WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual liquid organics

  1. Visualization of residual organic liquid trapped in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, S.H.; Wilson, J.L.; Mason, W.R.; Peplinski, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Organic liquids that are essentially immiscible with water migrate through the subsurface under the influence of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. These liquids originate from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes, and the spills and leaks of petroleum hydrocarbons and solvents. The flow visualization experiments described in this study examined the migration of organic liquids through the saturated zone of aquifers, with a primary focus on the behavior of the residual organic liquid saturation, referring to that portion of the organic liquid that is trapped by capillary forces. Etched glass micromodels were used to visually observe dynamic multiphase displacement processes in pore networks. The resulting fluid distributions were photographed. Pore and blob casts were produced by a technique in which an organic liquid was solidified in place within a sand column at the conclusion of a displacement. The columns were sectioned and examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes. Photomicrographs of these sections show the morphology of the organic phase and its location within the sand matrix. The photographs from both experimental techniques reveal that in the saturated zone large amounts of residual organic liquid are trapped as isolated blobs of microscopic size. The size, shape, and spatial distribution of these blobs of residual organic liquid affect the dissolution of organic liquid into the water phase and the biotransformation of organic components. These processes are of concern for the prediction of pollution migration and the design of aquifer remediation schemes

  2. Ionic Liquid-Assisted Liquid-Liquid Microextraction based on the Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet in Sample Preparation for Simultaneous Determination of Herbicide Residues in Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-09-01

    An ionic liquid-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplet (ILSFODLLME) was investigated for analysis of four herbicide residues (i.e. simazine, atrazine, propazine, and linuron) by high performance liquid chromatography. For ILSFOD-LLME, the optimal extraction conditions were 5% w/v Na2SO4, 30 μL [C4MIM][PF6]RTIL, 100 μL of 1-octanol, ultrasonication time 30 s and centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min. Under the optimal conditions, linearity was obtained within the range of 0.1-1000 μg kg-1, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The high enrichment factors of the target analytes were in the range of 64.5-139.9 and low limit of detection could be obtained. A modified QuEChERS was applied for fruit sample preparation before analysis. Matrix effects were also investigated using matrix matched standards for construction of the calibration graph. The proposed method has been successfully applied for extraction and preconcentration of herbicide residues in fruit samples, and good recoveries in the range of 87.32% to 99.93% were obtained.

  3. Development of treatment method for stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic substances and transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudenko, L.I.; Dzhuzha, O.V.; Khan, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the study into the laws that govern the process of treating by oxidation the stillage residues of liquid radioactive wastes to remove organic compounds and transuranium elements with the use of hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate and subsequent ultra-filtration. The optimum oxidisation regime has been defined on the basis of this study to ensure that the initial dichromate oxidability of LRW's stillage residues decreases from 6,000-9,500 to 500-1,000 mg O/I, whereas the TUE activity associated with the key isotopes is reduced by 74-87 % for 238,239,240 Pu, by 94-95 % for 241 Am, and by 90-95 % for 244 Cm. The concentration of uranium decreases by 94-99 %. It is proposed to implement this method at the Chernobyl NPP site.

  4. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Martínez-Alcántara

    Full Text Available Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L. grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95% ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency.

  5. Air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction by solidifying the floating organic droplets for the rapid determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiangwei [Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Xing, Zhuokan [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Liu, Fengmao, E-mail: liufengmao@cau.edu.cn [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Zhang, Xu [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • A novel AALLME-SFO method was firstly reported for pesticide residue analysis. • Solvent with low density and proper melting point was used as extraction solvent. • The formation of “cloudy solvent” with a syringe only. • The new method avoided the use of organic dispersive solvent. - Abstract: A novel air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction using the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFO) was developed for the rapid and simple determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples, using the gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). This method combines the advantages of AALLME and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) for the first time. In this method, a low-density solvent with a melting point near room temperature was used as the extraction solvent, and the emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent for ten times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be easily collected from the top of the aqueous samples by solidifying it at a temperature lower than the melting point. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9959 were obtained and the limits of detection (LOD) varied between 0.02 and 0.25 μg L{sup −1}. The proposed method was applied to determine the target fungicides in juice samples and acceptable recoveries ranged from 72.6% to 114.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3–13.0% were achieved. Compared with the conventional DLLME method, the newly proposed method will neither require a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly.

  6. Air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction by solidifying the floating organic droplets for the rapid determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Xiangwei; Xing, Zhuokan; Liu, Fengmao; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel AALLME-SFO method was firstly reported for pesticide residue analysis. • Solvent with low density and proper melting point was used as extraction solvent. • The formation of “cloudy solvent” with a syringe only. • The new method avoided the use of organic dispersive solvent. - Abstract: A novel air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction using the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFO) was developed for the rapid and simple determination of seven fungicide residues in juice samples, using the gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). This method combines the advantages of AALLME and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFO) for the first time. In this method, a low-density solvent with a melting point near room temperature was used as the extraction solvent, and the emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent for ten times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be easily collected from the top of the aqueous samples by solidifying it at a temperature lower than the melting point. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9959 were obtained and the limits of detection (LOD) varied between 0.02 and 0.25 μg L −1 . The proposed method was applied to determine the target fungicides in juice samples and acceptable recoveries ranged from 72.6% to 114.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.3–13.0% were achieved. Compared with the conventional DLLME method, the newly proposed method will neither require a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly

  7. Optimization of dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of glucocorticoid residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Zheng, Zhiqun; Huang, Liying; Yao, Hong; Wu, Xiao Shan; Li, Shaoguang; Lin, Dandan

    2017-05-10

    A rapid, simple, cost-effective dispersive liquid-phase microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop (SFOD-LPME) was developed in this study. Along with high-performance liquid chromatography, we used the developed approach to determine and enrich trace amounts of four glucocorticoids, namely, prednisone, betamethasone, dexamethasone, and cortisone acetate, in animal-derived food. We also investigated and optimized several important parameters that influenced the extraction efficiency of SFOD-LPME. These parameters include the extractant species, volumes of extraction and dispersant solvents, sodium chloride addition, sample pH, extraction time and temperature, and stirring rate. Under optimum experimental conditions, the calibration graph exhibited linearity over the range of 1.2-200.0ng/ml for the four analytes, with a reasonable linearity(r 2 : 0.9990-0.9999). The enrichment factor was 142-276, and the detection limits was 0.39-0.46ng/ml (0.078-0.23μg/kg). This method was successfully applied to analyze actual food samples, and good spiked recoveries of over 81.5%-114.3% were obtained. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  9. Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkl, H.; Stegmann, R.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic processes are getting increasing attention in the disposal of liquid waste of the food industry and chemical industry and solid organic residues of the municipal sector. The main advantages of anaerobic processes are the favourable energy balance and the comparatively small volume of new biomass produced. There are new satisfactory technical solutions for nearly all problems encountered in practice. A conference on ''Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues'' was held on 2-4 November 1994. The state of the art and new developments were presented in lectures by experts from research and practice. (orig.) [de

  10. Application of dispersive Liquid-Liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine, and pyrethroid pesticides in aqueous sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Mei; Li, Man-Liang; Cheng, Jing; Matsadiq, Guzalnur; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Miao

    2012-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet (DLLME-SFO) technique was successfully applied for simultaneous assay of eight polychlorinated biphenyls, two organochlorine, and four pyrethroid pesticides multi-residue in aqueous samples by using GC-electron capture detection. The effects of various parameters such as kind of extractant and dispersant and volume of them, extraction time, effect of salt addition, and pH were optimized. As a result, 5.0 μL 1-dodecanol was chosen as extraction solvent, 600 μL methanol were used as dispersive solvent without salt addition, pH was adjusted to 7. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were ranged from 1.4 to 8.3 ng L -1 . Satisfactory linear range was observed from 5.0 to 2000 ng L -1 with correlation coefficient better than 0.9909. Good precisions were also acquired with RSD better than 13.6% for all target analytes. The enrichment factors of the method were ranged from 786 to 1427. The method can be successfully applied to simultaneous separation and determination of three class residues in real water samples and good recoveries were obtained ranging from 76 to 130, 73 to 129, and 78 to 130% for tap water, lake water, and industrial waste water, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  12. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  13. Detecting organic gunpowder residues from handgun use

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCrehan, William A.; Ricketts, K. Michelle; Baltzersen, Richard A.; Rowe, Walter F.

    1999-02-01

    The gunpowder residues that remain after the use of handguns or improvised explosive devices pose a challenge for the forensic investigator. Can these residues be reliably linked to a specific gunpowder or ammunition? We investigated the possibility by recovering and measuring the composition of organic additives in smokeless powder and its post-firing residues. By determining gunpowder additives such as nitroglycerin, dinitrotoluene, ethyl- and methylcentralite, and diphenylamine, we hope to identify the type of gunpowder in the residues and perhaps to provide evidence of a match to a sample of unfired powder. The gunpowder additives were extracted using an automated technique, pressurized fluid extraction (PFE). The conditions for the quantitative extraction of the additives using neat and solvent-modified supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. All of the major gunpowder additives can be determined with baseline resolution using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a micellar agent and UV absorbance detection. A study of candidate internal standards for use in the CE method is also presented. The PFE/CE technique is used to evaluate a new residue sampling protocol--asking shooters to blow their noses. In addition, an initial investigation of the compositional differences among unfired and post-fired .22 handgun residues is presented.

  14. Transport properties of organic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Latini, G; Passerini, G

    2006-01-01

    The liquid state is possibly the most difficult and intriguing state of matter to model. Organic liquids are required, mainly as working fluids, in almost all industrial activities and in most appliances (e.g. in air conditioning). Transport properties (namely dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity) are possibly the most important properties for the design of devices and appliances. The aim of this book is to present both theoretical approaches and the latest experimental advances on the issue, and to merge them into a wider approach. It concentrates on applicability of models.This book is organized into five chapters plus a data collection. The chapters discuss the following topics: the liquid state and some well-know theories able to explain the behaviour of liquids; a rather complete review of models, based on theoretical assumptions and/or upon physical paradigms, to evaluate heat transfer in organic liquids; a review of several well-known semi-empirical methods to predict the thermal conductivity coe...

  15. Liquid metal–organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Keen, David A.; Bennett, Thomas D.; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2017-10-09

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including ‘defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

  16. Liquid metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Keen, David A.; Bennett, Thomas D.; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including `defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

  17. Lead sorption-desorption from organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Zaragoza, Victor M; Carrillo, Rogelio; Gutierrez Castorena, Carmen M

    2011-01-01

    Sorption and desorption are mechanisms involved in the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability in organic materials. Metal release from substrates is controlled by desorption. The capacity of coffee husk and pulp residues, vermicompost and cow manure to adsorb Pb2+ was evaluated. The mechanisms involved in the sorption process were also studied. Organic materials retained high concentrations of lead (up to 36,000 mg L(-1)); however, the mechanisms of sorption varied according to the characteristics of each material: degree of decomposition, pH, cation exchange capacity and percentage of organic matter. Vermicompost and manure removed 98% of the Pb from solution. Lead precipitated in manure and vermicompost, forming lead oxide (PbO) and lead ferrite (PbFe4O7). Adsorption isotherms did not fit to the typical Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Not only specific and non-specific adsorption was observed, but also precipitation and coprecipitation. Lead desorption from vermicompost and cow manure was less than 2%. For remediation of Pb-polluted sites, the application of vermicompost and manure is recommended in places with alkaline soils because Pb precipitation can be induced, whereas coffee pulp residue is recommended for acidic soils where Pb is adsorbed.

  18. Thickness of residual wetting film in liquid-liquid displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor; Gaul, William; Vigil, R. Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a nonwetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. Here we develop a hydrodynamic, testable theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob of one fluid moving in another, with neither phase being gas. In its relationship to the capillary number Ca, the thickness of the film is predicted to be proportional to Ca2 at lower Ca and to level off at a constant value of ˜20% the channel radius at higher Ca. The thickness of the film is deduced to be approximately unaffected by the viscosity ratio of the fluids. We have conducted our own laboratory experiments and compiled experimental data from other studies, all of which are mutually consistent and confirm the salient features of the theory. At the same time, the classic law, originally deduced for films surrounding moving gas bubbles but often believed to hold for liquids as well, fails to explain the observations.

  19. Luminescence screening of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in swine liver after dispersive liquid - liquid microextraction cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid luminescence method was developed to screen residues of enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), in swine liver. Target analytes were extracted in acetonitrile-2.5% trifluoroacetic acid-NaCl, cleaned up by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), and finally de...

  20. Light Path Model of Fiber Optic Liquid Level Sensor Considering Residual Liquid Film on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The working principle of the refractive-type fiber optic liquid level sensor is analyzed in detail based on the light refraction principle. The optic path models are developed in consideration of common simplification and the residual liquid film on the glass tube wall. The calculating formulae for the model are derived, constraint conditions are obtained, influencing factors are discussed, and the scopes and skills of application are analyzed through instance simulations. The research results are useful in directing the correct usage of the fiber optic liquid level sensor, especially in special cases, such as those involving viscous liquid in the glass tube monitoring.

  1. Two-stage catalytic up-grading of vacuum residue of a Wandoan coal liquid. [Vacuum residue of coal liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Fujitsu, H.

    1986-08-01

    A successive two-stage hydrotreatment using a commercial Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst (HDN-30) was applied to the vacuum residue of a Wandoan coal liquid to achieve high levels of hydrocracking, hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation. Two-stage hydrotreatment in 1-methylnaphthalene containing 20wt% fluoranthene as a solvent at solvent/coal liquid ratio of unity removed 83% (overall) of nitrogen and 90% (overall) of oxygen in the asphaltene (benzene-soluble fraction) at 380/sup 0/C for 3 h and at 420/sup 0/C for 3h under hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa and 14 MPa, respectively, while the single stage treatment at 420/sup 0/C for 3 h removed only 41% and 46%, respectively. The same two-stage treatment allowed the overall denitrogenation of 51% and the overall deoxygenation of 67% from a mixture of asphaltene and preasphaltene (THF-soluble fraction). Addition of the catalyst prior to the second stage reaction increased the removal of nitrogen and oxygen to 75 and 82%, respectively, indicating significant catalyst deactivation by the preasphaltene fraction in the first stage. Increasing the solvent/coal liquid ratio to 2 or addition of tetrahydrofluoranthene as a component of the solvent increased the removal of nitrogen and oxygen to 70 and 80%, respectively. Such two-stage hydrotreatment was also effective in refining the whole residue, allowing denitrogenations and deoxygenations of 68 and 75% respectively using tetrahydrofluoranthene. The coke, unreacted coal and minerals in the residue may not cause acute catalyst deactivation. High dissolving ability of the reaction solvents is very effective to decrease catalyst deactivation by carbon deposition. The successive two-stage hydrotreatment also enhanced hydrocracking of polar and resin fractions in the residue into oils (conversion, 65%). (Abstract Truncated)

  2. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  3. The liquid organization of volunteer tourism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steele, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from developments in sociology and organizational studies, this paper argues for a new understanding of volunteer tourism as liquid organization. It aims to explore the organization of volunteer tourism using a liquid organization perspective and to better understand the potential...... implications of this liquidity on the responsibility of volunteer tourism organizations to host com- munities. The analysis is based on data collected from 80 volunteer tourism organizations. The findings reveal that the volunteer tourism organizations show characteristics of liquid organiza- tion to varying...... degrees. The significance of the research is to problematize the way in which the institutional characteristics of volunteer tourism are (not) conceptualized in current literature and to introduce liquid organization as a means of reinvigorating debate about responsibility....

  4. Liquid crystals for organic transistors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jun-ichi; Iino, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Liquid crystals are a new type of organic semiconductors exhibiting molecular orientation in self-organizing manner, and have high potential for device applications. In fact, various device applications have been proposed so far, including photosensors, solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors, and so on.. However, device performance in those fabricated with liquid crystals is less than those of devices fabricated with conventional materials in spite of unique features of liquid crystals. Here we discuss how we can utilize the liquid crystallinity in organic transistors and how we can overcome conventional non-liquid crystalline organic transistor materials. Then, we demonstrate high performance organic transistors fabricated with a smectic E liquid crystal of Ph-BTBT-10, which show high mobility of over 10cm2/Vs and high thermal durability of over 200oC in OFETs fabricated with its spin-coated polycrystalline thin films.

  5. Typology of organic residues attracting flies and their utilization in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADIN

    All rights reserved. Keywords: organic residue, fly larvae, organic manure, soil fertility, farmer perception. ... nutrients in the animal manure, which in turn is fed with crop .... dried fish, rotten meat, human waste, rabbit skin and blood were ...

  6. The immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3 month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  7. Nanoparticles in ionic liquids: interactions and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiqi; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2015-07-28

    Ionic liquids (ILs), defined as low-melting organic salts, are a novel class of compounds with unique properties and a combinatorially great chemical diversity. Ionic liquids are utilized as synthesis and dispersion media for nanoparticles as well as for surface functionalization. Ionic liquid and nanoparticle hybrid systems are governed by a combined effect of several intermolecular interactions between their constituents. For each interaction, including van der Waals, electrostatic, structural, solvophobic, steric, and hydrogen bonding, the characterization and quantitative calculation methods together with factors affecting these interactions are reviewed here. Various self-organized structures based on nanoparticles in ionic liquids are generated as a result of a balance of these intermolecular interactions. These structures, including colloidal glasses and gels, lyotropic liquid crystals, nanoparticle-stabilized ionic liquid-containing emulsions, ionic liquid surface-functionalized nanoparticles, and nanoscale ionic materials, possess properties of both ionic liquids and nanoparticles, which render them useful as novel materials especially in electrochemical and catalysis applications. This review of the interactions within nanoparticle dispersions in ionic liquids and of the structure of nanoparticle and ionic liquid hybrids provides guidance on the rational design of novel ionic liquid-based materials, enabling applications in broad areas.

  8. Utilisation of liquid residues; Verwertung von fluessigen Rueckstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, E [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany). Lab. Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    1995-05-01

    The author describes experiments in which combustible liquid residues were mixed with diesel oil in order to obtain fuels for slightly modified diesel engines. The technical problems can be solved. In a trial operation period, various refuse/diesel oil fuels were tested for more than 300 hours. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine hochwertige thermische Verwertung von fluessigen Rueckstaenden waere moeglich, wenn es gelaenge, entsprechende Rueckstaende so aufzubereiten, dass sie als Kraftstoffe verwendet werden koennten. Diese Kraftstoffe koennten dann in Verbrennungsmotoren, die Blockheizkraftwerke antreiben, eingesetzt werden. Blockheizkraftwerke liefern mit einem besonders guenstigen Wirkunkungsgrad elektrische und thermische Nutzenergie; die Verbrennungsmotoren in solchen Kraftwerken werden derzeit mit heute ueblichen Kraftstoffen, aber beispielsweise auch mit Deponie- und Biogas betrieben. (orig.)

  9. Utilization of organic residues using heterotrophic microalgae and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Rumpold, Birgit A

    2018-02-01

    Various organic residues occur globally in the form of straw, wood, green biomass, food waste, feces, manure etc. Other utilization strategies apart from anaerobic digestion, composting and incineration are needed to make use of the whole potential of organic residues as sources of various value added compounds. This review compares the cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae and insects using organic residues as nutrient sources and illuminates their potential with regard to biomass production, productivity and yield, and utilization strategies of produced biomasses. Furthermore, cultivation processes as well as advantages and disadvantages of utilization processes are identified and discussed. It was shown that both heterotrophic algae and insects are able to reduce a sufficient amount of organic residues by converting it into biomass. The biomass composition of both organisms is similar which allows similar utilization strategies in food and feed, chemicals and materials productions. Even though insect is the more complex organism, biomass production can be carried out using simple equipment without sterilization and hydrolysis of organic residues. Contrarily, heterotrophic microalgae require a pretreatment of organic residues in form of sterilization and in most cases hydrolysis. Interestingly, the volumetric productivity of insect biomass exceeds the productivity of algal biomass. Despite legal restrictions, it is expected that microalgae and insects will find application as alternative food and feed sources in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  11. 76 FR 23914 - National Organic Program; Periodic Residue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... NOP. Residue testing plays an important role in organic certification by providing a means for... OFPA (7 U.S.C. 6503 through 6507) from creating certification programs to certify organic farms or... State organic certification program may contain additional requirements for the production and handling...

  12. Method and apparatus for evaporating radioactive liquid and calcinating the residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus and a process for evaporating liquid wastes and calcining the residue. The liquid is sprayed against a hollow, rotating heated cylinder within a casing. The dried residue is scraped from the rotating cylinder and released through a valve at the bottom of the casing, while the effluent gas is filtered

  13. Liquid oil and residual characteristics of printed circuit board recycle by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis is a technology for recycling of the non-metal fraction of PCBs. • Liquid product constituents were analyzed for PCB pyrolysis. • Water-soluble ionic species were determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. - Abstract: Non-metal fractions of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) were thermally treated (200–500 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen were determined by elemental analyzer, bromine by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), phosphorus by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), and 29 trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for raw material and pyrolysis residues. Organic compositions of liquid oil were identified by GC (gas chromatography)–MS, trace element composition by ICP system, and 12 water-soluble ions by IC (ionic chromatography). Elemental content of carbon was >450 mg/g, oxygen 300 mg/g, bromine and hydrogen 60 mg/g, nitrogen 30 mg/g, and phosphorus 28 mg/g. Sulfur was trace in PCBs. Copper content was 25–28 mg/g, iron 1.3–1.7 mg/g, tin 0.8–1.0 mg/g and magnesium 0.4–1.0 mg/g; those were the main metals in the raw materials and pyrolytic residues. In the liquid products, carbon content was 68–73%, hydrogen was 10–14%, nitrogen was 4–5%, and sulfur was less than 0.05% at pyrolysis temperatures from 300 to 500 °C. Phenol, 3-bromophenol, 2-methylphenol and 4-propan-2-ylphenol were major species in liquid products, accounting for >50% of analyzed organic species. Bromides, ammonium and phosphate were the main species in water sorption samples for PCB pyrolysis exhaust.

  14. The removal of dinitrochlorobenzene from industrial residuals by liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrochlorobenzenes (NCBs are very important in the chemical industry since they have been used as raw material for the manufacture of crop protection products, as active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry, as pigments and as antioxidants as well as for other uses. In industrial processes, NCBs are produced by monochlorobenzene (MCB nitration reactions and one of the main residuals formed is dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, which is mainly composed of the isomer 2,4DNCB. This subproduct, although of commercial interest when in its pure state, is generally incinerated due to the high costs of recovery treatment and purification. The objective of this study is to present an alternative to the treatment of industrial residuals containing DNCB. The technique consists of converting DNCB into sodium dinitrophenolate, which is very soluble in water and is also easy to reuse. For this purpose, liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction (alkaline hydrolysis with a rotating disc contactor (RDC is used. Experimental data on MCB nitration reactions as well as alkaline hydrolysis using a rotating disc contactor are presented.

  15. Transport of Liquid Phase Organic Solutes in Liquid Crystalline Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sangil

    2010-01-01

    Porous cellulose nitrate membranes were impregnated with 8CB and PCH5 LCs (liquid crystals) and separations of solutes dissolved in aqueous phases were performed while monitoring solute concentration via UV-VIS spectrometry. The diffusing organic solutes, which consist of one aromatic ring and various functional groups, were selected to exclude molecular size effects on the diffusion and sorption. We studied the effects on solute transport of solute intra-molecular hydrogen bonding and so...

  16. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  17. Nitrogen Released From Organic Residues Using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y.G.M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; Abdel Salam, A.A.; El-Degwy, S.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Incubation technique was followed under laboratory condition to evaluate and determine the rate of organic residues decomposition as well as N released in media. Rice straw, soybean straw, and leuceana cutting residue were used. These materials were incubated on virgin sandy soil up to 90 days intervals. Cups with mixture of sand and organic residues were inoculated with fungi, bacteria and mixture of them. Un inoculated treatment was also included. Results showed that N released from the different organic materials was significant at 30 days of incubation. It seems that presence of Azotobacter was associated with enhanced demand on soluble N at this stage. Superiority of leucaena over the other two sources of rice straw and soybean straw occurred particularly during the 15 to 30.day period. In greenhouse experiment, the results indicated that N derived from organic materials was high and easily released from compost as mediated materials comparing to leucaena as undigested raw materials. In the same time, barley had more benefits from organic residues than lupine crop

  18. Niclosamide residues in milk and organs of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hindi, A.M.; Sidra, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    14 C-Niclosamide was administered to two groups of lactating goats at levels of 2ppm for five consecutive days and 10ppm as a single dose. Residues of the molluscicide in milk, if at all present, did not exceed 0.001 ppm at any time. About 50% of the administered activity was excreted in faeces, while 30% excreted through urine in animals surviving 6 days after withdrawal. The unchanged molluscicide is present only in relatively trace amounts. The highest residues in organs were found in the liver of both groups (0.01-0.04 ppm). From the results it could be concluded that absorbed niclosamide is completely metabolised and rapidly eliminated through urine, leaving little or no residues of the unchanged molluscicide. Little or no residues were detected in lean muscles and milk which are consumed by humans. There is no preferential deposition of the molluscicide or its metabolites in fat

  19. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  20. Minerilization of carbon and nitrogen of organic residues from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minerilization of carbon and nitrogen of organic residues from selected plants in a tropical cropping system. O M Onuh, HA Okorie. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences Vol. 3 (1) 2005 pp. 11-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Treatment of radioactive organics liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Galarce, Tania

    1999-01-01

    Because of the danger that radioactive wastes can pose to society and to the environment a viable treatment alternative must be developed to prepare these wastes for final disposal. The waste studied in this work is a liquid organic waste contaminated with the radioisotope tritium. This must be treated and then changed into solid form in a 200 liter container. This study defined an optimum formulation that immobilizes the liquid waste. The organic waste is first submitted to an absorption treatment, with Celite absorbent, which had the best physical characteristics from the point of view of radioactive waste management. Then this was solidified by forming a cement mortar, using a highly resistant local cement, Polpaico 400. Various mixes were tested, with different water/cement, waste/absorbent and absorbed waste/cement ratios, until a mixture that met the quality control requirements was achieved. The optimum mixture obtained has a water/cement ratio of 0.35 (p/p) that is the amount of water needed to make the mixture workable, and minimum water for hydrating the cement; a waste/absorbent ration of 0.5 (v/v), where the organic liquid is totally absorbed, and is incorporated in the solid's crystalline network; and an absorbed waste/cement ratio of 0.8 (p/p), which represents the minimum amount of cement needed to obtain a solid product with the required mechanical resistance. The mixture's components join together with no problem, to produce a good workable mixture. It takes about 10 hours for the mixture to harden. After 14 days, the resulting solid product has a resistance to compression of 52 Kgf/cm2. The formulation contains 22.9% immobilized organic waste, 46.5% cement, 14.3% Celite and 16.3% water. Organic liquid waste can be treated and a solid product obtained, that meets the qualitative and quantitative parameters required for its disposal. (CW)

  2. NOCHAR Polymers: An Aqueous and Organic Liquid Solidification Process for Cadarache LOR (Liquides Organiques Radioactifs) - 13195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaudey, Claire-Emilie; Renou, Sebastien; Porco, Julien; Kelley, Dennis; Cochaud, Chantal; Serrano, Roger

    2013-01-01

    polymer-organic cure, over time, the polymer continues to collapse on the organic to create a permanent bond. The N960 has the ability to absorb aqueous waste up to 100 times its own weight. It creates a strong mechanical bond which permanently traps the contamination imbedded in the aqueous liquids. As a consequence, these two polymers seem to be able to constitute a suitable solidification matrix for a final acceptance in storage on ANDRA sites. In order to validate the polymers as an acceptable aqueous and organic solidification process for Cadarache LOR, some solidification tests realized with N910 and N960, have been carried out for different Waste/Polymer ratios. The determination of the best Waste/Polymer ratio and of the optimal experimental parameters has been made through an exudation test. Indeed, the process prevents leaching and it results in the absence of residual free organic or aqueous liquid which is forbidden in storage by ANDRA specifications. With these test results, we generated scientific data which are fundamental to obtain an ANDRA agreement. As a conclusion, the aim of this study is to demonstrate that the solidification by polymers can constitute a pre-treatment solution for Cadarache LOR and more generally, for various organic and mixed organic/aqueous waste which can not be directly acceptable at CENTRACO facility or at ANDRA storage sites. This work is, therefore, a solid background to demonstrate the feasibility of the waste pre-treatment by solidification with polymers and to encourage the development of this process. (authors)

  3. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Liquid organic radioactive wastes are generated from the use of radioisotopes in nuclear research centres and in medical and industrial applications. The volume of these wastes is small by comparison with aqueous radioactive wastes, for example; nevertheless, a strategy for the effective management of these wastes is necessary in order to ensure their safe handling, processing, storage and disposal. A aqueous radioactive wastes may be discharged to the environment after the radioactivity has decayed or been removed. By contrast, organic radioactive wastes require management steps that not only take account of their radioactivity, but also of their chemical content. This is because both the radioactivity and the organic chemical nature can have detrimental effects on health and the environment. Liquid radioactive wastes from these applications typically include vacuum pump oil, lubricating oil and hydraulic fluids, scintillation cocktails from analytical laboratories, solvents from solvent extraction research and uranium refining, and miscellaneous organic solvents. The report describes the factors which should be considered in the development of appropriate strategies for managing this class of wastes from generation to final disposal. Waste sources and characterization, treatment and conditioning processes, packaging, interim storage and the required quality assurance are all discussed. The report is intended to provide guidance to developing Member States which do not have nuclear power generation. A range of processes and procedures is presented, though emphasis is given to simple, easy-to-operate processes requiring less sophisticated and relatively inexpensive equipment. 31 refs, 16 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Solidification of oils and organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Colombo, P.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    The suitability of selected solidification media for application in the disposal of low-level oil and other organic liquid wastes has been investigated. In the past, these low-level wastes (LLWs) have commonly been immobilized by sorption onto solid absorbents such as vermiculite or diatomaceous earth. Evolving regulations regarding the disposal of these materials encourage solidification. Solidification media which were studied include Portland type I cement; vermiculite plus Portland type I cement; Nuclear Technology Corporation's Nutek 380-cement process; emulsifier, Portland type I cement-sodium silicate; Delaware Custom Materiel's cement process; and the US Gypsum Company's Envirostone process. Waste forms have been evaluated as to their ability to reliably produce free standing monolithic solids which are homogeneous (macroscopically), contain < 1% free standing liquids by volume and pass a water immersion test. Solidified waste form specimens were also subjected to vibratory shock testing and flame testing. Simulated oil wastes can be solidified to acceptable solid specimens having volumetric waste loadings of less than 40 volume-%. However, simulated organic liquid wastes could not be solidified into acceptable waste forms above a volumetric loading factor of about 10 volume-% using the solidification agents studied

  5. Heat transfer properties of organic coolants containing high boiling residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbage, A.G.; Driver, M.; Waller, P.R.

    1964-01-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made in forced convection with Santowax R, mixtures of Santowax R and pyrolytic high boiling residue, mixtures of Santowax R and CMRE Radiolytic high boiling residue, and OMRE coolant, in the range of Reynolds number 10 4 to 10 5 . The data was correlated with the equation Nu = 0.015 Re b 0.85 Pr b 0.4 with an r.m.s. error of ± 8.5%. The total maximum error arising from the experimental method and inherent errors in the physical property data has been estimated to be less than ± 8.5%. From the correlation and physical property data, the decrease in heat transfer coefficient with increasing high boiling residue concentration has been determined. It has been shown that subcooled boiling in organic coolants containing high boiling residues is a complex phenomenon and the advantages to be gained by operating a reactor in this region may be marginal. Gas bearing pumps used initially in these experiments were found to be unsuitable; a re-designed ball bearing system lubricated with a terphenyl mixture was found to operate successfully. (author)

  6. The study on process of recycling uranium in mixture of residue and liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Shen Weiwei; Hao Jidong; Wu Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    The treat method of mixture of residue and liquid produced from HWR nuclear fuel chemical process using some kind of U_3O_8 powder was studied in this experiment. For recycling the uranium in mixture of residue and liquid, chemical dissolving method, washing and centrifuging method and dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was contrasted in this test. The merit of dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method is simpler, more effective and higher uranium recycling ratio. Next, dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was studied systematically. As a result, the main influence factors of uranium recycling ratio is dip sour degree and dip sour temperature. The influence law of factors to uranium recycling ratio and filtering effect was found out also. Along with increasing of dip sour degree and dip sour temperature, uranium recycling ratio increases and speed of filtrate increases also. At last, the process of batch treating mixture of residue and liquid was build and abundant uranium was recycled. (authors)

  7. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Michalski, Grzegorz; Mercik, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors) ...

  8. Separation of water from organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, I.G.; Villiers Naylor, T. de.

    1990-04-10

    This invention relates to the separation of water from fluids by the pervaporation process using a membrane. The invention is characterized in that the membrane has an active layer which consists essentially only of polymers of an unsaturated organic acid, the acid having not more than 6 carbon atoms for every acid group (not counting any carbon atoms in the acid groups), and the polymer having at least a substantial proportion of the acid groups in the form of a salt. The preferred fluids for use in the process of the invention are organic fluids, such as a hydrocarbon gas (in particular, methane) or a liquid. The process is especially suitable for separating water from mixtures with alkanols, in particular alkanols having 1 to 5 carbon atoms in the molecule, such as ethanol and isopropanol. The unsaturated organic acid may be a sulfur acid, such as a sulfonate or a sulfate or a phosphorus acid, but is preferably a carboxylic acid. Thus, the active layer may be poly(acrylic acid) or poly(maleic acid). The cation of the salt form of the acid groups is preferably an alkali metal, especially cesium. Experiments are described to illustrate the invention. 13 tabs.

  9. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C.

    2014-10-01

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  10. Determination of veterinary antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique La Rosa Zambrano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available TITLE: Determination of veterinary antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by liquid chromatography Introduction: The presence of certain infectious agents makes necessary the use of antibiotics to ensure the welfare of animals destined for human consumption; however, the withdrawal time must be considered and respected since there is the possibility of finding residues above the permitted levels, which could constitute a risk to public health. Objective: Present a collection of information based on how is performed the detection and quantification of antibiotic residues in various products of animal origin using chromatography methods. Method: Review of databases in Elsevier, SciELO, Springer, Hindawi, FAO, EFSA, Senasa and Sanipes, using keywords such as “liquid chromatography”, “mass spectrometry”, “antibiotic residues” and “products of animal origin” in Spanish and English. Results: They were selected 71 references among articles, book chapters, norms and regulations published between 2000 and 2017, which it is emphasized that chromatographic methodologies for antibiotic residues monitoring must be sensitive, reproducible, reliable and identify volumes in mg/kg; likewise, they must follow the requirements of international standards for the maximum residue limits detecction. Conclusions: Liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer is the most used technique to allow the separation of complex matrices based on the molecular weight of the compound (antibiotic or its fragments; however, It is complex, expensive and requires highly trained personnel.

  11. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Michalski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.

  12. High-temperature vitrification of Hanford residual-liquid waste in a continuous melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.M.

    1980-04-01

    Over 270 kg of high-temperature borosilicate glass have been produced in a series of three short-term tests in the High-Temperature Ceramic Melter vitrification system at PNL. The glass produced was formulated to vitrify simulated Hanford residual-liquid waste. The tests were designed to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-temperature, continuous-vitrification technology for the immobilization of the residual-liquid waste, (2) test the airlift draining technique utilized by the high-temperature melter, (3) compare glass produced in this process to residual-liquid glass produced under laboratory conditions, (4) investigate cesium volatility from the melter during waste processing, and (5) determine the maximum residual-liquid glass production rate in the high-temperature melter. The three tests with the residual-liquid composition confirmed the viability of the continuous-melting vitrification technique for the immobilization of this waste. The airlift draining technique was demonstrated in these tests and the glass produced from the melter was shown to be less porous than the laboratory-produced glass. The final glass produced from the second test was compared to a glass of the same composition produced under laboratory conditions. The comparative tests found the glasses to be indistinguishable, as the small differences in the test results fell within the precision range of the characterization testing equipment. The cesium volatility was examined in the final test. This examination showed that 0.44 wt % of the cesium (assumed to be cesium oxide) was volatilized, which translates to a volatilization rate of 115 mg/cm 2 -h

  13. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  14. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Ionic Liquids and Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A corresponding-states form of the generalized van der Waals equation, previously developed for mixtures of an ionic liquid and a supercritical solute, is here extended to mixtures including an ionic liquid and a solvent (water or organic). Group contributions to characteristic parameters...... are implemented, leading to an entirely predictive method for densities of mixed compressed ionic liquids. Quantitative agreement with experimental data is obtained over wide ranges of conditions. Previously, the method has been applied to solubilities of sparingly soluble gases in ionic liquids and in organic...... solvents. Here we show results for heavier and more-than-sparingly solutes such as carbon dioxide and propane in ionic liquids....

  15. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  16. Environmental Accounting Evidence in Organic Solid Residue Treatment Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Batista Padilha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern with natural resources and the environment brings out the true dimension of these issues. The awareness of society causes companies to adopt environmentally correct policies and attitudes, so as to contribute with the preservation of the environment. Accounting, as a social science which studies the patrimony and its affectations, has adapted to the need of its users and has started to care about proper presentation and measurement of environmental items, for effective publication to society. With this premise, this study aims to identify and describe the contributions of Environmental Accounting to the process of environmental accounting disclosure of a company, which deals with organic solid residues from agriculture. Using a case study, it has been intended to analyze the production process and to list the environmental items and events that could benefit the company through their disclosure. It was intended, with this study, to highlight the contribution that the environmental accounting may add to the company, with proper measurement and presentation proposals. We have been able to verify that, indeed, there are events of an environmental nature resulting from the production process and also of the investment that it carries out periodically to preserve nature; however, there re faults in the accounting records from an environmental point of view. The application of environmental accounting in the organization allows for a broad view of environmental management and sustainable development adopted by the entity, registering all events that may generate economic and financial changes.

  17. Use of diatomaceous to liquid organic wastes adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza M, Azucena; Padilla S, Ulises

    1999-01-01

    Background: One of the radioactive wastes that the Radioactive Wastes Management Unit must process are organic liquids from external generators and from sections of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The wastes from external generators contain H 3 and C 14; while the wastes from the CCHEN are contaminated with uranium. The total volume of liquid organic wastes that must be treated is 5 m3. The options recommended for processing these wastes are incineration or the adsorption of the organic liquid by some adsorbing medium and its subsequent immobilization in cement molds. Due to the cost of incineration, the adsorption method was chosen for study. Objective: To find the optimum amount of adsorbent to be saturated with radioactive organic liquid from liquid scintillation and to study immobilization in cement molds. Methodology: Adsorption granulated (1568 Merck) and diatom earth were tested as adsorbent mediums. The adsorbents were mixed in different ratios of volume with the organic liquid. Then the waste was mixed with different water/cement ratios to define the best immobilization conditions. Conclusions: The tests carried out with 2 adsorbents recommended in the literature and available in the CCHEN show that as adsorbent waste ratio decreases, the percentage of liquid adsorbed increases, as expected: a greater volume of adsorbent retains a greater quantity of liquid, with an increase in the final volume, depending on the adsorbent used. Of these adsorbents, the diatom earth was better for treating liquid organic wastes. It had 100% adsorption and an increased volume of 0%, which is more than enough from the volumetric point of view of waste management. The ratio 0.8 liquid/adsorbent also showed good characteristics, but more study is needed to decide on the above, since liquid remains to be adsorbed. This work must continue to study the repeatability of results, to obtain physical and radiological characteristics for the immobilized products and to

  18. 40 CFR 63.494 - Back-end process provisions-residual organic HAP limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organic HAP limitations. 63.494 Section 63.494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.494 Back-end process provisions—residual organic HAP limitations. (a) The monthly weighted average residual organic HAP content of all grades of elastomer processed, measured after the stripping operation...

  19. Reuse of spent bleaching earth by polymerisation of residual organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Abdelhamid; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    Spent bleaching earth (SBE) is a waste generated by the edible oil industry that currently has limited options for beneficial reuse. In excess of ∼2 million tonnes per year of SBE is generated world-wide with major quantities available in the middle-east where significant volumes of edible oils are produced. Low pressure compaction followed by heat treatment at 150°C causes polymerisation of the residual organic components in SBE and this produces monolithic samples with high unconfined compressive strengths (54MPa). SBE can therefore be used to manufacture novel clay blocks for use in construction that are bonded by polymerised vegetable oil. This represents a new, innovative and resource efficient application for SBE. In this research, commercial SBE has been characterised and the effects of key processing variables (temperature and compaction pressure) on the compressive strength, porosity and density of the SBE clay blocks are reported and the mechanisms responsible for strength development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthetic transformation into liquid hydrocarbons of organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, F P.A.

    1918-09-09

    The transformation is obtained by a pyrogenation descending in a closed vessel instead of recourse to distillation ascending as is usually done, the material poor in hydrogen being hydrogenated by a contribution from the gas during the pyrogenation; synthesis with the vapors from the treated material will also be realized. As a first product there is obtained an analogue of naphtha or crude gasoline containing in the liquid state all the bodies composing the material pyrogenated. This first product is purified and rectified by successive distillation, acidulation, washing, etc., according to methods in use for refining petroleum obtained from the ground.

  1. Influx of CO2 from Soil Incubated Organic Residues at Constant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukat Ali Abro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature induced CO2 from genotypic residue substances is still less understood. Two types of organic residues (wheat- maize were incubated at a constant temperature (25°C to determine the rate and cumulative influx of CO2 in laboratory experiment for 40 days. Further, the effect of surface and incorporated crop residues with and without phosphorus addition was also studied. Results revealed that mixing of crop residues increased CO2-C evolution significantly & emission rare was 37% higher than that of control. At constant temperature, soil mixed residues, had higher emission rates CO2-C than the residues superimposed. There was linear correlation of CO2-C influxed for phosphorus levels and residue application ways with entire incubation at constant temperature. The mixing of organic residues to soil enhanced SOC levels and biomass of microbially bound N; however to little degree ammonium (NH4-N and nitrate NO3-N nitrogen were decreased.

  2. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Fruits import by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamees Munef Abdul-Latef

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables.  This studycollected 24 samples and reported a method based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. For determination of pesticide residues used in Some fruits which were collected from different markets of Baghdad city to make 24 samples from (peel , core, mixture for each type of fruits markets as:  Oranges( Egypt , Africa, Pomegranate ( Egypt, Mango ( Kenya , Pears (China,  Plum fruits ( Africa , Kiwi (Turkey .That detective of ( 5 different  pesticides (diazinon,  malathion, chlorpyrifos ,parathion  and cypermethrin. The results were detected of multi-residues of  pesticides on the fruit in ( peel , core , mixture may be in the limit of Maximum residue limits(MRL or higher of it   . The pesticides detected that exceeding the limits are: cypermethrin  in Kiwi (peel, core and mixtureat(0.204,0.038, 0.537, in pomegranate detected in (peel and mixture at (0.509,0.189 mg/kg , Diazinondetccted in Egyptian orange in (peel ,core and mixture at (0.031,0.207, 0.099 mg/kg . Malathion and Parathion was not detected at any type of fruits and  that results was compared with codex of FAO/WHO(2013. That data is important to monitor residues in food and to fill gaps in current knowledge would be helpful in assessing human exposure risks from ingestion of contaminated Fruits Imported to our country .

  4. A New Prediction Method for Organic Liquids Sorption into Polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randová, A.; Bartovská, L.; Izák, Pavel; Friess, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 475, FEB 1 (2015), s. 545-551 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic liquids * liquid non-solvents * polymers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.557, year: 2015

  5. Rapid ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for the determination of fenbendazole marker residue in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdouka, Venetia I; Papapanagiotou, Elias P; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Fletouris, Dimitrios J

    2017-04-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic method that allows for the quantitative determination of fenbendazole residues in fermented dairy products is described. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-phosphoric acid and the extracts were defatted with hexane to be further partitioned into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was evaporated to dryness and the residue was reconstituted in mobile phase. Separation of fenbendazole and its sulphoxide, sulphone, and p-hydroxylated metabolites was carried out isocratically with a mobile phase containing both positively and negatively charged pairing ions. Overall recoveries ranged from 79.8 to 88.8%, while precision data, based on within and between days variations, suggested an overall relative standard deviation of 6.3-11.0%. The detection and quantification limits were lower than 9 and 21μg/kg, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate fenbendazole residues in Feta cheese and yoghurt made from spiked and incurred ovine milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new chiral residue analysis method for triazole fungicides in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    A rapid, simple, reliable, and environment-friendly method for the residue analysis of the enantiomers of four chiral fungicides including hexaconazole, triadimefon, tebuconazole, and penconazole in water samples was developed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) pretreatment followed by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD detection. The enantiomers were separated on a Chiralpak IC column by HPLC applying n-hexane or petroleum ether as mobile phase and ethanol or isopropanol as modifier. The influences of mobile phase composition and temperature on the resolution were investigated and most of the enantiomers could be completely separated in 20 min under optimized conditions. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the separation was enthalpy-driven. The elution orders were detected by both circular dichroism detector (CD) and optical rotatory dispersion detector (ORD). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance for pretreatment of the chiral fungicides residue in water samples, such as the extraction and dispersive solvents and their volume, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum microextraction condition the enrichment factors were over 121 and the linearities were 30-1500 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) over 0.9988 and the recoveries were between 88.7% and 103.7% at the spiking levels of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.05 mg L(-1) (for each enantiomer) with relative standard deviations varying from 1.38% to 6.70% (n = 6) The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 8.5 to 29.0 µg L(-1) (S/N = 3). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cofermentation of energy crops and organic residues; Ergebnisse der Kovergaerung von Energiepflanzen und organischen Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, B. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam-Bornim (Germany); Vollmer, G.R. [Biotechnologie Nordhausen (BTN) (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    There are currently more than 1500 agricultural biogas plans in Germany, most of which work by the liquid fermentation principle which is commercially available. At a mean hydraulic time of residue of 20 - 30 days and a charge of about 1.5 to 4 kg of organic matter m{sup -1}d{sup -1}, about 350 - 550 l of biogas can be produced per kg of organic matter (liquid or solid manure). Biogas yields are higher for cofermentation of liquid manure with energy crops and/or high-energy organic residues. Some figures are given: About 1000 l per kg{sup -1} for beetroot, pressed pellets of rape, sugarbeet, or rye, 600 - 700 l per kg{sup -1} for grass, malt residuum, sugar pulp, grape cake or potato pulp. In the case of silo-fermented corn, yields were higher than reported in earlier publications, i.e. about 800 instead of 200 l per kg{sup -1}. [German] Die Gewinnung von Biogas aus Guelle, Stallmist, pflanzlichen Biomassen oder organischen Reststoffen aus der Agro- oder Lebensmittelindustrie leistet heute durch das EEG in ueber 1500 Landwirtschaftsbetrieben Deutschlands einen Beitrag zur Sicherung des Einkommens. Die Landwirte nutzen hierfuer vorwiegend die Technik der Fluessigvergaerung, die von zahlreichen Firmen auf dem Markt angeboten werden. Bei mittleren hydraulischen Verweilzeiten von 20 bis 30 Tagen oder Faulraumbelastungen von etwa 1,5 bis 4 kg oS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} koennen aus Guelle oder Stallmist je kg zugefuehrte organische Substanz 350 bis 550 l Biogas gewonnen werden. Deutlich hoehere spezifische Biogasausbeuten erhaelt man durch die gemeinsame Vergaerung von Guelle mit Energiepflanzen und/oder energiereichen organischen Reststoffen (Kofermentation). Fuer Ruebensilage, Rapskuchen, Zuckerrueben-Pressschnitzel oder Roggen kann man oS-Biogasausbeuten von etwa 1000 l kg{sup -1} rechnen, waehrend sich der entsprechende Wert fuer Graeser, Schlempe, Melasse, Trester oder Kartoffelpuelpe im Bereich von 600 bis 700 l kg{sup -1} bewegt. Der in der Fachliteratur oft zu

  8. Application of microwave irradiation to organic liquid phase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kun; Liu Hua; Ji Xuelin

    1994-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used in organic liquid phase reactions to significantly reduce the reaction time and improve the yield. The proposed mechanism, the development of techniques and reactions, such as Diels-Alder, ene, rearrangement reactions etc., are discussed

  9. Self-Organized Structures in Magnetic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Bohr, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    , but the bigger ones grow on the expense of the smaller. From the center of mass of the columns a 2D-Veronoi pattern is constructed in the plane of the cell, and the edge statistics are found as a function of the fraction of magnetic liquid in the Hele-Shaw cell. The average number of edges in the Veronoi cells...

