previous blood loss were included : 14 had cirrhosis, 2 had active chronic hepatitis, and one had inferior vena cava obstruction with associated liver cirrhosis. The followings were the results: 1. The anemia based on red blood cell count, Hb., and Ht. was found in 76.5-78.6% of the patients. 2. Red cell indices indicated that normo-macrocytic and normochromic anemia was present is the majority of the patients. 3. No evidence of megaloblastic anemia was found on the basis of the morphological examinations. 4. Serum iron, TIBC, % saturation and iron content in the bone marrow indicated that iron deficiency anemia was present in about half of the patients. 5. In the view of the erythrocyte dynamics, primary increase in the red cell destruction was ascribed to the cause of the anemia. 6. Decrease in the red cell survival time was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and S.L. ratio. Also, hemoglobin level was not correlated with MCV, % saturation and T 50 Cr. Therefore, multiple causes may be involved in the pathogenesis of the anemia. 7. Anemia as determined by the red cell volume was found in only 60% of the patients. It may be possible that hemodilutional anemia is present.

  11. Cytokines and Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Tilg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are pleiotropic peptides produced by virtually every nucleated cell in the body. In most tissues, including the liver, constitutive production of cytokines is absent or minimal. There is increasing evidence that several cytokines mediate hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells, cholestasis and fibrosis. Interestingly, the same mediators also mediate the regeneration of liver tissue after injury. Among the various cytokines, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a has emerged as a key factor in various aspects of liver disease, such as cachexia and/or cholestasis. Thus, antagonism of TNF-a and other injury-related cytokines in liver diseases merits evaluation as a treatment of these diseases. However, because the same cytokines are also necessary for the regeneration of the tissue after the liver has been injured, inhibition of these mediators might impair hepatic recovery. The near future will bring the exiting clinical challenge of testing new anticytokine strategies in various liver diseases.

  12. CT perfusion of the liver during selective hepatic arteriography. Pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Shuji; Sawada, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma by using CT perfusion during selective hepatic arteriography. A total of 44 patients underwent liver CT perfusion study by injection of contrast medium via the hepatic artery. CT-perfusion parameters including arterial blood flow, arterial blood volume, and arterial mean transit time in the liver parenchyma and liver tumor were calculated using the deconvolution method. The CT-perfusion parameters and vascularity of the tumor were compared. A complete analysis could be performed in 36 of the 44 patients. For liver tumor and liver parenchyma, respectively, arterial blood flow was 184.6±132.7 and 41.0±27.0 ml/min/100 g, arterial blood volume was 19.4±14.6 and 4.8±4.2 ml/100 g, and arterial mean transit time was 8.9±4.2 and 10.2±5.3 sec. Arterial blood flow and arterial blood volume correlated significantly with the vascularity of the tumor; however no correlation was detected between arterial mean transit time and the vascularity of the tumor. This technique could be used to quantify pure hepatic arterial blood perfusion. (author)

  13. Elastin in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kanta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of liver cirrhosis is the accumulation of large amounts of connective tissue with the prevailing content of type I collagen. Elastin is a minor connective tissue component in normal liver but it is actively synthesized by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts in diseased liver. The accumulation of elastic fibers in later stages of liver fibrosis may contribute to the decreasing reversibility of the disease with advancing time. Elastin is formed by polymerization of tropoelastin monomers. It is an amorphous protein highly resistant to the action of proteases that forms the core of elastic fibers. Microfibrils surrounding the core are composed of fibrillins that bind a number of proteins involved in fiber formation. They include microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs, microfibrillar-associated proteins (MFAPs and fibulins. Lysyl oxidase (LOX and lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs are responsible for tropoelastin cross-linking and polymerization. TGF-β complexes attached to microfibrils release this cytokine and influence the behavior of the cells in the neighborhood. The role of TGF-β as the main profibrotic cytokine in the liver is well-known and the release of the cytokines of TGF-β superfamily from their storage in elastic fibers may affect the course of fibrosis. Elastic fibres are often studied in the tissues where they provide elasticity and resilience but their role is no longer viewed as purely mechanical. Tropoelastin, elastin polymer and elastin peptides resulting from partial elastin degradation influence fibroblastic and inflammatory cells as well as angiogenesis. A similar role may be performed by elastin in the liver. This article reviews the results of the research of liver elastic fibers on the backgound of the present knowledge of elastin biochemistry and physiology. The regulation of liver elastin synthesis and degradation may be important for the outcome of liver fibrosis.

  14. Risk factors of radiation-induced liver disease after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shixiong; Zhu Xiaodong; Lu Haijie; Pan Chaoyang; Huang Qifang; Li Fuxiang; Wang Anyu; Liang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the risk factors of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) after three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) and the dosimetric threshold of RILD. Methods: Between April 1999 and August 2003, 128 PLC patients who were treated with 3DCRT received a mean dose of 53.6 ± 6.6 Gy with a 4-8 Gy/f, 3f/w, qod regimen. The relation between RILD and the possible clinical factors, such as gender, age, UICC/ AJCC T stage, GTV, HBV status, PTV, TACE, Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis, BED calculated by LQ model and fraction size were analyzed. Among 84 patients who had full dose- volume histogram (DVH) data, the relation between RILD and dosimetric parameters were analyzed. Results: Nineteen patients (14.8%) developed RILD. It was found that T stage, GTV, PTV, Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis and the acute hepatic toxicity proposed by common toxicity criteria version 2.0 (CTC2.0) were correlated with RILD (P=0.024, 0.002, 0.001, 0.000, 0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that only the Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis was independent factor (P=0.000). The mean liver dose was significantly higher in patients with RILD (P=0.027). In patients with Child-Pugh grade A, V5 (percentage of normal liver volume with radiation dose > 5 Gy), V 10 and V 20 ≤81%, 69% and 42%, mean liver dose ≤28 Gy, RILD was not observed, whereas in patients with Child-Pugh grade B, the possibility of developing RILD was 53.3%(8/15). Conclusions: Comprehensive consideration of T stage, GTV, PTV and Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis, especially the Child-Pugh grade of liver cirrhosis, when planning 3DCRT for PLC, may lower the incidence of RILD. (authors)

  15. A wandering liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Brandon W.; Figarola, Maria S.; Standley, Todd B.

    2010-01-01

    A wandering liver has been described throughout modern medical literature as a rare entity. During the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been reported associated with colonic volvulus. We report a 17-year-old with a hypermobile liver seen on multiple radiographs and CT. The intraoperative findings demonstrated the liver in its normal anatomic position. We suggest that this entity is more common than thought, and the rise in incidence is likely secondary to increased utilization of pre-operative imaging of patients with colonic obstruction. Increased suspicion might result in further increased incidence of this exceedingly rare entity. (orig.)

  16. A wandering liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Brandon W.; Figarola, Maria S.; Standley, Todd B. [University of South Alabama, Department of Radiology, Mobile, AL (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A wandering liver has been described throughout modern medical literature as a rare entity. During the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been reported associated with colonic volvulus. We report a 17-year-old with a hypermobile liver seen on multiple radiographs and CT. The intraoperative findings demonstrated the liver in its normal anatomic position. We suggest that this entity is more common than thought, and the rise in incidence is likely secondary to increased utilization of pre-operative imaging of patients with colonic obstruction. Increased suspicion might result in further increased incidence of this exceedingly rare entity. (orig.)

  17. Quantitative magnetic resonance methods for in vivo investigation of the human liver and spleen. Technical aspects and preliminary clinical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C

    1996-01-01

    and a group of patients with benign hyperplasia and patients with splenomegaly secondary to portal hypertension. Volume-selective proton spectroscopy was developed and used to quantify the liver fat concentration. The accuracy of the method was about 3 g/100 g. With the implementation of a second generation...... contribute to the diagnosis of non-focal liver diseases by estimation of liver fat and liver iron and by assessment of portal vein blood flow. Increased T1 relaxation time is a sign of a disease process in the liver rather than specific for any liver disease...

