WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual lattice strain

  1. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  2. Minimal Varieties of Representable Commutative Residuated Lattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčík, Rostislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 6 (2012), s. 1063-1078 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : commutative residuated lattice * subvariety lattice * minimal variety * substructural logic * maximally consistent logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.342, year: 2012

  3. Tensile response of elastoplastic lattices at finite strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankasala, H. C.; Deshpande, V. S.; Fleck, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The finite strain, uniaxial tensile response of two-dimensional (2D) elastoplastic lattices is investigated using finite element simulations and analytical models, taking into full account the macroscopic stiffening due to cell wall alignment. Four morphologies of 2D lattice are considered: triangular, Kagome, hexagonal, and diamond. The cell walls are treated as Timoshenko beams made from an elastoplastic solid with a strain hardening characteristic that resembles Ramberg-Osgood at low strains and exponential hardening at large strains. This description captures the response of metallic lattices at small strain and selected polymeric lattices at large strain. The use of beam theory is validated by additional continuum element simulations. The dependence of macroscopic ductility and tensile strength of each lattice is determined as a function of relative density, cell wall rupture strain and cell wall strain-hardening. Two failure criteria are invoked: (i) maximum value of local tensile strain anywhere in the lattice attains a pre-defined failure strain, or (ii) maximum value of average tensile strain across any section of the lattice attains the failure strain. The sensitivity of macroscopic ductility and ultimate tensile strength to geometric imperfection is explored by considering: (i) random topologies in which the joints are randomly perturbed in position, and (ii) a finite crack formed by an array of broken cell walls. The notion of a transition flaw size for the lattices is validated by means of a notch sensitivity analysis, and the significance of crack-tip blunting by cell wall alignment is highlighted for the hexagonal honeycomb.

  4. Introducing lattice strain to graphene encapsulated in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Hikari; Hiraide, Rineka; Ootuka, Youiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    Due to the characteristic lattice structure, lattice strain in graphene produces an effective gauge field. Theories tell that by controlling spatial variation of lattice strain, one can tailor the electronic state and transport properties of graphene. For example, under uniaxial local strain, graphene exhibits a transport gap at low energies, which is attractive for a graphene application to field effect devices. Here, we develop a method for encapsulating a strained graphene film in hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN). It is known that the graphene carrier mobility is significantly improved by the encapsulation of graphene in hBN, which has never been applied to strained graphene. We encapsulate graphene in hBN using the van der Waals assembly method. Strain is induced by sandwiching a graphene film between patterned hBN sheets. Spatial variation of strain is confirmed with micro Raman spectroscopy. Transport measurement of encapsulated strained graphene is in progress.

  5. Residual gauge invariance of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryang, S.; Saito, T.; Shigemoto, K.

    1984-01-01

    The time-independent residual gauge invariance of Hamiltonian lattice gauge theories is considered. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the unperturbed Hamiltonian are found in terms of Gegengauer's polynomials. Physical states which satisfy the subsidiary condition corresponding to Gauss' law are constructed systematically. (orig.)

  6. Internal residual strain mapping in carburized chrome molybdenum steel after quenching by neutron strain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaida, Yoshihisa; Serizawa, Takanobu; Manzanka, Michiya

    2011-01-01

    A hollow circular cylinder specimen with an annular U-notch of chrome molybdenum steel with 0.20 mass% C (SCM420) was carburized in carrier gas and quenched in oil bath. In order to determine the case depth, the specimen was cut off and carbon content and Vickers hardness gradients were measured experimentally near the carburized surface. The residual strain mapping in the interior of carburized cylinder was conducted nondestructively by neutron strain scanning. In this study, the neutron diffraction from Fe-211 plane was used for strain scanning. The neutron wavelength was tuned to 0.1654nm so that diffraction angle became about 90deg. Radial, hoop and axial residual strains were measured by scanning diffracting volume along the axial direction of cylinder specimen. Each residual strain was calculated from lattice spacing change. Unstressed lattice spacing was determined experimentally using reference coupon specimens that were cut from the interior of same carburized cylinder. As a result, the diffraction peak width at half height, FWHM, near the carburized surface was about 3.7 times wider than that of coupon specimens. On the other hand, the most peak widths in the interior equaled to that of coupon specimens. Peak width broadened slightly as the diffracting volume approached the carburized case layer. From the center to the quarter of cylinder specimen, the hoop and axial strains were tensile, and the radial one was compressive in the interior. From the quarter to the edge of the cylinder specimen, the hoop tensile strain increased, radial and axial strains changed to tensile and compressive, respectively. Therefore, the interior of the cylinder specimen was found to be deformed elastically to balance the existence of compressive residual stresses in the carburized case layer. (author)

  7. Residual strains in girth-welded linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwen, S.R.; Holden, T.M.; Powell, B.M.; Lazor, R.B.

    1987-07-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction has been used to measure the axial residual strains in and adjacent to a multipass girth weld in a complete section of 914 mm (36 inches) diameter, 16 mm (5/8 inch) wall, linepipe. The experiments were carried out at the NRU reactor, Chalk River using the L3 triple-axis spectrometer. The through-wall distribution of axial residual strain was measured at 0, 4, 8, 20 and 50 mm from the weld centerline; the axial variation was determined 1, 5, 8, and 13 mm from the inside surface of the pipe wall. The results have been compared with strain gauge measurements on the weld surface and with through-wall residual stress distributions determined using the block-layering and removal technique

  8. Neutron diffraction residual strain / stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Residual stresses affect mechancial properties of materials and prodcuts, it is essential to estimate them practically in order to esatblish acceptable limits. Knowledge of the development of residual stresses in components at the various production stages- extrusion, rolling, machining, welding and heat treating-can be used to imporve product reliability and performance. This short article gives an example relevant to the power industry using ANSTO's 'Kowari' neutron strain scanner.

  9. Cancellative Residuated Lattices Arising on 2-Generated Submonoids of Natural Numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčík, Rostislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 63, 2-3 (2010), s. 261-274 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100300701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : residuated lattice * cancellative commutative residuated lattice * subvariety lattice * submonoid of natural numbers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2010

  10. THE LATTICE PARAMETERS AND RESIDUAL STRESSES IN BULK NANOCRYSTALLINE AND ULTRAFINE-GRAINED TITANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Plotnikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lattice parameters and residual stresses in the bulk nanocrystalline/ultrafine-grained titanium were studied by X-ray diffraction methods. The investigated samples were prepared using the method of the cryomechanical grain structure fragmentation with multiple rolling at the temperature of liquid nitrogen to the true strain value |e| = 3. Phasic change of the a and c parameters has been found with increasing degree of cryoreduction. This change was stronger for the parameter a. The observed change parameters associated with a relative slip and twinning activity (initial cryo-reduction stage as well as the formation of the nanocrystalline state (at higher degree of deformation. The most likely source of residual stresses arising in titanium at cryorolling is heterogeneous plastic deformation. The production of nanocrystalline / ultrafine-grained titanium using cryomechanical grain fragmentation method is accompanied by the formation of uniform compressive residual stresses in the informative deformable layer of billet.

  11. Lattice strain measurement in rock sample by neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Jun; Ito, Takayoshi; Sekine, Kotaro; Harjo, Stefanus; Aizawa, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Strain gauge and mechanical extensometers are commonly used to measure strain in rock samples. In recent years, diffraction techniques with X-rays and neutrons for investigating strain in engineering materials have been developed. Strain measurements using diffraction technique are based on Bragg's law. Lattice spacing changes with strain, which induces peak shift of Bragg peak. Strain value can be estimated from this peak shift value. Strain measurements using the world's highest intensity neutron beam can be performed at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) constructed at Tokai in Ibaraki. Neutron powder diffractometer dedicating to investigate strain state in engineering materials has been constructed at BL19 in J-PARC, which is named as The Engineering Materials Diffractometer 'TAKUMI'. In order to examine applicability of the diffractometer to rock materials, in situ neutron diffraction experiments on rock samples under uni-axial compression have been performed. Higher resolution strain data has been obtained in shorter time compared to other diffractometers. In addition, neutron diffraction peaks of not only major component, such as quartz, but also minor components, such as feldspars, could be observed. Anisotropy of strain with respect to the quartz crystal orientation and discrepancy between macroscopic strain (measured by strain gauge) and lattice strain (measured by neutron diffraction) were also recognized. Change in peak width with respect to stress magnitude showed a different behavior depending on rock type. Strain measurements using neutron diffraction technique give us new insight in rock deformation which cannot be obtained by common technique. (author)

  12. Digital Image Correlation of 2D X-ray Powder Diffraction Data for Lattice Strain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjia Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High energy 2D X-ray powder diffraction experiments are widely used for lattice strain measurement. The 2D to 1D conversion of diffraction patterns is a necessary step used to prepare the data for full pattern refinement, but is inefficient when only peak centre position information is required for lattice strain evaluation. The multi-step conversion process is likely to lead to increased errors associated with the ‘caking’ (radial binning or fitting procedures. A new method is proposed here that relies on direct Digital Image Correlation analysis of 2D X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD-DIC, for short. As an example of using XRD-DIC, residual strain values along the central line in a Mg AZ31B alloy bar after 3-point bending are calculated by using both XRD-DIC and the conventional ‘caking’ with fitting procedures. Comparison of the results for strain values in different azimuthal angles demonstrates excellent agreement between the two methods. The principal strains and directions are calculated using multiple direction strain data, leading to full in-plane strain evaluation. It is therefore concluded that XRD-DIC provides a reliable and robust method for strain evaluation from 2D powder diffraction data. The XRD-DIC approach simplifies the analysis process by skipping 2D to 1D conversion, and opens new possibilities for robust 2D powder diffraction data analysis for full in-plane strain evaluation.

  13. Thermomechanically induced residual strains in Al/SiCp metal-matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Clarke, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Residual lattice strains in the aluminium and SiC phases of F3S.20S extruded A359 20% SiC metal-matrix composite were measured by using neutron diffi action at room and elevated temperatures to monitor the effects of in situ uniaxial plastic deformations. The results are interpreted with referenc...

  14. Texture dependent lattice strains and texture gradient in AI7020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Zhong, Z.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Maawad, E.; Schell, N.

    2015-04-01

    Firstly, an Al7020 block was characterized by the texture gradient, which was remarkably strong. Texture sharpness in the center with about 30 mrd (multiple random distribution) shows typical plain strain texture components. On the surface and close to the surface the texture sharpness is much weaker showing also shear components. Strongest shear was not directly at the surface but 4 mm deeper. The texture analysis at HEMS Beamline (Petra III/DESY-Hamburg) was done with continuous scanning mode to include all grains to improve the grain statistics. Secondly, with an in situ synchrotron experiment the texture dependent lattice strain behavior was investigated using flat tensile samples oriented 0°, 45° and 90° to the rolling direction (RD). Texture induced anisotropy influenced on the lattice dependent yield strength and the lattice dependent stress-strain behavior, which will be discussed in detail. Due to the high energy synchrotron beam complete Debye-Scherrer rings were obtained so that the patterns, parallel and perpendicular to loading direction (LD), were obtained simultaneously.

  15. Mechanism of fast lattice diffusion of hydrogen in palladium: Interplay of quantum fluctuations and lattice strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimizuka, Hajime; Ogata, Shigenobu; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanism of the nanostructure-mediated high diffusivity of H in Pd is of recent scientific interest and also crucial for industrial applications. Here, we present a decisive scenario explaining the emergence of the fast lattice-diffusion mode of interstitial H in face-centered cubic Pd, based on the quantum mechanical natures of both electrons and nuclei under finite strains. Ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics was applied to predict the temperature- and strain-dependent free energy profiles for H migration in Pd over a temperature range of 150-600 K and under hydrostatic tensile strains of 0.0%-2.4%; such strain conditions are likely to occur in real systems, especially around the elastic fields induced by nanostructured defects. The simulated results revealed that, for preferential H location at octahedral sites, as in unstrained Pd, the activation barrier for H migration (Q ) was drastically increased with decreasing temperature owing to nuclear quantum effects. In contrast, as tetrahedral sites increased in stability with lattice expansion, nuclear quantum effects became less prominent and ceased impeding H migration. This implies that the nature of the diffusion mechanism gradually changes from quantum- to classical-like as the strain is increased. For H atoms in Pd at the hydrostatic strain of ˜2.4 % , we determined that the mechanism promoted fast lattice diffusion (Q =0.11 eV) of approximately 20 times the rate of conventional H diffusion (Q =0.23 eV) in unstrained Pd at a room temperature of 300 K.

  16. On the evolution and modelling of lattice strains during the cyclic loading of TWIP steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Pereloma, Elena V.; Clausen, Bjørn; Brown, Donald W.; Tomé, Carlos N.; Gazder, Azdiar A.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of lattice strains in fully annealed Fe–24Mn–3Al–2Si–1Ni–0.06C twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel is investigated via in situ neutron diffraction during cyclic (tension–compression) loading between strain limits of ±1%. The pronounced Bauschinger effect observed upon load reversal is accounted for by a combination of the intergranular residual stresses and the intragranular sources of back stress, such as dislocation pile-ups at the intersection of stacking faults. The recently modified elasto-plastic self-consistent (EPSC) model which empirically accounts for both intergranular and intragranular back stresses has been successfully used to simulate the macroscopic stress–strain response and the evolution of the lattice strains. The EPSC model captures the experimentally observed tension–compression asymmetry as it accounts for the directionality of twinning as well as Schmid factor considerations. For the strain limits used in this study, the EPSC model also predicts that the lower flow stress on reverse shear loading reported in earlier Bauschinger-type experiments on TWIP steel is a geometrical or loading path effect

  17. Discussion on accuracy of weld residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction. Influence of strain free reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is required to evaluate a strain-free reference, α 0 , to perform accurate stress measurement using neutron diffraction. In this study, accuracy of neutron stress measurement was quantitatively discussed from α 0 evaluations on a dissimilar metal butt-weld between a type 304 austenitic stainless steel and an A533B low alloy ferritic steel. A strain-free standard specimen and a sliced specimen with 10 mm thickness taken from the dissimilar metal butt-weld were utilized. In the lattice constant evaluation using the standard specimen, average lattice constant derived from multiple hkl reflections was evaluated as the stress-free reference with cancelling out an intergranular strain. Comparing lattice constant distributions in each reflection with average lattice constant distribution in the standard specimen, αFe211 and γFe311 reflections were judged as a suitable reflection for neutron strain measurement to reduce intergranular strain effects. Residual stress distribution in the sliced specimen evaluated using α 0 measured here exhibited higher accuracy than that measured using strain gauges. On the other hand, α 0 distributions were evaluated using the sliced specimen under the plane-stress condition. Existence of slight longitudinal residual stresses near the weld center decreased accuracy of the α 0 evaluations, which means that it is required to optimize the thickness of the sliced specimen for accurate α 0 evaluation under plane strain condition. As a conclusion of this study, it was confirmed that procedures of accurate α 0 evaluation, optimization of the measurement condition, and multiple evaluations on the results play an important role to improve accuracy of the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction. (author)

  18. Hardness depth profile of lattice strained cemented carbide modified by high-energy boron ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Matsumura, A.; Higeta, K.; Inoue, T.; Shimizu, S.; Motonami, Y.; Sato, M.; Sadahiro, T.; Fujii, K.

    1991-07-01

    The hardness depth profiles of cemented carbides which were implanted with high-energy B + ions have been estimated using a dynamic microhardness tester. The B + implantations into (16% Co)-cemented WC alloys were carried out under conditions where the implantation energies were 1-3 MeV and the fluences 1 × 10 17-1 × 10 18ions/cm 2. The profiles show that the implanted layer becomes harder as fluences are chosen at higher values and there is a peak at a certain depth which depends on the implantation energy. In X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the implanted surface the broadened refraction peaks of only WC and Co are detected and the increments of lattice strain and of residual stress in the near-surface region are observed. It is supposed that the hardening effect should be induced by an increase in residual stress produced by lattice strain. The hardness depth profile in successive implantation of ions with different energies agrees with the compounded profile of each one of the implantations. It is concluded that the hardness depth profile can be controlled under adequate conditions of implantation.

  19. Effect of Multi-Axial Loading on Residual Strain Tensor for 12L14 Steel Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Jeffrey R.; Penumadu, Dayakar; Lou, Xin; Hubbard, Camden R.

    2014-08-01

    Evaluating the state of residual strain or stress is critically important for structural materials and for reliable design of complex shape components that need to function in extreme environment subjected to large thermo-mechanical loading. When residual stress state is superposed to external loads, it can lead to reduction or increase in failure strength. Past diffraction studies for evaluating the residual strain state involved measuring lattice spacings in three orthogonal directions and do not often correspond to principal directions. To completely resolve the state of strain at a given location, a full strain tensor must be determined. This is especially important when characterizing materials or metallic components exposed to biaxial or complex loading. Neutron diffraction at the second Generation Neutron Residual Stress Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used in this study to measure strain tensors associated with different modes of stress path. Hollow cylinder steel samples with 2 mm wall thickness are subjected to either pure axial extension or pure torsion to simulate multi-axial loading conditions. A virgin sample that is not subjected to any deformation, but subjected to identical manufacturing conditions and machining steps involved to obtain hollow cylinder geometry is used for obtaining reference d-spacing for given hkl planes at target spatial location(s). The two samples which are subjected to either pure tension or torsion are loaded to a deformation state that corresponded to equal amount of octahedral shear strain which is an invariant. This procedure is used so that a basis for comparison between the two samples can be made to isolate the stress path effects. A 2-circle Huber orienteer is used to obtain strain measurements on identical gauge volume at a series of φ and ψ values. The residual state of stress tensor corresponding to ex situ (upon unloading) conditions is presented for three lattice planes (211, 110, 200) for

  20. AERODYNAMIC BEHAVIOR AIRCRAFT CAUSED BY RESIDUAL STRAIN WINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Ishchenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of residual strain on the airframe aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft wasconsidered. The possibility of estimation of changes in deformation of airframe using data of leveling wasshown. The method of estimating the change of aerodynamic characteristics caused by the influence ofresidual strain airframe was proposed. Technique can be used in the operation and overhaul of aircraft withlarge operating time.Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, residual strain construction asymmetric moments, thedistribution of circulation, the scheme of leveling, trigonometric series.

  1. Effect of particle size and lattice strain on Debye–Waller factors of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    (1993), Gopi Krishna et al (2010). In the present work, the. Debye–Waller factor increases with milling time and lattice strain in a slightly nonlinear fashion. Figure 8 shows variation between lattice strain (ε) and. Debye–Waller factor (B). An extrapolation of the B vs ε curve to ε = 0 gives the value of Debye–Waller factors of.

  2. Residual Strain in PCBs with Cu-Plated Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudajevova, A.; Dušek, K.

    2017-12-01

    The residual strain in pure printed circuit boards (PCBs) and PCBs with Cu-plated holes has been obtained by measurement of the temperature dependence of their dilatational characteristics in the x, y, and z directions up to 240°C. Shrinkage in all directions was observed for all samples of both materials in the first thermal cycle. No permanent length changes were observed in the second or subsequent thermal cycles. The residual strain was determined from the difference in relative elongation between the first and second thermal cycles. Relaxation of residual strain occurred only in the first thermal cycle, as a thermally activated process. The highest value of relaxed residual strain was found in the z direction for both materials. Relaxation of residual strain in the z direction of the pure PCB occurred only in the negative strain range, whereas relaxation of the PCB with Cu-plated holes occurred in both the positive and negative strain ranges. The relaxation of the positive strain in the PCB with Cu-plated holes in the z direction implies that this part of the PCB was under pressure during its preparation. This relaxation is a consequence of the high coefficient of thermal expansion of PCB laminate in this direction, which can also lead to cracks in Cu holes when the material is heated above the glass-transition temperature.

  3. Macro-residual strains due to cyclic loading of composites

    CERN Document Server

    Hashin, Z

    1999-01-01

    Macro-residual strains produced by load cycles on elastic-brittle composites are analytically expressed in terms of the effective thermal expansion coefficients of the composite as affected by the damage states developing during the $9 cycling. Limiting values of residual strain are evaluated for unidirectional fiber composites and cross-ply laminates. Frictional losses due to internal sliding are not considered. (17 refs).

  4. A Short Note on t-filters, I-filters and Extended Filters on Residuated Lattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víta, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 271, 15 July (2015), s. 168-171 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : t-filters * I-filters * extended filters * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2015

  5. X-ray determination of crystallite size and effect of lattice strain on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the half-widths and integrated intensities of the Bragg reflections. In Pt, the Debye–Waller factor is found to increase with lattice strain. From the correlation between the strain and effective Debye–Waller factor, the Debye–Waller factors for zero strain have been estimated for Pt. The variation of energy of vacancy formation ...

  6. Lattice strain and texture of plastically deformed zircaloy-2 at 77K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Colin D.

    Zircaloy-2 is used extensively in the nuclear industry as a structural material for the reactor core in both light and heavy water reactors. The intergranular strains and texture greatly affect the mechanical properties of the material while in operation. Understanding the plastic deformation of Zircaloy-2 will improve on current plastic deformation models, particularly for twinning mechanisms, which are more active at lower temperatures, and are not yet well understood. For this study, neutron diffraction was used to track the lattice spacing and peak intensity in warm-rolled and recrystallized Zircaloy-2 slab for various crystallographic orientations at 77 K. Tests were performed in all three principle directions under tension and compression. The texture was measured for the deformed samples to help interpret the dominant deformation systems and then Electron Back Scattering Diffraction was used to identify and image the active twinning modes. Prism slip, basal slip, {1012} and {1121} tensile twinning, and {1122} compression twinning were found to be contributing deformation systems in Zircaloy-2 at 77K. In this study, the diffraction elastic constants for Zircaloy-2 at room temperature and 77K are reported for the first time in open literature. These values will be useful in future experimental work by allowing a conversion between lattice spacing and residual stress.

  7. Residuated lattices an algebraic glimpse at substructural logics

    CERN Document Server

    Galatos, Nikolaos; Kowalski, Tomasz; Ono, Hiroakira

    2007-01-01

    The book is meant to serve two purposes. The first and more obvious one is to present state of the art results in algebraic research into residuated structures related to substructural logics. The second, less obvious but equally important, is to provide a reasonably gentle introduction to algebraic logic. At the beginning, the second objective is predominant. Thus, in the first few chapters the reader will find a primer of universal algebra for logicians, a crash course in nonclassical logics for algebraists, an introduction to residuated structures, an outline of Gentzen-style calculi as well as some titbits of proof theory - the celebrated Hauptsatz, or cut elimination theorem, among them. These lead naturally to a discussion of interconnections between logic and algebra, where we try to demonstrate how they form two sides of the same coin. We envisage that the initial chapters could be used as a textbook for a graduate course, perhaps entitled Algebra and Substructural Logics. As the book progresses the f...

  8. Effect of lattice strain on the electro-catalytic activity of IrO2for water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zaman, Waqas Qamar; Zhou, Zhenhua; Cao, Limei; Gong, Xue-Qing; Yang, Ji

    2018-01-23

    The lattice strain of IrO 2 plays a critical role in determining its OER activity. The Ir-O bond length change in IrO 6 coordination induces lattice strain. Increasing the annealing temperature results in a stretching strain along the c axis and a compressive strain on the a and b axes, leading to a larger c/a ratio. Enhancing the lattice strain decreases the c/a ratio, which is beneficial for improving OER activity.

  9. Evaluation of the localized residual strain states of GaN layers by using a TEM-CBED method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H. Y.; Chang, Y. I.; Jung, Y. W.; Cho, M. J.; Park, K. H.

    2006-01-01

    The convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) method of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is well known to be a useful technique for evaluating the localized residual strain by measuring the quantitative variations of the lattice parameters. The multi quantum wells (MQWs) affect on the localized residual strain in a GaN layer, where the AlGaN layer is deposited in order to reduce the strain. We used TEM in order to determine the variations of the lattice parameters of the GaN layer both with and without the AlGaN layer. The lattice parameters of the GaN layer were measured every 100 nm along to the transverse direction below the MQWs. The lattice parameters of the lower part of the GaN layer were shown to have lower values than those of the higher part (below MQWs), which is caused by the compressive stress formed by the sapphire substrate. Also, due to the tensile stress formed by an InGaN in the MQWs, the lattice parameters of the higher part were shown to have higher values. The AlGaN layer deposited on the MQWs produced a compressive stress on the GaN layer so that the average lattice parameters of the GaN layer with the AlGaN layer were lower than those without the AlGaN layer. Therefore, we conclude that the AlGaN layer plays a role in reducing the localized residual strain on the GaN layer below the MQWs.

  10. Residual strain mapping of Roman styli from Iulia Concordia, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvemini, Filomena; Grazzi, Francesco; Angelini, Ivana; Davydov, Vadim; Vontobel, Peter; Vigoni, Alberto; Artioli, Gilberto; Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Iulia Concordia is an important Roman settlement known for the production of iron objects and weapons during the Roman Empire. A huge number of well-preserved styli were found in the past century in the bed of an old channel. In order to shed light about the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing, a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis was performed on the POLDI materials science diffractometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Here, we present results from our investigation conducted on 11 samples, allowing to define, in a non-invasive way, the residual strain map related to the ancient Roman working techniques. - Highlights: • We examined 11 Roman styli from the settlement of Iulia Concordia, Italy. • We performed a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis on POLDI at PSI (CH). • We identified the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing. • We clarified the way and direction of working applied for different classes of styli

  11. Residual strain mapping of Roman styli from Iulia Concordia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvemini, Filomena, E-mail: floriana.salvemini@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (Italy); Grazzi, Francesco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Angelini, Ivana [Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geoscienze (Italy); Davydov, Vadim; Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institut, SINQ Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen (Switzerland); Vigoni, Alberto [Dedalo s.n.c., Vicolo dei Conti 6, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Artioli, Gilberto [Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geoscienze (Italy); Zoppi, Marco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Iulia Concordia is an important Roman settlement known for the production of iron objects and weapons during the Roman Empire. A huge number of well-preserved styli were found in the past century in the bed of an old channel. In order to shed light about the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing, a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis was performed on the POLDI materials science diffractometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Here, we present results from our investigation conducted on 11 samples, allowing to define, in a non-invasive way, the residual strain map related to the ancient Roman working techniques. - Highlights: • We examined 11 Roman styli from the settlement of Iulia Concordia, Italy. • We performed a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis on POLDI at PSI (CH). • We identified the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing. • We clarified the way and direction of working applied for different classes of styli.

  12. Residual strain evolution in steel samples: tension versus torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, J. R.; Penumadu, D.; Hubbard, C. R.

    2010-06-01

    Torsion provides a unique opportunity to probe mechanical behavior of materials subjected to pure state of shear stress. In this research, identical steel alloy (12L14) hollow cylinder samples are subjected to predetermined amounts of plastic axial and shear strain such that their octahedral shear strain (an invariant) are identical for comparison. Measurements were made at the residual stress measuring facility at the High Flux Isotope Reactor in Oak Ridge (NRSF2), using a small gauge area in the direction of strain gradients (0.5 mm×0.5 mm) through the hollow cylinder wall thickness. These orthogonal strains are obtained for BCC Fe for three hkl’s. Three normal strains in the hoop, radial, and axial directions are obtained as a function of centroid position of the gauge volume through the 2 mm wall thickness. Significant differences in measured residual strains are noted between the torsion and the tension samples. The largest differences are found for the Fe (200) planes while the smallest differences are observed for the Fe (211) planes. This research demonstrates the need for a systematic study of residual strain as a function of applied stress path moving beyond tensile testing for solving real world problems.

  13. submitter Digital Image Correlation of 2D X-ray Powder Diffraction Data for Lattice Strain Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hongjia; Salvati, Enrico; Daisenberger, Dominik; Lunt, Alexander J G; Fong, Kai Soon; Song, Xu; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2018-01-01

    High energy 2D X-ray powder diffraction experiments are widely used for lattice strain measurement. The 2D to 1D conversion of diffraction patterns is a necessary step used to prepare the data for full pattern refinement, but is inefficient when only peak centre position information is required for lattice strain evaluation. The multi-step conversion process is likely to lead to increased errors associated with the ‘caking’ (radial binning) or fitting procedures. A new method is proposed here that relies on direct Digital Image Correlation analysis of 2D X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD-DIC, for short). As an example of using XRD-DIC, residual strain values along the central line in a Mg AZ31B alloy bar after 3-point bending are calculated by using both XRD-DIC and the conventional ‘caking’ with fitting procedures. Comparison of the results for strain values in different azimuthal angles demonstrates excellent agreement between the two methods. The principal strains and directions are calculated...

  14. Reduction of residual strains in weldments in explosion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsemakhovich, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Peculiarities of large-size item strains in explosion cladding have been investigated. Causes of explosion-welded item destruction under the action of reflected waves have been established by means of the acoustic analysis of the item-support system. It is suggested to use grit as a support which permits to decrease 3-4 times and stabilize residual strains and reduce to minimum the probability of crack appearance

  15. X-ray determination of crystallite size and effect of lattice strain on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interesting to study the effect of lattice strains on the Debye–. Waller factors of this metal. Inagaki et al (1971, .... This shows that while milling is enough to create strains, it affects the particle size to a measurable extent. A typical Hall–. Williamson plot is shown in figure 1 for Pt after grinding for 15 h. 4. Results and discussion.

  16. Influence of strain gradients on lattice rotation in nano-indentation experiments: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Demiral, Murat

    2014-07-01

    In this paper the texture evolution in nano-indentation experiments was investigated numerically. To achieve this, a three-dimensional implicit finite-element model incorporating a strain-gradient crystal-plasticity theory was developed to represent accurately the deformation of a body-centred cubic metallic material. A hardening model was implemented to account for strain hardening of the involved slip systems. The surface topography around indents in different crystallographic orientations was compared to corresponding lattice rotations. The influence of strain gradients on the prediction of lattice rotations in nano-indentation was critically assessed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..

  17. Residual entropy and waterlike anomalies in the repulsive one dimensional lattice gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando Barbosa V. da [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Brasília, Campus São Sebastião, São Sebastião-DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando Albuquerque, E-mail: fao@fis.unb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, Marco Aurélio A., E-mail: aureliobarbosa@gmail.com [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência de Materiais, Faculdade UnB Planaltina, Universidade de Brasília, Planaltina-DF (Brazil)

    2015-04-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of the one dimensional lattice gas with repulsive interaction are investigated using transfer matrix technique and Monte Carlo simulations. This simple model is shown to exhibit waterlike anomalies in density, thermal expansion coefficient, and self-diffusion. An unified description for the thermodynamic anomalies in this model is achieved based on the ground state residual entropy which appears in the model due to mixing entropy in a ground state phase transition.

  18. Revealing ultralarge and localized elastic lattice strains in Nb nanowires embedded in NiTi matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Ketao; Mao, Shengcheng; Cai, Jixiang; Liu, Yinong; Li, Haixin; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Cui, Lishan

    2015-12-02

    Freestanding nanowires have been found to exhibit ultra-large elastic strains (4 to 7%) and ultra-high strengths, but exploiting their intrinsic superior mechanical properties in bulk forms has proven to be difficult. A recent study has demonstrated that ultra-large elastic strains of ~6% can be achieved in Nb nanowires embedded in a NiTi matrix, on the principle of lattice strain matching. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated the elastic deformation behavior of a Nb nanowire embedded in NiTi matrix by means of in situ transmission electron microscopic measurement during tensile deformation. The experimental work revealed that ultra-large local elastic lattice strains of up to 8% are induced in the Nb nanowire in regions adjacent to stress-induced martensite domains in the NiTi matrix, whilst other parts of the nanowires exhibit much reduced lattice strains when adjacent to the untransformed austenite in the NiTi matrix. These observations provide a direct evidence of the proposed mechanism of lattice strain matching, thus a novel approach to designing nanocomposites of superior mechanical properties.

  19. Geometrical Deviation and Residual Strain in Novel Silicon-on-Aluminium-Nitride Bonded Wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Chuan-Ling; Xu, Zheng; Wu, Yan-Jun; An, Zheng-Hua; Xie, Xin-Yun; Lin, Cheng-Lu

    2002-11-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN), with much higher thermal conductivity, is considered to be an excellent alternative to the SiO2 layer in traditional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) materials. The silicon-on-aluminium-nitride (SOAN) structure was fabricated by the smart-cut process to alleviate the self-heating effects for traditional SOI. The convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction pattern results show that some rotational misalignment exists when two wafers are bonded, which is about 3°. The high-resolution x-ray diffraction result indicates that, before annealing at high temperature, the residual lattice strain in the top silicon layer is tensile. After annealing at 1100°C for an hour, the strain in the top Si decreases greatly and reverses from tensile to slightly compressive as a result of viscous flow of AlN.

  20. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  1. Effect of particle size and lattice strain on Debye–Waller factors of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    in the present investigation has been used to estimate the vacancy formation energies for Fe3C nanoparticles. Keywords. ... XRD technique is free from these limitations. X-ray diffraction is, on the other .... Values of particle size (t), lattice strain (ε), mean Debye–Waller factor (B), root mean square amplitudes of vibration 〈u〉 ...