  10. The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2005-01-01

    Kristensen NH (2005): The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination. Paper presented at Working Group 5 at the XXI Congress of the ESRS 22-27 August, 2005 Keszthely, Hungary......Kristensen NH (2005): The liquidity of the Organic movement - reconversion or reillumination. Paper presented at Working Group 5 at the XXI Congress of the ESRS 22-27 August, 2005 Keszthely, Hungary...

  11. Bio-inspired Edible Superhydrophobic Interface for Reducing Residual Liquid Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Bi, Jingran; Wang, Siqi; Zhang, Tan; Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Haitao; Cheng, Shasha; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-03-07

    Significant wastage of residual liquid food, such as milk, yogurt, and honey, in food containers has attracted great attention. In this work, a bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface was fabricated using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved and edible honeycomb wax, arabic gum, and gelatin by a simple and low-cost method. The bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface showed multiscale structures, which were similar to that of a lotus leaf surface. This bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface displayed high contact angles for a variety of liquid foods, and the residue of liquid foods could be effectively reduced using the bio-inspired interface. To improve the adhesive force of the superhydrophobic interface, a flexible edible elastic film was fabricated between the interface and substrate material. After repeated folding and flushing for a long time, the interface still maintained excellent superhydrophobic property. The bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface showed good biocompatibility, which may have potential applications as a functional packaging interface material.

  12. Thickness of Residual Wetting Film in Liquid-Liquid Displacement in Capillary Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Gaul, W.; Vigil, D.

    2010-12-01

    Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a non-wetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of this wetting film? Understanding this question may determine the ultimate oil recovery. A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. We develop a hydrodynamic, testable theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob of one fluid moving in another, with neither phase being gas. In its relationship to the capillary number Ca, the thickness of the film is predicted to be proportional to Ca2 at lower Ca and to level off at a constant value of about 20 % the channel radius at higher Ca. The thickness of the film is deduced to be approximately unaffected by the viscosity ratio of the fluids. We have conducted our own laboratory experiments and compiled experimental data from other studies, all of which are mutually consistent and confirm the salient features of the theory. At the same time, the classic law, originally deduced for films surrounding moving gas bubbles but often believed to hold for liquids as well, fails to explain the observations.

  13. Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin E H; Haynes, Richard J; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    In an alumina refinery, bauxite ore is treated with sodium hydroxide at high temperatures and pressures and for every tone of alumina produced, about 2 tones of alkaline, saline bauxite processing waste is also produced. At Alcoa, a dry stacking system of disposal is used, and it is the sand fraction of the processing waste that is rehabilitated. There is little information available regarding the most appropriate amendments to add to the processing sand to aid in revegetation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the addition of organic wastes (biosolids and poultry manure), in the presence or absence of added residue mud, would affect the properties of the residue sand and its suitability for revegetation. Samples of freshly deposited residue sand were collected from Alcoa's Kwinana refinery. Samples were treated with phosphogypsum (2% v/v), incubated, and leached. A laboratory experiment was then set up in which the two organic wastes were applied at 0 or the equivalent to 60 tones ha(-1) in combination with residue mud added at rates of 0%, 10% and 20% v/v. Samples were incubated for 8 weeks, after which, key chemical, physical and microbial properties of the residue sand were measured along with seed germination. Additions of residue mud increased exchangeable Na(+), ESP and the pH, and HCO (3) (-) and Na(+) concentrations in saturation paste extracts. Additions of biosolids and poultry manure increased concentrations of extractable P, NH (4) (+) , K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. Addition of residue mud, in combination with organic wastes, caused a marked decrease in macroporosity and a concomitant increase in mesoporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. With increasing residue mud additions, the percentage of sample present as sand particles (2 mm diameter) increased; greatest aggregation occurred where a combination of residue mud and poultry manure were added. Stability of aggregates, as measured by

  14. Determination of tylosin residues in pig tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liguoro, M; Anfossi, P; Angeletti, R; Montesissa, C

    1998-06-01

    In accordance with the maximum residue limit of 100 micrograms kg-1 established by EU legislation, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the measurement of tylosin residues in pig tissues (fat, kidney, liver and muscle). Tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic, is extracted with water-methanol and cleaned-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on cation-exchange cartridges using methanol elution. Tylosin was determined by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm and the mean recovery from pig tissues fortified in the range 50-200 micrograms kg-1 was 70-85%, with intra- and inter-day RSDs in the ranges 3.4-9.1 and 3.9-10.1% respectively.

  15. Crop residue decomposition, residual soil organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in arable soils with contrasting textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matus, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of cropping, soil texture and soil structure for the decomposition of 14C- and 15N-labelled crop residues, a study was conducted in a sand and a

  16. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF BIOCONVERSION NEUFCHATEL WHEY INTO RECTIFIED ETHANOL AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER IN SEMI PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemilang Lara UTAMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study was to determine the cost-benefit analysis in neufchatel whey bioconversion into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer. Bioconversion whey into rectified ethanol and organic liquid fertilizer has shown great potential as a way to reduce the pollution resulting from cheese-making process. Semi pilot scale experiment was done to ferment 5 L neufchatel whey using 5% K. lactis at 33°C for 24 h in semi anaerobic plastic container without agitation and then distilled into 96.2% purity. Data collected and analyzed descriptively related to benefit cost ratio/BCR, net present value/NPV and internal rate returns/IRR. The result showed that semi pilot scale bioconversion of neufchatel whey resulting in 106.42 ml rectified ethanol and 4404.22 ml distillery residue. Economic benefit could achieved by the support of distillery residue sales as organic liquid fertilizer.

  17. Investigation of hydrophobic substrates for solution residue analysis utilizing an ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge microplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, Htoo W; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2018-03-12

    A practical method for preparation of solution residue samples for analysis utilizing the ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (AD-LS-APGD-OES) microplasma is described. Initial efforts involving placement of solution aliquots in wells drilled into copper substrates, proved unsuccessful. A design-of-experiment (DOE) approach was carried out to determine influential factors during sample deposition including solution volume, solute concentration, number of droplets deposited, and the solution matrix. These various aspects are manifested in the mass of analyte deposited as well as the size/shape of the product residue. Statistical analysis demonstrated that only those initial attributes were significant factors towards the emission response of the analyte. Various approaches were investigated to better control the location/uniformity of the deposited sample. Three alternative substrates, a glass slide, a poly(tetrafluoro)ethylene (PTFE) sheet, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated glass slide, were evaluated towards the microplasma analytical performance. Co-deposition with simple organic dyes provided an accurate means of determining the location of the analyte with only minor influence on emission responses. The PDMS-coated glass provided the best performance by virtue of its providing a uniform spatial distribution of the residue material. This uniformity yielded an improved limits of detection by approximately 22× for 20 μL and 4 x for 2 μL over the other two substrates. While they operate by fundamentally different processes, this choice of substrate is not restricted to the LS-APGD, but may also be applicable to other AD methods such as DESI, DART, or LIBS. Further developments will be directed towards a field-deployable ambient desorption OES source for quantitative analysis of microvolume solution residues of nuclear forensics importance.

  18. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  19. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  20. Analysis of glyphosate residues in cereals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Johannesen, S.; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2003-01-01

    A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean-up) in ser......A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean...... monitored m/z 168--> 150 (glyphosate) and 170-->152 (internal standard 2- 13 (CN)-N-15-glyphosate) for quantification. The mean recovery was 85% ( n =32) at spiking levels from 0.03 to 0.33 mg kg(-1) . From 1998 to 2001, from the analysis of about 50 samples per annum, a reduction in the glyphosate residues...... was observed owing to a Danish trade decision not to use grain with glyphosate residues for milling or bread production....

  1. Crop residues quantification to obtain self-consumption compost in an organic garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Fuentes, Pilar; Lopez Merino, María; Remedios Alvir, María; Briz de Felipe, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on quantifying the crop residue left after the campaign fall/winter (2011) for the organic garden crops of Agricultural ETSI, located in practice fields, to get compost for self-generated residues arising from within their own fields. This compost is produced by mixing this material with an organic residues source animal. In this way the plant organic residues provided the nitrogen required for an appropriate C/N and the animal organic residues can provide the carbon amount required to achieve an optimal scenario. The garden has a surface area of 180 m2 which was cultured with different seasonal vegetables, different families and attending practices and species associations' rotations, proper of farming techniques. The organic material of animal origin referred to, is rest from sheep renew bed, sustained management support the precepts of organic farming and cottage belongs to practice fields too. At the end of crop cycle, we proceeded to the harvest and sorting of usable crop residues, which was considered as net crop residues. In each case, these residues were subjected to a cutting treatment by the action of a mincing machine and then weighed to estimate the amounts given by each crop. For the sheep bed residue 1m2 was collected after three months having renewed. It had been made by providing 84 kg of straw bales in July and introducing about 12 Kg each. The herd consisted of three females and one playe. Each one of them was feed 300g and 600 g of straw per day. Two alternating different pens were used to simulate a regime of semi-intensive housing. A balance on how much organic residue material was obtained at the end and how much was obtained in the compost process is discussed in terms of volume and nutrients content is discussed.

  2. The Viscosity of Organic Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, C. W.; Trusler, J. P. M.; Vesovic, V.; Wakeham, W. A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the viscosity and density of two heavy hydrocarbon mixtures, Dutrex and Arab Light Flashed Distillate (ALFD), and of their mixtures with hydrogen. The measurements have been carried out with a vibrating-wire device over a range of temperatures from 399 to 547 K and at pressures up to 20 MPa. Measurements have also been carried out on systems in which hydrogen at different concentrations has been dissolved in the liquids. The measurements have an estimated uncertainty of ±5% for viscosity and ±2% for density and represent the first results on these prototypical heavy hydrocarbons. The results reveal that the addition of hydrogen reduces both the density and viscosity of the original hydrocarbon mixture at a particular temperature and pressure.

  3. Residue analysis of orthosulfamuron herbicide in fatty rice using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, orthosulfamuron residues were extracted from fatty (unpolished rice and rice straw using a modified QuEChERS method and analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The matrix-matched calibration was linear over the concentration ranges of 0.01–2.0 mg/kg with determination coefficient (R2 ⩾ 0.997. The recovery rates at two fortification levels (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg were satisfactory and ranged between 88.1% and 100.6%, with relative standard deviation (RSD <8%. The limit of quantitation, 0.03 mg/kg, was lower than the maximum residue limit, 0.05 mg/kg, set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in the Republic of Korea. The developed method was applied successfully to field samples harvested at 116 days and none of the samples were positive for the residue.

  4. Designing Kitaev Spin Liquids in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Kitaev's honeycomb lattice spin model is a remarkable exactly solvable model, which has a particular type of spin liquid (Kitaev spin liquid) as the ground state. Although its possible realization in iridates and α -RuCl3 has been vigorously discussed recently, these materials have substantial non-Kitaev direct exchange interactions and do not have a spin liquid ground state. We propose metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Ru3 + (or Os3 + ), forming the honeycomb lattice as promising candidates for a more ideal realization of Kitaev-type spin models, where the direct exchange interaction is strongly suppressed. The great flexibility of MOFs allows generalization to other three-dimensional lattices for the potential realization of a variety of spin liquids, such as a Weyl spin liquid.

  5. The earthworm gastrointestinal effect on the release of organic bound residues in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    Earthworm activities promote the release of bound residues and the digestive activities of earthworms contribute to the process. Earthworm digestive effects on bound residues can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Physical effects include gastrointestinal abrasion and mixing. The abrasion of soil and litter residues in earthworm gizzards and intestine can grind the food into fine particles, which increase the contact surface with microbial and promote the desorption of bound residues. Chemical effects are attributed to the secreted surfactant substances and digestive enzymes. The surfactants, especially at levels that lead to micellization, can enhance the desorption process of the organic contaminants that sored in the soil. The enzymes in earthworm digestive tracts can decompose the humus in soil, which may promote the release of organic residues that bind with humus.

  6. Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45 mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91 mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003 g d−1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

  7. ANALISIS RESIDU KLORPIRIFOS DALAM SAYUR-SAYURAN DENGAN TEKNIK HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Sentosa Panggabean

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research about analysis of chlorpyrifos residue in vegetables by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC technique has been done. To obtain the optimal measurement results, the measurement performed several important parameters in the chromatographic system was composition of mobile phase, volume injection sample, flow rate and pH eluent. Optimum measurement conditions obtained was mobile phase composition (water : methanol with 70 : 30, volume injection sample are 5 mL, flow rate are 0.5mL/menit and pH eluent are 7. The analytical performance that obtained is good showed with the reproducibility value as percentage coefficient variance (% CV was 0.0664%, limit of detection (LOD was 0.44 ppm, with a recovery percentage of > 95%. The results obtained showed the HPLC technique can be used for the routine analysis in the determination of chlorpyrifos for the vegetable samples. Keywords: Chlorpyrifos, Vegetables, HPLC.

  8. Liquid-chromatographic determination of sarafloxacin residues in channel catfish muscle-tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinertz, J.R.; Dawson, V.K.; Gingerich, W.H.; Cheng, B.; Tubergen, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination of sarafloxacin hydrochloride residues i n channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) fillets. Sarafloxacin was extracted from fillet tissue with acetonitrile=water (1 + 1). The extract was centrifuged and the supernatant was partitioned with hexane. The aqueous fraction was filtered through a 0.45 Mum filter and evaporated to dryness. The sample was redissolved with 20% acetonitrile-methanol (3 + 2) and 80% trifluoroacetic acid (0.1%), Centrifuged, and filtered to remove proteins. Samples were analyzed by chromatography with gradient elution on a c18 column and with fluorescence detection (excitation at 280 nm and emission above 389 nm). Mean recoveries ranged from 85.4 To 104%, and relative standard deviations ranged from 1.06 To 5.58% In samples spiked at concentrations of 10.0-863.8 Ng/g. The method detection limit for sarafloxacin was 1.4 Ng/g.

  9. Determination of oxyfluorfen herbicide and oxyfluorfen amine residues in garbanzo beans by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Miles, C J

    1991-01-01

    Oxyfluorfen and oxyfluorfen amine were determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with ultraviolet (UV) and photoconductivity detection (PCD). A simple extraction procedure acceptably recovered both analytes from garbanzo beans over a wide range of fortifications (0.05 to 20 ppm) (83 +/- 4 for oxyfluorfen; 85 +/- 4 for oxyfluorfen amine). Percent recoveries decreased slightly as the fortification level decreased. Both analytes could be determined simultaneously at a concentration greater than 0.2 ppm in garbanzo beans. Detection limits were 3 ng for oxyfluorfen and 100 ng for oxyfluorfen amine using LC/UV, and 12 ng for both oxyfluorfen and oxyfluorfen amine with LC/PCD. Different knitted reaction coils and photoreactors were evaluated. Photoproduct yields and identification were determined by ion chromatography. The LC/PCD method measures oxyfluorfen and oxyfluorfen amine separately and has a shorter analysis time, while the standard method using gas chromatography measures total residues and is more sensitive.

  10. 77 FR 67239 - National Organic Program; Periodic Residue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... genetically modified organisms (GMOs). AMS does not intend for the testing conducted under section 205.670 to..., but not limited to, pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, and GMOs. AMS notes that, under section 205.671...

  11. Energy driven self-organization in nanoscale metallic liquid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Shirato, N; Favazza, C; Kalyanaraman, R

    2009-10-01

    Nanometre thick metallic liquid films on inert substrates can spontaneously dewet and self-organize into complex nanomorphologies and nanostructures with well-defined length scales. Nanosecond pulses of an ultraviolet laser can capture the dewetting evolution and ensuing nanomorphologies, as well as introduce dramatic changes to dewetting length scales due to the nanoscopic nature of film heating. Here, we show theoretically that the self-organization principle, based on equating the rate of transfer of thermodynamic free energy to rate of loss in liquid flow, accurately describes the spontaneous dewetting. Experimental measurements of laser dewetting of Ag and Co liquid films on SiO(2) substrates confirm this principle. This energy transfer approach could be useful for analyzing the behavior of nanomaterials and chemical processes in which spontaneous changes are important.

  12. Multiclass analysis of antibiotic residues in honey by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose Luis Martínez; Aguilera-Luiz, María Del Mar; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2009-03-11

    A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey. Honey samples were dissolved with Na(2)EDTA, and veterinary residues were extracted from the supernatant by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using OASIS HLB cartridges. The separation and determination was carried out by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in positive mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two ion transitions per compound to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The method was validated, and mean recoveries were evaluated at three concentration levels (10, 50, and 100 microg/kg), ranging from 70 to 120% except for doxycycline, erythromycin, and tylmicosin with recovery higher than 50% at the three levels assayed. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the recoveries were less than 20% within the intraday precision and less than 25% within the interday precision. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were always lower than 4 microg/kg. The developed procedure was applied to 16 honey samples, and erythromycin, sarafloxacin, and tylosin were found in a few samples.

  13. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  14. A system of hydrogen powered vehicles with liquid organic hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.

    1981-07-01

    A motor car system based on the hydrogen produced by nuclear power stations during the night in the summer, and coupled with organic liquid hydride seems to be a feasible system in the near future. Such a system is discussed and the cost is compared with gasoline. (Auth.)

  15. Effectiveness of liquid organic-nitrogen fertilizer in enhancing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ever increasing price of nitrogenous (N) fertilizers coupled with the deleterious effects of imbalanced N fertilizers on the environment necessitates the enhancement of N use efficiency of plants. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Evaluate the uptake of selected nutrients due to application of liquid organic-N ...

  16. The effects of mineral and liquid organic fertilizers on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    süreyya

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. The effects ... The economical effect of liquid organic fertilizer on agriculture may be a factor in the extension of its .... trays (200 ml each cell) at the cotyledonary leaf stage; soil ... electrical conductivity (EC) was 0.088%. ... Number of main stem-shoot on each plant was limited to.

  17. Thermal Properties of Some Organic Liquids Using Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ramadoss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Debye temperature and thermal relaxation time has been calculated in normal and boiling temperature. Using thermal relaxation time, the heat of fusion has been calculated for nineteen organic liquids and the results throw light on the method of calculating heat of fusion.

  18. Determination of hexachlorocyclohexane pesticide residues in wool fat by a combined high-performance liquid chromatographic-gas-liquid chromatographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    Beta- and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane residues were determined in twelve wool fat samples by using a combined high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method. After extraction and chromatographic clean-up on a silca-gel column, the sample was further purified by HPLC on a reversed-phase C-18 column with methanol as the mobile phase. The final determination was effected by GLC with a 1-mCi nickel-63 electron-capture detector. The analytical method was checked by addition of carbon-14-labelled lindane and measurement of the radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. (Auth.)

  19. Experimental Assessment of the Mass of Ash Residue During the Burning of Droplets of a Composite Liquid Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Zakharevich, A. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Syrodoi, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    An experimental study has been made of the regularities of burning of single droplets of typical compositions of a composite liquid fuel during the heating by an air flow with a varied temperature (600-900 K). As the basic components of the compositions of the composite liquid fuel, use was made of the: waste of processing (filter cakes) of bituminous coals of ranks K, C, and T, waste motor, turbine, and transformer oils, process mixture of mazut and oil, heavy crude, and plasticizer. The weight fraction of a liquid combustible component (petroleum) product) ranged within 0-15%. Consideration has been given to droplets of a composite liquid fuel with dimensions (radius) of 0.5 to 2 mm. Conditions of low-temperature initiation of combustion to ensure a minimum possible mass of solid incombustible residue have been determined. Petroleum products have been singled out whose addition to the composition of the composite liquid fuel tends to increase the ash mass (compared to the corresponding composition without a liquid combustible component). Approximation dependences have been obtained which permit predicting the influence of the concentration of the liquid petroleum product as part of the composite liquid fuel on the ash-residue mass.

  20. Solution processed nanogap organic diodes based on liquid crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fei; Iino, Hiroaki; Hanna, Jun-ichi

    2017-09-01

    Co-planar nanogap organic diodes were fabricated with smectic liquid crystalline materials of the benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT) derivative by a spin-coating technique. A high rectification ratio of the order of 106 at ±3 V was achieved when a liquid crystalline material of 2,7-didecyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (10-BTBT-10) was used in a device configuration of Al/10-BTBT-10/pentafluorobenzenethiol-treated Au on a glass substrate, which was 4 orders higher than that of the device based on non-liquid crystalline materials of 2,7-dibutyl benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (4-BTBT-4) and BTBT. Similar results were also observed when another liquid crystalline material of ω, ω'-dioctylterthiophene (8-TTP-8) and a non-liquid crystalline material of terthiophene (TTP) were used. These improved rectifications can be ascribed to the self-assembly properties and controllable molecular orientation of liquid crystalline materials, which made uniform perpendicular oriented polycrystalline films favorable for superior charge transport in nano-channels.

  1. Metal-organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Jing; Gascon, Jorge; Li, Jiansheng; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-11-27

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  2. Metal–organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin

    2017-11-07

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  3. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  4. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  5. Investigation of organic liquid-scintillator optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Juergen; Feilitzsch, Franz von; Goeger-Neff, Marianne; Lewke, Timo; Meindl, Quirin; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Todor, Sebastian; Wurm, Michael [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., 85748 Garching (Germany); Marrodan Undagoitia, Teresa [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    The characterization of different organic liquid-scintillator mixtures is an important step towards the design of a large-scale detector such as LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Its physics goals, extending from particle and geological to astrophysical issues, set high demands on the optical properties of the liquid scintillator. Therefore, small-scale experiments are carried out in order to optimize the final scintillator mixture. PXE, LAB, and dodecane are under consideration as solvents. Setups for the determination of scintillator properties are presented, such as attenuation length, light yield, emission spectra, fluorescence decay times, and quenching factors. Furthermore, results are discussed.

  6. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  7. Determination of Organic Pollutants in Small Samples of Groundwaters by Liquid-Liquid Extraction and Capillary Gas Chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, I.; Leader, R.U.; Higgo, J.J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of 22 organic compounds in polluted groundwaters. The method includes liquid-liquid extraction of the base/neutral organics from small, alkaline groundwater samples, followed by derivatisation and liquid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds after neu...... neutralisation. The extracts were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. Dual detection by flame Ionisation and electron capture was used to reduce analysis time....

  8. Risk Analysis on Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in Potato and Carrot from Conventional and Organic Farms in Citarum Watershed Area, West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphia Rahmawati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Six samples of carrot and potatoes were collected from conventional and organic farms. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs residue was analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of OCPs residue together with the consumption pattern were used to calculate the potential risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI of OCPs residue in carrots and potatoes both from conventional and organic farms were below the standard given in SNI 7313:2008 and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs from USEPA . Hazard quotient (HQ and Hazard Index (HI as effect analysis were below the unity, thus there may not be a concern for non-carcinogenic effect. Risk analysis on cancer effects indicated that potatoes samples were above the recommended risk by EPA (10-6. In addition, risk of potatoes samples from organic samples was higher compare to that of the conventional farm. Cancer risk analysis of carrot samples were found below the recommended risk by EPA. Cancer risk effect of carrot samples from conventional farm was slightly higher compare to that of the organic farm.

  9. Quasiparticles and Fermi liquid behaviour in an organic metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, T.; Chainani, A.; Yamamoto, H.M.; Miyazaki, T.; Akimoto, T.; Shimojima, T.; Ishizaka, K.; Watanabe, S.; Chen, C.-T.; Fukaya, A.; Kato, R.; Shin, S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organic metals display exotic properties such as superconductivity, spin-charge separation and so on and have been described as quasi-one-dimensional Luttinger liquids. However, a genuine Fermi liquid behaviour with quasiparticles and Fermi surfaces have not been reported to date for any organic metal. Here, we report the experimental Fermi surface and band structure of an organic metal (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) obtained using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and show its consistency with first-principles band structure calculations. Our results reveal a quasiparticle renormalization at low energy scales (effective mass m*=1.9 me) and ω2 dependence of the imaginary part of the self energy, limited by a kink at ~50 meV arising from coupling to molecular vibrations. The study unambiguously proves that (BEDT-TTF)3Br(pBIB) is a quasi-2D organic Fermi liquid with a Fermi surface consistent with Shubnikov-de Haas results. PMID:23011143

  10. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  11. Radiocarbon dating organic residues at the microgram level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, D.L.; Burky, R.; Taylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Relation between submilligram sample size and 14 C activity for sample blanks (wood from Pliocene sediments) and a contemporary standard (oxalic acid) for catalytically reduced graphitic carbon was examined down to 20 micrograms. Mean age of the 1 mg wood sample blanks is now about 51.3 ka (0.168 pMC) while the mean for 20 microgram sample blanks is about 42.9 ka. So far, the lowest value for a 1-mg wood sample blank is about 60.5 ka (0.056 pMC). We have determined a mean 14 C age of about 9.4 ka from a suite of 7 organic extracts from hair, bone, and matting from a mummified human skeleton from Spirit Cave, Nevada. These data indicate that the Spirit Cave human is the third, oldest directly-dated, human skeleton currently known from North America

  12. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  13. Removal of residual functionalized ionic liquids from water by ultrasound-assisted zero-valent iron/activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haimei; Lv, Ping; Qi, Hang; Ma, Jinqi; Wang, Jianji

    2018-03-02

    Numerous applications of ionic liquids (ILs) are often accompanied by the generation of aqueous wastes. Due to the high toxicity and poor biodegradability of ILs, effective chemical treatment is of great importance for their removal from aqueous solution. In this work, an ultrasound-assisted zero-valent iron/activated carbon (US-ZVI/AC) micro-electrolysis technique was used to degrade residual functionalized ILs, 1-butyl-3-methyl benzimidazolium bromide ([BMBIM]Br) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) in aqueous solution, and the degradation degree, degradation kinetics and possible degradation pathways were investigated. It was shown that the degradation of these functionalized ILs was highly efficient in the US-ZVI/AC system, and the degradation degree was as high as 96.1% and 92.9% in 110 min for [BMBIM]Br and [AMIM]Cl, respectively. The degradation of [BMBIM]Br could be described by the second-order kinetics model, and [BMBIM] + was decomposed in two ways: (i) sequential cleavage of N-alkyl side chain of the cation produced three intermediates; (ii) the 2-positioned H atoms of the benzimidazolium ring were first oxidized, and then the imidazolium ring was opened. The degradation of [AMIM]Cl followed the first-order kinetics rule, and the 2,4,5-positioned H atoms of the imidazolium ring were oxidized to induce ring opening. In addition, the removal of total organic carbon was found to be >87%, which indicates that most of the ILs was mineralized in the degradation process. These results suggest that ultrasound-assisted ZVI/AC micro-electrolysis is highly effective for the removal of residual functionalized ILs from aqueous environment.

  14. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  15. Nanoscience with liquid crystals from self-organized nanostructures to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the exciting topic of nanoscience with liquid crystals: from self-organized nanostructures to applications. The elegant self-organized liquid crystalline nanostructures, the synergetic characteristics of liquid crystals and nanoparticles, liquid crystalline nanomaterials, synthesis of nanomaterials using liquid crystals as templates, nanoconfinement and nanoparticles of liquid crystals are covered and discussed, and the prospect of fabricating functional materials is highlighted. Contributions, collecting the scattered literature of the field from leading and active player

  16. Liquid paraffin as new dilution medium for the analysis of high boiling point residual solvents with static headspace-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Autry, Ward; Zheng, Chao; Bugalama, John; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin; Wang, Bochu; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2011-07-15

    Residual solvents are volatile organic compounds which can be present in pharmaceutical substances. A generic static headspace-gas chromatography analysis method for the identification and control of residual solvents is described in the European Pharmacopoeia. Although this method is proved to be suitable for the majority of samples and residual solvents, the method may lack sensitivity for high boiling point residual solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide and benzyl alcohol. In this study, liquid paraffin was investigated as new dilution medium for the analysis of these residual solvents. The headspace-gas chromatography method was developed and optimized taking the official Pharmacopoeia method as a starting point. The optimized method was validated according to ICH criteria. It was found that the detection limits were below 1μg/vial for each compound, indicating a drastically increased sensitivity compared to the Pharmacopoeia method, which failed to detect the compounds at their respective limit concentrations. Linearity was evaluated based on the R(2) values, which were above 0.997 for all compounds, and inspection of residual plots. Instrument and method precision were examined by calculating the relative standard deviations (RSD) of repeated analyses within the linearity and accuracy experiments, respectively. It was found that all RSD values were below 10%. Accuracy was checked by a recovery experiment at three different levels. Mean recovery values were all in the range 95-105%. Finally, the optimized method was applied to residual DMSO analysis in four different Kollicoat(®) sample batches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation in pH of Model Secondary Organic Aerosol during Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallemagne, Magda A; Huang, Xiau Ya; Eddingsaas, Nathan C

    2016-05-12

    The majority of atmospheric aerosols consist of both organic and inorganic components. At intermediate relative humidity (RH), atmospheric aerosol can undergo liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) in which the organic and inorganic fractions segregate from each other. We have extended the study of LLPS to the effect that phase separation has on the pH of the overall aerosols and the pH of the individual phases. Using confocal microscopy and pH sensitive dyes, the pH of internally mixed model aerosols consisting of polyethylene glycol 400 and ammonium sulfate as well as the pH of the organic fraction during LLPS have been directly measured. During LLPS, the pH of the organic fraction was observed to increase to 4.2 ± 0.2 from 3.8 ± 0.1 under high RH when the aerosol was internally mixed. In addition, the high spatial resolution of the confocal microscope allowed us to characterize the composition of each of the phases, and we have observed that during LLPS the organic shell still contains large quantities of water and should be characterized as an aqueous organic-rich phase rather than simply an organic phase.

  18. USE OF ORGANIC RESIDUES FOR THE RECOVERY OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Galvez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of different organic residues on soil fertility and climate change, through the evaluation of soil organic matter mineralisation, greenhouse gas emission, nutrient availability and soil microbial biomass content and activity. A degraded agricultural soil was amended with three different organic residues (pig slurry digestate, rapeseed meal, and compost at three different doses (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% w/w and incubated for 30 days at 20 ºC. During incubation, soil CO2 and N2O emissions, K2SO4 extractable organic C, N, NH4+, NO3- and P, soil microbial biomass and some enzymatic activities were determined. Results obtained showed that rapeseed meal and pig slurry are best suited to improve soil chemical and biological fertility, while compost is more appropriate for the enhancement of soil organic matter content and to promote soil C sequestration.

  19. [Determination of emamectin benzoate residue in vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Yinliang; Hu, Jiye; Wang, Hongwei; Pan, Canping; Liu, Fengmao

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate residue in cabbage and mushroom using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate. Further cleanup was performed on a propylsulfonic acid solid phase extraction cartridge, followed by the derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of N-methylimidazole. The amount of derivatized emamectin benzoate was determined by fluorescence detector after separation by HPLC. The detection limit was 0.10 microg/kg for cabbage and mushroom samples. The recoveries of emamectin benzoate in cabbage and mushroom samples were 78.6%-84.9%. The inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and intra-day RSD were 2.7%-6.0% and 3.1%-8.9%, respectively, at the fortified levels of 1.0-20.0 microg/kg. The calibration curve of emamectin benzoate in vegetables at the concentration range of 0.002 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L was linear (r = 0.9999).

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography method validation for determination of tetracycline residues in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, a method for determination of tetracycline (TC residues in poultry with the help of high-performance liquid chromatography technique was validated. Materials and Methods: The principle step involved in ultrasonic-assisted extraction of TCs from poultry samples by 2 ml of 20% trichloroacetic acid and phosphate buffer (pH 4, which gave a clearer supernatant and high recovery, followed by centrifugation and purification by using 0.22 μm filter paper. Results: Validity study of the method revealed that all obtained calibration curves showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999 over the range of 40-4500 ng. Sensitivity was found to be 1.54 and 1.80 ng for oxytetracycline (OTC and TC. Accuracy was in the range of 87.94-96.20% and 72.40-79.84% for meat. Precision was lower than 10% in all cases indicating that the method can be used as a validated method. Limit of detection was found to be 4.8 and 5.10 ng for OTC and TC, respectively. The corresponding values of limit of quantitation were 11 and 12 ng. Conclusion: The method reliably identifies and quantifies the selected TC and OTC in the reconstituted poultry meat in the low and sub-nanogram range and can be applied in any laboratory.

  1. Exploring the Temporality of Food Organizations in Liquid Modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernes, Tor; Schmidt, Jonathan; Schultz, Majken

    study illustrates how their time enactment takes place along three dimensions. First, through what we call “malleable time”, including the contraction and dilation of time horizons. Second, through what we call “projective time”, signifying the outward enactment of time onto others. Third, through what....... Because food organizations are challenged to enact their time between natural time and human time while abiding by the constraints of industry, liquid modernity challenges their ability to enact multiple and sometimes contrasting temporalities. Drawing on data from a brewery and a dairy corporation, our...... we call “simultaneous time”, signifying the simultaneous enactment of different time horizons. We argue that time enactment poses its own set of dilemmas for managing food organizations, which are discussed, not just for food organizations, but in relation to other organizations confronted...

  2. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min"−"1 and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  4. 3D Spin-Liquid State in an Organic Hyperkagome Lattice of Mott Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Asato; Shuku, Yoshiaki; Matsushita, Michio M.; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Hara, Yuuki; Wada, Nobuo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Awaga, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    We report the first 3D spin liquid state of isotropic organic spins. Structural analysis, and magnetic and heat-capacity measurements were carried out for a chiral organic radical salt, (TBA) 1.5[(-)-NDI -Δ ] (TBA denotes tetrabutylammonium and NDI denotes naphthalene diimide), in which (-)-NDI -Δ forms a K4 structure due to its triangular molecular structure and an intermolecular π -π overlap between the NDI moieties. This lattice was identical to the hyperkagome lattice of S =1 /2 Mott dimers, and should exhibit 3D spin frustration. In fact, even though the high-temperature magnetic susceptibility followed the Curie-Weiss law with a negative Weiss constant of θ =-15 K , the low-temperature magnetic measurements revealed no long-range magnetic ordering down to 70 mK, and suggested the presence of a spin liquid state with a large residual paramagnetism χ0 of 8.5 ×10-6 emu g-1 at the absolute zero temperature. This was supported by the N 14 NMR measurements down to 0.38 K. Further, the low-temperature heat capacities cp down to 68 mK clearly indicated the presence of cp for the spin liquid state, which can be fitted to the power law of T0.62 in the wide temperature range 0.07-4.5 K.

  5. Life cycle assessment of integrated solid state anaerobic digestion and composting for on-farm organic residues treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Manandhar, Ashish; Li, Guoxue; Shah, Ajay

    2018-03-20

    Driven by the gradual changes in the structure of energy consumption and improvements of living standards in China, the volume of on-farm organic solid waste is increasing. If untreated, these unutilized on-farm organic solid wastes can cause environmental problems. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment to compare the environmental impacts of different on-farm organic waste (which includes dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residue) treatment strategies, including anaerobic digestion (AD), composting, and AD followed by composting. The input life cycle inventory data are specific to China. The potential environmental impacts of different waste management strategies were assessed based on their acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ecotoxicity potential (ETP), and resource depletion (RD). The results show that the preferred treatment strategy for dairy manure is the one that integrated corn stover and tomato residue utilization and solid state AD technologies into the system. The GWP of integrated solid state AD and composting was the least, which is -2900 kg CO 2 eq/ t of dairy manure and approximately 14.8 times less than that of current status (i.e., liquid AD of dairy manure). Solid state AD of dairy manure, corn stover and tomato residues is the most favorable option in terms of AP, EP and ETP, which are more than 40% lower than that of the current status (i.e., AP: 3.11 kg SO 2 , EP: -0.94 kg N, and ETP: -881 CTUe (Comparative Toxic Units ecotoxicity)). The results also show that there is a significant potential for AP, EP, ETP, and GWP reduction, if AD is used prior to composting. The scenario analysis for transportation distance showed that locating the AD plant and composting facility on the farm was advantageous in terms of all the life cycle impact categories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Liquid crystals for organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Hiroaki; Usui, Takayuki; Hanna, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors are a good candidate for field effect transistor (FET) materials in printed electronics. However, there are currently two main problems, which are associated with inhomogeneity and poor thermal durability of these films. Here we report that liquid crystalline materials exhibiting a highly ordered liquid crystal phase of smectic E (SmE) can solve both these problems. We design a SmE liquid crystalline material, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10), for FETs and synthesize it. This material provides uniform and molecularly flat polycrystalline thin films reproducibly when SmE precursor thin films are crystallized, and also exhibits high durability of films up to 200 °C. In addition, the mobility of FETs is dramatically enhanced by about one order of magnitude (over 10 cm2 V-1 s-1) after thermal annealing at 120 °C in bottom-gate-bottom-contact FETs. We anticipate the use of SmE liquid crystals in solution-processed FETs may help overcome upcoming difficulties with novel technologies for printed electronics.

  7. Ionic liquid technology to recover volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salar-García, M J; Ortiz-Martínez, V M; Hernández-Fernández, F J; de Los Ríos, A P; Quesada-Medina, J

    2017-01-05

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) comprise a wide variety of carbon-based materials which are volatile at relatively low temperatures. Most of VOCs pose a hazard to both human health and the environment. For this reason, in the last years, big efforts have been made to develop efficient techniques for the recovery of VOCs produced from industry. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) is among the most promising separation technologies in this field. This article offers a critical overview on the use of ionic liquids for the separation of VOCs both in bulk and in immobilized form. It covers the most relevant works within this field and provides a global outlook on the limitations and future prospects of this technology. The extraction processes of VOCs by using different IL-based assemblies are described in detail and compared with conventional methods This review also underlines the advantages and limitations posed by ionic liquids according to the nature of the cation and the anions present in their structure and the stability of the membrane configurations in which ILs are used as liquid phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Technology in Organic Acid Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norela Jusoh; Norasikin Othman; Nur Alina Nasruddin

    2016-01-01

    Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) process have shown a great potential in wide application of industrial separations such as in removal of many chemicals, organic compounds, metal ions, pollutants and biomolecules. This system promote many advantages including simple operation, high selectivity, low energy requirement, and single stage extraction and stripping process. One potential application of ELM is in the purification of succinic acid from fermentation broth. This study outline steps for developing emulsion liquid membrane process in purification of succinic acid. The steps include liquid membrane formulation, ELM stability and ELM extraction of succinic acid. Several carrier, diluent and stripping agent was screened to find appropriate membrane formulation. After that, ELM stability was investigated to enhance the recovery of succinic acid. Finally, the performance of ELM was evaluated in the extraction process. Results show that formulated liquid membrane using Amberlite LA2 as carrier, palm oil as diluent and sodium carbonate, Na_2CO_3 as stripping agent provide good performance in purification. On the other hand, the prepared emulsion was observed to be stable up to 1 hour and sufficient for extraction process. In conclusion, ELM has high potential to purify succinic acid from fermentation broth. (author)

  9. Liquid crystalline composites toward organic photovoltaic application (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yo; Sosa-Vargas, Lydia; Shin, Woong; Higuchi, Yumi; Itani, Hiromichi; Kawano, Koki; Dao, Quang Duy; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    Liquid crystalline semiconductor is an interesting category of organic electronic materials and also has been extensively studied in terms of "Printed Electronics". For the wider diversity in research toward new applications, one can consider how to use a combination of miscibility and phase separation in liquid crystals. Here we report discotic liquid crystals in making a composite of which structural order is controlled in nano-scale toward photovoltaic applications. Discotic columnar LCs were studied on their resultant molecular order and carrier transport properties. Liquid crystals of phthalocyanine and its analogues which exhibit columnar mesomorphism with high carrier mobility (10-1 cm2/Vs) were examined with making binary phase diagrams and the correlation to carrier transport properties by TOF measurements was discussed. The shape-analogues in chemical structure shows a good miscibility even for the different lattice-type of columnar arrangement and the carrier mobility is mostly decrease except for a case of combination with a metal-free and the metal complex. For the mixtures with non-mesogenic C60 derivatives, one sees a phase-separated structure due to its immiscibility, though the columnar order is remained in a range of component ratio.Especially, in a range of the ratio, it was observed the phase separated C60 derivatives are fused into the matrix of columnar bundles, indicating C60 derivatives could be diffused in columnar arrays in molecular level.

  10. ETVS - a process for decentral processing of liquid, pasty and solid organic residues into electrical energy and ash, optionally with hydrosoft high-pressure dewatering, fluidized-bed drying, fluidized-bed gasification and heat-and-power cogeneration using product gas; ETVS - Ein Verfahren zur dezentralen Verwertung von fluessigen, pastoesen und festen biologischen Reststoffen in elektrische Energie und Asche, bedarfsweise mit Hydrosoft-Hochdruckentwaesserung, Wirbelschicht-Trockner, Wirbelschicht-Vergaser und Produktgas-Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, C.; Eder, G. [Christian Eder Technology, Neunkirchen (Germany); Wied, E. [Bisanz GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    By means of the ETVS process, predominantly liquid organic residues can be converted into electrical energy and mineral ash decentrally, i.e. where they accrue. The process is exemplified with reference to sewage sludge. Sludge containing at least about 4 % dry residue is dewatered to the highest dry substance content possible. The obtained filter cakes are indirectly dried in a fluidized-bed drier using internal process waste heat. Then the organic sewage sludge constituents are gasified in an atmospheric fluidized bed system. The cleaned product gas is used to generate power in a cogeneration power plant, meeting the sewage treatment plant's in-house power demand. The ETVS process is self-sufficient in terms of thermal energy requirement from an initial dry substance content of the filter cake > 40 %. Incineration is a means of disposing of sewage sludge in accordance with the boundary conditions for sewage sludge disposal from 2005, laid down in the technical code on municipal waste. Combining the ETVS process with modern biological treatment stages makes for a substantial cut in the construction and operating cost of sewage treatment plants. (orig.) [German] Mit dem ETVS-Verfahren koennen ueberwiegend fluessige biologische Reststoffe dezentral, d.h. an der Anfallstelle in eigennutzbare elektrische Energie und mineralische Asche umgewandelt werden. Das Verfahren wird am Klaerschlamm beispielhaft dargestellt. Der Klaerschlamm wird ab einem Trockensubstanzgehalt von ca. 4%TR auf moeglichst hohe Trockensubstanzgehalte entwaessert und die dabei erzeugten Filterkuchen mit internen Prozessabwaermen in einem Wirbelschichttrockner indirekt getrocknet. Die organischen Bestandteile des Klaerschlammes werden anschliessend in einer ebenfalls atmosphaerischen Wirbelschichtanlage vergast. Der mit dem gereinigten Produktgas in einer KWK-Anlage erzeugte Strom wird zur Deckung des Eigenbedarfs der Klaeranlage verwandt. Durch die Veraschung liefert das ab einem

  11. Treatment of radioactive liquid organic waste using bacteria community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael Vicente de Padua Ferreira; Solange Kazumi Sakata; Maria Helena Bellini; Julio Takehiro Marumo; Fernando Dutra; Patricia Busko Di Vitta; Maria Helena Tirollo Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Waste management plays an important role in radioactive waste volume reduction as well as lowering disposal costs and minimizing the environment-detrimental impact. The employment of biomass in the removal of heavy metals and radioisotopes has a significant potential in liquid waste treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radioactive waste treatment by using three different bacterial communities (BL, BS, and SS) isolated from impacted areas, removing radioisotopes and organic compounds. The best results were obtained in the BS and BL community, isolated from the soil and a lake of a uranium mine, respectively. BS community was able to remove 92% of the uranium and degraded 80% of tributyl phosphate and 70% of the ethyl acetate in 20 days of experiments. BL community removed 81% of the uranium and degraded nearly 60% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. SS community collected from the sediment of Sao Sebastiao channel removed 76% of the uranium and 80% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. Both americium and cesium were removed by all communities. In addition, the BS community showed to be more resistant to radioactive liquid waste than the other communities. These results indicated that the BS community is the most viable for the treatment of large volumes of radioactive liquid organic waste. (author)

  12. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 26 CFR 1.860E-2 - Tax on transfers of residual interests to certain organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on transfers of residual interests to certain organizations. 1.860E-2 Section 1.860E-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860E-2...

  14. Detection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces by LED-induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross- contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of stainless steel proces...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 266 - Organic Compounds for Which Residues Must Be Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VIII Appendix VIII to Part 266... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organic Compounds for Which Residues...

  16. Long-term stabilization of crop residues and soil organic carbon affected by residue quality and initial soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A; Tang, Caixian

    2017-06-01

    Residues differing in quality and carbon (C) chemistry are presumed to contribute differently to soil pH change and long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) pools. This study examined the liming effect of different crop residues (canola, chickpea and wheat) down the soil profile (0-30cm) in two sandy soils differing in initial pH as well as the long-term stability of SOC at the amended layer (0-10cm) using mid-infrared (MIR) and solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A field column experiment was conducted for 48months. Chickpea- and canola-residue amendments increased soil pH at 0-10cm in the Podzol by up to 0.47 and 0.36units, and in the Cambisol by 0.31 and 0.18units, respectively, at 48months when compared with the non-residue-amended control. The decomposition of crop residues was greatly retarded in the Podzol with lower initial soil pH during the first 9months. The MIR-predicted particulate organic C (POC) acted as the major C sink for residue-derived C in the Podzol. In contrast, depletion of POC and recovery of residue C in MIR-predicted humic organic C (HOC) were detected in the Cambisol within 3months. Residue types showed little impact on total SOC and its chemical composition in the Cambisol at 48months, in contrast to the Podzol. The final HOC and resistant organic C (ROC) pools in the Podzol amended with canola and chickpea residues were about 25% lower than the control. This apparent priming effect might be related to the greater liming effect of these two residues in the Podzol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  18. Evolution of Morphological and Physical Properties of Laboratory Interstellar Organic Residues with Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piani, L.; Tachibana, S.; Endo, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Dessimoulie, L.; Yurimoto, H. [Department of Natural History Sciences, Science Faculty, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Hama, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kimura, Y.; Fujita, K.; Nakatsubo, S.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Chigai, T.; Kouchi, A. [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060–0819 (Japan); Miyake, A.; Matsuno, J.; Tsuchiyama, A., E-mail: laurette@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Earth and Planetary Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-01

    Refractory organic compounds formed in molecular clouds are among the building blocks of the solar system objects and could be the precursors of organic matter found in primitive meteorites and cometary materials. However, little is known about the evolutionary pathways of molecular cloud organics from dense molecular clouds to planetary systems. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the morphological and viscoelastic properties of molecular cloud refractory organic matter. We found that the organic residue, experimentally synthesized at ∼10 K from UV-irradiated H{sub 2}O-CH{sub 3}OH-NH{sub 3} ice, changed significantly in terms of its nanometer- to micrometer-scale morphology and viscoelastic properties after UV irradiation at room temperature. The dose of this irradiation was equivalent to that experienced after short residence in diffuse clouds (≤10{sup 4} years) or irradiation in outer protoplanetary disks. The irradiated organic residues became highly porous and more rigid and formed amorphous nanospherules. These nanospherules are morphologically similar to organic nanoglobules observed in the least-altered chondrites, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, and cometary samples, suggesting that irradiation of refractory organics could be a possible formation pathway for such nanoglobules. The storage modulus (elasticity) of photo-irradiated organic residues is ∼100 MPa irrespective of vibrational frequency, a value that is lower than the storage moduli of minerals and ice. Dust grains coated with such irradiated organics would therefore stick together efficiently, but growth to larger grains might be suppressed due to an increase in aggregate brittleness caused by the strong connections between grains.