  18. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  19. 25 Ways to Love Your Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  20. Chlortetracycline and Oxytetracycline Residues in Poultry Tissues and Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, W. E.; Weiser, H. H.; Winter, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    A pad-plate method of assaying residual amounts of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using Bacillus cereus 213 was used to determine amounts of antibiotic left in tissues and eggs of poultry fed 1,000 and 200 ppm of CTC and OTC in basal feed mixtures. The effects of various methods of cooking the tissues and eggs and the potentiating effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) were studied. It was found that normal methods of roasting, frying, and autoclaving poultry tissue destroyed all residual CTC and OTC, even with the potentiating effect of TPA. The largest amounts of residual antibiotic were found in the liver, then breast, and then thigh tissue when assayed for CTC. Tissue assays for CTC revealed that it was not taken up as extensively as CTC and the largest amounts were found in the liver, then breast. OTC residue was seldom found in the thigh tissue. Terephthalic acid in 0.5% concentration increased the concentration found in all cases. Cooking by poaching and scrambling eggs did not destroy the antibiotic in all cases. PMID:14264853

  1. Comparative assessment of liver tumor motion using cine-magnetic resonance imaging versus 4-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Annemarie T; Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Yin, Lingshu; Zou, Wei; Rosen, Mark; Plastaras, John P; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Metz, James M; Teo, Boon-Keng

    2015-04-01

    To compare the extent of tumor motion between 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and cine-MRI in patients with hepatic tumors treated with radiation therapy. Patients with liver tumors who underwent 4DCT and 2-dimensional biplanar cine-MRI scans during simulation were retrospectively reviewed to determine the extent of target motion in the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and lateral directions. Cine-MRI was performed over 5 minutes. Tumor motion from MRI was determined by tracking the centroid of the gross tumor volume using deformable image registration. Motion estimates from 4DCT were performed by evaluation of the fiducial, residual contrast (or liver contour) positions in each CT phase. Sixteen patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n=11), cholangiocarcinoma (n=3), and liver metastasis (n=2) were reviewed. Cine-MRI motion was larger than 4DCT for the superior-inferior direction in 50% of patients by a median of 3.0 mm (range, 1.5-7 mm), the anterior-posterior direction in 44% of patients by a median of 2.5 mm (range, 1-5.5 mm), and laterally in 63% of patients by a median of 1.1 mm (range, 0.2-4.5 mm). Cine-MRI frequently detects larger differences in hepatic intrafraction tumor motion when compared with 4DCT most notably in the superior-inferior direction, and may be useful when assessing the need for or treating without respiratory management, particularly in patients with unreliable 4DCT imaging. Margins wider than the internal target volume as defined by 4DCT were required to encompass nearly all the motion detected by cine-MRI for some of the patients in this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  3. Liver remnant regeneration in donors after living donor liver transplantation. Long-term follow-up using CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klink, T. [INSELSPITAL - Bern University Hospital (Switzerland). Diagnostic, Interventional, and Pediatric Radiology; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Simon, P. [Merciful Brethren Hospital, Trier (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Neuroradiology, Sonography and Nuclearmedicine; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Knopp, C.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Koops, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Fischer, L. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Transplant Surgery

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess liver remnant volume regeneration and maintenance, and complications in the long-time follow-up of donors after living donor liver transplantation using CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: 47 donors with a mean age of 33.5 years who donated liver tissue for transplantation and who were available for follow-up imaging were included in this retrospective study. Contrast-enhanced CT and MR studies were acquired for routine follow-up. Two observers evaluated pre- and postoperative images regarding anatomy and pathological findings. Volumes were manually measured on contrast-enhanced images in the portal venous phase, and potential postoperative complications were documented. Pre- and postoperative liver volumes were compared for evaluating liver remnant regeneration. Results: 47 preoperative and 89 follow-up studies covered a period of 22.4 months (range: 1 - 84). After right liver lobe (RLL) donation, the mean liver remnant volume was 522.0 ml (± 144.0; 36.1%; n = 18), after left lateral section (LLS) donation 1,121.7 ml (± 212.8; 79.9%; n = 24), and after left liver lobe (LLL) donation 1,181.5 ml (± 279.5; 72.0%; n = 5). Twelve months after donation, the liver remnant volume were 87.3% (RLL; ± 11.8; n = 11), 95.0% (LS; ± 11.6; n = 18), and 80.1% (LLL; ± 2.0; n = 2 LLL) of the preoperative total liver volume. Rapid initial regeneration and maintenance at 80% of the preoperative liver volume were observed over the total follow-up period. Minor postoperative complications were found early in 4 patients. No severe or late complications or mortality occurred. Conclusion: Rapid regeneration of liver remnant volumes in all donors and volume maintenance over the long-term follow-up period of up to 84 months without severe or late complications are important observations for assessing the safety of LDLT donors. (orig.)

  4. Liver remnant regeneration in donors after living donor liver transplantation. Long-term follow-up using CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, T.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Simon, P.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Knopp, C.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Koops, A.; Fischer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess liver remnant volume regeneration and maintenance, and complications in the long-time follow-up of donors after living donor liver transplantation using CT and MRI. Materials and Methods: 47 donors with a mean age of 33.5 years who donated liver tissue for transplantation and who were available for follow-up imaging were included in this retrospective study. Contrast-enhanced CT and MR studies were acquired for routine follow-up. Two observers evaluated pre- and postoperative images regarding anatomy and pathological findings. Volumes were manually measured on contrast-enhanced images in the portal venous phase, and potential postoperative complications were documented. Pre- and postoperative liver volumes were compared for evaluating liver remnant regeneration. Results: 47 preoperative and 89 follow-up studies covered a period of 22.4 months (range: 1 - 84). After right liver lobe (RLL) donation, the mean liver remnant volume was 522.0 ml (± 144.0; 36.1%; n = 18), after left lateral section (LLS) donation 1,121.7 ml (± 212.8; 79.9%; n = 24), and after left liver lobe (LLL) donation 1,181.5 ml (± 279.5; 72.0%; n = 5). Twelve months after donation, the liver remnant volume were 87.3% (RLL; ± 11.8; n = 11), 95.0% (LS; ± 11.6; n = 18), and 80.1% (LLL; ± 2.0; n = 2 LLL) of the preoperative total liver volume. Rapid initial regeneration and maintenance at 80% of the preoperative liver volume were observed over the total follow-up period. Minor postoperative complications were found early in 4 patients. No severe or late complications or mortality occurred. Conclusion: Rapid regeneration of liver remnant volumes in all donors and volume maintenance over the long-term follow-up period of up to 84 months without severe or late complications are important observations for assessing the safety of LDLT donors. (orig.)

  5. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  6. Extraction of liver volumetry based on blood vessel from the portal phase CT dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-02-01

    At liver surgery planning stage, the liver volumetry would be essential for surgeons. Main problem at liver extraction is the wide variability of livers in shapes and sizes. Since, hepatic blood vessels structure varies from a person to another and covers liver region, the present method uses that information for extraction of liver in two stages. The first stage is to extract abdominal blood vessels in the form of hepatic and nonhepatic blood vessels. At the second stage, extracted vessels are used to control extraction of liver region automatically. Contrast enhanced CT datasets at only the portal phase of 50 cases is used. Those data include 30 abnormal livers. A reference for all cases is done through a comparison of two experts labeling results and correction of their inter-reader variability. Results of the proposed method agree with the reference at an average rate of 97.8%. Through application of different metrics mentioned at MICCAI workshop for liver segmentation, it is found that: volume overlap error is 4.4%, volume difference is 0.3%, average symmetric distance is 0.7 mm, Root mean square symmetric distance is 0.8 mm, and maximum distance is 15.8 mm. These results represent the average of overall data and show an improved accuracy compared to current liver segmentation methods. It seems to be a promising method for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes and sizes.