  2. A production of non-strain spacing of lattice planes measurement equipment and a measurement of general structure material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, Nobuaki; Moriai, Atsushi; Morii, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    It is necessary to determine Δd/d in the internal stress measurement by the neutron diffraction method. Therefore, in case the non-strain spacing of lattice planes d 0 (hkl) is measured using bulk material, even though it does and attaches in a sample table length or every width and it is performing the diffraction measurement, it is difficult to determine for a true non-strain spacing of lattice planes by a processing strain, the grain-orientation, etc. It is available for the infinite thing spacing of lattice planes near non-strain condition to be measured by doing random rotation for bulk material in a beam center, and measuring an average spacing of lattice planes. Practical non-strain spacing of lattice planes measurement equipment was made, and the measurement was performed about much structure material. (author)

  3. Residual strain distribution in bent composite boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fei; Hubbard, Camden R.; Sarma, Gorti; Keiser, James

    2006-01-01

    Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes

  4. Lattice strain development in Inconel-690 under bi-axial compression and tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Rebecca Midori

    Nuclear reactor steam generator tubes, manufactured from Nickel alloys such as Inconel 690 (INC690), are potentially susceptible to failure by Stress Corrosion Cracking where crack initiation may be exacerbated by internal stress fields. A more comprehensive understanding of this potential failure mechanism was gained via an exploration of a model of INC690.s behaviour under Constrained loading conditions in compression and tension. An Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent (EPSC) model was used to predict the lattice stresses and strains resulting from Constrained loading in INC690 for four crystallographic planes. The internal strain fields generated under such conditions were shown to be markedly different from those developed under Uniaxial loading. Finite Element Modeling was used to design tensile and compression samples as well as a testing rig that would allow the application of a compressive load along one axis of the specimen with simultaneous constraint along another and free-deformation along the third. Lattice strain measurements were done for both compressive and tensile loading using Time-Of-Flight neutron diffraction. The predicted and experimental values showed reasonable agreement; mainly in terms of crystallographic plane interaction and behaviour. Iterative computer modeling was used to achieve a more realistic depiction of the lattice strains developed. This research allowed for an extension on the Uniaxial findings by examining the material's behaviour under more complex loading that better approximates steam generator tube operating conditions.

  5. Hybrid Lattice Particle Modelling Approach for Polymeric Materials Subject to High Strain Rate Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Radziszewski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Lattice Particle modelling (HLPM is an innovative particular dynamics approach that is established based on a combination of the particle modelling (PM technique together with the conventional lattice modelling (LM theory. It is developed for the purpose of simulating the dynamic fragmentation of solids under high strain rate loadings at macroscales with a varying Poisson's ratio. HLPM is conceptually illustrated by fully dynamic particles (or “quasi-particles” placed at the nodes of a lattice network without explicitly considering their geometric size. The interaction potentials among the particles can employ either linear (quadratic or nonlinear (Leonard-Jones or strain rate dependent polynomial type as the axial/angular linkage. The defined spring constants are then mapped into lattice system, which are in turn matched with the material’s continuum-level elastic moduli, strength, Poisson's ratio and mass density. As an accurate dynamic fracture solver of materials, HLPM has its unique advantages over the other numerical techniques which are mainly characterized as easy preparation of inputs, high computation efficiency, ability of post-fracture simulation and a multiscale model, etc., This paper is to review the successful HLPM studies of dynamic fragmentation of polymeric materials with good accuracy. Polymeric materials, including nylon 6-6, vinyl ester and epoxy, are accounted for under the loading conditions of tension, indentation and punctuation. In addition, HLPM of wave propagation and wave induced fracture study is also reviewed.

  6. Lattice strain accompanying the colossal magnetoresistance effect in EuB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Das, Pintu; de Souza, Mariano; Schnelle, Frank; Lang, Michael; Müller, Jens; von Molnár, Stephan; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-08-08

    The coupling of magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom to the crystal lattice in the ferromagnetic semimetal EuB(6), which exhibits a complex ferromagnetic order and a colossal magnetoresistance effect, is studied by high-resolution thermal expansion and magnetostriction experiments. EuB(6) may be viewed as a model system, where pure magnetism-tuned transport and the response of the crystal lattice can be studied in a comparatively simple environment, i.e., not influenced by strong crystal-electric field effects and Jahn-Teller distortions. We find a very large lattice response, quantified by (i) the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, (ii) the spontaneous strain when entering the ferromagnetic region, and (iii) the magnetostriction in the paramagnetic temperature regime. Our analysis reveals that a significant part of the lattice effects originates in the magnetically driven delocalization of charge carriers, consistent with the scenario of percolating magnetic polarons. A strong effect of the formation and dynamics of local magnetic clusters on the lattice parameters is suggested to be a general feature of colossal magnetoresistance materials.

  7. Optimised ExpTime Tableaux for ℋℐ over Finite Residuated Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes to adopt a novel tableau reasoning algorithm for the description logic ℋℐ with semantics based on a finite residuated De Morgan lattice. The syntax, semantics, and logical properties of this logic are given, and a sound, complete, and terminating tableaux algorithm for deciding fuzzy ABox consistency and concept satisfiability problem with respect to TBox is presented. Moreover, based on extended and/or completion-forest with a series of sound optimization technique for checking satisfiability with respect to a TBox in the logic, a new optimized ExpTime (complexity-optimal tableau decision procedure is presented here. The experimental evaluation indicates that the optimization techniques we considered result in improved efficiency significantly.

  8. Local thermal expansions and lattice strains in Elinvar and stainless steel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Toshihiko; Koide, Akihiro; Uemura, Yohei

    2018-02-01

    Local thermal expansions and lattice strains in the Elinvar alloy Fe49.66Ni42.38Cr5.49Ti2.47 (Ni Span C) and the stainless steel SUS304 Fe71.98Ni9.07Cr18.09Mn0.86 (AISI304) were investigated by the temperature-dependent Cr, Fe, and Ni K -edge extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements, combined with the path-integral effective classical potential Monte Carlo (PIECP MC) theoretical simulations. From the EXAFS analysis of the Elinvar alloy, the local thermal expansion around Fe is found to be considerably smaller than the ones around Ni and Cr. This observation can be understood simply because Fe in the Elinvar alloy exhibit an incomplete Invar-like effect. Moreover, in both the Elinvar and SUS304 alloys, the local thermal expansions and the lattice strains around Cr are found to be larger than those around Fe and Ni. From the PIECP MC simulations of both the alloys, the first-nearest neighbor Cr-Fe pair shows extraordinarily large thermal expansion, while the Cr-Cr pair exhibits quite small or even negative thermal expansion. These findings consequently indicate that the lattice strains in both the Elinvar and SUS304 alloys are concentrated predominantly on the Cr atoms. Although the role of Cr in stainless steel has been known to inhibit corrosion by the formation of surface chromium oxide, the present investigation may interestingly suggest that the Cr atoms in the bulk play a hidden new role of absorbing inevitable lattice strains in the alloys.

  9. Self-consistent modelling of lattice strains during the in-situ tensile loading of twinning induced plasticity steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, Ahmed A.; Pereloma, Elena V.; Clausen, Bjørn; Brown, Donald W.; Tomé, Carlos N.; Gazder, Azdiar A.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of lattice strains in a fully recrystallised Fe–24Mn–3Al–2Si–1Ni–0.06C TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel subjected to uniaxial tensile loading up to a true strain of ∼35% was investigated via in-situ neutron diffraction. Typical of fcc elastic and plastic anisotropy, the {111} and {200} grain families record the lowest and highest lattice strains, respectively. Using modelling cases with and without latent hardening, the recently extended Elasto-Plastic Self-Consistent model successfully predicted the macroscopic stress–strain response, the evolution of lattice strains and the development of crystallographic texture. Compared to the isotropic hardening case, latent hardening did not have a significant effect on lattice strains and returned a relatively faster development of a stronger 〈111〉 and a weaker 〈100〉 double fibre parallel to the tensile axis. Close correspondence between the experimental lattice strains and those predicted using particular orientations embedded within a random aggregate was obtained. The result suggests that the exact orientations of the surrounding aggregate have a weak influence on the lattice strain evolution

  10. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400 Y 15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  11. First in-situ lattice strains measurements under load at VULCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Ke; Skorpenske, Harley David; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Wang, Xun-Li; Cakmak, Ercan

    2011-01-01

    The engineering materials diffractometer, VULCAN, at the Spallation Neutron Source began commissioning on June 26, 2009. This instrument is designed for materials science and engineering studies. In situ lattice strain measurements of a model metallic material under monotonic tensile load have been performed on VULCAN. The tensile load was applied under two different strain rates, and neutron diffraction measurements were carried out in both high-intensity and high-resolution modes. These experiments demonstrated VULCAN's in situ study capability of deformation behaviors even during the early phases of commissioning.

  12. Control of Induced and Residual Crystal-Scale Strains on Tensile Failure in Pure Quartzite and Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtlaender, A.; Leith, K.; Mueller, B.; Scheffzuek, C.; Schilling, F. R.; Krautblatter, M.

    2016-12-01

    Near surface fracture development in rocks is controlled by a) mineralogical composition, b) applied external loads and environmental chemistry and c) pre-existing microstructure e.g. crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and locked-in residual strains. To better understand how some of these factors influence brittle failure of rocks, we undertake staged Brazilian tests under unique in situ conditions at the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) strain diffractometer EPSILON, at the IBR-2M, Dubna, Russia. We measure elastic strains by high resolution TOF diffraction within three cylindrical samples (Ø= 30 mm, l= 22 mm) of pure quartzite (> 98 vol% SiO2, Dalsland quartzite) and two samples of pure marble (> 98 vol% CaCO3, Carrara marble), brought to failure under staged indirect tensile loading. Initial states are measured without load to determine the load-free lattice parameters. Load is increased in three to four stages of approximately 15%, 33%, 66%, and 75-80% of the ultimate intact rock strength, and maintained during diffraction measurements ( 12 hours each). Each load step is ensued by a load-free state. Deviatoric strain in both σ1 and σ3, as well as residual strain, with reference to a strain-free state of powdered samples are calculated for whole diffraction patterns and single Bragg diffraction peaks. Our results provide insight into the mechanical behavior and intra-crystalline strain state of two metamorphic rocks under indirect tensile loading. Both the pre-test quartzite and marble exhibit residual lattice strains of several MPa, reflecting the regional stress field during their formation and exhumation. Superposition of residual strain is already observed following the first load stage in both materials. During subsequent loading stages, inelastic strains accumulate due to grain boundary glides, micro-plasticity and eventually microcracks, promoting the progressive failure of the rock. These results provide insight into the behaviour of rock during

  13. Lattice-Strain Control of the Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, P. [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin); Koh, Shirlaine [University of Houston, Houston; Anniyev, Toyli [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Greeley, Jeff [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Yu, Chengfei [University of Houston, Houston; Liu, Zengcai [University of Houston, Houston; Kaya, Sarpa [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Nordlund, Dennis [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Ogasawara, Hirohito [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Toney, Michael F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Anders, Nilsson [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We demonstrate the core-shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity-strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  14. Lattice-Strain Control of the Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, Peter; Shirlaine, Koh; Anniyev, Toyli; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; More, Karren L.; Yu, Chengfei; Liu, Zengcai; Kaya, Sarp; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Toney, Michael F.; Nilsson, Anders R.

    2010-04-30

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal–air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal–air batteries. We demonstrate the core–shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity–strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  15. Dependence of lattice strain of magnetite nanoparticles on precipitation temperature and pH of solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, A. H. M.; Salimi, M. N.; Jamlos, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method at different precipitation temperature and pH of solution. The produced inverse spinel cubic structure can be denoted to magnetite structure as deduced from X–ray diffraction (XRD) result. X-ray peak broadening analysis was utilized to determine the crystallite sizes and lattice strain present by the Williamson-Hall method. The results showed that the average crystallite size and tensile strain of the nanoparticles was first decrease before rising again at a certain temperature. The same phenomenon of size was experienced on the pH variation of the solution with compressive and tensile strain was displayed. Is was observed that the almost perfect structure (very low strain) and relatively small nanoparticles was synthesized at temperature of 70 °C and pH of 11.94 with 8.89 nm in size.

  16. Lattice strain in irradiated materials unveils a prevalent defect evolution mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelle, Aurélien; Crocombette, Jean-Paul; Boulle, Alexandre; Chartier, Alain; Jourdan, Thomas; Pellegrino, Stéphanie; Bachiller-Perea, Diana; Carpentier, Denise; Channagiri, Jayanth; Nguyen, Tien-Hien; Garrido, Frédérico; Thomé, Lionel

    2018-01-01

    Modification of materials using ion beams has become a widespread route to improve or design materials for advanced applications, from ion doping for microelectronic devices to emulation of nuclear reactor environments. Yet, despite decades of studies, major issues regarding ion/solid interactions are not solved, one of them being the lattice-strain development process in irradiated crystals. In this work, we address this question using a consistent approach that combines x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements with both molecular dynamics (MD) and rate equation cluster dynamics (RECD) simulations. We investigate four distinct materials that differ notably in terms of crystalline structure and nature of the atomic bonding. We demonstrate that these materials exhibit a common behavior with respect to the strain development process. In fact, a strain build-up followed by a strain relaxation is observed in the four investigated cases. The strain variation is unambiguously ascribed to a change in the defect configuration, as revealed by MD simulations. Strain development is due to the clustering of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, while the strain release is associated with the disappearance of these loops through their integration into a network of dislocation lines. RECD calculations of strain depth profiles, which are in agreement with experimental data, indicate that the driving force for the change in the defect nature is the defect clustering process. This study paves the way for quantitative predictions of the microstructure changes in irradiated materials.

  17. Lattice-Strain Control of Exceptional Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasser, Peter

    2011-08-19

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical approach to demonstrate how lattice strain can be used to continuously tune the catalytic activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on bimetallic nanoparticles that have been dealloyed. The sluggish kinetics of the ORR is a key barrier to the adaptation of fuel cells and currently limits their widespread use. Dealloyed Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles, however, have been shown to exhibit uniquely high reactivity for this reaction. We first present evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure during dealloying, which involves removal of Cu from the surface and subsurface of the precursor nanoparticles. We then show that the resulting Pt-rich surface shell exhibits compressive strain that depends on the composition of the precursor alloy. We next demonstrate the existence of a downward shift of the Pt d-band, resulting in weakening of the bond strength of intermediate oxygenated species due to strain. Finally, we combine synthesis, strain, and catalytic reactivity in an experimental/theoretical reactivity-strain relationship which provides guidelines for the rational design of strained oxygen reduction electrocatalysts. The stoichiometry of the precursor, together with the dealloying conditions, provides experimental control over the resulting surface strain and thereby allows continuous tuning of the surface electrocatalytic reactivity - a concept that can be generalized to other catalytic reactions.

  18. Residual strain and stress measurements by neutron diffraction in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The residual stress remarkably affects fracture strength, fatigue strength and stress corrosion cracking. It is very much important to measure the residual stresses in the materials in order to secure the reliability of structure. One of the big characteristics of neutron is large penetration depth. This feature enables to measure the residual strain or stress inside of structural components and machine parts. In this paper, several industrial applications of residual stress and strain measurements by neutron diffraction would be introduced. (author)

  19. Studies on the measurement and modeling of lattice strains in rolled Zircaloy-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skippon, Travis

    Neutron diffraction is a widely used technique for measuring internal stresses inside polycrystalline materials. By examining the diffraction patterns collected during in situ uniaxial deformation, the lattice strains along various crystallographic directions can be calculated. These lattice strains give insight into the active deformation mechanisms active within the material during plastic deformation. This is most commonly done by fitting model results to the experimentally measured lattice strains through an iterative process of refining the model parameters. A numerical optimization technique was successfully applied to the problem of refining the input parameters of an elastoplastic self-consistent (EPSC) model. The results were found to be comparable to those obtained by a past researcher manually refining the model parameters and subjectively judging the fit to the experimental data. The numerical optimization method was able to reach an acceptable result much faster than is possible by a human being (days as opposed to weeks or months), meaning that it has the potential to reduce the turn-around time from data collection to interpretation/publication significantly. At the same time, common experimental techniques for conducting diffraction experiments during uniaxial deformation tests were examined. It is common to use an interrupted loading scheme where the sample is brought to a certain loading condition and then held steady while the neutron data is collected, a processes that often takes several minutes. This interrupted loading may be done such that the sample is held at constant stress, strain, or simply by having the load frame stay in a constant position. Each of these different loading modes results in a particular type of relaxation within the sample as it is being held, so a series of experiments were conducted to investigate any impact these different relaxation types may have on the measured values of the lattice strains. Overall it was found

  20. Geometry of X-ray based measurement of residual strain at desired penetration depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawiec, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow (Poland)

    2017-10-15

    X-ray based measurement of residual lattice strains at chosen penetration depth is one of the methods for investigating strain inhomogeneities in near-surface layers of polycrystalline materials. The measurement relies on determining shifts of Bragg peaks for various directions of the scattering vector with respect to the specimen. At each of these directions, to reach a given the penetration depth, a proper specimen orientation is required. The task of determining such orientations, albeit elementary, is quite intricate. The existing literature describes only partial solutions with unspecified domains of application, which fail if applied to beyond the domains. Therefore, geometric aspects of the measurement are analyzed in details. Explicit bounds on measurement parameters are given. The equation fundamental for the procedure is solved with respect to specimen orientations. For a given direction of the scattering vector, there are generally four different specimen orientations leading to the same penetration depth. This simple fact (overlooked in previous analyses) can be used for improving reliability of measurement results. Analytical formulas for goniometer angles representing these orientations are provided. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Mapping of Lattice Strain in 4H-SiC Crystals by Synchrotron Double-Crystal X-ray Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianqiu; Yang, Yu; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Stoupin, Stanislav

    2018-02-01

    The presence of lattice strain in n-doped 4H-SiC substrate crystals grown by a physical vapor transport method can strongly influence the performance of related power devices that are fabricated on them. Information on the level and the variation of lattice strain in these wafer crystals is thus important. In this study, a non-destructive method is developed based on synchrotron double-crystal x-ray topography to map lattice strains in 4H-SiC wafers. Measurements are made on two 4H-SiC substrate crystals—one is an unprocessed commercial wafer while the other was subject to a post-growth high-temperature heat treatment. Maps of different strain components are generated from the equi-misorientation contour maps recorded using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. The technique is demonstrated to be a powerful tool in estimating strain fields in 4H-SiC crystals. Analysis of the strain maps also shows that the normal strain components vary much more significantly than do the shear/rotation components, indicating that lattice dilation/compression rather than lattice tilt is the major type of deformation caused by both the incorporation of nitrogen dopants and the nucleation of basal plane dislocations.

  2. Strained lattice with persistent atomic order in Pt3Fe2 intermetallic core-shell nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhudev, Sagar; Bugnet, Matthieu; Bock, Christina; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2013-07-23

    Fine-tuning nanocatalysts to enhance their catalytic activity and durability is crucial to commercialize proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The structural ordering and time evolution of ordered Pt3Fe2 intermetallic core-shell nanocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction that exhibit increased mass activity (228%) and an enhanced catalytic activity (155%) compared to Pt/C has been quantified using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. These catalysts were found to exhibit a static core-dynamic shell regime wherein, despite treating over 10,000 cycles, there is negligible decrease (9%) in catalytic activity and the ordered Pt3Fe2 core remained virtually intact while the Pt shell suffered a continuous enrichment. The existence of this regime was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction and the compositional analyses using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. With atomic-scale two-dimensional (2-D) surface relaxation mapping, we demonstrate that the Pt atoms on the surface are slightly relaxed with respect to bulk. The cycled nanocatalysts were found to exhibit a greater surface relaxation compared to noncycled catalysts. With 2-D lattice strain mapping, we show that the particle was about -3% strained with respect to pure Pt. While the observed enhancement in their activity is ascribed to such a strained lattice, our findings on the degradation kinetics establish that their extended catalytic durability is attributable to a sustained atomic order.

  3. Experimental measurement of lattice strain pole figures using synchrotron x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.P.; Bernier, J.V.; Park, J.-S.; Kazimirov, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a system for mechanically loading test specimens in situ for the determination of lattice strain pole figures and their evolution in multiphase alloys via powder diffraction. The data from these experiments provide insight into the three-dimensional mechanical response of a polycrystalline aggregate and represent an extremely powerful material model validation tool. Relatively thin (0.5 mm) iron/copper specimens were axially strained using a mechanical loading frame beyond the macroscopic yield strength of the material. The loading was halted at multiple points during the deformation to conduct a diffraction experiment using a 0.5x0.5 mm 2 monochromatic (50 keV) x ray beam. Entire Debye rings of data were collected for multiple lattice planes ({hkl}'s) in both copper and iron using an online image plate detector. Strain pole figures were constructed by rotating the loading frame about the specimen transverse direction. Ideal powder patterns were superimposed on each image for the purpose of geometric correction. The chosen reference material was cerium (IV) oxide powder, which was spread in a thin layer on the downstream face of the specimen using petroleum jelly to prevent any mechanical coupling. Implementation of the system at the A2 experimental station at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) is described. The diffraction moduli measured at CHESS were shown to compare favorably to in situ data from neutron-diffraction experiments conducted on the same alloys

  4. Tuning of magnetic property by lattice strain in lead substituted cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajnish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Patna 801103 (India); Singh, Rakesh Kr. [Aryabhatta Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Aryabhatta Knowledge University, Patna 800001 (India); Zope, Mukesh Kumar [Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sheikhpura, Patna 800014 (India); Kar, Manoranjan, E-mail: mano@iitp.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, Patna 801103 (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Increase of lattice parameter due to Pb substitution in CFO. • Magnetism due to lattice strain in nonmagnetic (Pb) substituted CFO. • Saturation magnetization increases up to 2% Pb concentration. • Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant increases up to 2% Pb concentration. • Existence of non-collinear spin structure which can be explained by three sublattice model of Yafet and Kittel. - Abstract: Co{sub 1−x}Pb{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 00–0.15) have been synthesized using citric acid modified sol-gel method. Samples for x ≤ 0.02 have been ball milled to reduce the particle size. Hence, all the materials under the study are in almost equal crystallite size (∼15 nm). The phase purity and structural study have been carried out using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns reveals the increasing lattice parameter with the lead (Pb) concentration. Detailed analysis of the Raman spectroscopy data supports the XRD pattern analysis results. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements have been performed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at room temperature over field range of ±20 kOe. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant was calculated using Law of Approach (LA) to saturation, which shows increasing behavior till 2% Pb concentration. The large difference in experimental and theoretical saturation magnetic moment per formula unit shows existence of three sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel.

  5. Application of neutron diffraction to measure residual strains in high temperature composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigal, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental neutron diffraction technique was used to measure residual thermal strains developed in high temperature composites during postfabrication cooling. Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide (over the temperature range 20--950 degree C) and tungsten and saphikon fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide composites (at room temperature) were investigated. As a result of thermal expansion mismatch, compressive residual strains and stresses were generated in the silicon carbide fibers during cooldown. The axial residual strains were tensile in the matrix and were lower in nickel aluminide matrix as compared to those in titanium aluminide matrix. The average transverse residual strains in the matrix were compressive. Liquid-nitrogen dipping and thermal-cycling tend to reduce the fabrication-induced residual strains in silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide matrix composite. However, matrix cracking can occur as a result of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  7. Systematic design of 3D auxetic lattice materials with programmable Poisson’s ratio for finite strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for designing 3D auxetic lattice materials, which exhibit constant negative Poisson’s ratios over large strain intervals. A unit cell model mimicking tensile tests is established and based on the proposed model, the secant Poisson’s ratio is defined...... as the negative ratio between the lateral and the longitudinal engineering strains. The optimization problem for designing a material unit cell with a target Poisson’s ratio is formulated to minimize the average lateral engineering stresses under the prescribed deformations. Numerical results demonstrate that 3D......, material architectures for any Poisson’s ratio in the interval of ν∈[−0.78,0.00] are explicitly presented. Numerical evaluations show that interpolated auxetic lattice materials exhibit constant Poisson’s ratios in the target strain interval of [0.00, 0.20] and that 3D auxetic lattice material...

  8. Lattice strain and texture evolution during room-temperature deformation in Zircaloy-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng

    Zircaloy-2 and its sister alloy, Zircaloy-4, have extensive applications in the nuclear industry as core components in heavy water reactors and fuel cladding in both heavy and light water reactors. Intergranular stresses and texture can greatly affect the mechanical performance of these components. A complete understanding of the development of intergranular constraints and texture in Zircaloy-2 will allow an improved understanding of the plastic deformation of zirconium alloys, and the prediction of in-reactor deformation of tubes made by different manufacturing routes. Neutron diffraction was used to track the development of lattice strain and peak intensity in three dimensions for various crystallographic planes in samples cut from a rolled Zircaloy-2 slab. The samples were subject to room temperature compression or tension in-situ in the neutron spectrometer in each of the three principal directions of the slab. Textures in the deformed samples were measured using neutron diffraction. Strong evidence was found for tensile twinning in tensile tests in the plate normal direction and compression tests in the transverse and rolling directions. The lattice strain development inside the newly formed twins was recorded for the first time in a Zr alloy. An elasto-plastic self-consistent model and a visco-plastic self-consistent model were used to interpret the lattice strain and texture data, respectively. Various slip and twinning modes were considered in both models. Prism slip, basal slip, pyramidal slip and tensile twinning were concluded to be indispensable, while pyramidal slip was unnecessary in the modeling. The critical resolved shear stresses and hardening parameters were obtained by simultaneously achieving a 'best-fit' with the complete experimental data set. The effects of anisotropic latent hardening due to dislocation interactions were found to be critical, and the inclusion of Lankford coefficients as modeling constraints was necessary. This research

  9. Microstructure and temperature dependence of intergranular strains on diffractometric macroscopic residual stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.N.; Hofmann, M.; Wimpory, R.; Krempaszky, C.; Stockinger, M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the macroscopic residual stresses in components of complex high performance alloys is crucial when it comes to considering the safety and manufacturing aspects of components. Diffraction experiments are one of the key methods for studying residual stresses. However a component of the residual strain determined by diffraction experiments, known as microstrain or intergranular residual strain, occurs over the length scale of the grains and thus plays only a minor role for the life time of such components. For the reliable determination of macroscopic strains (with the minimum influence of these intergranular residual strains), the ISO standard recommends the use of particular Bragg reflections. Here we compare the build-up of intergranular strain of two different precipitation hardened IN 718 (INCONEL 718) samples, with identical chemical composition. Since intergranular strains are also affected by temperature, results from room temperature measurement are compared to results at T=550 °C. It turned out that microstructural parameters, such as grain size or type of precipitates, have a larger effect on the intergranular strain evolution than the influence of temperature at the measurement temperature of T=550 °C. The results also show that the choice of Bragg reflections for the diffractometric residual stress analysis is dependent not only on its chemical composition, but also on the microstructure of the sample. In addition diffraction elastic constants (DECs) for all measured Bragg reflections are given

  10. In Situ Investigation of the Evolution of Lattice Strain and Stresses in Austenite and Martensite During Quenching and Tempering of Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, M.; Niessen, F.; Somers, M. A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate in situ the evolution of lattice strains and stresses in austenite and martensite during quenching and tempering of a soft martensitic stainless steel. In one experiment, lattice strains in austenite and martensite were me...

  11. Plastic strain and residual stress distributions in an AISI 304 stainless steel BWR pipe weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Tapio; Aalto, Miikka; Virkkunen, Iikka; Ehrnstén, Ulla; Hänninen, Hannu

    In AISI 304 stainless steel pipe welds weld shrinkage causes large variations in residual plastic strain in different parts of the weld metal and heat-affected zone (HAZ). The amount of strain was analyzed by EBSD quantitatively by comparing the intra-grain misorientations to the calibration curve. Highest degrees of plastic strain (10...20%) were detected in the HAZ close to the root area of a prototypical BWR plant weld. Strain in the weld metal varies in the different directions of solidification, being high in the weld bead boundaries and near the fusion lines. Preliminary studies of the effects of mechanical and elastic anisotropy of the weld metal microstructure on the grain size level were performed by EBSD and nanoindentation. The residual stress distribution in the same weld cross-section was determined by a contour method. The residual strain and stress distributions are superimposed and EAC susceptibility of various areas of the pipe weld is evaluated and discussed.

  12. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  13. EVALUATION OF RESIDUAL STRAINS ON ACOUSTIC QUALITY OF GUITAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Domnica STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess how the residual deformations of the guitar neck influence the quality of the musical instrument, knowing that wood is a material whose rheological behavior is influenced by many factors, including humidity, temperature, duration, intensity and how is applied the forces. Thus, it were analyzed two types of classical guitar - standard, without deformations and the other type with deformations of the guitar neck. Were determined flatness deviations of the neck by measuring the distance between strings and fretboard, at 12th fret by means of standardize device. Subsequently, each type of guitar was tested acoustically, recording frequency and harmonics. In the case of guitar characterized by residual deformations, acoustic characteristics (octaves, harmonics, amplitude were significantly altered due to strings length modifications.

  14. Growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and size in CdS nanoparticles: X-ray peak profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Rekha Garg; Rajaram, Poolla; Bajpai, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    This work is based on the growth, characterization and estimation of lattice strain and crystallite size in CdS nanoparticles by X-ray peak profile analysis. The CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by a non-aqueous solvothermal method and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD confirms that the CdS nanoparticles have the hexagonal structure. The Williamson-Hall (W-H) method was used to study the X-ray peak profile analysis. The strain-size plot (SSP) was used to study the individual contributions of crystallite size and lattice strain from the X-rays peaks. The physical parameters such as strain, stress and energy density values were calculated using various models namely, isotropic strain model, anisotropic strain model and uniform deformation energy density model. The particle size was estimated from the TEM images to be in the range of 20-40 nm. The Raman spectrum shows the characteristic optical 1LO and 2LO vibrational modes of CdS. UV-visible absorption studies show that the band gap of the CdS nanoparticles is 2.48 eV. The results show that the crystallite size estimated from Scherrer's formula, W-H plots, SSP and the particle size calculated by TEM images are approximately similar.

  15. Studying the effect of stress relaxation and creep on lattice strain evolution of stainless steel under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Clausen, B.; Tomé, C.N.; Wu, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Due to relatively long associated count times, in situ strain measurements using neutron diffraction requires periodic interruption of the test to collect the diffraction data by holding either the stress or the strain constant. As a consequence, stress relaxation or strain creep induced by the interrupts is inevitable, especially at loads which are close to the flow stress of the material. An in situ neutron diffraction technique, which consists in performing the diffraction measurements using continuous event-mode data collection while conducting the mechanical loading monotonically with a very slow loading rate, is proposed here to avoid the effects associated with interrupts. The lattice strains in stainless steel under uniaxial tension are measured using the three techniques, and the experimental results are compared to study the effect of stress relaxation and strain creep on the lattice strain measurements. The experimental results are simulated using both the elastic viscoplastic self-consistent (EVPSC) model and the elastic plastic self-consistent (EPSC) model. Both the EVPSC and EPSC models give reasonable predictions for all the three tests, with EVPSC having the added advantage over EPSC that it allows us to address the relaxation and creep effects in the interrupted tests

  16. Residual strain in the Nb3Sn 11 T dipole magnet coils for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerlein, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lorentzon, M.; Lackner, F.; Flükiger, R.; Savary, F.; Bottura, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nb3Sn magnets are presently built for the HL-LHC accelerator upgrade and are developed for the Future Circular Collider study. The knowledge of the Nb3Sn strain state distribution in these magnets is required in order to predict their ultimate performance limit. We have measured the Nb3Sn residual strain distribution in an 11 T dipole accelerator magnet coil. Ambient temperature Nb3Sn strain maps across 11 T dipole coil cross sections were acquired by means of fast high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Using complementary neutron diffraction measurements the Nb3Sn residual strain and stress was measured in the four largest conductor blocks of a massive 11 T dipole coil segment.

  17. Residual effects of successive exposure of soybean Bradyrhizobium strains to aluminium on solid defined medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Rubens José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these studies was to investigate whether residual toxic effects of exposing soybean root nodule bacteria to Al in a solid defined media (SDM alter tolerance to Al, survival, sensitivity to antibiotics, N2 fixation effectiveness and genetic diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains. After being exposed four times to Al, strains showed variation in Al tolerance but there was no evidence of change in their original Al tolerance, sensitivity to the antibiotics or genetic diversity. Exposure of Bradyrhizobium strains to SDM plus Al did not alter biological N2 fixation effectiveness of five strains. Strain SEMIA 587 showed a reduction in its N2 fixation effectiveness but it seems that it was just a superficial toxic effect because one single passage through the plant eliminated this effect. Residual Al did not cause increases in Al tolerance and reductions in the survival and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains USDA 143, SEMIA 586, SEMIA 5019, SEMIA 5039 and SEMIA 5073. It also did not alter the resistance to antibiotics of strains USDA 143, SEMIA 5039 and SEMIA 5073, and the genetic diversity of the strains SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019.

  18. Rational Manipulation of IrO2 Lattice Strain on α-MnO2 Nanorods as a Highly Efficient Water-Splitting Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Zhou, Zhenhua; Zaman, Waqas Qamar; Cao, Li-Mei; Yang, Ji

    2017-12-06

    Developing more efficient and stable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts is critical for future energy conversion and storage technologies. We demonstrate that inducing a lattice strain in IrO 2 crystal structure due to interface lattice mismatch enables an enhancement of the OER catalytic activity. The lattice strain is obtained by the direct growth of IrO 2 nanoparticles on a specially exposed surface of α-MnO 2 nanorods via a simple two-step hydrothermal synthesis. Interestingly, the prepared hydride OER activity increases with a lower IrO 2 grown mass, which offers an opportunity to reduce the usage of precious iridium and ultimately obtains a specific mass activity of 3.7 times than that of IrO 2 prepared under the same conditions and exhibits equivalent stability. The lattice mismatch in the underlying interface induces the formation of lattice strain in IrO 2 rather than the charge transfer between the materials. The lattice strain changes are in good agreement with the order of the OER activity. Our experimental results indicate that using the special exposed surface substrates or tuning the supporting morphology structure can manipulate the catalyst materials lattice strain for the design of more efficient OER catalysts.