  19. Evolution of Morphological and Physical Properties of Laboratory Interstellar Organic Residues with Ultraviolet Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piani, L.; Tachibana, S.; Endo, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Dessimoulie, L.; Yurimoto, H.; Hama, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kimura, Y.; Fujita, K.; Nakatsubo, S.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Chigai, T.; Kouchi, A.; Miyake, A.; Matsuno, J.; Tsuchiyama, A.

    2017-01-01

    Refractory organic compounds formed in molecular clouds are among the building blocks of the solar system objects and could be the precursors of organic matter found in primitive meteorites and cometary materials. However, little is known about the evolutionary pathways of molecular cloud organics from dense molecular clouds to planetary systems. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the morphological and viscoelastic properties of molecular cloud refractory organic matter. We found that the organic residue, experimentally synthesized at ∼10 K from UV-irradiated H 2 O-CH 3 OH-NH 3 ice, changed significantly in terms of its nanometer- to micrometer-scale morphology and viscoelastic properties after UV irradiation at room temperature. The dose of this irradiation was equivalent to that experienced after short residence in diffuse clouds (≤10 4 years) or irradiation in outer protoplanetary disks. The irradiated organic residues became highly porous and more rigid and formed amorphous nanospherules. These nanospherules are morphologically similar to organic nanoglobules observed in the least-altered chondrites, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, and cometary samples, suggesting that irradiation of refractory organics could be a possible formation pathway for such nanoglobules. The storage modulus (elasticity) of photo-irradiated organic residues is ∼100 MPa irrespective of vibrational frequency, a value that is lower than the storage moduli of minerals and ice. Dust grains coated with such irradiated organics would therefore stick together efficiently, but growth to larger grains might be suppressed due to an increase in aggregate brittleness caused by the strong connections between grains.

  20. Evolution of Morphological and Physical Properties of Laboratory Interstellar Organic Residues with Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, L.; Tachibana, S.; Hama, T.; Tanaka, H.; Endo, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Dessimoulie, L.; Kimura, Y.; Miyake, A.; Matsuno, J.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Fujita, K.; Nakatsubo, S.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Chigai, T.; Yurimoto, H.; Kouchi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Refractory organic compounds formed in molecular clouds are among the building blocks of the solar system objects and could be the precursors of organic matter found in primitive meteorites and cometary materials. However, little is known about the evolutionary pathways of molecular cloud organics from dense molecular clouds to planetary systems. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the morphological and viscoelastic properties of molecular cloud refractory organic matter. We found that the organic residue, experimentally synthesized at ˜10 K from UV-irradiated H2O-CH3OH-NH3 ice, changed significantly in terms of its nanometer- to micrometer-scale morphology and viscoelastic properties after UV irradiation at room temperature. The dose of this irradiation was equivalent to that experienced after short residence in diffuse clouds (≤104 years) or irradiation in outer protoplanetary disks. The irradiated organic residues became highly porous and more rigid and formed amorphous nanospherules. These nanospherules are morphologically similar to organic nanoglobules observed in the least-altered chondrites, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, and cometary samples, suggesting that irradiation of refractory organics could be a possible formation pathway for such nanoglobules. The storage modulus (elasticity) of photo-irradiated organic residues is ˜100 MPa irrespective of vibrational frequency, a value that is lower than the storage moduli of minerals and ice. Dust grains coated with such irradiated organics would therefore stick together efficiently, but growth to larger grains might be suppressed due to an increase in aggregate brittleness caused by the strong connections between grains.

  1. Mapping and quantification of organic agro-industrial residues in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The East-African agro-industries generate very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. These residues form a major contribution to the pollution of air, soil and water ways, but, at the same time they constitute a large potential for production of bioenergy through anaerobic digestion as well as potential substrate for other biological fermentation processes. The utilization of these resources for production of valuable products would contribute significantly to: Improvement of the local energy supply, through production of bio-energy; Improvement of the economy of the East African agro-industry; Reduction of the environmental impact from the agro-industrial sector. Except for production of cane sugar, most agro-industrial residues are generated from cash crops, which are produced and processed in the developing countries and where the final products mainly are used for export. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In addition significant quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The total potential methane production of the residues available for use in biomethanization systems in East Africa is 189.61 million m{sup 3} of methane per year. Converted to diesel oil equivalents and including the residues only feasible for combustion systems, the total bioenergy potential of agro-industrial residues in Eastern Africa is 279,176 TOE. If this potential was fully utilized for production of electricity, it would correspond to installed effects of 37,68 and 31 MW in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, respectively, equivalent to 10%, 11% and 18% of the currently installed effect is these countries. Residues from sisal and coffee processing constitute the main part of the bioenergy potential, on average approximately 75%, while the remaining 25% of the potential are formed by the

  2. Analysis of explosive and other organic residues by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazic, V., E-mail: lazic@frascati.enea.i [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Palucci, A. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Jovicevic, S. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Belgrade, Pregrevica 118 (Serbia); Poggi, C.; Buono, E. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    With the aim of realizing a compact instrument for detection of energetic materials at trace levels, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied on residues from nine explosives in air surroundings. Different potentially interfering organic materials were also analyzed. The residues were not uniformly distributed on an aluminum support and single-shot discrimination was attempted. For a single residue type, large shot-to-shot fluctuations of the line intensity ratios characteristic for organic samples were observed, which made material classification difficult. It was found that both atomic and molecular emission intensities, as well as their ratios, are strongly affected by an amount of the ablated support material, which mainly determines the plasma temperature. With respect to the spectra from the clean support, emission intensities of atomic oxygen and nitrogen are always reduced in the presence of an organic material, even if its molecules contain these elements. This was attributed to chemical reactions in a plasma containing carbon or its fragments. Hydrogen atomic emission depends strongly on the local humidity above the sampled point and its line intensity shows shot to shot variations up to 50%, also on a homogeneous sample. It is argued that shock waves generated by previous spatially and/or temporally close laser pulses blow away a relatively heavy water aerosol, which later diffuses slowly back towards the sampled point. C{sub 2} and CN exhibit a peak emission behavior with atomic Al emission, and their variable ratio indicates an existence of different formation or removal mechanisms from the plasma, depending on the plasma parameters and on the composition of the organic residue. On the basis of these observations, an attempt is made to establish a suitable procedure for data analysis and to determine the optimal experimental conditions, which would allow for discrimination of explosives from other, potentially interfering, residues.

  3. Effects of capillarity and heterogeneity on flow of organic liquid in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wipfler, E.L.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by organic liquids, such as gasoline, fuel oils and chlorinated hydrocarbons, forms a serious treat to subsurface water resources. These liquids have a low miscibility with water and move as a discrete liquid phase. A small part of the liquid may dissolve in water and

  4. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  5. Simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate residues in meat products marketed in Shiraz by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Golkari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite and nitrate are the key ingredients and play a multifunctional role in meat curing technology. Despite all of their desirable effects, the addition of nitrite to meat is the major cause of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines formation. In this study, the amount of residual nitrite and nitrate in meat products containing 61% to 80% meat were assessed. The samples were obtained at the fourth day of their production from Shiraz retails and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. According to the results, the mean concentrations of residual nitrite and nitrate were estimated at 36.96 ± 7.38 and 85.81 ± 5.5 mg/kg in small-diameter (1.5-2 cm sausages. Meanwhile, in large-diameter (5.5-8 cm sausages the residues were estimated at 20.97 ± 3.28 and 124.85±5.3 mg/kg, respectively. In all analyzed samples, the residual nitrite level was found below the permitted level of 120 mg/kg which indicated the application of allowed concentrations of nitrite in such products. The mean values of residual nitrite and nitrate concentrations were statistically different (p

  6. Municipal solid waste options : integrating organics management and residual disposal treatment : executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cant, M. (comp.) [Totten Sims Hubicki Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van der Werf, P. [2cg Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kelleher, M. [Kelleher Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada); Merriman, D. [MacViro Consultants, Markham, ON (Canada); Fitcher, K. [Gartner Lee Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); MacDonald, N. [CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Options Report explored different MSW management options for 3 community sizes: 20,000, 80,000 and 200,0000 people. It was released at a time when many communities were developing waste management plans to cost-effectively reduce environmental impacts and conserve landfill capacity. The purpose of this report was to provide a greater understanding on the environmental, social, economic, energy recovery/utilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) considerations of MSW management. The report also demonstrated the interrelationships between the management of organics and residuals. It was based on information from existing waste diversion and organics management options and emerging residual treatment technology options. The following organics management and residual treatment disposal options were evaluated: composting; anaerobic digestion; sanitary landfills; bioreactor landfills; and thermal treatment. Composting was examined with reference to both source separated organics (SSO) and mixed waste composting. SSO refers to the separation of materials suitable for composting solid waste from households, while mixed waste composting refers to the manual or mechanical removal of recyclable material from the waste, including compost. The composting process was reviewed along with available technologies such as non-reactor windrow; aerated static pile; reactor enclosed channel; and, container tunnel. An evaluation of SSO and mixed waste composting was then presented in terms of environmental, social, financial and GHG impacts. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Stabilization of Rocky Flats combustible residues contaminated with plutonium metal and organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, S.M.; Cisneros, M.R.; Jacobson, L.L.; Schroeder, N.C.; Ames, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes tests on a proposed flowsheet designed to stabilize combustible residues that were generated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during the machining of plutonium metal. Combustible residues are essentially laboratory trash contaminated with halogenated organic solvents and plutonium metal. The proposed flowsheet, designed by RFETS, follows a glovebox procedure that includes (1) the sorting and shredding of materials, (2) a low temperature thermal desorption of solvents from the combustible materials, (3) an oxidation of plutonium metal with steam, and (4) packaging of the stabilized residues. The role of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in this study was to determine parameters for the low temperature thermal desorption and steam oxidation steps. Thermal desorption of carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was examined using a heated air stream on a Rocky Flats combustible residue surrogate contaminated with CCl 4 . Three types of plutonium metal were oxidized with steam in a LANL glovebox to determine the effectiveness of this procedure for residue stabilization. The results from these LANL experiments are used to recommend parameters for the proposed RFETS stabilization flowsheet

  8. Contaminants in Liquid Organic Fertilizers Used for Agriculture in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Dao M; Qiu, Xuchun; Xu, Hai; Honda, Masato; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    To provide an overview of anthropogenic contaminants in liquid organic fertilizers (LOFs), products from four biogas plants in Kyushu, Japan, were analyzed for a wide range of contaminants, including copper, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), perfluorooctane sulfonate, 952 semi-volatile organic compounds, and 89 antibiotics. The highest concentrations of copper (31.1 mg/L) and cadmium (0.08 mg/L) were found in LOFs from the Hita biogas plant. Only ofloxacin and sulfapyridine were detected in total 89 antibiotics screened. TBT, DBT, and perfluorooctane sulfonate were present at low concentrations in the LOFs from all four locations. Among the 952 semi-volatile organic compounds, 78 compounds were detected in at least one sample and were present at concentrations between 1.2 and 139.6 mg/L. On the basis of comparisons with previous studies and quality standards for the use of organic fertilizers, the concentrations of contaminants in the studied LOFs indicate that they might be safe for agricultural purposes.

  9. Soluble carbon in oxisol under the effect of organic residue rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lúcia Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic residues to the soil can increase soluble organic carbon (SOC and affect the pH and electrolytic conductivity (EC of the soil. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of residue and the applied dose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing C rates contained in organic residue on the pH, EC, water-extractable total carbon (WETC, water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC, and water-extractable inorganic carbon (WEIC in soil treated with manure (chicken, swine, and quail, sawdust, coffee husk, and sewage sludge. The levels of total C (TC- KH2PO4, organic carbon (OC- KH2PO4, and inorganic C (IC- KH2PO4 extractable by a 0.1 mol L-1 KH2PO4 solution were also quantified in soil under the effect of increasing rates of chicken and quail manures. The following rates of organic residue C were applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol sample: 0, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 mg kg-1. The addition of organic residues to the soil increased pH, except in the case of sewage sludge, which acidified the soil. The acidity correction potential of chicken and quail manure was highest, dependent on the manure rate applied; regardless of the dose used, sawdust barely alters the soil pH. At all tested rates, the EC of the soil treated with swine manure, coffee husk, and sawdust remained below 2.0 dS m-1, which is a critical level for salinity-sensitive crops. However, the application of chicken or quail manure and sewage sludge at certain rates increased the EC to values above this threshold level. Highest levels of WETC, WEOC, and WEIC were obtained when chicken and quail manure and coffee husk were applied to the Oxisol. The quantities of SOC extracted by KH2PO4 were higher than the quantities extracted by water, demonstrating the ability of soil to adsorb C into its colloids.

  10. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiá, Ana [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin [Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain); Picó, Yolanda, E-mail: Yolanda.Pico@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-14

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is

  11. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiá, Ana; Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is covered.

  12. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-15

    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I - , monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I - , MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurs at high relative humidity (RH) (greater than ˜ 95 %) in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than ˜ 95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  14. Sustainable reuse of rice residues as feedstocks in vermicomposting for organic fertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shak, Katrina Pui Yee; Wu, Ta Yeong; Lim, Su Lin; Lee, Chieh Ai

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, rice (Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima) cultivation has increased in many rice-growing countries due to the increasing export demand and population growth and led to a copious amount of rice residues, consisting mainly of rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH), being generated during and after harvesting. In this study, Eudrilus eugeniae was used to decompose rice residues alone and rice residues amended with cow dung (CD) for bio-transformation of wastes into organic fertilizer. Generally, the final vermicomposts showed increases in macronutrients, namely, calcium (11.4-34.2%), magnesium (1.3-40.8%), phosphorus (1.2-57.3%), and potassium (1.1-345.6%) and a decrease in C/N ratio (26.8-80.0%) as well as increases in heavy metal content for iron (17-108%), copper (14-120%), and manganese (6-60%) after 60 days of vermicomposting. RS as a feedstock was observed to support healthier growth and reproduction of earthworms as compared to RH, with maximum adult worm biomass of 0.66 g/worm (RS) at 60 days, 31 cocoons (1RS:2CD), and 23 hatchlings (1RS:1CD). Vermicomposting of RS yielded better results than RH among all of the treatments investigated. RS that was mixed with two parts of CD (1RS:2CD) showed the best combination of nutrient results as well as the growth of E. eugeniae. In conclusion, vermicomposting could be used as a green technology to bio-convert rice residues into nutrient-rich organic fertilizers if the residues are mixed with CD in the appropriate ratio.

  15. Residue analysis of sixty pesticides in red swamp crayfish using QuEChERS with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a multi-residue analytical method using QuEChERS extraction and dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) cleanup followed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid determination of 60 pesticide residues in whole crayfish a...

  16. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by organic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Promising results have been obtained for cesium removal with a new resorcinol-based organic resin developed at the Savannah River Site. In tests of cesium removal, it was superior to other available resins, such as Duolite CS-100, with the distribution coefficient being limited primarily by competition from potassium and nearly independent of the sodium concentration. The optimum pH was approximately 12.5 in high NaNO 3 concentrations (>2 M). A fairly low flow velocity was required to yield sharp breakthrough of the loaded cesium. The resin was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. If both cesium and strontium must be removed, another resin column or a mixed bed with a chelating resin should be used

  17. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.

  18. Multiclass methods for the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rosanna; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Diamanti, Irene; Giusepponi, Danilo; Galarini, Roberta

    2018-02-01

    Milk is an important and beneficial food from a nutritional point of view, being an indispensable source of high quality proteins. Furthermore, it is a raw material for many dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, cream etc. Before reaching consumers, milk goes through production, processing and circulation. Each step involves potentially unsafe factors, such as chemical contamination that can affect milk quality. Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine for dry cow therapy and mastitis treatment in lactating cows, which can cause the presence of antimicrobial residues in milk. In order to ensure consumers' safety, milk is analyzed to make sure that the fixed Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for antibiotics are not exceeded. Multiclass methods can monitor more drug classes through a single analysis, so they are faster, less time-consuming and cheaper than traditional methods (single-class); this aspect is particularly important for milk, which is a highly perishable food. Nevertheless, multiclass methods for veterinary drug residues in foodstuffs are real analytical challenges. This article reviews the major multiclass methods published for the determination of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with a special focus on sample preparation approaches.

  19. Determination of regulatory ionophore coccidiostat residues in feedstuffs at carry-over levels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramenga, Arianna; Colagrande, Maria Novella; Campana, Guido; Scortichini, Giampiero; Migliorati, Giacomo; Compagnone, Dario

    2017-01-01

    In this study samples of feedstuffs were collected from different feed mills and animal farms located in central Italy and analyzed for ionophore coccidiostat residues at carry-over levels by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Since unavoidable cross-contamination of feedstuffs may occur during their production as well as distribution and storage, the collection of samples covered all these different stages. Residues of lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and maduramicin were detected in 32.4% of samples, both at production and storage level. The maximum content for unavoidable carry-over set by Regulation (EU) No 574/2011 was exceeded in 11.3% of samples. The variability of the results highlighted the different approach of each investigated feed business operator to avoid any cross-contamination in non-target feed. The method developed in this study can be able to detect ionophore coccidiostats at low concentrations consequent to carry-over. PMID:28792977

  20. Determination of Beta-Lactam residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Brandão de Brito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay beta-lactam residues in milk was developed and validated. Milk samples were spiked with standard solutions and deproteinated. The extract was cleaned-up on C18 SPE cartridge, the antibiotics eluted with acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v and derivatized with acetic anhydride and 1-methyl-imidazole solution containing HgCl2. The chromatographic analysis was performed on C18 column using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5 in the presence of Na2S2O3 gradient and detection at 325 nm. The method was selective for ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V, the latter used as internal standard. Average recoveries for ampicillin and penicillin G ranged, respectively, from 60.0% to 104.9% and from 82.7% to 109.2%, with coefficients of variation from 11.1% to 24.6%, and from 2.1% to 25.2%, indicating accuracy and precision. Detection limit of 4.0 µg/L for ampicillin and 3.0 µg/L for penicillin G, and quantification limits of 4.0 µg/L for both were estimated.Um método para determinar resíduos de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido e validado. Amostras brancas foram adicionadas de padrão e desproteinizadas. O extrato foi purificado por extração em fase sólida C18, os antibióticos eluídos com acetonitrila:água (50:50 v/v e posteriormente derivatizados com anidrido acético e solução de 1-metil-imidazol contendo HgCl2. A análise cromatográfica foi realizada utilizando coluna C18, fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e tampão fosfato pH 6,5, na presença de Na2S2O3 em gradiente e detecção a 325 nm. O método foi seletivo para ampicilina, penicilina G e penicilina V, sendo este último utilizado como padrão interno. As médias de recuperação para ampicilina e penicilina G situaram-se, respectivamente, na faixa de 60,0% a 104,9% e de 82,7% a 109,2%, com coeficientes de varia

  1. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of biological and instrumental detection of explosives and ignitable liquid residues including canines, SPME/ITMS and GC/MSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furton, Kenneth G.; Harper, Ross J.; Perr, Jeannette M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2003-09-01

    A comprehensive study and comparison is underway using biological detectors and instrumental methods for the rapid detection of ignitable liquid residues (ILR) and high explosives. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) has been demonstrated to be an effective sampling method helping to identify active odor signature chemicals used by detector dogs to locate forensic specimens as well as a rapid pre-concentration technique prior to instrumental detection. Common ignitable liquids and common military and industrial explosives have been studied including trinitrotoluene, tetryl, RDX, HMX, EGDN, PETN and nitroglycerine. This study focuses on identifying volatile odor signature chemicals present, which can be used to enhance the level and reliability of detection of ILR and explosives by canines and instrumental methods. While most instrumental methods currently in use focus on particles and on parent organic compounds, which are often involatile, characteristic volatile organics are generally also present and can be exploited to enhance detection particularly for well-concealed devices. Specific examples include the volatile odor chemicals 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone, which are readily available in the headspace of the high explosive composition C-4; whereas, the active chemical cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine (RDX) is not. The analysis and identification of these headspace 'fingerprint' organics is followed by double-blind dog trials of the individual components using certified teams in an attempt to isolate and understand the target compounds to which dogs are sensitive. Studies to compare commonly used training aids with the actual target explosive have also been undertaken to determine their suitability and effectiveness. The optimization of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with ion trap mobility spectrometry (ITMS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) is detailed including interface development

  3. Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 2. Effects on pH, acid-binding capacity, organic acids and ethanol during a 6-day period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.H.J.; Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Boer, H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vesseur, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in pH, acid-binding capacity, level of organic acids and ethanol of three liquid coproducts [liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW)] and two liquid compound diets [liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher

  4. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pest...

  5. Neutron Scattering of Residual Hydrogen in 1,4-Dioxane-D8 Liquid. Understanding Measurements with Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Hongjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kidder, Michelle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-25

    That incoherent scattering from protiated molecular liquids adds a constant background to the measured scattering intensity is well known, but less appreciated is the fact that coherent scattering is also induced by the presence of hydrogen in a deuterated liquid. In fact, the scattering intensity can be very sensitive, in the small-q region, with respect to the amounts and distribution of residual H in the system. We used 1,4-dioxane liquid to demonstrate that the partial structure factors of the HD and DD atom pairs contribute significantly to inter-molecular scattering and that uncertainty in the extent of deuteration account for discrepancies between simulations and measurements. Both contributions to uncertainty have similar magnitudes: scattering interference of the hydrogen-deuterium pair, and complementary interference from the deuterium-deuterium pair by virtue of chemical inhomogeneity. This situation arises in practice since deuteration of liquids is often 99% or less. A combined experimental and extensive computational study of static thermal neutron scattering of 1,4-dioxane demonstrates the foregoing. We show, through simulations, that the reason for the differences is the content of protiated dioxane (vendors quote 1%). We estimate that up to 5% (at 298K and at 343K) protiated mole fraction may be involved in generating the scattering differences. Finally, we find that the particular distribution of hydrogen in the protiated molecules affects the results significantly; here we considered molecules to be either fully protiated or fully deuterated. This scenario best reconciles the computational and experimental results, and leads us to speculate that the deuteration synthesis process tends to leave a molecule either fully deuterated or fully protiated. Although we have used 1,4-dioxane as a model liquid, the effects described in this study extend to similar liquids and similar systematic experimental/computational studies can be performed to either

  6. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Jiwu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC-MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2 Prime -dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S-S and/or C-S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  7. Analysis of hazardous organic residues from sodium hydrosulfite industry and utilization as raw materials in a novel solid lubricant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Jiwu; Zhang, Yihe; Zhou, Fengshan; Lv, Fengzhu; Han, Feng; Lu, Jinbo; Meng, Xianghai; Chu, Paul K.; Ye, Zhengfang; Xing, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are analyzed and the main compounds are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2′-dithiodiethanol. ► The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the homemade solid lubricant is observed to have good lubricity. ► The clean process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution. - Abstract: The hazardous organic residual wastes produced by the sodium hydrosulfite industry are demonstrated to be convertible into a novel solid lubricant. Identification and isolation of the organic residues are achieved by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). FTIR and GC–MS provide important information about the residues and the two main components obtained by column chromatography are further analyzed by NMR. The main organic residues are found to be thiodiglycol and 2,2′-dithiodiethanol which have potential applications in petroleum drilling because of their S–S and/or C–S functional groups. The lubricity of the organic residues is subsequently studied and the influence of different adsorbents on the lubricity is investigated and discussed. This homemade lubricant is observed to have good lubricity and by increasing the concentration of the commercial solid lubricant M, the lubricity diminishes. The process is expected to not only have commercial impact but also help to reduce environmental pollution.

  8. A liquid crystalline medium for measuring residual dipolar couplings over a wide range of temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Eberstadt, Matthias; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories (United States)

    1998-10-15

    A mixture of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and 3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-2-hydroxyl-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPSO) in water forms disc shaped bicelles that become ordered at high magnetic fields over a wide range of temperatures. As illustrated for the FK506 binding protein (FKBP), large residual dipolar couplings can be measured for proteins dissolved in low concentrations (5% w/v) of a DLPC/CHAPSO medium at a molar ratio of 4.2:1. This system is especially useful for measuring residual dipolar couplings for molecules that are only stable at low temperatures.

  9. Barley Benefits from Organic Nitrogen in Plant Residues Applied to Soil using 15N Isotope Dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; El-Degwy, S.M.A.; Abd El-Haleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in pots (sandy soil cultivated with Barley plant) under greenhouse conditions, at Inshas, Egypt. The aim was to evaluate the transformation of nitrogen applied either as mineral form ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or as organic-material-N (plant residues) .Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labeled 15 N as( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (5 % a.e) or plant residues (ground leuceana forage, compost, and mixture of them) were applied at a rate of 20 kg N/ ha). 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer use efficiency. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design under greenhouse conditions. The obtained results showed that the dry weight of barley shoots was positively affected by reinforcement of mineral- N with organic-N. On the other hand, the highest dry weight was estimated with leuceana either applied alone or reinforced with mineral N. Similar trend was noticed with N uptake but only with organic N, while with treatment received 50% organic-N. plus 50% mineral- N. the best value of N uptake was recorded with mixture of leuceana and compost. The amount of Ndff was lowest where fertilizer 15 N was applied alone. Comparing Ndff for the three organic treatments which received a combination of fertilizer- 15 N+organic-material-N, results showed that the highest Ndff was occurred with mixture of leuceana and compost, whereas the lowest was induced with individual leuceana treatment. 15 N recovery in shoots of barley ranged between 22.14 % to 82.16 %. The lowest occurred with application of mineral 15 N alone and; the highest occurred where mineral 15 N was mixed with compost or leucaena-compost mixture

  10. Lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radionuclides and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radio nuclides and organics. Lime is wellknown for its use in softening drinking water the treatment of municipal wastewaters. It is becoming important in the treatment of industrial wastewater and liquid inorganic hazardous waste; however, there are many questions regarding the use of lime for the treatment of liquid hazardous waste

  11. Application of Light Reflection Visualization for Measuring Organic-Liquid Saturation for Two-Phase Systems in Two-Dimensional Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Erica L; Brusseau, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    A simple, noninvasive imaging technique was used to obtain in situ measurements of organic-liquid saturation in a two-phase system under dynamic conditions. Efficacy of the light reflection visualization (LRV) imaging method was tested through comparison of measured and known volumes of organic liquid for experiments conducted with a two-dimensional flow cell. Two sets of experiments were conducted, with source-zone configurations representing two archetypical residual-and-pool architectures. LRV measurements were collected during the injection of organic liquid and during a dissolution phase induced by water flushing. There was a strong correlation between measured and known organic-liquid volumes, with the LRV-measured values generally somewhat lower than the known volumes. Errors were greater for the system wherein organic liquid was present in multiple zones comprised of porous media of different permeabilities, and for conditions of multiphase flow. This method proved effective at determining organic-liquid distribution in a two-phase system using minimal specialized equipment.

  12. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junichi; Fukuchi, Masashi; Kaji, Hironori, E-mail: kaji@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hirata, Shuzo; Jung, Heo Hyo; Adachi, Chihaya [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyusyu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hirata, Osamu; Shibano, Yuki [Nissan Chemical Industries, LTD, 722-1 Tsuboi, Funabashi 274-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs) are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  13. Conversion of lignocellulosic agave residues into liquid biofuels using an AFEX™-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gómez, Carlos A; Escamilla Silva, Eleazar M; Zhong, Cheng; Dale, Bruce E; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Balan, Venkatesh

    2018-01-01

    Agave-based alcoholic beverage companies generate thousands of tons of solid residues per year in Mexico. These agave residues might be used for biofuel production due to their abundance and favorable sustainability characteristics. In this work, agave leaf and bagasse residues from species Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana were subjected to pretreatment using the ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) process. The pretreatment conditions were optimized using a response surface design methodology. We also identified commercial enzyme mixtures that maximize sugar yields for AFEX-pretreated agave bagasse and leaf matter, at ~ 6% glucan (w/w) loading enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, the pretreated agave hydrolysates (at a total solids loading of ~ 20%) were used for ethanol fermentation using the glucose- and xylose-consuming strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST), to determine ethanol yields at industrially relevant conditions. Low-severity AFEX pretreatment conditions are required (100-120 °C) to enable efficient enzymatic deconstruction of the agave cell wall. These studies showed that AFEX-pretreated A. tequilana bagasse, A. tequilana leaf fiber, and A. salmiana bagasse gave ~ 85% sugar conversion during enzyme hydrolysis and over 90% metabolic yields of ethanol during fermentation without any washing step or nutrient supplementation. On the other hand, although lignocellulosic A. salmiana leaf gave high sugar conversions, the hydrolysate could not be fermented at high solids loadings, apparently due to the presence of natural inhibitory compounds. These results show that AFEX-pretreated agave residues can be effectively hydrolyzed at high solids loading using an optimized commercial enzyme cocktail (at 25 mg protein/g glucan) producing > 85% sugar conversions and over 40 g/L bioethanol titers. These results show that AFEX technology has considerable potential to convert lignocellulosic agave residues to bio-based fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery.

  14. Detection of chloramphenicol residue in bovine meat using Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiastuti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAP is a broad spectrum antibiotic that has been banned in many countries due to its serius side effect to human. Detection of CAP residue in food has been determined to a minimum required performance limit (MRPL of 0.3 ng/g. The purpose of this research was to conduct the analysis of CAP residue in bovine meat by using LCMS and to study the presence of CAP residue in marketed bovine meat samples. LC separation was done on a Shimpack column C18 with ammonium acetate 10 mM/water as mobile phase, and ESI-MS analysis in negative ion mode. The coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.9981 at concentration of 0.125, 0.25, 0.63, 1,00 and 2.00 ng/g. Recovery at three fortification levels (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 ng/g was in the range 77.5, 97.3 and 83.4%. The decision limit and the detection capability were 0.15 ng/g and 0.17 ng/g respectively. Analysis results of 52 marketed samples showed that CAP residue were detected in 9 samples in the concentration range of 0.14 to 2.70 ng/g and 6 among those positive samples were above the MRPL value. Therefore, it is important to increase the awareness and also to monitor regularly CAP residues in food originated from animal to provide safe food for the consumers.

  15. Process and device for liquid organic waste processing by sulfuric mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspart, A.; Gillet, B.; Lours, S.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    In a chemical reactor containing sulfuric acid are introduced the liquid waste and nitric acid at a controlled flow rate for carbonization of the waste and oxidation of carbon on sulfur dioxide, formed during carbonization, regenerating simultaneously sulfuric acid. Optical density of the liquid is monitored to stop liquid waste feeding above a set-point. The liquid waste can be an organic solvent such as TBP [fr

  16. Microscopic properties of ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroo; Imanishi, Akihito; Takeya, Jun; Inagaki, Kouji; Morikawa, Yoshitada; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-09

    Electric double-layer transistors based on ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces have been extensively studied during the past decade because of their high carrier densities at low operation voltages. Microscopic structures and the dynamics of ionic liquids likely determine the device performance; however, knowledge of these is limited by a lack of appropriate experimental tools. In this study, we investigated ionic liquid/organic semiconductor interfaces using molecular dynamics to reveal the microscopic properties of ionic liquids. The organic semiconductors include pentacene, rubrene, fullerene, and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). While ionic liquids close to the substrate always form the specific layered structures, the surface properties of organic semiconductors drastically alter the ionic dynamics. Ionic liquids at the fullerene interface behave as a two-dimensional ionic crystal because of the energy gain derived from the favorable electrostatic interaction on the corrugated periodic substrate.

  17. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes sensor for organic liquid detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Deepti; Khare, Neeraj; Vankar, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    We have explored the possibility of using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as room temperature chemical sensor for the detection of organic liquids such as ethanol, propanol, methanol and toluene. MWCNTs were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique. The interdigitated electrodes were fabricated by conventional photolithography technique. The sensor was fabricated by drop depositing MWCNT suspension onto the interdigitated electrodes. The sensing properties of MWCNTs sensor was studied for organic liquids detection. The resistance of sensor was found to increase upon exposure to these liquids. Sensor shows good reversibility and fast response at room temperature. Charge transfer between the organic liquid and sensing element is the dominant sensing mechanism.

  18. The structure of organic langmuir films on liquid metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraack, H.; Deutsch, M.; Ocko, B.M.; Pershan, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Langmuir films (LFs) on water have long been studied for their interest for basic science and their numerous applications in chemistry, physics, materials science and biology. We present here A-resolution synchrotron X-ray studies of the structure of stearic acid LFs on a liquid mercury surface. At low coverage, ≥110 A 2 /mol, a 2D gas phase of flat-lying molecules is observed. At high coverage, ≤23 A 2 /mol, two different hexatic phases of standing-up molecules are observed. At intermediate coverage, 52≤A≤110 A 2 /mol, novel single- and double-layered phases of flat-lying molecular dimers are found, exhibiting a 1D in-layer order. Such flat-lying phases were not hitherto observed in any LF. Measurements on LFs of fatty acids of other chain lengths indicate that this structure is generic to chain molecules on mercury, although the existence of some of the flat-lying phases, and the observed phase sequence, depend on the chain length. Organic LFs on Hg, and in particular the new flat-lying phases, should provide a broader nano-structural tunability range for molecular electronic device construction than most solid-supported self-assembled monolayers used at present

  19. Determination of Oxytetracycline and 4-Epi-Oxytetracycline Residues in Feathers and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chickens Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Javiera; Pokrant, Ekaterina; Krogh, Magdalena; Briceño, Cristóbal; Hidalgo, Héctor; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Martín, Betty San

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in poultry production for the treatment of bacterial diseases. However, drug residues can remain in products derived from animals after the cessation of the drug therapies. Feathers, in particular, have shown an affinity for antibiotics such as tetracycline, suggesting the persistence of these drugs in nonedible tissue. After the birds are slaughtered, feathers are ground into feather meals, which are used as organic fertilizer or an ingredient in animal diets, thereby entering into the food chain and becoming a potential risk for public health. To evaluate the depletion of oxytetracycline (OTC) and its metabolite 4-epi-oxytetracycline (4-epi-OTC) in the muscles, liver, and feathers, 64 broiler chickens, bred under controlled conditions, were treated orally with a commercial formulation of 10% OTC for 7 days. The analytes were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OTC and 4-epi-OTC were found in the feathers for 46 days, whereas they were found in the muscle and liver for only 12 and 6 days, respectively. These results prove that the analytes remain in feathers in higher concentrations than they do in edible tissues after treatment with tetracyclines. Thus, feather meals represent a potential source of antimicrobial residue contamination in the food chain.

  20. Organic liquids as ''activ media'' in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1979-01-01

    Some types of organic liquids for using as activ media in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter are presented. One outlined the advantages of the holographic dosimeter comparatively with those of common used dosimeters. One presented the advantages of utilization of the organic liquids comparatively with another chemical systems used in a holographic ionizing radiation dosimeter. (author)

  1. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytkov Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  2. Synthetic Organic Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids: The Viscosity Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Handy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are obvious candidates for use in electrochemical applications due to their ionic character. Nevertheless, relatively little has been done to explore their application in electrosynthesis. We have studied the Shono oxidation of arylamines and carbamates using ionic liquids as recyclable solvents and have noted that the viscosity of the medium is a major problem, although with the addition of sufficient co-solvent, good results and excellent recovery and recycling of the ionic liquid can be achieved.

  3. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  4. Insights in groundwater organic matter from Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, H.; Oudone, P.; McDonough, L.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; Meredith, K.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater has important implications for the terrestrial global carbon budget. Liquid Chromatography - Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) is a size-exclusion based chromatography technique that separates the organic carbon into molecular weight size fractions of biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks (degradation products of humic substances), low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutrals. Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from a range of locations in Australia representing different surface soil, land cover, recharge type and hydrological properties. At one site hyporheic zone samples were also collected from beneath a stream. The results showed a general decrease in the aromaticity and molecular weight indices going from surface water, hyporheic downwelling and groundwater samples. The aquifer substrate also affected the organic composition. For example, groundwater samples collected from a zone of fractured rock showed a relative decrease in the proportion of humic substances, suggestive of sorption or degradation of humic substances. This work demonstrates the potential for using LC-OCD in elucidating the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater.

  5. Characterization of lecithin isolated from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) residues deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mi; Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2012-07-01

    Lecithin was isolated and characterized from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) deoiled residues using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) at a semibatch flow extraction process and an organic solvent (hexane) extraction. SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out to extract oil from anchovy at different temperatures (35 to 45 °C) and pressures (15 to 25 MPa). Extraction yield of oil was influenced by physical properties of SC-CO(2) with temperature and pressure changes. The major phospholipids of anchovy lecithin were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) (68%± 1.00%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (29%± 0.50%) were the main phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography was performed to purify the individual phospholipids. The fatty acid compositions of lecithin, PC, and PE were analyzed by gas chromatography. A significant amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were present in both phospholipids of PC and PE. Emulsions of lecithin in water were prepared through the use of a homogenizer. Oxidative stability of anchovy lecithin was high in spite of its high concentration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lecithin can be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when ingested. Lecithin from anchovy contain higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA, it may have positive outcome to use in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.S.; Stout, L.A.; Napier, B.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented

  7. Determination of pesticide residues in olives by liquid extraction surface analysis followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Almenar, M. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pesticides are essential in modern agriculture for crop protection, however, this use supposes a potential risk for human health and the environment. Traditional techniques of pesticide determination require the use of laborious and complex extraction methods to separate pesticides from the matrix, above all in fatty matrices like olives. For this reason, a new simple, rapid, cheap and selective method for the extraction and quantification of the most frequently used pesticides in olive growing has been developed. Pesticide determination was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Mean recoveries were found in a range between 73 and 114% with relative standard deviations lower than 20% in most pesticides evaluated and the limits of detection (LODs and quantification (LOQs were lower than 4 μg· kg-1 and 8 μg· kg-1, respectively. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 25 olive samples where Dimethoate and Terbuthylazine were detected in some cases, but their results were lower than 15 μg· kg-1.Hoy en día los pesticidas son esenciales en la agricultura moderna para la protección de los cultivos pero su uso supone un riesgo para la salud y el medio ambiente. Las técnicas tradicionales de determinación de pesticidas requieren el uso de métodos de extracción complejos a fin de separar los pesticidas de la matriz, sobre todo en matrices grasas como las aceitunas. Por ello, se ha desarrollado un nuevo método simple, rápido, barato y selectivo para la extracción y cuantificación de los pesticidas más frecuentemente utilizados en el cultivo del olivo, empleando cromatografía líquida de ultra-resolución (UPLC acoplada a espectrometría de masas (MS/MS. Las recuperaciones alcanzadas variaron entre el 73 y 114% obteniendo desviaciones estándar relativas inferiores al 20%. Los límites de detección (LD y cuantificación (LQ fueron

  8. Separation of alcohols from organic liquid mixtures by pervaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Hyun-Chae

    1993-01-01

    In the chemical industry, distillation is generally the preferred technique to separate a liquid mixture. However some liquid mixtures such as azeotropic mixtures, close-boiling hydrocarbons, and various isomers are difficult to separate by simple distillation. For the separation of these mixtures

  9. Determination of tylosin residues in different animal tissues by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-01-05

    A HPLC method to determine and quantify tylosin residues from calves, pigs and poultry is reported. This procedure permitted tylosin to be separated from muscle, liver, kidney and fat after a simple extraction with chloroform or ethyl acetate under basic conditions. The analytical methodology showed a high specificity and sensitivity and an adequate precision and accuracy with a limit of quantification of 50 microg/kg. Eight calves were administered 20 mg/kg/day of tylosin for 5 days and slaughtered at 7 and 14 days post-administration. Results showed that at the 14th day tylosin levels were lower than the MRL in all target tissues.

  10. Analysis of nifursol residues in turkey and chicken meat using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2005-01-01

    on conversion of nifursol and its metabolites with an intact 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid hydrazide (DNSH) side chain to the 2-nitrophenyl analogue of nifursol (NPDNSH) by treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Nifuroxazide (salicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) added......Nifursol (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) is mainly used as a feed additive for the prevention of blackhead disease in turkeys. The objective of the present work was to establish information on nifursol residues in turkey and chicken meat. The analytical method was based...

  11. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, Martin J.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  12. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.M

    2009-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15 N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  13. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of six soil organic matter models applied to the decomposition of animal manures and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two features distinguishing soil organic matter simulation models are the type of kinetics used to calculate pool decomposition rates, and the algorithm used to handle the effects of nitrogen (N shortage on carbon (C decomposition. Compared to widely used first-order kinetics, Monod kinetics more realistically represent organic matter decomposition, because they relate decomposition to both substrate and decomposer size. Most models impose a fixed C to N ratio for microbial biomass. When N required by microbial biomass to decompose a given amount of substrate-C is larger than soil available N, carbon decomposition rates are limited proportionally to N deficit (N inhibition hypothesis. Alternatively, C-overflow was proposed as a way of getting rid of excess C, by allocating it to a storage pool of polysaccharides. We built six models to compare the combinations of three decomposition kinetics (first-order, Monod, and reverse Monod, and two ways to simulate the effect of N shortage on C decomposition (N inhibition and C-overflow. We conducted sensitivity analysis to identify model parameters that mostly affected CO2 emissions and soil mineral N during a simulated 189-day laboratory incubation assuming constant water content and temperature. We evaluated model outputs sensitivity at different stages of organic matter decomposition in a soil amended with three inputs of increasing C to N ratio: liquid manure, solid manure, and low-N crop residue. Only few model parameters and their interactions were responsible for consistent variations of CO2 and soil mineral N. These parameters were mostly related to microbial biomass and to the partitioning of applied C among input pools, as well as their decomposition constants. In addition, in models with Monod kinetics, CO2 was also sensitive to a variation of the half-saturation constants. C-overflow enhanced pool decomposition compared to N inhibition hypothesis when N shortage occurred. Accumulated C in the

  15. Research and development of lithium isotope separation using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6 Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% 6 Li. In Japan, new lithium isotope separation technique using ionic-liquid impregnated organic membranes have been developed. The improvement in the durability of the ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is one of the main issues for stable, long-term operation of electrodialysis cells while maintaining good performance. Therefore, we developed highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane. Both ends of the ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane were covered by a nafion 324 overcoat to prevent the outflow of the ionic liquid. The transmission of Lithium aqueous solution after 10 hours under the highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is almost 13%. So this highly-durable ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane for long operating of electrodialysis cells has been developed through successful prevention of ion liquid dissolution. (J.P.N.)

  16. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Lopez, G.; Ibanez-Burgos, A. M.; Colombas, M.; Negree, A.; Reolid, C.; Lobo, M. C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-01-01

    For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

  17. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology

    2004-07-01

    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Separation and effect of residual moisture in liquid phase adsorption of xylene on y zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lahot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of p-xylene and m-xylene from C8 aromatic hydrocarbon feed using Y zeolites is investigated. Effect of residual moisture on p-xylene adsorption on BaY was measured in order to optimize the activation temperature of the adsorbent. The results show that with an increase in temperature the moisture on the adsorbent decreases. An optimum loading of moisture is required for adsorption of xylene on the adsorbents. The Everett equation is used to determine the adsorption capacity and selectivity. It has been found that the adsorbents best suited for the separation of p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene and ethyl benzene from the mixture of C8 aromatics are NaY, NaY, BaY and KY, respectively. The XRD results show that the crystallinity of the adsorbent decreases upon exchanging the zeolites to K+ and Ba2+ ions.

  19. Technology for recycling of manure and organic residues in a whole-farm perspective. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Soeren O. (ed.)

    2006-08-15

    Efficient use of agricultural residues and imported waste materials within agriculture is increasingly viewed from a whole-farm perspective. A wide range of management decisions - including feeding, manure collection systems, and treatment for hygienization or energy production - influence the nutrient value and environmental impact of agricultural residues. Field application of manure and urban wastes are affected by societal constraints, such as legislation, tradition, consumer attitudes towards waste recycling, and pollution risks. Hence, the optimal use of manure and organic wastes as a nutrient source and soil conditioner interacts strongly with many other aspects of farming. The objective behind this 12th International Conference of the Ramiran network is to present and discuss on-farm interactions between manure and waste management practices, and to consider methods to describe and quantify the overall effects of a given strategy or treatment practice. Accordingly, the research presented at the conference and in the proceedings cover a wide range of topics, from feed impact on manure composition to environmental losses in the field, from energy production to odour control, from biochemistry to modelling. We hope that everyone involved in the conference will see this as an opportunity to discover interfaces with other research areas that can strengthen the whole-farm perspective of future research. (au)

  20. Technology for recycling of manure and organic residues in a whole-farm perspective. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Soeren O. (ed.)

    2006-08-15

    Efficient use of agricultural residues and imported waste materials within agriculture is increasingly viewed from a whole-farm perspective. A wide range of management decisions - including feeding, manure collection systems, and treatment for hygienization or energy production - influence the nutrient value and environmental impact of agricultural residues. Field application of manure and urban wastes are affected by societal constraints, such as legislation, tradition, consumer attitudes towards waste recycling, and pollution risks. Hence, the optimal use of manure and organic wastes as a nutrient source and soil conditioner interacts strongly with many other aspects of farming. The objective behind this 12th International Conference of the Ramiran network is to present and discuss on-farm interactions between manure and waste management practices, and to consider methods to describe and quantify the overall effects of a given strategy or treatment practice. Accordingly, the research presented at the conference and in the proceedings cover a wide range of topics, from feed impact on manure composition to environmental losses in the field, from energy production to odour control, from biochemistry to modelling. We hope that everyone involved in the conference will see this as an opportunity to discover interfaces with other research areas that can strengthen the whole-farm perspective of future research. (au)

  1. Enzymatic activity measured by microcalorimetry in soil amended with organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cenciani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity is an important property for soil quality evaluation. Two sequences of experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the enzymatic activity in a soil (Rhodic Eutrudox amended with cattle manure, earthworm casts, or sewage sludges from the municipalities of Barueri and Franca. The activity of commercial enzymes was measured by microcalorimetry in the same soil samples after sterilization. In the first experiment, the enzyme activities of cellulase, protease, and urease were determined in the soil samples during a three month period. In the second sequence of experiments, the thermal effect of the commercial enzymes cellulase, protease, and urease on sterilized soil samples under the same tretaments was monitored for a period of 46 days. The experimental design was randomized and arranged as factorial scheme in five treatments x seven samplings with five replications. The treatment effects were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance. Tukey´s test was used to compare means at p < 0.05. The presence of different sources of organic residues increased the enzymatic activity in the sampling period. Cattle manure induced the highest enzymatic activity, followed by municipal sewage sludge, whereas earthworm casts induced the lowest activity, but differed from control treatment. The thermal effect on the enzyme activity of commercial cellulase, protease, and urease showed a variety of time peaks. These values probably oscillated due to soil physical-chemical factors affecting the enzyme activity on the residues.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2011-07-27

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and β-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples.