  7. Factors influencing liver PCB concentrations in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and herons (Ardea cinerea) in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienburg, Claire L.; Shore, Richard F

    2004-11-01

    Large scale temporal and spatial changes in the exposure of terrestrial vertebrates to PCBs have been monitored in the UK by measuring liver residues in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) from throughout the country. Residues in the three species are typically characterised by large intra- and inter-specific variation. Data for 306 sparrowhawks, 186 kestrels and 47 herons collected between 1992 and 1997 as part of a national Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme were examined to determine how much of this variation was explained by body condition, age and sex, rather than other factors. In all three species, body condition was the single most important factor and accounted for up to 49% of the variation in PCB liver residues; starved birds had the highest liver concentrations. Age and sex were also significant but of lesser importance. Adult sparrowhawks and kestrels had liver PCB residues that were 2 to 10-fold higher than in first-year birds. Sex did not affect residue magnitude in a consistent manner. PCB concentrations in the liver were higher in males than females in both first-year and adult kestrels and in first-year sparrowhawks, but adult female sparrowhawks had similar PCB residues to adult males. Liver residues also varied seasonally. PCB concentrations in first-year sparrowhawks increased during the first year following fledging and a similar pattern was detected in adult female sparrowhawks following egg laying. When these physiological factors were taken into account, it was evident that while kestrels with high fat scores had significantly lower PCB concentrations than either sparrowhawks or herons, liver residues were similar in all three species when birds were in a starved condition. Overall during 1992-1997, the combined influence of body condition, age and sex explained more of the variation in liver PCB concentrations than species differences or other factors, such as geographical variation

  8. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now The Progression of Liver ...

  9. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  10. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause acute liver failure. It is an industrial chemical found in refrigerants and solvents for waxes, varnishes ... measures when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals. Follow product instructions carefully. Watch what gets on ...

  11. Liver Aspiration Cytology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-02

    Nov 2, 1974 ... S.A. MEDICAL. JOURNAL .... be the result of either an anatomical obstruction in the biliary system or of ... contour of these droplets indicates their canalicular origin. ..... terminology for cytological changes in the liver has not.

  12. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  13. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If cirrhosis is not treated, the liver will fail and will not be able to work well ... Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give ...

  14. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  15. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  16. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. METHODS: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including 'liver cirrhosis', 'end-stage liver disease', 'liver diseases', 'oral...

  17. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  18. Mice with humanized liver endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Filali, E.

    2014-01-01

    The only curative treatment option for a large proportion of patients suffering from a liver disorder is liver transplantation. The use of ex vivo genetically modified autologous liver cells instead of whole liver transplantation could overcome the problem of donor scarcity. Even though clinical

  19. Pitfalls in liver imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Saida, Yukihisa [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Localized, abnormal attenuation/intensity areas on unenhanced and/or enhanced study of CT/MR imaging do not necessarily correspond to tumors themselves or real tumor size. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of liver tumor are described dividing into enhanced study (vascular variants, vascular abnormalities, hyperplastic nodules, around the tumor, and miscellaneous) and unenhanced study (fatty change, focal spared area of diffuse fatty liver, and miscellaneous). (orig.)

  20. Pitfalls in liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Saida, Yukihisa

    2002-01-01

    Localized, abnormal attenuation/intensity areas on unenhanced and/or enhanced study of CT/MR imaging do not necessarily correspond to tumors themselves or real tumor size. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of liver tumor are described dividing into enhanced study (vascular variants, vascular abnormalities, hyperplastic nodules, around the tumor, and miscellaneous) and unenhanced study (fatty change, focal spared area of diffuse fatty liver, and miscellaneous). (orig.)

  1. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  2. Establishment of animal model of dual liver transplantation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The animal model of the whole-size and reduced-size liver transplantation in both rat and mouse has been successfully established. Because of the difficulties and complexities in microsurgical technology, the animal model of dual liver transplantation was still not established for twelve years since the first human dual liver transplantation has been made a success. There is an essential need to establish this animal model to lay a basic foundation for clinical practice. To study the physiological and histopathological changes of dual liver transplantation, "Y" type vein from the cross part between vena cava and two iliac of donor and "Y' type prosthesis were employed to recanalize portal vein and the bile duct between dual liver grafts and recipient. The dual right upper lobes about 45-50% of the recipient liver volume were taken as donor, one was orthotopically implanted at its original position, the other was rotated 180° sagitally and heterotopically positioned in the left upper quadrant. Microcirculation parameters, liver function, immunohistochemistry and survival were analyzed to evaluate the function of dual liver grafts. No significant difference in the hepatic microcirculatory flow was found between two grafts in the first 90 minutes after reperfusion. Light and electronic microscope showed the liver architecture was maintained without obvious features of cellular destruction and the continuity of the endothelium was preserved. Only 3 heterotopically positioned graft appeared patchy desquamation of endothelial cell, mitochondrial swelling and hepatocytes cytoplasmic vacuolization. Immunohistochemistry revealed there is no difference in hepatocyte activity and the ability of endothelia to contract and relax after reperfusion between dual grafts. Dual grafts made a rapid amelioration of liver function after reperfusion. 7 rats survived more than 7 days with survival rate of 58.3.%. Using "Y" type vein and bile duct prosthesis, we

  3. A method for dynamic subtraction MR imaging of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setti Ernesto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtraction of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced 3D Magnetic Resonance (DCE-MR volumes can result in images that depict and accurately characterize a variety of liver lesions. However, the diagnostic utility of subtraction images depends on the extent of co-registration between non-enhanced and enhanced volumes. Movement of liver structures during acquisition must be corrected prior to subtraction. Currently available methods are computer intensive. We report a new method for the dynamic subtraction of MR liver images that does not require excessive computer time. Methods Nineteen consecutive patients (median age 45 years; range 37–67 were evaluated by VIBE T1-weighted sequences (TR 5.2 ms, TE 2.6 ms, flip angle 20°, slice thickness 1.5 mm acquired before and 45s after contrast injection. Acquisition parameters were optimized for best portal system enhancement. Pre and post-contrast liver volumes were realigned using our 3D registration method which combines: (a rigid 3D translation using maximization of normalized mutual information (NMI, and (b fast 2D non-rigid registration which employs a complex discrete wavelet transform algorithm to maximize pixel phase correlation and perform multiresolution analysis. Registration performance was assessed quantitatively by NMI. Results The new registration procedure was able to realign liver structures in all 19 patients. NMI increased by about 8% after rigid registration (native vs. rigid registration 0.073 ± 0.031 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, n.s., paired t-test and by a further 23% (0.096 ± 0.035 vs. 0.078 ± 0.031, p t-test after non-rigid realignment. The overall average NMI increase was 31%. Conclusion This new method for realigning dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR volumes of liver leads to subtraction images that enhance diagnostic possibilities for liver lesions.

  4. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI; Multivariable Analyse klinischer Einflussfaktoren auf die Signalintensitaet bei Gd-EOB-DTPA 3T-MRT der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Zeman, F. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Center for Clinical Trials; Teufel, A. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Lang, S. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  5. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  7. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  8. Predicting logging residues: an interim equation for Appalachian oak sawtimber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1975-01-01

    An equation, using dbh, dbh², bole length, and sawlog height to predict the cubic-foot volume of logging residue per tree, was developed from data collected on 36 mixed oaks in southwestern Virginia. The equation produced reliable results for small sawtimber trees, but additional research is needed for other species, sites, and utilization practices.

  9. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  10. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  11. Gaming the Liver Transplant Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Snyder

    2010-01-01

    The liver transplant waiting list is designed to allocate livers to the sickest patients first. Before March 1, 2002, livers were allocated to patients based on objective clinical indicators and subjective factors. In particular, a center placing a prospective transplant recipient in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to a higher position on the liver transplant waiting list. After March 1, 2002, a policy reform mandated that priority on the liver transplant waiting list no longer be influen...