  19. Suppression of surface effect by using bent-perfect-crystal monochromator in residual strain scanning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Miroslav; Mikula, Pavol

    490/491, - (2005), s. 234-238 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : neutron diffraction * residual strain scanning * bent monochromator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  20. Analysis on residual strain of Zipingpu Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam after Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenping; Chi, Shichun

    2013-06-01

    The Zipingpu Concrete Faced Rockfill Dam (CFRD) was subjected to significant local damage in the "5.12" Wenchuan earthquake. It is the first rockfill dam of more than one hundred meters high to encounter a strong earthquake anywhere in the world. Based on the finite element smoothing method, the residual strains at a typical cross-section and a downstream slope of the dam were obtained by processing the dam monitored displacement data. The position of and reason for the dam settlement and deformation of rockfill dilatancy in the earthquake were analyzed according to the section residual strain. The results show that the maximum settlement ratio on the dam body approximately occurs at 2/3 of the dam height; dilatancy occurs from the dam crest to 25-30 m in the upstream and downstream slope; the immediate cause of the face slabs horizontal construction joint dislocation is excessive residual shear strain. Meanwhile, the position of and reason for the dam fissure in the earthquake were analyzed according to the dam slope residual strain.

  1. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, Jo?o Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development.

  2. Synchrotron measurements of local microstructure and residual strains in ductile cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Andriollo, Tito; Fæster, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The local microstructure and distribution of thermally induced residual strains in ferrite matrix grains around an individual spherical graphite nodule in ductile cast iron (DCI) were measured using a synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction technique. It is found that the matrix grains are deformed, ...

  3. Effect of epitaxial strain and lattice mismatch on magnetic and transport behaviors in metamagnetic FeRh thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Xie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We grew 80 nm FeRh films on different single crystals with various lattice constants. FeRh films on SrTiO3 (STO and MgO substrates exhibit an epitaxial growth of 45° in-plane structure rotation. In contrast, FeRh on LaAlO3 (LAO displays a mixed epitaxial growth of both 45° in-plane structure rotation and cube-on-cube relationships. Due to the different epitaxial growth strains and lattice mismatch values, the critical temperature for the magnetic phase transition of FeRh can be changed between 405 and 360 K. In addition, the external magnetic field can shift this critical temperature to low temperature in different rates for FeRh films grown on different substrates. The magnetoresistance appears a maximum value at different temperatures between 320 and 380 K for FeRh films grown on different substrates.

  4. Effect of epitaxial strain and lattice mismatch on magnetic and transport behaviors in metamagnetic FeRh thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yali; Zhan, Qingfeng; Shang, Tian; Yang, Huali; Wang, Baomin; Tang, Jin; Li, Run-Wei

    2017-05-01

    We grew 80 nm FeRh films on different single crystals with various lattice constants. FeRh films on SrTiO3 (STO) and MgO substrates exhibit an epitaxial growth of 45° in-plane structure rotation. In contrast, FeRh on LaAlO3 (LAO) displays a mixed epitaxial growth of both 45° in-plane structure rotation and cube-on-cube relationships. Due to the different epitaxial growth strains and lattice mismatch values, the critical temperature for the magnetic phase transition of FeRh can be changed between 405 and 360 K. In addition, the external magnetic field can shift this critical temperature to low temperature in different rates for FeRh films grown on different substrates. The magnetoresistance appears a maximum value at different temperatures between 320 and 380 K for FeRh films grown on different substrates.

  5. Penicillium strains as dominant degraders in soil for coffee residue, a biological waste unsuitable for fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Takeshi, Kyoko

    2007-12-01

    Coffee residue is an agricultural waste which inhibits the growth of several crops. Therefore coffee residue-degrading microbes in soil were screened, isolated and characterized. Forty isolates were obtained after enrichment culture of soil samples. Seven strains (fast degraders) showed strong degrading activity, while 18 strains (slow degraders) showed weak degrading activity. DNA analysis suggested that the fast degraders are Penicillium, and the slow degraders are Penicillium, Trichoderma/Hypocrea, Fusarium/Gibberella, Phaeoacremonium/Togninia or Acidocella. The all fast degraders are cellulolytic, mannolytic and pectinolytic. Although it is generally thought that fungi such as Trichoderma contribute largely to aerobic degradation of cellulosic biomass, our data suggested that Penicillium overwhelms them in coffee residue degradation. It was implied that polysaccharides in coffee residue are not degraded independently by different microbes, but degraded simultaneously by strains with cellulolytic, mannolytic and pectinolytic activity. Since there is no report of an ascomycete possessing all the three enzyme activities, the fast degraders are ecologically important and have the potential to be used as producers of the costly enzymes from agricultural wastes. The present results advance our understanding of microbial degradation of a phytotoxic agricultural waste, and offer a new tool for recycling it.

  6. High energy white beam x-ray diffraction studies of residual strains in engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Vorster, W.; Jun, T. S.; Song, X.; Golshan, M.; Laundy, D.; Walsh, M. J.; Korsunsky, A. M.

    2008-09-01

    In order to predict the durability of engineering components and improve performance, it is mandatory to understand residual stresses. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase of residual stress evaluation using diffraction of penetrating radiation, such as neutrons or high energy X-rays. They provide a powerful non-destructive method for determining the level of residual stresses in engineering components through precise characterisation of interplanar crystal lattice spacing. The unique non-destructive nature of these measurement techniques is particularly beneficial in the context of engineering design, since it allows the evaluation of a variety of structural and deformational parameters inside real components without material removal, or at worst with minimal interference. However, while most real engineering components have complex shape and are often large in size, leading to measurement and interpretation difficulties, since experimental facilities usually have limited space for mounting the sample, limited sample travel range, limited loading capacity of the sample positioning system, etc. Consequently, samples often have to be sectioned, requiring appropriate corrections on measured data; or facilities must be improved. Our research group has contributed to the development of engineering applications of high-energy X-ray diffraction methods for residual stress evaluation, both at synchrotron sources and in the lab setting, including multiple detector setup, large engineering component manipulation and measurement at the UK Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS Daresbury), and in our lab at Oxford. A nickel base superalloy combustion casing and a large MIG welded Al alloy plate were successfully studied.

  7. Analytic examination of mechanism for compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain using peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Ryo; Hato, Hisamitsu; Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Yoshikubo, Fujio

    2016-01-01

    Our goal for this study was to understand the cause of the differences in surface properties between surfaces processed using water jet peening (WJP) and shot peening (SP) and to examine the compressive residual stress introduction process with low plastic strain using SP. The dynamic behaviors of stress and strain in surfaces during these processes were analyzed through elasto-plastic calculations using a finite-element method program, and the calculated results were compared with measured results obtained through experiments. Media impacting a surface results in a difference in the hardness and microstructure of the processed surface. During SP, a shot deforms the surface locally with stress concentration in the early stages of the impact, while shock waves deform the surface evenly throughout the wave passage across the surface during WJP. A shot with a larger diameter creates a larger impact area on the surface during shot impact. Thus, SP with a large-diameter shot suppresses the stress concentration under the same kinetic energy condition. As the shot diameter increases, the equivalent plastic strain decreases. On the other hand, the shot is subject to size restriction since the calculated results indicate the compressive residual stress at the surface decreased and occasionally became almost zero as the shot diameter increased. Thus, compressive residual stress introduction with low plastic strain by using SP is considered achievable by using shots with a large diameter and choosing the appropriate peening conditions. (author)

  8. Lattice strain estimation for CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nano particles using Williamson-Hall analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Kamal A., E-mail: kamalaly2001@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut (Egypt); Khalil, N.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 12311 Cairo (Egypt); Algamal, Yousif [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Qaid M.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khulais, University of Jeddah, Jiddah (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Education, Aden University, Sabwa (Yemen)

    2016-08-15

    CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via coprecipitation technique through mixing 1:1 M ratio of cobalt nitrate and aluminium nitrate solutions at pH 10. CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystalline phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result reveals that the particles of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} fired at 900 °C were relatively small (21 nm) and uniform. Increased temperature to 1200 °C gives rise to blocky particles and changes in the powders shape, that because of agglomeration came from the calcination of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Furthermore, the particle size increase with increasing the calcinated temperature. The crystalline sizes were evaluated by using X-ray peak broadening analysis suggested by Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis. It was successfully applied for lattice strain and to calculate mechanical stress and energy density values using different three models namely uniform deformation model (UDM), uniform deformation stress model (UDSM) and uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM). Also, the root mean square strain was determined. These models gave a different strain values which suggested an isotropic nature of the nanoparticles. Besides, the obtained results W-H analysis are in good agreement with that deduced from SEM analysis and Scherrer's formula. - Highlights: • CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via coprecipitation technique. • CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized by SEM and XRD. • the lattice size and strain were investigated according to W-H analysis. • The latic size were investigated by W-H analysis, SEM and Sherrar's method. • The root mean square strain was determined.

  9. Effect of Restorative Protocol on Cuspal Strain and Residual Stress in Endodontically Treated Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ras; Bicalho, A A; Franco, S D; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A; Soares, C J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the restorative protocol on cuspal strain, fracture resistance, residual stress, and mechanical properties of restorative materials in endodontically treated molars. Forty-five molars received mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) Class II preparations and endodontic treatment followed by direct restorations using three restorative protocols: composite resin (CR) only (Filtek Supreme, 3M-ESPE), resin modified glass ionomer cement in combination with CR (Vitremer, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity), conventional glass ionomer cement in combination with composite resin (CGI-CR) (Ketac Fil, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity). Cuspal strain was measured using strain gauges, and fracture resistance was tested with an occlusal load. Elastic modulus (EM) and Vickers hardness (VH) of the restorative materials were determined at different depths using dynamic microhardness indentation. Curing shrinkage was measured using the strain gauge technique. The restorative protocols were also simulated in finite element analysis (FEA). The shrinkage strain, cuspal strain, EM, VH, and fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance and Tukey test (p=0.05). Residual shrinkage stresses were expressed in modified von Mises equivalent stresses. Shrinkage strain values (in volume %) were Ketac Fil (0.08±0.01) restorative protocol significantly affected the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated molars. Using glass ionomer to fill the pulp chamber is recommended when endodontically treated molars receive direct composite restorations because it reduces cuspal strain and increases fracture resistance.

  10. Effect of fluence on the lattice site of implanted Er and implantation induced strain in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Decoster, S; Vantomme, A; Correi, J G

    2009-01-01

    A GaN thin film was implanted with 5 × 1014 cm−2 of 60 keV stable 166Er, followed by the implantation of 2 × 1013 cm−2 radioactive 167Tm (t1/2 = 9.3 d) and an annealing sequence up to 900 °C. The emission channeling (EC) technique was applied to assess the lattice location of Er following the Tm decay from the conversion electrons emitted by 167mEr, which showed that more than 50% of 167mEr occupies substitutional Ga sites. The results are briefly compared to a 167mEr lattice location experiment in a GaN sample not pre-implanted with 166Er. In addition, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to characterize the perpendicular strain in the high-fluence implanted film. The HRXRD experiments showed that the Er implantation resulted in an increase of the c-axis lattice constant of the GaN film around 0.5–0.7%. The presence of significant disorder within the implanted region was corroborated by the fact that the EC patterns for off-normal directions exhibit a pronounced angular broadening of t...

  11. Neutron diffraction measurements and modeling of residual strains in metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, A.; Leisk, G. G.; Hubbard, C. R.; Misture, S. T.; Wang, X. L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature are used to characterize the residual strains in tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix, tungsten fiber-reinforced Kanthal matrix, and diamond particulate-reinforced copper matrix composites. Results of finite element modeling are compared with the neutron diffraction data. In tungsten/Kanthal composites, the fibers are in compression, the matrix is in tension, and the thermal residual strains are a strong function of the volume fraction of fibers. In copper matrix composites, the matrix is in tension and the stresses are independent of the volume fraction of tungsten fibers or diamond particles and the assumed stress free temperature because of the low yield strength of the matrix phase.

  12. Residual strain and texture in free-standing nanoscale Cu-Nb multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydiner, C. C.; Brown, D. W.; Misra, A.; Mara, N. A.; Wang, Y.-C.; Wall, J. J.; Almer, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the residual strains in a free-standing Cu/Nb multilayer of 30 nm nominal layer thickness with synchrotron x-rays. This material system is characterized by columnar grains of Cu and Nb with incoherent interfaces and a sharp physical-vapor-deposition texture. High energy x-rays were used with an area detector along with multiple sample rotations to yield diffraction strain components in a very large number of directions. Due to the texture and the elastic anisotropy of constituents, observed diffraction strains cannot be derived from a single strain tensor (also known as linear sin 2 ψ). Orientation-dependent diffraction strain modeling is utilized with a Vook-Witt micromechanical model. Obtained phase-resolved in-plane stress magnitudes are -515 MPa in Nb and +513 MPa in Cu, satisfying force equilibrium within experimental errors. The stresses of this magnitude will certainly influence the mechanical behavior of the multilayer upon further loading. The Vook-Witt model describes the Nb diffraction strains very well, and thereby provides information on the stress distribution in crystallites as a function of their orientation. On the other hand, the same level of agreement with the Vook-Witt model has not been achieved for Cu diffraction strains

  13. Effect of lattice strain on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Khyati, E-mail: khyati34@gmail.com; Nirwal, Varun Singh; Singh, Joginder; Peta, Koteswara Rao; Bhatnagar, P. K. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021 (India); Singh, Inderpreet [Department of Electronics, SGTB KhalsaCollege, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this work, we have synthesized ZnO nanorods over ZnO seeds/ITO/glass substrate by the facile hydrothermal method. ZnO seeds are grown at different temperatures ranging from 150°C to 550°C in steps of 100°C. We have studied the effect of strain on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods. It was observed that the growth temperature of seed layer has an influence over the lattice strain present in the nanorods. The as synthesized nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). SEM images confirm the formation of dense arrays of vertically aligned nanorods on seeds which are grown at 350°C. In addition to this, XRD patterns reveal that these ZnO nanorods are preferentially oriented along (002) direction. The strain analysis based on the XRD results reveals that the minimum value of strain is obtained at 350°C which is attributed to the improved crystalline quality of the interface of seed layer and nanorods leading to their c-axis alignment and enhancement of ultraviolet emission as observed in the PL spectra.

  14. Great Disparity in Photoluminesence Quantum Yields of Colloidal CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Varied Shape: The Effect of Crystal Lattice Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangtao; Liu, Mei; Fang, Li; Jiang, Shenlong; Zhou, Jingtian; Ding, Huaiyi; Huang, Hongwen; Wen, Wen; Luo, Zhenlin; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Xiaoping; Gao, Chen

    2017-07-06

    Understanding the big discrepancy in the photoluminesence quantum yields (PLQYs) of nanoscale colloidal materials with varied morphologies is of great significance to its property optimization and functional application. Using different shaped CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with the same fabrication processes as model, quantitative synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the increasing trend in lattice strain values of the nanocrystals: nanocube, nanoplate, nanowire. Furthermore, transient spectroscopic measurements reveal the same trend in the defect quantities of these nanocrystals. These experimental results unambiguously point out that large lattice strain existing in CsPbBr 3 nanoparticles induces more crystal defects and thus decreases the PLQY, implying that lattice strain is a key factor other than the surface defect to dominate the PLQY of colloidal photoluminesence materials.

  15. Depth dependent lattice disorder and strain in Mn-implanted and post-annealed InAs thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Arrabal, R., E-mail: raquel.gonzalez.arrabal@upm.e [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Redondo-Cubero, A. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.; Martin-Gonzalez, M.S. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid CSIC C/ Isaac Newton, 8. Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The lattice order degree and the strain in as-grown, Mn-implanted and post-implanted annealed InAs thin films were investigated with depth resolution by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling conditions (RBS/C). Three main crystallographic axes were analyzed for both In and As sublattices. The behaviour of the induced defects was evaluated in two regions with different native defects: the interface and the surface. The results show that Mn implantation and post-implantation annealing are anisotropic processes, affecting in a different way the In and As sublattices. The mechanisms influencing the enhancement and deterioration of the crystal quality during the implantation are discussed in relation to the as-grown defects and the segregation of the elements.

  16. Residual stresses of water-jet peened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    The specimen material was austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L. The residual stress was induced by water-jet peening. The residual stress was measured using the 311 diffraction with conventional X-rays. The measured residual stress showed the equi-biaxial stress state. To investigate thermal stability of the residual stress, the specimen was aged thermally at 773K in air to 1000h. The residual stress kept the equi-biaxial stress state against the thermal aging. Lattice plane dependency of the residual stress induced by water-jet peening was evaluated using hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual stress measured by the soft lattice plane showed the equi-biaxial stress state, but the residual stress measured by the hard lattice plane did not. In addition, the distributions of the residual stress in the depth direction were measured using a strain scanning method with hard synchrotron X-rays and neutrons. (author)

  17. Simultaneous resonant x-ray diffraction measurement of polarization inversion and lattice strain in polycrystalline ferroelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorfman, S.; Simons, Hugh; Iamsasri, T.

    2016-01-01

    strain and, for the first time, polarization reversal during in-situ electrical perturbation. This technique is demonstrated for BaTiO3-BiZn0.5Ti0.5O3 (BT-BZT) polycrystalline ferroelectrics, a prototypical lead-free piezoelectric with an ambiguous switching mechanism. This combines the benefits...

  18. Estimation of lattice strain for zirconia nanoparticles based on Williamson- Hall analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Kamal A., E-mail: kamalaly2001@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khullais, University of Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut (Egypt); Khalil, N.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khullais, University of Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Refractories, Ceramics and Building Materials Department, National Research Centre, 12311, Cairo (Egypt); Algamal, Yousif [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khullais, University of Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Saleem, Qaid M.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science & Arts, Khullais, University of Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Aden University, Shabwa (Yemen)

    2017-06-01

    Nanoparticles of Zirconia were prepared (ZrO{sub 2}) by the neutralization of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate (ZrOCl{sub 2}-8H{sub 2}O) (2M) and ammonia solution (2M) at pH 8. The ZrO{sub 2} crystalline state was revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) images reveals that the as-synthesized ZrO{sub 2} particles at firing temperature of 800 °C are uniform and of range of 30 nm. Increasing of the temperature up to 1100 °C leads to the increase in particle size and alters the powders shape due to agglomeration arose from zirconia calcination as well as the increase in particle size. The X-ray peak broadening analysis (XRDBA) was used in the estimation of the crystalline size. Williamson-Hall (W-H) analysis was applied successfully to determine the energy density, stress, and the strain values via uniform deformation model (UDM), uniform deformation stress model (UDSM) and uniform deformation energy density model (UDEDM). The mean of the strain root square was calculated. The different strain values obtained from these models predicting the zirconia isotropic behavior. In addition to that, the W-H analysis results were discussed in terms of that obtained by Scherrer’s relationship, SEM and TEM images. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns for zirconia nano-particles at different calcined temperature. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) were synthesized. • The ZrO{sub 2} crystalline state was revealed by XRD, SEM and TEM. • SEM and TEM images reveals that the ZrO{sub 2} particles are uniform and relatively small. • Both blocky particles and the powders shape are affected by the firing temperature. • The crystalline sizes were estimated using X-ray peak broadening analysis (XRDBA).

  19. Dislocation, crystallite size distribution and lattice strain of magnesium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapa, I. W.; Wahid Wahab, Abdul; Taba, P.; Nafie, N. L.

    2018-03-01

    The oxide of magnesium nanoparticles synthesized using sol-gel method and analysis of the structural properties was conducted. The functional groups of nanoparticles has been analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Dislocations, average size of crystal, strain, stress, the energy density of crystal, crystallite size distribution and morphologies of the crystals were determined based on X-ray diffraction profile analysis. The morphological of the crystal was analysed based on the image resulted from SEM analysis. The crystallite size distribution was calculated with the contention that the particle size has a normal logarithmic form. The most orientations of crystal were determined based on the textural crystal from diffraction data of X-ray diffraction profile analysis. FT-IR results showed the stretching vibration mode of the Mg-O-Mg in the range of 400.11-525 cm‑1 as a broad band. The average size crystal of nanoparticles resulted is 9.21 mm with dislocation value of crystal is 0.012 nm‑2. The strains, stress, the energy density of crystal are 1.5 x 10‑4 37.31 MPa; 0.72 MPa respectively. The highest texture coefficient value of the crystal is 0.98. This result is supported by morphological analysis using SEM which shows most of the regular cubic-shaped crystals. The synthesis method is suitable for simple and cost-effective synthesis model of MgO nanoparticles.

  20. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dependence of hydrogen-induced lattice defects and hydrogen embrittlement of cold-drawn pearlitic steels on hydrogen trap state, temperature, strain rate and hydrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshida, Tomoki; Takai, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the hydrogen state, temperature, strain rate and hydrogen content on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility and hydrogen-induced lattice defects were evaluated for cold-drawn pearlitic steel that absorbed hydrogen in two trapping states. Firstly, tensile tests were carried out under various conditions to evaluate hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. The results showed that peak 2 hydrogen, desorbed at temperatures above 200 °C as determined by thermal desorption analysis (TDA), had no significant effect on hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. In contrast, hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased in the presence of peak 1 hydrogen, desorbed from room temperature to 200 °C as determined by TDA, at temperatures higher than −30 °C, at lower strain rates and with higher hydrogen content. Next, the same effects on hydrogen-induced lattice defects were also evaluated by TDA using hydrogen as a probe. Peak 2 hydrogen showed no significant effect on either hydrogen-induced lattice defects or hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility. It was found that hydrogen-induced lattice defects formed under the conditions where hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility increased. This relationship indicates that hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility was higher under the conditions where the formation of hydrogen-induced lattice defects tended to be enhanced. Since hydrogen-induced lattice defects formed by the interaction between hydrogen and strain were annihilated by annealing at a temperature of 200 °C, they were presumably vacancies or vacancy clusters. One of the common atomic-level changes that occur in cold-drawn pearlitic steel showing higher hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility is the formation of vacancies and vacancy clusters

  2. Composite Cure Process Modeling and Simulations using COMPRO(Registered Trademark) and Validation of Residual Strains using Fiber Optics Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Hudson, Tyler B.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Grimsley, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Composite cure process induced residual strains and warping deformations in composite components present significant challenges in the manufacturing of advanced composite structure. As a part of the Manufacturing Process and Simulation initiative of the NASA Advanced Composite Project (ACP), research is being conducted on the composite cure process by developing an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms by which the process induced factors influence the residual responses. In this regard, analytical studies have been conducted on the cure process modeling of composite structural parts with varied physical, thermal, and resin flow process characteristics. The cure process simulation results were analyzed to interpret the cure response predictions based on the underlying physics incorporated into the modeling tool. In the cure-kinetic analysis, the model predictions on the degree of cure, resin viscosity and modulus were interpreted with reference to the temperature distribution in the composite panel part and tool setup during autoclave or hot-press curing cycles. In the fiber-bed compaction simulation, the pore pressure and resin flow velocity in the porous media models, and the compaction strain responses under applied pressure were studied to interpret the fiber volume fraction distribution predictions. In the structural simulation, the effect of temperature on the resin and ply modulus, and thermal coefficient changes during curing on predicted mechanical strains and chemical cure shrinkage strains were studied to understand the residual strains and stress response predictions. In addition to computational analysis, experimental studies were conducted to measure strains during the curing of laminated panels by means of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) embedded in the resin impregnated panels. The residual strain measurements from laboratory tests were then compared with the analytical model predictions. The paper describes the cure process

  3. Enhancement of Rhamnolipid Production in Residual Soybean Oil by an Isolated Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, C. J. B.; França, F. P.; Sérvulo, E. F. C.; Resende, M. M.; Cardoso, V. L.

    In the present work, the production of rhamnolipid from residual soybean oil (RSO) from food frying facilities was studied using a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of contaminated lagoon, isolated from a hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The optimization of RSO, amonium nitrate, and brewery residual yeast concentrations was accomplished by a central composite experimental design and surface response analysis. The experiments were performed in 500-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50mL of mineral medium, at 170 rpm and 30±1°C, for a 48-h fermentation period. Rhamnolipid production has been monitored by measurements of surface tension, rhamnose concentration, and emulsifying activity. The best-planned results, located on the central point, have corresponded to 22g/L of RSO, 5.625 g/ L of NH4NO3' and 11.5 g/L of brewery yeast. At the maximum point the values for rhamnose and emulsifying index were 2.2g/L and 100%, respectively.

  4. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise and Neutron Diffraction Techniques for the Study of Intergranular Residual Strains in Mild Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutanu, Roxana; Clapham, Lynann; Rogge, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Intergranular residual stresses (IS) are microscopic residual stresses which have been found to accumulate along the direction in steels. The direction is also the magnetic easy axis direction in steel. This work involved Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) studies on steel samples, deformed uniaxially to increasing levels of strain. The MBN results indicated that a bulk magnetic easy axis was produced by the deformation process, and neutron diffraction experiments showed that this easy axis was correlated with the tensile strain in grains oriented in the direction

  5. An Assessment of Subsurface Residual Stress Analysis in SLM Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mishurova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode. High tensile strain gradients were found at the frontal surface for samples in an as-built condition. The geometry of the samples promotes increasing strains towards the pillar of the bridges. We observed that the higher the laser energy density during fabrication, the lower the lattice strains. A relief of lattice strains takes place after heat treatment.

  6. In Situ Investigation of the Evolution of Lattice Strain and Stresses in Austenite and Martensite During Quenching and Tempering of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, M.; Niessen, F.; Somers, M. A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate in situ the evolution of lattice strains and stresses in austenite and martensite during quenching and tempering of a soft martensitic stainless steel. In one experiment, lattice strains in austenite and martensite were measured in situ in the direction perpendicular to the sample surface during an austenitization, quenching, and tempering cycle. In a second experiment, the sin2 ψ method was applied in situ during the austenite-to-martensite transformation to distinguish between macro- and phase-specific micro-stresses and to follow the evolution of these stresses during transformation. Martensite formation evokes compressive stress in austenite that is balanced by tensile stress in martensite. Tempering to 748 K (475 °C) leads to partial relaxation of these stresses. Additionally, data reveal that (elastic) lattice strain in austenite is not hydrostatic but hkl dependent, which is ascribed to plastic deformation of this phase during martensite formation and is considered responsible for anomalous behavior of the 200 γ reflection.

  7. Welding residual stress estimation by inherent strain analysis and thermal elastic plastic analysis and its verification using neutron diffraction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Hayashi, Makoto; Hattori, Toshio

    1997-01-01

    The internal residual stress distribution that resulted from welding a 4-inch-diameter carbon-steel pipe butt-joint was evaluated using several methods and the results were compared. The analytical evaluation methods used were inherent strain analysis and thermal elastic plastic analysis, and the experimental methods were X-ray diffraction and strain gauge for the surface residual stress, and neutron diffraction for the internal stress. The residual stress distributions determined using the various methods agreed well with each other, both for surface stress and internal stress. The characteristics of the evaluation methods were summarized and it was found the most suitable method for any particular situation can be selected by considering the evaluated location and the operating conditions of the object to be evaluated. (author)

  8. Spectral Modeling of Residual Stress and Stored Elastic Strain Energy in Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegan, Sean; Rolett, Anthony

    2013-12-31

    Solutions to the thermoelastic problem are important for characterizing the response under temperature change of refractory systems. This work extends a spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to analyze the thermoelastic behavior of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), with the intent of probing the local origins of failure in TBCs. The thermoelastic FFT (teFFT) approach allows for the characterization of local thermal residual stress and strain fields, which constitute the origins of failure in TBC systems. A technique based on statistical extreme value theory known as peaks-over-threshold (POT) is developed to quantify the extreme values ("hot spots") of stored elastic strain energy (i.e., elastic energy density, or EED). The resolution dependence of the teFFT method is assessed through a sensitivity study of the extreme values in EED. The sensitivity study is performed both for the local (point-by-point) eld distributions as well as the grain scale eld distributions. A convergence behavior to a particular distribution shape is demonstrated for the local elds. The grain scale fields are shown to exhibit a possible convergence to a maximum level of EED. To apply the teFFT method to TBC systems, 3D synthetic microstructures are created to approximate actual TBC microstructures. The morphology of the grains in each constituent layer as well as the texture is controlled. A variety of TBC materials, including industry standard materials and potential future materials, are analyzed using the teFFT. The resulting hot spots are quantified using the POT approach. A correlation between hot spots in EED and interface rumpling between constituent layers is demonstrated, particularly for the interface between the bond coat (BC) and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer.

  9. Residual strains and microstructure development in single and sequential double sided friction stir welds in RQT-701 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.J.; Steuwer, A.; Mahawish, S.; Johnson, R.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Single and double sided partial penetration friction stir butt welds, in a rolled, quenched and tempered steel (RQT-701), were produced at The Welding Institute (TWI) under controlled process conditions. The residual strain distributions in the longitudinal and transverse directions have been measured using energy dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The measured strains were indicative of longitudinal tensile residual stresses at levels greater than the 0.2% yield stress of the parent metal in both the single and double pass welds. In both cases, the maximum tensile strain was found in the parent metal at the boundary of the heat affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural analysis of the welds was carried out using optical microscopy and hardness variations were also mapped across the weld-plate cross-section. The maximum hardness was observed in the mixed bainite/martensite structure of the weld nugget on the advancing side of the stir zone. The minimum hardness was observed in the HAZ

  10. Functional identification of conserved residues involved in Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG sortase specificity and pilus biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; von Ossowski, Ingemar; Reunanen, Justus; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2014-05-30

    In Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili mediate the adhesion of bacteria to host epithelial cells and play a pivotal role in colonization, host signaling, and biofilm formation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a well known probiotic bacterium, also displays on its cell surface mucus-binding pilus structures, along with other LPXTG surface proteins, which are processed by sortases upon specific recognition of a highly conserved LPXTG motif. Bioinformatic analysis of all predicted LPXTG proteins encoded by the L. rhamnosus GG genome revealed a remarkable conservation of glycine residues juxtaposed to the canonical LPXTG motif. Here, we investigated and defined the role of this so-called triple glycine (TG) motif in determining sortase specificity during the pilus assembly and anchoring. Mutagenesis of the TG motif resulted in a lack or an alteration of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus structures, indicating that the TG motif is critical in pilus assembly and that they govern the pilin-specific and housekeeping sortase specificity. This allowed us to propose a regulatory model of the L. rhamnosus GG pilus biogenesis. Remarkably, the TG motif was identified in multiple pilus gene clusters of other Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that similar signaling mechanisms occur in other, mainly pathogenic, species. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Band structure of semiconductor compounds of Mg sub 2 Si and Mg sub 2 Ge with strained crystal lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Krivosheeva, A V; Shaposhnikov, V L; Krivosheev, A E; Borisenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    The effect of isotopic and unaxial deformation of the crystal lattice on the electronic band structure of indirect band gap semiconductors Mg sub 2 Si and Mg sub 2 Ge has been simulated by means of the linear augmented plane wave method. The reduction of the lattice constant down to 95 % results in a linear increase of the direct transition in magnesium silicide by 48%. The stresses arising under unaxial deformation shift the bands as well as result in splitting of degenerated states. The dependence of the interband transitions on the lattice deformation is nonlinear in this case

  12. Lattice pulling effect and strain relaxation in axial (In,Ga)N/GaN nanowire heterostructures grown on GaN-buffered Si(111) substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, X.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117, Berlin (Germany); Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Calleja, E. [Dpto. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy have been applied to investigate the indium distribution and the interface morphology in axial (In,Ga)N/GaN nanowire heterostructures. The ordered axial (In,Ga)N/GaN nanowire heterostructures with an indium concentration up to 80% are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaN-buffered Si(111) substrates. We observed a pronounced lattice pulling effect in all the nanowire samples given in a broad transition region at the interface. The lattice pulling effect becomes smaller and the (In,Ga)N/GaN interface width is reduced as the indium concentration is increased in the (In,Ga)N section. The result can be interpreted in terms of the increased plastic strain relaxation via the generation of the misfit dislocations at the interface. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Relaxation dynamics and residual strain in metamorphic AlSb on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripalda, J. M.; Rivera, A.; Alen, B.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.; Briones, F.; Sanchez, A. M.; Taboada, A. G.; Rotter, T. J.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2012-01-01

    We have observed the evolution of the accumulated stress during heteroepitaxial growth of highly lattice mismatched AlSb on GaAs by measuring the deformation of the substrate as a function of time. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show almost all of the plastic relaxation is accommodated by an array of 90 deg. misfit dislocations at the interface. The in-plane lattice parameter of the resulting metamorphic AlSb is slightly smaller (0.3%) than the bulk value and perfectly matches the lattice parameter of bulk GaSb. It is, therefore, possible to grow nearly stress-free GaSb on GaAs using a metamorphic AlSb buffer layer.

  14. Relaxation dynamics and residual strain in metamorphic AlSb on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripalda, J. M.; Rivera, A.; Alen, B.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.; Briones, F. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, A. M. [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Taboada, A. G. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Schafmattstr. 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Rotter, T. J.; Balakrishnan, G. [Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2012-01-02

    We have observed the evolution of the accumulated stress during heteroepitaxial growth of highly lattice mismatched AlSb on GaAs by measuring the deformation of the substrate as a function of time. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show almost all of the plastic relaxation is accommodated by an array of 90 deg. misfit dislocations at the interface. The in-plane lattice parameter of the resulting metamorphic AlSb is slightly smaller (0.3%) than the bulk value and perfectly matches the lattice parameter of bulk GaSb. It is, therefore, possible to grow nearly stress-free GaSb on GaAs using a metamorphic AlSb buffer layer.

  15. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  16. Compressive Residual Strains in Mineral Nanoparticles as a Possible Origin of Enhanced Crack Resistance in Human Tooth Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forien, Jean-Baptiste; Fleck, Claudia; Cloetens, Peter; Duda, Georg; Fratzl, Peter; Zolotoyabko, Emil; Zaslansky, Paul

    2015-06-10

    The tough bulk of dentin in teeth supports enamel, creating cutting and grinding biostructures with superior failure resistance that is not fully understood. Synchrotron-based diffraction methods, utilizing micro- and nanofocused X-ray beams, reveal that the nm-sized mineral particles aligned with collagen are precompressed and that the residual strains vanish upon mild annealing. We show the link between the mineral nanoparticles and known damage propagation trajectories in dentin, suggesting a previously overlooked compression-mediated toughening mechanism.