  3. Carbon Tetrachloride Flow Behavior in Unsaturated Hanford Caliche Material: An Investigation of Residual Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostrom, Mart; Lenhard, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    To obtain data that can be used to study the development of a residual NAPL saturation and to test corresponding models, a detailed transient experiment was conducted in a 170-cm long by 90-cm high by 5.5-cm wide flow cell. Fluid saturation measurements were obtained with a dual-energy gamma radiation system. The experimental conditions reflected those at the Hanford Site in Washington State, where an estimated 363-580 m3 of carbon tetrachloride was disposed to the subsurface. A key subsurface feature at the Hanford Site is a sloped Plio-Pleistocene caliche layer, which was reproduced in the experiment as a sloped lens in a medium-grained, uniform, sand matrix. The caliche contains considerable amounts of calcium carbonate and may have fluid wettability properties other than strongly water wet. A total of 800 ml of carbon tetrachloride was injected in the experimental domain at a rate of 0.5 ml min-1 from a small source area located at the surface. After apparent steady-state conditions were obtained with respect to carbon tetrachloride redistribution (i.e., the formation of residual DNAPL), saturation measurements indicate that all of the DNAPL that initially moved into the caliche, remained in this layer. This experimental result could not be reproduced with numerical multifluid flow simulations based on conventional constitutive relations between relative permeability, saturation, and fluid pressures. Water was subsequently applied to the surface at a constant rate over the full length of the caliche layer to study carbon tetrachloride displacement as a result of changing water saturations. Results show that as a result of this action, 29% of the DNAPL was removed from the caliche. However, the majority of the fluid remained in the caliche entrapped by water. Simulations with the multifluid flow simulator show that the current constitutive theory for relative permeability, saturation and capillary pressure does not describe displacement physics properly

  4. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  5. Analysis of a gas-liquid film plasma reactor for organic compound oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kevin [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Wang, Huijuan [School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Locke, Bruce R., E-mail: blocke@fsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Non-homogeneous filamentary plasma discharge formed along gas-liquid interface. • Hydrogen peroxide formed near interface favored over organic oxidation from liquid. • Post-plasma Fenton reactions lead to complete utilization of hydrogen peroxide. - Abstract: A pulsed electrical discharge plasma formed in a tubular reactor with flowing argon carrier gas and a liquid water film was analyzed using methylene blue as a liquid phase hydroxyl radical scavenger and simultaneous measurements of hydrogen peroxide formation. The effects of liquid flow rate, liquid conductivity, concentration of dye, and the addition of ferrous ion on dye decoloration and degradation were determined. Higher liquid flow rates and concentrations of dye resulted in less decoloration percentages and hydrogen peroxide formation due to initial liquid conductivity effects and lower residence times in the reactor. The highest decoloration energy yield of dye found in these studies was 5.2 g/kWh when using the higher liquid flow rate and adding the catalyst. The non-homogeneous nature of the plasma discharge favors the production of hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-liquid interface over the chemical oxidation of the organic in the bulk liquid phase and post-plasma reactions with the Fenton catalyst lead to complete utilization of the plasma-formed hydrogen peroxide.

  6. A Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry Approach for the Identification of Mebendazole Residue in Pork, Chicken, and Horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sun Lee

    Full Text Available A confirmatory and quantitative method of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS for the determination of mebendazole and its hydrolyzed and reduced metabolites in pork, chicken, and horse muscles was developed and validated in this study. Anthelmintic compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate after sample mixture was made alkaline followed by liquid chromatographic separation using a reversed phase C18 column. Gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of water containing 10 mM ammonium formate and methanol. This confirmatory method was validated according to EU requirements. Evaluated validation parameters included specificity, accuracy, precision (repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, analytical limits (decision limit and detection limit, and applicability. Most parameters were proved to be conforming to the EU requirements. The decision limit (CCα and detection capability (CCβ for all analytes ranged from 15.84 to 17.96 μgkg-1. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ for all analytes were 0.07 μgkg-1 and 0.2 μgkg-1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to monitoring samples collected from the markets in major cities and proven great potential to be used as a regulatory tool to determine mebendazole residues in animal based foods.

  7. Pesticide residue determination in surface waters by stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, A; Fernández-Franzón, M; Ruiz, M J; Font, G; Picó, Y

    2009-03-01

    In this stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method, 16 pesticides were extracted from surface water samples by sorption onto 1 mm polydimethylsiloxane layer coated on a 10-mm-length stir bar magnet. After liquid desorption of the analytes with 1 ml of methanol, the detection was performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyzer using selected reaction monitoring mode via electrospray ionization. Parameters affecting SBSE operation, including sample volume, salt addition, extraction time, stirring rate, and desorption conditions, have been evaluated. The optimized SBSE method required two 50 ml aliquots of surface water samples, one aliquot was added of 30% NaCl and stirred at 900 rpm during 1 h for testing five pesticides with log K(o/w) 3. The method was validated in spiked surface water samples at limits of quantifications (LOQs) and ten times the LOQs showing recoveries Albufera Lake and surrounding channels, showing that SBSE is a powerful tool for routine control analysis of pesticide residues in surface water.

  8. Proceedings of the 3. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids management conference[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The management of organic residuals in Canada is becoming more challenging and complex, both socially and politically. This conference provided a forum to exchange the latest information on technical legislative and public awareness issues associated with organic residuals and biosolids management in Canada. It was attended by producers, managers, practitioners and regulators from across Canada who discussed various initiatives regarding the production, management use and disposal of organic residuals including municipal wastewater treatment biosolids, animal manures and pulp and paper sludges. The sessions of the conference were entitled: biosolids management; quality issues; public perception and health issues; composting; treatment technologies; waste to energy; technology; and, land application. The conference featured 50 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Application of self-organizing feature maps to analyze the relationships between ignitable liquids and selected mass spectral ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch-Daiello, Jessica L; Williams, Mary R; Waddell, Erin E; Sigman, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    The unsupervised artificial neural networks method of self-organizing feature maps (SOFMs) is applied to spectral data of ignitable liquids to visualize the grouping of similar ignitable liquids with respect to their American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) class designations and to determine the ions associated with each group. The spectral data consists of extracted ion spectra (EIS), defined as the time-averaged mass spectrum across the chromatographic profile for select ions, where the selected ions are a subset of ions from Table 2 of the ASTM standard E1618-11. Utilization of the EIS allows for inter-laboratory comparisons without the concern of retention time shifts. The trained SOFM demonstrates clustering of the ignitable liquid samples according to designated ASTM classes. The EIS of select samples designated as miscellaneous or oxygenated as well as ignitable liquid residues from fire debris samples are projected onto the SOFM. The results indicate the similarities and differences between the variables of the newly projected data compared to those of the data used to train the SOFM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method.

  11. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection following salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the analysis of benzimidazole residues in farm fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud

    2018-03-30

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection (FL) has been proposed for the first time to determine thirteen benzimidazoles (BZs) in farmed fish samples. In order to optimize the chromatographic separation, parameters such as mobile phase composition and flow rate were carefully studied, establishing a gradient mode with a mobile phase consisted of water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus RRHD C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), involving a total analysis time lower than 12 min. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied as sample treatment to different types of farmed fish (trout, sea bream and sea bass). To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized including the amount of sample, type and volume of the extraction solvent, and the nature and amount of the salt used. Characterization of the method in terms of performance characteristics was carried out, obtaining satisfactory results for the linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.997), repeatability (RSD ≤ 6.1%), reproducibility (RSD ≤ 10.8%) and recoveries (R ≥ 79%; RSD ≤ 7.8%). Detection limits between 0.04-29.9 μg kg -1 were obtained, demonstrating the applicability of this fast, simple and environmentally friendly method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of biochar and plant growth on organic matter dynamics in a reclaimed mine residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Alberto, Jose; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl

    2016-04-01

    This study aims at assessing the impact of biochar and marble waste amendment and the development of vegetation in acidic mine wastes on organic matter dynamics. For this purpose, a mine residue was collected in a tailing pond from the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain), and a greenhouse experiment was established for 120 days. Marble waste (MW) was added in a rate of 200 g kg-1 as a source of calcium carbonate to increase the pH from 3 to 7.5-8 (average pH in the native soils of the area). We added biochar as a source of organic carbon and nutrients, in two different rates, 50 g kg-1 (BC1) and 100 g kg-1 (BC2). To assess the influence of vegetation growth on the creation of a technosoil from mine residues and its impact on organic matter dynamics, the plant species Piptatherum miliaceum (PM) was planted in half the pots with the different amendments. Thus, five treatments were established: unamended and unplanted control (CT), BC1, BC2, BC1+PM and BC2+PM. Results showed that the different treatments had no significant effect on aggregates stability, microbial biomass carbon and the emission of N2O and CH4. So, it seems that longer periods are needed to increase the stability of aggregates and microbial populations, since even the combined use of biochar, marble waste and vegetation was not enough to increase these properties in 120 days. Nonetheless, it was positive that the addition of biochar and the release of root exudates did not trigger the emission of greenhouse gases. Organic carbon significantly increased with the addition of biochar, with values similar to the dose applied, indicating high stability and low mineralization of the amendment. The addition of amendments significantly increased arylesterase activity, while the growth of the plant was needed to significantly increase β-glucosidase activity. The soluble carbon significantly decreased in BC1 and BC2 with regards to CT, while no significant differences were observed among CT and

  13. Dissolved organic carbon enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, K.E.C.; Thullner, M.; Wick, L.Y.; Harms, H.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enhances the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds from nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) into the aqueous phase above that attributable to dissolved molecular diffusion alone was tested. In controlled experiments, mass transfer rates of

  14. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrganic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2O5, K2O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803±0.0115%, total N 740.063±0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855±0.1562, P2O5 425.603±0.2329 ppm, K2O 2738.627±0.2836 ppm.

  15. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2 O5 , K2 O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803 ± 0.0115 %, total N 740.063 ± 0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855 ± 0.1562, P2 O5 425.603 ± 0.2329 ppm, K2 O 2738.627 ± 0.2836 ppm.

  16. The Use of Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Skoda-Földes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability.

  17. Thin aligned organic polymer films for liquid crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Kathryn Ellen

    1997-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the possibility of producing alignment layers for liquid crystal devices by cross-linking thin films containing anisotropic polymer bound chromophores via irradiation with polarised ultraviolet light. Photocross-linkable polymers find use in microelectronics, liquid crystal displays, printing and UV curable lacquers and inks; so there is an increasing incentive for the development of new varieties of photopolymers in general. The synthesis and characterisation of two new photopolymers that are suitable as potential alignment layers for liquid crystal devices are reported in this thesis. The first polymer contains the anthracene chromophore attached via a spacer unit to a methacrylate backbone and the second used a similarly attached aryl azide group. Copolymers of the new monomers with methyl methacrylate were investigated to establish reactivity ratios in order to understand composition drift during polymerisation. (author)

  18. Variability of matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues after QuEChERS sample preparation of different food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to sophisticated mass spectrometry (MS) instruments are among the most powerful analytical tools currently available to monitor pesticide residues in food, among other applications. However, both GC-MS and LC-MS are susceptible to matrix effects whi...

  19. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Engelen, M.C. van; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R.

    2007-01-01

    An emerging trend is recognised in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based screening and confirmation towards accurate mass alternatives such as LC coupled with time-of-flight (TOF), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  20. Deep Residual Network Predicts Cortical Representation and Organization of Visual Features for Rapid Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Shi, Junxing; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-02-28

    The brain represents visual objects with topographic cortical patterns. To address how distributed visual representations enable object categorization, we established predictive encoding models based on a deep residual network, and trained them to predict cortical responses to natural movies. Using this predictive model, we mapped human cortical representations to 64,000 visual objects from 80 categories with high throughput and accuracy. Such representations covered both the ventral and dorsal pathways, reflected multiple levels of object features, and preserved semantic relationships between categories. In the entire visual cortex, object representations were organized into three clusters of categories: biological objects, non-biological objects, and background scenes. In a finer scale specific to each cluster, object representations revealed sub-clusters for further categorization. Such hierarchical clustering of category representations was mostly contributed by cortical representations of object features from middle to high levels. In summary, this study demonstrates a useful computational strategy to characterize the cortical organization and representations of visual features for rapid categorization.

  1. On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data presented in the figures of the paper "On the implications of aerosol liquid water and phase separation for organic aerosol mass"...

  2. A novel ionic liquid-tolerant Fusarium oxysporum BN secreting ionic liquid-stable cellulase: consolidated bioprocessing of pretreated lignocellulose containing residual ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaxing; Wang, Xinfeng; Hu, Lei; Xia, Jun; Wu, Zhen; Xu, Ning; Dai, Benlin; Wu, Bin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, microbial communities from chemicals polluted microhabitats were cultured with the addition of imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) to enrich for IL-tolerant microbes. A strain of Fusarium oxysporum BN producing cellulase from these enrichments was capable of growing in 10% (w/v) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphinate, much higher than the normal IL concentrations in the lignocellulose regenerated from ILs. Cellulase secreted by the strain showed high resistance to ILs based on phosphate and sulfate radicals, evidencing of a high conformational stability in relevant media. Gratifyingly, F. oxysporum BN can directly convert IL-pretreated rice straw to bioethanol via consolidated bioprocessing (I-CBP). At optimum fermentation condition, a maximum ethanol yield of 0.125 g ethanol g(-1) of rice straw was finally obtained, corresponding to 64.2% of the theoretical yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator JS-118 residues in cabbage and soil by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J-Y; Deng, Z-B; Qin, D-M

    2009-12-01

    JS-118 is a diacylhydrazines-type insect growth regulator used extensively in China now. An analytical method for residues determination of JS-118 in cabbage and soil samples by high performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection was established and optimized. Primary secondary amine solid phase extraction cartridge was used for sample preparation. Mean recoveries for the analyte ranged from 96.6% to 107.0% with CV value less than 4.7%. The limit of quantification is 0.01 mg/kg. Direct confirmation of JS-118 residues in samples was realized by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable to perform and could be utilized for monitoring of pesticides residues.

  4. Method Development for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Farmland Soil using High Perfomance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresia Djue Tea, Marselina; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Sulistyarti, Hermin

    2018-01-01

    A method for the determination of diazinon and chlorantraniliprole in soil samples has been developed. The analyte was extracted with acetonitrile from farmland soil sample. Determination and quantification of diazinon and chlorantraniliprole were perfomed by high perfomance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an UV detector. Several parameters of HPLC method were optimized with respect to sensitivity, high resolution of separation, and accurate determination of diazinon and chlorantraniliprole. Optimum conditions for the separation of two pesticides were eluent composition of acetonitrile:water ratio of 60:40, 0.4 mL/min of flow rate, and 220 nm of wavelength. Under the optimum conditions, diazinon linearity was in the range from 1-25 ppm with R2 of 0.9976, 1.19 mgL-1 LOD, and 3.98 mgL-1 LOQ; while the linearity of chlorantraniliprole was in the range from 0.2-5 mgL-1 with R2 of 0.9972, 0.39 mgL-1 LOD, and 1.29 mgL-1 LOQ. When the method was applied to the soil sample, both pesticides showed acceptable recoveries for real sample of more than 85%: thus, the developed method meets the validation requirement. Under this developed method, the concentrations of both pesticides in the soil samples were below the LOD and LOQ (0.577 mgL-1 for diazinon and 0.007 mgL-1 for chlorantraniliprole). Therefore, it can be concluded that the soil samples used in this study have neither diazinon nor chlorantraniliprole.

  5. Metal–organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Jing; Gascon, Jorge; Li, Jiansheng; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    , the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes

  6. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  7. Liquid phase oxidation via heterogeneous catalysis organic synthesis and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clerici, Mario G

    2013-01-01

    Sets the stage for environmentally friendly industrial organic syntheses From basic principles to new and emerging industrial applications, this book offers comprehensive coverage of heterogeneous liquid-phase selective oxidation catalysis. It fully examines the synthesis, characterization, and application of catalytic materials for environmentally friendly organic syntheses. Readers will find coverage of all the important classes of catalysts, with an emphasis on their stability and reusability. Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysis features contributions from an internation

  8. Modeling the gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol: the importance of liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds between the gas phase and aerosol particles is an important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Gas-particle partitioning of organic and inorganic species is influenced by the physical state and water content of aerosols, and therefore ambient relative humidity (RH, as well as temperature and organic loading levels. We introduce a novel combination of the thermodynamic models AIOMFAC (for liquid mixture non-ideality and EVAPORATION (for pure compound vapor pressures with oxidation product information from the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for the computation of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds and water. The presence and impact of a liquid-liquid phase separation in the condensed phase is calculated as a function of variations in relative humidity, organic loading levels, and associated changes in aerosol composition. We show that a complex system of water, ammonium sulfate, and SOA from the ozonolysis of α-pinene exhibits liquid-liquid phase separation over a wide range of relative humidities (simulated from 30% to 99% RH. Since fully coupled phase separation and gas-particle partitioning calculations are computationally expensive, several simplified model approaches are tested with regard to computational costs and accuracy of predictions compared to the benchmark calculation. It is shown that forcing a liquid one-phase aerosol with or without consideration of non-ideal mixing bears the potential for vastly incorrect partitioning predictions. Assuming an ideal mixture leads to substantial overestimation of the particulate organic mass, by more than 100% at RH values of 80% and by more than 200% at RH values of 95%. Moreover, the simplified one-phase cases stress two key points for accurate gas-particle partitioning calculations: (1 non-ideality in the condensed phase needs to be considered and (2 liquid-liquid phase separation is a consequence of considerable deviations

  9. Radiation induced polymerization of MMA in imidazolium ionic liquids and their mixed solutions with organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Mingying [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Guozhong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: wuguozhong@sinap.ac.cn; Sha Maolin; Liu Yusheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Considerably higher molecular weight (M{sub w}) and multi-modal molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were observed in neat ionic liquids ([bmim][PF{sub 6}] and [bmim][BF{sub 4}]), as well as their mixed solutions with organic solvents, probably due to the high viscosity and inhomogeneity of ionic liquids. FTIR spectra for PMMA showed that a slight amount of ionic liquid remained in the resulting polymer, and DSC measurement indicated the increase of glass transition point of PMMA with increasing of ionic liquid fraction in mixed solutions.

  10. Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M.; Andersen, Wendy C.; Turnipseed, Sherri B.; Storey, Joseph M.; Madson, Mark R.; Miller, Keith E.; Gieseker, Charles M.; Miller, Ron A.; Rummel, Nathan G.; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2009-01-01

    In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H] - m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 μg kg -1 of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n = 107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 μg kg -1 . An internal standard, 13 C 3 -labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D. = 15%, n = 18) with an MDL of 7.4 μg kg -1 . Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D. = 10%, n = 13) with an MDL of 3.5 μg kg -1

  11. [Determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhi; Wang, Quanlin; Cao, Lili; Li, Yu; Shen, Hao; Shen, Jian; Zhang, Shufen; Man, Zhengyin

    2016-02-01

    A multiresidue analytical method for the determination of 250 pesticide residues in vegetables was developed by using QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid, purified by a mixed sorbent of MgSO4, primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB) and C18, separated on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2. 1 mm, 1.7 µm) and detected by UPLC-MS/MS. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was used as a dewatering agent. The effects of the amounts of MgSO4, PSA, GCB and C18 added on the recoveries of 250 pesticides were investigated. The results showed that the purification effect was best when 300 mg MgSO4, 200 mg PSA, 10 mg GCB and 100 mg C18 in 2 mL of the extract were added. For the 250 pesticide residues, the limits of detection (LODs) of the method were from 0. 01 to 50. 00 g/kg. The recoveries obtained ranged from 60. 1% to 120% at three spiked levels in Chinese chives with the relative standard deviations between 3. 5% and 19. 5% using matrix matched external standard method. The results showed that the method is able to meet requirements of the multiresidue detection of the 250 pesticides in vegetable. The method has the advantages of rapidity, simplicity, high sensitivity and better purification effect. It is suitable for the rapid determination of the common pesticides in vegetables, and it provides a strong guarantee for the risk assessments of the quality and safety of vegetables.

  12. Antibiotic residues in liquid manure from swine feedlot and their effects on nearby groundwater in regions of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Huang, Hongkun; Ren, Tianzhi

    2018-04-01

    A survey was conducted in regions of North China to better understand the effect of antibiotic residue pollution from swine feedlots to nearby groundwater environment. A total of nine experimental sites located in the regions of Beijing, Hebei, and Tianjin were selected to analyze the presence of residues of 11 most commonly used antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQNs), sulfonamides (SAs), macrolides, and fenicols, by using liquid chromatography spectrometry. The three most common antibiotics were TCs, FQNs, and SAs, with mean concentrations of 416.4, 228.8, and 442.4 μg L -1 in wastewater samples; 19.9, 11.8, and 0.3 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from swine feedlots; and 29.7, 14.0, and 0 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from villages. Ordination analysis revealed that the composition and distribution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (AGRs) were similar in groundwater samples from swine feedlots and villages. FQNs and TCs occurred along the path from wastewater to groundwater at high concentrations and showed correlations with ARGs, with a strong correlation between FQN resistance gene (qnrA) copy number. FQN concentration was also found (P swine feedlots through wastewater could disseminate into surrounding groundwater environments together with ARG occurrence (i.e., qnrA, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetM, and tetO). Overall, this study suggests that the spread of veterinary antibiotics from swine feedlots to groundwater environments should be highly attended and controlled by restricting excess antibiotic usage or improving the technology of manure management.

  13. Use of liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate pesticide residues in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalt, Susana; Pozo, Oscar J; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, the potential of coupling liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF) for the determination of pesticides in a variety of fruit samples (orange peel and flesh, banana skin and flesh, strawberry and pear) has been explored. The quantitative application at residue levels has been proven for two insecticides (buprofezin and hexythiazox), which were satisfactorily determined at three concentration levels, 0.1, 1, and 5 mg/kg, obtaining a suitable linearity range (correlation coefficient>0.99) of more than 2 orders of magnitude. Satisfactory recoveries have been obtained for both compounds at the three levels tested in all sample matrices, with lowest calibration levels (LCL) of 0.075 and 0.01 mg/kg. The excellent potential of QTOF for identification purposes is illustrated by the high number of identification points (IPs) earned, up to 21, at the highest concentration of 5 mg/kg, or between 11 and 21 at the 0.1 and 1 mg/kg levels. The application of LC-QTOF MS to real samples revealed the presence of several positives at concentrations close to the LCL, all of which were confirmed with more than 11 IPs. The potential of QTOF for elucidation of nontarget analytes has also been demonstrated by the finding of one transformation product (TP) of buprofezin in a banana skin sample. This TP was identified by obtaining the full scan product ion spectra at different collision energies with acceptable accurate mass deviation. The work performed in this paper illustrates the suitability and excellent confirmatory potential of LC-QTOF MS for pesticides residues analysis in food samples.

  14. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  15. Study of the degradation of liquid-organic radioactive wastes by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this study degradation studies were performed on blank samples, in which two electrochemical cells with different electrodes were used, the first is constituted by mesh electrodes Ti/Ir-Ta/Ti and the second by rod electrodes Ti/Ddb, using as reference an electrolytic medium of scintillation liquid and scintillation liquid more water, applying different potentials ranging from 1 to 25 V. After obtaining the benchmarks, the treatment was applied to samples containing organic liquid radioactive waste, in this case a short half-life radioisotope as Sulfur-35, the degradation characterization of organic compounds was performed in infrared spectrometry. (Author)

  16. High-efficiency technology for lithium isotope separation using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ( 6 Li) in tritium breeding materials. New lithium isotope separation technique using ionic-liquid impregnated organic membranes (Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs) have been developed. Lithium ions are able to move by electrodialysis through certain Ionic-Liquid-i-OMs between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. In this report, the effects of protection cover and membrane thickness on the durability of membrane and the efficiency of isotope separation were evaluated. In order to improve the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM, we developed highly-durable Ionic-Liquid-i-OM. Both surfaces of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM were covered by a nafion 324 overcoat or a cation exchange membrane (SELEMION TM CMD) to prevent the outflow of the ionic liquid. It was observed that the durability of the Ionic-Liquid-i-OM was improved by a nafion 324 overcoat. On the other hand, the organic membrane selected was 1, 2 or 3 mm highly-porous Teflon film, in order to efficiently impregnate the ionic liquid. The 6 Li isotope separation factor by electrodialysis using highly-porous Teflon film of 3 mm thickness was larger than using that of 1 or 2 mm thickness.

  17. Material degradation of liquid organic semiconductors analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Fukushima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid organic light-emitting diodes (liquid OLEDs are unique devices consisting only of liquid organic semiconductors in the active layer, and the device performances have been investigated recently. However, the device degradation, especially, the origin has been unknown. In this study, we show that material degradation occurs in liquid OLEDs, whose active layer is composed of carbazole with an ethylene glycol chain. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR experiments clearly exhibit that the dimerization reaction of carbazole moiety occurs in the liquid OLEDs during driving the devices. In contrast, cleavages of the ethylene glycol chain are not detected within experimental error. The dimerization reaction is considered to be related to the device degradation.

  18. Research on organic liquids as reactor coolants. Status report from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1967-01-01

    The organic-moderated and cooled nuclear reactor concept has stimulated extensive activities in numerous different areas of research. Investigations started in Hungary in 1958 do not cover all topics of interest in organic reactors and so far no projects have been started to build such a reactor. Since OMRE and other organic reactor experiments have already shown the potential use of organic materials as reactor coolants and moderators, efforts have been focused rather on the investigation and solution of certain specific particular problems and also on economic aspects. One of the most important objectives seems to be a better knowledge of the radiolytic heat transfer and neutron physics behaviour of organic liquids. In Hungary the following topics were selected for investigation: Radiation stability of organic compounds and their mixtures; Heat-transfer studies; Investigations on the moderating parameters of organic liquids; Economic analysis of the possible use of organic reactors for process heat application

  19. Research on organic liquids as reactor coolants. Status report from Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, I [Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    1967-01-01

    The organic-moderated and cooled nuclear reactor concept has stimulated extensive activities in numerous different areas of research. Investigations started in Hungary in 1958 do not cover all topics of interest in organic reactors and so far no projects have been started to build such a reactor. Since OMRE and other organic reactor experiments have already shown the potential use of organic materials as reactor coolants and moderators, efforts have been focused rather on the investigation and solution of certain specific particular problems and also on economic aspects. One of the most important objectives seems to be a better knowledge of the radiolytic heat transfer and neutron physics behaviour of organic liquids. In Hungary the following topics were selected for investigation: Radiation stability of organic compounds and their mixtures; Heat-transfer studies; Investigations on the moderating parameters of organic liquids; Economic analysis of the possible use of organic reactors for process heat application.

  20. Characterization of liquid products from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixture of petroleum vacuum residue, polypropylene, Samla coal and Calotropis Procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ahmaruzzaman; D.K. Sharma [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2008-08-15

    The co-cracking of the petroleum vacuum residue (XVR) with polypropylene (PP), Samla coal (SC) and Calotropis procera (CL) has been carried out in a batch reactor under isothermal conditions at atmospheric pressure. The liquids obtained by co-cracking have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and inductively coupled argon plasma analyses. It was found that the liquid products obtained from the co-cracking of ternary and quaternary mixtures of the petroleum vacuum residue with polypropylene, coal and C. procera contained less than 1 ppm of Ni and V. The HPLC analyses indicates that the liquids obtained from the cracking of ternary mixture of XVR+PP+CL were mainly aliphatic in nature (saturates content 87.4%). NMR analyses showed that the aromatic carbon contents decreased (15.0%) in the liquid products derived from the co-cracking of quaternary mixtures of XVR+PP+SC+CL compared to their theoretical averages (taking the averages of aromatic carbon contents of the liquids from XVR, PP, SC and CL individually). The overall results indicated that there exists a definite interaction of reactive species when XVR, PP, SC and CL were co-cracked together. 27 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. [Determination of glufosinate residue in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with precolumn derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yonghui; Liu, Zhengcai; Yang, Fang; Qiu, Yuanjin; Liu, Suzhen; Su, Zhijiao; Zhang, Qiong; Xue, Zhimin; Fang, Yu

    2012-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established for the determination of glufosinate (GLUF) residue in tea. The GLUF was extracted with water for 30 min under ultrasonication, and cleaned-up using a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge, then derived using fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in borate buffer for 2 h. The separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution (containing 0.2% (v/v) formic acid) in a gradient elution mode. The identification and quantification of the GLUF were carried out by MS/MS in negative electrospray ionization (ESI(-)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, the quantification analysis was performed by external standard method. The calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 2.5 - 50.0 microg/L with the correlation coefficient r2 > 0.999. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.10 mg/kg. The average recoveries of GLUF spiked at 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/kg levels in tea were between 61.6% and 81.4%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 3.2% and 8.4%. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive, accurate and suitable for the confirmation and quantification of GLUF in tea.

  2. Multi-residue determination of 210 drugs in pork by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiqiang; Chai, Tingting; Mu, Pengqian; Xu, Nana; Song, Yue; Wang, Xinlu; Jia, Qi; Qiu, Jing

    2016-09-09

    This paper presents a multi-residue analytical method for 210 drugs in pork using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) within 20min via positive ESI in scheduled multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The 210 drugs, belonging to 21 different chemical classes, included macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, β-lactams, β-agonists, aminoglycosides, antiviral drugs, glycosides, phenothiazine, protein anabolic hormones, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), quinolones, antifungal drugs, corticosteroids, imidazoles, piperidines, piperazidines, insecticides, amides, alkaloids and others. A rapid and simple preparation method was applied to process the animal tissues, including solvent extraction with an acetonitrile/water mixture (80/20, v/v), defatting and clean-up processes. The recoveries ranged from 52% to 130% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<20% for spiked concentrations of 10, 50 and 250μg/kg. More than 90% of the analytes achieved low limits of quantification (LOQs)<10μg/kg. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ) values were in the range of 2-502μg/kg and 4-505μg/kg, respectively. This method is significant for food safety monitoring and controlling veterinary drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Multi-residue method for screening of pesticides in crops by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, Haruna; Shima, Mikie; Ikehara, Chieko; Kobata, Masakazu; Sato, Motoaki

    2005-10-01

    A simple and rapid method was developed for the screening of 82 pesticides/metabolites in a wide variety of crops, using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After extraction with methanol, the filtered extracts were made up to 100 mL and a 2 mL aliquot was subjected to solid-phase extraction. Co-extractives were removed with a C18 mini-column, while pesticides were retained on 3 kinds of mini-columns (HLB, SAX, activated carbon), and then eluted with acetonitrile. Analysis was performed by LC/MS/MS, and MS acquisition parameters were established in positive and negative ESI modes. The utility of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of 6 crops (carrot, cabbage, onion, spinach, lemon, brown rice) and one mixed vegetable juice. Of 82 compounds tested, 75 in carrot and 62 in lemon were obtained with recoveries ranging from 70-120%. For all samples tested, 75 compounds could be obtained with recoveries of over 50%, and the detection limits of most compounds were lower than 0.01 microg/g. This method provides acceptable performance for analysis of these 75 compounds. Further, by using aliquots of the extracts with small-scale mini-columns, purified samples could be obtained. This proposed method with small matrix effects, is effective and suitable for screening of multiple residual pesticides by using LC/MS/MS.

  4. Liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ten tetracycline residues in muscle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajda Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC, 4-epi oxytetracycline (4-epi OTC, tetracycline (TC, 4-epi tetracycline (4-epi TC, chlortetracycline (CTC, 4-epi chlortetracycline (4-epi CTC, doxycycline (DC, minocycline (MINO, methacycline (META and rolitetracycline (ROLI residues in muscles was developed. The procedure consisted of an oxalic acid extraction followed by protein removal with trichloroacetic acid. Further solid phase clean-up on polymeric (Strata X reversed phase columns was performed to obtain an extract suitable for LC-MS/MS analysis. The tetracyclines were separated on a C 18 analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 0.01% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid in water in gradient mode. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recoveries of all target compounds were 91.8% – 103.6%. The decision limits were from 109.0 to 119.8 μg/kg and detection capability varied within the range of 122.2 to 137.6 μg/kg, depending on the analyte.

  5. Determination of benzimidazole residues and their metabolites in raw milk using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Denžić Lugomer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD was developed for the analysis of 18 benzimidazoles and their metabolites in milk. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and n-hexane and purified by polymer cation exchange (PCX solid phase extraction cartridges. LC separation was performed on Xbridge C18 with gradient elution using acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer. The DAD detection was set at 298, 312, 254 and 290 nm. The method was validated according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The following validation parameters were set: accuracy (expressed as recovery 31.7-137.6 %, limit of decision (CCα 6.0-120.6 μg kg-1, detection capability (CCβ 6.1-120.8 μg kg-1, limit of detection (LOD 1-4 μg kg-1, limit of quantification (LOQ 4-18 μg kg-1, precision as CV 7.0-22.5 %, withinlaboratory reproducibility expressed as CV 8.8-30.6 %. Finally, the developed method was applied to the analysis of collected milk samples. A total of 50 milk samples was analysed for benzimidazole residues. All obtained concentrations for all compounds were below the LOQ values.

  6. Utilization of Ionic Liquids for the Separation of Organic Liquids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The concentrations of the aromatic components used were in the range of 2.5–10 % (v/v) for the following ... components in the ionic liquid obtained by gas chromatography were used to determine the capability of .... nitrogen; column flow.

  7. Full-scale demonstration of treatment of mechanically separated organic residue in a bioreactor at VAM in Wijster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.; Woelders, H.

    1999-01-01

    At the VAM waste treatment company in Wijster a demonstration is in progress of bioreactor technology for the treatment of mechanically separated organic residue (MSOR) of a waste separation plant. This bioreactor is an in situ fermentation cell in which physical, chemical and biological processes

  8. Residual Complexity Does Impact Organic Chemistry and Drug Discovery: The Case of Rufomyazine and Rufomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, Mary P; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Cheng, Jinhua; Lee, Hanki; Suh, Joo-Won; Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-05-24

    Residual complexity (RC) involves the impact of subtle but critical structural and biological features on drug lead validation, including unexplained effects related to unidentified impurities. RC commonly plagues drug discovery efforts due to the inherent imperfections of chromatographic separation methods. The new diketopiperazine, rufomyazine (6), and the previously known antibiotic, rufomycin (7), represent a prototypical case of RC that (almost) resulted in the misassignment of biological activity. The case exemplifies that impurities well below the natural abundance of 13 C (1.1%) can be highly relevant and calls for advanced analytical characterization of drug leads with extended molar dynamic ranges of >1:1,000 using qNMR and LC-MS. Isolated from an actinomycete strain, 6 was originally found to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL and high selectivity. As a part of lead validation, the dipeptide was synthesized and surprisingly found to be inactive. The initially observed activity was eventually attributed to a very minor contamination (0.24% [m/m]) with a highly active cyclic peptide (MIC ∼ 0.02 μM), subsequently identified as an analogue of 7. This study illustrates the serious implications RC can exert on organic chemistry and drug discovery, and what efforts are vital to improve lead validation and efficiency, especially in NP-related drug discovery programs.

  9. 15N Isotopic Study on Decomposition of Organic Residues Incorporated into Alluvial and Sandy Saline Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kholi, A. F.; Galal, Y. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Incubation experiment was conducted to study the effect of the nitrogenous fertilizer on the decomposition and mineralization of organic residues (soybean powdered forage) as well as the release of the soil inorganic nitrogen. This technique was carried out using two types of soils, one is alluvial and the other is saline sandy soil collected from Fayoum governorate. Soybean forage has an organic carbon 23.1%, total N 1.6% and C/N ratio 14.4. Regarding the effect of incubation period on the two soil samples, the evolved NH 4 -N was generally reached its highest peak after 30-45 days, in the presence of either the added 15 No3-fertilizer solely or in combination with soybean forage. Reversible trend was occurred with regard to the evolved No3-N. The highest peak of evolved No3-N recorded in unfertilized control, as compared to 15 No3-N treatment, at 30 day incubation period indicated that the addition of labeled mineral fertilizer had appreciably enhanced the immobilization process. Net nitrification revealed that it was the highest in unfertilized control soil where it was significantly decreased in the treated two soil samples. Gross mineralization as affected by the addition of soybean forage in combination with labeled mineral fertilizer had been promoted by 75% in the alluvial soil and by 18% in the sandy saline soil, as compared with the soil samples received 15 No3-fertilizer only. Gross immobilization, in soil samples received 15 No3-fertilizer plus soybean forage had surpassed those received 15 No3-fertilizer only by 16% in the alluvial soil and by 25% in the sandy saline soil. (Authors)

  10. Purification of the Drain Water and Distillation Residues from Organic Compounds, Transuranic Elements and Uranium at the Chernobyl NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudenko, L.I.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Article examines the purification of drain water and distillation residue from organic (polymeric compounds, tran suranic elements and uranium. We propose the pretreatment method with the use of a type «Sizol» coagulant-flocculant and catalytic oxidation with hydrogen peroxide and ultrafiltration. This method prevents evaporator coking by dustsuppression and other organic substances, which are vulcanized by heating. Removing alpha-emitting radionuclides increases safety level at the nuclear power plant.

  11. High-throughput method for macrolides and lincosamides antibiotics residues analysis in milk and muscle using a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Campos Motta, Tanara Magalhães; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-11-01

    A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Crystallization of an organic compound from an ionic liquid using carbon dioxide as anti-solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Toussaint, V.A.; Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Spronsen, van J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Peters, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the anti-solvency behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a way to recover an organic compound from an ionic liquid by crystallization is explored. As an example, the conditions for crystallization of the organic compound methyl-(Z)-a-acetamido cinnamate (MAAC) from the ionic

  13. Detection of pesticides residues in water samples from organic and conventional paddy fields of Ledang, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Ishak, Anizan; Nabhan, Khitam Jaber

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been used extensively by the farmers in Malaysia during the last few decades. Sixteen water samples, collected from paddy fields both organic and conventional, from Ledang, Johor, were analyzed to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticide residues. GC-ECD instrument was used to identify and determine the concentrations of these pesticide residues. Pesticide residues were detected in conventional fields in the range about 0.036-0.508 µg/L higher than detected in organic fields about 0.015-0.428 µg/L. However the level of concentration of pesticide residues in water sample from both paddy fields are in the exceed limit for human consumption, according to European Economic Commission (EEC) (Directive 98/83/EC) at 0.1 µg/L for any pesticide or 0.5 µg/L for total pesticides. The results that the organic plot is still contaminated with pesticides although pesticides were not use at all in plot possibly from historical used as well as from airborne contamination.

  14. Microbial consortium role in processing liquid waste of vegetables in Keputran Market Surabaya as organic liquid fertilizer ferti-plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizqi, Fauziah; Supriyanto, Agus; Lestari, Intan; Lita Indri D., L.; Elmi Irmayanti, A.; Rahmaniyah, Fadilatur

    2016-03-01

    Many activities in this market is directly proportional to increase production of vegetables waste, especially surabaya. Therefore, in this study aims to utilize liquid waste of vegetables into liquid organic fertilizer by mixing microbial consorsium. The microbial consorsium consist of Azotobacter chrococcum, Azospirillum brasilense, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Ttreatment of microbial concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%) and the length of the incubation period (7 days, 14 days, 21 days) used in this research. The parameters used are: C/N ratio, levels of CNP, and BOD value. This study uses a standard organic fertilizer value according SNI19-7030-2004, The results show the value of C/N ratio comply with the ISO standards. C levels showed an increase during the incubation period but not compare with standards. N levels that compare with standards are microbial treatment in all group concentration except control group with an incubation period of 21 days is > 7. P levels compare with the existing standards in the group of microbe concentration of 10% and 15% during the incubation period. The value of the initial BOD liquid waste of vegetable is 790.25 mg / L, this value indicates that the waste should not go into the water body. Accordingly, the results of this study can not be used as a liquid organic fertilizer, but potentially if it is used as a natural career or build natural soil. The Building natural soil is defined as the natural ingredients that can be used to improve soil properties.

  15. Ethanol production from a biomass mixture of furfural residues with green liquor-peroxide saccarified cassava liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Zheng, Tianran; Zhao, Pengxiang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    As the most abundant renewable resources, lignocellulosic materials are ideal candidates as alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. Cassava residues (CR) are byproducts of the cassava starch industry which can be mixed with lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. The presence of lignin in lignocellulosic substrates can inhibit saccharification by reducing the cellulase activity. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of furfural residues (FR) pretreated with green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2) with CR saccharification liquid was investigated. The final ethanol concentration, yield, initial rate, number of live yeast cells, and the dead yeast ratio were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of combining delignificated lignocellulosic substrates and starchy substrates for ethanol production. Our results indicate that 42.0 % of FR lignin removal was achieved on FR using of 0.06 g H2O2/g-substrate and 9 mL GL/g-substrate at 80 °C. The highest overall ethanol yield was 93.6 % of the theoretical. When the ratio of 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR to CR was 5:1, the ethanol concentration was the same with that ratio of untreated FR to CR of 1:1. Using 0.06 g/g-H2O2-GL-pretreated FR with CR at a ratio of 2:1 resulted in 51.9 g/L ethanol concentration. Moreover, FR pretreated with GL-H2O2 decreased the concentration of byproducts in SSF compared with that obtained in the previous study. The lignin in FR would inhibit enzyme activity and GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR and high intensity of FR pretreatment increased the final ethanol concentration. The efficiency of ethanol fermentation of was improved when delignification increased. GL-H2O2 is an advantageous pretreatment method to treat FR. As the pretreatment dosage of GL-H2O2 on FR increased, the proportion of lignocellulosic substrates was enhanced in the SSF of the substrate mixture of CR and FR as compared with untreated FR. Moreover, the

  16. Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M. [Animal Drugs Research Center, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States)], E-mail: christine.karbiwnyk@fda.hhs.gov; Andersen, Wendy C.; Turnipseed, Sherri B. [Animal Drugs Research Center, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States); Storey, Joseph M.; Madson, Mark R. [Denver District Laboratory, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States); Miller, Keith E. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 8401 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States); Gieseker, Charles M.; Miller, Ron A.; Rummel, Nathan G.; Reimschuessel, Renate [University of Denver, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Denver, CO 80208 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H]{sup -}m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n = 107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. An internal standard, {sup 13}C{sub 3}-labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D. = 15%, n = 18) with an MDL of 7.4 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D. = 10%, n = 13) with an MDL of 3.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}.

  17. Performance of carbon-carbon supercapacitors based on organic, aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Andrzej; Olejniczak, Angelika; Galinski, Maciej; Stepniak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, PL-60 965 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-09-01

    Properties of capacitors working with the same carbon electrodes (activated carbon cloth) and three types of electrolytes: aqueous, organic and ionic liquids were compared. Capacitors filled with ionic liquids worked at a potential difference of 3.5 V, their solutions in AN and PC were charged up to the potential difference of 3 V, classical organic systems to 2.5 V and aqueous to 1 V. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charging/discharging and impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize these capacitors. The highest specific energy was recorded for the device working with ionic liquids, while the highest power is characteristic for the device filled with aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Aqueous electrolytes led to energy density an order of magnitude lower in comparison to that characteristic of ionic liquids. (author)

  18. The high pressure liquid chromatography and its application to the separation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric dust and burning residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.-C.

    1975-09-01

    A new technique of analysis is described: the high speed liquid chromatography or more exactly the high performance liquid chromatography because of the progress achieved on the new packings of the columns. The main types of chromatography, according to the phenomena involved are described: adsorption, partition, ion-exchange and exclusion chromatography. A brief outline is given of the theory for determination of stationary and mobile phases in order to obtain the optimum conditions of separation. Some exemples of possible applications are given, particularly the use of this technique for the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric pollution and burning residues [fr

  19. Influence of digestion methods on the recovery of Iron, Zinc, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead contents in 11 organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are currently many devices and techniques to quantify trace elements (TEs in various matrices, but their efficacy is dependent on the digestion methods (DMs employed in the opening of such matrices which, although "organic", present inorganic components which are difficult to solubilize. This study was carried out to evaluate the recovery of Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb contents in samples of composts and cattle, horse, chicken, quail, and swine manures, as well as in sewage sludges and peat. The DMs employed were acid digestion in microwaves with HNO3 (EPA 3051A; nitric-perchloric digestion with HNO3 + HClO4 in a digestion block (NP; dry ashing in a muffle furnace and solubilization of residual ash in nitric acid (MDA; digestion by using aqua regia solution (HCl:HNO3 in the digestion block (AR; and acid digestion with HCl and HNO3 + H2O2 (EPA 3050. The dry ashing method led to the greatest recovery of Cd in organic residues, but the EPA 3050 protocol can be an alternative method for the same purpose. The dry ashing should not be employed to determine the concentration of Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the residues. Higher Cr and Fe contents are recovered when NP and EPA 3050 are employed in the opening of organic matrices. For most of the residues analyzed, AR is the most effective method for recovering Ni. Microwave-assisted digestion methods (EPA3051 and 3050 led to the highest recovery of Pb. The choice of the DM that provides maximum recovery of Zn depends on the organic residue and trace element analyzed.

  20. Alternatives for the treatment of the organic fraction of the urban solid residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Fonseca, Mabelin; Fernandez Mena, Dalia; Abalos Rodriguez, Arelis; Rodriguez Perez, Suyen

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of municipal solid waste outdoors, or in some cases burning under the same conditions, is action now and final disposition of these wastes without measuring their consequences. In the student's residence 'Antonio Maceo' Orient University is hosting up to 2250 students belonging to a total of 22 university, generating at full capacity, 3375 kg / day of MSW. This research aims to analyze the solid waste generated in the student's residence, where improperly evaluated the final disposition thereof. It was found that discharges are not separated at the source observed at the landfill, food waste, sweeping waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metal, textile waste, wood, etc. Samplings were carried out directly in 12 rooms of the residence for a total of 48 people, along with students, as part of the educational activities implemented within this work. The average weight of degradable waste generated was 2.5 kg / day during the sampling, revealing the presence of traces of cooked food (cereals, legumes, carbohydrates), fruit and vegetable remains, remains of shells of different origins ( meats, eggs), remnants of tea, etc. The average content of total solids in the waste sampled was 36.3 ± 5.4% and volatile solids content on dry weight was 81.3 ± 2.5% to an average density of 0.68 g / cm3. This residue is characterized to be treated in an anaerobic batch reactor where it is recirculated leachate and studied the competing microorganisms in the anaerobic degradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. (author)

  1. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Matrix effect in analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoralov A.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For modern food safety control are using techniques that allow to determinate a large number of components. So for determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables commonly used methods of gas and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass-spectrometric detection. This system allows to carry out quantitative determination several hundreds of pesticides and their identification by the characteristic fragments of the mass spectrum. The main problem when using mass spectrometric detection is a matrix effect, which is caused by the influence of matrix components extracted with pesticides from the sample. In this work, attempts have been made to reduce the influence of the matrix in the analysis of pesticide residues by high performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC / TOFMS.

  3. Direct Capture of Organic Acids From Fermentation Media Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T.

    2004-11-03

    Several ionic liquids have been investigated for the extraction of organic acids from fermentation broth. Partitioning of representative organic acids (lactic, acetic, and succinic) between aqueous solution and nine hydrophobic ionic liquids was measured. The extraction efficiencies were strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase. Distribution coefficient was very good (approximately 60) at low succinic acid concentrations for one of the ionic liquids (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate) at neutral pH. However, this ionic liquid had to be diluted with nonanol due to its high viscosity in order to be useful. A diluent (trioctylamine) was also added to this mixture. The results suggest that an extraction system based on ionic liquids may be feasible for succinic acid recovery from fermentation broth and that two ideal extraction stages are needed to reduce the concentration from 33 g/L to 1 g/L of succinic acid. Further studies are needed to evaluate other issues related to practical applications, including ionic liquid loss in the process, toxicity effects of ionic liquids during simultaneous fermentation and extractions.