  12. Bioartificial liver and liver transplantation: new modalities for the treatment of liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yitao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main features of liver failure are extensive necrosis of hepatocytes, rapid disease progression, and poor prognosis, and at present, there are no effective drugs and methods for the treatment of liver failure. This article summarizes four treatment methods for liver failure, i.e., medical treatment, cell transplantation, liver transplantation, and artificial liver support therapy, and elaborates on the existing treatment methods. The current medical treatment regimen should be optimized; cell transplantation has not been used in clinical practice; liver transplantation is the most effective method, but it is limited by donor liver shortage and high costs; artificial liver can effectively remove toxic substances in human body. Therefore, this article puts forward artificial liver as a transition for liver transplantation; artificial liver can buy time for liver regeneration or liver transplantation and prolong patients′ survival time and thus has a promising future. The new treatment modality of bioartificial liver combined with liver transplantation may bring good news to patients with liver failure.

  13. Perioperative management of liver surgery-review on pathophysiology of liver disease and liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Lukas; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Tiefenthaler, Werner

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of patients present for liver surgery. Given the complex pathophysiological changes in chronic liver disease (CLD), it is pivotal to understand the fundamentals of chronic and acute liver failure. This review will give an overview on related organ dysfunction as well as recommendations for perioperative management and treatment of liver failure-related symptoms.

  14. HYPERVASCULAR LIVER LESIONS IN RADIOLOGICALLY NORMAL LIVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; João, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araújo Lima

    2017-01-01

    The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Eighty-eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine aminotransaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. As lesões hepáticas hipervasculares representam um desafio diagnóstico. Identificar fatores de risco para câncer em pacientes portadores de lesão hepática hipervascular não-hemangiomatosa em fígado radiologicamente normal. Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes com lesões hepáticas hipervasculares em que o diagnóstico final foi obtido por exame anatomopatológico ou, presumido a partir de seguimento mínimo de um ano. Diagnóstico prévio de cirrose ou radiológico de hemangioma foram considerados critérios de exclusão. Oitenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos. A relação mulher/homem foi de 5,3/1. A idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Na maior parte das vezes as lesões hepáticas foram únicas e com

  15. Liver Regeneration After Portal Vein Embolization Using Absorbable and Permanent Embolization Materials in a Rabbit Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, Jacomina W.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Heger, Michal; Roelofs, Joris J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the safety and hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization (PVE) using 2 absorbable and 3 permanent embolization materials. Background: Portal vein embolization is used to increase future remnant liver volume preoperatively. Application of temporary, absorbable

  16. Transferrin metabolism in alcoholic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, B.J.; Chapman, R.W.; Nunes, R.M.; Sorrentino, D.; Sherlock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of transferrin was studied using purified 125 I-labeled transferrin in 11 alcoholic patients; six with fatty liver and five with cirrhosis. Six healthy subjects whose alcohol intake was les than 40 gm daily were studied as a control group. There were no significant differences in the mean fractional catabolic rate and plasma volume in the alcoholic groups when compared with control subjects. A significantly decreased mean serum transferrin concentration was found in the alcoholic cirrhotic patients (1.8 +/- 0.3 gm per liter vs. 2.9 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01), resulting from diminished total body synthesis (0.9 +/- 0.2 mg per kg per hr vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2; p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the patients with alcoholic fatty liver, the mean total body transferrin synthesis (2.4 +/- 0.3 mg per kg per hr) was significantly increased when compared with controls (p less than 0.05). For all the alcoholic patients, the serum transferrin correlated with transferrin synthesis (r = +0.70; p less than 0.01) but the serum iron did not. These results suggest that, in alcoholic cirrhosis, transferrin synthesis is decreased, probably reflecting diminished synthetic capacity by the liver. In contrast, in patients with alcoholic fatty liver, transferrin turnover is accelerated

  17. Thermal residual stresses in amorphous thermoplastic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Luigi; D'Amore, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    An attempt to calculate the internal stresses in a cylindrically shaped polycarbonate (LEXAN-GE) component, subjected to an arbitrary cooling rate, will be described. The differential volume relaxation arising as a result of the different thermal history suffered by each body point was considered as the primary source of stresses build up [1-3]. A numerical routine was developed accounting for the simultaneous stress and structural relaxation processes and implemented within an Ansys® environment. The volume relaxation kinetics was modeled by coupling the KAHR (Kovacs, Aklonis, Hutchinson, Ramos) phenomenological theory [4] with the linear viscoelastic theory [5-7]. The numerical algorithm translates the specific volume theoretical predictions at each body point as applied non-mechanical loads acting on the component. The viscoelastic functions were obtained from two simple experimental data, namely the linear viscoelastic response in shear and the PVT (pressure volume temperature) behavior. The dimensionless bulk compliance was extracted from PVT data since it coincides with the memory function appearing in the KAHR phenomenological theory [7]. It is showed that the residual stress scales linearly with the logarithm of the Biot's number.

  18. Cell-swelling-induced taurine release from isolated perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Meijer, A. J.; Gustafson, L. A.; Jörning, G. G.; Leegwater, A. C.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Astrocytes and lymphocytes are able to release significant amounts of taurine during periods of hypotonicity to reduce the increase in cell volume. To investigate this mechanism in the liver, we studied the release of free amino acids from isolated perfused rat liver during hypotonicity. The

  19. Acute effects of high-dose furosemide on residual renal function in CAPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olden, Rudolf W.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Arisz, Lambertus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of furosemide can increase urine volume in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. However, no information is available about effects on urinary solute excretion in relation to residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary furosemide excretion, and peritoneal solute

  20. 131I-BSP liver function test by BSP tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Koichi

    1974-01-01

    131 I-BSP liver function test after BSP intravenous tolerance was discussed, assuming that the reason why measurements of 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and 131 I-BSP disappearance rate in blood showed respectable overlapping between normal group and group with slight liver disorders as compared with BSP test and the reason why differential diagnosis was difficult were due to underestimate of tolerance volume of 131 I-BSP. 131 I-BSP was observed with time as to 70 persons with normal liver function and 257 cases of liver diseases, using 5, 3 and 2 mg of non-radioactive BSP tolerance volume per kilogram of body weight. 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and 131 I-BSP disappearance rate in blood are possible to separate overlapping over control in each measurement value at 3-5 mg/kg of tolerance, and in comparison of 3 mg and 5 mg, the latter showed a little excellent result. So, it was decided that tolerance of 3 mg/kg was a proper dose, considering tolerance to liver cells. 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes was a little excellent in accuracy and disappearance rate in blood after BSP tolerance is simple and profitable for practical use because collection of blood was only one time and measurement could be made with whole blood. As mentioned above, this method is seemed to be useful to practice of liver function test. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  2. Advanced new technologies for residue upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, D.

    1997-01-01

    Viewgraphs summarizing UOP technologies for residue are provided. The upgrading technologies include: (1) Aquaconversion, (2) the Discriminatory Destructive Distillation process (3D), and (3) the RCD uniflex process. The Aquaconversion process is based on catalytic hydrovisbreaking. It makes use of a homogeneous (liquid phase) catalyst. The hydrogen is derived from water. The advantages of this process are improved residue stability and quality at higher conversion levels, high synthetic crude yields, low operational complexity, reduced transportation costs. The 3D process is a unique carbon rejection contaminant removal process which can process whole crudes through viscous residues. FCC type equipment is used. Performance characteristics and advantages of the process were highlighted. The RCD uniflex process makes use of proven fixed bed and ebullated bed technologies in a new process configuration in which the fixed bed system is located upstream of the ebullated bed system. In this process, the catalyst volume increases exponentially with increasing processing severity. Performance characteristics, design features, benefits and development progress to date are described. 1 tab., 21 figs

  3. Testing the validity of a receptor kinetic model via TcNGA functional imaging of liver transplant recipients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadalnik, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The author had accomplished the expertise for I-125-HSA plasma volume, galactose clearance for determination of hepatic plasma flow as well as finalizing the kinetic model. They have just completed modifying the microscale Scatchard assay for greater precision of receptor measurement using only 5--10 mg of liver tissue. In addition, he determined during the past year that the most practical method and clinically reasonable measurement of liver volume was to measure the transplanted liver in vivo using Tc-NGA images in the anterior, posterior, and right lateral projections, using the method of Rollo and DeLand. Direct measurement of liver weight obtained during transplant operation was not reliable due to variability of fluid retention in the donor liver secondary to ischemia, preservation fluid, etc., which thereby did not reflect an accurate liver weight which is needed in the kinetic analysis comparison, i.e., V h (hepatic plasma volume)

  4. Investigating the properties of residues. Characterization of pellets from fermentation residues; Den Eigenschaften der Reststoffe auf der Spur. Untersuchung widmet sich der Charakterisierung von Pellets aus Gaerresten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, Martin; Mueller, Joachim [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Starcevic, Nikica [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Strabag Umweltanlagen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Projekt Produktentwicklung/Schlammbehandlung

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation residues are by-products of the biogas process. Farmers use them as fertilizers, but as the size of biogas plants grows, so does the residues volume. It is now too much for local use, and transport to other sites is expensive. Fuel pellets production may be an alternative. Pellets from fermentation residues are not accepted as yet because too little is known about their characteristics. The contribution describes an investigation that intends to identify the fuel characteristics of pellets from fermentation residues. (orig.)