  17. Neutron Diffraction Residual Strain Tensor Measurements Within The Phase IA Weld Mock-up Plate P-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has worked with NRC and EPRI to apply neutron and X-ray diffraction methods to characterize the residual stresses in a number of dissimilar metal weld mockups and samples. The design of the Phase IA specimens aimed to enable stress measurements by several methods and computational modeling of the weld residual stresses. The partial groove in the 304L stainless steel plate was filled with weld beads of Alloy 82. A summary of the weld conditions for each plate is provided in Table 1. The plates were constrained along the long edges during and after welding by bolts with spring-loaded washers attached to the 1-inch thick Al backing plate. The purpose was to avoid stress relief due to bending of the welded stainless steel plate. The neutron diffraction method was one of the methods selected by EPRI for non-destructive through thickness strain and stress measurement. Four different plates (P-3 to P-6) were studied by neutron diffraction strain mapping, representing four different welding conditions. Through thickness neutron diffraction strain mappings at NRSF2 for the four plates and associated strain-free d-zero specimens involved measurement along seven lines across the weld and at six to seven depths. The mountings of each plate for neutron diffraction measurements were such that the diffraction vector was parallel to each of the three primary orthogonal directions of the plate: two in-plane directions, longitudinal and transverse, and the direction normal to the plate (shown in left figure within Table 1). From the three orthogonal strains for each location, the residual stresses along the three plate directions were calculated. The principal axes of the strain and stress tensors, however, need not necessarily align with the plate coordinate system. To explore this, plate P-5 was selected for examination of the possibility that the principal axes of strain are not along the sample coordinate system axes. If adequate data could

  18. A New Load Residual Threshold Definition for the Evaluation of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.; Volden, T.

    2016-01-01

    A new definition of a threshold for the detection of load residual outliers of wind tunnel strain-gage balance data was developed. The new threshold is defined as the product between the inverse of the absolute value of the primary gage sensitivity and an empirical limit of the electrical outputs of a strain{gage. The empirical limit of the outputs is either 2.5 microV/V for balance calibration or check load residuals. A reduced limit of 0.5 microV/V is recommended for the evaluation of differences between repeat load points because, by design, the calculation of these differences removes errors in the residuals that are associated with the regression analysis of the data itself. The definition of the new threshold and different methods for the determination of the primary gage sensitivity are discussed. In addition, calibration data of a six-component force balance and a five-component semi-span balance are used to illustrate the application of the proposed new threshold definition to different types of strain{gage balances. During the discussion of the force balance example it is also explained how the estimated maximum expected output of a balance gage can be used to better understand results of the application of the new threshold definition.

  19. Diffraction grating strain gauge method: error analysis and its application for the residual stress measurement in thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuanjie; Fan, Bozhao; He, Wei; Dai, Xianglu; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin

    2018-03-01

    Diffraction grating strain gauge (DGSG) is an optical strain measurement method. Based on this method, a six-spot diffraction grating strain gauge (S-DGSG) system has been developed with the advantages of high and adjustable sensitivity, compact structure, and non-contact measurement. In this study, this system is applied for the residual stress measurement in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) combining the hole-drilling method. During the experiment, the specimen’s location is supposed to be reset accurately before and after the hole-drilling, however, it is found that the rigid body displacements from the resetting process could seriously influence the measurement accuracy. In order to understand and eliminate the effects from the rigid body displacements, such as the three-dimensional (3D) rotations and the out-of-plane displacement of the grating, the measurement error of this system is systematically analyzed, and an optimized method is proposed. Moreover, a numerical experiment and a verified tensile test are conducted, and the results verify the applicability of this optimized method successfully. Finally, combining this optimized method, a residual stress measurement experiment is conducted, and the results show that this method can be applied to measure the residual stress in TBCs.

  20. Cellulase and xylanase productions by isolated Amazon Bacillus strains using soybean industrial residue based solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Júlio X.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, a large amount of a fibrous residue is generated as result of soybean (Glycine max protein production. This material, which is rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, can be used in solid state cultivations for the production of valuable metabolites and enzymes. In this work, we studied the bioconversion of this residue by bacteria strains isolated from water and soil collected in the Amazon region. Five strains among 87 isolated bacteria selected for their ability to produce either celullases or xylanases were cultivated on the aforementioned residue. From strain BL62, identified as Bacillus subtilis, it was obtained a preparation showing the highest specific cellulase activity, 1.08 UI/mg protein within 24 hours of growth. Concerning xylanase, the isolate BL53, also identified as Bacillus subtilis, showed the highest specific activity for this enzyme, 5.19 UI/mg protein within 72 hours of cultivation. It has also been observed the production of proteases that were associated with the loss of cellulase and xylanase activities. These results indicated that the selected microorganisms, and the cultivation process, have great biotechnological potential.

  1. Study of the effect of residual stress on the microstrain of the crystalline lattice and on the crystallite size of steel Cr-Si-V by shot peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, some effects caused by shot peening on Cr-Si-V steel have been studied, a process that aims to increase fatigue resistance. For this study the variation of parameters in the process are tools to better understand the mechanisms that influence this property. The parameters used in this work were the variation of the grit and the pre-tensioning of the samples applied in leafs used in automotive springs of chrome silicon vanadium alloy steel (SAE 9254 + V). Initially the evaluation of the residual stress profile was performed by X-ray diffraction using the sen 2 Ψ method along the thickness in the region where the stress is compressive. The results show an anomalous effect in relation to the characteristic profile of the residual stress distribution with the decrease of compression in the initial layers in relation to the blasted surface. With the use of scanning electron microscopy, the region affected by grit blasting was observed, noting that the plastically deformed regions are located in the same regions where the compressive residual stress decrease. The profile obtained by X-ray diffraction provides necessary information with the aim of combining the effects of microstress (microstrain) on macrostress (residual stress). This relationship was confirmed by the overlap of the results found in the distribution of the microstrain of the crystalline lattice with the residual stress along the thickness in the plastically deformed region. The results of the X-ray diffraction tests show an existence of tensile anisotropy between the planes generated by stacking faults and the dislocations density. Therefore, to obtain the values of the microstress must be considered the factors of the elastic constants and the crystallographic planes. The method applied was the modified Williamson-Hall. Beyound this method, others were also used, such as: Warren-Averbach method and the Single Line method, this applying the Fourier series, however, when observing

  2. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  3. Electric field induced lattice strain in pseudocubic Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-modified BaTiO{sub 3}-BiFeO{sub 3} piezoelectric ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ichiro, E-mail: ifujii@rins.ryukoku.ac.jp [Department of Materials Chemistry, Ryukoku University, Otsu, Shiga 520-2194 (Japan); Iizuka, Ryo; Ueno, Shintaro; Nakashima, Kouichi; Wada, Satoshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medical and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan); Nakahira, Yuki; Sunada, Yuya; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2016-04-25

    Contributions to the piezoelectric response in pseudocubic 0.3BaTiO{sub 3}-0.1Bi(Mg{sub 1/2}Ti{sub 1/2})O{sub 3}-0.6BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction under electric fields. All of the lattice strain determined from the 110, 111, and 200 pseudocubic diffraction peaks showed similar lattice strain hysteresis that was comparable to the bulk butterfly-like strain curve. It was suggested that the hysteresis of the lattice strain and the lack of anisotropy were related to the complex domain structure and the phase boundary composition.

  4. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  5. Neutron diffraction analysis of residual strain/stress distribution in the vicinity of high strength welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamák I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses resulting from non homogeneous heat distribution during welding process belong to most significant factor influencing behavior of welded structures. These stresses are responsible for defect occurrence during welding and they are also responsible for crack initiation and propagation at the either static or dynamic load. The significant effect of weld metal chemical composition as well as the effect of fatigue load and local plastic deformation on residual stress distribution and fatigue life have been recognized for high strength steels welds. The changes in residual stress distribution have then positive effect on cold cracking behavior and also on fatigue properties of the welds [1-3]. Several experimental methods, both destructive and non-destructive, such as hole drilling method, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and others, have been used to examine residual stress distribution in all three significant orientations in the vicinity of the welds. The present contribution summarizes the results of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in the vicinity of single-pass high-strength-steel welds having different chemical composition as well as the influence of fatigue load and local plastic deformation. It has been observed that the chemical composition of the weld metal has a significant influence on the stress distribution around the weld. Similarly, by aplying both cyclic load or pre-stress load on the specimens, stress relaxation was observed even in the region of approximately 40 mm far from the weld toe.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray measurement of residual strain within the nose of a worn manganese steel railway crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, S.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, Ruichao

    2017-01-01

    . Knowledge of the internal stress distribution adds to the understanding of crack propagation and may thus help to prevent catastrophic rail failures. In this work, the residual strains inside the bulk of a damaged nose of a manganese railway crossing that was in service for five years has been investigated......Switches and crossings are an integral part of any railway network. Plastic deformation associated with wear and rolling contact fatigue due to repeated passage of trains cause severe damage leading to the formation of surface and sub-surface cracks which ultimately may result in rail failure...

  7. Optimization of bent perfect Si(220)-crystal monochromator for residual strain/stress instrument - Part II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moon, MK.; Em, Vt.; Lee, C.H.; Mikula, Pavol; Hong, KP; Choi, YH; Cheon, JK; Nam, UW; Kong, KN; Jin, KC

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 368, 1 2 3 4 (2005), s. 70-75 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron monochromator * residual stress measurement * neutron diffractometers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2005

  8. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  9. Quantifying garnet-melt trace element partitioning using lattice-strain theory: New crystal-chemical and thermodynamic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westrenen, W.; Draper, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Many geochemical models of major igneous differentiation events on the Earth, the Moon, and Mars invoke the presence of garnet or its high-pressure majoritic equivalent as a residual phase, based on its ability to fractionate critical trace element pairs (Lu/Hf, U/Th, heavy REE/light REE). As a

  10. Functional Identification of Conserved Residues Involved in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG Sortase Specificity and Pilus Biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Rasinkangas, P.; Ossowski, von I.; Reunanen, J.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili mediate the adhesion of bacteria to host epithelial cells and play a pivotal role in colonization, host signaling, and biofilm formation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG, a well known probiotic bacterium, also displays on its cell surface

  11. Effect of lattice disorder and strain on T/sub c/ in sputtered Nb3Ge thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.; Rogoski, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Disorder and strain introduced into sputtered ''Nb 3 Ge'' films by mechanical polishing slightly lowers the onset temperature and/or very markedly broadens the width of the superconducting transition. The structural damage is reversible and annealing restores the superconducting behavior of the film very nearly to its initial state

  12. Enhanced production of xylanase from locally isolated fungal strain using agro-industrial residues under solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Roheena; Nisar, Kinza; Aslam, Aafia; Iqtedar, Mehwish; Naz, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    This study is related to the isolation of fungal strain for xylanase production using agro-industrial residues. Forty fungal strains with xylanolytic potential were isolated by using xylan agar plates and quantitatively screened in solid-state fermentation. Of all the tested isolates, the strain showing highest ability to produce xylanase was assigned the code Aspergillus niger LCBT-14. For the enhanced production of the enzyme, five different fermentation media were evaluated. Out of all media, M4 containing wheat bran gave maximum enzyme production. Effect of different variables including incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources has been investigated. The optimum enzyme production was obtained after 72 h at 30°C and pH 4. Glucose as a carbon source while ammonium sulphate and yeast extract as nitrogen sources gave maximum xylanase production (946 U/mL/min). This study was successful in producing xylanase by A. niger LCBT-14 economically by utilising cheap indigenous substrate.

  13. Study of residual stresses and plastic strains in expanded thin tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassine, T.; Inglebert, G.; Point, N.

    1993-01-01

    The measurement of residual stresses with X-rays or with extending gauges, on expanded tubes, implies a longitudinal cutting up. The cutting-up provokes an elastic relaxing of the stresses and this is particularly important for thin tubes. The initial stresses and the geometry influence the variation of the stresses along the tube. The determination of the relaxed stresses is possible in certain cases with extending gauges measurements, but this determination is difficult and expensive. In order to analytically correct these stresses, some assumptions are used and verified with a finite element model. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs

  14. STRESS - STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF A GNEISS RESIDUAL SOIL USING THE CUBIC TRIAXIAL CELL

    OpenAIRE

    MARCONI SOARES ALEIXO

    1998-01-01

    O conhecimento do comportamento de solos residuais é de grande importância para projetos geotécnicos no Brasil e, em particular, na região do Rio de Janeiro, tendo em vista que o clima tropical e as características geológicas favorecem a ocorrência de mantos residuais de grande espessura. O presente trabalho trata do estudo do comportamento tensão-deformação de um solo residual proveniente de um perfil de alteração de rocha gnáissica do maciço da Tijuca, Rio de...

  15. Neutron and synchrotron measurements of residual strain in TIG welded aluminium alloy 2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.A.; Preston, R.V.; Withers, P.J.; Shercliff, H.R.; Webster, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is one method of joining aluminium alloys with potential application in the aerospace industry. However, for it to be seriously considered as an alternative to mechanical fasteners the interrelated problems of residual stress and distortion need to be addressed. In this paper neutron, laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods are used to provide non-destructive information about the residual stress field in TIG-welded 2024 Al alloy. The results compare well despite the differing penetration and sampling volumes associated with each technique. It is found that the magnitudes of the tensile longitudinal stresses decrease along the plate due to progressive heating up of the plate ahead of the arc during welding, so that steady-state conditions are not achieved. Comparison of the data with a finite element model indicates that softening of the heat-affected region must be included to simulate the resulting stress field. The FE model is found to be in good agreement with the data especially in the vicinity of the weld slope-out

  16. Neutron diffraction study of residual strains across electron beam welds in AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braham, C.; Ceretti, M.; Coppola, R.; Lodini, A.; Rustichelli, F.; Tosto, S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of neutron diffraction investigation of the strains produced across an electron-beam (EB) weld in SA AISI 316L reference steel for NET are presented. The sample size was 10 x 5 x 3 cm 3 and the measurements have been carried out at different distances from the weld plane with a spatial resolution of approximately 8 mm 3 in the bulk of the material. Grain size and crystallographic texture effects were investigated, on the same sample, by means of X-ray diffraction and metallography. A method to determine the stress field from the neutron diffraction data even in the presence of strong texture is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of Measured Residual Stress in an Extra Thick Multi-pass Weld Using Neutron Diffraction Method and Inherent Strain Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, JeongUng; An, GyuBaek; Woo, Wan Chuck

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of large-scale containership, a large amount of high-strength steels with extra thick plates is being extensively used. The welding stress existing in the extra thick welded plates has a significant effect on the integrity of the component in terms of brittle fracture and fatigue behavior. It has been reported that welding residual stress distribution in an extra thick plate can affect the propagation path of the crack. Therefore, it is important to measure the distribution of welding residual stresses for the reliable design of the welded structures. So far various researches have been carried out for the determination of residual stresses on the surface of steels. In this paper, the total residual stresses in the 70 mm thick multipass FACW butt joint were measured by integrating initial stress into ISM. Concretely, two methods named as initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were employed to determine the total residual stresses. Furthermore, the distributions of residual stresses were compared with the results of the Neutron Diffraction Method(NDM). In order to measure the three dimensional residual stresses in the welded joint with initial stresses existing before welding, initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were developed. The residual stresses in 70 mm-thick butt joint by flux cored arc welding were carried out with a good accuracy using the two developed methods. The residual stresses in welded joint using both initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM agreed well with the results measured by Neutron Diffraction Method. This suggests that the integrated ISM is a reliable method for residual stress measurement if initial stress existed

  18. Application of neutron diffraction to the characterization of residual thermal strains in YBa2Cu3O7-δ/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Singh, J.P.; Faber, J. Jr.; Hitterman, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Additions of silver (Ag) have been reported to improve the mechanical properties of high-temperature superconductor by YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (abbreviated YBCO). However, during fabrication of YBCO/Ag composites, differential thermal expansion upon cooling can lead to potentially troublesome residual stresses. The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source and General Purpose Powder Diffractometer at Argonne National Laboratory were used to show that neutron diffraction techniques can be applied to YBCO/Ag composites to measure bulk residual strains in the constituent parts, and to determine the effect of Ag on stoichiometry (and thus on the critical current density). We have observed residual tensile strains in Ag as a function of crystallographic direction; three strains range from as high as 0.085% in 15% Ag samples to as low as about 0.02% in a 30% Ag sample. Compressive strains in the YBCO (111) crystallographic direction were approximated by correcting for the diffraction peak shift due to changes in stoichiometry with varying Ag content. The estimated compressive-strain values vary from 0.04% (15% Ag) to 0.09% (20% Ag) to 0.01% (30% Ag), with an uncertainty of about 0.03%. The presence of significant average tensile strain in the Ag, particularly for 15% and 20% Ag samples, indicates good interface bonding between YBCO and Ag

  19. Microstructural changes and effect of variation of lattice strain on positron annihilation lifetime parameters of zinc ferrite nanocomposites prepared by high enegy ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn-ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric (1:1 mol% mixture of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 powder under open air. Formation of both normal and inverse spinel ferrite phases was noticed after 30 minutes and 2.5 hours ball milling respectively and the content of inverse spinel phase increased with increasing milling time. The phase transformation kinetics towards formation of ferrite phases and microstructure characterization of ball milled ZnFe2O4 phases was primarily investigated by X-ray powder diffraction pattern analysis. The relative phase abundances of different phases, crystallite size, r.m.s. strain, lattice parameter change etc. were estimated from the Rietveld powder structure refinement analysis of XRD data. Positron annihilation lifetime spectra of all ball milled samples were deconvoluted with three lifetime parameters and their variation with milling time duration was explained with microstructural changes and formation of different phases with increase of milling time duration.

  20. Measurement and tailoring of residual stress in expanded austenite on austenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Winther, Grethe

    2017-01-01

    Expanded austenite on stainless steel with a high interstitial nitrogen content is characterized by elasto-plastic accommodation of the large composition-induced lattice expansion leading to huge compressive residual stress. The elasto-plastic accommodation as well as the (steep) concentration...... profile has implications for the measurement strategy to determine lattice strains and associated residual stresses with X-ray diffraction. Lattice strain measurements were performed on nitrided as well as subsequently de-nitrided expanded austenite on AISI 316L stainless steel, for various grazing...... incidence angles. It is demonstrated that keeping the information depth constant by choosing appropriate combinations of grazing incidence and tilt angle leads to reliable results for the 111 reflection, while the 200 reflection should be avoided. Further, it is shown for the first time that the residual...

  1. Synthesis, optical properties and residual strain effect of GaN nanowires generated via metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2017-04-18

    Herein, we report on the studies of GaN nanowires (GaN NWs) prepared via a metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method with Pt as the catalyst. It has been found that etching time greatly influences the growth of GaN NWs. The density and the length of nanowires increased with longer etching time, and excellent substrate coverage was observed. The average nanowire width and length are around 35 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows a single-crystalline wurtzite structure and is confirmed by X-ray measurements. The synthesis mechanism of GaN NWs using the metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method was presented. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of GaN NWs show red-shift PL peaks compared to the as-grown sample associated with the relaxation of compressive stress. Furthermore, a shift of the E2 peak to the lower frequency in the Raman spectra for the samples etched for a longer time confirms such a stress relaxation. Based on Raman measurements, the compressive stress σxx and the residual strain εxx were evaluated to be 0.23 GPa and 2.6 × 10−4, respectively. GaN NW synthesis using a low cost method might be used for the fabrication of power optoelectronic devices and gas sensors.

  2. Internal strain measurement using pulsed neutron diffraction at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, J.A.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Shi, N.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of residual stress in engineering components can effect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction in the only technique that can make nondestructive measurements in the interior of components. By recording the change in crystalline lattice spacings, elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Using a pulsed neutron source, all lattice reflections are recorded in each measurement, which allows for easy examination of heterogeneous materials such as metal matrix composites. Measurements made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) demonstrate the potential at pulsed sources for in-situ stress measurements at ambient and elevated temperatures

  3. Effect of Food Residues in Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel and Polystyrene Surfaces by Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Méndez, Alba María; Lamas, Alexandre; Vázquez, Beatriz; Miranda, José Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos Manuel

    2017-11-29

    Salmonella spp. is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. The ability of Salmonella to produce biofilm is one of the main obstacles in reducing the prevalence of these bacteria in the food chain. Most of Salmonella biofilm studies found in the literature used laboratory growth media. However, in the food chain, food residues are the principal source of nutrients of Salmonella . In this study, the biofilm formation, morphotype, and motility of 13 Salmonella strains belonging to three different subspecies and isolated from poultry houses was evaluated. To simulate food chain conditions, four different growth media (Tryptic Soy Broth at 1/20 dilution, milk at 1/20 dilution, tomato juice, and chicken meat juice), two different surfaces (stainless steel and polystyrene) and two temperatures (6 °C and 22 °C) were used to evaluate the biofilm formation. The morphotype, motility, and biofilm formation of Salmonella was temperature-dependent. Biofilm formation was significantly higher with 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth in all the surfaces and temperatures tested, in comparison with the other growth media. The laboratory growth medium 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth enhanced biofilm formation in Salmonella . This could explain the great differences in biofilm formation found between this growth medium and food residues. However, Salmonella strains were able to produce biofilm on the presence of food residues in all the conditions tested. Therefore, the Salmonella strain can use food residues to produce biofilm on common surfaces of the food chain. More studies combining more strains and food residues are necessary to fully understand the mechanism used by Salmonella to produce biofilm on the presence of these sources of nutrients.

  4. Effect of Food Residues in Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel and Polystyrene Surfaces by Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba María Paz-Méndez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. The ability of Salmonella to produce biofilm is one of the main obstacles in reducing the prevalence of these bacteria in the food chain. Most of Salmonella biofilm studies found in the literature used laboratory growth media. However, in the food chain, food residues are the principal source of nutrients of Salmonella. In this study, the biofilm formation, morphotype, and motility of 13 Salmonella strains belonging to three different subspecies and isolated from poultry houses was evaluated. To simulate food chain conditions, four different growth media (Tryptic Soy Broth at 1/20 dilution, milk at 1/20 dilution, tomato juice, and chicken meat juice, two different surfaces (stainless steel and polystyrene and two temperatures (6 °C and 22 °C were used to evaluate the biofilm formation. The morphotype, motility, and biofilm formation of Salmonella was temperature-dependent. Biofilm formation was significantly higher with 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth in all the surfaces and temperatures tested, in comparison with the other growth media. The laboratory growth medium 1/20 Tryptic Soy Broth enhanced biofilm formation in Salmonella. This could explain the great differences in biofilm formation found between this growth medium and food residues. However, Salmonella strains were able to produce biofilm on the presence of food residues in all the conditions tested. Therefore, the Salmonella strain can use food residues to produce biofilm on common surfaces of the food chain. More studies combining more strains and food residues are necessary to fully understand the mechanism used by Salmonella to produce biofilm on the presence of these sources of nutrients.

  5. Development of nondestructive hybrid measuring method for three-dimensional residual stress distribution of thick welded joint. Hybrid measuring method of inherent strain method and neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Kasahara, Norifumi; Tamura, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    The measuring methods of the residual stress are classified into destructive one and nondestructive one. The inherent strain method (ISM) is destructive one. The neutron diffraction method (NDM) is nondestructive one. But the measurable depth is limited within about 20 mm and the method cannot measure the weld zone, without destruction of the object. So, in this study, the hybrid measuring method has been developed, by combining the ISM and the NDM. The theory of the hybrid method is the same as the ISM. In the analysis, the strains measured by the NDM without destruction are used. This hybrid measuring method is a true nondestructive measuring method for a thick welded joint. The applicability of the hybrid method has been verified by simulation, using a butt welded joint of thick pipes. In the simulation, the reliable order of the strains measured by the present NDM is very important, and was considered as 10 micro. The measurable regions by the present NDM were assumed. Under the above conditions, the data (the residual elastic strains assumed to be measured by the NDM) were made, and used in the ISM. As a result of such simulation, it has been cleared that the estimated residual stress has very high accuracy, if enough data are used. The required number of data is less than the ISM. (author)

  6. Void lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.; Wohlenberg, T.

    1976-01-01

    Void lattices in metals apparently owe their stability to elastically anisotropic interactions. An ordered array of voids on the anion sublattice in fluorite does not fit so neatly into this scheme of things. Crowdions may play a part in the formation of the void lattice, and stability may derive from other sources. (Auth.)

  7. Lattice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of studying non-perturbative effects in string theory using a world sheet lattice is discussed. The light-cone lattice string model of Giles and Thorn is studied numerically to assess the accuracy of ''coarse lattice'' approximations. For free strings a 5 by 15 lattice seems sufficient to obtain better than 10% accuracy for the bosonic string tachyon mass squared. In addition a crude lattice model simulating string like interactions is studied to find out how easily a coarse lattice calculation can pick out effects such as bound states which would qualitatively alter the spectrum of the free theory. The role of the critical dimension in obtaining a finite continuum limit is discussed. Instead of the ''gaussian'' lattice model one could use one of the vertex models, whose continuum limit is the same as a gaussian model on a torus of any radius. Indeed, any critical 2 dimensional statistical system will have a stringy continuum limit in the absence of string interactions. 8 refs., 1 fig. , 9 tabs

  8. Engineering strain measurements using the NPD at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, M.A.M.; Goldstone, J.A.; Lovell, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of residual stress in engineering components can affect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction is the only measuring technique which can provide spatially resolved non-destructive strain measurements in the interior of a component. By recording the change in the interplanar spacings elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Also on a pulsed source, where all lattice reflections are recorded, profile refinement is an option which alloys the strain to be obtained from changes in the lattice parameter. Measurements made at LANSCE demonstrate the potential for stress measurements on a pulsed source and indicate the advantages and disadvantages over measurements made on a reactor. 5 refs., 5 figs

  9. Lattice gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghosian, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years an important class of cellular automata known as lattice gases have been successfully used to model a variety of physical systems, traditionally modeled by partial differential equations. The 2-D and 3-D Navier Stokes equations for single-phase and multiphase flow, Burgers' equation, and various types of diffusion equations are all examples. The first section of this chapter is meant to be a survey of the different ideas and techniques used in this simulations. In the second section, using lattice gases for the diffusion equation and for Burgers' equation as examples, the discrete Chapman-Enskog method is demonstrated. Beginning with rules governing particle motion on a lattice, the lattice Boltzmann equation is derived, and the Chapman-Enskog method is used to derive hydrodynamical equations for the conserved quantities. The approximations used at each step are discussed in detail. The intent is to provide an introduction to the Chapman-Enskog analysis for simple lattice gases in order to prepare the reader to better understand that for the (generally more complicated) models proposed for the simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Substitutions at residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein serve as the minimal determinant of attenuation for canine parvovirus vaccine strain 9985-46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Morimasa; Takahashi, Takuo; Kainuma, Risa; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Oshima, Sho; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Identifying molecular determinants of virulence attenuation in live attenuated canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines is important for assuring their safety. To this end, we identified mutations in the attenuated CPV 9985-46 vaccine strain that arose during serial passage in Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells by comparison with the wild-type counterpart, as well as minimal determinants of the loss of virulence. Four amino acid substitutions (N93K, G300V, T389N and V562L) in VP2 of strain 9985-46 significantly restricted infection in canine A72 cells. Using an infectious molecular clone system, we constructed isogenic CPVs of the parental virulent 9985 strain carrying single or double mutations. We observed that only a single amino acid substitution in VP2, G300V or T389N, attenuated the virulent parental virus. Combinations of these mutations further attenuated CPV to a level comparable to that of 9985-46. Strains with G300V/T389N substitutions did not induce clinical symptoms in experimentally infected pups, and their ability to infect canine cells was highly restricted. We found that another G300V/V562L double mutation decreased affinity of the virus for canine cells, although its pathogenicity to dogs was maintained. These results indicate that mutation of residue 300, which plays a critical role in host tropism, is not sufficient for viral attenuation in vivo, and that attenuation of 9985-46 strain is defined by at least two mutations in residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein. This finding is relevant for quality control of the vaccine and provides insight into the rational design of second-generation live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  11. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Noura El-Ahmady; Abdelwahed, Nayera A M; Saber, Wesam I A; Mohamed, Asem A

    2014-01-01

    The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 °C after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  12. Bioprocessing of some agro-industrial residues for endoglucanase production by the new subsp.; Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura El-Ahmady El-Naggar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of low cost agro-industrial residues for the production of industrial enzymes is one of the ways to reduce significantly production costs. Cellulase producing actinomycetes were isolated from soil and decayed agricultural wastes. Among them, a potential culture, strain NEAE-J, was selected and identified on the basis of morphological, cultural, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, together with 16S rDNA sequence. It is proposed that strain NEAE-J should be included in the species Streptomyces albogriseolus as a representative of a novel sub-species, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus strain NEAE-J and sequencing product was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number JN229412. This organism was tested for its ability to produce endoglucanase and release reducing sugars from agro-industrial residues as substrates. Sugarcane bagasse was the most suitable substrate for endoglucanase production. Effects of process variables, namely incubation time, temperature, initial pH and nitrogen source on production of endoglucanase by submerged fermentation using Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus have been studied. Accordingly optimum conditions have been determined. Incubation temperature of 30 ºC after 6 days, pH of 6.5, 1% sugarcane bagasse as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source were found to be the optimum for endoglucanase production. Optimization of the process parameters resulted in about 2.6 fold increase in the endoglucanase activity. Therefore, Streptomyces albogriseolus subsp. cellulolyticus coud be potential microorganism for the intended application.

  13. Experimental Determination and Numerical Modelling of Process Induced Strains and Residual Stresses in Thick Glass/Epoxy Laminate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) model and a path dependent (PD) constitutive approach are compared, for the case of modelling strain build-up during curing of a thick composite laminate part. The PD approach is a limiting case of viscoelasticity with path...... dependency on temperature and cure degree. Model predictions are compared to experimentally determined in-situ strains, determined using FBG sensors. It was found that both models offer good approximations of internal strain build-up. A general shortcoming is the lack of capturing rate-dependent effects...

  14. Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Modern lattice gauge theory calculations are making it possible for lattice QCD to play an increasingly important role in the quantitative investigation of the Standard Model. The fact that QCD is strongly coupled at large distances has required the development of nonperturbative methods and large-scale computer simulations to solve the theory. The development of successful numerical methods for QCD calculations puts us in a good position to be ready for the possible discovery of new strongly coupled forces beyond the Standard Model in the era of the Large Hadron Collider. (author)

  15. Operator lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The finite-element method enables us to convert the operator differential equations of a quantum field theory into operator difference equations. These difference equations are consistent with the requirements of quantum mechanics and they do not exhibit fermion doubling, a problem that frequently plagues lattice treatments of fermions. Guage invariance can also be incorporated into the difference equations. On a finite lattice the operator difference equations can be solved in closed form. For the case of the Schwinger model the anomaly is computed and results in excellent agreement are obtained with the known continuum value

  16. Non destructive neutron diffraction measurements of cavities, inhomogeneities, and residual strain in bronzes of Ghiberti's relief from the Gates of Paradise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G.; Senesi, R.; Alessandroni, M.; Andreani, C.; Vitali, G.; Porcinai, S.; Giusti, A. M.; Materna, T.; Paradowska, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative neutron studies of cultural heritage objects provide access to microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic structures in a nondestructive manner. In this paper we present a neutron diffraction investigation of a Ghiberti Renaissance gilded bronze relief devoted to the measurement of cavities and inhomogeneities in the bulk of the sample, along with the bulk phase composition and residual strain distribution. The quantitative measurements allowed the determination of the re-melting parts extension, as well as improving current knowledge about the manufacturing process. The study provides significant and unique information to conservators and restorators about the history of the relief.

  17. Non destructive neutron diffraction measurements of cavities, inhomogeneities, and residual strain in bronzes of Ghiberti's relief from the Gates of Paradise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Senesi, R.; Alessandroni, M.; Andreani, C.; Vitali, G.; Porcinai, S.; Giusti, A. M.; Materna, T.; Paradowska, A. M.

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative neutron studies of cultural heritage objects provide access to microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic structures in a nondestructive manner. In this paper we present a neutron diffraction investigation of a Ghiberti Renaissance gilded bronze relief devoted to the measurement of cavities and inhomogeneities in the bulk of the sample, along with the bulk phase composition and residual strain distribution. The quantitative measurements allowed the determination of the re-melting parts extension, as well as improving current knowledge about the manufacturing process. The study provides significant and unique information to conservators and restorators about the history of the relief.

  18. Analysis of the unstressed lattice spacing, d0, for the determination of the residual stress in a friction stir welded plate of an age-hardenable aluminum alloy – Use of equilibrium conditions and a genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioffi, F.; Hidalgo, J.I.; Fernández, R.; Pirling, T.; Fernández, B.; Gesto, D.; Puente Orench, I.; Rey, P.; González-Doncel, G.