  4. Trace residue analysis of dicyandiamide, cyromazine, and melamine in animal tissue foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xusheng Ge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective sample preparation procedure using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE procedure, followed by cleaning with melamine molecularly imprinted polymers solid-phase extraction (MISPE was developed. A novel and highly sensitive ASE–MISPE–ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC method was developed for effective separation and simultaneous determination of dicyandiamide (DCD, cyromazine (CYR, and melamine (MEL in complex animal tissue foods. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.9999 in the range of at least two orders of magnitude. The limit of quantification of the method was 1.7 μg/kg, 5.0 μg/kg, and 3.2 μg/kg for DCD, MEL, and CYR, which was three orders of magnitude smaller than the maximum residue limits (MRLs. The intra- and inter-day precisions (in terms of the relative standard deviation, RSD of the three analytes were in the range of 1.7–3.1% and 3.1–6.3%, respectively. The average recoveries of analytes from blank chicken, beef, mutton, pork, and pig liver samples spiked with the three levels varied from 91.2% to 107% with RSD of 1.7–8.3% for DCD, 89.0–104% with RSD of 2.1–6.1% for CYR, and 94.8–105% with RSD of 1.1–6.6% for MEL. The proposed method has the characteristics of speed, sensitivity, and accuracy, and can be used for the routine determination of DCD, CYR, and MEL at the μg/kg level in complex animal tissue foods.

  5. [Determination of eight pesticide residues in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its uncertainty evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beizhen; Cai, Haijiang; Song, Weihua

    2012-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of eight pesticide residues (fipronil, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, buprofezin, triadimefon, triadimenol, profenofos, pyridaben) in tea by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with acetone-dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) as solvent, and the extract was then cleaned-up with a Carb/NH2 solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C, column (150 mm x 2. 1 mm, 5 microm) and with the gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0. 1% formic acid. The eight pesticides were determined in the modes of electrospray ionization (ESI) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched internal standard method for imidacloprid and acetamiprid, by matrix-matched external standard method for the other pesticides. The calibration curves showed good linearity in 1 - 100 microg/L for fipronil, and in 5 -200 microg/L for the other pesticides. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N> 10) were 2 p.g/kg for fipronil and 10 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The average recoveries ranged from 75. 5% to 115.0% with the relative standard deviations of 2.7% - 7.7% at the spiked levels of 2, 5, 50 microg/kg for fipronil and 10, 50, 100 microg/kg for the other pesticides. The uncertainty evaluation for the results was carried out according to JJF 1059-1999 "Evaluation and Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement". Items constituting measurement uncertainty involved standard solution, weighing of sample, sample pre-treatment, and the measurement repeatability of the equipment were evaluated. The results showed that the measurement uncertainty is mainly due to sample pre-treatment, standard curves and measurement repeatability of the equipment. The method developed is suitable for the conformation and quantification of the pesticides in tea.

  6. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  7. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects...... characterized with respect to O2 availability by in situ profiling with electrochemical microsensors. Results show that oxygen penetration increased from few micrometers up to several centimetres with crust age. AOB and ammonium oxidation are ubiquitously present in well-developed manure crusts whereas MOB were...... also CH4 emission mitigation, an organic surface crust can be effective if populations of MOB and AOB are allowed to build up....

  8. Design and construction of liquid lasers using organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, Akbar.

    1984-01-01

    Organic dye solution show great promise of obtaining tunable coherent light over the uv, visible and near infrared portion of spectrum. In this paper we describe various pumping schemes of dye molecules. Design, construction and performance of a pulsed dye laser, transversely pumped by a nitrogen laser and wall-ablation flash lamp-pumped dye lasers are the particular examples which are presented in detail

  9. Methods for calculation of engineering parameters for gas separation. [vapor pressure and solubility of gases in organic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    A group additivity method is generated which allows estimation, from the structural formulas alone, of the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. Using these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relations, the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids are predicted. It is also possible to use the data to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or liquids as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  10. Multi-residue method for determination of 58 pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water using solvent demulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Rombaldi, Caroline; Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Marube, Liziane Cardoso; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and efficient sample pretreatment using solvent-based de-emulsification dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-DLLME) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was studied for the extraction of 58 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and pesticides from water samples. Type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH, salt addition, amount of salt and type of demulsification solvent were evaluated. Limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range from 0.0125 to 1.25 µg L(-1) were reached, and linearity was in the range from the LOQ of each compound to 25 μg L(-1). Recoveries ranged from 60% to 120% for 84% of the compounds, with relative standard deviations lower than 29%. The proposed method demonstrated, for the first time, that sample preparation by SD-DLLME with determination by LC-MS/MS can be successfully used for the simultaneous extraction of 32 pesticides and 26 PPCPs from water samples. The entire procedure, including the extraction of 58 organic compounds from the aqueous sample solution and the breaking up of the emulsion after extraction with water, rather than with an organic solvent, was environmentally friendly. In addition, this technique was less expensive and faster than traditional techniques. Finally, the analytical method under study was successfully applied to the analysis of all 58 pesticides and PPCPs in surface water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System

  12. Estimation of the vaporization heat of organic liquids. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducros, M.; Sannier, H.

    1982-01-01

    In our previous publications it has been shown that the method of Benson's group permits the estimation of the enthalpies of vaporization of organic compounds. In the present paper we have applied this method for unsaturated hydrocarbons, thus completing our previous work on acyclic alkenes. For the alkylbenzenes we have changed the values of the groups C-(Csub(b))(C)(H) 2 and C-(Csub(b))(C) 2 (H) previously determined. A more accurate value for the enthalpies of vaporization of the alkylbenzenes of higher molecular weight is obtained. (orig.)

  13. Utilization of Ionic Liquids for the Separation of Organic Liquids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of aromatic organic solvents from mixtures containing aliphatic compounds has economic as well as environmental significance. This is so because viable methods have not been established for the recovery from mixtures in which the components of value are 20 % (v/v) or less. In the light of this, we ...

  14. Effects of organic additives on preferred plane and residual stress of copper electroplated on polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Heesan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the preferred plane and the residual stress of an electroplated copper on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3-N,N-dimethylaminodithiocarbamoyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (DPS) were studied. Polyimide film coated with sputtered copper was used as a substrate. Preferred plane, residual stress, and impurity level in the electroplated copper were measured by an X-ray diffractometry (XRD), calculated by Stoney's equation, and analyzed with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SMS), respectively. With increasing the concentration of PEG, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) while with increasing the concentration of DPS, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 1 0), (1 0 0), and (1 1 1). Based on the modified preferred growth model, where the amount of additive adsorbed on a plane is newly assumed to be proportional to its surface energy in vacuum, the predicted preferred planes correspond to the experimental results. The residual stress of the electroplated copper depended on the type of additive as well as its concentration but was independent of the preferred plane. For example, PEG and DPS induced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the electroplated copper, respectively, and their magnitudes increased with their concentrations. The dependency of residual stress on the additives was explained by the incorporated additives into the electroplated copper.

  15. Decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes by hydrophytic vegetal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al; Popa, K.; Potoroaca, V.; Melniciuc-Puica, N.

    2001-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of some radioactive ions from contaminated waste solutions, on hydrophytic vegetal organisms is discussed. In order to follow the distribution of radioactive ions 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 51 Cr 3+ in various cell components extracted from Spirulina platensis, Porphiridium cruentum, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Lemna minor, Elodea canadensis, Pistia stratiotes and Riccia fluitans, the plants were cultivated in radioactive solutions. The resulting complexes were extracted with acetone or acetic acid and separated chromatographically. The results show an intense activity of the polysaccharide and lipoid fractions in the bioaccumulation process. The bioaccumulation varies in the series: Spirulina > Scenedesmus > Porphiridium > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna ≥ Elodea for 137 Cs + and 60 Co 2+ ; Spirulina > Porphiridium > Scenedesmus > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna > Elodea for 51 Cr 3+ . (author)

  16. ANALISIS TUMBUH SELADA (LACTUCA SATIVA L) PADA PERBEDAAN JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK CAIR ( Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L) Growth Analysis At Different Type Of Liquid Organic Fertilizer)

    OpenAIRE

    Duaja, Made Deviani; Arzita, .; Redo, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to analysis the growth and yield of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) at different type of organic liquid fertilizers. The experiment has conducted at Agriculture Faculty Research Farm, Jambi University. Six treatments were arranged in Randomized Completed Block Design. The treatments are kinds of liquid organic fertilizers, they are P0 (none of liquid organic fertilizers), P1 (Golden Harvest liquid organic fertilizers), P2 (NASA liquid organic fertilizers), P3 (C...

  17. Management of organic residues from the industrial restaurant of Mina Cauê, Mining Complex of Itabira/MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy Nara Fonseca Barcelos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial restaurants generate, when preparing and serving meals, a number of wastes that are administered in different ways. However, increasing waste generation leads to the need of establishing measures capable of permanently control the environmental effects of the entire production process. In this sense, this work aimed at verifying the generation of organic residues from the industrial restaurant of Cauê Mine, located in the Itabira/MG Mining Complex, as well as to evaluate if the technologies currently used for the management of these wastes are environmentally sustainable and economically viable. Thus, it was sought to identify the foods responsible for their higher generation, resulting in the alteration of the menu and, consequently, a reduction of 81.85% of organic residues. Another important factor was the reuse of fruit peels in desserts, providing healthier foods and reducing the amount of waste sent to the final treatment. Regarding the final disposal of organic waste in the landfill, it was observed that during the analyzed period there was a reduction of 64.67% of the values initially paid. In the aspect related to waste, it was found that the campaigns developed aiming at the "zero waste" of both restaurant staff and customers, also had a positive influence on the reduction of residual "ingestion" waste.

  18. Effect of endomycorrhizae on the bioavailability of bound 14C residues to onion plants from an organic soil treated with [14C]fonofos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.D.; Khan, S.U.

    1990-01-01

    Uptake of bound 14 C residues from an organic soil treated with radiolabeled fonofos (O-ethyl S-phenyl ethylphosphonodithioate) by selected Glomus endomycorrhiza and onion roots was studied. The hyphae of endomycorrhizal associations were capable of removing 14 C residues from the soil and transporting them to onion plants. Bioavailability of soil-bound 14 C residues, as measured by 14 C residue content in onion, was increased 32 and 40% over that of nonmycorrhizal plants by hyphae of Glomus intraradices and Glomus vesiculiferium, respectively. The data suggest that under field conditions endomycorrhizal infection may greatly increase the bioavailability of soil-bound pesticide residues to plants

  19. A simple, fast and cheap non-SPE screening method for antibacterial residue analysis in milk and liver using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Magda Targa; Melo, Jéssica; Barreto, Fabiano; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Jank, Louise; Bittencourt, Michele Soares; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Schapoval, Elfrides Eva Scherman

    2014-11-01

    In routine laboratory work, screening methods for multiclass analysis can process a large number of samples in a short time. The main challenge is to develop a methodology to detect as many different classes of residues as possible, combined with speed and low cost. An efficient technique for the analysis of multiclass antibacterial residues (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and trimethoprim) was developed based on simple, environment-friendly extraction for bovine milk, cattle and poultry liver. Acidified ethanol was used as an extracting solvent for milk samples. Liver samples were treated using EDTA-washed sand for cell disruption, methanol:water and acidified acetonitrile as extracting solvent. A total of 24 antibacterial residues were detected and confirmed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), at levels between 10, 25 and 50% of the maximum residue limit (MRL). For liver samples a metabolite (sulfaquinoxaline-OH) was also monitored. A validation procedure was conducted for screening purposes in accordance with European Union requirements (2002/657/EC). The detection capability (CCβ) false compliant rate was less than 5% at the lowest level for each residue. Specificity and ruggedness were also discussed. Incurred and routine samples were analyzed and the method was successfully applied. The results proved that this method can be an important tool in routine analysis, since it is very fast and reliable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Ionic Liquids Beyond Simple Solvents: Glimpses at the State of the Art in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Andrea; Giernoth, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Within the last 25 years ionic liquids have written a tremendous success story, which is documented in a nearly uncountable amount of original research papers, reviews, and numerous applications in research and industry. These days, ionic liquids can be considered as a mature class of compounds for many different applications. Frequently, they are used as neoteric solvents for chemical tansformations, and the number of reviews on this field of research is huge. In this focused review, though, we are trying to evaluate the state of the art of ionic liquid chemistry beyond using them simply as solvents for chemical transformations. It is not meant to be a comprehensive overview on the topic; the choice of emphasis and examples rather refects the authors' personal view on the field. We are especially highlighting fields in which we believe the most fundamental developments within the next five years will take place: biomass processing, (chiral) ionic liquids from natural sources, biotransformations, and organic synthesis.

  1. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2017-06-01

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  2. Research of nitroxynil residues in bovine milk following a single administration in the dry period by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chirollo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxynil (NIT is a halogenated phenol used to control fascioliasis in cattle and sheep. The Commission Regulation EU No 37/2010 has established maximum residue limits for NIT in bovine and ovine muscle (400 μg kg−1, fat (200 μg kg−1, liver (20 μg kg−1 and kidney (400 μg kg−1, and more recently in bovine and ovine milk (20 μg kg−1. Thirty-five pregnant dairy cows were treated in this study with nitroxynil (340 mg/mL solution for injection at the recommended dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at the start of the dry period, i.e. 53 to 74 days before the expected calving. Calving occurred between 43 days and 79 days after treatment. The concentrations of NIT in the milk were monitored for up to 120 days after calving. NIT residues were extracted using acetonitrile; magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were added to induce liquid-liquid partitioning and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction for clean-up. NIT was detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS in negative ionization mode. The highest concentrations of this drug were found in two animals at the first milking, 48 and 53 day post treatment with levels of 362 and 657 μg kg–1, respectively. NIT residues were below the limit of detection of the method (0.24 μg/kg–1 between 67 and 106 day post-treatment. Following calving, residues rapidly depleted in animals and were non-detectable from 10 to 38 days post-calving. In particular, in all animals milk resulted compliant (<20 μg/kg−1 three days post partum.

  3. Effect of organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other nutrient from the soil; therefore continuous cropping of the plant at the same soil would bring consequences of more Si and organic matter depletion. Silicon (Si is considered as a beneficial nutrient for sugarcane production while organic matter is well known as soil amendment. Field study was carried out to know the effect of organic and Si liquid fertilizer on growth, Si and N uptake, and yield of cane variety of PSBM 901. The study field was located at Kempleng village, Purwoasri, East Java and the study was done from May 2013 up to September 2014. Split plot design with three replicates was employed to arrange treatments. Organic matter types (no organic matter, Crotalaria juncea and manure were set as main plots while Si liquid fertilizer concentration (0, 15% Si and 30% S were arranged as sub plots. C juncea was planted at 15 days before planting of sugar cane, and after 35 days the C juncea were chopped and mixed into the soil. Manure was added one week before sugar cane was planted. Si liquid fertilizer was sprayed to the whole part of sugar cane plant at 30 and 50 days after sugar cane was planted. All treatments received basal fertilizer of 800 kg ZA/ha, 200 kg SP 36/ha and 300 kg KCl/ha. Results showed that interaction between organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer significantly affected on Si and N absorption, length of stem, yield and rendement of sugar cane. Addition of manure and followed by spraying of 30% Si liquid fertilizer gave the highest value of S and N absorption (869 g SiO2/plant and 720 g N/plant, cane yield (155.74 tons/ha and rendement (8.15%.

  4. Concentrations and dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil, determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Jia, Chunhong; Zhao, Ercheng; Chen, Li; Yu, Pingzhong; Jing, Junjie; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-03-01

    A new combined difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad fungicide formulation, as an 11.7 % suspension concentrate (SC), has been introduced as part of a resistance management strategy. The dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad applied to apples and the residues remaining in the apples were determined. The 11.7 % SC was sprayed onto apple trees and soil in Beijing, Shandong, and Anhui provinces, China, at an application rate of 118 g a.i. ha(-1), then the dissipation of difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad was monitored. The residual difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad concentrations were determined by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The difenoconazole half-lives in apples and soil were 6.2-9.5 and 21.0-27.7 days, respectively. The fluxapyroxad half-lives in apples and soil were 9.4-12.6 and 10.3-36.5 days, respectively. Difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residues in apples and soil after the 11.7 % SC had been sprayed twice and three times, with 10 days between applications, at 78 and 118 g a.i. ha(-1) were measured. Representative apple and soil samples were collected after the last treatment, at preharvest intervals of 14, 21, and 28 days. The difenoconazole residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.052 and 0.002-0.298 mg kg(-1), respectively. The fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples and soil were 0.002-0.093 and 0.008-1.219 mg kg(-1), respectively. The difenoconazole and fluxapyroxad residue concentrations in apples were lower than the maximum residue limits (0.5 and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively). An application rate of 78 g a.i. ha(-1) is therefore recommended to ensure that treated apples can be considered safe for humans to consume.

  5. Characterization of natural organic colorants in historical and art objects by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Barták, Petr; Lemr, Karel

    2014-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography plays an important role in analysis of historical organic colorants. A number of papers have been published in this field over the last 30 years. Classification of the most commonly used natural dyes and an overview of high-performance liquid chromatography methods with main focus on recent works (2008 to the beginning of 2014) are provided. The review deals with an entire analytical protocol covering sample preparation, chromatographic separation, and suitable detection (UV/visible and fluorescent spectroscopy and mass spectrometric techniques). High-performance liquid chromatography has been successfully used in the complete characterization of some organic dyestuffs present in historical and art objects. The possibilities and difficulties for identification of natural sources of historical colorants are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A closed-loop biorefining system to convert organic residues into fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui

    This project delivers an energy positive and water neutral, closed-loop biorefining system that converts organic wastes into renewable energy and reduces the overall impacts on the environment. The research consisted of three major stages: The first stage of this project was conducted in an anaerobic co-digestion system. Effects of the ratio of dairy manure-to-food waste as well as operating temperature were tested on the performance of the co-digestion system. Results illustrated an increase in biogas productivity with the increase of supplemental food waste; fiber analysis revealed similar chemical composition (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of final solid digestate regardless their different initial feedstock blends and digestion conditions. The molecular genetic analyses demonstrated that anaerobic methanogenic microorganisms were able to adjust their community assemblage to maximize biogas production and produce homogenized solid digestate. The second stage utilized electrocoagulation (EC) pretreated liquid digestate from previous stage to culture freshwater algae. Kinetics study showed a similar maximum growth rate (0.201-0.207 g TS day-1) in both 2x and 5x dilutions of EC solution; however, the algal growth was inhibited in original EC solution (1x), possibly due to the high ammonia-to-phosphate ratio. Algal community assemblage changed drastically in different dilutions of EC solution after a 9-day culture. The following semi-continuous culture in 2x and 5x EC media established steady biomass productivities and nitrogen removal rates; in addition, both conditions illustrated a phenomenon of phosphorus luxury uptake. Biomass composition analyses showed that algae cultured in medium containing higher nitrogen (2x EC medium) accumulated more protein but less carbohydrate and lipid than the 5x EC medium. The last stage involved hydrolyzing the algal biomass cultured in anaerobic digestion effluent and analyzing the effects of the neutralized algal

  7. Functional organic materials based on polymerized liquid-crystal monomers: supramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, D.J.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Debije, M.G.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional organic materials are of great interest for a variety of applications. To obtain precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals has proven to be an extremely useful tool in the development of

  8. Visualizing Molecular Chirality in the Organic Chemistry Laboratory Using Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Maia; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Hartley, C. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Although stereochemistry is an important topic in second-year undergraduate organic chemistry, there are limited options for laboratory activities that allow direct visualization of macroscopic chiral phenomena. A novel, guided-inquiry experiment was developed that allows students to explore chirality in the context of cholesteric liquid crystals.…

  9. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale; Coppedè , Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Romeo, Agostino; Gentile, Francesco T.; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Mosca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel

  10. Prediction of heat capacities and heats of vaporization of organic liquids by group contribution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Gani, Rafiqul; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work a group contribution method is proposed for the estimation of the heat capacity of organic liquids as a function of temperature for fatty compounds found in edible oil and biofuels industries. The data bank used for regression of the group contribution parameters (1395 values...

  11. Organic Matter and Barium Absorption by Plant Species Grown in an Area Polluted with Scrap Metal Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic matter addition on Ba availability to Helianthus annuus L., Raphanus sativus L., and Ricinus communis L. grown on a Neossolo Litólico Chernossólico fragmentário (pH 7.5, contaminated with scrap residue was evaluated. Four rates (0, 20, 40, and 80 Mg ha−1, organic carbon basis of peat or sugar cane filter, with three replicates, were tested. Plant species were grown until the flowering stage. No effect of organic matter addition to soil on dry matter yield of oilseed radish shoots was observed, but there was an increase in sunflower and castor oil plant shoots when sugar cane filter cake was used. The average Ba transferred from roots to shoots was more than 89% for oilseed radish, 71% for castor oil plants, and 59% for sunflowers. Organic matter treatments were not efficient in reducing Ba availability due to soil liming.

  12. Earthworm: A Natural Ecofriendly Organism for Recycling of Organic Residues and Improvement of Soil Health by Vermicompost

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Kumar Ambasta; Seema Kumari

    2013-01-01

    Vermicompost of agriculture waste is an important method in which organic waste such as leaves or stalks of agricultural field is converted into useful compost by means of worms is useful to the environment. Earthworm and microbes acts together and breaks down the complex organic matter of agricultural field and resulting material is rich in nutrients and oxygen. Composting is becoming an effective way to increase organic matter of soil. In addition to increasing organic matter of soil compos...

  13. Organic matter transformation and detoxification in dry olive mill residue by the saprophytic fungus Paecilomyces farinosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Grego, S.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2009), s. 216-225 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dry olive mill residue * Phenols * Paecilomyces farinosus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2009

  14. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  15. The Validation of an Analytical Method for Sulfentrazone Residue Determination in Soil Using Liquid Chromatography and a Comparison of Chromatographic Sensitivity to Millet as a Bioindicator Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antonio de Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used herbicides, such as sulfentrazone, pose the risk of soil contamination due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Phytoremediation by green manure species has been tested using biomarkers, but analytical data are now required to confirm the extraction of sulfentrazone from soil. Thus, the present work was carried out to analyze sulfentrazone residues in soil based on liquid chromatography with a comparison of these values to the sensitivity of the bioindicator Pennisetum glaucum. The soil samples were obtained after cultivation of Crotalaria juncea and Canavalia ensiformis at four seeding densities and with three doses of sulfentrazone. The seedlings were collected into pots, at two different depths, after 75 days of phytoremediator sowing and then were used to determine the herbicide persistence in the soil. A bioassay with P. glaucum was carried out in the same pot. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, using UV-diode array detection (HPLC/UV-DAD, was used to determine the herbicide residues. The HPLC determination was optimized and validated according to the parameters of precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, robustness and specificity. The bioindicator P. glaucum was more sensitive to sulfentrazone than residue determination by HPLC. Changes in sulfentrazone concentration caused by green manure phytoremediation were accurately identified by the bioindicator. However, a true correlation between the size of the species and the analyte content was not identified.

  16. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  17. Dissolved Organic Carbon in Leachate after Application of Granular and Liquid N-P-K Fertilizers to a Sugarcane Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaway, P A; Melland, A R; Antille, D L; Marchuk, S

    2018-05-01

    The progressive decline of soil organic matter (SOM) threatens the sustainability of arable cropping worldwide. Residue removal and burning, destruction of protected microsites, and the acceleration of microbial decomposition are key factors. Desorption of SOM by ammonia-based fertilizers from organomineral complexes in soil may also play a role. A urea- and molasses-based liquid fertilizer formulation and a urea-based granular formulation were applied at recommended and district practice rates, respectively, to soil leaching columns, with unfertilized columns used as controls. The chemistry of leachate collected from the columns, filled with two sandy soils differing in recent cropping history, was monitored over eight successive wet-dry drainage events. The pH, electrical conductivity, and concentration and species of N in leachate was compared with the concentration and aromaticity of dissolved organic C (DOC) to indicate if salt solutions derived from the two fertilizers extracted SOM from clay mineral sites. Cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations in the soil were monitored at the start and end of the trial. Fertilizer application increased DOC in leachate up to 40 times above the control, but reduced aromaticity (specific ultraviolet light absorbance at 253.7 nm). Dissolved organic C was linearly proportional to leachate NH-N concentration. Exchangeable Ca and Mg in soil from fertilized columns at the end of both trials were significantly lower than in unfertilized soil, indicating that ammonium salt solutions derived from the fertilizers extracted cations and variably charged organic matter from soil mineral exchange sites. Desorption of organic matter and divalent cations from organomineral sites by ammonia-based fertilizers may be implicated in soil acidification. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Liquid-Solid Dual-Gate Organic Transistors with Tunable Threshold Voltage for Cell Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Jun; Li, Rui; Sbircea, Dan-Tiberiu; Giovannitti, Alexander; Xu, Junling; Xu, Huihua; Zhou, Guodong; Bian, Liming; McCulloch, Iain; Zhao, Ni

    2017-11-08

    Liquid electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors and organic electrochemical transistors have recently emerged as powerful technology platforms for sensing and simulation of living cells and organisms. For such applications, the transistors are operated at a gate voltage around or below 0.3 V because prolonged application of a higher voltage bias can lead to membrane rupturing and cell death. This constraint often prevents the operation of the transistors at their maximum transconductance or most sensitive regime. Here, we exploit a solid-liquid dual-gate organic transistor structure, where the threshold voltage of the liquid-gated conduction channel is controlled by an additional gate that is separated from the channel by a metal-oxide gate dielectric. With this design, the threshold voltage of the "sensing channel" can be linearly tuned in a voltage window exceeding 0.4 V. We have demonstrated that the dual-gate structure enables a much better sensor response to the detachment of human mesenchymal stem cells. In general, the capability of tuning the optimal sensing bias will not only improve the device performance but also broaden the material selection for cell-based organic bioelectronics.

  19. Analysis of core-periphery organization in protein contact networks reveals groups of structurally and functionally critical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Arnold Emerson; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2015-10-01

    The representation of proteins as networks of interacting amino acids, referred to as protein contact networks (PCN), and their subsequent analyses using graph theoretic tools, can provide novel insights into the key functional roles of specific groups of residues. We have characterized the networks corresponding to the native states of 66 proteins (belonging to different families) in terms of their core-periphery organization. The resulting hierarchical classification of the amino acid constituents of a protein arranges the residues into successive layers - having higher core order - with increasing connection density, ranging from a sparsely linked periphery to a densely intra-connected core (distinct from the earlier concept of protein core defined in terms of the three-dimensional geometry of the native state, which has least solvent accessibility). Our results show that residues in the inner cores are more conserved than those at the periphery. Underlining the functional importance of the network core, we see that the receptor sites for known ligand molecules of most proteins occur in the innermost core. Furthermore, the association of residues with structural pockets and cavities in binding or active sites increases with the core order. From mutation sensitivity analysis, we show that the probability of deleterious or intolerant mutations also increases with the core order. We also show that stabilization centre residues are in the innermost cores, suggesting that the network core is critically important in maintaining the structural stability of the protein. A publicly available Web resource for performing core-periphery analysis of any protein whose native state is known has been made available by us at http://www.imsc.res.in/ ~sitabhra/proteinKcore/index.html.

  20. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A.; Plys, M.G.

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented

  1. Safety analysis of exothermic reaction hazards associated with the organic liquid layer in tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K.; Bechtold, D.B.; Borsheim, G.L.; Grisby, J.M.; Guthrie, R.L.; Kummerer, M.; Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Plys, M.G. [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Safety hazards associated with the interim storage of a potentially flammable organic liquid in waste Tank C-103 are identified and evaluated. The technical basis for closing the unreviewed safety question (USQ) associated with the floating liquid organic layer in this tank is presented.

  2. Analyses of volatile organic compounds and refractory organic residues coming from the heating of interstellar ice analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danger Grégoire

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We use Very High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for analyses of the soluble fraction of yellow stuff produced in laboratory. Their analyses show that they are composed of molecules with high molecular weight (m/z>4000. Fragmentations suggest that grafted molecules constitute a part of them. Hexamethylenetetramine derivatives have also been detected. First results and further analytical developments will be presented to facilitate the understanding of the residue composition and of its chemical evolution. Furthermore, we present for the first time the concept of the VAHIIA project which concerns the analysis of volatiles coming from the heating of interstellar ice analogues.

  3. The effect of the polymerization initiator and light source on the elution of residual Bis-GMA and TEGDMA monomers: A study using liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Aline B; Diagone, Cristina A; Plepis, Ana M G; Viana, Rommel B

    2015-12-05

    A method for the extraction and quantification of two residual monomers, bisphenol glycidyl dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), that were evaluated using high efficiency liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed and validated in this study. Three types of solvents were applied in the extraction of the monomers (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile), where the highest extraction efficiency was obtained using acetonitrile. The different resins were prepared by photoactivation of Bis-GMA and TEGDMA monomers. Additionally, the effects of the addition of two photoinitiators (camphorquinone (CQ) and phenyl propanodione (PPD) and that of a co-initiator (N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine) were also analyzed. When only the CQ photoinitiator was used, a smaller amount of residual monomers was obtained, whereas a larger amount was obtained with PPD. When the two photoinitiators were used in the same matrix, however, no significant changes were observed in relation to the amount of residual TEGDMA monomers. For the addition of the co-initiator, there were no large changes in the extraction of residual monomers. The effect of the two photoactivation sources (halogen lamp and LED) led to small differences in the elution of the two monomers, although all of the resins differed significantly when photoactivated with a LED. Quantum chemical calculations using Density Functional Theory were carried out to characterize several molecular properties of each monomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid trace level determination of sulfonamide residues in honey with online extraction using short C-18 column by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Na, Na; Safdar, Muhammad; Lu, Xin; Ma, Lin; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and inexpensive quantification method with online extraction using a short C-18 column for sulfonamide residues in honey by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was developed and validated. In sample preparation, acid hydrolysis was used to break the N-glycoside bond between the honey sugar and sulfonamide drugs and derivatization of sulfonamide residues with fluorescamine was conducted at pH 3.5 using a citrate buffer (0.5M) in the honey matrix. The chromatography was carried out on Zorbax Extended C-18 (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and an acetate buffer (pH 4.50, 20mM) as a mobile phase. A Zorbax Extended C-18 (12mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column was used for online extraction of fifteen sulfonamide residues from honey sample with the help of a two position valve. The limit of quantification of sulfonamide residues in honey was less than 3ngg(-1), and the percentage recovery of study compounds in spiked honey sample was from 80% for sulfacetamide to 100% of sulfachloropyridazine. The developed method has excellent linearity for all studied sulfonamides with a correlation coefficient 0.993. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of QuEChERS-based extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantifying flumethasone residues in beef muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Hun; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Abd El-Aty, A M; Cho, Soon-Kil; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Kwon, Ki Sung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Hyung Soo; Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Mi Ra; Shim, Jae-Han

    2012-12-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was developed and validated to quantify flumethasone residues in beef muscle. Methods were compared between the original as well as the EN quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based extraction. Good linearity was achieved at concentration levels of 5-30 μg/kg. Estimated recovery rates at spiking levels of 5 and 10 μg/kg ranged from 72.1 to 84.6%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs)noise ratios (S/Ns) of 3 and 10, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze real samples obtained from large markets throughout the Korean Peninsula. The method proved to be sensitive and reliable and, thus, rendered an appropriate means for residue analysis studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Visual observation of gas hydrates nucleation and growth at a water - organic liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoporev, Andrey S.; Semenov, Anton P.; Medvedev, Vladimir I.; Sizikov, Artem A.; Gushchin, Pavel A.; Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Manakov, Andrey Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Visual observation of nucleation sites of methane and methane-ethane-propane hydrates and their further growth in water - organic liquid - gas systems with/without surfactants was carried out. Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with transparent sapphire cells was used. The experiments were conducted at the supercooling ΔTsub = 20.2 °C. Decane, toluene and crude oils were used as organics. Gas hydrate nucleation occurred on water - metal - gas and water - sapphire - organic liquid three-phase contact lines. At the initial stage of growth hydrate crystals rapidly covered the water - gas or water - organics interfaces (depending on the nucleation site). Further hydrate phase accrete on cell walls (sapphire surface) and into the organics volume. At this stage, growth was accompanied by water «drawing out» from under initial hydrate film formed at water - organic interface. Apparently, it takes place due to water capillary inflow in the reaction zone. It was shown that the hydrate crystal morphology depends on the organic phase composition. In the case of water-in-decane emulsion relay hydrate crystallization was observed in the whole sample, originating most likely due to the hydrate crystal intergrowth through decane. Contacts of such crystals with adjacent water droplets result in rapid hydrate crystallization on this droplet.

  7. Quantification of 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin as marker residue for tiamulin in rabbit tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baere, Siegrid; Devreese, Mathias; Maes, An; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, a sensitive and specific method was developed and fully validated for the quantification of the EU marker residue of tiamulin, 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin, in rabbit muscle and liver tissues using liquid chromatography combined with positive heated electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with selection of the [M + H](+) ion in both quadrupoles 1 and 3, resulting in the SRM transition m/z 337.25 > 337.25 for quantification. Chromatography was performed using a Hypersil Gold C18 column using a gradient elution program with water and methanol as mobile phases. The sample preparation procedure for the analysis of 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin in liver and muscle samples consisted of three main steps: (1) extraction of the tissue matrix using 0.1 N hydrochloric acid/acetone (50/50, v/v), (2) hydrolysis of tiamulin and metabolites to 8-α-hydroxy-mutilin in alkaline medium at 45 °C, and (3) liquid-liquid extraction in acidic medium using ethyl acetate. This is the first method presenting fully validated results, encompassing a linearity of 50 to 2,000 μg/kg, within-run and between-run accuracy and precision, limit of quantification (50 μg/kg for both muscle and liver tissues), limit of detection (muscle, 11.9 μg/kg; liver, 20.6 μg/kg), extraction recovery (muscle, 66.2%; liver, 75.5%), signal suppression and enhancement (muscle, 51.7%; liver, 43.3%), carryover, applicability and practicability, and stability during storage and analysis. This novel method is therefore sensitive enough to be used for residue depletion studies of tiamulin in rabbits and for food safety monitoring with respect to MRL compliance of residues.

  8. Fast detection and characterization of organic and inorganic gunshot residues on the hands of suspects by CMV-GC-MS and LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarifa, Anamary; Almirall, José R

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the characterization of both organic and inorganic components of gunshot residues (GSR) is proposed as an alternative tool to facilitate the identification of a suspected shooter. In this study, two fast screening methods were developed and optimized for the detection of organic compounds and inorganic components indicative of GSR presence on the hands of shooters and non-shooters. The proposed methods consist of headspace extraction of volatile organic compounds using a capillary microextraction of volatiles (CMV) device previously reported as a high-efficiency sampler followed by detection by GC-MS. This novel sampling technique has the potential to yield fast results (LIBS) screening method for the detection of the inorganic components indicative of the presence of GSR (Sb, Pb and Ba) is described. The sampling method for the inorganics consists of liquid extraction of the target elements from the same cotton swabs (previously analyzed for VOCs) and an additional 30 swab samples followed by spiking 1μL of the extract solution onto a Teflon disk and then analyzed by LIBS. Advantages of LIBS include fast analysis (~12s per sample) and high selectivity and sensitivity, with expected LODs 0.1-18ng for each of the target elements after sampling. The analytical performance of the LIBS method is also compared to previously reported methods (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The combination of fast CMV sampling, unambiguous organic compound identification with GC-MS and fast LIBS analysis provides the basis for a new comprehensive screening method for GSR. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of organic liquids/geo-polymer composites for the immobilization of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This work is included in the management of radioactive organic liquids research field. The process is based on an emulsification of organic liquid in an alkali silicate solution allowing the synthesis of a geo-polymer matrix. The first part of this work consists in carrying out a screening on different organic liquids. A model system representative of the various oils and a geo-polymer reference formulation are then defined. The second part deals with the structuration of the organic liquid/geo-polymer structuration, from the mixture of the reactants to the final material. It aims at determining the phenomena allowing the synthesis of a homogeneous composite. The last two parts aim at characterizing the composite by studying its structure (chemical structure, porosity of the geo-polymer and dispersion of the oil) and its properties with respect to the application to the immobilization of radioactive waste. Unlike calcium silicate-based cementitious matrices, the structure of the geo-polymer is not affected by the chemical nature of the organic liquids. Only acid oils inhibit or slow down the geo-polymerization reaction. In order to obtain a homogeneous material, the presence of surfactant molecules is necessary. The emulsion stabilization mechanism at the base of the process is relying on a synergy between the surfactant molecules and the aluminosilicate particles present in the geo-polymer paste. The kinetics (chemical and mechanical) of the geo-polymerization are not impacted by the presence of oil or surfactants. Only an increase in the viscoelastic moduli and the elastic character of the pastes can be observed. This difference in rheological behavior is mainly due to the presence of surfactant. The structure of the matrix is identical to that of a pure geo-polymer of the same formulation. The organic liquid is dispersed in spherical inclusions whose radius is between 5 and 15 μm. These droplets are separated from each other, and from the environment by the

  10. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...... component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties...

  11. Structure-directing effects of ionic liquids in the ionothermal synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Thomas P; Kelley, Steven P; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-07-01

    Traditional synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) involves the reaction of a metal-containing precursor with an organic linker in an organic solvent at an elevated temperature, in what is termed a 'solvothermal' reaction. More recently, many examples have been reported of MOF synthesis in ionic liquids (ILs), rather than an organic solvent, in 'ionothermal' reactions. The high concentration of both cations and anions in an ionic liquid allows for the formation of new MOF structures in which the IL cation or anion or both are incorporated into the MOF. Most commonly, the IL cation is included in the open cavities of the MOF, countering the anionic charge of the MOF framework itself and acting as a template around which the MOF structure forms. Ionic liquids can also serve other structure-directing roles, for example, when an IL containing a single enantiomer of a chiral anion leads to a homochiral MOF, even though the IL anion is not itself incorporated into the MOF. A comprehensive review of ionothermal syntheses of MOFs, and the structure-directing effects of the ILs, is given.

  12. Structure-directing effects of ionic liquids in the ionothermal synthesis of metal–organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Vaid

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional synthesis of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs involves the reaction of a metal-containing precursor with an organic linker in an organic solvent at an elevated temperature, in what is termed a `solvothermal' reaction. More recently, many examples have been reported of MOF synthesis in ionic liquids (ILs, rather than an organic solvent, in `ionothermal' reactions. The high concentration of both cations and anions in an ionic liquid allows for the formation of new MOF structures in which the IL cation or anion or both are incorporated into the MOF. Most commonly, the IL cation is included in the open cavities of the MOF, countering the anionic charge of the MOF framework itself and acting as a template around which the MOF structure forms. Ionic liquids can also serve other structure-directing roles, for example, when an IL containing a single enantiomer of a chiral anion leads to a homochiral MOF, even though the IL anion is not itself incorporated into the MOF. A comprehensive review of ionothermal syntheses of MOFs, and the structure-directing effects of the ILs, is given.

  13. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  14. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  15. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26°C. A total of 371g housefly larvae meal and 2,064g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  16. Trace determination of five triazole fungicide residues in traditional Chinese medicine samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuping; Yuan, Xucan; Zhao, Pengfei; Sun, Hong; Ye, Xiu; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Longshan

    2017-08-01

    A novel and reliable method for determination of five triazole fungicide residues (triadimenol, tebuconazole, diniconazole, flutriafol, and hexaconazol) in traditional Chinese medicine samples was developed using dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The clean up of the extract was conducted using dispersive solid-phase extraction by directly adding sorbents into the extraction solution, followed by shaking and centrifugation. After that, a mixture of 400 μL trichloromethane (extraction solvent) and 0.5 mL of the above supernatant was injected rapidly into water for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2.0-400 (tebuconazole, diniconazole, and hexaconazole) and 4.0-800 ng/g (triadimenol and flutriafol) with the regression coefficients higher than 0.9958. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the present method were 0.5-1.1 and 1.8-4.0 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 80.2 to 103.2%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of five triazole fungicides in traditional Chinese medicine samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pesticide residues determination in Polish organic crops in 2007-2010 applying gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorczyk, Stanisław; Drożdżyński, Dariusz; Kowalska, Jolanta; Remlein-Starosta, Dorota; Ziółkowski, Andrzej; Przewoźniak, Monika; Gnusowski, Bogusław

    2013-08-15

    A sensitive, accurate and reliable multiresidue method based on the application of gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) has been established for screening, identification and quantification of a large number of pesticide residues in produce. The method was accredited in compliance with PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard and it was operated under flexible scope as PB-11 method. The flexible scope of accreditation allowed for minor modifications and extension of the analytical scope while using the same analytical technique. During the years 2007-2010, the method was used for the purpose of verification of organic crop production by multiresidue analysis for the presence of pesticides. A total of 528 samples of differing matrices such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, plant leaves and other green parts were analysed, of which 4.4% samples contained pesticide residues above the threshold value of 0.01 mg/kg. A total of 20 different pesticide residues were determined in the samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Silva, Edson Antonio da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  19. Biosorption of uranium in radioactive liquid organic waste by coconut fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Ferreira, Eduardo Gurzoni Alvares; Vieira, Ludmila Cabreira; Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Edson Antonio da, E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive liquid organic waste needs special attention because the available treatment processes are often expensive and difficult to be managed. Biosorption is a potential technique since it allies low cost with relatively high efficiency. Biosorption has been defined as the property of certain biomolecules to bind and remove selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solutions. Biosorption using vegetable biomass from agricultural waste has become a very attractive technique because it involves the removal of heavy metal ions by low cost biosorbent. This technique could be employed in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes. Among the biosorbent reported in the literature, coconut fiber (Cocos nucifera L.) is highlighted due to the large number of functional groups in its composition. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of coconut fiber to remove uranium from radioactive liquid organic waste. This work was divided into three stages: 1) Preparation and activation of the coconut fiber; 2) Physical characterization of the biomass, 3) Batch biosorption experiments. Two forms of coconut fiber were tested, raw and activated. The activation was performed with dilute HNO3 and NaOH solutions. The parameters evaluated for physical characterization of biomass were morphological characteristics of coconut fiber, real and apparent density and surface area. The biomass was suspended in 10 ml of solutions prepared with distillate water and radioactive liquid waste for 2 hours in the proportion of 0.2% w/v. After the contact time, the coconut fiber was removed by filtration and the supernatant, analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).The results were evaluated using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum capacity for the raw coconut fiber was lower than the activated one, removing only 1.14mg/g against 2.61mg/g. These results suggest that biosorption with coconut fiber in activated form can be applied in the

  20. Determinations of total residue, total oxide and density of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Gao Yueying; Yang Ming; Jin Liyun

    1992-01-01

    Gravimetric method for determination of total residue, total oxide and density of HLLW is developed. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped on to the small quartz disc and put into the mini muffle furnace carefully. It is first heated to below 100 degree C (for 1.5 hours to remove the free water, and then heated to 180 degree C for 2 hours to remove the crystal water in a furnace. The total residue is weighed at room temperature. The precision is better than 3% for the determination of total residue and total oxide. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped into the weighing bottle and weighed. The precision is better than 1%

  1. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  2. Liquid crystal-based Mueller matrix spectral imaging polarimetry for parameterizing mineral structural organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladish, James C; Duncan, Donald D

    2017-01-20

    Herein, we discuss the remote assessment of the subwavelength organizational structure of a medium. Specifically, we use spectral imaging polarimetry, as the vector nature of polarized light enables it to interact with optical anisotropies within a medium, while the spectral aspect of polarization is sensitive to small-scale structure. The ability to image these effects allows for inference of spatial structural organization parameters. This work describes a methodology for revealing structural organization by exploiting the Stokes/Mueller formalism and by utilizing measurements from a spectral imaging polarimeter constructed from liquid crystal variable retarders and a liquid crystal tunable filter. We provide results to validate the system and then show results from measurements on a mineral sample.

  3. Determination of antibiotic residues in southern Baltic Sea sediments using tandem solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Siedlewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to adapt analytical procedures for determining antibiotic residues in solid and aquatic samples to marine sediments and to investigate the occurrence of 9 sulfonamides, trimethoprim and 2 quinolones in southern Baltic Sea sediments. The analytical procedure was applied to sediment samples characterized as sand and silty sand. The validation results showed that a sensitive and efficient method applying tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS was obtained. Analytes were determined in the lower ng g−1 range with good accuracy and precision. The proposed analytical procedure was applied to the analysis of 13 sediment samples collected from the Baltic Sea along the Polish coast. Concentrations of antibiotic residues in environmental samples were calculated based on external matrix-matched calibration. Residues of nine out of twelve of the above antibiotics were detected in sediment samples in a concentrations of up to 419.2 ng g−1 d.w. (dry weight. Sulfamethoxazole and sulfachloropyridazine were the most frequently detected compounds (58% of the analyzed samples. The occurrence frequency of trimethoprim was 42% and it was always detected simultaneously with sulfamethoxazole. Preliminary studies on the spatial distribution of the analyzed antibiotics indicate a high level of antibiotics occurring in the Pomeranian Bay and close to the mouths of Polish rivers. The study is the first one to demonstrate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in sediments of the Polish coastal area. The obtained results suggest that sediment can be an important secondary source of antibiotic residues in the marine environment.