  5. Alternative fuels from forest residues for passenger cars - an assessment under German framework conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtig, O.; Leible, L.; Kälber, S.; Kappler, g.; Spicher, U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the available volumes, biogenic residues are a promising resource for renewable fuels for passenger cars to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we compare three fuels from forest residues under German framework conditions: biogenic electricity, substitute natural gas (SNG), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. Methods Fuels from forest residues are compared with regard to their technical efficiency (here defined as ‘pkm per kg b...

  6. in Human Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Fujimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathways are strictly coordinated by several mechanisms to regulate adequate innate immune responses. Recent lines of evidence indicate that the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family proteins, originally identified as negative-feedback regulators in cytokine signaling, are involved in the regulation of TLR-mediated immune responses. SOCS1, a member of SOCS family, is strongly induced upon TLR stimulation. Cells lacking SOCS1 are hyperresponsive to TLR stimulation. Thus, SOCS1 is an important regulator for both cytokine and TLR-induced responses. As an immune organ, the liver contains various types of immune cells such as T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and Kupffer cells and is continuously challenged with gut-derived bacterial and dietary antigens. SOCS1 may be implicated in pathophysiology of the liver. The studies using SOCS1-deficient mice revealed that endogenous SOCS1 is critical for the prevention of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancers. Recent studies on humans suggest that SOCS1 is involved in the development of various liver disorders in humans. Thus, SOCS1 and other SOCS proteins are potential targets for the therapy of human liver diseases.

  7. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  8. Liver biopsy in liver patients with coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, P.; Gronbaek, H.; Clausen, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of severe bleeding after liver biopsy is estimated to be 1:12,000 in patients with near normal coagulation (INR 60 billion /l). Beyond these limits, the risk is higher, but still uncertain. The Danish guidelines require INR > 1.5, platelet count ... and normal APTT. In some instances the risk of not knowing the histology is so high that a biopsy is considered even with a more disturbed coagulation. Vitamin K, freshly frozen plasma and recombinant activated factor VII may reduce the risk of bleeding in specific situations, but no firm recommendations can...

  9. Suitability of the line intersect method for sampling hardwood logging residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    The line intersect method of sampling logging residues was tested in Appalachian hardwoods and was found to provide unbiased estimates of the volume of residue in cubic feet per acre. Thirty-two chains of sample line were established on each of sixteen 1-acre plots on cutover areas in a variety of conditions. Estimates from these samples were then compared to actual...

  10. Cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of syngas electricity from woody biomass residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Bergman

    2017-01-01

    Forest restoration and fire suppression activities in the western United States have resulted in large volumes of low-to-no value residues. An environmental assessment would enable greater use while maintaining environmental sustainability of these residues for energy products. One internationally accepted sustainable metric tool that can assess environmental impacts...

  11. Japanese-style intensive medical care improves prognosis for acute liver failure and the perioperative management of liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Watanabe, T; Maruoka, N; Kuroki, Y; Takahashi, H; Yoshiba, M

    2010-12-01

    The Japanese style of intensive medical care for acute liver failure has yielded high survival rates. The care system comprises artificial liver support (ALS) together with treatment for the underlying disease. Plasma exchange in combination with high-volume hemodiafiltration using an high performance membrane has become the standard ALS system. It is safe, efficiently removing more low and middle molecular weight toxic substances than other methods because of the large volumes of buffer (more than 200 L per session), resulting in recovery from coma in patients with severe fulminant hepatitis, a status comparable with the ahepatic state. This ALS is therefore an effective tool to sustain patients with fulminant hepatitis in a favorable condition until liver function recovers or liver transplantation becomes available. The accompanying treatment for underlying disease serves to limit the liver destruction that hampers regeneration. The treatment has remarkably improved the prognosis for patients with subacute types of fulminant hepatitis, which generally carry a less favorable prognosis than the acute type. This treatment system thus provides more time for physicians to assess the indications for liver transplantation as well as giving the patient a greater chance of undergoing transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sugammadex antagonism of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in patients with liver cirrhosis undergoing liver resection: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulatif, Mohamed; Lotfy, Maha; Mousa, Mahmoud; Afifi, Mohamed H; Yassen, Khaled

    2018-02-05

    This randomized controlled study compared the recovery times of sugammadex and neostigmine as antagonists of moderate rocuroniuminduced neuromuscular block in patients with liver cirrhosis and controls undergoing liver resection. The study enrolled 27 adult patients with Child class "A" liver cirrhosis and 28 patients with normal liver functions. Normal patients and patients with liver cirrhosis were randomized according to the type of antagonist (sugammadex 2mg/kg or neostigmine 50μg/kg). The primary outcome was the time from antagonist administration to a trainoffour (TOF) ratio of 0.9 using mechanosensor neuromuscular transmission module. The durations of the intubating and topup doses of rocuronium, the length of stay in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), and the incidence of postoperative re curarization were recorded. The durations of the intubating and topup doses of rocuronium were prolonged in patients with liver cirrhosis than controls. The times to a TOF ratio of 0.9 were 3.1 (1.0) and 2.6 (1.0) min after sugammadex administration in patients with liver cirrhosis and controls, respectively, p=1.00. The corresponding times after neostigmine administration were longer than sugammadex 14.5 (3.6) and 15.7 (3.6) min, respectively, psugammadex compared to neostigmine. We did not encounter postoperative recurarization after sugammadex or neostigmine. Sugammadex rapidly antagonize moderate residual rocuronium induced neuromuscular block in patients with Child class "A" liver cirrhosis undergoing liver resection. Sugammadex antagonism is associated with 80% reduction in the time to adequate neuromuscular recovery compared to neostigmine.

  13. Generating a normalized geometric liver model with warping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boes, J.L.; Weymouth, T.E.; Meyer, C.R.; Quint, L.E.; Bland, P.H.; Bookstein, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the automated determination of the liver surface in abdominal CT scans for radiation treatment, surgery planning, and anatomic visualization. The normalized geometric model of the liver is generated by averaging registered outlines from a set of 15 studies of normal liver. The outlines have been registered with the use of thin-plate spline warping based on a set of five homologous landmarks. Thus, the model consists of an average of the surface and a set of five anatomic landmarks. The accuracy of the model is measured against both the set of studies used in model generation and an alternate set of 15 normal studies with use of, as an error measure, the ratio of nonoverlapping model and study volume to total model volume

  14. Scintigraphic findings in amoebic abscess of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenemann, H.; Petersen, F.; Mohr, W.