    2014-01-01

    Procedures based on equilibrium conditions (stress and bending moment) have been used to obtain an unstressed lattice spacing, d 0 , as a crucial requirement for calculating the residual stress (RS) profile across a joint conducted on a 10 mm thick plate of age-hardenable AA2024 alloy by friction stir welding (FSW). Two procedures have been used that take advantage of neutron diffraction measurements. First, equilibrium conditions were imposed on sections parallel to the weld so that a constant d 0 value corresponding to the base material region could be calculated analytically. Second, balance conditions were imposed on a section transverse to the weld. Then, using the data and a genetic algorithm, suitable d 0 values for the different regions of the weld have been found. For several reasons, the comb method has proved to be inappropriate for RS determination in the case of age-hardenable alloys. However, the equilibrium conditions, together with the genetic algorithm, has been shown to be very suitable for determining RS profiles in FSW joints of these alloys, where inherent microstructural variations of d 0 across the weld are expected

  19. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanoiri, Yohei; Ishida, Yojiro; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Inouye, Masayori; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively 13 C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used 13 C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  20. Highly efficient residue-selective labeling with isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val using a new auxotrophic E. coli strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyanoiri, Yohei [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Ishida, Yojiro [Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Takeda, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Terauchi, Tsutomu [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Japan); Inouye, Masayori [Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine (United States); Kainosho, Masatsune, E-mail: kainosho@tmu.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Structural Biology Research Center, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We recently developed a practical protocol for preparing proteins bearing stereo-selectively {sup 13}C-methyl labeled leucines and valines, instead of the commonly used {sup 13}C-methyl labeled precursors for these amino acids, by E. coli cellular expression. Using this protocol, proteins with any combinations of isotope-labeled or unlabeled Leu and Val residues were prepared, including some that could not be prepared by the precursor methods. However, there is still room for improvement in the labeling efficiencies for Val residues, using the methods with labeled precursors or Val itself. This is due to the fact that the biosynthesis of Val could not be sufficiently suppressed, even by the addition of large amounts of Val or its precursors. In this study, we completely solved this problem by using a mutant strain derived from E. coli BL21(DE3), in which the metabolic pathways depending on two enzymes, dihydroxy acid dehydratase and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, are completely aborted by deleting the ilvD and leuB genes, which respectively encode these enzymes. The ΔilvD E. coli mutant terminates the conversion from α,β-dihydroxyisovalerate to α-ketoisovalerate, and the conversion from α,β-dihydroxy-α-methylvalerate to α-keto-β-methylvalerate, which produce the preceding precursors for Val and Ile, respectively. By the further deletion of the leuB gene, the conversion from Val to Leu was also fully terminated. Taking advantage of the double-deletion mutant, ΔilvDΔleuB E. coli BL21(DE3), an efficient and residue-selective labeling method with various isotope-labeled Ile, Leu, and Val residues was established.

  1. Silica-Based and Borate-Based, Titania-Containing Bioactive Coatings Characterization: Critical Strain Energy Release Rate, Residual Stresses, Hardness, and Thermal Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica-based and borate-based glass series, with increasing amounts of TiO2 incorporated, are characterized in terms of their mechanical properties relevant to their use as metallic coating materials. It is observed that borate-based glasses exhibit CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion closer to the substrate’s (Ti6Al4V CTE, translating into higher mode I critical strain energy release rates of glasses and compressive residual stresses and strains at the coating/substrate interface, outperforming the silica-based glasses counterparts. An increase in the content of TiO2 in the glasses results in an increase in the mode I critical strain energy release rate for both the bulk glass and for the coating/substrate system, proving that the addition of TiO2 to the glass structure enhances its toughness, while decreasing its bulk hardness. Borate-based glass BRT3, with 15 mol % TiO2 incorporated, exhibits superior properties overall compared to the other proposed glasses in this work, as well as 45S5 Bioglass® and Pyrex.

  2. Lattice QCD on fine lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [DESY (Germany). Neumann Inst. for Computing

    2016-11-01

    These configurations are currently in use in many on-going projects carried out by researchers throughout Europe. In particular this data will serve as an essential input into the computation of the coupling constant of QCD, where some of the simulations are still on-going. But also projects computing the masses of hadrons and investigating their structure are underway as well as activities in the physics of heavy quarks. As this initial project of gauge field generation has been successful, it is worthwhile to extend the currently available ensembles with further points in parameter space. These will allow to further study and control systematic effects like the ones introduced by the finite volume, the non-physical quark masses and the finite lattice spacing. In particular certain compromises have still been made in the region where pion masses and lattice spacing are both small. This is because physical pion masses require larger lattices to keep the effects of the finite volume under control. At light pion masses, a precise control of the continuum extrapolation is therefore difficult, but certainly a main goal of future simulations. To reach this goal, algorithmic developments as well as faster hardware will be needed.

  3. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model.

  4. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model

  5. RHIC lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Claus, J.; Courant, E.D.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.

    1985-01-01

    An antisymmetric lattice for the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is presented, which has been designed to have (1) and energy range from 7 GeV/amu up to 100 GeV/amu; (2) a good tunability of β and betatron tune; (3) freedom in the choice of crossing angle between beams; and (4) capability of operating unequal species, for example, proton on gold. Suppression of structure resonances is achieved by a proper choice of the phase advances across the insertion and the arc cells. 8 refs., 7 figs

  6. Impact of lattice strain on the tunnel magnetoresistance in Fe/insulator/Fe and Fe/insulator/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2013-08-19

    The objective of this work is to describe the tunnel electron current in single-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions within an approach that goes beyond the single-band transport model. We propose a ballistic multichannel electron transport model that can explain the influence of in-plane lattice strain on the tunnel magnetoresistance as well as the asymmetric voltage behavior. We consider as an example single-crystal magnetic Fe(110) electrodes for Fe/insulator/Fe and Fe/insulator/La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 tunnel junctions, where the electronic band structures of Fe and La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 are derived by ab initio calculations.

  7. Congruence amalgamation of lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, G; Wehrung, F; Gr\\"{a}tzer, George; Lakser, Harry; Wehrung, Friedrich

    2000-01-01

    J. Tuma proved an interesting "congruence amalgamation" result. We are generalizing and providing an alternate proof for it. We then provide applications of this result: --A.P. Huhn proved that every distributive algebraic lattice $D$ with at most $\\aleph\\_1$ compact elements can be represented as the congruence lattice of a lattice $L$. We show that $L$ can be constructed as a locally finite relatively complemented lattice with zero. --We find a large class of lattices, the $\\omega$-congruence-finite lattices, that contains all locally finite countable lattices, in which every lattice has a relatively complemented congruence-preserving extension.

  8. LATTICE: an interactive lattice computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.

    1976-10-01

    LATTICE is a computer code which enables an interactive user to calculate the functions of a synchrotron lattice. This program satisfies the requirements at LBL for a simple interactive lattice program by borrowing ideas from both TRANSPORT and SYNCH. A fitting routine is included

  9. Building the RHIC tracking lattice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Tepikian, S.

    2010-01-27

    In this note we outline the procedure to build a realistic lattice model for the RHIC beam-beam tracking simulation. We will install multipole field errors in the arc main dipoles, arc main quadrupols and interaction region magnets (DX, D0, and triplets) and introduce a residual closed orbit, tune ripples, and physical apertures in the tracking lattice model. Nonlinearities such as local IR multipoles, second order chromaticies and third order resonance driving terms are also corrected before tracking.

  10. Lattices for the lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikatamarla, Shyam S; Karlin, Iliya V

    2009-04-01

    A recently introduced theory of higher-order lattice Boltzmann models [Chikatamarla and Karlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 190601 (2006)] is elaborated in detail. A general theory of the construction of lattice Boltzmann models as an approximation to the Boltzmann equation is presented. New lattices are found in all three dimensions and are classified according to their accuracy (degree of approximation of the Boltzmann equation). The numerical stability of these lattices is argued based on the entropy principle. The efficiency and accuracy of many new lattices are demonstrated via simulations in all three dimensions.

  11. The effects of Pantoea sp. strain Y4-4 on alfalfa in the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil, and auxiliary impacts of plant residues on the remediation of saline-alkali soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhuan; Wang, Jie; Gao, Nanxiong; Liu, Lizhu; Chen, Yahua

    2017-04-01

    The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Y4-4 was isolated from plant rhizosphere soil and identified as Pantoea sp. by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The effects of strain Y4-4 on alfalfa grown in heavy-metals-contaminated soil was investigated using a pot experiment. In a Cu-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 22.6% and 21%, and Cu accumulation increased by 15%. In a Pb-Zn-rich environment, the shoot dry mass and total dry mass of plants inoculated with strain Y4-4 increased by 23.4% and 22%, and Zn accumulation increased by 30.3%. In addition, the salt tolerance and biomass of wheat seedlings could be improved by applying strain Y4-4 mixed with plant residue as a result of the Cu-rich plant residues providing copper nutrition to wheat. This study offers an efficient PGPR with strong salt tolerance and a safe strategy for the post-treatment of plant residue.

  12. Effect of residual stress relaxation by means of local rapid induction heating on stress corrosion cracking behavior and electrochemical characterization of welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy under slow strain rate test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Tang, Shawei; Liu, Guangyi; Sun, Yue; Hu, Jin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, a welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy was treated by means of local rapid induction heating in order to relax the residual stress existed in the weldment. The welded samples were heat treated at the different temperatures. The stress corrosion cracking behavior and electrochemical characterization of the as-welded samples before and after the post weld heat treatment as a function of residual stress were investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of the samples under slow strain rate test were performed in a LiCl-methanol solution. The results demonstrated that the residual stress in the as-welded sample was dramatically reduced after the post weld heat treatment, and the residual stress decreased with the increase in the heat treatment temperature. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility and electrochemical activity of the as-welded sample were significantly reduced after the heat treatment due to the relaxation of the residual stress, which gradually decreased with the decreasing value of the residual stress distributed in the heat treated samples.

  13. Designs, groups and lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Bachoc, Christine

    2005-01-01

    We study the Grassmannian 4-designs contained in lattices, in connection with the local property of the Rankin constant. We prove that the sequence of Barnes-Wall lattices contain Grassmannian 6-designs.

  14. Infinite resistive lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D; van Steenwijk, F.J.

    The resistance between two arbitrary nodes in an infinite square lattice of:identical resistors is calculated, The method is generalized to infinite triangular and hexagonal lattices in two dimensions, and also to infinite cubic and hypercubic lattices in three and more dimensions. (C) 1999 American

  15. On the strain coupling across vertical interfaces of switchable BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 multiferroic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, N.; Muralidharan, R.; Guyonnet, J.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Varela, M.; Paruch, P.; Sánchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2009-08-01

    In magnetoelectrically coupled CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 nanostructures vertical and lateral lattice parameters of both phases are determined. We find that the in-plane lattice parameter of CoFe2O4 is fully relaxed whereas it presents compressive strain along the out-of-plane direction. Although the CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 interface is semicoherent, CoFe2O4 out-of-plane lattice strain is not relaxed after selective removal of the matrix and thus it is of nonelastic origin. In spite of the absence of elastic residual strain caused by CoFe2O4-BiFeO3 interfaces, the two phases are mechanically coupled as demonstrated by the electrical switching of the magnetization.

  16. Direct sample positioning and alignment methodology for strain measurement by diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, N.; Hughes, D. J.; King, A.; Malard, B.; Chen, Z.; Busby, P.; Webster, P. J.

    2005-05-01

    An ISO (International Organization for Standardization) TTA (Technology Trends Assessment) was published in 2001 for the determination of residual stress using neutron diffraction which identifies sample alignment and positioning as a key source of strain measurement error. Although the measurement uncertainty by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction for an individual measurement of lattice strain is typically of the order of 10-100×10-6, specimens commonly exhibit strain gradients of 1000×10-6mm-1 or more, making sample location a potentially considerable source of error. An integrated approach to sample alignment and positioning is described which incorporates standard base-plates and sample holders, instrument alignment procedures, accurate digitization using a coordinate measuring machine and automatic generation of instrument control scripts. The methodology that has been developed is illustrated by the measurement of the transverse residual strain field in a welded steel T-joint using neutrons.

  17. Direct sample positioning and alignment methodology for strain measurement by diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratel, N.; Hughes, D.J.; King, A.; Malard, B.; Chen, Z.; Busby, P.; Webster, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    An ISO (International Organization for Standardization) TTA (Technology Trends Assessment) was published in 2001 for the determination of residual stress using neutron diffraction which identifies sample alignment and positioning as a key source of strain measurement error. Although the measurement uncertainty by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction for an individual measurement of lattice strain is typically of the order of 10-100x10 -6 , specimens commonly exhibit strain gradients of 1000x10 -6 mm -1 or more, making sample location a potentially considerable source of error. An integrated approach to sample alignment and positioning is described which incorporates standard base-plates and sample holders, instrument alignment procedures, accurate digitization using a coordinate measuring machine and automatic generation of instrument control scripts. The methodology that has been developed is illustrated by the measurement of the transverse residual strain field in a welded steel T-joint using neutrons

  18. Generalized isothermic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doliwa, Adam

    2007-01-01

    We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Moebius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem

  19. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  20. Lattice Mismatch in Crystalline Nanoparticle Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Paul A; Seo, Soyoung E; Wang, Mary X; Oh, EunBi; Macfarlane, Robert J; Mirkin, Chad A

    2018-01-10

    For atomic thin films, lattice mismatch during heteroepitaxy leads to an accumulation of strain energy, generally causing the films to irreversibly deform and generate defects. In contrast, more elastically malleable building blocks should be better able to accommodate this mismatch and the resulting strain. Herein, that hypothesis is tested by utilizing DNA-modified nanoparticles as "soft," programmable atom equivalents to grow a heteroepitaxial colloidal thin film. Calculations of interaction potentials, small-angle X-ray scattering data, and electron microscopy images show that the oligomer corona surrounding a particle core can deform and rearrange to store elastic strain up to ±7.7% lattice mismatch, substantially exceeding the ±1% mismatch tolerated by atomic thin films. Importantly, these DNA-coated particles dissipate strain both elastically through a gradual and coherent relaxation/broadening of the mismatched lattice parameter and plastically (irreversibly) through the formation of dislocations or vacancies. These data also suggest that the DNA cannot be extended as readily as compressed, and thus the thin films exhibit distinctly different relaxation behavior in the positive and negative lattice mismatch regimes. These observations provide a more general understanding of how utilizing rigid building blocks coated with soft compressible polymeric materials can be used to control nano- and microstructure.

  1. On the Structure of Finite Integral Commutative Residuated Chains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčík, Rostislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2011), s. 717-728 ISSN 0955-792X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : residuated lattice * ordered residuated monoid * nucleus * conucleus,Abelian lattice-ordered group * free commutative monoid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2011

  2. Jamming within Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth-Nice, Prairie; Graves, Amy

    Numerical methods are used in two dimensions to find the minimum energy configuration of soft bidisperse spheres, in the presence of lattices of fixed, pointlike particles. The lattice provides a supporting structure for the jammed configuration, resulting in changes in the jamming threshold. The excess coordination number and other properties of interest near jamming are calculated as a function of the lattice structure and number density. Acknowledgement is made to the donors of the Petrolium Research Fund, administered by the American Chemical Society.

  3. Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi

    2011-01-01

    Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory covers interrelated methods and tools of spherically oriented geomathematics and periodically reflected analytic number theory. The book establishes multi-dimensional Euler and Poisson summation formulas corresponding to elliptic operators for the adaptive determination and calculation of formulas and identities of weighted lattice point numbers, in particular the non-uniform distribution of lattice points. The author explains how to obtain multi-dimensional generalizations of the Euler summation formula by interpreting classical Bernoulli polynomials as Green

  4. Lattice-Algebraic Morphology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    ... invariance present in concrete morphology theories. The other, developed by Banon and Barrera, analyzes general mappings between complete lattices and develops morphological decomposition formulas for such mappings...

  5. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Lattice degeneracies of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, H.

    1983-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the minimal degeneracies of geometric (Kaehler) fermions on all the lattices of maximal symmetries in n = 1, ..., 4 dimensions. We also determine the isolated orbits of the maximal symmetry groups, which are related to the minimal numbers of ''naive'' fermions on the reciprocals of these lattices. It turns out that on the self-reciprocal lattices the minimal numbers of naive fermions are equal to the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions. The description we give relies on the close connection of the maximal lattice symmetry groups with (affine) Weyl groups of root systems of (semi-) simple Lie algebras. (orig.)

  7. Neutron diffraction residual stress measurements in a 316L stainless steel bead-on-plate weld specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratihar, S.; Turski, M.; Edwards, L.; Bouchard, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of residual stress in three orthogonal directions has been measured within a Type 316L austenitic stainless steel bead-on-plate weld specimen. Neutron diffraction was employed using the ENGIN-X instrument, located at the ISIS spallation facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. A stress-free lattice parameter reference value was determined from a small cube, extracted from a far corner of the plate. A high magnitude of tensile residual stress was found along the weld bead in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The distributions of stress along through-thickness lines at the weld bead nominal start and stop locations and at the mid-length position showed an almost identical stress variation. However, a map of measured residual strain in the transverse direction beneath the weld bead revealed a concentration of strain located several millimetres before the nominal weld stop position where through-wall stress profiles were measured

  8. Nuclear lattice simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epelbaum E.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress on nuclear lattice simulations using chiral effective field theory. We discuss lattice results for dilute neutron matter at next-to-leading order, three-body forces at next-to-next-toleading order, isospin-breaking and Coulomb effects, and the binding energy of light nuclei.

  9. Effect of Plastic Pre-straining on Residual Stress and Composition Profiles in Low-Temperature Surface-Hardened Austenitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Winther, Grethe

    2016-01-01

    The present work deals with the evaluation of the residual stress profiles in expanded austenite by applying grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) combined with successive sublayer removal. Annealed and deformed (εeq=0.5) samples of stable stainless steel EN 1.4369 were nitrided...

  10. Optimization of the bent perfect Si(311)-crystal monochromator for a residual strain/stress instrument at the HANARO reactor - Part I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moon, MK; Lee, Ch.H.; Vyacheslav, T.; Mikula, Pavol

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 369, - (2005), s. 1-7 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron monochromator * residual stress measurement * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2005

  11. Study of the effect of residual stress on the microstrain of the crystalline lattice and on the crystallite size of steel Cr-Si-V by shot peening; Estudo do efeito da tensão residual na microdeformação da rede cristalina e no tamanho de cristalito em aço Cr-Si-V jateado com granalhas de aço

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, some effects caused by shot peening on Cr-Si-V steel have been studied, a process that aims to increase fatigue resistance. For this study the variation of parameters in the process are tools to better understand the mechanisms that influence this property. The parameters used in this work were the variation of the grit and the pre-tensioning of the samples applied in leafs used in automotive springs of chrome silicon vanadium alloy steel (SAE 9254 + V). Initially the evaluation of the residual stress profile was performed by X-ray diffraction using the sen{sup 2}Ψ method along the thickness in the region where the stress is compressive. The results show an anomalous effect in relation to the characteristic profile of the residual stress distribution with the decrease of compression in the initial layers in relation to the blasted surface. With the use of scanning electron microscopy, the region affected by grit blasting was observed, noting that the plastically deformed regions are located in the same regions where the compressive residual stress decrease. The profile obtained by X-ray diffraction provides necessary information with the aim of combining the effects of microstress (microstrain) on macrostress (residual stress). This relationship was confirmed by the overlap of the results found in the distribution of the microstrain of the crystalline lattice with the residual stress along the thickness in the plastically deformed region. The results of the X-ray diffraction tests show an existence of tensile anisotropy between the planes generated by stacking faults and the dislocations density. Therefore, to obtain the values of the microstress must be considered the factors of the elastic constants and the crystallographic planes. The method applied was the modified Williamson-Hall. Beyound this method, others were also used, such as: Warren-Averbach method and the Single Line method, this applying the Fourier series, however, when

  12. Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  13. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  14. Epitaxial metastable Ge1-yCy (y≤0.02) alloys grown on Ge(001) from hyperthermal beams: C incorporation and lattice sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arcy-Gall, J.; Desjardins, P.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.; Paultre, J.-E.; Masut, R. A.; Gujrathi, S. C.; Roorda, S.

    2000-01-01

    Epitaxial metastable Ge 1-y C y alloy layers with y≤0.02 were grown on Ge(001) at temperatures T s =200-550 degree sign C using hyperthermal Ge and C beams with average energies of 16 and 24 eV, respectively, in order to investigate C incorporation pathways in the Ge lattice. High-resolution reciprocal lattice maps show that all as-deposited alloy layers are fully coherent with the substrate. Layers grown at T s ≤350 degree sign C are in compression due to higher C concentrations in interstitial than in substitutional sites. The compressive strain decreases (i.e., the substitutional C concentration increases) with increasing T s within this temperature range. At higher growth temperatures, as-deposited alloys are nearly strain free since the majority of the incorporated C is trapped at extended defects. Annealing the Ge 1-y C y layers at T a =450 and 550 degree sign C leads to a significant increase, proportional to the strain in the as-deposited films, in compressive strain. Further annealing at T a =650 degree sign C results in the formation of dislocation loops which act as sinks for interstitial and substitutional C atoms and thus relieves residual macroscopic strain. Finally, we show that the large compressive strain associated with interstitial C atoms must be accounted for in order to determine the total incorporated C fraction from diffraction analyses. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Residual elastic strain measurement in heat-treated and/or plastically deformed two-phase stainless steel by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjo, S.; Sato, Hideo; Tomota, Yo; Ono, Masayoshi

    1997-01-01

    The testing method of microscopic residual stress in commercial material using neutral diffraction is not established yet like that using x-ray diffraction. Then, in this research a microscopic residual stress of α/γ two phase Fe-Cr-Ni alloy convenient for an experiment was tried by using neutron diffraction, to investigate its testing method. And further, a test using x-ray diffraction was also conducted for their comparison. As a result, some problems in the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction were summarized shown as follows. On precision of d 0 , since proper reference material was difficult for material M to provide, a preferable result could not be obtained in the stress measurement using PSD method. On curve fitting, by changing from a multi order function to a Voigt function by using the curve-fitting method, it was found that the peak could be fit better. Furthermore, on the problem of testing condition, because of weak intensity of the neutron source, it was necessary to use a monochromator capable of collecting incident beam like Bent crystal, and to improve sample setting, counter and slit. (G.K.)

  16. Optical lattices: Orbital dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Liu, W. Vincent

    2011-02-01

    Emulating condensed-matter physics with ground-state atoms trapped in optical lattices has come a long way. But excite the atoms into higher orbital states, and a whole new world of exotic states appears.

  17. Root lattices and quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, M.; Joseph, D.; Kramer, P.; Schlottmann, M.

    1990-10-01

    It is shown that root lattices and their reciprocals might serve as the right pool for the construction of quasicrystalline structure models. All noncrystallographic symmetries observed so far are covered in minimal embedding with maximal symmetry.

  18. Angles in hyperbolic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Morten S.; Södergren, Carl Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior of the den......It is well known that the angles in a lattice acting on hyperbolic n -space become equidistributed. In this paper we determine a formula for the pair correlation density for angles in such hyperbolic lattices. Using this formula we determine, among other things, the asymptotic behavior...... of the density function in both the small and large variable limits. This extends earlier results by Boca, Pasol, Popa and Zaharescu and Kelmer and Kontorovich in dimension 2 to general dimension n . Our proofs use the decay of matrix coefficients together with a number of careful estimates, and lead...

  19. MEETING: Lattice 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The forty-year dream of understanding the properties of the strongly interacting particles from first principles is now approaching reality. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD - the field theory of the quark and gluon constituents of strongly interacting particles) was initially handicapped by the severe limitations of the conventional (perturbation) approach in this picture, but Ken Wilson's inventions of lattice gauge theory and renormalization group methods opened new doors, making calculations of masses and other particle properties possible. Lattice gauge theory became a major industry around 1980, when Monte Carlo methods were introduced, and the first prototype calculations yielded qualitatively reasonable results. The promising developments over the past year were highlighted at the 1988 Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - Lattice 88 - held at Fermilab

  20. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  1. Permutohedral Lattice CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefel, Martin; Jampani, Varun; Gehler, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a convolutional layer that is able to process sparse input features. As an example, for image recognition problems this allows an efficient filtering of signals that do not lie on a dense grid (like pixel position), but of more general features (such as color values). The presented algorithm makes use of the permutohedral lattice data structure. The permutohedral lattice was introduced to efficiently implement a bilateral filter, a commonly used image processing operation....

  2. Characteristic and principle of the residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Although X-ray method has been widely used as the nondestructive measurement method of residual stress, the object to be measured with laboratory X-ray was limited to the vicinity of surface, and the nondestructive measurement of stress inside an essential component could not be performed. Since the neutron method utilizes the wave characteristics of electrically neutral particles, the penetrability is excellent so that information up to the inside of a material can be obtained sufficiently. As the feature of neutron stress measurement, it is suitable for measurement inside metals such as iron and aluminum, which cannot be measured with X-rays. For the measurement of residual stress in localized region, the use of high energy synchrotron radiation is advantageous. In the stress measurement utilizing diffraction phenomena, there is the strain calculated from a change in diffraction lattice spacing. The measured strain is converted into stress using Hooke's Law. As the measurement examples of neutron stress evaluation, the following are introduced: (1) residual stress distribution around the ferrite steel (50 mm thick) welded joint of a large-sized structure, (2) residual stress due to the heat treatment of aluminum alloy with a plate thickness of 20 to 140 mm, and (3) change in the strain of aluminum die block in the vicinity of a cast iron cylinder liner of engine, when heating/cooling up to 470degC. (A.O.)

  3. Vortex lattices in layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, V.; Davidovic, D.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1995-01-01

    We study vortex lattices in a superconductor--normal-metal superlattice in a parallel magnetic field. Distorted lattices, resulting from the shear deformations along the layers, are found to be unstable. Under field variation, nonequilibrium configurations undergo an infinite sequence of continuous transitions, typical for soft lattices. The equilibrium vortex arrangement is always a lattice of isocell triangles, without shear

  4. Long-Lived Feshbach Molecules in a Three-Dimensional Optical Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalhammer, G.; Winkler, K.; Lang, F.; Schmid, S.; Denschlag, J. Hecker; Grimm, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have created and trapped a pure sample of 87 Rb 2 Feshbach molecules in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Compared to previous experiments without a lattice, we find dramatic improvements such as long lifetimes of up to 700 ms and a near unit efficiency for converting tightly confined atom pairs into molecules. The lattice shields the trapped molecules from collisions and, thus, overcomes the problem of inelastic decay by vibrational quenching. Furthermore, we have developed an advanced purification scheme that removes residual atoms, resulting in a lattice in which individual sites are either empty or filled with a single molecule in the vibrational ground state of the lattice

  5. Effects of tooling on the residual stress distribution in an inertia weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, J.W.L.; Preuss, M.; Withers, P.J.; Baxter, G.J.; Small, C.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron diffraction residual strain measurements have been made on a tubular structure formed by joining two nickel-based superalloy RR1000 parts by inertia welding. Residual strains in the radial, hoop and axial directions of the tube cross-section have been measured. The corresponding residual stress field has been calculated accounting for the stress-free lattice parameter variations in the region close to the weld line. Tensile residual stresses were observed near the inner diameter of the tube with magnitudes of the order of +500, +1100 and +1300 MPa in the radial, axial and hoop directions, respectively. By comparison near the outer diameter (OD) of the weld the corresponding stresses are of the order of -200, -1000 and 150 MPa. The final stress state reflects the influence of the gripping fixture tooling and thermal gradients during inertia welding. Additional X-ray (at the surface) and hole-drilling (at the near surface) measurements show a steep residual stress gradient in the near surface region. Tensile hoop and axial machining stresses at the surface indicate the potential for improving the inertia weld tooling and the machining parameters used when removing the flash

  6. Local covering optimality of lattices: Leech lattice versus root lattice $E_8$

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schuermann; F. Vallentin (Frank)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe show that the Leech lattice gives a sphere covering which is locally least dense among lattice coverings. We show that a similar result is false for the root lattice $E_8$. For this we construct a less dense covering lattice whose Delone subdivision has a common refinement with the

  7. Graphene antidot lattice waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...

  8. Exact Lattice Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catterall, Simon; Kaplan, David B.; Unsal, Mithat

    2009-03-31

    We provide an introduction to recent lattice formulations of supersymmetric theories which are invariant under one or more real supersymmetries at nonzero lattice spacing. These include the especially interesting case of N = 4 SYM in four dimensions. We discuss approaches based both on twisted supersymmetry and orbifold-deconstruction techniques and show their equivalence in the case of gauge theories. The presence of an exact supersymmetry reduces and in some cases eliminates the need for fine tuning to achieve a continuum limit invariant under the full supersymmetry of the target theory. We discuss open problems.

  9. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  10. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  11. Vacuum polarization and chiral lattice fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.

    1995-09-01

    The vacuum polarization due to chiral fermions on a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice is calculated according to the overlap prescription. The fermions are coupled to weak and slowly varying background gauge and Higgs fields, and the polarization tensor is given by second order perturbation theory. In this order the overlap constitutes a gauge invariant regularization of the fermion vacuum amplitude. Its low energy - long wavelength behaviour can be computed explicitly and we verify that it coincides with the Feynman graph result obtainable, for example, by dimensional regularization of continuum gauge theory. In particular, the Standard Model Callan-Symanzik, RG functions are recovered. Moreover, there are no residual lattice artefacts such as a dependence on Wilson-type mass parameters. (author). 16 refs

  12. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  13. Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bückmann, Tiemo; Kadic, Muamer; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2015-04-21

    Spatial coordinate transformations have helped simplifying mathematical issues and solving complex boundary-value problems in physics for decades already. More recently, material-parameter transformations have also become an intuitive and powerful engineering tool for designing inhomogeneous and anisotropic material distributions that perform wanted functions, e.g., invisibility cloaking. A necessary mathematical prerequisite for this approach to work is that the underlying equations are form invariant with respect to general coordinate transformations. Unfortunately, this condition is not fulfilled in elastic-solid mechanics for materials that can be described by ordinary elasticity tensors. Here, we introduce a different and simpler approach. We directly transform the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material, while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice points the same. After showing that the approach works in various areas, we focus on elastic-solid mechanics. As a demanding example, we cloak a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression. Corresponding numerical calculations and experiments on polymer structures made by 3D printing are presented. The cloaking quality is quantified by comparing the average relative SD of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice. Theory and experiment agree and exhibit very good cloaking performance.

  14. Shaken Lattice Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana

    2015-05-01

    This work introduces a method to perform interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Starting at t = 0 with atoms in the ground state of a lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] , we show that it is possible to transform from one atomic wavefunction to another by a prescribed shaking of the lattice, i.e., by an appropriately tailored time-dependent phase shift ϕ(t) . In particular, the standard interferometer sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination can be achieved via a set of phase modulation operations {ϕj(t) } . Each ϕj(t) is determined using a learning algorithm, and the split-step method calculates the wavefunction dynamics. We have numerically demonstrated an interferometer in which the shaken wavefunctions match the target states to better than 1 % . We carried out learning using a genetic algorithm and optimal control techniques. The atoms remain trapped in the lattice throughout the full interferometer sequence. Thus, the approach may be suitable for use in an dynamic environment. In addition to the general principles, we discuss aspects of the experimental implementation. Supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Northrop Grumman.

  15. Lattice Multiverse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, S. Gill

    2010-01-01

    Will the cosmological multiverse, when described mathematically, have easily stated properties that are impossible to prove or disprove using mathematical physics? We explore this question by constructing lattice multiverses which exhibit such behavior even though they are much simpler mathematically than any likely cosmological multiverse.

  16. Gravitinos on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, G.; Vanden Doel, C.P. (California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Physics Dept.)

    1983-04-07

    We study spin 3/2 fields on the lattice. Species doubling is found to be totally curable with an analogue of Wilson's method and partially with an analogue of the Kogut-Susskind formalism. Only the latter preserves local supersymmetry but describes at least four species.

  17. Elastic lattice polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baiesi, M.; Barkema, G.T.; Carlon, E.

    2010-01-01

    We study a model of “elastic” lattice polymer in which a fixed number of monomers m is hosted by a self-avoiding walk with fluctuating length l. We show that the stored length density m 1− l /m scales asymptotically for large m as m= 1− /m+. . . , where is the polymer entropic exponent, so that can

  18. Quarks, gluons and lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krojts, M.

    1987-01-01

    The book by the known american physicist-theoretist M.Kreuts represents the first monography in world literature, where a new perspective direction in elementary particle physics and quantum field theory - lattice formulation of gauge theories is stated systematically. Practically all main ideas of this direction are given. Material is stated in systematic and understandable form

  19. Lattices for antiproton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1984-01-01

    After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)

  20. lattice gauge theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activities in non-perturbative QCD. Keywords. Deflation; overlap operator; GPU; CUDA. PACS Nos 11.15.Ha; 12.38.-t. 1. Introduction. The lattice gauge theory subgroup of the working group in non-perturbative QCD consisted of Mridupavan Deka, Sourendu Gupta, N D Hari Dass, Rajarshi Roy, Sayantan Sharma and.

  1. Noetherian and Artinian Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Keskin Tütüncü

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that if L is a complete modular lattice which is compactly generated, then Rad(L/0 is Artinian if, and only if for every small element a of L, the sublattice a/0 is Artinian if, and only if L satisfies DCC on small elements.

  2. Decidability in Orthomodular Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyčko, Marek; Navara, Mirko

    2005-12-01

    We discuss the possibility of automatic simplification of formulas in orthomodular lattices. We describe the principles of a program which decides the validity of equalities and inequalities, as well as implications between them and other important relations significant in quantum mechanics.

  3. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G.A.; Ezeilo, A.N. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  4. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, G.A.; Ezeilo, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  5. Effects of radiation damage on the silicon lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Katherine A.; Lowry, Lynn; Russo, O. Louis

    1987-01-01

    Silicon was irradiated with both proton and electron particle beams in order to investigate changes in the structural and optical properties of the lattice as a result of the radiation damage. Lattice expansions occurred when large strain fields (+0.34 percent) developed after 1- and 3-MeV proton bombardment. The strain was a factor of three less after 1-MeV electron irradiation. Average increases of approximately 22 meV in the 3.46-eV interband energy gap and 14 meV in the Lorentz broadening parameter were measured after the electron irradiation.

  6. Interactions of pion-like particles from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markum, H.; Pullirsch, R.; Rabitsch, K.; Fiebig, H.R.; Mihaly, A.