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Drug residue analyses: Florfenicol in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and supermarket meat by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shanoy C; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Gentles, Angella; Austin, Galen; Stonum, Paul; Brooks, Tiffanie A; Brooks, Chance; Smith, Ernest E

    2016-10-15

    A method for confirmation and detection of Florfenicol amine residues in white-tailed deer tissues was developed and validated in our laboratory. Tissue samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned up on sorbent (Chem-elut) cartridges. Liguid chromatography (LC) separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate in water and methanol at a flow rate of 300μL/min. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using liquid chromatography - heated electrospray ionization(HESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) interface. The limits of detection (LODs) for HESI and APCI probe were 1.8ng/g and 1.4ng/g respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) for HESI and APCI probe were 5.8ng/g and 3.4ng/g respectively. Mean recovery values ranged from 79% to 111% for APCI and 30% to 60% for HESI. The validated method was used to determine white-tailed deer florfenicol tissue residue concentration 10-days after exposure. Florfenicol tissue residues concentration ranged from 0.4 to 0.6μg/g for liver and 0.02-0.05μg/g for muscle and a trace in blood samples. The concentration found in the tested edible tissues were lower than the maximum residual limit (MRL) values established by the federal drug administration (FDA) for bovine tissues. In summary, the resulting optimization procedures using the sensitivity of HESI and APCI probes in the determination of florfenicol in white-tailed deer tissue are the most compelling conclusions in this study, to the extent that we have applied this method in the evaluation of supermarket samples drug residue levels as a proof of principle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Role of long- and short-range hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues contact network in protein’s structural organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Dhriti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three-dimensional structure of a protein can be described as a graph where nodes represent residues and the strength of non-covalent interactions between them are edges. These protein contact networks can be separated into long and short-range interactions networks depending on the positions of amino acids in primary structure. Long-range interactions play a distinct role in determining the tertiary structure of a protein while short-range interactions could largely contribute to the secondary structure formations. In addition, physico chemical properties and the linear arrangement of amino acids of the primary structure of a protein determines its three dimensional structure. Here, we present an extensive analysis of protein contact subnetworks based on the London van der Waals interactions of amino acids at different length scales. We further subdivided those networks in hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues networks and have tried to correlate their influence in the overall topology and organization of a protein. Results The largest connected component (LCC of long (LRN-, short (SRN- and all-range (ARN networks within proteins exhibit a transition behaviour when plotted against different interaction strengths of edges among amino acid nodes. While short-range networks having chain like structures exhibit highly cooperative transition; long- and all-range networks, which are more similar to each other, have non-chain like structures and show less cooperativity. Further, the hydrophobic residues subnetworks in long- and all-range networks have similar transition behaviours with all residues all-range networks, but the hydrophilic and charged residues networks don’t. While the nature of transitions of LCC’s sizes is same in SRNs for thermophiles and mesophiles, there exists a clear difference in LRNs. The presence of larger size of interconnected long-range interactions in thermophiles than mesophiles, even at

  6. Microwave assisted solvent extraction and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection use of an analytical restricted-access-medium column for the efficient multi-residue analysis of acidic pesticides in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoom, E A; Huls, R; Dijkman, E; Hoogerbrugge, R

    2001-12-14

    A screening method has been developed for the determination of acidic pesticides in various types of soils. Methodology is based on the use of microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE) for fast and efficient extraction of the analytes from the soils and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC-LC) with UV detection at 228 nm for the instrumental analysis of uncleaned extracts. Four types of soils, including sand, clay and peat, with a range in organic matter content of 0.3-13% and ten acidic pesticides of different chemical families (bentazone, bromoxynil, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-DP, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-DB and MCPB) were selected as matrices and analytes, respectively. The method developed included the selection of suitable MASE and LC-LC conditions. The latter consisted of the selection of a 5-microm GFF-II internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP, Pinkerton) analytical column (50 x 4.6 mm, I.D.) as the first column in the RAM-C18 configuration in combination with an optimised linear gradient elution including on-line cleanup of sample extracts and reconditioning of the columns. The method was validated with the analysis of freshly spiked samples and samples with aged residues (120 days). The four types of soils were spiked with the ten acidic pesticides at levels between 20 and 200 microg/kg. Weighted regression of the recovery data showed for most analyte-matrix combinations, including freshly spiked samples and aged residues, that the method provides overall recoveries between 60 and 90% with relative standard deviations of the intra-laboratory reproducibility's between 5 and 25%; LODs were obtained between 5 and 50 microg/kg. Evaluation of the data set with principal component analysis revealed that the parameters (i) increase of organic matter content of the soil samples and (ii) aged residues negatively effect the recovery of the analytes.

  7. Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by Ionic Liquids Coupled with Extraction by Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rashid; Gao, Shurong; Chen, Xiaochun; Yu, Guangren; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, desulfurization of real fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline was investigated in dual steps; first in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) using imidazolium and pyrrolidonium based Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) as solvent and catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. In second step, extractive desulfurization took place using organic solvents of furfural, furfural alcohol and ethylene glycol. Variety of factors such as temperature, time, mass ratio of oil/ILs and regene...

  8. Effect of chiral photosensitive liquid crystalline dopants on theperformance of organic solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwan, A.; Boharewicz, B.; Tazbir, I.; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, Feb (2015), s. 53-60 ISSN 0038-1101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic solar cell * composite with liquid crystal Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.345, year: 2015

  9. Film Formation of Ag Nanoparticles at the Organic-Aqueous Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorita, John

    2005-03-01

    A wet-chemical method to make films by spontaneous assembly of passivated Ag nanoparticles at the organic-aqueous liquid interface is presented. The interfacial films exhibit a blue opalescence, or in other cases a silvery color, and are characterized with transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectrophotometry. Measurements indicate that nanoparticles in the interfacial film can form superlattices and in some cases nanostructures.

  10. Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in radioactive liquid organic waste by bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Sakata, Solange K.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria H.; Marumo, Julio T.; Dutra, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab -scale hot cell, known as CELESTE located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's and part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored at the Waste Management Laboratory. Among various types of radioactive waste generated, the organic liquid represents a major problem for its management, because it can not be directly solidified with cement. The objective of this work is to develop a pretreatment methodology to degrade the ethyl acetate present in organic liquid waste so that it can subsequently be immobilized in cement. This work was divided into two parts: selection and adaptation of three bacterial communities for growth in medium containing ethyl acetate and degradation experiments of ethyl acetate present in radioactive organic liquid waste. The results showed that from bacterial communities the highest biodegradation level observed was 77%. (author)

  11. Mapping residual organics and carbonate at grain boundaries and in the amorphous interphase in mouse incisor enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyle M Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental enamel has evolved to resist the most grueling conditions of mechanical stress, fatigue, and wear. Adding insult to injury, it is exposed to the frequently corrosive environment of the oral cavity. While its hierarchical structure is unrivaled in its mechanical resilience, heterogeneity in the distribution of magnesium ions and the presence of Mg-substituted amorphous calcium phosphate (Mg-ACP as an intergranular phase have recently been shown to increase the susceptibility of mouse enamel to acid attack. Herein we investigate the distribution of two important constituents of enamel, residual organic matter and inorganic carbonate. We find that organics, carbonate, and possibly water show distinct distribution patterns in the mouse enamel crystallites, at simple grain boundaries, and in the amorphous interphase at multiple grain boundaries. This has implications for the resistance to acid corrosion, mechanical properties, and the mechanism by which enamel crystals grow during amelogenesis.

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis of Esculin Ester in Ionic Liquids Buffered with Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Guo, Zheng; Lue, Bena-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The enzymatic esterification of esculin catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435) was carried out in ionic liquid (IL)-organic solvent mixed systems in comparison with individual systems. The reaction behaviors in IL-organic solvents were systemically evaluated using acetone as a model...... in IL-acetone mixtures made it possible to improve the solubility of esculin while the effects of ILs on lipase activity were minimized. Following the benignity of ILs to lipase activity, the anions of ILs were ranked in the order as [Tf2N](-) > [PF6](-) > [BF4](-) > [CF3SO3](-) > [C4F9SO3](-) > [TAF...

  13. Nanocomposites of polyamide 6/residual monomer with organic-modified montmorillonite and their nanofibers produced by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Gonçalves Beatrice

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of an organic-modified montmorillonite (MMT and polyamide 6 (PA6 with a residual monomer were produced by melt mixing in a torque rheometer. By wide angle X-rays diffraction (WAXD, intercalated/exfoliated structures were observed in the PA6/MMT nanocomposites with 3 and 5 wt. (% of MMT; on the other hand, when 7 wt. (% of MMT was added, a nanocomposite with exfoliated structures was obtained due to the predominant linking reactions between the residual monomer and the "nanoclays" organic surfactant. Solutions of these PA6/MMT nanocomposites at 15, 17 and 20 wt. (% in formic acid were prepared. The 3 and 5 wt. (% nanocomposites were successfully electrospun; however, electrospinning of the 7 wt. (% nanocomposite was not possible. WAXD, scanning and transmission electron microscopy results showed that the 3 and 5 wt. (% nanofibers with average diameter between 80-250 nm had exfoliated structures. These results indicate that the high elongational forces developed during the electrospinning process changed the initial intercalated/exfoliated structure of the nanocomposites to an exfoliated one.

  14. Insights into Mechanistic Models for Evaporation of Organic Liquids in the Environment Obtained by Position-Specific Carbon Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S; Parinet, Julien; Höhener, Patrick

    2015-11-03

    Position-specific isotope effects (PSIEs) have been measured by isotope ratio monitoring (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry during the evaporation of 10 liquids of different polarities under 4 evaporation modes (passive evaporation, air-vented evaporation, low pressure evaporation, distillation). The observed effects are used to assess the validity of the Craig-Gordon isotope model for organic liquids. For seven liquids the overall isotope effect (IE) includes a vapor-liquid contribution that is strongly position-specific in polar compounds but less so in apolar compounds and a diffusive IE that is not position-specific, except in the alcohols, ethanol and propan-1-ol. The diffusive IE is diminished under forced evaporation. The position-specific isotope pattern created by liquid-vapor IEs is manifest in five liquids, which have an air-side limitation for volatilization. For the alcohols, undefined processes in the liquid phase create additional PSIEs. Three other liquids with limitations on the liquid side have a lower, highly position-specific, bulk diffusive IE. It is concluded that evaporation of organic pollutants creates unique position-specific isotope patterns that may be used to assess the progress of remediation or natural attenuation of pollution and that the Craig-Gordon isotope model is valid for the volatilization of nonpolar organic liquids with air-side limitation of the volatilization rate.

  15. Behaviour of bound residues of carbon-14 labelled organic environmental chemicals in vegetable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallnoefer, P.; Koeniger, M.; Ziegler, W.

    1991-01-01

    Growing cultures of cell suspensions of tomato and maize were capable of partly integrating (radioactively labelled) chemicals like 4-nitrophenol or 2-nitroaniline into the cell wall structure. The rates of integration found range from 1.1 per cent (4-NP in tomato) to 7.7 per cent (2-NA in maize). Maize is more prone to form bound residues than tomato; moreover, the results point to a dependence on the chemical structure of the xenobiotic substance. Enzymatic-chemical disaggregation of the cell wall material revealed an uneven distribution of radioactivity in the individual fractions: Tomato cells stored 4-NP above all in the starch fraction and to a smaller extent in the protein fraction, while storage of 2-NA in starch, protein and hemicellulose was about equal. Maize cells integrated both substances preferably into lignin and to a distinctly smaller extent also into starch and protein. (orig.) [de

  16. pH and Organic Carbon Dose Rates Control Microbially Driven Bioremediation Efficacy in Alkaline Bauxite Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Talitha C; Malcolm, Laura I; Tyson, Gene W; Warren, Lesley A

    2016-10-18

    Bioremediation of alkaline tailings, based on fermentative microbial metabolisms, is a novel strategy for achieving rapid pH neutralization and thus improving environmental outcomes associated with mining and refining activities. Laboratory-scale bioreactors containing bauxite residue (an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of alumina refining), to which a diverse microbial inoculum was added, were used in this study to identify key factors (pH, salinity, organic carbon supply) controlling the rates and extent of microbially driven pH neutralization (bioremediation) in alkaline tailings. Initial tailings pH and organic carbon dose rates both significantly affected bioremediation extent and efficiency with lower minimum pHs and higher extents of pH neutralization occurring under low initial pH or high organic carbon conditions. Rates of pH neutralization (up to 0.13 mM H + produced per day with pH decreasing from 9.5 to ≤6.5 in three days) were significantly higher in low initial pH treatments. Representatives of the Bacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which contain many known facultative anaerobes and fermenters, were identified as key contributors to 2,3-butanediol and/or mixed acid fermentation as the major mechanism(s) of pH neutralization. Initial pH and salinity significantly influenced microbial community successional trajectories, and microbial community structure was significantly related to markers of fermentation activity. This study provides the first experimental demonstration of bioremediation in bauxite residue, identifying pH and organic carbon dose rates as key controls on bioremediation efficacy, and will enable future development of bioreactor technologies at full field scale.

  17. Hygroscopic influence on the semisolid-to-liquid transition of secondary organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2015-05-14

    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the rebound of particles composed of isoprene, α-pinene, and toluene secondary organic materials (SOMs) was studied. A three-arm impaction apparatus was used to study rebound from 5 to 95% RH at 298 K. Calibration experiments using sucrose particles of variable but known viscosities showed that the transition from rebounding to adhering particles occurred for a change in viscosity from 100 to 1 Pa s, corresponding to a transition from semisolid to liquid material. The experimentally determined rebound fractions of the studied SOMs were compared with results from a model of the rebound processes of hard particles, taking into account the particle kinetic energy, van der Waals forces, and RH-dependent capillary forces. For low RH values, the hard-particle model explained the diameter-dependent rebound behavior for all studied SOMs. For elevated RH, however, the experimental observations deviated from the model predictions. On the basis of the calibration experiments using sucrose particles as well as a comparison between the observations and the predictions of the hard-particle model, the interpretation is made that a semisolid-to-liquid transition occurred at elevated RH. Material softening, increased adhesion, or a combination of the two implied the action of additional modes of energy relaxation that were not included in the hard-particle model. The RH threshold for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition was 40% RH for isoprene SOM, 70% for toluene SOM, and 70% for α-pinene SOM. A correlation between the rebound fraction and the hygroscopic growth factor G was demonstrated, implying that absorbed water volume was a dominant governing factor of the semisolid-to-liquid transition for the studied classes of SOM. Simple heuristic rules based on G of 1.15 for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition could be used for prognostication of the SOM phase in modeling applications at 298 K. With respect to atmospheric processes, the

  18. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solid and Liquid Organic Fertilizers Applied to Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonsiri, Phasita; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Sukor, Arina; Davis, Jessica G

    2016-11-01

    Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L.). The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 and compared preplant-applied solid fertilizers (feather meal and blood meal) and multiple applications of liquid fertilizers (fish emulsion and cyano-fertilizer). Three days a week, NO and CO emissions were measured twice per day in 2013 and once per day in 2014 using a closed-static chamber, and gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Preplant-applied solid fertilizers significantly increased cumulative NO emissions as compared with control, but multiple applications of liquid fertilizers did not. Emission factors for NO ranged from 0 to 0.1% for multiple applications of liquid fertilizers and 0.6 to 11% for preplant-applied solid fertilizers, which could be overestimated due to chamber placement over fertilizer bands. In 2014, solid fertilizers with higher C/N ratios (3.3-3.5) resulted in higher CO emissions than liquid fertilizers (C/N ratio, 0.9-1.5). Therefore, organic farmers should consider the use of multiple applications of liquid fertilizers as a means to reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining high yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Analysis of residual products in benzyl chloride used for the industrial synthesis of quaternary compounds by liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2009-02-01

    In industrial and pharmaceutical processes, the study of residual products becomes essential to guarantee the quality of compounds and to eliminate or minimize toxic residual products. Knowledge about the origin of impurities (raw materials, processes, the contamination of industrial plants, etc.) is necessary in preventive treatment and in the control of a product's lifecycle. Benzyl chloride is used as raw material to synthesize several quaternary ammonium compounds, such as benzalkonium chloride, which may have pharmaceutical applications. Benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, toluene, chloro derivatives of toluene, and dibenzyl ether are compounds that may be found as impurities in technical benzyl chloride. We proposed a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation of these compounds, testing two stationary phases with different dimensions and particle sizes, with the application of photodiode array-detection. The linearity for four possible impurities (benzaldehyde, toluene, alpha,alpha-dichlorotoluene, and 2-chlorotoluene) ranged from 0.1 to 10 microg/mL, limits of detection from 11 to 34 ng/mL, and repeatability from 1% to 2.9% for a 0.3-1.2 microg/mL concentration range. The method was applied to samples of technical benzyl chloride, and alpha,alpha-dichlorotoluene and benzaldehyde were identified by spectral analysis and quantitated. The selection of benzyl chloride with lower levels of impurities is important to guarantee the reduction of residual products in further syntheses.

  1. Validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for the determination of ethopabate residues in poultry liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Rodrigo H M M; Niño, Alfredo M Montes; Zucchetti, Roberto A M; Niño, Rosario E Montes; Salerno, Alessandro G

    2008-01-01

    Ethopabate is frequently used in the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. Residues of this drug in food present a potential risk to consumers. A simple, rapid, and sensitive column high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV detection for determination of ethopabate in poultry liver is presented. The drug is extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation, the residue is dissolved with an acetone-hexane mixture and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using Florisil columns. The analyte is then eluted with methanol. LC analysis is carried out on a C18 5 microm Gemini column, 15 cm x 4.6 mm. Ethopabate is quantified by means of UV detection at 270 nm. Parameters such as decision limit, detection capability, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and measurement uncertainty were calculated according to method validation guidelines provided in 2002/657/EC and ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Decision limit and detection capability were determined to be 2 and 3 microg/kg, respectively. Average recoveries from poultry samples fortified with 10, 15, and 20 microg/kg levels of ethopabate were 100-105%. A complete statistical analysis was performed on the results obtained, including an estimation of the method uncertainty. The method is to be implemented into Brazil's residue monitoring and control program for ethopabate.

  2. [Rapid screening and confirmation of 205 pesticide residues in rice by QuEChERS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cheng, Lei; Qu, Shichao; Huang, Daliang; Liu, Jiacheng; Cui, Han; Jia, Yanbo; Ji, Mingshan

    2015-10-01

    A method for rapid screening and confirmation of 205 pesticide residues in rice was developed by combining QuEChERS and high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TRAP/MS). The rice samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up with primary secondary amine (PSA), anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and C18 adsorbent. Finally, the samples were detected by LC-Q-TRAP/MS in multiple reaction monitoring with information-dependent acquisition of enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode followed with database searching. A total of 205 pesticide residues were confirmed by retention times, ion pairs and the database searching using EPI library, and quantified by external standard method. All the pesticides showed good linearities with linear correlation coefficients all above 0.995. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 205 pesticides were 0.5-10.0 μg/kg. The average recoveries of the 205 pesticides ranged from 62.4% to 127.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0% - 20.0% at spiked levels of 10 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg, and only 20 min were needed for the analysis of an actual rice sample. In brief, the method is fast, accurate and highly sensitive, and is suitable for the screening and confirmation of pesticide residues in rice.

  3. Genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid in multiples organs of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larangeira, Paula Martins; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; de Moura, Carolina Foot Gomes; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-11-01

    The ionic liquid or melted salt 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium is an alternative process to extract natural pigments, such as carotenoids. Lycopene represents 80-90% of total of carotenoids presents in tomatoes and it has been widely studied due its potent antioxidant action. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of carotenoids extracted from ionic liquid using experimental model in vivo. For this purpose, a total of 20 male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups (n=5), as follows: control group; received a corresponding amount of corn oil for 7days by intragastric gavage (i.g.), ionic liquid group, received 10mgkg -1 body weight for 7days by gavage; 10mg carotenoids group, received 10mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage and 500mg carotenoids group, received 500mgkg -1 bw dissolved in corn oil for 7days by gavage. Rat liver treated with ionic liquid exhibited moderate histopathological changes randomly distributed in the parenchyma, such as cytoplasmic eosinophilia, apoptotic bodies, inflammatory infiltrate and focal necrosis. DNA damage was found in peripheral blood and liver cells of rats treated with ionic liquid or carotenoids at 500mg. An increase of micronucleated cells and 8-OhDG immunopositive cells were also detected in rats treated with carotenoids at 500mg. In summary, our results demonstrate that recommended dose for human daily intake of carotenoids extracted by ionic liquid did not induce genotoxicity, mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in multiple organs of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing technologies for conditioning the liquid organic radioactive wastes from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneanu, N.; Popescu, I. V.; Teoreanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research (INR)-Pitesti has developed technologies for conditioning liquid organic radioactive wastes (oils, miscellaneous solvent and liquid scintillation cocktail) for Cernavoda NPP. This paper describes the new and viable solidification technology to convert liquid organic radioactive wastes into a stable monolithic form, which minimizes the probability to release tritium in the environment during interim storage, transportation and final disposal. These are normally LLW containing only relatively small quantities of beta/gamma emitting radionuclides and variable amounts of tritium with activity below E+08Bq/l. The INR research staff in the radwaste area developed treatment/conditioning techniques and also designed and tested the containers for the final disposal, following the approach in the management of radwaste related to the nuclear fuel cycle. Thus, the INR focused this type of activity on treating and conditioning the wastes generated at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant consisting of lubricants from primary fuelling machines and turbine, the miscellaneous solvent from decontamination operation and the liquid scintillation cocktail used in radiochemical analysis. Laboratory studies on cementation of liquid organic radioactive wastes have been undertaken at INR Pitesti. One simple system, similar to a conventional cement solidification unit, can treat radioactive liquid wastes, which are the major components of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes generated by a Nuclear Power Plant. It was proved that the solidified waste could meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria of the disposal site, in this case Baita-Bihor National Repository, as follows: - The wastes are deposited in type A packages; - The maximum expected quantities of this waste stream that will be produced in the future are 50 drums per year. The maximum specific tritium activity per drum is 10 9 Bq/m 3 ; - Compressive strengths of the samples should be greater than 50 MPa

  5. Comparison of the immediate, residual, and cumulative antibacterial effects of Novaderm R,* Novascrub R,* Betadine Surgical Scrub, Hibiclens, and liquid soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoagali, J; Fong, J; George, N; Mahoney, P; O'Rourke, V

    1995-12-01

    Triclosan (Irgasan), an antibacterial active against staphylococci and coliform bacteria, has been formulated for use as a handwash. There has been only one previous report of the use of the glove juice test to determine the immediate, residual, and cumulative effects of a 1% triclosan-based handwash product. There have been no previous studies on the use of 1% triclosan combined with povidone-iodine (PI) in a handwash product. The glove juice technique was used to document and compare the immediate, 3-hour residual, and 5-day cumulative effects on the mean log10 bacterial counts of 1% triclosan-based handwash product and 1% triclosan with 5% PI. A standardized surgical handwashing technique was used before sample collection. These results and the identity and type of the aerobic bacteria cultured from the samples were compared with the results of standardized washing and glove juice sampling with 4% weight/volume chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), 7.5% PI, and a nonantimicrobial liquid soap. All five tested products showed significant log10 reduction from baseline on day 1, hour 0 (p 0.05). There was a significant difference between 1% triclosan and the liquid soap when they were each compared with 4% CHG, 7.5% PI, and 1% triclosan with 5% PI. There was no statistically significant difference between the 1% triclosan product and the liquid soap (p > 0.20). All products were effective at reducing the immediate bacterial count from the baseline level. All formulations except the liquid soap showed significant cumulative effect (p liquid soap and 1% triclosan (p > 0.05). Both products differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the CHG, PI, and triclosan with PI. CHG, PI, and triclosan with PI showed effects significantly different from each other (p < 0.05). Triclosan combined with PI resulted in the prevention of bacterial regrowth at 3 hours such as occurred when PI alone was used. Triclosan-containing products have a small cumulative effect, although not as great as that

  6. Dynamics of dissolved and extractable organic nitrogen upon soil amendment with crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Hoffland, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is increasingly recognized as a pivotal pool in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Numerous devices and sampling procedures have been used to estimate its size, varying from in situ collection of soil solution to extraction of dried soil with salt solutions. Extractable

  7. Solvent-free directed patterning of a highly ordered liquid crystalline organic semiconductor via template-assisted self-assembly for organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aryeon; Jang, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Jinsoo; Won, Jong Chan; Yi, Mi Hye; Kim, Hanim; Yoon, Dong Ki; Shin, Tae Joo; Lee, Myong-Hoon; Ka, Jae-Won; Kim, Yun Ho

    2013-11-20

    Highly ordered organic semiconductor micropatterns of the liquid-crystalline small molecule 2,7-didecylbenzothienobenzothiophene (C10 -BTBT) are fabricated using a simple method based on template-assisted self-assembly (TASA). The liquid crystallinity of C10 -BTBT allows solvent-free fabrication of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Retention-oxidation-adsorption process for emergent treatment of organic liquid spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Xingwang; Lei, Lecheng

    2011-11-15

    The feasibility and effectiveness of retention-oxidation-adsorption process (ROA) for the elimination of organic contaminants induced by chemical accidents were investigated in this study. Organobentonites (DTMA-, TTA-, CTMA- and OTMA-bentonite), potassium ferrate (Fe(VI)), ozone and granular activated carbon (GAC) were used as rapid and efficient materials in the treatment and recovery of organic liquid spills. Results indicated that the retention capacities of organobentonites (especially CTMA-bentonite) were much higher than that of natural bentonite towards the chosen organic compounds. Additionally, pH, oxidant dosage, initial concentration of contaminant and chemical structure had significant influences on the effectiveness of the oxidation process. In a pilot-scale experiment, the ferrate/GAC (F/G) and ozone/GAC (O/G) processes made a comparatively good performance in the treatment of wastewater containing aniline or nitrobenzene, with the removal efficiencies of the contaminants greater than 80%. Overall, the ROA process showed a high efficiency and steady operation in the removal of hazardous organic liquids and subsequent clean up of the contaminated site. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The electro-structural behaviour of yarn-like carbon nanotube fibres immersed in organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrones, Jeronimo; Windle, Alan H; Elliott, James A

    2014-01-01

    Yarn-like carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres are a hierarchically-structured material with a variety of promising applications such as high performance composites, sensors and actuators, smart textiles, and energy storage and transmission. However, in order to fully realize these possibilities, a more detailed understanding of their interactions with the environment is required. In this work, we describe a simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of the fibres from which several mathematical models are constructed to explain electro-structural interactions of fibres with organic liquids. A balance between the elastic and surface energies of the CNT bundle network in different media allows the determination of the maximum lengths that open junctions can sustain before collapsing to minimize the surface energy. This characteristic length correlates well with the increase of fibre resistance upon immersion in organic liquids. We also study the effect of charge accumulation in open interbundle junctions and derive expressions to describe experimental data on the non-ohmic electrical behaviour of fibres immersed in polar liquids. Our analyses suggest that the non-ohmic behaviour is caused by progressively shorter junctions collapsing as the voltage is increased. Since our models are not based on any property unique to carbon nanotubes, they should also be useful to describe other hierarchical structures. (paper)

  10. Liquid organic scintillator in a polymerizable emulsion, its application to radioactive counting and process for its destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.E.; Krieger, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Scintillation organic liquid mixture for performing very efficient counts on compound solutions labelled with a radioactive indicator containing up to 10% water by volume and which is easily polymerizable into a solid substance, in order to facilitate its elimination. The mixture includes a polymerizable organic solvent, a solubilizing agent, an intermediate solvent and an organic scintillator [fr

  11. Application of numerical modelling to scaling-up of electrically induced extraction from an organic mixture using an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Kamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction provides an environmentally friendly process as an alternative to azeotropic distillation, pervaporation and reverse osmosis because these techniques require the use of large amounts of energy, may involve volatile organic compounds, and operation at high pressure.

  12. Combination of solid-phase extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS for determination of pesticide residues from water, milk, honey and fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yazdanfar, Najmeh; Ghambarian, Mahnaz

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an effective preconcentration method for the extraction and determination of traces of multi-residue pesticides was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Variables affecting the performance of both extraction steps such as type and volume of elution and extraction solvents, breakthrough volume, salt addition, extraction time were thoroughly investigated. The proposed method resulted in good linearities (R(2)>0.9915) over the ranges of 1-10,000ngkg(-1), limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 0.5-1.0ngkg(-1) at S/N=3, and precision of RSD% of ⩽11.8. Under optimal conditions, the preconcentration factors were obtained in the range of 2362-10,593 for 100mL sample solutions. Comparison of the proposed method with other ones demonstrated that SPE-DLLME method provides higher extraction efficiency and larger preconcentration factor for determination of pesticides residues. Further, it is simple, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and can be successfully applied to separation, preconcentration and determination of the pesticides (and other noxious materials) in different real food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Organic Selenium Supplementation on Rooster Semen Quality in Liquid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Ahangari Y

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to investigate the effects of various levels of dietary organic selenium supplementation (0, 0.1,  0.2 and  0.3 mg/Kg on reproductive traits of rooster. Semen was collected using abdominal massage and samples were mixed together. Sperm characteristics including percentage of motile, viable and abnormal sperms were assessed. This experiment was carried out based on a completely randomized design. Results showed that the organic selenium supplementation had significant effects on perm motility and viability in liquid condition (P0.05. In conclusion, the use of  organic selenium supplementation (0.3 mg/Kg in  diet  of  rooster  could  be recommended to improve semen quality.

  14. Soft liquid phase adsorption for fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Akiyoshi, Yuri; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report a soft liquid-phase adsorption (SLPA) technique for the fabrication of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates using toluene/water emulsions. Wettability-patterned substrates were obtained by the UV-ozone treatment of self-assembled monolayers of silane coupling agents on glass plates using a metal mask. Organic semiconductor polymer films were formed selectively on the hydrophobic part of the wettability-patterned substrates. The thickness of the films fabricated by the SLPA technique is significantly larger than that of the films fabricated by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The film thickness can be controlled by adjusting the volume ratio of toluene to water, immersion angle, immersion temperature, and immersion time. The SLPA technique allows for the direct production of organic semiconductor films on wettability-patterned substrates with minimized material consumption and reduced number of fabrication steps.

  15. Functional organic materials based on polymerized liquid-crystal monomers: supramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broer, Dirk J; Bastiaansen, Cees M W; Debije, Michael G; Schenning, Albertus P H J

    2012-07-16

    Functional organic materials are of great interest for a variety of applications. To obtain precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals has proven to be an extremely useful tool in the development of well-defined nanostructured materials. We have chosen the illustrative example of photopolymerizable hydrogen-bonding mesogens to show that a wide variety of functional materials can be made from a relatively simple set of building blocks. Upon mixing these compounds with other reactive mesogens, nematic, chiral nematic, and smectic or columnar liquid-crystalline phases can be formed that can be applied as actuators, sensors and responsive reflectors, and nanoporous membranes, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Method to prepare essentially organic waste liquids containing radioactive or toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.; Drobnik, S.H.; Hild, W.; Kroebel, R.; Meyer, A.; Naumann, G.

    1976-01-01

    Waste solutions occuring in nuclear technology containing radioactive or toxic materials can be solidified by mixing with a polymerisable mixture with subsequent polymerization. An improvement of this method, especially for liquids in which the radioactive components are present as organic compounds is achieved by adding a mixture of at least one monomeric vinyl compound, at least one polyvinyl compound and appropriate catalysts and by polymerizing at temperatures between 15 and 150 0 C. Should the waste liquid contain mineral acid, this is first neutralized by the addition of CaO or MgO. In processing oils or soaps, the addition of swelling agent for polystyrol resins is advantageous. 16 examples illustrate the invention. (UWI) [de

  17. Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids: preparation and applications in organic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yingying; Cheng, Chen; Jing, Huanwang

    2014-09-26

    Aza-crown ether complex cation ionic liquids (aCECILs) were devised, fabricated, and characterized by using NMR spectroscopy, MS, thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), elemental analysis and physical properties. These new and room-temperature ILs were utilized as catalysts in various organic reactions, such as the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to epoxides, esterification of acetic acid and alcohols, the condensation reaction of aniline and propylene carbonate, and Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with aldehydes were investigated carefully. In these reactions, the ionic liquid exhibited cooperative catalytic activity between the anion and cation. In addition, the aza-[18-C-6HK][HSO4]2 was the best acidic catalyst in the reactions of esterification and Friedel-Crafts alkylation under mild reaction conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Anomalous Capacitance Maximum of the Glassy Carbon-Ionic Liquid Interface through Dilution with Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozym, David J; Uralcan, Betül; Limmer, David T; Pope, Michael A; Szamreta, Nicholas J; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2015-07-02

    We use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to measure the effect of diluting a hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid with miscible organic solvents on the differential capacitance of the glassy carbon-electrolyte interface. We show that the minimum differential capacitance increases with dilution and reaches a maximum value at ionic liquid contents near 5-10 mol% (i.e., ∼1 M). We provide evidence that mixtures with 1,2-dichloroethane, a low-dielectric constant solvent, yield the largest gains in capacitance near the open circuit potential when compared against two traditional solvents, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate. To provide a fundamental basis for these observations, we use a coarse-grained model to relate structural variations at the double layer to the occurrence of the maximum. Our results reveal the potential for the enhancement of double-layer capacitance through dilution.

  19. Controlled crosslinking of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate for preparation of organic monolithic columns for capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Mariana R; Aggarwal, Pankaj; Lee, Milton L; Bottoli, Carla B G

    2017-11-01

    Organic monolithic columns based on single crosslinking of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) monomer were prepared in a single step by living/controlled free-radical polymerization. Full optimization of the preparation, such as using different percentages of TRIM and different amounts of radical promoter as well as various porogen solvents were explored. The resulting monolithic columns were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and nitrogen sorption for structure morphology studies and surface area measurements, respectively. Using capillary liquid chromatography, 150 μm i.d. columns were applied to separate a mixture of small hydrophobic molecules. The results indicated that column performance is highly sensitive to the type and the amount of porogen solvents used in the polymerization mixture composition. Good resolution factors and methylene selectivity were obtained, indicating the promising potential of this material for capillary liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Different Analytical Procedures for the Study of Organic Residues in Archeological Ceramic Samples with the Use of Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Rosiak, Angelina; Kwapińska, Marzena; Kwapiński, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the composition of organic residues present in pottery is an important source of information for historians and archeologists. Chemical characterization of the materials provides information on diets, habits, technologies, and original use of the vessels. This review presents the problem of analytical studies of archeological materials with a special emphasis on organic residues. Current methods used in the determination of different organic compounds in archeological ceramics are presented. Particular attention is paid to the procedures of analysis of archeological ceramic samples used before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Advantages and disadvantages of different extraction methods and application of proper quality assurance/quality control procedures are discussed.

  1. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Kyohei; Imamura, Masataka; Fudo, Satoshi; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hoshino, Tyuji; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  2. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Higashi

    Full Text Available Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2 was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  3. New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

  4. The influence of interfacial properties on the two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demond, A.H.; Desai, F.N.; Hayes, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    DOE's waste sites are contaminated with a variety of organic liquids. Because of their low solubility in water, organic liquids such as these will persist as separate liquid phases and be transported as such in the subsurface. Thus, an improved understanding of the factors influencing the movement of a separate organic liquid phase in the subsurface is important to DOE's efforts to control groundwater contamination. Wettability is sometimes cited as the most important factor influencing two-phase flow in porous media. The wetting phase migrates preferentially through the smaller pores, whereas the nonwetting phase is concentrated in the larger pores. Typically, aquifers are thought of as strongly water-wet, implying that the organic liquid preferentially occupies the larger pores. But in fact, that state depends on the properties of the three interfaces of the system: between the organic liquid and water, water and the solid, and the organic liquid and the solid. Characteristics of the system which affect the interfacial properties also impact the wettability, such as the nature of the aquifer solids' surfaces, the composition of the goundwater and the properties of the organic contaminant. The alteration of wettability at DOE waste sites may be dominated by the presence of co-contaminants such as organic acids and bases which behave as surface-active agents or surfactants. Because of their physicochemical nature, surfactants will sorb preferentially at the interfaces of the system, thereby impacting the wettability and the distribution of the liquids in the porous medium. The over-all objective of this research was to determine how changes in interfacial properties affect two-phase flow. Specifically, the objective was to examine the effect of surfactant sorption on capillary pressure relationships by correlating measurements of sorption, zeta potential, interfacial tension and contact angle, with changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationships

  5. Pesticide residues in fruit samples: comparison of different QuEChERS methods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christia, C; Bizani, E; Christophoridis, C; Fytianos, K

    2015-09-01

    Acetate- and citrate-buffered quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) pretreatment methods were evaluated for the determination of various pesticides in peaches, grapes, apples, bananas, pears, and strawberries from various regions of Greece, using LC-MS/MS. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate which type of QuEChERS method was the most appropriate and effective for each matrix; (ii) to apply the selected QuEChERS method for each matrix, in order to detect and quantify pesticide residues in various fruit samples using UPLC-MS/MS; (iii) to examine the concentration distribution of pesticide classes among fruit originating from various areas; and (iv) to assess pesticide concentration distribution between peel and flesh of fruit in order to evaluate the penetration of pesticide residues in the fruit flesh. Acetate-buffered QuEChERS was found to be the most suitable technique for most of the fruit matrices. According to the recovery values at two different concentration levels, peaches should preferably be treated by the citrate-buffered type, whereas grapes, bananas, apples, pears, and strawberries are best treated by the acetate-buffered version, although the differences in efficiency were small. The addition of graphitized carbon black significantly decreases the recovery of specific pesticides in all matrices except for strawberries. The majority of values do not exceed the official maximum residue levels set by the European Commission. Organophosphates proved to be the most commonly detected category along with triazines-triazoles-conazoles group and by carbamates. Apples and pears seem to be the most contaminated fruit matrices among those tested. Distribution of pesticide classes shows variations between different regions, suggesting different pesticide application practices. In the case of peaches and pears, there is an equal distribution of detected pesticides between peel and flesh, indicating penetration of contaminants into the

  6. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp.) in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys; Mamani-Pati Francisco; Sainz-Mendoza Humberto; Villca-Huanaco René

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp.) in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered) and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW) in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis). The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greate...

  7. Assessment of bioavailability of weathered oil residues using caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) as indicator organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleczinski, C.F.; Costa, H.J.; Rigatti, M.J.; Wong, M.C.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In April 1988, an estimated 400,000 gallons of San Joaquin Valley crude oil spilled into Peyton Slough and subsequently into Suisun Bay from an oil refinery in Martinez, California. The crude oil initially impacted a number of ecologically sensitive environments including estuarine water, marsh grasses, marsh and shoreline sediment, and intertidal sediment. A four-year oil weathering study was performed to determine the concentrations of environmentally important compounds in the stranded oil, to monitor changes in these concentrations over time, and to assess the potential long-term impact of the spilled oil in these various environments. As a result of marked differences in the rate of weathering at the different sites, a bioaccumulation component was added to the original study design in order to assess the bioavailability of crude oil residues remaining four-years post spill. Caged bivalves (Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis) were deployed at the three study sites as sentinel organisms and exposed for three months. Sediments and organism tissues were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblages characteristics of the spilled oil. Advanced hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques (e.g., double ratio plots of characteristic alkyl PAHs) were used to match distributions in the organisms and in the study site sediments

  8. Development of multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides in cereal matrices by isotopic dilution associated to liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after pressurized liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mrabet, Khadija

    2008-01-01

    Pesticides are nowadays considered as toxic for human health. The maximal residues levels authorized in water and foodstuff are more and more strict. Therefore, selective analytical techniques are necessary for their identification and their quantification. The aim of this thesis was to develop a multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides by isotopic dilution associated to liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS"2) after pressurized liquid extraction. In a first step, an analysis method of phenyl-ureas and triazines in groundwater by isotopic dilution associated to LC/MS"2 after solid phase extraction has been developed. The method has been validated and evaluated by participating to an inter-laboratory study. Concerning cereals, an extraction method of pesticides associated to an analysis by LC/MS"2 has been developed for thirty-eight pesticides representative of twenty-six chemicals families and fourteen labeled compounds in wheat. The analysis has been carried out in reversed phase chromatography. Separation and detection conditions have been optimized. A global analytical protocol consisting of a pressurized liquid extraction step using acetonitrile at 100 deg. C and at 100 bars and followed by purification step of the resulting extract on a polymeric sorbent was developed. The developed method enables to extract thirty-eight pesticides and fourteen labeled compounds from wheat with recovery yield about 85% (RSD =4%, n=3). Moreover, the results show that the application of isotopic dilution can be complex. Although some improvements need to be added regarding experimentation of aged matrices or contaminated samples, the potential of the method has been demonstrated. (author) [fr

  9. Fructose decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinghua; Lu, Xiuyang; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Xin [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Zheda Road 38, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang (China)

    2009-09-15

    Biomass continues to be an important candidate as a renewable resource for energy, chemicals, and feedstock. Decomposition of biomass in high temperature liquid water is a promising technique for producing industrially important chemicals such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid with high efficiency. Hexose, which is the hydrolysis product of cellulose, will be one of the most important starting chemicals in the coming society that is highly dependent on biomass. Taking fructose as a model compound, its decomposition kinetics in organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water was studied in the temperature range from 180 C to 220 C under the pressure of 10 MPa to further improve reaction rate and selectivity of the decomposition reactions. The results showed that the reaction rate is greatly enhanced with the addition of organic acids, especially formic acid. The effects of temperature, residence time, organic acids and their concentrations on the conversion of fructose and yield of 5-HMF were investigated. The evaluated apparent activation energies of fructose decomposition are 126.8 {+-} 3.3 kJ mol{sup -1} without any catalyst, 112.0 {+-} 13.7 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with formic acid, and 125.6 {+-} 3.8 kJ mol{sup -1} catalyzed with acetic acid, respectively, which shows no significant difference. (author)

  10. CuS nanoplates from ionic liquid precursors—Application in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohan; Heyne, Benjamin; Abouserie, Ahed; Pries, Christopher; Ippen, Christian; Günter, Christina; Taubert, Andreas; Wedel, Armin

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal p-type semiconductor CuS nanoplates were synthesized via a hot injection method from bis(trimethylsilyl)sulfide and the ionic liquid precursor bis(N-dodecylpyridinium) tetrachloridocuprate(ii). The particles have a broad size distribution with diameters between 30 and 680 nm and well-developed crystal habits. The nanoplates were successfully incorporated into organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells as hole conduction materials. The power conversion efficiency of OPV cells fabricated with the nanoplates is 16% higher than that of a control device fabricated without the nanoplates.

  11. Analysis of organic solvents and liquid mixtures using a fiber-tip evaporation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, Eyal; Donlagic, Denis; Artel, Vlada; Katims, Rachel A.; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Zadok, Avi

    2014-05-01

    The instantaneous size and rate of evaporation of pendant liquid droplets placed on the cleaved facet of a standard fiber are reconstructed based on reflected optical power. Using the evaporation dynamics, the relative contents of ethanol in ethanol-water binary mixtures are assessed with 1% precision and different blends of methanol in gasoline are properly recognized. The latter application, in particular, is significant for the use of alternative fuels in the automotive sector. Also, ten organic solvents are identified based on their evaporation from a fiber facet coated with a hydrophobic, selfassembled monolayer.

  12. Microbiological Hazards of Household Toilets: Droplet Production and the Fate of Residual Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1975-01-01

    Large numbers of bacteria and viruses when seeded into household toilets were shown to remain in the bowl after flushing, and even continual flushing could not remove a persistent fraction. This was found to be due to the adsorption of the organisms to the porcelain surfaces of the bowl, with gradual elution occurring after each flush. Droplets produced by flushing toilets were found to harbor both bacteria and viruses which had been seeded. The detection of bacteria and viruses falling out onto surfaces in bathrooms after flushing indicated that they remain airborne long enough to settle on surface throughout the bathroom. Thus, there is a possibility that a person may acquire an infection from an aerosol produced by a toilet. PMID:169732

  13. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  14. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard management of stubble and crop residues in the maintenance of adequate contents of soil organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies carried out on the effects of stubble and crop residue incorporation have shown positive effects on chemical-physical soil characteristics. However, not all studies agree on the extent of soil organic matter increase which derives from this process, as this effect is strongly affected by other factors: the pedo-climatic features of the area in which the study is carried out, the type of crop residue incorporation and the agronomical management adopted to improve the decomposition of the incorporated fresh organic material. The burning of stubble and straw is common in the areas where cereals are traditionally grown. The adoption of this method is based on different technical and work-related factors, which become less important when taking into account the impact on the local environment and soil. A research is currently carried out at the CRA-SCA experimental farm in Foggia (Southern Italy on the effects of either residues incorporation or burning on the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil and on the wheat yield performance since 1977. This experiment allows for a comparison among the effects of burning, the simple incorporation of stubble and crop residues and incorporation carried out with some agronomical techniques (such as the distribution of increasing amounts of nitrogen on crop residue before incorporation and the simulation of rain (50 mm on the decomposition of organic material. The objective of the study was to understand the effect of the different residues management practices on soil chemical properties after 32 years of experimentation. The simple incorporation of straw and stubble showed a slight increase in organic soil matter of 0.7% with respect to burning. The best results for soil organic carbon and soil quality were obtained when residual incorporation included a treatment with additional mineral nitrogen.

  15. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel based on these polymeric films. In particular, the effect of film hydration on device performance is evaluated by studying its electrical response as a function of the spatial position between the electrolyte and the channel electrodes. This is done by depositing a PEDOT:PSS film on a super-hydrophobic surface aimed at controlling the electrolyte confinement next to the electrodes. The device response shows that the confinement of ionic liquids near to the drain electrode results in a worsening of the current modulation. This result has been interpreted in the light of studies dealing with the transport of ions in semiconducting polymers, indicating that the electrolyte adsorption by the polymeric film implies the formation of liquid pathways inside its bulk. These pathways, in particular, affect the device response because they are able to assist the drift of ionic species in the electrolyte towards the drain electrode. The effect of electrolyte adsorption on the device operation is confirmed by means of moving-front measurements, and is related to the reproducibility of the device operation curves by measuring repeatedly its electrical response.

  16. Chlorination of some eliphatic organic compounds in liquid and gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The photochlorination of different organic compounds and the relative slectivities of different positions have been investigated in both gaseous and liquid phases at different temperatures. The results have shown that the relative selectivity generally decreased with increasing temperature and in the gas phase has a higher value. Polar solvents increase the selectivity relative to the chlorination of pure liquid phases. The differences in activation energy between two positions were much higher in the gas phases chlorination, relative to that in the liquid phase. It was also found that the functional groups have great influence on the rate of chlorine free radical attack on different positions, for example the electron withdrawing groups decreasing the selectivity on the first position, but the electron donating groups increase the selectivity on the first position, but the electron donating groups increase the selectivity on the first position. Furthermore it was found that the polar solvents, which stabilize the resonance between oxygen and carbon atoms, increases the selectivity on that position. 23 tabs.; 16 figs.; 50 refs

  17. Determination of anthelmintic drug residues in milk using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with rapid polarity switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Michelle; Kinsella, Brian; Furey, Ambrose; Moloney, Mary; Cantwell, Helen; Lehotay, Steven J; Danaher, Martin

    2010-07-02

    A new UHPLC-MS/MS (ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) method was developed and validated to detect 38 anthelmintic drug residues, consisting of benzimidazoles, avermectins and flukicides. A modified QuEChERS-type extraction method was developed with an added concentration step to detect most of the analytes at keeper to ensure analytes remain in solution. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionisation, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged ions in a 13 min run time. The method was validated at two levels: the unapproved use level and at the maximum residue level (MRL) according to Commission Decision (CD) 2002/657/EC criteria. The decision limit (CCalpha) of the method was in the range of 0.14-1.9 and 11-123 microg kg(-1) for drugs validated at unapproved and MRL levels, respectively. The performance of the method was successfully verified for benzimidazoles and levamisole by participating in a proficiency study.