    1976-01-01

    The accuracy, size, localization and course of liver scans of solitary or multiple amoebic liver abscesses was evaluated in 52 patients. The scintigraphic data were correlated with the clinical symptoms. In 47 of the 52 patients it was possible to demonstrate the liver abscess on the scintigram; the right lobe of the liver was involved more frequently than would have been expected simply on the basis of its volume. In most of the patients investigated the abscesses were solitary and in only 28% it was possible to recognise two or three abscesses occurring simultaneously. Follow-up examinations showed rapid diminution in the size of the abscess during medical treatment, but complete return to normal during the first six months occured in only 17% of cases. The results are discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  16. Heavy metal residues in beef carcasses in Beni-Suef abattoir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Khalafalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 samples were collected from cattle slaughtered in the Beni-Suef abattoir in Egypt. Samples included muscle, liver and kidney. Animals were randomly selected from the slaughter line. The age of the slaughtered cattle was less than three years (18-30 months. Samples were packed separately in plastic bags, identified and stored at -18°C until analysis which was performed at the Max Rubner Institute in Kulmbach, Germany, for the following heavy metals residues: lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium and nickel in beef muscle, liver and kidney samples. The results revealed that the overall mean residual levels of lead were 8.77 µg/kg, 42.70 µg/kg and 109.42 µg/kg fresh weight in muscle, liver and kidney samples, respectively, while the mean residual levels of cadmium were 1.40 µg/kg, 14.16 µg/kg and 62.56 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the mean arsenic residual levels were 5.06 µg/kg, 4.64 µg/kg and 14.92 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean residual levels of mercury were 3.91 µg/kg, 5.81 µg/kg and 10.14 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the residual levels of chromium were 11.20 µg/kg, 21.85 µg/kg and 25.49 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. Finally, the mean residual levels of nickel were 21.17 µg/kg, 14.59 µg/kg and 34.95 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean values of all heavy metals examined were low and did not exceed the permissible limits adopted by different organisations. Most heavy metals accumulated in higher concentrations in the kidney in comparison to the liver and muscle.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF LIVER TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dova Subba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM To estimate the incidence of Liver Trauma injuries and grade their severity of injury. To assess the factors responsible for morbidity and mortality after Liver Trauma. To study the postoperative complications and the management of Liver Trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present prospective study was conducted on 100 patients who were admitted to Department of General Surgery for treatment who were managed operatively or non-operatively for abdominal trauma and having liver injury forms the material of the study. This study was conducted over a span of 24 months from June 2013 to November 2015. RESULTS Maximum number of patients are in the age group of 21-30 years (46%. 85% patients (85/100 are males and 15% of patients (15/100 are females. Lapse time of injury and admission varied from 25 minutes to 66 hours and 30 minutes. 75 % of the patients (75/100 presented within 24 hours after injury. Death rate of patients who reached hospital after 24 hours of injury was higher than the patients who reached hospital within 24 hours of injury. 28% of patients (28/100 had associated bony injuries, out of which 5% of patients (5/100 expired due to primary haemorrhage of fractured femur. More than one segment was injured in many patients. Segment V is involved commonly making 55% (55/100 of patients. Next common segment involved is segment VII, making 39% (39/100. CONCLUSION Mechanism of injury is the important factor which is responsible for morbidity in liver injury. Nonoperative management proved to be safe and effective and often has been used to treat patients with liver trauma.

  18. Bicavitary effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaheda Khan,1 Kathryn Gates,2 Stephen A Simpson,31Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, 2Emergency and Critical Care, Advanced Critical Care, Emergency and Specialty Services, Culver City, CA 3Emergency and Critical Care, Southern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, Irvine, CA, USA Abstract: We described the diagnosis and successful treatment of pleural and peritoneal effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog. A 12-year-old female spayed Borzoi dog was referred for heart failure. Emergency room thoracic and abdominal ultrasound showed a large volume of pleural effusion with mild peritoneal effusion and an abdominal mass. Pleural fluid analysis classified the effusion as exudative. A complete ultrasound revealed mild peritoneal effusion and decreased blood flow to the right liver lobe. Other causes of bicavitary effusion were ruled out based on blood work, ultrasound, echocardiogram, and computed tomography. The patient was taken to surgery and diagnosed with caudate liver lobe torsion and had a liver lobectomy. At the 2-week postoperative recheck, the patient was doing well and there was complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Liver lobe torsion is a rare occurrence in dogs and can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical signs are nonspecific for liver lobe torsion and patients may present in respiratory distress with significant pleural fluid accumulation. When assessing patients with pleural and peritoneal effusion, liver lobe torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis.Keywords: pleural effusion, peritoneal effusion, hepatic torsion

  19. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  20. Atlas of liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This atlas is an outcome of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme. In addition to Japan, nine other Asian countries participated in the project and 293 liver scintigrams (116 from Japanese institutions and 177 from seven Asian countries) were evaluated by physicians from the participating Asian countries. The computer analysis of the scan findings of the individual physicians was carried out and individual scores have been separately tabulated for: (a) scan abnormality; (b) space occupying lesions; (c) cirrhosis and (d) diffuse liver diseases like hepatitis. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Management of liver trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M Alghamdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, the management of liver injury has evolved significantly. The advancement of imaging studies has played an important role in the conservative approach for management. A shift from operative to nonoperative management for most hemodynamically stable patients with hepatic injury has been prompted by speed and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging and by advances in critical care monitoring. In this review article, the up-to-date recommendation on the management approach of liver trauma will be discussed.

  2. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  3. Liver Volumetry Plug and Play: Do It Yourself with ImageJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello, Simon A. W. G.; van Dam, Ronald M.; Slangen, Jules J. G.; van de Poll, Marcel C. G.; Bemelmans, Marc H. A.; Greve, Jan Willem W. M.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; Wigmore, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Background A small remnant liver volume is an important risk factor for posthepatectomy liver failure and can be predicted accurately by computed tomography (CT) volumetry using radiologic image analysis software. Unfortunately, this software is expensive and usually requires support by a radiologist. ImageJ is a freely downloadable image analysis software package developed by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and brings liver volumetry to the surgeon’s desktop. We aimed to assess the accuracy of ImageJ for hepatic CT volumetry. Methods ImageJ was downloaded from http://www.rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/. Preoperative CT scans of 15 patients who underwent liver resection for colorectal cancer liver metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Scans were opened in ImageJ; and the liver, all metastases, and the intended parenchymal transection line were manually outlined on each slice. The area of each selected region, metastasis, resection specimen, and remnant liver was multiplied by the slice thickness to calculate volume. Volumes of virtual liver resection specimens measured with ImageJ were compared with specimen weights and calculated volumes obtained during pathology examination after resection. Results There was an excellent correlation between the volumes calculated with ImageJ and the actual measured weights of the resection specimens (r² = 0.98, p volumetry on a personal computer. This application brings CT volumetry to the surgeon’s desktop at no expense and is particularly useful in cases of tertiary referred patients, who already have a proper CT scan on CD-ROM from the referring institution. Most likely the discrepancy between volume and weight results from exsanguination of the liver after resection. PMID:17726630

  4. Determination of Antibiotic Residues in Milk by Microbial Inhibitory Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juščáková D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Undesirable substances enter the organism of animals mostly via feed, water or veterinary medicines and their residues pass subsequently into the products of animal origin. In dairy cows, sheep and goats these residues are eliminated particularly in milk. Milk intended for human consumption must comply with safety criteria also with respect to residues of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of antibiotic residues in the milk using the tests Milchtest and Premi®Test. While the Milchtest was developed for the determination of antibiotic residues in cow, sheep and goat milk, the Premi®Test is intended for the determination of antibiotic residues in meat juice, liver, kidneys, fish, eggs and in the urine of animals treated with antibiotics. As examined matrices, we used 45 samples of raw cow’s milk collected at 3 agricultural farms and 10 samples of milk offered to consumers at grocery stores. When using the Milchtest, 8 samples tested positive and 10 provided dubious results while testing with the Premi®Test showed that only 6 samples were positive for antibiotics. Comparison of the results confirmed a higher detection sensitivity of Milchtest reflected in higher numbers of positive samples and the detection of dubious results in samples of raw cow’s milk. However, it should be noted that even the Premi®Test, although not intended preferably for the determination of antibiotics in milk, can be used, if needed, for the preliminary screening of antibiotic residues in such a matrix.

  5. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat ...