    1999-01-01

    An approximate local potential for the residual π + - π + interaction is computed. We use an O(a 2 ) improved action on a coarse 9 3 x 13 lattice with spacing a ∼ 0.4 fm. We attempt extrapolation of the π + - π + potential to the chiral limit. Refs. 6, figs. 2 (author)

  7. Conical diffraction in honeycomb lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablowitz, Mark J.; Nixon, Sean D.; Zhu Yi

    2009-01-01

    Conical diffraction in honeycomb lattices is analyzed. This phenomenon arises in nonlinear Schroedinger equations with honeycomb lattice potentials. In the tight-binding approximation the wave envelope is governed by a nonlinear classical Dirac equation. Numerical simulations show that the Dirac equation and the lattice equation have the same conical diffraction properties. Similar conical diffraction occurs in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. The Dirac system reveals the underlying mechanism for the existence of conical diffraction in honeycomb lattices.

  8. A nonlinear mechanics model of bio-inspired hierarchical lattice materials consisting of horseshoe microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Cheng, Huanyu; Jang, Kyung-In; Luan, Haiwen; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    Development of advanced synthetic materials that can mimic the mechanical properties of non-mineralized soft biological materials has important implications in a wide range of technologies. Hierarchical lattice materials constructed with horseshoe microstructures belong to this class of bio-inspired synthetic materials, where the mechanical responses can be tailored to match the nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves of human skins. The underlying relations between the J-shaped stress-strain curves and their microstructure geometry are essential in designing such systems for targeted applications. Here, a theoretical model of this type of hierarchical lattice material is developed by combining a finite deformation constitutive relation of the building block (i.e., horseshoe microstructure), with the analyses of equilibrium and deformation compatibility in the periodical lattices. The nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves and Poisson ratios predicted by this model agree very well with results of finite element analyses (FEA) and experiment. Based on this model, analytic solutions were obtained for some key mechanical quantities, e.g., elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, peak modulus, and critical strain around which the tangent modulus increases rapidly. A negative Poisson effect is revealed in the hierarchical lattice with triangular topology, as opposed to a positive Poisson effect in hierarchical lattices with Kagome and honeycomb topologies. The lattice topology is also found to have a strong influence on the stress-strain curve. For the three isotropic lattice topologies (triangular, Kagome and honeycomb), the hierarchical triangular lattice material renders the sharpest transition in the stress-strain curve and relative high stretchability, given the same porosity and arc angle of horseshoe microstructure. Furthermore, a demonstrative example illustrates the utility of the developed model in the rapid optimization of hierarchical lattice materials for

  9. Residual stress measurements on steel using neutron high resolution powder diffractometer (HRPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inawati Tanto

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis by neutron diffraction is based on the determination of lattice strains by precise measurements of the d spacing. Residual stress measurements were made on 0.7 mm of a rolled thin steel and on 1.65 mm of a galvanized flat steel. The neutron measurements in the vertical and horizontal directions were made in transmission and reflection geometry using HRPD on the Hifar Reactor at Lucas Heights, Australia. It can be concluded that the stress arise on the weld section of the galvanized flat steel was compression. On rolled thin steel stresses were measured at the rolled and unrolled section. Datas collected were not consistent with the expectations for example the horizontal rolled measurement was expected to show compressive residual stress, however the opposite was observed. (author), 4 refs, 2 tabs, 1 figs

  10. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torreão Dassen, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be

  11. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  12. An alternative lattice field theory formulation inspired by lattice supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adda, Alessandro; Kawamoto, Noboru; Saito, Jun

    2017-12-01

    We propose an unconventional formulation of lattice field theories which is quite general, although originally motivated by the quest of exact lattice supersymmetry. Two long standing problems have a solution in this context: 1) Each degree of freedom on the lattice corresponds to 2 d degrees of freedom in the continuum, but all these doublers have (in the case of fermions) the same chirality and can be either identified, thus removing the degeneracy, or, in some theories with extended supersymmetry, identified with different members of the same supermultiplet. 2) The derivative operator, defined on the lattice as a suitable periodic function of the lattice momentum, is an addittive and conserved quantity, thus assuring that the Leibniz rule is satisfied. This implies that the product of two fields on the lattice is replaced by a non-local "star product" which is however in general non-associative. Associativity of the "star product" poses strong restrictions on the form of the lattice derivative operator (which becomes the inverse Gudermannian function of the lattice momentum) and has the consequence that the degrees of freedom of the lattice theory and of the continuum theory are in one-to-one correspondence, so that the two theories are eventually equivalent. We can show that the non-local star product of the fields effectively turns into a local one in the continuum limit. Regularization of the ultraviolet divergences on the lattice is not associated to the lattice spacing, which does not act as a regulator, but may be obtained by a one parameter deformation of the lattice derivative, thus preserving the lattice structure even in the limit of infinite momentum cutoff. However this regularization breaks gauge invariance and a gauge invariant regularization within the lattice formulation is still lacking.

  13. Tailoring diffraction technique Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-can oiled 304 stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P.; Anis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tailoring of diffraction technique-Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates assuming the material is isotopic, the residual stress measurements using X-ray powder diffraction is just performed for a plane lying in a large angle. For anisotropic materials, the real measurements will not be represented by the methods. By Utilizing of all diffraction peaks in the observation region, tailoring diffraction technique-Rietveld analysis is able to cover the limitations. The residual stress measurement using X-ray powder diffraction tailored by Rietveld method, in a series of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates deforming; 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175, and 196 % reduction in thickness, have been reported. The diffraction data were analyzed by using Rietveld structure refinement method. Also, for all cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates cuplikans, the diffraction peaks are broader than the uncanailed one, indicating that the strains in these cuplikans are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was calculated. Finally, the average residual stresses in cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates were shown to be a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of martensite particles and austenite matrix. The average residual stresses were evaluated from the experimentally determined average lattice strains in each phase. It was found the tensile residual stress in a cuplikan was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a cuplikan reducing 34% in thickness and minimum for a 196% cuplikan

  14. Lattice QCD for cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Kampert, K.H.; Fodor, Z.; Forschungszentrum Juelich; Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest

    2016-06-01

    We present a full result for the equation of state (EoS) in 2+1+1 (up/down, strange and charm quarks are present) flavour lattice QCD. We extend this analysis and give the equation of state in 2+1+1+1 flavour QCD. In order to describe the evolution of the universe from temperatures several hundreds of GeV to the MeV scale we also include the known effects of the electroweak theory and give the effective degree of freedoms. As another application of lattice QCD we calculate the topological susceptibility (χ) up to the few GeV temperature region. These two results, EoS and χ, can be used to predict the dark matter axion's mass in the post-inflation scenario and/or give the relationship between the axion's mass and the universal axionic angle, which acts as a initial condition of our universe.

  15. Datagrids for lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechner, O. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Jansen, K. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lippert, Th. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Melkumyan, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Orth, B. [Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik ZAM, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Pleiter, D. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC/DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: dirk.pleiter@desy.de; Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wegner, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wollny, S. [Konrad-Zuse-Institut fuer Informationstechnik ZIB, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-01

    As the need for computing resources to carry out numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) formulated on a lattice has increased significantly, efficient use of the generated data has become a major concern. To improve on this, groups plan to share their configurations on a worldwide level within the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG). Doing so requires standardized description of the configurations, standards on binary file formats and common middleware interfaces. We describe the requirements and problems, and discuss solutions. Furthermore, an overview is given on the implementation of the LatFor DataGrid [http://www-zeuthen.desy.de/latfor/ldg], a France/German/Italian grid that will be one of the regional grids within the ILDG grid-of-grids concept.

  16. Introduction to lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.

    1998-12-31

    The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.

  17. Varieties of lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Jipsen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The study of lattice varieties is a field that has experienced rapid growth in the last 30 years, but many of the interesting and deep results discovered in that period have so far only appeared in research papers. The aim of this monograph is to present the main results about modular and nonmodular varieties, equational bases and the amalgamation property in a uniform way. The first chapter covers preliminaries that make the material accessible to anyone who has had an introductory course in universal algebra. Each subsequent chapter begins with a short historical introduction which sites the original references and then presents the results with complete proofs (in nearly all cases). Numerous diagrams illustrate the beauty of lattice theory and aid in the visualization of many proofs. An extensive index and bibliography also make the monograph a useful reference work.

  18. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  19. Light water lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The panel was attended by prominent physicists from most of the well-known laboratories in the field of light-water lattices, who exchanged the latest information on the status of work in their countries and discussed both the theoretical and the experimental aspects of the subjects. The supporting papers covered most problems, including criticality, resonance absorption, thermal utilization, spectrum calculations and the physics of plutonium bearing systems. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Computing: Lattice work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Ken

    1990-01-01

    One of the major recent developments in particle theory has been the use of very high performance computers to obtain approximate numerical solutions of quantum field theories by formulating them on a finite space-time lattice. The great virtue of this new technique is that it avoids the straitjacket of perturbation theory and can thus attack new, but very fundamental problems, such as the calculation of hadron masses in quark-gluon field theory (quantum chromodynamics - QCD)

  1. Automated lattice data generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyar Venkitesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them can be tedious and error-prone when done “by hand”. In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.

  2. The Lysine Residues within the Human Ribosomal Protein S17 Sequence Naturally Inserted into the Viral Nonstructural Protein of a Unique Strain of Hepatitis E Virus Are Important for Enhanced Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but extremely understudied human pathogen. Due largely to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV, the molecular mechanisms of HEV replication and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Recently, a unique genotype 3 strain of HEV recovered from a chronically infected patient was adapted for growth in HepG2C3A human hepatoma cells. The adaptation of the Kernow C-1 P6 HEV to propagate in HepG2C3A cells selected for a rare virus recombinant that contains an insertion of a 171-nucleotide sequence encoding amino acids 21 to 76 of the human ribosomal protein S17 (RPS17) within the hypervariable region (HVR) of the HEV ORF1 protein. When the RPS17 insertion was placed into a strain of genotype 1 HEV which infects only humans, it expanded the host range of the virus, allowing it to infect cell lines from multiple animal species, including cow, dog, cat, chicken, and hamster. In this study, we utilized forward and reverse genetics to attempt to define which aspects of the RPS17 insertion allow for the ability of the Kernow C-1 P6 HEV to adapt in cell culture and allow for expanded host tropism. We demonstrate that the RPS17 sequence insertion in HEV bestows novel nuclear/nucleolar trafficking capabilities to the ORF1 protein of Kernow P6 HEV and that lysine residues within the RPS17 insertion, but not nuclear localization of the ORF1 protein, correlate with the enhanced replication of the HEV Kernow C-1 P6 strain. The results from this study have important implications for understanding the mechanism of cross-species infection and replication of HEV. IMPORTANCE HEV is an important pathogen worldwide. The virus causes high mortality (up to 30%) in pregnant women and has been recognized to cause chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised populations. The life cycle of HEV has been understudied due to a lack of sufficient cell culture systems in which to propagate the virus. Recently, insertions and rearrangements of the

  3. Robots and lattice automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...

  4. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1983-06-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  5. Engineering related neutron diffraction measurements probing strains, texture and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Donald W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tome, Carlos N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balogh, Levente [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogel, Sven C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used for engineering applications for nearly three decades. The basis of the technique is powder diffraction following Bragg's Law. From the measured diffraction patterns information about internal, or residual, strain can be deduced from the peak positions, texture information can be extracted from the peak intensities, and finally the peak widths can provide information about the microstructure, e.g. dislocation densities and grain sizes. The strains are measured directly from changes in lattice parameters, however, in many cases it is non-trivial to determine macroscopic values of stress or strain from the measured data. The effects of intergranular strains must be considered, and combining the neutron diffraction measurements with polycrystal deformation modeling has proven invaluable in determining the overall stress and strain values of interest in designing and dimensioning engineering components. Furthelmore, the combined use of measurements and modeling has provided a tool for elucidating basic material properties, such as critical resolved shear stresses for the active deformation modes and their evolution as a function of applied deformation.

  6. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  7. A quest for 2D lattice materials for actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, T. N.; Ayas, C.; Tekõglu, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, most of the studies in shape morphing technology have focused on the Kagome lattice materials, which have superior properties such as in-plane isotropy, high specific stiffness and strength, and low energy requirement for actuation of its members. The Kagome lattice is a member of the family of semi-regular tessellations of the plane. Two fundamental questions naturally arise: i-) What makes a lattice material suitable for actuation? ii-) Are there other tessellations more effective than the Kagome lattice for actuation? The present paper tackles both questions, and provides a clear answer to the first one by comparing an alternative lattice material, the hexagonal cupola, with the Kagome lattice in terms of mechanical/actuation properties. The second question remains open, but, hopefully easier to challenge owing to a newly-discovered criterion: for an n-dimensional (n = 2 , 3) in-plane isotropic lattice material to be suitable for actuation, its pin-jointed equivalent must obey the generalised Maxwell's rule, and must possess M = 3(n - 1) non strain-producing finite kinematic mechanisms.

  8. Structural study of ZnSe films grown on substrate with In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As and Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As buffer layers: strain, relaxation and lattice parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Ladron de Guevara, H.; Gaona-Couto, A.; Vidal, M.A. [Instituto de Investigacion En Comunicacion Optica (IICO), Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: mavidal@cactus.iico.uaslp.mx; Luyo Alvarado, J.; Melendez Lira, M.; Lopez-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2002-06-21

    ZnSe layers of various thickness were grown on (001) GaAs substrates, using In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As or Al{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As as buffer layers by molecular beam epitaxy and were studied by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The principal structural characteristics of ZnSe layer and buffer layer were determined using several reflections, such as (004) and two pairs of coupled asymmetric reflections, namely (224), (-2-24) and (115) (-1-15). In order to evaluate their validity, the experimental data obtained from these reflections were handled by means of two known expressions found in the literature. We have found the relaxation process of ZnSe layers is well described by a geometrical model including the thermal strain and small strain due to work hardening. The relaxation process is faster for ZnSe grown on ternary buffer layers despite the fact that, some buffer layers are pseudomorphically grown to the substrate; therefore we conclude that not only the lattice mismatches have effect on the relaxation process but also the surface state of the buffer layer has an influence in this process. (author)

  9. On elastic response of disordered triangular lattice during dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastilović Sreten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses on an observation regarding the initial elastic response of a triangular geometrically and structurally disordered lattice during medium-to-high strain rate loading. Namely: a transition from the short-time modulus of elasticity to the long-time one, which is not accompanied by the corresponding change of the stiffness tensor. It is demonstrated that the difference between the two moduli is, in the case of the homogeneous biaxial test simulations performed herein, a consequence of the geometrical and structural disorder "quenched" within the lattice. The investigation is performed on the triangular lattice with the first-neighbor central interactions under practically identical in-plane conditions over eight decades of strain rate.

  10. The Finite Embeddability Property for Residuated Groupoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana; Horčík, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-13 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1632 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : residuated groupoid * distributive lattice * finite embeddability property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  11. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  12. Lattice topology dictates photon statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, H Esat; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2017-08-21

    Propagation of coherent light through a disordered network is accompanied by randomization and possible conversion into thermal light. Here, we show that network topology plays a decisive role in determining the statistics of the emerging field if the underlying lattice is endowed with chiral symmetry. In such lattices, eigenmode pairs come in skew-symmetric pairs with oppositely signed eigenvalues. By examining one-dimensional arrays of randomly coupled waveguides arranged on linear and ring topologies, we are led to a remarkable prediction: the field circularity and the photon statistics in ring lattices are dictated by its parity while the same quantities are insensitive to the parity of a linear lattice. For a ring lattice, adding or subtracting a single lattice site can switch the photon statistics from super-thermal to sub-thermal, or vice versa. This behavior is understood by examining the real and imaginary fields on a lattice exhibiting chiral symmetry, which form two strands that interleave along the lattice sites. These strands can be fully braided around an even-sited ring lattice thereby producing super-thermal photon statistics, while an odd-sited lattice is incommensurate with such an arrangement and the statistics become sub-thermal.

  13. The lattice correspondence and diffusional-displacive phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, J.F.; Muddle, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    When a coherent interface is maintained between parent and product phases in a solid state phase transformation, then it is always possible to define a lattice correspondence across this interface and describe the structural change by a homogeneous lattice deformation, S T . For certain transformations, this strain is an invariant plane strain, with the invariant plane defining the planar, coherent interface between parent and product. This group includes the familiar martensitic face-centred cubic to close-packed hexagonal transformation in, for example, cobalt-based alloys, but it is demonstrated here that it also contains transformations giving rise to a broad range of plate-shaped, diffusional precipitation products. For many such transformation products, the transformation strain has a significant shear component and the accommodation of shear strain energy is potentially an important, and often overlooked, factor in both the nucleation and growth of such products. More commonly S T is not an invariant plane strain and, if a planar interface is to be preserved between parent and product, it is necessary to combine S T with a lattice invariant strain to allow a partially-coherent interface that is macroscopically invariant. It is demonstrated that there are diffusional transformation products which also have the geometric and crystallographic features of both of the common forms of partially-coherent martensitic products

  14. Study of Gd lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovsky, I.; Kereszturi, A.

    1991-11-01

    The results of experiments and calculations on Gd lattices are presented, and a comparison of experimental and calculational data is given. This latter can be divided into four groups. The first belongs to the comparison of criticality parameters, the second group is related with the comparison of 2D distributions, the third one relates the comparison of intra-macrocell distributions, whereas the fourth group is devoted for the comparison of spectral parameters. For comparison, the computer code RFIT based on strict statistical criteria has been used. The calculated and measured results agree, in most cases, sufficiently. (R.P.) 11 refs.; 13 figs.; 9 tabs

  15. Lattice Vibrations in Chlorobenzenes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Kjems, Jørgen; White, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Lattice vibrational dispersion curves for the ``intermolecular'' modes in the triclinic, one molecule per unit cell β phase of p‐C6D4Cl2 and p‐C6H4Cl2 have been obtained by inelastic neutron scattering. The deuterated sample was investigated at 295 and at 90°K and a linear extrapolation to 0°K...... was applied in order to correct for anharmonic effects. Calculations based on the atom‐atom model for van der Waals' interaction and on general potential parameters for the aromatic compounds agree reasonably well with the experimental observations. There is no substantial improvement in fit obtained either...

  16. Lattice of quantum predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Michael

    1993-10-01

    What is the structure of reality? Physics is supposed to answer this question, but a purely empiristic view is not sufficient to explain its ability to do so. Quantum mechanics has forced us to think more deeply about what a physical theory is. There are preconditions every physical theory must fulfill. It has to contain, e.g., rules for empirically testable predictions. Those preconditions give physics a structure that is “a priori” in the Kantian sense. An example is given how the lattice structure of quantum mechanics can be understood along these lines.

  17. Ordered sets and lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Drashkovicheva, Kh; Igoshin, V I; Katrinyak, T; Kolibiar, M

    1989-01-01

    This book is another publication in the recent surveys of ordered sets and lattices. The papers, which might be characterized as "reviews of reviews," are based on articles reviewed in the Referativnyibreve Zhurnal: Matematika from 1978 to 1982. For the sake of completeness, the authors also attempted to integrate information from other relevant articles from that period. The bibliography of each paper provides references to the reviews in RZhMat and Mathematical Reviews where one can seek more detailed information. Specifically excluded from consideration in this volume were such topics as al

  18. Lattice cell burnup calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.

    1977-01-01

    Accurate burnup prediction is a key item for design and operation of a power reactor. It should supply information on isotopic changes at each point in the reactor core and the consequences of these changes on the reactivity, power distribution, kinetic characters, control rod patterns, fuel cycles and operating strategy. A basic stage in the burnup prediction is the lattice cell burnup calculation. This series of lectures attempts to give a review of the general principles and calculational methods developed and applied in this area of burnup physics

  19. Extreme lattices: symmetries and decorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, A.; Scardicchio, A.; Torquato, S.

    2016-11-01

    We study statistical and structural properties of extreme lattices, which are the local minima in the density landscape of lattice sphere packings in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Specifically, we ascertain statistics of the densities and kissing numbers as well as the numbers of distinct symmetries of the packings for dimensions 8 through 13 using the stochastic Voronoi algorithm. The extreme lattices in a fixed dimension of space d (d≥slant 8 ) are dominated by typical lattices that have similar packing properties, such as packing densities and kissing numbers, while the best and the worst packers are in the long tails of the distribution of the extreme lattices. We also study the validity of the recently proposed decorrelation principle, which has important implications for sphere packings in general. The degree to which extreme-lattice packings decorrelate as well as how decorrelation is related to the packing density and symmetry of the lattices as the space dimension increases is also investigated. We find that the extreme lattices decorrelate with increasing dimension, while the least symmetric lattices decorrelate faster.

  20. Elimination of spurious lattice fermion solutions and noncompact lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.D.

    1997-09-22

    It is well known that the Dirac equation on a discrete hyper-cubic lattice in D dimension has 2{sup D} degenerate solutions. The usual method of removing these spurious solutions encounters difficulties with chiral symmetry when the lattice spacing l {ne} 0, as exemplified by the persistent problem of the pion mass. On the other hand, we recall that in any crystal in nature, all the electrons do move in a lattice and satisfy the Dirac equation; yet there is not a single physical result that has ever been entangled with a spurious fermion solution. Therefore it should not be difficult to eliminate these unphysical elements. On a discrete lattice, particle hop from point to point, whereas in a real crystal the lattice structure in embedded in a continuum and electrons move continuously from lattice cell to lattice cell. In a discrete system, the lattice functions are defined only on individual points (or links as in the case of gauge fields). However, in a crystal the electron state vector is represented by the Bloch wave functions which are continuous functions in {rvec {gamma}}, and herein lies one of the essential differences.

  1. Characterization of projection lattices of Hilbert spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szambien, H.H.

    1986-09-01

    The classical lattices of projections of Hilbert spaces over the real, the complex or the quaternion number field are characterized among the totality of irreducible, complete, orthomodular, atomic lattices satisfying the covering property. To this end, so-called paratopological lattices are introduced, i.e, lattices carrying a topology that renders the lattice operations restrictedly continuous.

  2. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  3. Kondo Lattices and the Mott Metal-Insulator Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozières, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    In Kondo lattices with one magnetic impurity at every lattice site, few electrons must quench many spins. This old “exhaustion” issue has been pending for years: it now appears it does not arise: the coherence temperature at which a singlet ground state emerges is the Kondo temperature itself. We survey the evolution of that problem. We then argue that such a lattice Kondo effect governs the Mott transition from a paramagnetic metal to an incoherent spin disordered insulator. It explains the appearance of a narrow resonance in the middle of a large preformed gap. Our naive arguments can be extended to an orbitally degenerate situation: they provide a qualitative understanding of the effect discovered numerically by Capone et al. [Science 296 (2002) 2364], namely the appearance of s-wave superconductivity near the Mott transition when the atomic ground state is a singlet with no residual degeneracy.

  4. Lattices, supersymmetry and Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a graded extension of the space group of a (generalised) simple cubic lattice exists in any space dimension, D. The fermionic variables which arise admit a Kaehlerian interpretation. Each graded space group is a subgroup of a graded extension of the appropriate Euclidean group, E(D). The relevance of this to the construction of lattice theories is discussed. (author)

  5. Fast simulation of lattice systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, H.; Kaznelson, E.; Hansen, Frank

    1983-01-01

    A new computer system with an entirely new processor design is described and demonstrated on a very small trial lattice. The new computer simulates systems of differential equations of the order of 104 times faster than present day computers and we describe how the machine can be applied to lattice...

  6. Quantum phases in optical lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickerscheid, Dennis Brian Martin

    2006-01-01

    An important new development in the field of ultracold atomic gases is the study of the properties of these gases in a so-called optical lattice. An optical lattice is a periodic trapping potential for the atoms that is formed by the interference pattern of a few laser beams. A reason for the

  7. Lattice gauge theory: Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1993-09-01

    Lattice gauge theory is our primary tool for the study of non- perturbative phenomena in hadronic physics. In addition to giving quantitative information on confinement, the approach is yielding first principles calculations of hadronic spectra and matrix elements. After years of confusion, there has been significant recent progress in understanding issues of chiral symmetry on the lattice

  8. Geometry of lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honan, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Using some tools of algebraic topology, a general formalism for lattice field theory is presented. The lattice is taken to be a simplicial complex that is also a manifold and is referred to as a simplicial manifold. The fields on this lattice are cochains, that are called lattice forms to emphasize the connections with differential forms in the continuum. This connection provides a new bridge between lattice and continuum field theory. A metric can be put onto this simplicial manifold by assigning lengths to every link or I-simplex of the lattice. Regge calculus is a way of defining general relativity on this lattice. A geometric discussion of Regge calculus is presented. The Regge action, which is a discrete form of the Hilbert action, is derived from the Hilbert action using distribution valued forms. This is a new derivation that emphasizes the underlying geometry. Kramers-Wannier duality in statistical mechanics is discussed in this general setting. Nonlinear field theories, which include gauge theories and nonlinear sigma models are discussed in the continuum and then are put onto a lattice. The main new result here is the generalization to curved spacetime, which consists of making the theory compatible with Regge calculus

  9. Constraint percolation on hyperbolic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jorge H.; Schwarz, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    Hyperbolic lattices interpolate between finite-dimensional lattices and Bethe lattices, and they are interesting in their own right, with ordinary percolation exhibiting not one but two phase transitions. We study four constraint percolation models—k -core percolation (for k =1 ,2 ,3 ) and force-balance percolation—on several tessellations of the hyperbolic plane. By comparing these four different models, our numerical data suggest that all of the k -core models, even for k =3 , exhibit behavior similar to ordinary percolation, while the force-balance percolation transition is discontinuous. We also provide proof, for some hyperbolic lattices, of the existence of a critical probability that is less than unity for the force-balance model, so that we can place our interpretation of the numerical data for this model on a more rigorous footing. Finally, we discuss improved numerical methods for determining the two critical probabilities on the hyperbolic lattice for the k -core percolation models.

  10. Lattice quantum chromodynamics practical essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Peardon, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the techniques central to lattice quantum chromodynamics, including modern developments. The book has four chapters. The first chapter explains the formulation of quarks and gluons on a Euclidean lattice. The second chapter introduces Monte Carlo methods and details the numerical algorithms to simulate lattice gauge fields. Chapter three explains the mathematical and numerical techniques needed to study quark fields and the computation of quark propagators. The fourth chapter is devoted to the physical observables constructed from lattice fields and explains how to measure them in simulations. The book is aimed at enabling graduate students who are new to the field to carry out explicitly the first steps and prepare them for research in lattice QCD.

  11. Residual stress measurements in thick structural weldments by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A.G.; Idsert, P. v.d.; Timke, T.

    2000-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in large structural components are a major concern with respect to their performance and lifetime. In large structures reasonable thermal stress relief treatment is usually impossible due to the component size. On the other hand, prediction of welding stresses by numerical modelling has not yet proven to be generally reliable, while the experimental determination of such stresses remains a demanding task. At the high flux reactor (HFR), Petten, a new residual stress diffractometer has been installed recently capable of handling of components up to 1000 kg - the large component neutron diffraction facility (LCNDF). It has facilitated residual stress measurements in two large welded components, of which results are presented here. The first component represents a bi-metallic weld in form of a pipe of 25 mm wall thickness. Three dimensional measurements of residual stress are discussed in detail. The second specimen is a 66 mm wall thickness austenitic steel nuclear piping weld. Results on relief of strain within the weld through post weld heat treatment (PWHT) are presented. Additionally results obtained earlier at former CRNL (CAN) on a section of a thick nuclear piping weld are presented in order to illustrate the variation in the reference lattice parameter trough the weld and the heat affected zone (HAZ). These results clearly show the necessity to determine the reference parameters for each location in all measurement directions by means of measurements in small coupons free of macro-stresses. (orig.)

  12. Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanabusa, T.; Shiro, A.; Refai, M.; Nishida, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular (hkl) plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each (hkl) diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of (hkl) diffraction plane. The measurement on the (110), (200) and (211) diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on (110) were compressive, (200) were tensile and those on (211) were the middle of the former two planes. (author)

  13. Diffraction Plane Dependence of Micro Residual Stresses in Uniaxially Extended Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanabusa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the stress measurement using X-ray or neutron diffraction, an elastic anisotropy as well as a plastic anisotropy of crystal must be carefully considered. In the X-ray and neutron diffraction stress measurement for polycrystalline materials, a particular {hkl} plane is used in measuring lattice strains. The dependence of an X-ray elastic constant on a diffraction plane is a typical example caused by an elastic anisotropy of the crystal. The yield strength and the work hardening rate of a single crystal depend on a crystallographic direction of the crystal. The difference in the yield strength and the work hardening rate relating to the crystallographic direction develops different residual stresses measured on each {hkl} diffraction after plastic deformation of a polycrystalline material. The present paper describes the result of the neutron stress measurement on uniaxially extended low and middle carbon steels. A tri-axial residual stress state developed in the extended specimens was measured on different kind of {hkl} diffraction plane. The measurement on the {110}, {200} and {211} diffraction showed that residual stresses increased with increasing the plastic elongation and the residual stresses on {110} were compressive, {200} were tensile and those on {211} were the middle of the former two planes.

  14. Strain induced effects on the transport properties of metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capotondi, F.; Biasiol, G.; Ercolani, D.; Grillo, V.; Carlino, E.; Romanato, F.; Sorba, L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between structural and low-temperature transport properties is explored for In x Al 1 - x As/In x Ga 1 - x As metamorphic quantum wells with x > 0.7 grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Different step-graded buffer layers are used to gradually adapt the in-plane lattice parameter from the GaAs towards the InGaAs value. We show that using buffer layers with a suitable maximum In content the residual compressive strain in the quantum well region can be strongly reduced. Samples with virtually no residual strain in the quantum well region show a low-temperature electron mobility up to 29 m 2 /V s while for samples with higher residual compressive strain the low-temperature mobility is reduced. Furthermore, for samples with buffers inducing a tensile strain in the quantum well region, deep grooves are observed on the surface, and in correspondence we notice a strong deterioration of the low-temperature transport properties

  15. Finite Element Based Formulation of Lattice Boltzmann Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Kwon, Young W.; Kwon, Young W.

    2008-01-01

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been developed for application to thermal-fluid problems. Recently, the technique was also applied to fluid-structure interaction problems. Most of those studies considered a regular shape of lattice or mesh like square and cubic grids. In order to apply the LBM to more practical cases, it is necessary to be able to solve complex or irregular shapes of problem domains. There have been different kinds of approaches to address the problems. The most common technique was using the finite volume formulation of the lattice Boltzmann equation. Another approach was a point-wise interpolation technique for irregular grids. Other techniques were based on the finite element method. Generally, the finite element method is very powerful for solving two or three-dimensional complex or irregular shapes of domains using the isoparametric element formulation which is based on a mathematical mapping from a regular shape of element in an imaginary domain to a more general and irregular shape of element in the physical domain. In addition, there are variety of choices of finite elements such as triangular or quadrilateral shapes in 2-D, or tetrahedral, triangular prism, or general six-sided solids in 3-D. As a result, the present study presents a new finite element formulation for the lattice Boltzmann equation using the general weighted residual technique. Among the weighted residual formulations, the collocation method, Galerkin method or method of moments are used to develop the finite element based LBM

  16. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  17. Neutron Bragg-edge-imaging for strain mapping under in situ tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woracek, R.; Penumadu, D.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Strobl, M.; Wimpory, R. C.; Manke, I.; Banhart, J.

    2011-01-01

    Wavelength selective neutron radiography at a cold neutron reactor source was used to measure strain and determine (residual) stresses in a steel sample under plane stress conditions. We present a new technique that uses an energy-resolved neutron imaging system based on a double crystal monochromator and is equipped with a specially developed (in situ) biaxial load frame to perform Bragg edge based transmission imaging. The neutron imaging technique provides a viewing area of 7 cm by 7 cm with a spatial resolution on the order of ∼ 100 μm. The stress-induced shifts of the Bragg edge corresponding to the (110) lattice plane were resolved spatially for a ferritic steel alloy A36 (ASTM international) sample. Furthermore it is demonstrated that results agree with comparative data obtained using neutron diffraction and resistance based strain-gauge rosettes.

  18. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2014-01-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity. (papers)

  19. Introduction to lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.

    1987-01-01

    The lattice formulation of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) can be exploited in many ways. We can derive the lattice Feynman rules and carry out weak coupling perturbation expansions. The lattice then serves as a manifestly gauge invariant regularization scheme, albeit one that is more complicated than standard continuum schemes. Strong coupling expansions: these give us useful qualitative information, but unfortunately no hard numbers. The lattice theory is amenable to numerical simulations by which one calculates the long distance properties of a strongly interacting theory from first principles. The observables are measured as a function of the bare coupling g and a gauge invariant cut-off ≅ 1/α, where α is the lattice spacing. The continuum (physical) behavior is recovered in the limit α → 0, at which point the lattice artifacts go to zero. This is the more powerful use of lattice formulation, so in these lectures the author focuses on setting up the theory for the purpose of numerical simulations to get hard numbers. The numerical techniques used in Lattice Gauge Theories have their roots in statistical mechanics, so it is important to develop an intuition for the interconnection between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This will be the emphasis of the first lecture. In the second lecture, the author reviews the essential ingredients of formulating QCD on the lattice and discusses scaling and the continuum limit. In the last lecture the author summarizes the status of some of the main results. He also mentions the bottlenecks and possible directions for research. 88 refs

  20. Lattice Methods for Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    DeGrand, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Numerical simulation of lattice-regulated QCD has become an important source of information about strong interactions. In the last few years there has been an explosion of techniques for performing ever more accurate studies on the properties of strongly interacting particles. Lattice predictions directly impact many areas of particle and nuclear physics theory and phenomenology. This book provides a thorough introduction to the specialized techniques needed to carry out numerical simulations of QCD: a description of lattice discretizations of fermions and gauge fields, methods for actually do

  1. Localized structures in Kagome lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Avadh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Law, K J H [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS; Kevrekidis, P G [UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the existence and stability of gap vortices and multi-pole gap solitons in a Kagome lattice with a defocusing nonlinearity both in a discrete case and in a continuum one with periodic external modulation. In particular, predictions are made based on expansion around a simple and analytically tractable anti-continuum (zero coupling) limit. These predictions are then confirmed for a continuum model of an optically-induced Kagome lattice in a photorefractive crystal obtained by a continuous transformation of a honeycomb lattice.