  18. Determination of six polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jing; Song, Ge; Ai, Lian-Feng; Li, Jian-Chen

    2016-04-01

    A new method using solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of six polyether antibiotics, including lasalocid, salinomycin, monensin, narasin, madubamycin and nigericin residues, in foods of animal origin. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified by ENVI-Carb SPE columns after comparing the impurity effect and maneuverability of several SPE cartridges. Subsequently, the analytes were separated on a Hypersil Gold column (2.1×150mm, 5μm) and analyzed by MS/MS detection. The limit of quantization (LOQ) for milk and chicken was 0.4μg/kg, and for chicken livers and eggs, it was 1μg/kg. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of >0.9995 at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100μg/L. The average recoveries of the analytes fortified at three levels ranged from 68.2 to 114.3%, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 12.1%. The method was suitable for quantitative analysis and confirmation of polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2015-07-01

    A simple and fast method namely in-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues (e.g. imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, and nitenpyram) in honey. The experimental parameters affected the extraction efficiency, including kind and concentration of salt, kind of disperser solvent and its volume, kind of extraction solvent and its volume, shooting times and extraction time were investigated. The extraction process was carried out by rapid shooting of two syringes. Therefore, rapid dispersion and mass transfer processes was created between phases, and thus affects the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The optimum extraction conditions were 10.00 mL of aqueous sample, 10% (w/v) Na2SO4, 1-octanol (100µL) as an extraction solvent, shooting 4 times and extraction time 2min. No disperser solvent and centrifugation step was necessary. Linearity was obtained within the range of 0.1-3000 ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The high enrichment factor of the target analytes was 100 fold and low limit of detection (0.25-0.50 ngmL(-1)) could be obtained. This proposed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of neonicotinoid residues in honey, and good recoveries in the range of 96.93-107.70% were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated multi-plug filtration cleanup for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric pesticide multi-residue analysis in representative crop commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Fangbing; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Xu, Haowei; Qian, Meiyuan; Pan, Canping

    2016-09-02

    An automated multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. The automatic device was aimed to reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps. It could control the volume and the speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. In this work, m-PFC was based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with other sorbents and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in a packed tip for analysis of pesticide multi-residues in crop commodities followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection. It was validated by analyzing 25 pesticides in six representative matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100μg/kg. Salts, sorbents, m-PFC procedure, automated pulling and pushing volume, automated pulling speed, and pushing speed for each matrix were optimized. After optimization, two general automated m-PFC methods were introduced to relatively simple (apple, citrus fruit, peanut) and relatively complex (spinach, leek, green tea) matrices. Spike recoveries were within 83 and 108% and 1-14% RSD for most analytes in the tested matrices. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.997 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of ametoctradin residue in fruits and vegetables by modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingfeng; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Li, Shasha; Xu, Hanqing; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-05-15

    A rapid, effective and sensitive method to quantitatively determine ametoctradin residue in apple, cucumber, cabbage, tomato and grape was developed and validated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compound was determined in less than 5.0 min using an electrospray ionisation source in positive mode (ESI+). The limit of detection was below 0.043 μg kg(-1), whereas the limits of quantification did not exceed 0.135 μg kg(-1) in all five matrices. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.9969) for the target compound. Recovery studies were performed in all matrices at three spiked levels (1, 10 and 100 μg L(-1)). The mean recoveries from five matrices ranged from 81.81% to 100.1%, with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDr) in the range of 0.65-7.88% for the test compound. This method will be useful for the quick and routine detection of ametoctradin residues in potato, grape, cucumber, apple and tomato. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography linear ion-trap orbitrap to qualitative and quantitative assessment of pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, M; Picó, Y; Barceló, D

    2014-02-07

    The analysis of pesticides residues using a last generation high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was explored. Pesticides were extracted from fruits, fish, bees and sediments by QuEChERS and from water by solid-phase with Oasis HLB cartridges. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer acquired full scan MS data for quantification, and data dependent (dd) MS(2) and MS(3) product ion spectra for identification and/or confirmation. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (two order of magnitude up to the lowest calibration level) in the study were ≥0.99. The LODs for 54 validated compounds were ≤2ngmL(-1) (analytical standards). The relative standard deviation (RSD), which was used to estimate precision, was always lower than 22%. The recovery of extraction and matrix effects ranged from 58 to 120% and from -92 to 52%, respectively. Mass accuracy was always ≤4ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 1.6millimass units (mmu). This procedure was then successfully applied to pesticide residues in a set of the above-mentioned food and environmental samples. In addition to target analytes, this method enables the simultaneous detection/identification of non-target pesticides, pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, mycotoxins, and their metabolites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for determining multiple pesticide residues in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G C R M; Monteiro, S H; Francisco, J G; Figueiredo, L A; Botelho, R G; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-05-15

    A quick and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring and a 1.8-μm particle size analytical column, was developed to determine 57 pesticides in tomato in a 13-min run. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method for samples preparations and validations was carried out in compliance with EU SANCO guidelines. The method was applied to 58 tomato samples. More than 84% of the compounds investigated showed limits of detection equal to or lower than 5 mg kg(-1). A mild (50%) matrix effect was observed for 72%, 25%, and 3% of the pesticides studied, respectively. Eighty-one percent of the pesticides showed recoveries ranging between 70% and 120%. Twelve pesticides were detected in 35 samples, all below the maximum residue levels permitted in the Brazilian legislation; 15 samples exceeded the maximum residue levels established by the EU legislation for methamidophos; and 10 exceeded limits for acephate and four for bromuconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multi-residue determination of 47 organic compounds in water, soil, sediment and fish-Turia River as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Eric; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-11-30

    A sensitive and reliable method based on solid-liquid extraction (SLE) using McIlvaine-Na 2 EDTA buffer (pH=4.5)-methanol and solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean up prior to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was applied to determine 47 organic contaminants in fish, soil and sediments. The SPE procedure to clean-up the extracts was also used as extraction method to determine these compounds in water. Recoveries ranged from 38 to 104% for all matrices with RSDsfish and 0.3-26ng/L for water. Furthermore, the proposed method was compared to QuEChERS (widely used for environmental matrices) that involves extraction with buffered acetonitrile (pH 5.5) and dispersive SPE clean-up. The results obtained (recoveries>50% for 36 compounds in front of 9, matrix effectfish, bisphenol A (33ngg -1 ) or sulfamethoxazole (13ngg -1 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of some organic residues on the availability of nutrients to plants using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, S.A.S

    2006-01-01

    Two pot experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions in Soils and Water Research Department, Atomic Energy Authority.The aim of this work studies the effect of chicken manure and rice straw either separately or combined with mineral fertilizer by different rates pronounced the recommended dose (120 kg N fed -1 ) or half the recommended dose (60 kg N fed -1 + BF) on wheat plant grown in sandy soils. Organic materials were mixed with soil before packed in pots (5 kg soil pot1). Mineral fertilizer was added ( 15 N-labeled ammonium sulfate) after thinned wheat plants. The recommended basic supplemental doses of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were applied to each pot. Wheat grains inoculated by Azotobacter chroococcum before cultivation in the second experiment. In addition to this work aimed the study affect of different fertilizer treatments on NPK of wheat plants as well as nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff), soil (Ndfs), air (Ndfa) and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) after the harvest of yield.

  6. Effect of organic fertilizer and its residual on cowpea and soybean in acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Kuntyastuty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of planting areas on acid soils is one of the strategies to achieve Indonesian self-sufficiency program on food. Acidic soil has low pH that causes contents of Al, Fe, and Mn are high. In addition, acidic soil also only has low microbial population. These conditions make soybean growth is not optimal. This research consisted of two phases i.e., the first and second planting. The first planting was aimed to study the effectiveness of fertilizer treatment, with three replications, using cowpea commodity. The second planting was done without additional fertilizer that consisted of three replicates (continued from the first planting using soybean. This research that was carried out at Iletri’s greenhouse Malang in 2014 was arranged in a randomized block design consisting of eight treatments, namely: (a control/without fertilizer; (B 300 kg/ha (15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O, 10% S; (C 1500 kg/ha cow manure; (D 3000 kg/ha cow manure; (E 5000 kg/ha cow manure; (F 1500 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures; (G 3000 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures; and (H 5000 kg/ha fermented chicken + cow manures. The results showed that organic fertilizer (cow manure 5000 kg/ha had higher yields both in the first planting and second planting compared to inorganic fertilizer 300 kg/ha (15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O, 10% S

  7. [Determination of 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based on optimization of QuEChERS sample preparation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhu; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ruilong; Lin, Zixu; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dengfei; Lin, Dejuan; Xu, Dunming

    2013-12-01

    The raw extracts of six vegetables (tomato, green bean, shallot, broccoli, ginger and carrot) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in full scan mode combined with NIST library search to confirm main matrix compounds. The effects of cleanup and adsorption mechanisms of primary secondary amine (PSA) , octadecylsilane (C18) and PSA + C18 on co-extractives were studied by the weight of evaporation residue for extracts before and after cleanup. The suitability of the two versions of QuEChERS method for sample preparation was evaluated for the extraction of 51 carbamate pesticides in the six vegetables. One of the QuEChERS methods was the original un-buffered method published in 2003, and the other was AOAC Official Method 2007.01 using acetate buffer. As a result, the best effects were obtained from using the combination of C18 and PSA for extract cleanup in vegetables. The acetate-buffered version was suitable for the determination of all pesticides except dioxacarb. Un-buffered QuEChERS method gave satisfactory results for determining dioxacarb. Based on these results, the suitable QuEChERS sample preparation method and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry under the optimized conditions were applied to determine the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in six vegetables. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solution. The recoveries at three levels of 10, 20 and 100 microg/kg spiked in six vegetables ranged from 58.4% to 126% with the relative standard deviations of 3.3%-26%. The limits of quantification (LOQ, S/N > or = 10) were 0.2-10 microg/kg except that the LOQs of cartap and thiofanox were 50 microg/kg. The method is highly efficient, sensitive and suitable for monitoring the 51 carbamate pesticide residues in vegetables.

  8. Microbial association with the dynamics of particulate organic carbon in response to the amendment of elevated CO2-derived wheat residue into a Mollisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Yu, Zhenhua; Li, Yansheng; Wang, Guanghua; Liu, Junjie; Liu, Judong; Liu, Xiaobing; Jin, Jian

    2017-12-31

    As the chemical quality of crop residue is likely to be affected by elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ), residue amendments may influence soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, in Mollisols, the dynamics of the SOC fractions in response to amendment with wheat residue produced under eCO 2 and the corresponding microbial community composition remain unknown. Such investigation is essential to residue management, which affects the soil quality and productivity of future farming systems. To narrow this knowledge gap, 13 C-labeled shoot and root residue derived from ambient CO 2 (aCO 2 ) or eCO 2 were amended into Mollisols and incubated for 200days. The soil was sampled during the incubation period to determine the residue-C retained in the three SOC fractions, i.e., coarse intra-aggregate particulate organic C (coarse iPOC), fine iPOC and mineral-associated organic C (MOC). The soil bacterial community was assessed using a MiSeq sequencing instrument. The results showed that the increase in SOC concentrations attributable to the application of the wheat residue primarily occurred in the coarse iPOC fraction. Compared with the aCO 2 -derived shoot residue, the amendment of eCO 2 -derived shoot residue resulted in greater SOC concentrations, whereas no significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between the aCO 2 - and eCO 2 -derived roots. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that the residue amendment significantly (P≤0.05) altered the bacterial community composition compared with the non-residue amendment. Additionally, the bacterial community in the aCO 2 -derived shoot treatment differed from those in the other residue treatments until day 200 of the incubation period. The eCO 2 -derived shoot treatment significantly increased (P≤0.05) the relative abundances of the genera Acidobacteriaceae_(Subgroup_1)_uncultured, Bryobacter, Candidatus_Solibacter, Gemmatimonas and Nitrosomonadaceae_uncultured, whereas the opposite trend was observed in Nonomuraea

  9. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  10. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, Natálya I.; Santos, Patrícia S.C. [Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Alfenas, Rodovia José Aurélio Vilela, 11999, BR 267, Km 533, CEP 37715-400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Souza, Talita E. de; Oliveira, Luiz C.A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Castro, Cínthia S., E-mail: cinthia.soares.castro@gmail.com [Science and Technology Institute, Federal University of Alfenas, Rodovia José Aurélio Vilela, 11999, BR 267, Km 533, CEP 37715-400 Poços de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Composite based on carbon/iron oxide from PET and red mud wastes for organic contaminants oxidation. • Composites are mainly composed of hematite and a carbon matrix from PET decomposition. • RM/PET-15 presents the highest methylene blue (MB) removal from water, by combined adsorption and oxidation processes. • The dye oxidation was confirmed by ESI-MS studies. • The RM/PET catalysts can be reused for at least four batch runs. - Abstract: In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20 wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400 °C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe{sup 2+} species present in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24 h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction.

  11. Biochemical stability of organic matter in soils amended with organic slow N-release fertilizer derived from charred plant residues and ammonoxidized lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knicker, Heike; de la Rosa, José Maria; López Martín, María; Clemente Barragan, Reyes; Liebner, Falk

    2013-04-01

    As an important plant nutrient, N that has been removed from the soil by plant growth is replaced mainly by the use of synthetic fertilizers. Although this practice has dramatically increased food production, the unintended costs to the environment and human health due to surplus and inefficient application have also been substantial. Major losses of N to the environment can be minimized if "sustainable" agricultural practices are combined with reasonable fertilization. The latter can be achieved by applying slow N-release fertilizers. Here, the N is incorporated into an organic matrix, which after its amendment to soils, slowly decompose, allowing the liberation of the nutrient. Deriving from organic waste, such an amendment helps to efficiently recycle resources and increases the C sequestration potential of soils. However, in order to turn this approach into a successful strategy, the material has to be bioavailable but still sufficiently recalcitrant to ensure slow and controlled N-release. In the present study, we tested potential slow N-release fertilizers recycled from organic waste for their biochemical stability in soils. They comprised N-rich charred grass residues and N-lignin derived from waste of the pulp and paper industry and enriched in N by ammonoxidation. The substrates were mixed with soil of an Histic Humaquept and subsequently subjected to microbial degradation at 28°C in a Respicond IV Apparatus for 10 weeks. Additionally, soil material without organic amendment and soils mixed with lignin or charcoal both with and without KNO3 were included into the experiment. During the degradation experiment the CO2 production was determined on an hourly base. The degradation rate constants and the mean residence times were calculated using a double exponential decay model (pools with fast and slow turnover). Alterations of the chemical composition of the organic matter during degradation were studied by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. First results

  12. Survival analysis of patients with uveal melanoma after organ preserving and liquidation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Grishina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye.Aim: To evaluate survival in patients with uveal melanoma stratified according to the type of treatment and to identify factors significantly associated with their survival.Materials and methods: The study was performed on the data extracted from medical files and follow-up forms of patients with uveal melanoma seen in the Ophthalmological Clinical Hospital of the Department of Healthcare, Moscow, from 1977 to 2012. Analysis of survival was used to assess the life longevity of patients with uveal melanoma. The analysis was censored at January 2013, when vital status (dead or alive of all patients was assessed. The factors included into the study analysis, were those taken from the follow-up forms. The incidence of uveal melanoma in Moscow (2012 was 0.9 per 100,000 of the population, whereas its prevalence was 11.1 per 100,000.Results: 698 patients with uveal melanoma were included into the study, among them 260 (37% men (aged from 19 to 87 years, median age 60 years and 438 (63% women (aged from 18 to 93 years, median age 63 years; therefore, the proportion of women under the follow-up monitoring was by 26% higher than that of men. The liquidation treatment (mostly enucleation was performed in 358 (51% of the patients, whereas the organ preserving treatment in 340 (49%. At 5, 7, and 10 years of the follow-up, the disease-specific survival of patients with uveal melanoma after the organ preserving treatment (median survival has not been reached and after the liquidation treatment (median, 88 months were 89 ± 2, 83 ± 3, and 75 ± 4% versus 63 ± 3, 52 ± 4, and 47 ± 5%, respectively (р = 0.001. Overall survival and disease-specific survival of the patients after the liquidation treatment were significantly lower than in the patients after the organ-preserving treatment. According to multiple regression analysis, this was associated not with the type of

  13. Simultaneous determination of three pesticide adjuvant residues in plant-derived agro-products using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jiang, Zejun; Cao, Xiaolin; Su, Hang; Shao, Hua; Jin, Fen; Abd El-Aty, A M; Wang, Jing

    2017-12-15

    Herein, an accurate and reliable isotope-labelled internal standard method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of three polar pesticide adjuvants, namely 2-pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in plant-derived agro-products. Matrices, including apple, cabbage, tomato, cucumber, rice, and wheat were extracted with a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe "QuEChERS" method and purified with a new clean-up sorbent (Z-Sep). A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC), exhibiting a lipophilic-hydrophilic character, was used to separate the three analytes over 10min using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Matrix effects in various matrices were evaluated and an isotope-labelled internal standard method was employed to compensate for ion enhancement/suppression effects. At three fortification levels (2.0, 5.0, and 20.0μg/kg), the mean recoveries ranged from 78.5 to 112.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)determination of the three tested pesticide adjuvant residues in agro-products of plant origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous determination of thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and metazachlor residues in soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Silvia; Ares, Ana M; Bernal, José Luis; Nozal, María Jesús; Bernal, José

    2017-03-01

    A rapid pioneering method has been developed to simultaneously determine residues of three pesticides (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and metazachlor) in soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry detector (quadrupole time-of-flight). An efficient extraction procedure (90-105% average analyte recoveries) has also been proposed, involving solid-liquid extraction by a mixture of water and methanol (60:40, v/v), centrifugation, and concentration. A chromatographic analysis of the compounds was achieved in 5.5 min by means of a core-shell technology based column (Kinetex ® EVO C 18 , 50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm, 100 Å). The mobile phase (0.3 mL/min, gradient elution mode) consisted of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, detection and quantification limits, matrix effect, linearity, trueness, and precision. Low limits of detection and quantification were obtained, ranging from 0.2 to 3.0 μg/kg, which are similar to those published in previous studies, while the absence of a significant matrix effect allowed quantification of the pesticides with standard calibration curves. The proposed method was applied for an analysis of pesticides in several soil samples from experimental fields dedicated to oilseed rape cultivars. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Accelerated decay rates drive soil organic matter persistence and storage in temperate forests via greater mineral stabilization of microbial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Craig, M.; Turner, B. L.; Liang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate predicts soil organic matter (SOM) stocks at the global scale, yet controls on SOM stocks at finer spatial scales are still debated. A current hypothesis predicts that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in soils should be greater when decomposition is slow owing to microbial competition for nutrients or the recalcitrance of organic substrates (hereafter the `slow decay' hypothesis). An alternative hypothesis predicts that soil C and N storage should be greater in soils with rapid decomposition, owing to the accelerated production of microbial residues and their stabilization on soil minerals (hereafter the `stabilization hypothesis'). To test these alternative hypotheses, we quantified soil C and N to 1-m depth in temperate forests across the Eastern and Midwestern US that varied in their biotic, climatic, and edaphic properties. At each site, we sampled (1) soils dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species, which typically have fast decay rates and accelerated N cycling, (2) soils dominated by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree species, which generally have slow decay rates and slow N cycling, and (3) soils supporting both AM and ECM trees. To the extent that trees and theor associated microbes reflect and reinforce soil conditions, support for the slow decay hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in ECM soils, whereas support for the stabilization hypothesis would be greater SOM storage in AM soils. We found support for both hypotheses, as slow decomposition in ECM soils increased C and N storage in topsoil, whereas fast decomposition in AM soils increased C and N storage in subsoil. However, at all sites we found 57% greater total C and N storage in the entire profile in AM- soils (P stabilization hypothesis. Amino sugar biomarkers (an indicator of microbial necromass) and particle size fractionation revealed that the greater SOM storage in AM soils was driven by an accumulation of microbial residues on clay minerals and metal oxides. Taken together

  16. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Back, H. O.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y. K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-08-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of $^{10}$B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on $^{10}$B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57--467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in $dE/dx$ best describes the measurements, with $\\chi^2$/NDF$=1.6$. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  17. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Back, H.O.; Aprahamian, A.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y.K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of 10 B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on 10 B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57–467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in dE / dx best describes the measurements, with χ 2 /NDF=1.6. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  18. Toward protic ionic liquid and organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Usman Ali; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Pringle, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that can operate above 120 °C, without humidification, would be much more commercially viable. ► Protic ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals are showing increasing promise as anhydrous proton conductors in fuel cells. ► Here we review the recent progress in these two areas. - Abstract: There is increasing demand for the development of anhydrous proton conducting electrolytes, most notably to allow the development of fuel cells that can operate at temperatures above 120 °C, without the need for constant and controlled humidification. The emerging field of protic ionic liquids (PILs) represents a promising new direction for this research and the development of these materials has made significant progress in recent years. In a related but as yet little-explored avenue, proton conducting organic ionic plastic crystals offer the potential advantage of providing a solid state matrix for anhydrous proton conductivity. Here we discuss the recent progress in these areas and identify the key challenges for future research.

  19. Basic technology for {sup 6}Li enrichment using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp [Blanket Irradiation and Analysis Group, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Terai, Takayuki [The Institute of Engineering Innovation and Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    The tritium needed as a fuel for fusion reactors is produced by the neutron capture reaction of lithium-6 ({sup 6}Li) in tritium breeding materials. However, natural Li contains only about 7.6 at.% {sup 6}Li. In this paper, a new lithium isotope separation technique using an ionic-liquid impregnated organic membrane is proposed. In order to separate and concentrate lithium isotopes, only lithium ions are able to move through the membrane by electrodialysis between the cathode and the anode in lithium solutions. Preliminary experiments of lithium isotope separation were conducted using this phenomenon. Organic membranes impregnated with TMPA-TFSI and PP13-TFSI as ionic liquids were prepared, and the relationship between the {sup 6}Li separation coefficient and the applied electrodialytic conditions was evaluated using them. The results showed that the {sup 6}Li isotope separation coefficient in this method (about 1.1-1.4) was larger than that in the mercury amalgam method (about 1.06).

  20. Marangoni Convection in Evaporating Organic Liquid Droplets on a Nonwetting Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Aditya; Dash, Susmita; Weibel, Justin A; Chen, Xuemei; Garimella, Suresh V

    2016-05-17

    We quantitatively characterize the flow field inside organic liquid droplets evaporating on a nonwetting substrate. A mushroom-structured surface yields the desired nonwetting behavior with methanol droplets, while use of a cooled substrate (5-15 °C) slows the rate of evaporation to allow quasi-static particle image velocimetry. Visualization reveals a toroidal vortex within the droplet that is characteristic of surface tension-driven flow; we demonstrate by means of a scaling analysis that this recirculating flow is Marangoni convection. The velocities in the droplet are on the order of 10-45 mm/s. Thus, unlike in the case of evaporation on wetting substrates where Marangoni convection can be ignored for the purpose of estimating the evaporation rate, advection due to the surface tension-driven flow plays a dominant role in the heat transfer within an evaporating droplet on a nonwetting substrate because of the large height-to-radius aspect ratio of the droplet. We formulate a reduced-order model that includes advective transport within the droplet for prediction of organic liquid droplet evaporation on a nonwetting substrate and confirm that the predicted temperature differential across the height of the droplet matches experiments.

  1. A multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction method for the determination of halogenated solvent residues in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, J; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J L; González, A G

    2014-02-01

    The present paper describes a method based on the extraction of analytes by multiple hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction and detection by ion-trap mass spectrometry and electron capture detectors after gas chromatographic separation. The limits of detection are in the range of 0.13-0.67 μg kg(-1), five orders of magnitude lower than those reached with the European Commission Official method of analysis, with three orders of magnitude of linear range (from the quantification limits to 400 μg kg(-1) for all the analytes) and recoveries in fortified olive oils in the range of 78-104 %. The main advantages of the analytical method are the absence of sample carryover (due to the disposable nature of the membranes), high enrichment factors in the range of 79-488, high throughput and low cost. The repeatability of the analytical method ranged from 8 to 15 % for all the analytes, showing a good performance.

  2. To the problem of surveillance measures and prophylaxis measures with the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas facilities from hygienic view; Zur Problematik der Ueberwachungs- und Prophylaxemassnahmen bei der Verwertung organischer Reststoffe in Biogasanlagen aus hygienischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, W.; Boehm, R. [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Tierhygiene

    2007-07-01

    Since the year 2007, more than 3,500 biological gas plants produce an electrical output of 1.100 MW in the Federal Republic of Germany. Today's biological gas plants utilize less and less liquid manure. Instead of this, co-ferments such as waste foods and regenerating raw materials are used in order to increase the yields of fermentation gas. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the problem of the surveillance measures and prophylaxis measures according to the utilization of organic residual substances in biological gas plants from hygienic view. From epidemic-preventive view, the European Union accepted the directive EEC 1774/2002 for the regulation of animal by-products. This directive contains strict legal regulations according to livestock epidemics and hygienic and is valid since May 2003 in the entire European Union. Regarding to the examination and monitoring of biotechnological plants at the utilization of raw materials, two approaches are feasible: Validation of procedures with representative test organisms as well as use of 'natural test organisms'. Due to the constant danger of epidemics, it is recommended, that measures for cleaning and disinfection have to be practiced at farmsteads with farming of domestic cattle and co-fermentation of liquid manure as well as large, commonly operated co-fermentation plants. These measures are described in the contribution under consideration.

  3. Multi-class multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in meat using enhanced matrix removal lipid cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limian; Lucas, Derick; Long, David; Richter, Bruce; Stevens, Joan

    2018-05-11

    This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60-120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42-58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with 30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were <0.05 μg/L. So, metals added through spreading of compost or manure during 14 years may have increased metal concentrations in leachates of

  5. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  6. BioWaste-to-Liquid. An ecologic-economic consideration of pyrolysis oil based on biogenic residual materials and wastes; BioWaste-to-Liquid. Oekologisch-oekonomische Betrachtung von Pyrolyseoel auf Basis biogener Rest- und Abfallstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liemen, Franziska; Zech, Konstantin; Kroeger, Michael [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The joint research project BioWaste-to-Liquid, which is carried out by Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum (DBFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), focuses on the provision of alternative fuels by means of fast pyrolysis. Alongside the various tests and technical analyses, an ecologic and economic assessment was carried out, that examines the performance of different raw materials in terms of GHG-emissions and production costs. The herein examined raw materials were Rape straw, Sunflower straw, residues of corn harvesting, hay, waste wood, bark and driftwood from river Rhine. The results show a good performance of waste wood and draft wood both in ecologic and economic terms, whilst especially Sunflower straw can be considered rather unsuitable since it is particularly affected by the negative effects of the compensatory fertilization. The other raw materials perform varyingly in the ecologic and economic assessments. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of liquid crystals derived from nitroazobenzene: a proposed multistep synthesis applied to organic chemistry laboratory classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Rodrigo; Cabral, Marilia Gabriela B.; Aquino, Rafael B. de; Cristiano, Claudia M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a synthetic route consisting of five steps from aniline to obtain liquid crystal compounds derived from nitroazobenzene. Syntheses were performed during the second half of the semester in organic chemistry laboratory classes. Students characterized the liquid crystal phase by the standard melting point techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. These experiments allow undergraduate students to explore fundamentally important reactions in Organic Chemistry, as well as modern concepts in Chemistry such as self-assembly and self-organization, nanostructured materials and molecular electronics. (author)

  8. Evaluating analytical ionization quenching correction models for 3D liquid organic scintillator detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, F.; Beddar, S.

    2017-05-01

    Proton therapy offers dosimetric advantage over conventional photon therapy due to the finite range of the proton beam, which improves dose conformity. However, one of the main challenges of proton beam therapy is verification of the complex treatment plans delivered to a patient. Thus, 3D measurements are needed to verify the complex dose distribution. A 3D organic scintillator detector is capable of such measurements. However, organic scintillators exhibit a non-linear relation to the ionization density called ionization quenching. The ionization quenching phenomenon in organic scintillators must be accounted for to obtain accurate dose measurements. We investigated the energy deposition by secondary electrons (EDSE) model to explain ionization quenching in 3D liquid organic scintillator when exposed to proton beams. The EDSE model was applied to volumetric scintillation measurement of proton pencil beam with energies of 85.6, 100.9, 144.9 and 161.9 MeV. The quenching parameter in EDSE model ρq was determined by plotting the total light output vs the initial energy of the ion. The results were compared to the Birks semi-empirical formula of scintillation light emission.

  9. Optimization of a method by liquid chromatography of high resolution to determine residues of ethilenthiourea in samples of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, D.; Rodriguez, O.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method was optimized to determine the present residues of ethilenthiourea in samples of tomatoes. The method consisted of three stages: a extraction of ultrasonic bath with methanol; a cleaning of the extract through a glass column of 11 mm of diameter stuffed with 2,5 g of neutral aluminium's mixture and activated coal (97,5:2,5) and 2,5 g of pure-neutral aluminium, it is dissolved with 250 ml of methanol. The third stage was of quantification by HPLC in a C 18 ' column with a methanol and water mixture (90:10) like a mobile phase to an flow of 2,0 ml/min. and with UV detection to 232 nm. The retention's time under theses conditions was of 2,15 minutes. The merit's parameters of the method were determined, proving and lineal sphere between 1,0 and 28,0 (g/ml of ETU; some quantification and detection limits have been calculated by the method of Hubaux and Vos (22) of 0,153 and 0,306 mg/ml respectively and a recuperation of 84%. (Author) [es

  10. Simultaneous screening and confirmation of multiple classes of drug residues in fish by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shani; Gieseker, Charles; Reimschuessel, Renate; Decker, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-13

    LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to screen and confirm 38 compounds from a variety of drug classes in four species of fish: trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and hexane. The acetonitrile phase was evaporated, redissolved in water and acetonitrile, and analyzed by gradient chromatography on a phenyl column. MS(2) or MS(3) spectra were monitored for each compound. Qualitative method performance was evaluated by the analysis over several days of replicate samples of control fish, fish fortified with a drug mixture at 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm, and fish dosed with a representative from each drug class. Half of the 38 drugs were confirmed at 0.01 ppm, the lowest fortification level. This included all of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the macrolides, malachite green, and most of the imidazoles. Florfenicol amine, metronidazole, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and most of the betalactams were confirmed at 0.1 ppm. Ivermectin and penicillin G were only detectable in the 1 ppm fortified samples. With the exception of amoxicillin, emamectin, metronidazole, and tylosin, residue presence was confirmed in all the dosed fish.

  11. QuEChERS sample preparation for the determination of pesticides and other organic residues in environmental matrices: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Checchini, Leonardo; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Orlandini, Serena; Rivoira, Luca; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) is an extraction and clean-up technique originally developed for recovering pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. Since its introduction, and until December 2013, about 700 papers have been published using the QuEChERS technique, according to a literature overview carried out using SciFinder, Elsevier SciVerse, and Google search engines. Most of these papers were dedicated to pesticide multiresidue analysis in food matrices, and this topic has been thoroughly reviewed over recent years. The QuEChERS approach is now rapidly developing beyond its original field of application to analytes other than pesticides, and matrices other than food, such as biological fluids and non-edible plants, including Chinese medicinal plants. Recently, the QuEChERS concept has spread to environmental applications by analyzing not only pesticides but also other compounds of environmental concern in soil, sediments, and water. To the best of our knowledge, QuEChERS environmental applications have not been reviewed so far; therefore, in this contribution, after a general discussion on the evolution and changes of the original QuEChERS method, a critical survey of the literature regarding environmental applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS methodology is provided. The overall recoveries obtained with QuEChERS and other extraction approaches (e.g., accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and soxhlet extraction) were compared, providing evidence for QuEChERS higher recoveries for various classes of compounds, such as biopesticides, chloroalkanes, phenols, and perfluoroalkyl substances. The role of physicochemical properties of soil (i.e., clay and organic carbon content, as well as cation exchange capacity) and target analytes (i.e., log KOW, water solubility, and vapor pressure) were also evaluated in order to interpret recovery and matrix effect data.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Hormonal Residues in Treated Waters Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco Guedes-Alonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, hormone consumption has increased exponentially. Because of that, hormone compounds are considered emerging pollutants since several studies have determinted their presence in water influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. In this study, a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of oestrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and diethylstilbestrol, androgens (testosterone, and progestogens (norgestrel and megestrol acetate has been developed to determine these compounds in wastewater samples. Due to the very low concentrations of target compounds in the environment, a solid phase extraction procedure has been optimized and developed to extract and preconcentrate the analytes. Determination and quantification were performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The method developed presents satisfactory limits of detection (between 0.15 and 9.35 ng·L−1, good recoveries (between 73 and 90% for the most of compounds, and low relative standard deviations (under 8.4%. Samples from influents and effluents of two wastewater treatment plants of Gran Canaria (Spain were analyzed using the proposed method, finding several hormones with concentrations ranged from 5 to 300 ng·L−1.

  13. Resistance of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms to disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel and polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Moreno, Maricarmen

    2018-04-23

    The effectiveness of disinfectants can vary according to the microorganism, type of residues and surface. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of four disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel grade 304 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP-B). The disinfectant effectiveness in the presence of meat extract, yolk egg and whole milk was determined according to AOAC and UNE-EN 1040:2015; the residual effect was realized according to UNE-EN 13697:2015, using approved strains. The disinfectant effectiveness was affect at different grades depending on the organic matter present; disinfectant A (400μgmL -1 , fifth generation quaternary ammonium compound, QAC) was most effective in the presence of 10% meat extract, while the disinfectant C (200μgmL -1 , peracetic acid) had better activity in the presence of 10% egg yolk and whole milk. In the evaluation of residual effect onto SS and PP-B, the QAC had the better effect, reducing 6 Log 10 CFU mL -1 of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 24h after their application. Conversely, the disinfectants had no residual effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The antimicrobial activity of disinfectants tested against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms was affected according to the type of organic matter. Disinfectant A had a more residual effect than the other disinfectants evaluated. Moreover, the residual effect of a disinfectant is greater on SS than on PP-B and dependent on the microorganism tested. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Determination of six parabens residues in fresh-cut vegetables using QuEChERS with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, an optimized QuEChERS sample preparation method was developed to analyze residues of six parabens: methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, isopropyl-, n-butyl-, and isobutyl-paraben in five fresh-cut vegetables (potato, broccoli, carrot, celery and cabbage) with high performance liquid chromatogr...

  15. Technical feasibility study for the electrochemical treatment of Phaeozem soil contaminated with radioactive organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdovinos G, V.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine and research generates radioactive waste. A large part of these wastes are composed by scintillation liquid (mixtures of organic solvents, as toluene and xylene, fluorescent materials and surfactants) contaminated with radioisotopes such as 3 H (12.3 y), 14 C (5730 y), 238 U (4.468 x 10 9 y), 232 Th (1.41 x 10 10 y), 204 Tl (3.7 y) or 22 Na (2.6 y). In Mexico during the 80 s, these wastes were absorbed on soil to decrease their hazardous behavior during interim storage. However, these wastes must be removed for reprocessing and final landscaping. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to study the technical feasibility of the electrochemical treatment of soils types Phaeozem contaminated with radioactive organic liquid waste (ROLW). For this study, an electrochemical treatment at laboratory level was applied, giving it an electrokinetic tracking. Control samples were prepared with different scintillation liquid (INSTAL Gel- XF, ULTIMA Gold AB TM and ULTIMA Gold XR TM as support electrolyte and polarization curves were constructed to select the current with the highest mass transfer. An analysis of the liquids and solids, before and after the application of the different potentials; the liquid phase was characterized by Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionized Detector (GC-FID) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Ft-Irs), and the solids by Ft-Irs. From the fourteen supports electrolytes studied, eleven did not have a stable diffusion current and the other three showed a diffusion current plateau in 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 m A·cm -2 . From polarization curves, the following experimental conditions were chosen for the treatment: electrodes (meshes of titanium as anode and rod of stainless steel as cathode), scintillation liquid (ULTIMA Gold XR TM : water, 1:1) and a current of 0.06 m A·cm -2 . Subsequently, radioactive control samples were prepared with soil-scintillation liquid, labeled with 24 Na, 99m Tc

  16. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of ''125 I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J.M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''125 I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%

  17. Liquid scintillation counting standardization of 125I in organic and inorganic samples by the CIEMAT/NIST method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Grau Malonda, A.; Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Grau Carles, A.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid scintillation counting standardization of organic and inorganic samples of ''I25I by the CIEMAT/NIST method using five different scintillators is described. The discrepancies between experimental and computed efficiencies are lower than 1.4% and 1.7%, for inorganic and organic samples, respectively, in the interval 421-226 of quenching parameter. Both organic and inorganic solutions have been standardized in terms of activity concentration to an overall uncertainty of 0.76%. (Author) 14 refs

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC MENTAL DISORDERS OF VASCULAR ORIGIN WITH PARTICIPANTS OF THE LIQUIDATION OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of the carried investigation of participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences, suffering from organic disease of a brain of a vascular origin with mental infringements, and patients with the similar pathology, not exposed with radiating influence, revealed a number of the сlinico- psychopathological and paraclinical peculiarities testifying heavier current of disease among liquidators, forming a chronic ischemic condition of a brain, and the atrophy phenomena among mentioned group.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC MENTAL DISORDERS OF VASCULAR ORIGIN WITH PARTICIPANTS OF THE LIQUIDATION OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Rumyantseva; T. M. Levina; O. V. Chinkina

    2011-01-01

    The result of the carried investigation of participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences, suffering from organic disease of a brain of a vascular origin with mental infringements, and patients with the similar pathology, not exposed with radiating influence, revealed a number of the сlinico- psychopathological and paraclinical peculiarities testifying heavier current of disease among liquidators, forming a chronic ischemic condition of a brain, and the atrophy phenomena among...

  20. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Varadhan, Purushothaman; He, Jr-Hau; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  1. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed

    2017-05-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  2. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.

    2014-03-07

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  3. Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis

  4. Vaporization of protic ionic liquids derived from organic superbases and short carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Filipe M S; Lima, Carlos F R A C; Vaz, Inês C M; Rodrigues, Ana S M C; Sapei, Erlin; Melo, André; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2017-06-28

    This work presents a comprehensive evaluation of the phase behaviour and cohesive enthalpy of protic ionic liquids (PILs) composed of 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene (DBN) or 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) organic superbases with short-chain length (acetic, propionic and butyric) carboxylic acids. Glass transition temperatures, T g , and enthalpies of vaporization, ΔH vap , were measured for six [BH][A] (1 : 1) PILs (B = DBN, DBU; A = MeCOO, EtCOO, nPrCOO), revealing more significant changes upon increasing the number of -CH 2 - groups in the base than in the acid. The magnitude of ΔH vap evidences that liquid PILs have a high proportion of ions, although the results also indicate that in DBN PILs the concentration of neutral species is not negligible. In the gas phase, these PILs exist as a distribution of ion pairs and isolated neutral species, with speciation being dependent on the temperature and pressure conditions - at high temperatures and low pressures the separated neutral species dominate. The higher T g and ΔH vap of the DBU PILs are explained by the stronger basicity of DBU (as supported by NMR and computational calculations), which increases the extent of proton exchange and the ionic character of the corresponding PILs, resulting in stronger intermolecular interactions in condensed phases.

  5. Nanoscale organization in the fluorinated room temperature ionic liquid: Tetraethyl ammonium (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)(nonafluorobutylsulfonyl)imide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Celso, F.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Jafta, C. J.; Gontrani, L.; Canongia Lopes, J. N.; Triolo, A.; Russina, O.

    2018-05-01

    Fluorinated Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (FRTILs) are a branch of ionic liquids that is the object of growing interest for a wide range of potential applications, due to the synergic combination of specifically ionic features and those properties that stem from fluorous tails. So far limited experimental work exists on the micro- and mesoscopic structural organization in this class of compounds. Such a work is however necessary to fully understand morphological details at atomistic level that would have strong implications in terms of bulk properties. Here we use the synergy between X-ray and neutron scattering together with molecular dynamics simulations to access structural details of a technologically relevant FRTIL that is characterised by an anion bearing a long enough fluorinated tail to develop specific morphological features. In particular, we find the first experimental evidence that in FRTILs bearing an asymmetric bis(perfluoroalkyl)sulfonyl-imide anion, fluorous side chains tend to be spatially segregated into nm-scale spatial heterogeneities. This feature together with the well-established micro-segregation of side alkyl chains in conventional RTILs leads to the concept of triphilic ILs, whose technological applications are yet to be fully developed.

  6. Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) assessment of critical component unavailability in liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koger, K.H.; Haire, M.J.; Humphrys, B.L.; Manneschmidt, J.F.; Setoguchi, K.; Nakai, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) is the largest repository of liquid metal reactor (LMR) component reliability data in the world. It is jointly sponsored by the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. The CREDO data base contains information on a population of more than 20,000 components and approximately 1500 event records. A conservative estimation is that the total component operating hours is approaching 2.2 billion hours. The work reported here focuses on the availability information contained in CREDO and the development of availability critical items lists. That is, individual components are ranked in prioritized lists from worst to best performers from an availability standpoint. Availability as used here is an inherent characteristics of the component and is not necessarily related to plant operability. A major observation is that a few components have a much higher unavailability factor than the average. The top fifteen components contribute 93%, 77%, and 87% of the total system unavailability for EBR-II, FFTF, and JOYO respectively. Critical components common to all three sites are mechanical pumps and electromagnetic pumps. Application of resources to these components with the highest unavailability will have the greatest effect on overall availability. All three sites demonstrate that low maintainability (i.e., long repair times), rather than unreliability (i.e., high failure rates), are the main contributors, by about a two-to-one margin, to liquid metal system unavailability

  7. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes; Caracterizacion de desechos liquidos organicos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C., E-mail: ivonne-arce@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  8. Hybrid glasses from strong and fragile metal-organic framework liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Thomas D; Tan, Jin-Chong; Yue, Yuanzheng; Baxter, Emma; Ducati, Caterina; Terrill, Nick J; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Zhou, Zhongfu; Chen, Wenlin; Henke, Sebastian; Cheetham, Anthony K; Greaves, G Neville

    2015-08-28

    Hybrid glasses connect the emerging field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the glass formation, amorphization and melting processes of these chemically versatile systems. Though inorganic zeolites collapse around the glass transition and melt at higher temperatures, the relationship between amorphization and melting has so far not been investigated. Here we show how heating MOFs of zeolitic topology first results in a low density 'perfect' glass, similar to those formed in ice, silicon and disaccharides. This order-order transition leads to a super-strong liquid of low fragility that dynamically controls collapse, before a subsequent order-disorder transition, which creates a more fragile high-density liquid. After crystallization to a dense phase, which can be remelted, subsequent quenching results in a bulk glass, virtually identical to the high-density phase. We provide evidence that the wide-ranging melting temperatures of zeolitic MOFs are related to their network topologies and opens up the possibility of 'melt-casting' MOF glasses.

  9. Determination of glyphosate residuals and of their metabolite Aminomethyl-Phosphonic acid in waters, by means of liquid chromatography of high efficiency with post-column derivation and fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Hugo A; Guerrero, Jairo; Castro, Rene

    2002-01-01

    The glyphosate is a no selective herbicide largely used in the world in order to control annual and perennial weeds. Its principal metabolite in soils and waters is the Aminomethyl-Phosphonic Acid (AMPA) formed by micro organism's action. This herbicide is used in Colombia in high doses to illegal crops eradication of coca and Amapola and like natural accelerator in sugar cane, constituting an environmental and social problem for the country, being necessary the evaluation of glyphosate residues in different matrices. This study describes the validation of the analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in waters of some Colombian regions. The experimental procedure pointed out two main steps: the first one was a cleaning, extraction and concentration step by solid phase extraction; the second step is the separation, identification and quantification of the compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with post-column derivation and fluorescence detection. The results of the validation show that the methodology is specific, selective, precise and robust with linear calibration curve in the linear range between 10 and 750 μg/L, with limits of detection of 0.8 μg/L and limits of quantification of 2 μg/L for the two analyses. The recoveries are in the order of 73% for glyphosate and 70% for AMPA. More over analysis results are presented for water samples of some country regions where glyphosate is applied in different doses with different purposes, finding residues of the herbicide and its metabolite in concentrations above the allowed values in drinking waters for pesticides of toxicology category IV, like the glyphosate, according with the Colombian legislation

  10. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the analysis of 451 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chow, Willis; Chang, James; Wong, Jon W

    2014-10-22

    This paper presents an application of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS) for the determination of 451 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Pesticides were extracted from samples using the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS in full MS scan mode acquired full MS data for quantification, and UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Full MS/dd-MS(2) (i.e., data-dependent scan mode) obtained product ion spectra for identification. UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves along with the use of isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards to achieve optimal method accuracy. The method performance characteristics include overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty evaluated according to a nested experimental design. For the 10 matrices studied, 94.5% of the pesticides in fruits and 90.7% in vegetables had recoveries between 81 and 110%; 99.3% of the pesticides in fruits and 99.1% of the pesticides in vegetables had an intermediate precision of ≤20%; and 97.8% of the pesticides in fruits and 96.4% of the pesticides in vegetables showed measurement uncertainty of ≤50%. Overall, the UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap MS demonstrated acceptable performance for the quantification of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. The UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap Full MS/dd-MS(2) along with library matching showed great potential for identification and is being investigated further for routine practice.

  11. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  12. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  13. Single-reactor process for producing liquid-phase organic compounds from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Simonetti, Dante A [Middleton, WI; Kunkes, Edward L [Madison, WI

    2011-12-13

    Disclosed is a method for preparing liquid fuel and chemical intermediates from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. The method includes the steps of reacting in a single reactor an aqueous solution of a biomass-derived, water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon reactant, in the presence of a catalyst comprising a metal selected from the group consisting of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au, at a temperature, and a pressure, and for a time sufficient to yield a self-separating, three-phase product stream comprising a vapor phase, an organic phase containing linear and/or cyclic mono-oxygenated hydrocarbons, and an aqueous phase.

  14. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  15. All-organic superhydrophobic coatings with mechanochemical robustness and liquid impalement resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaoyi; Chen, Zhuyang; Tiwari, Manish K.

    2018-03-01

    Superhydrophobicity is a remarkable evolutionary adaption manifested by several natural surfaces. Artificial superhydrophobic coatings with good mechanical robustness, substrate adhesion and chemical robustness have been achieved separately. However, a simultaneous demonstration of these features along with resistance to liquid impalement via high-speed drop/jet impact is challenging. Here, we describe all-organic, flexible superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings that demonstrate strong mechanical robustness under cyclic tape peels and Taber abrasion, sustain exposure to highly corrosive media, namely aqua regia and sodium hydroxide solutions, and can be applied to surfaces through scalable techniques such as spraying and brushing. In addition, the mechanical flexibility of our coatings enables impalement resistance to high-speed drops and turbulent jets at least up to 35 m s-1 and a Weber number of 43,000. With multifaceted robustness and scalability, these coatings should find potential usage in harsh chemical engineering as well as infrastructure, transport vehicles and communication equipment.

  16. A novel series of isoreticular metal organic frameworks: Realizing metastable structures by liquid phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxuan

    2012-12-04

    A novel class of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized from Cu-acetate and dicarboxylic acids using liquid phase epitaxy. The SURMOF-2 isoreticular series exhibits P4 symmetry, for the longest linker a channel-size of 3 3 nm2 is obtained, one of the largest values reported for any MOF so far. High quality, ab-initio electronic structure calculations confirm the stability of a regular packing of (Cu++) 2-carboxylate paddle-wheel planes with P4 symmetry and reveal, that the SURMOF-2 structures are in fact metastable, with a fairly large activation barrier for the transition to the bulk MOF-2 structures exhibiting a lower, twofold (P2 or C2) symmetry. The theoretical calculations also allow identifying the mechanism for the low-temperature epitaxial growth process and to explain, why a synthesis of this highly interesting, new class of high-symmetry, metastable MOFs is not possible using the conventional solvothermal process.

  17. A novel series of isoreticular metal organic frameworks: Realizing metastable structures by liquid phase epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxuan; Lukose, Binit; Shekhah, Osama; Arslan, Hasan Kemal; Weidler, Peter; Gliemann, Hartmut; Brä se, Stefan; Grosjean, Sylvain; Godt, Adelheid; Feng, Xinliang; Mü llen, Klaus; Magdau, Ioan-Bogdan; Heine, Thomas; Wö ll, Christof

    2012-01-01

    A novel class of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized from Cu-acetate and dicarboxylic acids using liquid phase epitaxy. The SURMOF-2 isoreticular series exhibits P4 symmetry, for the longest linker a channel-size of 3 3 nm2 is obtained, one of the largest values reported for any MOF so far. High quality, ab-initio electronic structure calculations confirm the stability of a regular packing of (Cu++) 2-carboxylate paddle-wheel planes with P4 symmetry and reveal, that the SURMOF-2 structures are in fact metastable, with a fairly large activation barrier for the transition to the bulk MOF-2 structures exhibiting a lower, twofold (P2 or C2) symmetry. The theoretical calculations also allow identifying the mechanism for the low-temperature epitaxial growth process and to explain, why a synthesis of this highly interesting, new class of high-symmetry, metastable MOFs is not possible using the conventional solvothermal process.