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have had a surgical procedure in which the liver bile duct has been connected to a loop of bowel are at much greater risk of developing a liver abscess after ablation. Women should always inform their ...

  7. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy !

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy ! Liver Disease > Heart. No good non-invasive method. Repeated measurements problematic. Drug efficacy 50% at best. No predictors of response. We Need YOU !!

  8. Three cases of liver abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeyama, Toyoaki; Imamoto, Shoichiro; Hirai, Kenji; Nagasaki, Yoshikazu; Abe, Hirohiko

    1980-01-01

    Three patients with liver abscess were presented with special reference to the diagnostic evaluation of computed tomography (CT). CT findings were specific for liver abscess and valuable for its correct diagnosis and accurately defined the extent of involvement. (author)

  9. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  10. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  12. Lung volumes: measurement, clinical use, and coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Judd D; Dine, C Jessica

    2012-08-01

    Measurement of lung volumes is an integral part of complete pulmonary function testing. Some lung volumes can be measured during spirometry; however, measurement of the residual volume (RV), functional residual capacity (FRC), and total lung capacity (TLC) requires special techniques. FRC is typically measured by one of three methods. Body plethysmography uses Boyle's Law to determine lung volumes, whereas inert gas dilution and nitrogen washout use dilution properties of gases. After determination of FRC, expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory vital capacity are measured, which allows the calculation of the RV and TLC. Lung volumes are commonly used for the diagnosis of restriction. In obstructive lung disease, they are used to assess for hyperinflation. Changes in lung volumes can also be seen in a number of other clinical conditions. Reimbursement for measurement of lung volumes requires knowledge of current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, relevant indications, and an appropriate level of physician supervision. Because of recent efforts to eliminate payment inefficiencies, the 10 previous CPT codes for lung volumes, airway resistance, and diffusing capacity have been bundled into four new CPT codes.

  13. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  14. Synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.M. van der Pool (Anne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and ranks second in cancer-related deaths in many parts of the Western world. Once in the lymph or blood vessels, colorectal cancer can quickly spread and the liver is known to be a favourable site for metastases. The

  15. Polyploidization in liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    Polyploidy (alias whole genome amplification) refers to organisms containing more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first observed in plants more than a century ago, and it is known that such processes occur in many eukaryotes under a variety of circumstances. In mammals, the development of polyploid cells can contribute to tissue differentiation and, therefore, possibly a gain of function; alternately, it can be associated with development of disease, such as cancer. Polyploidy can occur because of cell fusion or abnormal cell division (endoreplication, mitotic slippage, or cytokinesis failure). Polyploidy is a common characteristic of the mammalian liver. Polyploidization occurs mainly during liver development, but also in adults with increasing age or because of cellular stress (eg, surgical resection, toxic exposure, or viral infections). This review will explore the mechanisms that lead to the development of polyploid cells, our current state of understanding of how polyploidization is regulated during liver growth, and its consequence on liver function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  17. Cystoadenocarcinoma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukemura, J.; Cunha, J.E.M. da; Bacchella, T.; Herman, P.; Cerri, G.G.; Machado, M.C.C.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1987-01-01

    One case of an old woman is related, wuth a tumor in the right side of abdomen. The patient was submitted to ultrasography computerized tomography, demostrating hepatic and renal cystrand areas of wild mass in the liver. Adenocarcinoma was demostrated by anotmopathologic examination. (author) [pt

  18. Angiomyolipoma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Nakamura, H.; Hori, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Mitani, T.; Kozuka, T.; Kimura, Y.; Monden, M.; Wakasa, K.; Sakurai, M.

    1993-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma, a rare benign liver tumor, was observed in a 50-year-old woman examined with US, CT, MR imaging and angiography. Dynamic studies using CT and MR imaging were valuable in differentiating the disease from hepatocellular carcinoma with fat deposits. (orig.)

  19. Angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlia, Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis emerges in parallel with liver fibrosis, but it is still unclear whether angiogenesis is a defense mechanism of the body in response to fibrosis, or whether it aggravates the fibrotic condition. In this thesis, Amirah Adlia applied different approaches to elucidate the role of

  20. Calcium signaling in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  1. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  2. [Robot-assisted liver resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aselmann, H; Möller, T; Kersebaum, J-N; Egberts, J H; Croner, R; Brunner, M; Grützmann, R; Becker, T

    2017-06-01

    Robotic liver resection can overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic liver surgery; therefore, it is a promising tool to increase the proportion of minimally invasive liver resections. The present article gives an overview of the current literature. Furthermore, the results of a nationwide survey on robotic liver surgery among hospitals in Germany with a DaVinci system used in general visceral surgery and the perioperative results of two German robotic centers are presented.

  3. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and on the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  4. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model). The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and at the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  5. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment ... are different types of treatment for patients with adult primary liver cancer. Different types of treatments are ...

  6. Management of Portal Hypertension After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, D; Deák, P Á; Kiss, G; Gerlei, Z; Kóbori, L; Görög, D; Fehérvári, I; Piros, L; Máthé, Z; Doros, A

    2017-09-01

    Post-transplantation portal hypertension has severe complications, such as esophageal varix bleeding, therapy refractory ascites, extreme splenomegaly, and graft dysfunction. The aim of our study was to analyze the effectiveness of the therapeutic strategies and how to visualize the procedure. A retrospective study involving liver transplantation patients from the Semmelweis University Department of Transplantation and Surgery was performed between 2005 and 2015. The prevalence, etiology, and leading complications of the condition were determined. The applied interventions' effects on the patients' ascites volume, splenic volume, and the occurrence of variceal bleeding were determined. Mean portal blood flow velocity and congestion index values were calculated using Doppler ultrasonography. The prevalence of post-transplantation portal hypertension requiring intervention was 2.8%. The most common etiology of the disease was portal anastomotic stenosis. The most common complications were esophageal varix bleeding and therapy refractory ascites. The patients' ascites volume decreased significantly (2923.3 ± 1893.2 mL vs. 423.3 ± 634.3 mL; P portal hypertension. After the interventions, these parameters shifted towards the physiologic ranges. The interventions performed in our clinic were effective in most cases. The patients' ascites volume, splenic volume, and the prevalence of variceal bleeding decreased after the treatment. Doppler ultrasonography has proved to be a valuable imaging modality in the diagnosis and the follow-up of post-transplantation portal hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  8. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  9. Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkl, H.; Stegmann, R.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic processes are getting increasing attention in the disposal of liquid waste of the food industry and chemical industry and solid organic residues of the municipal sector. The main advantages of anaerobic processes are the favourable energy balance and the comparatively small volume of new biomass produced. There are new satisfactory technical solutions for nearly all problems encountered in practice. A conference on ''Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues'' was held on 2-4 November 1994. The state of the art and new developments were presented in lectures by experts from research and practice. (orig.) [de

  10. SU-F-T-121: Abdominal Compression Effectively Reduces the Interplay Effect and Enables Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souris, K; Glick, A; Kang, M; Lin, H; McDonough, J; Simone, C; Solberg, T; Ben-Josef, E; Lin, L; Janssens, G; Sterpin, E; Lee, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. An in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie Grant