  2. Lattice sums then and now

    CERN Document Server

    Borwein, J M; McPhedran, R C

    2013-01-01

    The study of lattice sums began when early investigators wanted to go from mechanical properties of crystals to the properties of the atoms and ions from which they were built (the literature of Madelung's constant). A parallel literature was built around the optical properties of regular lattices of atoms (initiated by Lord Rayleigh, Lorentz and Lorenz). For over a century many famous scientists and mathematicians have delved into the properties of lattices, sometimes unwittingly duplicating the work of their predecessors. Here, at last, is a comprehensive overview of the substantial body of

  3. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  4. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrand, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z}), and B-{anti B} mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs.

  5. Lattice Studies of Hyperon Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, David G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    I describe recent progress at studying the spectrum of hadrons containing the strange quark through lattice QCD calculations. I emphasise in particular the richness of the spectrum revealed by lattice studies, with a spectrum of states at least as rich as that of the quark model. I conclude by prospects for future calculations, including in particular the determination of the decay amplitudes for the excited states.

  6. Harmonic oscillator on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ader, J.P.; Bonnier, B.; Hontebeyrie, M.; Meyers, C.

    1983-01-01

    The continuum limit of the ground state energy for the harmonic oscillator with discrete time is derived for all possible choices of the lattice derivative. The occurrence of unphysical values is shown to arise whenever the lattice laplacian is not strictly positive on its Brillouin zone. These undesirable limits can either be finite and arbitrary (multiple spectrum) or infinite (overlapping sublattices with multiple spectrum). (orig.)

  7. Lattice gauge theory for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrand, T.

    1997-01-01

    These lectures provide an introduction to lattice methods for nonperturbative studies of Quantum Chromodynamics. Lecture 1: Basic techniques for QCD and results for hadron spectroscopy using the simplest discretizations; lecture 2: Improved actions--what they are and how well they work; lecture 3: SLAC physics from the lattice-structure functions, the mass of the glueball, heavy quarks and α s (M z ), and B-anti B mixing. 67 refs., 36 figs

  8. Deformações residuais longitudinais decorrentes de tensões de crescimento em eucaliptos e suas associações com outras propriedades Longitudinal residual strains resulted from growth stresses in eucalypts and their association with other properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima

    2004-02-01

    ânicas da madeira fossem significativamente estimadas por modelos múltiplos.Growth stresses are a limiting factor in the use of fast growing eucalypts for the production of sawing logs. Further studies are needed for the qualification and mensuration of these stresses in eucalypts trees in Brazil. Thus, the main objective of this work was to evaluate the application of a new instrument, CIRAD-Forêt extensometer, in the measurement of the longitudinal residual strain (DRL in standing trees of five genetic materials of eucalypts, experimentally cultivated in Aracruz-Espirito Santo, and to correlate the magnitude of such strain with other wood properties and tree dimensions. The results obtained showed that: i the extensometer is a simple, rapid and reliable instrument to measure and identify trees with different levels of growth stresses; ii the DRL associated to the growth stresses measured with the extensometer were in average equal to 71 mm; iii no statistical differences were found in the DRLs measured in different cardinal orientations; iv the DRLs varied significantly with the genetic material according to the analyses of variance; v for clone 1, in which the DRLs were measured in two positions along the stem (1.3 m and 2.5 m, the values were similar; vi among various wood properties, only basic density was positive and significantly correlated with the DRLs when the five genetic materials were analysed together; vii except for the stability factor (DBH/total height of variety 5, the correlation between DRL and the tree growth dimensions were not significant when the genetic materials were analyzed separately, however, when the five genetic materials were analyzed together, only total height of the tree did not result in significant correlation with the DRLs; viii DRL addition to the tree growth dimensions allowed density and several wood mechanical properties to be significantly estimated by multiple models.

  9. Homomorphisms of complete distributive lattices | Pultr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of analogous results on algebraic universality of categories based on finitary distributive (0, 1)-lattices is included to motivate further questions about categories based on complete distributive lattices. Keywords: complete distributive lattice, complete lattice homomorphism, frame, Heyting algebra, continuous map, ...

  10. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  11. Lattice gauge theory using parallel processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.; Chou, K.C.; Zichichi, A.

    1987-01-01

    The book's contents include: Lattice Gauge Theory Lectures: Introduction and Current Fermion Simulations; Monte Carlo Algorithms for Lattice Gauge Theory; Specialized Computers for Lattice Gauge Theory; Lattice Gauge Theory at Finite Temperature: A Monte Carlo Study; Computational Method - An Elementary Introduction to the Langevin Equation, Present Status of Numerical Quantum Chromodynamics; Random Lattice Field Theory; The GF11 Processor and Compiler; and The APE Computer and First Physics Results; Columbia Supercomputer Project: Parallel Supercomputer for Lattice QCD; Statistical and Systematic Errors in Numerical Simulations; Monte Carlo Simulation for LGT and Programming Techniques on the Columbia Supercomputer; Food for Thought: Five Lectures on Lattice Gauge Theory

  12. Control and elimination of biaxial strain in laser-ablated epitaxial BaxSr1-xTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Chris M.; Parilla, Philip A.; Rivkin, Tanya V.; Perkins, John D.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    We report the in-plane (a) and out-of-plane (c) lattice parameters of epitaxial laser-ablated Ba 0.4 Sr 0.6 TiO 3 films on MgO for a range of O 2 deposition pressures (40--250 mTorr) near the observed transition from a c. From these lattice parameters, we calculate the residual strain and stress in terms of hydrostatic and biaxial components. Both components increase sharply with O 2 pressure between 85 and 100 mTorr, consistent with ion peening effects. Postdeposition annealing decreases the hydrostatic strain, but increases the biaxial tension. For both as-deposited and annealed films, we obtain samples with no biaxial strain (i.e., a=c), within experimental uncertainty. Overall, the strain is a combination of hydrostatic and biaxial components, both of which affect the dielectric response. Therefore, consideration and control of both types of strain is important for the optimum performance of devices such as tunable microwave devices and high-density memories

  13. Embedded Lattice and Properties of Gram Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in Mizar [14] the definition of embedding of lattice and its properties. We formally define an inner product on an embedded module. We also formalize properties of Gram matrix. We formally prove that an inverse of Gram matrix for a rational lattice exists. Lattice of Z-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lov´asz base reduction algorithm [16] and cryptographic systems with lattice [17].

  14. Computationally designed peptides for self-assembly of nanostructured lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixi Violet; Polzer, Frank; Haider, Michael J; Tian, Yu; Villegas, Jose A; Kiick, Kristi L; Pochan, Darrin J; Saven, Jeffery G

    2016-09-01

    Folded peptides present complex exterior surfaces specified by their amino acid sequences, and the control of these surfaces offers high-precision routes to self-assembling materials. The complexity of peptide structure and the subtlety of noncovalent interactions make the design of predetermined nanostructures difficult. Computational methods can facilitate this design and are used here to determine 29-residue peptides that form tetrahelical bundles that, in turn, serve as building blocks for lattice-forming materials. Four distinct assemblies were engineered. Peptide bundle exterior amino acids were designed in the context of three different interbundle lattices in addition to one design to produce bundles isolated in solution. Solution assembly produced three different types of lattice-forming materials that exhibited varying degrees of agreement with the chosen lattices used in the design of each sequence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the nanostructure of the sheetlike nanomaterials. In contrast, the peptide sequence designed to form isolated, soluble, tetrameric bundles remained dispersed and did not form any higher-order assembled nanostructure. Small-angle neutron scattering confirmed the formation of soluble bundles with the designed size. In the lattice-forming nanostructures, the solution assembly process is robust with respect to variation of solution conditions (pH and temperature) and covalent modification of the computationally designed peptides. Solution conditions can be used to control micrometer-scale morphology of the assemblies. The findings illustrate that, with careful control of molecular structure and solution conditions, a single peptide motif can be versatile enough to yield a wide range of self-assembled lattice morphologies across many length scales (1 to 1000 nm).

  15. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  16. Effects of Martensite Development on Lattice Strain Evolution during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mclieia2

    earth body. In chemical processes, turbo machinery, water treatment power generation and aerospace technology, unsteady oscillatory free convective flow is of very high importance. ... rotating. it was shown that the effects of magnetic field and rotating ... magnetic field. In the absence of rotation, the magnetic field.

  17. Effects of Martensite Development on Lattice Strain Evolution during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mclieia2

    discussed for various effects of material parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. KEYWORDS: ... water purification, energy transfer in cooling towers, power generation and flow in a desert cooler, a combination of heat and mass transfer problems with chemical reactions are of great importance.

  18. Piezoelectric thin-film super-lattices without using piezoelectric materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, N. D.; Landis, C. M.; Sharma, P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we show that experimentally realizable apparently piezoelectric thin-film super-lattices can be created from non-piezoelectric materials provided an odd-order (e.g. trilayer) stacking sequence is used. The size-dependent mechanism of flexoelectricity, which couples gradients of strain to polarization, allows such a possibility. We present closed-form analytical expressions for the response of various thin-film and super-lattice configurations. We also clarify some of t...

  19. Lattice dislocation in Si nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, M.S., E-mail: dr_m_s_omar@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Taha, H.T. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq)

    2009-12-15

    Modified formulas were used to calculate lattice thermal expansion, specific heat and Bulk modulus for Si nanowires with diameters of 115, 56, 37 and 22 nm. From these values and Gruneisen parameter taken from reference, mean lattice volumes were found to be as 20.03 A{sup 3} for the bulk and 23.63, 29.91, 34.69 and 40.46 A{sup 3} for Si nanowire diameters mentioned above, respectively. Their mean bonding length was calculated to be as 0.235 nm for the bulk and 0.248, 0.269, 0.282 and 0.297 nm for the nanowires diameter mentioned above, respectively. By dividing the nanowires diameter on the mean bonding length, number of layers per each nanowire size was found to be as 230, 104, 65 and 37 for the diameters mentioned above, respectively. Lattice dislocations in 22 nm diameter wire were found to be from 0.00324 nm for the 1st central lattice to 0.2579 nm for the last surface lattice. Such dislocation was smaller for larger wire diameters. Dislocation concentration found to change in Si nanowires according to the proportionalities of surface thickness to nanowire radius ratios.

  20. On the Characterization and Software Implementation of General Protein Lattice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract models of proteins have been widely used as a practical means to computationally investigate general properties of the system. In lattice models any sterically feasible conformation is represented as a self-avoiding walk on a lattice, and residue types are limited in number. So far, only two- or three-dimensional lattices have been used. The inspection of the neighborhood of alpha carbons in the core of real proteins reveals that also lattices with higher coordination numbers, possibly in higher dimensional spaces, can be adopted. In this paper, a new general parametric lattice model for simplified protein conformations is proposed and investigated. It is shown how the supporting software can be consistently designed to let algorithms that operate on protein structures be implemented in a lattice-agnostic way. The necessary theoretical foundations are developed and organically presented, pinpointing the role of the concept of main directions in lattice-agnostic model handling. Subsequently, the model features across dimensions and lattice types are explored in tests performed on benchmark protein sequences, using a Python implementation. Simulations give insights on the use of square and triangular lattices in a range of dimensions. The trend of potential minimum for sequences of different lengths, varying the lattice dimension, is uncovered. Moreover, an extensive quantitative characterization of the usage of the so-called “move types” is reported for the first time. The proposed general framework for the development of lattice models is simple yet complete, and an object-oriented architecture can be proficiently employed for the supporting software, by designing ad-hoc classes. The proposed framework represents a new general viewpoint that potentially subsumes a number of solutions previously studied. The adoption of the described model pushes to look at protein structure issues from a more general and essential perspective, making computational

  1. Strain Engineering for Phosphorene: The Potential Application as a Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sa, Baisheng; Li, Yan-Ling; Qi, Jingshan; Ahuja, Rajeev; Sun, Zhimei

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene has been attracted intense interest due to its unexpected high carrier mobility and distinguished anisotropic optoelectronic and electronic properties. In this work, we unraveled strain engineered phosphorene as a photocatalyst in the application of water splitting hydrogen production based on density functional theory calculations. Lattice dynamic calculations demonstrated the stability for such kind of artificial materials under different strains. The phosphorene lattice is unst...

  2. Finite-lattice-spacing corrections to masses and g factors on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskies, R.; Wu, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We suggest an alternative method for extracting masses and g factors from lattice calculations. Our method takes account of more of the infrared and ultraviolet lattice effects. It leads to more reasonable results in simulations of QED on a lattice

  3. Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency and stable perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hsinhan; Asadpour, Reza; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Durand, Oliver; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Tretiak, Sergei; Even, Jacky; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2018-04-05

    Hybrid-perovskite based high-performance optoelectronic devices and clues from their operation has led to the realization that light-induced structural dynamics play a vital role on their physical properties, device performance and stability. Here, we report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin-films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in-situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion significantly benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5% to 20.5%. This is a direct consequence of the relaxation of local lattice strains during lattice expansion, which results in the reduction of the energetic barriers at the perovskite/contact interfaces in devices, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The light-induced lattice expansion stabilizes these high-efficiency photovoltaic devices under continuous operation of full-spectrum 1-Sun illumination for over 1500 hours. One Sentence Summary: Light-induced lattice expansion improves crystallinity, relaxes lattice strain, which enhances photovoltaic performance in hybrid perovskite device.

  4. Frustrated lattices of Ising chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudasov, Yurii B; Korshunov, Aleksei S; Pavlov, V N; Maslov, Dmitrii A

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic structure and magnetization dynamics of systems of plane frustrated Ising chain lattices are reviewed for three groups of compounds: Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 , CsCoCl 3 , and Sr 5 Rh 4 O 12 . The available experimental data are analyzed and compared in detail. It is shown that a high-temperature magnetic phase on a triangle lattice is normally and universally a partially disordered antiferromagnetic (PDA) structure. The diversity of low-temperature phases results from weak interactions that lift the degeneracy of a 2D antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle lattice. Mean-field models, Monte Carlo simulation results on the static magnetization curve, and results on slow magnetization dynamics obtained with Glauber's theory are discussed in detail. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Lattice QCD without topology barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Lüscher, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As the continuum limit is approached, lattice QCD simulations tend to get trapped in the topological charge sectors of field space and may consequently give biased results in practice. We propose to bypass this problem by imposing open (Neumann) boundary conditions on the gauge field in the time direction. The topological charge can then flow in and out of the lattice, while many properties of the theory (the hadron spectrum, for example) are not affected. Extensive simulations of the SU(3) gauge theory, using the HMC and the closely related SMD algorithm, confirm the absence of topology barriers if these boundary conditions are chosen. Moreover, the calculated autocorrelation times are found to scale approximately like the square of the inverse lattice spacing, thus supporting the conjecture that the HMC algorithm is in the universality class of the Langevin equation.

  6. Soliton mobility in disordered lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Fishman, Shmuel; Soffer, Avy

    2015-10-01

    We investigate soliton mobility in the disordered Ablowitz-Ladik (AL) model and the standard nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) lattice with the help of an effective potential generalizing the Peierls-Nabarro potential. This potential results from a deviation from integrability, which is due to randomness for the AL model, and both randomness and lattice discreteness for the NLS lattice. The statistical properties of such a potential are analyzed, and it is shown how the soliton mobility is affected by its size. The usefulness of this effective potential in studying soliton dynamics is demonstrated numerically. Furthermore, we propose two ways to enhance soliton transport in the presence of disorder: one is to use specific realizations of randomness, and the other is to consider a specific soliton pair.

  7. Lattice QCD for nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities.  The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics.  A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...

  8. Equations Holding in Hilbert Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, René

    2006-07-01

    We produce and study several sequences of equations, in the language of orthomodular lattices, which hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of any classical Hilbert space, but not in all orthomodular lattices. Most of these equations hold in any orthomodular lattice admitting a strong set of states whose values are in a real Hilbert space. For some of these equations, we give conditions under which they hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of a generalised Hilbert space. These conditions are relative to the dimension of the Hilbert space and to the characteristic of its division ring of scalars. In some cases, we show that these equations cannot be deduced from the already known equations, and we study their mutual independence. To conclude, we suggest a new method for obtaining such equations, using the tensorial product.

  9. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-11-13

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.

  10. The origin of local strain in highly epitaxial oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunrui; Liu, Ming; Chen, Chonglin; Lin, Yuan; Li, Yanrong; Horwitz, J S; Jiang, Jiechao; Meletis, E I; Zhang, Qingyu

    2013-10-31

    The ability to control the microstructures and physical properties of hetero-epitaxial functional oxide thin films and artificial structures is a long-sought goal in functional materials research. Normally, only the lattice misfit between the film and the substrate is considered to govern the physical properties of the epitaxial films. In fact, the mismatch of film unit cell arrangement and the Surface-Step-Terrace (SST) dimension of the substrate, named as "SST residual matching", is another key factor that significantly influence the properties of the epitaxial film. The nature of strong local strain induced from both lattice mismatch and the SST residual matching on ferroelectric (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and ferromagnetic (La,Ca)MnO3 thin films are systematically investigated and it is demonstrated that this combined effect has a dramatic impact on the physical properties of highly epitaxial oxide thin films. A giant anomalous magnetoresistance effect (~10(10)) was achieved from the as-designed vicinal surfaces.

  11. Kondo length in bosonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the fact that the low-energy properties of the Kondo model can be effectively simulated in spin chains, we study the realization of the effect with bond impurities in ultracold bosonic lattices at half filling. After presenting a discussion of the effective theory and of the mapping of the bosonic chain onto a lattice spin Hamiltonian, we provide estimates for the Kondo length as a function of the parameters of the bosonic model. We point out that the Kondo length can be extracted from the integrated real-space correlation functions, which are experimentally accessible quantities in experiments with cold atoms.

  12. Graphene on graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Power, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Graphene bilayer systems are known to exhibit a band gap when the layer symmetry is broken by applying a perpendicular electric field. The resulting band structure resembles that of a conventional semiconductor with a parabolic dispersion. Here, we introduce a bilayer graphene heterostructure......, where single-layer graphene is placed on top of another layer of graphene with a regular lattice of antidots. We dub this class of graphene systems GOAL: graphene on graphene antidot lattice. By varying the structure geometry, band-structure engineering can be performed to obtain linearly dispersing...

  13. Lattice calculations in gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebbi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The lattice formulation of quantum gauge theories is discussed as a viable technique for quantitative studies of nonperturbative effects in QCD. Evidence is presented to ascertain that whole classes of lattice actions produce a universal continuum limit. Discrepancies between numerical results from Monto Carlo simulations for the pure gauge system and for the system with gauge and quark fields are discussed. Numerical calculations for QCD require very substantial computational resources. The use of powerful vector processors of special purpose machines, in extending the scope and magnitude or the calculations is considered, and one may reasonably expect that in the near future good quantitative predictions will be obtained for QCD

  14. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  15. [Lattice degeneration of the retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, E V; Suetov, A A; Mal'tsev, D S

    2014-01-01

    Lattice degeneration of the retina is a clinically important type of peripheral retinal dystrophies due to its participation in the pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. In spite of extensive epidemiological, morphological, and clinical data, the question on causes of this particular type of retinal dystrophies currently remains debatable. Existing hypotheses on pathogenesis of retinal structural changes in lattice degeneration explain it to a certain extent. In clinical ophthalmology it is necessary to pay close attention to this kind of degenerations and distinguish between cases requiring preventive treatment and those requiring monitoring.

  16. Three Classes of Orthomodular Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greechie, Richard J.; Legan, Bruce J.

    2006-02-01

    Let mathcal{OML} denote the class of all orthomodular lattices and mathcal{C} denote the class of those that are commutator-finite. Also, let mathcal{C}1 denote the class of orthomodular lattices that satisfy the block extension property, mathcal{C}2 those that satisfy the weak block extension property, and mathcal{C}3 those that are locally finite. We show that the following strict containments hold: mathcal{C} subset mathcal{C}1 subset mathcal{C}2 subset mathcal{C}3 subset mathcal{OML}.

  17. Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahebsara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available   ‎ The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons ‎ . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.

  18. Machines for lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1989-05-01

    The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig

  19. Evolution of internal stresses in the plain ferritic steel studied by neutron diffraction in situ upon tensile straining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, V; Lukáš, P; Strunz, P; Kužel, R

    2009-03-04

    The present in situ neutron diffraction study aims to investigate the response of selected lattice planes in the polycrystalline material upon tensile loading. For this purpose, the 0.1C-0.4Mn construction steel was selected as a simple model material. The tensile deformation test was performed in the incremental mode in which each individual deformation step was followed by unloading. The neutron diffraction spectra were collected both upon loading and unloading and the behavior of the diffraction profiles in the elastic as well as in the plastic region of the deformation curve was examined in detail. Whereas the behavior of the lattice strains during straining and the evolution of the residual intergranular strains have already been described in other papers, the present work is focused mainly on profile broadening effects measured in the same deformation regime. The estimate of microstrain evolution was done by using the single-line profile analysis method. Comparison of microstrain values in the loaded/unloaded state and in the elastic and plastic regions offers an interesting possibility to estimate the contribution of the type II and type III microstrains.

  20. Complete genomic sequences, a key residue in the spike protein and deletions in nonstructural protein 3b of US strains of the virulent and attenuated coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine respiratory coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Hasoksuz, Mustafa; Spiro, David; Halpin, Rebecca; Wang, Shiliang; Stollar, Sarah; Janies, Daniel; Hadya, Nagesh; Tang, Yuxin; Ghedin, Elodie; Saif, Linda

    2007-02-20

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) isolates that have been adapted to passage in cell culture maintain their infectivity in vitro but may lose their pathogenicity in vivo. To better understand the genomic mechanisms for viral attenuation, we sequenced the complete genomes of two virulent TGEV strains and their attenuated counterparts: virulent TGEV Miller M6 and attenuated TGEV Miller M60 and virulent TGEV Purdue and attenuated TGEV Purdue P115, together with the ISU-1 strain of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV-ISU-1), a naturally occurring TGEV deletion mutant with an altered respiratory tropism and reduced virulence. Pairwise comparison at both the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) levels between virulent and attenuated TGEV strains identified a common change in nt 1753 of the spike gene, resulting in a serine to alanine mutation at aa position 585 of the spike proteins of the attenuated TGEV strains. Alanine was also present in this protein in PRCV-ISU-1. Particularly noteworthy, the serine to alanine mutation resides in the region of the major antigenic site A/B (aa 506-706) that elicits neutralizing antibodies and within the domain mediating the cell surface receptor aminopeptidase N binding (aa 522-744). Comparison of the predicted polypeptide products of ORF3b showed significant deletions in the naturally attenuated PRCV-ISU-1 and TGEV Miller M60; these deletions occurred at a common break point, suggesting a related mechanism of recombination that may affect viral virulence or tropism. Sequence comparisons at both genomic and protein levels indicated that PRCV-ISU-1 had a closer relationship with TGEV Miller strains than Purdue strains. Phylogenetic analyses showed that virulence is an evolutionarily labile trait in TGEV and that TGEV strains as a group share a common ancestor with PRCV.

  1. Lattice quantum chromodynamics: Some topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    susceptibility and the screening lengths. A short summary is provided at the end. 2. .... approximations but decreasing order of computer time, are (i) full QCD simulations on smaller lattices, (ii) partially quenched ... Theoretical expectations and simulation results for QCD phase diagram. over to different number of flavours.

  2. Lattice dynamics of strontium tungstate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    earth atom). Using these models we could calculate [7,10–12] high pressure and temperature phase diagrams as well as thermodynamic properties for ASiO4, RPO4 and RVO4 in the ambient pressure as well as high pressure phases. Now in order to validate the lattice dynamical model developed for SrWO4 we have ...

  3. Flavor extrapolation in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Explicit calculation of the effect of virtual quark-antiquark pairs in lattice QCD has eluded researchers. To include their effect explicitly one must calculate the determinant of the fermion-fermion coupling matrix. Owing to the large number of sites in a continuum limit size lattice, direct evaluation of this term requires an unrealistic amount of computer time. The effect of the virtual pairs can be approximated by ignoring this term and adjusting lattice couplings to reproduce experimental results. This procedure is called the valence approximation since it ignores all but the minimal number of quarks needed to describe hadrons. In this work the effect of the quark-antiquark pairs has been incorporated in a theory with an effective negative number of quark flavors contributing to the closed loops. Various particle masses and decay constants have been calculated for this theory and for one with no virtual pairs. The author attempts to extrapolate results towards positive numbers of quark flavors. The results show approximate agreement with experimental measurements and demonstrate the smoothness of lattice expectations in the number of quark flavors

  4. Lattice dynamics of lithium oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li2O finds several important technological applications, as it is used in solid-state batteries, can be used as a blanket breeding material in nuclear fusion reactors, etc. Li2O exhibits a fast ion phase, characterized by a thermally induced dynamic disorder in the anionic sub-lattice of Li+, at elevated temperatures around 1200 ...

  5. Anisotropic dissipation in lattice metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Krattiger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plane wave propagation in an elastic lattice material follows regular patterns as dictated by the nature of the lattice symmetry and the mechanical configuration of the unit cell. A unique feature pertains to the loss of elastodynamic isotropy at frequencies where the wavelength is on the order of the lattice spacing or shorter. Anisotropy may also be realized at lower frequencies with the inclusion of local resonators, especially when designed to exhibit directionally non-uniform connectivity and/or cross-sectional geometry. In this paper, we consider free and driven waves within a plate-like lattice−with and without local resonators−and examine the effects of damping on the isofrequency dispersion curves. We also examine, for free waves, the effects of damping on the frequency-dependent anisotropy of dissipation. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of engineering the dissipation anisotropy by tuning the directional properties of the prescribed damping. The results demonstrate that uniformly applied damping tends to reduce the intensity of anisotropy in the isofrequency dispersion curves. On the other hand, lattice crystals and metamaterials are shown to provide an excellent platform for direction-dependent dissipation engineering which may be realized by simple changes in the spatial distribution of the damping elements.

  6. Computers for lattice field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Parallel computers dedicated to lattice field theories are reviewed with emphasis on the three recent projects, the Teraflops project in the US, the CP-PACS project in Japan and the 0.5-Teraflops project in the US. Some new commercial parallel computers are also discussed. Recent development of semiconductor technologies is briefly surveyed in relation to possible approaches toward Teraflops computers. (orig.)

  7. Lattice dynamics of lithium oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. E-mail: knp@apsara.barc.ernet.in ... stants and equation of state have also been calculated which are in good agreement with the available ... Li2O crystallizes in the anti-fluorite structure with a face-centered cubic lattice and belongs to ...

  8. Recent results from lattice calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Shoji

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from lattice QCD calculations relevant to particle physics phenomenology are reviewed. They include the calculations of strong coupling constant, quark masses, kaon matrix elements, and D and B meson matrix elements. Special emphasis is on the recent progress in the simulations including dynamical quarks.

  9. Lattice Calculations and Hadron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Sinya

    1999-01-01

    We review progress in lattice QCD, focusing on efforts to calculate weak matrix elements relevant for the determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Topics we discuss include light hadron spectrum and quark masses, CP-violation in K meson decays and weak matrix elements of heavy-light mesons.

  10. Synthesis of spatially variant lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier

    2012-07-02

    It is often desired to functionally grade and/or spatially vary a periodic structure like a photonic crystal or metamaterial, yet no general method for doing this has been offered in the literature. A straightforward procedure is described here that allows many properties of the lattice to be spatially varied at the same time while producing a final lattice that is still smooth and continuous. Properties include unit cell orientation, lattice spacing, fill fraction, and more. This adds many degrees of freedom to a design such as spatially varying the orientation to exploit directional phenomena. The method is not a coordinate transformation technique so it can more easily produce complicated and arbitrary spatial variance. To demonstrate, the algorithm is used to synthesize a spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystal to flow a Gaussian beam around a 90° bend. The performance of the structure was confirmed through simulation and it showed virtually no scattering around the bend that would have arisen if the lattice had defects or discontinuities.

  11. Lattice quantum chromodynamics: Some topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For reasons of both time and interest, I have chosen to limit this review to some se- lected topics. I will begin with a lightning quick overview of the basic lattice gauge theory and then go on to discuss the recent results on the QCD phase diagram, quark number susceptibility and the screening lengths. A short summary is ...

  12. Lattice dynamics of lithium oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Li2O finds several important technological applications, as it is used in solid- state batteries, can be used as a blanket breeding material in nuclear fusion reactors, etc. Li2O exhibits a fast ion phase, characterized by a thermally induced dynamic disorder in the anionic sub-lattice of Li+, at elevated temperatures ...

  13. Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambhir, Arjun [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called \\disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams is posed as the computationally challenging problem of finding the trace of the inverse of an incredibly large, sparse matrix. This is followed by a brief primer of numerical sparse matrix techniques that overviews broadly used methods in Lattice QCD and builds the background for the novel algorithm presented in this work. We then introduce singular value deflation as a method to improve convergence of trace estimation and analyze its effects on matrices from a variety of fields, including chemical transport modeling, magnetohydrodynamics, and QCD. Finally, we apply this method to compute observables such as the strange axial charge of the proton and strange sigma terms in light nuclei. The work in this thesis is innovative for four reasons. First, we analyze the effects of deflation with a model that makes qualitative predictions about its effectiveness, taking only the singular value spectrum as input, and compare deflated variance with different types of trace estimator noise. Second, the synergy between probing methods and deflation is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Third, we use the synergistic combination of deflation and a graph coloring algorithm known as hierarchical probing to conduct a lattice calculation of light disconnected matrix elements

  14. Anomalous giant piezoresistance in AlAs 2D electron systems with antidot lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, O; Gokmen, T; Shkolnikov, Y P; De Poortere, E P; Shayegan, M

    2008-01-25

    An AlAs two-dimensional electron system patterned with an antidot lattice exhibits a giant piezoresistance effect at low temperatures, with a sign opposite to the piezoresistance observed in the unpatterned region. We suggest that the origin of this anomalous giant piezoresistance is the nonuniform strain in the antidot lattice and the exclusion of electrons occupying the two conduction-band valleys from different regions of the sample. This is analogous to the well-known giant magnetoresistance effect, with valley playing the role of spin and strain the role of magnetic field.

  15. Residual Stresses in 21-6-9 Stainless Steel Warm Forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everhart, Wesley A.; Lee, Jordan D.; Broecker, Daniel J.; Bartow, John P.; McQueen, Jamie M.; Switzner, Nathan T.; Neidt, Tod M.; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Brown, Donald W.

    2012-11-14

    Forging residual stresses are detrimental to the production and performance of derived machined parts due to machining distortions, corrosion drivers and fatigue crack drivers. Residual strains in a 21-6-9 stainless steel warm High Energy Rate Forging (HERF) were measured via neutron diffraction. The finite element analysis (FEA) method was used to predict the residual stresses that occur during forging and water quenching. The experimentally measured residual strains were used to calibrate simulations of the three-dimensional residual stress state of the forging. ABAQUS simulation tools predicted residual strains that tend to match with experimental results when varying yield strength is considered.

  16. RHICAGR a Most Simplified RHIC Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, A. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-08-01

    In this report I describe an alternative approach to the design of the RHIC lattice. It is not my intention to propose an alternative lattice altogether, but I like to stress the differences in design methodology and philosophy.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann model capable of mesoscopic vorticity computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) models allow the strain-rate components to be computed mesoscopically (i.e., through the local particle distributions) and as such possess a second-order accuracy in strain rate. This is one of the appealing features of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is of only second-order accuracy in hydrodynamic velocity itself. However, no known LB model can provide the same quality for vorticity and pressure gradients. In this paper, we design a multiple-relaxation time LB model on a three-dimensional 27-discrete-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. A detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis is presented to illustrate all the necessary constraints in reproducing the isothermal Navier-Stokes equations. The remaining degrees of freedom are carefully analyzed to derive a model that accommodates mesoscopic computation of all the velocity and pressure gradients from the nonequilibrium moments. This way of vorticity calculation naturally ensures a second-order accuracy, which is also proven through an asymptotic analysis. We thus show, with enough degrees of freedom and appropriate modifications, the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be achieved in LBM. The resulting model is then validated in simulations of a three-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green flow, a lid-driven cavity flow, and a uniform flow passing a fixed sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be realized even with single relaxation parameter.

  18. Lattice Boltzmann model capable of mesoscopic vorticity computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Guo, Zhaoli; Wang, Lian-Ping

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that standard lattice Boltzmann (LB) models allow the strain-rate components to be computed mesoscopically (i.e., through the local particle distributions) and as such possess a second-order accuracy in strain rate. This is one of the appealing features of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) which is of only second-order accuracy in hydrodynamic velocity itself. However, no known LB model can provide the same quality for vorticity and pressure gradients. In this paper, we design a multiple-relaxation time LB model on a three-dimensional 27-discrete-velocity (D3Q27) lattice. A detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis is presented to illustrate all the necessary constraints in reproducing the isothermal Navier-Stokes equations. The remaining degrees of freedom are carefully analyzed to derive a model that accommodates mesoscopic computation of all the velocity and pressure gradients from the nonequilibrium moments. This way of vorticity calculation naturally ensures a second-order accuracy, which is also proven through an asymptotic analysis. We thus show, with enough degrees of freedom and appropriate modifications, the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be achieved in LBM. The resulting model is then validated in simulations of a three-dimensional decaying Taylor-Green flow, a lid-driven cavity flow, and a uniform flow passing a fixed sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the mesoscopic vorticity computation can be realized even with single relaxation parameter.