  18. Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1, whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane.

  19. Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wencai; Wöll, Christof; Heinke, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1), whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane.

  20. CO2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-05-31

    This report outlines the comprehensive bench-scale testing of the CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) solvent platform and its unique Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study outlines all efforts on a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule, including solvent synthesis, material characterization, preliminary toxicology studies, and measurement of all physical, thermodynamic and kinetic data, including bench-scale testing. Equilibrium and kinetic models and analysis were made using Aspen Plus™. Preliminary process configurations, a technoeconomic assessment and solvent performance projections for separating CO2 from a subcritical coal-fired power plant are compared to the U.S. Department of Energy's Case 10 monoethanolamine baseline.

  1. Biochemistry Oxidation Process for Treatment the Simulation of Organic Liquid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunandjar; Zainus Salimin; Sugeng Purnomo; Ratiko

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear industry activities generate the organic liquid wastes such as detergent waste from laundry, solvent waste of 30% TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate) in kerosene from purification or recovery of uranium from rejection of nuclear fuel element fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid) and TOPO (trioctyl phospine oxide) in kerosene from phosphoric acid purification. The wastes are included in category of the hazard and poison materials which also radioactive, so that the wastes have to be treated to detoxification of the hazard and poison materials and decontamination of the radionuclides. The research of biochemistry oxidation process for treatment the simulation of organic liquid radioactive waste from laundry using mixture of aerobe bacteria of bacillus sp, pseudomonas sp, arthrobacter sp, and aeromonas sp have been carried out. The waste containing detergent 1,496 g/Litre, activity 10 -1 Ci/m 3 , with COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 128, BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 68 and TSS (Total Suspended Solid) 1000 ppm, it is treated by biochemistry oxidation with addition of bacteria which be fed nutrition of nitrogen and phosphor, and aeration. The result show that the bacteria can decompose the detergent to become carbon dioxyde and water so that can fulfill the quality standard of water group-B with content of BOD and COD are 6 and 10 ppm respectively, the time of decomposition is needed 106 hours to be fulfill the quality standard of water. The longer of process time will give bigger the total solid content in sludge, because the biomass generated from the colony of bacteria which life and dead to so much. (author)

  2. Polystyrene-block-Poly(ionic liquid) Copolymers as Work Function Modifiers in Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Baek; Isik, Mehmet; Park, Hea Jung; Jung, In Hwan; Mecerreyes, David; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2018-02-07

    Interfacial layers play a critical role in building up the Ohmic contact between electrodes and functional layers in organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. These layers are based on either inorganic oxides (ZnO and TiO 2 ) or water-soluble organic polymers such as poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)-alt-(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] and polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE). In this work, we have developed a series of novel poly(ionic liquid) nonconjugated block copolymers for improving the performance of inverted OPV cells by using them as work function modifiers of the indium tin oxide (ITO) cathode. Four nonconjugated polyelectrolytes (n-CPEs) based on polystyrene and imidazolium poly(ionic liquid) (PSImCl) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The ratio of hydrophobic/hydrophilic block copolymers was varied depending on the ratio of polystyrene to the PSImCl block. The ionic density, which controls the work function of the electrode by forming an interfacial dipole between the electrode and the block copolymers, was easily tuned by simply changing the PSImCl molar ratio. The inverted OPV device with the ITO/PS 29 -b-PSImCl 60 cathode achieved the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.55% among the synthesized block copolymers, exhibiting an even higher PCE than that of the reference OPV device with PEIE (7.30%). Furthermore, the surface properties of the block copolymers films were investigated by contact angle measurements to explore the influence of the controlled hydrophobic/hydrophilic characters on the device performances.

  3. Chromatographic behavior of small organic compounds in low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography using liquid carbon dioxide as the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motono, Tomohiro; Nagai, Takashi; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2015-07-01

    Low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography, in which a loop injector, column, and detection cell were refrigerated at -35ºC, using liquid carbon dioxide as the mobile phase was developed. Small organic compounds (polyaromatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, and quinones) were separated by low-temperature high-performance liquid chromatography at temperatures from -35 to -5ºC. The combination of liquid carbon dioxide mobile phase with an octadecyl-silica (C18 ) column provided reversed phase mode separation, and a bare silica-gel column resulted in normal phase mode separation. In both the cases, nonlinear behavior at approximately -15ºC was found in the relationship between the temperature and the retention factors of the analytes (van't Hoff plots). In contrast to general trends in high-performance liquid chromatography, the decrease in temperature enhanced the separation efficiency of both the columns. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. APPLICATIONS LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND COMPOSITION OF PLANT MEDIA TO RESULT OF SELADA PLANTS (Lactuca sativa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hidayati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:           Lettuce (lactuca sativa is a vegetable that has a very high economic value. Where this plant can be grown in temperate and tropical regions, Lettuce production is still low, then this plant needs to be given fertilizer treatment. One of the fertilizer that can be used is liquid organic fertilizer. Liquid Organic Fertilizer has several benefits such as to encourage and increase the growth and yield of plants.             Objective: To know the effect of combination of planting media composition and liquid organic fertilizer to growth and yield of lettuce crop; To know the influence of plant plant composition on growth and yield of lettuce plant; To know the effect of liquid organic fertilizer on growth and yield of lettuce plant.            The experiment was conducted in experimental garden of Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Merdeka Surabaya Jl.Ketintang Madya VII / 2 Surabaya, with the space 0-20 meters above sea level.      This research is a pot experiment and is a two factor factorial research with Randomized Block Design (RAK, the first factor is Liquid Organic Fertilizer with 3 levels and the second factor is the composition of planting media with 4 levels. Where Factor I: liquid organic fertilizer consisting of: P1: 1 ml / plant; P2: 2 ml / plant; P3: 3 ml / plant, Factor II: planting medium consisting of 4 (four levels, namely: M1: soil + manure + rice husk: 2: 1: 1; M2: soil + manure + rice husk: 1: 1: 1; M3: ground + manure + sand: 2: 1: 1; M4: ground + manure + sand: 1: 1: 1, treatment repeated 3 times and each treatment there are 2 plant samples, so the number of plants as much 72 or 72 polybag.Based on the results of research conducted, it can be concluded as follows:1. POC concentration factor (P showed significant influence on all variables studied such as leaf number, plant length and wet weight of plant.2. The media composition factor (M showed a nonsignificant effect

  5. Room-temperature solid phase ionic liquid (RTSPIL) coated Ω-transaminases: Development and application in organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabner, B.; Nazario, M. A.; Gundersen, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co‐lyophilization and ......ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co...

  6. Air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction using floating organic droplet solidification for simultaneous extraction and spectrophotometric determination of some drugs in biological samples through chemometrics methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farnaz; Ghasemzadeh, Bahar; Naseri, Abdolhossein

    2018-01-01

    An air assisted liquid-liquid microextraction by applying the solidification of a floating organic droplet method (AALLME-SFOD) coupled with a multivariate calibration method, namely partial least squares (PLS), was introduced for the fast and easy determination of Atenolol (ATE), Propanolol (PRO) and Carvedilol (CAR) in biological samples via a spectrophotometric approach. The analytes would be extracted from neutral aqueous solution into 1-dodecanol as an organic solvent, using AALLME. In this approach a low-density solvent with a melting point close to room temperature was applied as the extraction solvent. The emulsion was immediately formed by repeatedly pulling in and pushing out the aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent mixture via a 10-mL glass syringe for ten times. After centrifugation, the extractant droplet could be simply collected from the aqueous samples by solidifying the emulsion at a lower than the melting point temperature. In the next step, analytes were back extracted simultaneously into the acidic aqueous solution. Derringer and Suich multi-response optimization were utilized for simultaneous optimizing the parameters of three analytes. This method incorporates the benefits of AALLME and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction considering the solidification of floating organic droplets (DLLME-SFOD). Calibration graphs under optimized conditions were linear in the range of 0.30-6.00, 0.32-2.00 and 0.30-1.40 μg mL- 1 for ATE, CAR and PRO, respectively. Other analytical parameters were obtained as follows: enrichment factors (EFs) were found to be 11.24, 16.55 and 14.90, and limits of detection (LODs) were determined to be 0.09, 0.10 and 0.08 μg mL- 1 for ATE, CAR and PRO, respectively. The proposed method will require neither a highly toxic chlorinated solvent for extraction nor an organic dispersive solvent in the application process; hence, it is more environmentally friendly.

  7. Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected penicillin antibiotic residues from intact milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Michaelidou, Katia; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a novel sorbent-based microextraction method, was evaluated as a simple and rapid strategy for the extraction of four penicillin antibiotic residues (benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) from cows' milk, without prior protein precipitation. Time-consuming solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps were eliminated successfully from the sample preparation workflow. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric substrate, chemically coated with sol-gel derived, highly efficient, organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent as the extraction medium. Herein short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) provided optimum extraction sensitivity for the selected penicillins, which were analysed using an RP-HPLC method, validated according to the European Decision 657/2002/EC. The limit of quantitation was 10μg/kg for benzylpenicillin, 20μg/kg for cloxacillin, 25μg/kg dicloxacillin and 30μg/kg oxacillin. These are a similar order of magnitude with those reported in the literature and (with the exception of benzylpenicillin) are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by European legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-throughput screening of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Chang, James

    2014-06-20

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 333 pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a generic extraction method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANCO/12571/2013. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 79.8-110.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.35μgkg(-1). The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-9.27μgkg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of pesticide and veterinary drugs in ninety-three commercial baby food samples, and tilmicosin, fenbendazole, tylosin tartrate and thiabendazole were detected in some samples tested in this study. The present study is very useful for fast screening of different food contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Simultaneous determination of ethephon, thidiazuron, diuroN residues in cotton by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Shi, Yingzhu; Hou, Jianbo; Huang, Chaoqun; Zhao, Dong; Pan, Lulu; Dong, Suozhuai

    2014-02-01

    A method for the determination of ethephon, thidiazuron and diuron in cotton samples has been developed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted with methanol-water. The separation was carried out on a C8 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with methanol-water (6:4, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, and the injection volume was 20 microL. Then the sample solution was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in negative ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). There were one precursor/two product ion transitions for each pesticide. The results showed that the working curves were linear in the range of 0-10 microg/L for ethephon and thidiazuron, and 0-1 microg/L for diuron. The correlation coefficients (r) were all over 0. 999. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) of ethephon, diuron were 40 microg/kg, that of thidiazuron was 4 microg/kg. The average recoveries varied from 89.4% to 100.2% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 5.7%-11.5% at three spiked levels (LOQ, 2LOQ and 4LOQ). The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can meet the requirements of the domestic and international legislation. The method adapts to confirm the residues of ethephon, thidiazuron and diuron pesticides in cotton samples.

  10. Simple and sensitive monitoring of sulfonamide veterinary residues in milk by stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolithic material and high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Qiu, Ningning; Yuan, Dongxing

    2009-11-13

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the quantitative monitoring of five sulfonamide antibacterial residues (SAs) in milk was developed by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupling to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The analytes were concentrated by SBSE based on poly (vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) monolithic material as coating. The extraction procedure was very simple, milk was diluted with water then directly sorptive extraction without elimination of fats and protein in samples was required. To achieve optimum extraction performance for SAs, several parameters, including extraction and desorption time, desorption solvent, ionic strength and pH value of sample matrix were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target compounds were achieved within the range of 1.30-7.90 ng/mL and 4.29-26.3 ng/mL from spiked milk, respectively. Good linearities were obtained for SAs with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.996. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs compounds in different milk samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained.

  11. Simultaneous determination of residues of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in tobacco leaf and soil using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Banghua; Yu, Yurong; Zhang, Qingtao; Wang, Shouyi; Hu, Deyu; Zhang, Kankan

    2018-03-02

    A simple analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine thiamethoxam and its metabolite, clothianidin, in fresh tobacco leaf, soil and cured tobacco leaf using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Thiamethoxam and clothianidin in tobacco and soil samples were extracted with acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid and purified using an NH 2 -SPE column. The optimized method provided good linearity with coefficients of determination R 2  ≥ 0.9981. The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.006-0.12 and 0.02-0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Intra- and inter-day recovery assays were used to validate the established method. The average recoveries of thiamethoxam and clothianidin in fresh tobacco leaf, soil and cured tobacco leaf were 75.04-100.47%, 75.86-86.40% and 89.83-99.39%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were all clothianidin residues in actual tobacco and soil samples. The results indicated that the established method met the requirements for the analysis of trace amounts of thiamethoxam and clothianidin in fresh tobacco leaf, soil and cured tobacco leaf. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Recovery of anthocyanins from residues of Rubus fruticosus, Vaccinium myrtillus and Eugenia brasiliensis by ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Paula Da Fonseca; Pereira, Ana Luiza Duarte; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Martínez, Julian

    2017-09-15

    This work investigated the extraction efficiency of polyphenols (anthocyanins) from blackberry, blueberry and grumixama residues using combined ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (UAE+PLE). The performance of UAE+PLE was compared to those achieved by the isolated PLE and UAE methods and conventional Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the extraction methods and solvents (acidified water pH 2.0, ethanol+water 50% v/v and ethanol+water 70% ethanol v/v) on total phenolics content, anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of extracts were investigated by a full factorial design. The extraction efficiency for total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in decreasing order was: UAE+PLE>PLE≈Soxhlet>UAE, and for anthocyanins it was: Soxhlet≈UAE>UAE+PLE>PLE, using hydroethanolic mixtures as solvents. Extractions with acidified water and ultrasound were not effective to recover phenolics. Two, four and fourteen anthocyanins were identified in the extracts from grumixama, blackberry and blueberry, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Simultaneous determination of pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl and its metabolite carbendazim residues in soil and citrus by QuEChERS-liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuqin; Shi, Lihong; Wang, Fei; Sun, Caiyuan; Kang, Di; Zhang, Yuping; Chen, Lingzhu; Hu, Deyu

    2017-06-08

    A QuEChERS-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of pyraclostrobin, thiophanate-methyl and its metabolite carbendazim in soil and citrus. The samples were extracted with methanol or acetonitrile, purified by primary secondary amine (PSA), then separated by LC, detected in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry mode via positive electrospray ionization. The analytes were quantified by matrix-matched standard solutions with external standard method. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of pyraclostrobin, thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim in different matrices were 5.8-7.0 μg/kg, 9.3-14.1 μg/kg and 2.1-2.6 μg/kg, respectively. For all the samples, the spiked recoveries ranged from 75.48% to 109.18%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.60%-5.11% ( n =5). The method is quick, easy, effective, sensitive and accurate. The matrix-matched calibration solutions can efficiently compensate matrix effects of the pyraclostrobin, thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim in LC-MS/MS analysis. The established method can be applied to the residue analysis of the real samples of soil, citrus peel, citrus pulp and citrus fruits.

  14. Utilization Of Golden Snail As Alternative Liquid Organic Fertilizer LOF On Paddy Farmers In Dairi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Golden snail Pomaceae canaliculata is a pest of rice plants and used as a food source to be processed into satay seasoning spices biscuits pastry candy crackers animal feed and fertilizer. In Lae Parira village the golden snail is very diverse. Because of this reason the preliminary study and utilization of golden snail used for of liquid organic fertilizer called LOF or and microorganisms local MOL. The golden snail is obtained from a livestock that is still alive and then washed boiled and removed from its shell. The golden snail meat is cut into small pieces separated from the intestine and other visceral organs. Flesh of golden snail give coconut water dilute brown sugar EM4 and fermentation until 10-14 days. The use of mashed LOF can be sprayed on the surface of the soil or all parts of the plant. For fertilization in rice plants the recommended dose of 250 ml15 liters of water is sprayed on the rice age 10 days after planting and repeated again at interval distance of 15 days. Fertilization on the plant recommended 200ml 15 liters of water sprayed on leaves and soil 7 days after planting and repeated every 7 days. The golden snail is potensial used for fertilizer in paddy plantation environmentally.

  15. Liquid–liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS occurs at high relative humidity (RH (greater than  ∼  95 % in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than  ∼  95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  16. Selective Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Soil Using Pressurised Liquid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the application of sorbents in pressurised liquid extraction (PLE cell to establish a selective extraction of a variety of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, phenol, pentachlorophenol, and sterols from soil. The selectivity and efficiency of each sorbent depend on the properties of the material, extracting solvent, capacity factor, organic compounds of interest, and PLE operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and extraction time. Several sorbents (silica, alumina, and Florisil were evaluated and with the proper choice of solvents, polar and nonpolar compounds were successfully separated in two fractions. Nonpolar compounds (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, and pentachlorophenol were recovered in the first fraction using a polar sorbent such as Florisil or alumina, and n-hexane as eluting solvent, while more polar compounds (phenol and sterols were recovered in the second fraction using methanol. Silica (5 g was found to be effective for selective extraction with the satisfactory recoveries for all compounds (PAHs from 87.1–96.2%, chlorpyrifos 102.9%, sterols from 93.7–100.5%, phenol 91.9%, and pentachlorophenol 106.2%. The efficiency and precision of this extraction approach and the existing EPA Method 3545 were compared.

  17. Use of liquid scintillation counting for quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds in batch isotherm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickman, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    An estimate of how rapidly hazardous wastes move through subsurface soils via ground water is important to predict the location and concentration of the contaminant plume vs. time. The contaminated ground water system may be viewed as an HPLC column with the organic components of the waste in adsorption/desorption equilibrium with the subsurface soil. The batch isotherm method was chosen to determine the equilibrium constant between trichloroethylene, o-dichlorobenzene, 1-methyl naphthalene and aquifer materials obtained from various locations around the country. Liquid Scintillation counting has been found to be an excellent technique for batch isotherm analysis; using 14C labeled compounds, it affords unattended analysis, accuracy at very low concentrations and rapid data reduction. Ten ml serum containing about 5 ml water and a known weight of soil (approximately 2 grams) were spiked with the labeled solution to yield organic solute concentrations in the range of 0.02-1.0 mg/1. Six different concentrations were used. After spiking, the bottles were filled to the top with water and crimp sealed with teflon coated septa. All soil containing bottles were then rotated at 50 rpm and 22 degrees Celsius. Twenty-four hours later the bottles were uncapped and a 1.4 ml aliquot was removed and placed in scintillation cocktail and counted

  18. Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Activation Energy of Selected Organic Liquids using Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatographic Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalisanni Khalid; Rashid Atta Khan; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation of vaporize organic liquid has ecological consequences when the compounds are introduced into both freshwater and marine environments through industrial effluents, or introduced directly into the air from industrial unit processes such as bioreactors and cooling towers. In such cases, a rapid and simple method are needed to measure physicochemical properties of the organic liquids. The Reversed-Flow Gas Chromatography (RF-GC) sampling technique is an easy, fast and accurate procedure. It was used to measure the diffusion coefficients of vapors from liquid into a carrier gas and at the same time to determine the rate coefficients for the evaporation of the respective liquid. The mathematical expression describing the elution curves of the samples peaks was derived and used to calculate the respective parameters for the selected liquid pollutants selected such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane and n-hexadecane, evaporating into the carrier gas of nitrogen. The values of diffusion coefficients found were compared with those calculated theoretically or reported in the literature. The values of evaporation rate were used to determine the activation energy of respective samples using Arrhenius equation. An interesting finding of this work is by using an alternative mathematical analysis based on equilibrium at the liquid-gas interphase, the comparison leads to profound agreement between theoretical values of diffusion coefficients and experimental evidence. (author)

  19. Precipitation of thin-film organic single crystals by a novel crystal growth method using electrospray and ionic liquid film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Keita; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    We report an organic single crystal growth technique, which uses a nonvolatile liquid thin film as a crystal growth field and supplies fine droplets containing solute from the surface of the liquid thin film uniformly and continuously by electrospray deposition. Here, we investigated the relationships between the solute concentration of the supplied solution and the morphology and size of precipitated crystals for four types of fluorescent organic low molecule material [tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3), 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD), N,N‧-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N‧-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), and N,N-bis(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB)] using an ionic liquid as the nonvolatile liquid. As the concentration of the supplied solution decreased, the morphology of precipitated crystals changed from dendritic or leaf shape to platelike one. At the solution concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, relatively large platelike single crystals with a diagonal length of over 100 µm were obtained for all types of material. In the experiment using ionic liquid and dioctyl sebacate as nonvolatile liquids, it was confirmed that there is a clear positive correlation between the maximum volume of the precipitated single crystal and the solubility of solute under the same solution supply conditions.

  20. Integrated management of organic wastes for remediation of massive tailings storage facilities under semiarid mediterranean climate type: efficacy of organic pork residues as study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; España, Helena; Gardeweg, Rosario; Bas, Fernando; Gandarillas, Mónica

    2016-04-01

    seeded with Lolium perenne. Experimental pots were kept under controlled conditions and irrigated up to 70% field water capacity for 42 days. After this period, chemical characteristics of the substrate and productive plant variables were determined and contrasted. Results showed that both pig wastes evaluated had significant (positive) and dose-dependent effects on plant productivity (both aerial and root biomass), but an increase in copper and zinc contents in aerial tissues occurred. Metal increments in aerial plant tissues were, however, below plant toxicity thresholds and represent no risk for cattle consumption. Application of any pork waste to mine tailings increased organic matter and macronutrient contents, besides raising pH. No substrate salinization was detected under the evaluated doses. These promising results show that organic pork residues are useful amendments for remediation of TSFs in north-central Chile. Furthermore, a twofold solution for environmental problems generated by two very relevant industrial sectors of the country is thus possible. Further studies are, however needed. Study funded by Project DIP-FAIF of P. Universidad Católica de Chile and by Project FB 0002-2014 of CONICYT. CICAP is also acknowledged.

  1. Ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet for determination of three antifungal drugs in water and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddin, Maryam; Shojaie, Mehran; Abdi, Khosrou; Karimi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-01

    A novel ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet (UAAD-LLM-SFO) followed by HPLC-UV detection was developed for the analysis of three antifungal drugs in water and biological samples. In this method, 1-dodecanol was used as the extraction solvent. The emulsion was rapidly formed by pulling in and pushing out the mixture of sample solution and extraction solvent for 5 times repeatedly using a 10-mL glass syringe while sonication was performed. Therefore, an organic dispersive solvent required in common microextraction methods was not used in the proposed method. After dispersing, an aliquot of acetonitrile was introduced as a demulsifier solvent into the sample solution to separate two phases. Therefore, some additional steps, such as the centrifugation, ultrasonication, or agitation of the sample solution, are not needed. Parameters influencing the extraction recovery were investigated. The proposed method showed a good linearity for the three antifungal drugs studied with the correlation coefficients (R 2  > 0.9995). The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of the quantification (LOQs) were between 0.01-0.03 μg L -1 and 0.03-0.08 μg L -1 , respectively. The preconcentration factors (PFs) were in the range of 107-116, respectively. The precisions, as the relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 5), for inter-day and intra-day analysis were in the range of 2.1-4.5% and 6.5-8.5%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to determine the three antifungal drugs in tap water and biological samples. The recoveries of antifungal drugs in these samples were 92.4-98.5%. Graphical abstract Ultrasound-air-assisted demulsified liquid-liquid microextraction by solidification of a floating organic droplet for the analysis of three antifungal drugs prior HPLC-UV.

  2. Reactivity of liquid and semisolid secondary organic carbon with chloride and nitrate in atmospheric aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingbing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); O' Brien, Rachel E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Kelly, Stephen T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shilling, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moffet, Ryan C. [Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Gilles, Mary K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Laskin, Alexander [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a significant mass fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Interactions between SOC and other condensed-phase species are not well understood. Here, we investigate the reactions of liquid-like and semi-solid SOC from ozonolysis of limonene (LSOC) and α-pinene (PSOC) with NaCl using a set of complementary micro-spectroscopic analyses. These reactions result in chloride depletion in the condensed phase, release of gaseous HCl, and formation of organic salts. The reactions attributed to acid displacement by SOC acidic components are driven by the high volatility of HCl. Similar reactions can take place in SOC/NaNO₃ particles. The results show that an increase in SOC mass fraction in the internally mixed SOC/NaCl particles leads to higher chloride depletion. Glass transition temperatures and viscosity of PSOC were estimated for atmospherically relevant conditions. Data show that the reaction extent depends on SOC composition, particle phase state and viscosity, mixing state, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and reaction time. LSOC shows slightly higher potential to deplete chloride than PSOC. Higher particle viscosity at low temperatures and RH can hinder these acid displacement reactions. Formation of organic salts from these overlooked reactions can alter particle physiochemical properties and may affect their reactivity and ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The release and potential recycling of HCl and HNO₃ from reacted aerosol particles may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry.

  3. DEMONSTRATION SOLIDIFICATION TESTS CONDUCTED ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED ORGANIC LIQUIDS AT THE AECL WHITESHELL LABORATORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryz, R. A.; Brunkow, W. G.; Govers, R.; Campbell, D.; Krause, D.

    2002-01-01

    The AECL, Whiteshell Laboratory (WL) near Pinawa Manitoba, Canada, was established in the early 1960's to carry out AECL research and development activities for higher temperature versions of the CANDU(reg s ign) reactor. The initial focus of the research program was the Whiteshell Reactor-1 (WR-1) Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) that began operation in 1965. The OCR program was discontinued in the early 1970's in favor of the successful heavy-water-cooled CANDU system. WR-1 continued to operate until 1985 in support of AECL nuclear research programs. A consequence of the Federal government's recent program review process was AECL's business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at the Whiteshell Laboratories and to consolidate its' activities at the Chalk River Laboratories. As a result, AECL received government concurrence in 1998 to proceed to plan actions to achieve closure of WL. The planning actions now in progress address the need to safely and effectively transition the WL site from an operational state, in support of AECL's business, to a shutdown and decommissioned state that meets the regulatory requirements for a licensed nuclear site. The decommissioning program that will be required at WL is unique within AECL and Canada since it will need to address the entire research site rather than individual facilities declared redundant. Accordingly, the site nuclear facilities are being systematically placed in a safe shutdown state and planning for the decommissioning work to place the facilities in a secure monitoring and surveillance state is in progress. One aspect of the shutdown activities is to deal with the legacy of radioactively contaminated organic liquid wastes. Use of a polymer powder to solidify these organic wastes was identified as one possibility for improved interim storage of this material pending final disposition

  4. Condition of organ of vision and free radical process parameters in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnovsky, S.; Danilicnev, V.; Nikiforov, A.; Zybina, N.; Nesteruk, L.

    1997-01-01

    84 liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl APS accident from the age of 28 to 58 were examined. The control group was made with 22 men from the age of 28 to 52. A certain increase of infringement of a transparency of lens without typical attributes of radiating cataract is revealed in the experimental group. Electrophysiological investigation (EPI) shows a certain reduction of amplitude of a wave ''a'' of macular electroretinogram (ERG) on green stimulus, amplitude of a main component and lengthening of an interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz is revealed. These changes indicate the tendency to reduction of functional activity of a retina (first of all at a level of photoreceptors) in paramacular and in a smaller degree in peripheral zones among liquidators. The parameters of contrast sensitivity are definitely reduced in the experimental group for all stimuli on all spatial frequencies. Luminous and colour sensitivity to stimuli of different colour in the experimental group is definitely reduced in all central field of sight, but in paracentral zone the degree of reduction is higher. We investigated the parameters of oxidative stress in both groups. Definite increase of production of the reactive oxygen species and disbalance of a glutathione link of antioxidant protection are revealed. Authentic correlation dependences are revealed: moderate direct correlation - between a level of glutathione reductase and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz, between a level of oxidized glutathione and interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz, inverse correlation - between the level of oxidized glutathione and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz. In view of large spontaneous activity of free radical processes in a retina in norm the received results can explain revealed changes of an organ of vision. (author)

  5. Condition of organ of vision and free radical process parameters in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnovsky, S; Danilicnev, V [Military Medical Academy, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nikiforov, A; Zybina, N [All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nesteruk, L [Helmholtz Inst. of Eyes Diseases, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-11-01

    84 liquidators of consequences of Chernobyl APS accident from the age of 28 to 58 were examined. The control group was made with 22 men from the age of 28 to 52. A certain increase of infringement of a transparency of lens without typical attributes of radiating cataract is revealed in the experimental group. Electrophysiological investigation (EPI) shows a certain reduction of amplitude of a wave ``a`` of macular electroretinogram (ERG) on green stimulus, amplitude of a main component and lengthening of an interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz is revealed. These changes indicate the tendency to reduction of functional activity of a retina (first of all at a level of photoreceptors) in paramacular and in a smaller degree in peripheral zones among liquidators. The parameters of contrast sensitivity are definitely reduced in the experimental group for all stimuli on all spatial frequencies. Luminous and colour sensitivity to stimuli of different colour in the experimental group is definitely reduced in all central field of sight, but in paracentral zone the degree of reduction is higher. We investigated the parameters of oxidative stress in both groups. Definite increase of production of the reactive oxygen species and disbalance of a glutathione link of antioxidant protection are revealed. Authentic correlation dependences are revealed: moderate direct correlation - between a level of glutathione reductase and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz, between a level of oxidized glutathione and interpeak time interval of flicker ERG 10 Hz, inverse correlation - between the level of oxidized glutathione and amplitude of a main component of flicker ERG 10 Hz. In view of large spontaneous activity of free radical processes in a retina in norm the received results can explain revealed changes of an organ of vision. (author). 5 refs.

  6. A Monte Carlo Model for Neutron Coincidence Counting with Fast Organic Liquid Scintillation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Cave, Frank D.

    2013-06-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is an established, nondestructive method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear materials. Several even-numbered nuclei of the actinide isotopes, and especially even-numbered plutonium isotopes, undergo spontaneous fission, resulting in the emission of neutrons which are correlated in time. The characteristics of this i.e. the multiplicity can be used to identify each isotope in question. Similarly, the corresponding characteristics of isotopes that are susceptible to stimulated fission are somewhat isotope-related, and also dependent on the energy of the incident neutron that stimulates the fission event, and this can hence be used to identify and quantify isotopes also. Most of the neutron coincidence counters currently used are based on 3 He gas tubes. In the 3 He-filled gas proportional-counter, the (n, p) reaction is largely responsible for the detection of slow neutrons and hence neutrons have to be slowed down to thermal energies. As a result, moderator and shielding materials are essential components of many systems designed to assess quantities of fissile materials. The use of a moderator, however, extends the die-away time of the detector necessitating a larger coincidence window and, further, 3 He is now in short supply and expensive. In this paper, a simulation based on the Monte Carlo method is described which has been performed using MCNPX 2.6.0, to model the geometry of a sector-shaped liquid scintillation detector in response to coincident neutron events. The detection of neutrons from a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pellet using an organic liquid scintillator has been simulated for different thicknesses of scintillators. In this new neutron detector, a layer of lead has been used to reduce the gamma-ray fluence reaching the scintillator. The effect of lead for neutron detection has also been estimated by considering different thicknesses of lead layers. (authors)

  7. Determination of descriptors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by chromatographic methods and liquid-liquid partition in totally organic biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasena, Thiloka C; Poole, Colin F

    2014-09-26

    Retention factors on several columns and at various temperatures using gas chromatography and from reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a SunFire C18 column with various mobile phase compositions containing acetonitrile, methanol and tetrahydrofuran as strength adjusting solvents are combined with liquid-liquid partition coefficients in totally organic biphasic systems to calculate descriptors for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eighteen related compounds of environmental interest. The use of a consistent protocol for the above measurements provides descriptors that are more self consistent for the estimation of physicochemical properties (octanol-water, air-octanol, air-water, aqueous solubility, and subcooled liquid vapor pressure). The descriptor in this report tend to have smaller values for the L and E descriptors and random differences in the B and S descriptors compared with literature sources. A simple atom fragment constant model is proposed for the estimation of descriptors from structure for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The new descriptors show no bias in the prediction of the air-water partition coefficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons unlike the literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  9. Pretreatment of various feedstocks for lactic acid production: detection of sugars, organic acids and furanics in liquid fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Barley straw, sugarcane bagasse and empty fruit bunches were pretreated under acid- and alkaline conditions. Solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and the concentration of dissolved monomeric sugars, organic acids and furanics was determined. Acid hydrolysis yielded monomeric xylose

  10. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of tetracycline residues in infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-04-15

    The use of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of tetracyclines in infant foods based on meat and vegetables or in milk. To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized. Analytical performances of the method were satisfactory, obtaining limits of quantification lower than 0.48μgkg -1 in all cases. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%, RSD) was below 11.3%. The extraction efficiency for fortified samples ranged from 89.2 to 96.8%, with RSDs lower than 7.3%. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples studied, being lower than |21|% in all cases. In relation to the low solvent consumption, the proposed methodology could be considered rapid, cheap and environmentally friendly. Its applicability has been successfully tested in a wide range of infant foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of modifying rooting depths and nitrification inhibitors on nutrient uptake from organic biogas residues in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Charlotte C.; Koller, Robert; Nagel, Kerstin A.; Schickling, Anke; Schrey, Silvia D.; Jablonowski, Nicolai D.

    2017-04-01

    Optimizing the application of and nutrient uptake from organic nutrient sources, such as the nutrient-rich residues ("digestates") from the biogas industry, is becoming a viable option in remediating fertility on previously unsuitable soils for agricultural utilization. Proposedly, concurrent changes in root system architecture and functioning could also serve as the basis of future phytomining approaches. Herein, we evaluate the effect of spatial nutrient availability and nitrification on maize root architecture and nutrient uptake. We test these effects by applying maize-based digestate at a rate of 170 kg/ha in layers of varying depths (10, 25 and 40 cm) and through either the presence or absence of nitrification inhibitors. In order to regularly monitor above- and below-ground plant biomass production, we used the noninvasive phenotyping platform, GROWSCREEN-Rhizo at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, using rhizotrons (Nagel et al., 2012). Measured parameters included projected plant height and leaf area, as well as root length and spatial distribution. Additionally, root diameters were quantified after the destructive harvest, 21 days after sowing (DAS). Spatial nutrient availability significantly affected root system architecture, as for example root system size -the area occupied by roots- increased alongside nutrient layer depths. Fertilization also positively affected root length density (RLD). Within fertilized layers, the presence of nitrification inhibitors increased RLD by up to 30% and was most pronounced in the fine root biomass fraction (0.1 to 0.5mm). Generally, nitrification inhibitors promoted early plant growth by up to 45% across treatments. However, their effect varied in dependence of layer depths, leading to a time-delayed response in deeper layers, accounting for plants having to grow significantly longer roots in order to reach fertilized substrate. Nitrification inhibitors also initiated the comparatively early on-set of growth differences in

  12. An exploratory screening of organic substances in combustion residues; En orienterande screening av organiska aemnen i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Lennart; Lind, Bo (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Bjurstroem, Henrik (AaF-Process, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Ash consists of the inorganic incombustible part of fuels, but it also always contains a small amount of organic matter, occurring as trace substances with concentrations in the order of mg/kg and lower. A few types of compounds are analysed comparatively frequently, e.g. PCDD/F (the so-called dioxins), but knowledge about the other organic substances is far from exhaustive. In this investigation, three ash samples have been subjected to a semi-quantitative GC/MS screening of semi-volatile substances. In this method of analysis the substances are extracted, separated in a gas chromatograph and identified as well as quantified using a mass spectrometer. Even if this type of analysis can be performed by researchers at universities, we chose to let commercial analytical laboratories do it in order to assess results from a nearly routine work. Residues from woody biofuels (recovered wood, virgin wood and bark) were chosen in order to complement the information that has previously been obtained on ash from municipal solid waste incineration. The GC/MS screening was carried out on both non-derivatised samples (non-polar compounds) and derivatised samples (polar compounds). The investigation aimed also at assessing the potential and the limitations of the screening method. In addition, the potentially hazardous properties of each identified substance were examined. Screening without and with derivatization is a cost-effective method to chart the content of semi-volatile organic substances. The results are relevant, but the method commercially available in Sweden is at present not mature enough for the use considered. It must be further developed before it can be included in e.g. regulatory texts. Limitations may be found in several steps of the method, principally: - Extraction and derivatisation, as the internal standard added is recovered only to a small extent for some ash samples, indicating that not everything has been found - Detection, i.e. both the sensitivity of

  13. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo; Kim, Hwajeong; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 μm thick LC layer (4-cyano-4 ′ -pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 μl/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm 2 /Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V D ) and gate (V G ) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V D and V G . The best voltage combination was V D = −0.2 V and V G = −1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors

  14. Screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in liquid organic waste (effluent samples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpe, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in some liquid organic wastes (cassava mill effluents, rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents) was carried out. Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria were isolated on mineral salt agar using vapour phase technique. The samples yielded 20 bacterial isolates from 13 different genera. Cassava mill effluent and rubber effluent had the highest number (7), while oil palm effluent had the least number (6) of bacterial isolates. The isolates that had the highest occurrence (occurring in all samples) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Of these 13 genera 9 were gram negative, while only 4 were gram positive. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count and total hydrocarbon utilisers (THU) from all the effluent samples ranged from 3.0 * 10/sup 4/ to 6.0* 10/sup 7/ cfu/mL and 2.3 *10/sup 2/ to 4.2*10/sup 3/ cfu/mL, respectively. The counts of hydrocarbon utilisers were obviously lower than the heterotrophic counts, although the differences in counts were found to be statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents had the highest number of hydrocarbon utilisers with three isolates each. The active hydrocarbon utilisers encountered in this study included Serratia marscescens, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis. Presence of nutrients and crude oil degrading bacteria in these effluents suggests that these effluents can be used to enhance bioremediation through their use as biostimulation and bioaugmentation agents. (author)

  15. Ionic Liquid/Metal-Organic Framework Composites: From Synthesis to Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinik, Fatma Pelin; Uzun, Alper; Keskin, Seda

    2017-07-21

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been widely studied for different applications owing to their fascinating properties such as large surface areas, high porosities, tunable pore sizes, and acceptable thermal and chemical stabilities. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been recently incorporated into the pores of MOFs as cavity occupants to change the physicochemical properties and gas affinities of MOFs. Several recent studies have shown that IL/MOF composites show superior performances compared with pristine MOFs in various fields, such as gas storage, adsorption and membrane-based gas separation, catalysis, and ionic conductivity. In this review, we address the recent advances in syntheses of IL/MOF composites and provide a comprehensive overview of their applications. Opportunities and challenges of using IL/MOF composites in many applications are reviewed and the requirements for the utilization of these composite materials in real industrial processes are discussed to define the future directions in this field. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew

    2013-08-15

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Methacrylate-bonded covalent-organic framework monolithic columns for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2017-01-06

    Covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are a newfangled class of intriguing microporous materials. Considering their unique properties, COFs should be promising as packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the irregular shape and sub-micrometer size of COFs synthesized via the traditional methods render the main obstacles for the application of COFs in HPLC. Herein, we report the preparation of methacrylate-bonded COF monolithic columns for HPLC to overcome the above obstacles. The prepared COF bonded monolithic columns not only show good homogeneity and permeability, but also give high column efficiency, good resolution and precision for HPLC separation of small molecules including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, anilines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzothiophenes. Compared with the bare polymer monolithic column, the COF bonded monolithic columns show enhanced hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen bond interactions in reverse phase HPLC. The results reveal the great potential of COF bonded monoliths for HPLC and COFs in separation sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of SO 2 on CO 2 Capture Using Liquid-like Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2013-01-01

    Liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs), consisting of silica nanoparticles with a grafted polymeric canopy, were synthesized. Previous work on NOHMs has revealed that CO2 capture behaviors in these hybrid materials can be tuned by modifying the structure of the polymeric canopy. Because SO2, which is another acidic gas found in flue gas, would also interact with NOHMs, this study was designed to investigate its effect on CO2 capture in NOHMs. In particular, CO2 capture capacities as well as swelling and CO2 packing behaviors of NOHMs were analyzed using thermogravimetric analyses and Raman and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies before and after exposure of NOHMs to SO2. It was found that the SO2 absorption in NOHMs was only prominent at high SO2 levels (i.e., 3010 ppm; Ptot = 0.4 MPa) far exceeding the typical SO2 concentration in flue gas. As expected, the competitive absorption between SO2 and CO2 for the same absorption sites (i.e., ether and amine groups) resulted in a decreased CO2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The swelling of NOHMs was not notably affected by the presence of SO 2 within the given concentration range (Ptot = 0-0.68 MPa). On the other hand, SO2, owing to its Lewis acidic nature, interacted with the ether groups of the polymeric canopy and, thus, changed the CO2 packing behaviors in NOHMs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Formation of a new archetypal Metal-Organic Framework from a simple monatomic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metere, Alfredo; Oleynikov, Peter; Dzugutov, Mikhail; O’Keeffe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report a molecular-dynamics simulation of a single-component system of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential that is found to form, upon cooling from a liquid state, a low-density porous crystalline phase. Its structure analysis demonstrates that the crystal can be described by a net with a topology that belongs to the class of topologies characteristic of the Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). The observed net is new, and it is now included in the Reticular Chemistry Structure Resource database. The observation that a net topology characteristic of MOF crystals, which are known to be formed by a coordination-driven self-assembly process, can be reproduced by a thermodynamically stable configuration of a simple single-component system of particles opens a possibility of using these models in studies of MOF nets. It also indicates that structures with MOF topology, as well as other low-density porous crystalline structures can possibly be produced in colloidal systems of spherical particles, with an appropriate tuning of interparticle interaction

  20. Gas-liquid partitioning of halogenated volatile organic compounds in aqueous cyclodextrin solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondo, Daniel; Barankova, Eva [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Dohnal, Vladimir, E-mail: dohnalv@vscht.cz [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Binding of halogenated VOCs with cyclodextrins examined through g-l partitioning. > Complex stabilities reflect host-guest size matching and hydrophobic interaction. > Presence of halogens in the guest molecule stabilizes the binding. > Thermodynamic origin of the binding varies greatly among the systems studied. > Results obey the guest-CD global enthalpy-entropy compensation relationship. - Abstract: Gas-liquid partitioning coefficients (K{sub GL}) were measured for halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely 1-chlorobutane, methoxyflurane, pentafluoropropan-1-ol, heptafluorobutan-1-ol, {alpha},{alpha},{alpha}-trifluorotoluene, and toluene in aqueous solutions of natural {alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-cyclodextrins (CDs) at temperatures from (273.35 to 326.35) K employing the techniques of headspace gas chromatography and inert gas stripping. The binding constants of the 1:1 inclusion complex formation between the VOCs and CDs were evaluated from the depression of the VOCs volatility as a function of CD concentration. The host-guest size matching and the hydrophobic interaction concept were used to rationalize the observed widely different affinity of the VOC-CD pairs to form the inclusion complex. The enthalpic and entropic component of the standard Gibbs free energy of complex formation as derived from the temperature dependence of the binding constant indicate the thermodynamic origin of the binding to vary greatly among the systems studied, but follow the global enthalpy-entropy compensation relationships reported previously in the literature.

  1. EDO, Doses to Man and Organs from Reactor Operation Noble Gas and Liquid Waste Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenas Diago, Jose; Serradell Garcia, Vicente

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EDO evaluates individual and collective doses to man from atmospheric releases of noble gases and other gaseous effluents. 2 - Method of solution: The dose calculations are carried out by following the guide- lines of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. Radiation exposure for maximum individuals and population are estimated within 30 km from the nuclear plant. This area is divided into 160 circular trapezoids, to which computations are referred. Four age groups, seven organs for internal dose and two for external dose have been considered. Dose calculations are done through 14 pathways, 7 for liquid effluents, one for noble gases, and 6 for the rest of gaseous effluents. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The following are the maximum dimension sizes preset in the code: 73 radionuclides (other than noble gases); 15 noble gases; 160 circular trapezoids; 31 chemical elements; 4 types of aquatic foods; 15 points of exposure for shorelines; 15 trapezoids influenced by each point; 4 terrestrial food pathways; 100 centres of population. Some of these limits can be varied

  2. EDO, Doses to Man and Organs from Reactor Operation Noble Gas and Liquid Waste Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas Diago, Jose; Serradell Garcia, Vicente [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Politecnica, Camino de Vera 2/n Apartado 2012, Valencia (Spain)

    1983-10-18

    1 - Description of problem or function: EDO evaluates individual and collective doses to man from atmospheric releases of noble gases and other gaseous effluents. 2 - Method of solution: The dose calculations are carried out by following the guide- lines of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109. Radiation exposure for maximum individuals and population are estimated within 30 km from the nuclear plant. This area is divided into 160 circular trapezoids, to which computations are referred. Four age groups, seven organs for internal dose and two for external dose have been considered. Dose calculations are done through 14 pathways, 7 for liquid effluents, one for noble gases, and 6 for the rest of gaseous effluents. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The following are the maximum dimension sizes preset in the code: 73 radionuclides (other than noble gases); 15 noble gases; 160 circular trapezoids; 31 chemical elements; 4 types of aquatic foods; 15 points of exposure for shorelines; 15 trapezoids influenced by each point; 4 terrestrial food pathways; 100 centres of population. Some of these limits can be varied.

  3. Effect of Turning Frequency on Composting of Empty Fruit Bunches Mixed with Activated Liquid Organic Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Lubis, J.; Husaini, T.; Irvan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) by mixing it with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative way in the utilization of solid waste produced from the palm oil mill (POM). This research was to determine the effect of turning frequency on the rate of composting of EFB mixed with ALOF in a basket composter. The composting process was started with cutting the EFB into pieces with size 1-3 cm, inserting the EFB pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding ALOF until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The turning frequency on each composter was varied i.e. once in every 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The parameters analysed during composting were temperature, pH, MC, compost weight, water holding capacity (WHC), CN ratio, and the quality of the final compost. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the best result obtained at turning frequency was 3 days. The best compost characteristic was pH 9.0; MC 57.24%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15%; P 0.58%; and K 0. 95%.

  4. NMR relaxometric properties and cytotoxicity of Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions in an organic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić-Stojić, Branka; Jokanović, Vukoman; Milivojević, Dušan; Požek, Miroslav; Jagličić, Zvonko; Makovec, Darko; Arsikin, Katarina; Paunović, Verica

    2014-10-01

    Gd2O3 nanoparticles and their agglomerates from approximately 10 to 80 nm in size suspended in an organic liquid were synthesized via polyol route. The reaction between diethylene glycol and added acetic acid, which occurred simultaneously with the synthesis of Gd2O3 nanoparticles, was catalyzed by sodium bisulfate to transform as much as possible diethylene glycol in corresponding ester at the end of complete reaction. The produced nanosized material of gadolinium oxide was investigated by TEM, DLS, FTIR spectroscopy, and NMR relaxometry. Biological evaluation of this material was done by MTT and crystal violet assays to determine the cell viability. Longitudinal and transverse relaxivities of water-diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions estimated to be r 1 = 13.6 and r 2 = 14.7 s-1 mM-1 are about three times higher compared to the relaxivities obtained for standard contrast agent Gd-DTPA (Magnevist). Good MRI signal intensities of the water-diluted Gd2O3 nanoparticle suspensions were recorded in the Gd concentration range 0.2-0.3 mM for which the suspensions were not toxic exhibiting simultaneously higher signal intensities than those for Magnevist in the Gd concentration range 0.4-1 mM for which this standard contrast agent was not toxic. These properties make the produced Gd2O3 nanoparticle material promising for potential application as MRI contrast agent.