  11. SU-F-T-121: Abdominal Compression Effectively Reduces the Interplay Effect and Enables Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy of Liver Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souris, K [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Glick, A; Kang, M; Lin, H; McDonough, J; Simone, C; Solberg, T; Ben-Josef, E; Lin, L [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Janssens, G [IBA, Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Sterpin, E [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lee, J [Universite catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study if abdominal compression can reduce breathing motion and mitigate interplay effect in pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBSPT) treatment of liver tumors in order to better spare healthy liver volumes compared with photon therapy. Methods: Ten patients, six having large tumors initially treated with IMRT and four having small tumors treated with SBRT, were replanned for PBSPT. ITV and beam-specific PTVs based on 4D-CT were used to ensure target coverage in PBSPT. The use of an abdominal compression belt and volumetric repainting was investigated to mitigate the interplay effect between breathing motion and PBSPT dynamic delivery. An in-house Matlab script has been developed to simulate this interplay effect. The dose is computed on each phase individually by sorting all spots according to their simulated delivery timing. The final dose distribution is then obtained by accumulating all dose maps to a reference phase. Results: For equivalent target coverage PBSPT reduced average healthy liver dose by 9.5% of the prescription dose compared with IMRT/SBRT. Abdominal compression of 113.2±42.2 mmHg was effective for all 10 patients and reduced average motion by 2.25 mm. As a result, the average ITV volume decreased from 128.2% to 123.1% of CTV volume. Similarly, the average beam-specific PTV volume decreased from 193.2% to 183.3%. For 8 of the 10 patients, the average motion was reduced below 5 mm, and up to 3 repainting were sufficient to mitigate interplay. For the other two patients with larger residual motion, 4–5 repainting were needed. Conclusion: We recommend evaluation of the 4DCT motion histogram following simulation and the interplay effect following treatment planning in order to personalize the use of compression and volumetric repainting for each patient. Abdominal compression enables safe and more effective PBS treatment of liver tumors by reduction of motion and interplay effect. Kevin Souris is supported by IBA and Televie Grant

  12. Pediatric obesity and the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, B.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of obesity. In some of those with NAFLD, the fat accumulation in the liver will cause inflammation and fibrosis and can ultimately cause liver failure. In addition, in adults it has been established that NAFLD increases the risk of

  13. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  14. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  15. CT volumetry of the liver: Where does it stand in clinical practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, M.C.; Tan, C.H.; Cai, J.; Zheng, J.; Kow, A.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Imaging-based volumetry has been increasingly utilised in current clinical practice to obtain accurate measurements of the liver volume. This is particularly useful prior to major hepatic resection and living donor liver transplantation where the size of the remnant liver and liver graft, respectively, affects procedural success and postoperative mortality and morbidity. The use of imaging-based volumetry, with emphasis on computed tomography, will be reviewed. We will explore the various technical factors that contribute to accurate volumetric measurements, and demonstrate how the accuracies of these techniques are influenced by their methodologies. The strengths and limitations of using anatomical imaging to estimate liver volume will be discussed, in relation to laboratory and functional imaging methods of assessment

  16. Optimized waste management: Less volume and less radiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Ph.; Nigon, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to optimize fuel cycle back end solid wastes, in order to reduce both volume and radioactivity of final residues. An integrated strategy of standardized conditioning of all residues from reprocessing, called the Universal Canister Strategy, has been adopted. The application of feedback from over 30 years of operating experience and research and development to minimization of waste volume and radioactivity is presented. (author)

  17. Hepatic Radioembolization as a Bridge to Liver Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J.A.T. Braat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of oncologic disease has improved significantly in the last decades and in the future a vast majority of cancer types will continue to increase worldwide. As a result many patients are confronted with primary liver cancers or metastatic liver disease. Surgery in liver malignancies has steeply improved and curative resections are applicable in wider settings, leading to a prolonged survival. Simultaneously, radiofrequency ablation (RFA and liver transplantation (LTx have been applied more commonly in oncologic settings with improving results. To minimize adverse events in treatments of liver malignancies, locoregional minimal invasive treatments have made their appearance in this field, in which radioembolization (RE has shown promising results in recent years with few adverse events and high response rates. We discuss several other applications of radioembolization for oncologic patients, other than its use in the palliative setting, whether or not combined with other treatments. This review is focused on the role of RE in acquiring patient eligibility for radical treatments, like surgery, RFA and LTx. Inducing significant tumor reduction can downstage patients for resection or, through attaining stable disease, patients can stay on the LTx waiting list. Hereby, RE could make a difference between curative of palliative intent in oncologic patient management. Prior to surgery, the future remnant liver volume might be inadequate in some patients. In these patients, forming an adequate liver reserve through RE leads to prolonged survival without risking postoperative liver failure and minimizing tumor progression while inducing hypertrophy. In order to optimize results, developments in procedures surrounding RE are equally important. Predicting the remaining liver function after radical treatment and finding the right balance between maximum tumor irradiation and minimizing the chance of inducing radiation-related complications are still

  18. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y K; Ahn, S B [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  19. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Y. K.; Ahn, S. B.

    1969-01-01

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  20. Biodrying of animal slaughterhouse residues and heat production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Y. [Centre de recherche industrielle, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Animal carcasses from slaughterhouses are usually composted on farms, but the composting process is not optimized and a large volumes of carbonaceous residues are needed. This type of composting takes place over a period of 6 to 9 months in a nonaerated static pile. Quebec's industrial research centre (CRIQ) developed an organic biodrying process (BIOSECO) adapted to large-scale operations in order to optimize the treatment of slaughterhouse residues. Biodrying is a form of composting, in which the thermophilic phase is optimized, making it possible to evaporate large amounts of water. Biodrying is done inside a building and reduces the amount of carbonaceous residues considerably. The process is optimized by the sequence in which the slaughterhouse residues are added, the choice of input and the aeration flow. Slaughterhouse residues can be treated non-stop throughout the entire year. Since the odours are nearly completed limited to the building, the biodrying can be done near the slaughterhouse. A large amount of heat was produced by the process during the pilot project. It was concluded that the BIOSECO biodrying process is suitable for treating slaughterhouse residues in an effective and economic manner, and has the added advantage of producing heat that could be used for various purposes.

  1. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  2. Tracking fuzzy borders using geodesic curves with application to liver segmentation on planning CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yading; Chao, Ming; Sheu, Ren-Dih; Rosenzweig, Kenneth; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work aims to develop a robust and efficient method to track the fuzzy borders between liver and the abutted organs where automatic liver segmentation usually suffers, and to investigate its applications in automatic liver segmentation on noncontrast-enhanced planning computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: In order to track the fuzzy liver–chestwall and liver–heart borders where oversegmentation is often found, a starting point and an ending point were first identified on the coronal view images; the fuzzy border was then determined as a geodesic curve constructed by minimizing the gradient-weighted path length between these two points near the fuzzy border. The minimization of path length was numerically solved by fast-marching method. The resultant fuzzy borders were incorporated into the authors’ automatic segmentation scheme, in which the liver was initially estimated by a patient-specific adaptive thresholding and then refined by a geodesic active contour model. By using planning CT images of 15 liver patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, the liver contours extracted by the proposed computerized scheme were compared with those manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. Results: The proposed automatic liver segmentation method yielded an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.930 ± 0.015, whereas it was 0.912 ± 0.020 if the fuzzy border tracking was not used. The application of fuzzy border tracking was found to significantly improve the segmentation performance. The mean liver volume obtained by the proposed method was 1727 cm 3 , whereas it was 1719 cm 3 for manual-outlined volumes. The computer-generated liver volumes achieved excellent agreement with manual-outlined volumes with correlation coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The proposed method was shown to provide accurate segmentation for liver in the planning CT images where contrast agent is not applied. The authors’ results also clearly demonstrated

  3. Experimental study on effect of roasting, boiling and microwave cooking methods on enrofloxacin antibiotic residues in edible poultry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different cooking processes such as boiling, roasting and microwaving on enrofloxacin residues in muscle, liver and gizzard tissues of broiler chickens. Each of chicks was fed by routine diet and water with %0.05 of enrofloxacine for consecutive 5 days .Then; three locations including breast muscle, liver and gizzard were sampled aseptically from each carcass. Enrofloxacin residue was analyzed using microbial method by plates seeded with Escherichia coli. After doing different phases of the test on raw samples, the positive raw samples cooked by various cooking procedures and we surveyed cooked samples with similar method again for present of residue. The results were show reduction in concentration of enrofloxacin residue after different cooking processes. The most reduction of the residue in cooked meat and gizzard samples related to boiling process and roasting process for cooked liver samples and the highest detectable amount of residue belonged to microwaving process in all cooked samples. Regarding to the results of this study, we can conclude that cooking processes can’t annihilate total amounts of these drug and it can only decrease their amounts and the most of