  19. Lattice Issues of the CERN PSB with H- Charge exchange injection hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Chanel, M; Goddard, B; Martini, M; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for the construction of CERN Linac4 is to improve the performance of the PSB by raising the injection energy and implementing a new H- charge exchange multiturn injection scheme. Lattice perturbations introduced by the new injection hardware are described. Strategies to mitigate the consequences, first by minimizing the additional focusing introduced and, by compensating the residual perturbation, are reported.

  20. Solid residues from Ruminococcus cellulose fermentations as components of wood adhesive formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Weimer; A.H. Conner; L.F. Lorenz

    2003-01-01

    Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives for plywood fabrication. The residues contained differing amounts of...

  1. Why are Papers about Filters on Residuated Structures (Usually) Trivial?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víta, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 276, 20 August (2014), s. 387-391 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : residuated lattice * filter * t-Filter Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014

  2. Mineral Replacement Reactions as a Precursor to Strain Localisation: an (HR-)EBSD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J.; Wheeler, J.; Wallis, D.; Hansen, L. N.; Mariani, E.

    2017-12-01

    Much remains to be learned about the links between metamorphism and deformation. Our work investigates the behaviour of fluid-mediated mineral replacement reaction products when exposed to subsequent shear stresses. We focus on albite from a metagabbro that has experienced metamorphism and subsequent deformation at greenschist facies, resulting in a reduction in grain size and associated strain localisation. EBSD maps show that prior to grain size reduction, product grains are highly distorted, yet they formed, and subsequently deformed, at temperatures at which extensive dislocation creep is unlikely. The Weighted Burgers Vector can be used to quantitatively describe the types of Burgers vectors present in geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) populations derived from 2-D EBSD map data. Application of this technique to the distorted product grains reveals the prominence of, among others, dislocations with apparent [010] Burgers vectors. This supports (with some caveats) the idea that dislocation creep is not responsible for the observed lattice distortion, as there are no known slip systems in plagioclase with a [010] Burgers vector. Distortion in a replacement microstructure has also been attributed to the presence of nanoscale product grains, which share very similar, but not identical, orientations due to topotactic nucleation from adjacent sites on the same substrate. As a precipitate, the product grains should be expected to be largely free of elastic strain. However, high angular resolution EBSD results demonstrate that product grains contain both elastic strains (> 10-3) and residual stresses (several hundred MPa), as well as GND densities on the order of 1014-1015 m-2. Thus we suggest the observed distortion (elastic strain plus rotations) in the lattice is produced during the mineral replacement reaction by a lattice mismatch and volume change between parent and product. Stored strain energy then provides a driving force for recovery and

  3. Lattice QCD. A critical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Karl

    2008-10-15

    The substantial progress that has been achieved in lattice QCD in the last years is pointed out. I compare the simulation cost and systematic effects of several lattice QCD formulations and discuss a number of topics such as lattice spacing scaling, applications of chiral perturbation theory, non-perturbative renormalization and finite volume effects. Additionally, the importance of demonstrating universality is emphasized. (orig.)

  4. Spatiotemporal complexity in coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kunihiko

    1986-01-01

    Some spatiotemporal patterns of couple map lattices are presented. The chaotic kink-like motions are shown for the phase motion of the coupled circle lattices. An extension of the couple map lattice approach to Hamiltonian dynamics is briefly reported. An attempt to characterize the high-dimensional attractor by the extension of the correlation dimension is discussed. (author)

  5. Clar sextets in square graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rene; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    A periodic array of holes transforms graphene from a semimetal into a semiconductor with a band gap tuneable by varying the parameters of the lattice. In earlier work only hexagonal lattices have been treated. Using atomistic models we here investigate the size of the band gap of a square lattice...

  6. Possible lattice organs in Cretaceous Thylacocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Sven; Schram, Frederick R.

    2002-01-01

    Structures, reminiscent of the lattice organs in thecostracan crustaceans, are described from the carapace cuticle of Cretaceous thylacocephalans. The new lattice organ like structures occur in pairs along the dorsal midline. While these have a similar outline to true lattice organs, they seem to

  7. Meson-meson scattering in lattice QED2+1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebig, H.R.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Scattering phase shifts of a meson-meson system in staggered 3-dimensional lattice QED are computed. The main task of the simulation is to obtain a discrete set of two-body energy levels. These are extracted from a 4-point time correlation matrix and then used to obtain scattering phase shifts. The results for the l = 0 and l = 2 partial waves are consistent with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction of the residual meson-meson interaction. (orig.)

  8. Lattice gaugefixing and other optics in lattice gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Ken [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-06-01

    We present results from four projects. In the first, quark and gluon propagators and effective masses and ΔI = 1/2 Rule operator matching coefficients are computed numerically in gaugefixed lattice QCD. In the second, the same quantities are evaluated analytically in the strong coupling, N → ∞limit. In the third project, the Schwinger model is studied in covariant gauges, where we show that the effective electron mass varies with the gauge parameter and that longitudinal gaugefixing ambiguities affect operator product expansion coefficients (analogous to ΔI = 1/2 Rule matching coefficients) determined by matching gauge variant matrix elements. However, we find that matching coefficients even if shifted by the unphysical modes are χ invariant. In the fourth project, we show that the strong coupling parallelogram lattice Schwinger model as a different thermodynamic limit than the weak coupling continuum limit. As a function of lattice skewness angle these models span the Δ = -1 critical line of 6-vertex models which, in turn, have been identified as c = 1 conformal field theories.

  9. Lattice gaugefixing and other optics in lattice gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Ken.

    1992-06-01

    We present results from four projects. In the first, quark and gluon propagators and effective masses and {Delta}I = 1/2 Rule operator matching coefficients are computed numerically in gaugefixed lattice QCD. In the second, the same quantities are evaluated analytically in the strong coupling, N {yields} {infinity} limit. In the third project, the Schwinger model is studied in covariant gauges, where we show that the effective electron mass varies with the gauge parameter and that longitudinal gaugefixing ambiguities affect operator product expansion coefficients (analogous to {Delta}I = 1/2 Rule matching coefficients) determined by matching gauge variant matrix elements. However, we find that matching coefficients even if shifted by the unphysical modes are {xi} invariant. In the fourth project, we show that the strong coupling parallelogram lattice Schwinger model as a different thermodynamic limit than the weak coupling continuum limit. As a function of lattice skewness angle these models span the {Delta} = {minus}1 critical line of 6-vertex models which, in turn, have been identified as c = 1 conformal field theories.

  10. Inexpensive chirality on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Williams, A.G.; Adams, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Implementing lattice fermions that resemble as closely as possible continuum fermions is one of the main goals of the theoretical physics community. Aside from a lack of infinitely powerful computers, one of the main impediments to this is the Nielsen-Ninomiya No-Go theorem for chirality on the lattice. One of the consequences of this theorem is that exact chiral symmetry and a lack of fermion doublers cannot be simultaneously satisfied for fermions on the lattice. In the commonly used Wilson fermion formulation, chiral symmetry is explicitly sacrificed on the lattice to avoid fermion doubling. Recently, an alternative has come forward, namely, the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and one of its solutions, the Overlap fermion. The Ginsparg-Wilson relation is a statement of lattice-deformed chirality. The Overlap-Dirac operator is a member of the family of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In recent times, Overlap fermions have been of great interest to the community due to their excellent chiral properties. However, they are significantly more expensive to implement than Wilson fermions. This expense is primarily due to the fact that the Overlap implementation requires an evaluation of the sign function for the Wilson-Dirac operator. The sign function is approximated by a high order rational polynomial function, but this approximation is poor close to the origin. The less near-zero modes that the Wilson- Dirac operator possesses, the cheaper the Overlap operator will be to implement. A means of improving the eigenvalue properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator by the addition of a so-called 'Clover' term is put forward. Numerical results are given that demonstrate this improvement. The Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem and chirality on the lattice are reviewed. The general form of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation are given, and the Overlap solution is discussed. Properties of the Overlap-Dirac operator are given, including locality and analytic

  11. Residual stress in a laser welded EUROFER blanket module assembly using non-destructive neutron diffraction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, D J; Heeley, E L

    2014-01-01

    Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications.

  12. Aliasing modes in the lattice Schwinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Rafael G.; Tututi, Eduardo S.

    2007-01-01

    We study the Schwinger model on a lattice consisting of zeros of the Hermite polynomials that incorporates a lattice derivative and a discrete Fourier transform with many properties. Such a lattice produces a Klein-Gordon equation for the boson field and the exact value of the mass in the asymptotic limit if the boundaries are not taken into account. On the contrary, if the lattice is considered with boundaries new modes appear due to aliasing effects. In the continuum limit, however, this lattice yields also a Klein-Gordon equation with a reduced mass

  13. Computing nucleon EDM on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, Michael; Aoki, Sinya; Blum, Tom; Izubuchi, Taku; Ohki, Hiroshi; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    I will discuss briefly recent changes in the methodology of computing the baryon EDM on a lattice. The associated correction substantially reduces presently existing lattice values for the proton and neutron theta-induced EDMs, so that even the most precise previous lattice results become consistent with zero. On one hand, this change removes previous disagreements between these lattice results and the phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM. On the other hand, the nucleon EDM becomes much harder to compute on a lattice. In addition, I will review the progress in computing quark chromo-EDM-induced nucleon EDM using chiral quark action.

  14. Heavy water critical experiments on plutonium lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyawaki, Yoshio; Shiba, Kiminori

    1975-06-01

    This report is the summary of physics study on plutonium lattice made in Heavy Water Critical Experiment Section of PNC. By using Deuterium Critical Assembly, physics study on plutonium lattice has been carried out since 1972. Experiments on following items were performed in a core having 22.5 cm square lattice pitch. (1) Material buckling (2) Lattice parameters (3) Local power distribution factor (4) Gross flux distribution in two region core (5) Control rod worth. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones calculated by METHUSELAH II code. It is concluded from this study that calculation by METHUSELAH II code has acceptable accuracy in the prediction on plutonium lattice. (author)

  15. Computing nucleon EDM on a lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, Michael; Izubuchi, Taku

    2017-06-18

    I will discuss briefly recent changes in the methodology of computing the baryon EDM on a lattice. The associated correction substantially reduces presently existing lattice values for the proton and neutron theta-induced EDMs, so that even the most precise previous lattice results become consistent with zero. On one hand, this change removes previous disagreements between these lattice results and the phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM. On the other hand, the nucleon EDM becomes much harder to compute on a lattice. In addition, I will review the progress in computing quark chromo-EDM-induced nucleon EDM using chiral quark action.

  16. Active particles in periodic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamolly, Alexander; Ishikawa, Takuji; Lauga, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Both natural and artificial small-scale swimmers may often self-propel in environments subject to complex geometrical constraints. While most past theoretical work on low-Reynolds number locomotion addressed idealised geometrical situations, not much is known on the motion of swimmers in heterogeneous environments. As a first theoretical model, we investigate numerically the behaviour of a single spherical micro-swimmer located in an infinite, periodic body-centred cubic lattice consisting of rigid inert spheres of the same size as the swimmer. Running a large number of simulations we uncover the phase diagram of possible trajectories as a function of the strength of the swimming actuation and the packing density of the lattice. We then use hydrodynamic theory to rationalise our computational results and show in particular how the far-field nature of the swimmer (pusher versus puller) governs even the behaviour at high volume fractions.

  17. The lattice QCD grand challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, G.

    1991-01-01

    Until relatively recently, a taxonomist of science would divide most areas of physics into two types: theoretical and experimental. With the advent of large scale computing, however, there is now another recognized field: computational physics. For there is now another recognized field: computational physics. For High Energy Physics one of the most prominent manifestations of this phenomenon is the emergence of the discipline known as lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, or lattice QCD. Problems which a decade ago seemed intractable are not succumbing to large scale numerical simulations. These simulations are consuming vast amounts of computer time these days, and promise to do so for at least the next decade. To take but one example, in each of the last three years, the Department of Energy has allocated several thousand Cray-2 hours at NERSC for the computation of certain weak interaction matrix elements. In the following pages the author will give a brief overview of this and some other projects

  18. Graphene antidot lattice transport measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, David; Cagliani, Alberto; Gammelgaard, Lene

    2017-01-01

    We investigate graphene devices patterned with a narrow band of holes perpendicular to the current flow, a few-row graphene antidot lattice (FR-GAL). Theoretical reports suggest that a FR-GAL can have a bandgap with a relatively small reduction of the transmission compared to what is typical...... for antidot arrays devices. Graphene devices were fabricated using 100 keV electron beam lithography (EBL) for nanopatterning as well as for defining electrical contacts. Patterns with hole diameter and neck widths of order 30 nm were produced, which is the highest reported pattern density of antidot lattices...... in graphene reported defined by EBL. Electrical measurements showed that devices with one and five rows exhibited field effect mobility of ∼100 cm2/Vs, while a larger number of rows, around 40, led to a significant reduction of field effect mobility (

  19. Innovations in Lattice QCD Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinos Orginos

    2006-06-25

    Lattice QCD calculations demand a substantial amount of computing power in order to achieve the high precision results needed to better understand the nature of strong interactions, assist experiment to discover new physics, and predict the behavior of a diverse set of physical systems ranging from the proton itself to astrophysical objects such as neutron stars. However, computer power alone is clearly not enough to tackle the calculations we need to be doing today. A steady stream of recent algorithmic developments has made an important impact on the kinds of calculations we can currently perform. In this talk I am reviewing these algorithms and their impact on the nature of lattice QCD calculations performed today.

  20. Shear Viscosity from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Mages, Simon W; Fodor, Zoltán; Schäfer, Andreas; Szabó, Kálmán

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the transport properties of the the quark-gluon plasma is becoming increasingly important to describe current measurements at heavy ion collisions. This work reports on recent efforts to determine the shear viscosity h in the deconfined phase from lattice QCD. The main focus is on the integration of the Wilson flow in the analysis to get a better handle on the infrared behaviour of the spectral function which is relevant for transport. It is carried out at finite Wilson flow time, which eliminates the dependence on the lattice spacing. Eventually, a new continuum limit has to be carried out which sends the new regulator introduced by finite flow time to zero. Also the non-perturbative renormalization strategy applied for the energy momentum tensor is discussed. At the end some quenched results for temperatures up to 4 : 5 T c are presented

  1. Symplectic maps for accelerator lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.; Gabella, W.

    1988-05-01

    We describe a method for numerical construction of a symplectic map for particle propagation in a general accelerator lattice. The generating function of the map is obtained by integrating the Hamilton-Jacobi equation as an initial-value problem on a finite time interval. Given the generating function, the map is put in explicit form by means of a Fourier inversion technique. We give an example which suggests that the method has promise. 9 refs., 9 figs

  2. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelin, G.

    1974-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the Δ-, Λ-, and Σ-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field

  3. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G.

    1974-07-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.

  4. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab

  5. Screening in graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Marco Haller; Jauho, A. P.; Pedersen, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the dynamical polarization function for a graphene antidot lattice in the random-phase approximation. The computed polarization functions display a much more complicated structure than what is found for pristine graphene (even when evaluated beyond the Dirac-cone approximation...... the plasmon dispersion law and find an approximate square-root dependence with a suppressed plasmon frequency as compared to doped graphene. The plasmon dispersion is nearly isotropic and the developed approximation schemes agree well with the full calculation....

  6. Scale setting in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2014-02-15

    The principles of scale setting in lattice QCD as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various commonly used scales are discussed. After listing criteria for good scales, I concentrate on the main presently used ones with an emphasis on scales derived from the Yang-Mills gradient flow. For these I discuss discretisation errors, statistical precision and mass effects. A short review on numerical results also brings me to an unpleasant disagreement which remains to be explained.

  7. Lattice engineering technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shumin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains comprehensive reviews of different technologies to harness lattice mismatch in semiconductor heterostructures and their applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. While the book is a bit focused on metamorphic epitaxial growth, it also includes other methods like compliant substrate, selective area growth, wafer bonding and heterostructure nanowires etc. Basic knowledge on dislocations in semiconductors and innovative methods to eliminate threading dislocations are provided, and successful device applications are reviewed. It covers a variety of important semicon

  8. Spin lattices of walking droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Pedro; Pucci, Giuseppe; Goujon, Alexis; Dunkel, Jorn; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the spontaneous emergence of collective behavior in spin lattice of droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath. The bottom topography consists of relatively deep circular wells that encourage the walking droplets to follow circular trajectories centered at the lattice sites, in one direction or the other. Wave-mediated interactions between neighboring drops are enabled through a thin fluid layer between the wells. The sense of rotation of the walking droplets may thus become globally coupled. When the coupling is sufficiently strong, interactions with neighboring droplets may result in switches in spin that lead to preferred global arrangements, including correlated (all drops rotating in the same direction) or anti-correlated (neighboring drops rotating in opposite directions) states. Analogies with ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism are drawn. Different spatial arrangements are presented in 1D and 2D lattices to illustrate the effects of topological frustration. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  9. Reconstruction of axisymmetric strain distributions via neutron strain tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Brian; Zhang, Shu Yan; Vorster, Wim; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the behaviour of structural components under a particular set of loading conditions requires knowledge of the residual elastic strain distribution throughout the bulk of these components. Characterising the 3D strain state at any particular point involves the measurement of six independent components which make up the second order strain tensor. Mapping the complete strain distribution throughout large volumes thus presents significant practical challenges. One possible solution to this problem is to reconstruct the 3D variation of strain components using tomographic techniques. The basic principle underpinning this idea is that the multi-component strain tensor can be reconstructed from a redundant set of lower order projection data. Here we demonstrate this fundamental concept for two samples: a shrink fit 'ring-and-plug' sample, and a spray-quenched circular cylinder, both possessing axially symmetric internal strain distribution. We present and contrast different approaches to the strain tomography problem. The methods described here can also be readily applied to high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements and represent an important step toward developing the tomographic reconstruction framework for strain tensor distributions of arbitrary complexity. The major benefit of neutron strain tomography is that the incident beam flux is utilised more fully, greatly reducing the data collection times. Using micro-channel plate (MCP) neutron detectors, a spatial resolution of the order of 0.1 mm can be achieved [1].

  10. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  11. Trapping Ions in an optical lattice for quantum simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Matt; Fischer, Christoph; Wipfli, Oliver; Home, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Quantum many-body spin Hamiltonians are important tools for describing condensed matter systems, but many such Hamiltonians are difficult to simulate on classical computers. Quantum simulation offers an avenue for overcoming these limitations. Arrays of trapped ions are an attractive platform for quantum simulation due to the high level of control combined with the intrinsic long-range Coulomb interaction that can be used to engineer tunable spin-spin couplings. However, varying lattice geometry is challenging with current trapping techniques. We are developing a new apparatus to trap arrays of ions in optical lattices for the purpose of quantum simulation. This should allow trapping two and three-dimensional crystals with a designed geometry. I will present results of simulations of equilibrium positions and normal modes of such a system, which indicate that in a first design arrays of around 40 ions could be trapped with ion-ion distances of under 10 microns, and also with low residual heating rates due to off-resonant scattering and laser fluctuations. By using Magnesium ions, we expect to be able to cool and image the ions while trapped in a deep optical lattice formed by a high finesse optical cavity. Experimental progress towards these goals will be described.

  12. Element Free Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid-Flow Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young Kwon [US Naval Postgraduate School, New York (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) has been developed for application to thermal-fluid problems. Most of the those studies considered a regular shape of lattice or mesh like square and cubic grids. In order to apply the LBM to more practical cases, it is necessary to be able to solve complex or irregular shapes of problem domains. Some techniques were based on the finite element method. Generally, the finite element method is very powerful for solving two or three-dimensional complex or irregular shapes of domains using the iso-parametric element formulation which is based on a mathematical mapping from a regular shape of element in an imaginary domain to a more general and irregular shape of element in the physical domain. In addition, the element free technique is also quite useful to analyze a complex shape of domain because there is no need to divide a domain by a compatible finite element mesh. This paper presents a new finite element and element free formulations for the lattice Boltzmann equation using the general weighted residual technique. Then, a series of validation examples are presented.

  13. Lattice effects on ferromagnetism in perovskite ruthenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Ferromagnetism and its evolution in the orthorhombic perovskite system Sr1–xCaxRuO3 have been widely believed to correlate with structural distortion. The recent development of high-pressure synthesis of the Ba-substituted Sr1–yBayRuO3 makes it possible to study ferromagnetism over a broader phase diagram, which includes the orthorhombic Imma and the cubic phases. However, the chemical substitutions introduce the A-site disorder effect on Tc, which complicates determination of the relationship between ferromagnetism and structural distortion. By clarifying the site disorder effect on Tc in several unique series of ruthenates in which the average bond length 〈A–O〉 remains the same but the bond-length variance varies, we are able to demonstrate a parabolic curve of Tc versus mean bond length 〈A–O〉. A much higher Tc ∼ 177 K than that found in orthorhombic SrRuO3 can be obtained from the curve at a bond length 〈A–O〉, which makes the geometric factor t = 〈A–O〉/(√2〈Ru–O〉) ∼ 1. This result reveals not only that the ferromagnetism in the ruthenates is extremely sensitive to the lattice strain, but also that it has an important implication for exploring the structure–property relationship in a broad range of oxides with perovskite or a perovskite-related structure. PMID:23904477

  14. Residual stress in a laser welded EUROFER blanket module assembly using non-destructive neutron diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.J.; Koukovini-Platia, E.; Heeley, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual stresses were determined in a welded EUROFER blanket assembly with integrated cooling channels. • Good agreement was seen between experimentally determined and predicted stresses. • We show that microstructure changes that occur in EUROFER steels during welding must be considered for residual stress determination. • An experimental route is proposed for validation of predicted stresses in reactor components using non-destructive diffraction techniques. - Abstract: Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications

  15. Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases.

  16. Shape-dependent designability studies of lattice proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peto, Myron; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    One important problem in computational structural biology is protein designability, that is, why protein sequences are not random strings of amino acids but instead show regular patterns that encode protein structures. Many previous studies that have attempted to solve the problem have relied upon reduced models of proteins. In particular, the 2D square and the 3D cubic lattices together with reduced amino acid alphabet models have been examined extensively and have led to interesting results that shed some light on the evolutionary relationship among proteins. Here we perform designability studies on the 2D square lattice and explore the effects of variable overall shapes on protein designability using a binary hydrophobic-polar (HP) amino acid alphabet. Because we rely on a simple energy function that counts the total number of H-H interactions between non-sequential residues, we restrict our studies to protein shapes that have the same number of residues and also a constant number of non-bonded contacts. We have found that there is a marked difference in the designability between various protein shapes, with some of them accounting for a significantly larger share of the total foldable sequences

  17. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... residual elastic strains between subsets of grains are predicted numerically and verified by neutron diffraction. Subsequently, the measured residual strain profiles in the test samples are modified by the intergranular strains and compared to the engineering predictions of the FE technique. Results...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  18. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n  =  1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.

  19. An elasto-plastic self-consistent model with hardening based on dislocation density, twinning and de-twinning: Application to strain path changes in HCP metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, Milovan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Knezevic, Marko, E-mail: marko.knezevic@unh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Beyerlein, Irene J. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tomé, Carlos N. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-06-25

    In this work, we develop a polycrystal mean-field constitutive model based on an elastic–plastic self-consistent (EPSC) framework. In this model, we incorporate recently developed subgrain models for dislocation density evolution with thermally activated slip, twin activation via statistical stress fluctuations, reoriented twin domains within the grain and associated stress relaxation, twin boundary hardening, and de-twinning. The model is applied to a systematic set of strain path change tests on pure beryllium (Be). Under the applied deformation conditions, Be deforms by multiple slip modes and deformation twinning and thereby provides a challenging test for model validation. With a single set of material parameters, determined using the flow-stress vs. strain responses during monotonic testing, the model predicts well the evolution of texture, lattice strains, and twinning. With further analysis, we demonstrate the significant influence of internal residual stresses on (1) the flow stress drop when reloading from one path to another, (2) deformation twin activation, (3) de-twinning during a reversal strain path change, and (4) the formation of additional twin variants during a cross-loading sequence. The model presented here can, in principle, be applied to other metals, deforming by multiple slip and twinning modes under a wide range of temperature, strain rate, and strain path conditions.

  20. Beautiful baryons from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Güsken, S; Jegerlehner, F; Schilling, K; Siegert, G; Sommer, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    We perform a lattice study of heavy baryons, containing one (\\Lambda_b) or two b-quarks (\\Xi_b). Using the quenched approximation we obtain for the mass of \\Lambda_b M_{\\Lambda_b}= 5.728 \\pm 0.144 \\pm 0.018 {\\rm GeV}. The mass splitting between the \\Lambda_b and the B-meson is found to increase by about 20\\% if the light quark mass is varied from the chiral limit to the strange quark mass. ------- Figures obtained upon request from borrelli@psiclu.cern.ch.

  1. Degeneración Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Bocanegra, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de degeneración periférica de retina Lattice y su relación con estados refractivos y rupturas retinales. Metodología: Estudio de corte transversal con exploración de asociación, mediante análisis de casos y controles. Se examinaron 680 ojos en el Instituto de Investigaciones Optométricas e Instituto de Córnea. El estado refractivo se determinó mediante técnica estática y el estado retinal mediante oftalmoscopia indirecta con indentación escleral. Resultados...

  2. Lattice degeneration of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, N E

    1979-01-01

    Lattice degeneration of the retina is the most important of all clinically distinct entities that effect the peripheral fundus and are related to retinal detachment. The purpose of this review is to survey the extensive literature, to evaluate the many diverse opinions on this subject, and to correlate and summarize all the known facts regarding this disease entity. The disease is fully defined and described, both clinically and histologically. Some aspects of the disease are still poorly understood, and some remain controversial, especially in the area of management. For this reason, the indications for treatment are discussed under eight subsections, with a view toward providing practical guidelines for recommendations in management.

  3. The lattice dynamics of imidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, K.H.

    1983-05-01

    The lattice dynamics of imidazole have been investigated. To this end dispersion curves have been determined at 10 K by inelastic coherent neutron scattering. RAMAN measurements have been done to investigate identical gamma - point modes. The combination of extinction rules for RAMAN - and neutron scattering leads to the symmetry assignment of identical gamma - point modes. The experiment yields a force constant of the streching vibration of the hydrogen bond of 0.33 mdyn/A. A force model has been developed to describe the intermolecular atom - atom Interactions in imidazole. (orig./BHO)

  4. Epimorphisms in Varieties of Residuated Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezhanishvili, G.; Moraschini, Tommaso; Raftery, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 492, 15 December (2017), s. 185-211 ISSN 0021-8693 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04630S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Epimorphism * Brouwerian algebra * Heyting algebra * Esakia space * Residuated lattice * Sugihara monoid * Substructural logic * Intuitionistic logic * Relevance logic * R-mingle * Beth definability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.610, year: 2016

  5. Indirect Fabrication of Lattice Metals with Thin Sections Using Centrifugal Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jiwon; Ju, Jaehyung; Thurman, James

    2016-05-14

    One of the typical methods to manufacture 3D lattice metals is the direct-metal additive manufacturing (AM) process such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM). In spite of its potential processing capability, the direct AM method has several disadvantages such as high cost, poor surface finish of final products, limitation in material selection, high thermal stress, and anisotropic properties of parts. We propose a cost-effective method to manufacture 3D lattice metals. The objective of this study is to provide a detailed protocol on fabrication of 3D lattice metals having a complex shape and a thin wall thickness; e.g., octet truss made of Al and Cu alloys having a unit cell length of 5 mm and a cell wall thickness of 0.5 mm. An overall experimental procedure is divided into eight sections: (a) 3D printing of sacrificial patterns (b) melt-out of support materials (c) removal of residue of support materials (d) pattern assembly (e) investment (f) burn-out of sacrificial patterns (g) centrifugal casting (h) post-processing for final products. The suggested indirect AM technique provides the potential to manufacture ultra-lightweight lattice metals; e.g., lattice structures with Al alloys. It appears that the process parameters should be properly controlled depending on materials and lattice geometry, observing the final products of octet truss metals by the indirect AM technique.

  6. Stability of germanene under tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-09-01

    The stability of germanene under biaxial tensile strain and the accompanying modifications of the electronic properties are studied by density functional theory. The phonon spectrum shows that up to 16% strain the germanene lattice is stable, where the Dirac cone shifts towards higher energy and hole-doped Dirac states are achieved. The latter is due to weakening of the Ge-Ge bonds and reduction of the s-p hybridization. Our calculated Grüneisen parameter shows a similar dependence on the strain as reported for silicene (which is different from that of graphene). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strain energy of a disk-shaped GP zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wert, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified form of Khachaturyan's solution to the problem of determining the strain energy of an arbitrarily-shaped coherent inclusion is found for the case of a disk-shaped inclusion. Specific strain energies are calculated as a function of the orientation of such an inclusion in lattices possessing various elastic properties. Some numerical results are presented. The salient features of the specific strain energy surface are found to depend only on the elastic properties of the lattice. From this, a relationship between an elastic anisotropy parameter, A, and the minimum strain energy orientation of a disk-shaped inclusion is observed. The strain energies of GP zones in Al--Cu and Cu--Be age hardening alloys are calculated. The minimum strain energy orientations of GP zones in these alloys agree with experimentally observed orientations

  8. Working Group Report: Lattice Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, T.; et al.,

    2013-10-22

    This is the report of the Computing Frontier working group on Lattice Field Theory prepared for the proceedings of the 2013 Community Summer Study ("Snowmass"). We present the future computing needs and plans of the U.S. lattice gauge theory community and argue that continued support of the U.S. (and worldwide) lattice-QCD effort is essential to fully capitalize on the enormous investment in the high-energy physics experimental program. We first summarize the dramatic progress of numerical lattice-QCD simulations in the past decade, with some emphasis on calculations carried out under the auspices of the U.S. Lattice-QCD Collaboration, and describe a broad program of lattice-QCD calculations that will be relevant for future experiments at the intensity and energy frontiers. We then present details of the computational hardware and software resources needed to undertake these calculations.

  9. Unique Fiber Optic Sensor System for Residual Stress Measurement on Graphite Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, D

    1995-01-01

    .... Measurement of this strain through the thickness of a composite is not a trivial task. Foster-Miller has developed the basis for a residual strain measurement system utilizing embedded fiber optic Bragg grating technology...

  10. Residual stresses in steel and zirconium weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Coleman, C.E.; Bowden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional scans of residual stress within intact weldments provide insight into the consequences of various welding techniques and stress-relieving procedures. The neutron diffraction method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses has been applied to a circumferential weld in a ferritic steel pipe of outer diameter 114 mm and thickness 8.6 mm. The maximum tensile stresses, 250 MPa in the hoop direction, are found at mid-thickness of the fusion zone. The residual stresses approach zero within 20 mm from the weld center. The residual stresses caused by welding zirconium alloy components are partially to blame for failures due to delayed-hydride cracking. Neutron diffraction measurements in a GTA-welded Zr-2.5 Nb plate have shown that heat treatment at 530 C for 1 h reduces the longitudinal residual strain by 60%. Neutron diffraction has also been used to scan the residual stresses near circumferential electron beam welds in irradiated and unirradiated Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes. The residual stresses due to electron beam welding appear to be lower than 130 MPa, even in the as-welded state. No significant changes occur in the residual stress pattern of the electron-beam welded tube, during a prolonged exposure to thermal neutrons and the temperatures typical of an operating nuclear reactor

  11. Lattice Codes for Physical Layer Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Barreal, Amaro

    2017-01-01

    Lattices are deceptively simple mathematical structures that have become indispensable for code design for physical layer communications. While lattice-related problems are interesting in their own right, the usefulness of these discrete structures in wireless communications provides additional motivation for their study and enables a multidisciplinary line of research.  This thesis is devoted to the study of lattice code design for physical layer communications. Modern wireless communica...

  12. The Gluon Propagator without lattice Gribov copies

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Follana, E; Forcrand, Ph. de

    2001-01-01

    We study the gluon propagator on the lattice using the Laplacian gauge which is free of lattice Gribov copies. We compare our results with those obtained in the Landau gauge on the lattice, as well as with various approximate solutions of the Dyson Schwinger equations. We find a finite value $\\sim (250 \\rm{MeV})^{-2}$ for the zero-momentum propagator, and a pole mass $\\sim 640 \\pm 110$ MeV.

  13. Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yahong; Cai, Yangjian, E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Ponomarenko, Sergey A., E-mail: serpo@dal.ca, E-mail: yangjiancai@suda.edu.cn [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2016-08-08

    We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.

  14. An Intrinsic Topology for Orthomodular Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Olivier

    2007-11-01

    We present a general way to define a topology on orthomodular lattices. We show that in the case of a Hilbert lattice, this topology is equivalent to that induced by the metrics of the corresponding Hilbert space. Moreover, we show that in the case of a boolean algebra, the obtained topology is the discrete one. Thus, our construction provides a general tool for studying orthomodular lattices but also a way to distinguish classical and quantum logics.

  15. Lattice vibrations in α-boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.

    1976-01-01

    α-rhombohedral boron is the simplest boron modification, with only 12 atoms per unit cell. The boron atoms are arranged in B 12 icosahedra, which are centered at the lattice points of a primitive rhombohedral lattice. The icosahedra are slightly deformed, as the five-fold symmetry of the ideal icosahedron is incompatible with any crystal structure. The lattice dynamics of α-boron are discussed in terms of the model developed by Weber and Thorpe. (Auth.)

  16. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Crescimento micelial de dois isolados de Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler, em resíduos ligninocelulósicos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3622 Mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler in lignocellulose residue - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Schunck da Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar o crescimento micelial de dois isolados, 42 e 47, de Lentinula edodes, utilizaram-se os substratos: serragens de Eucalyptus sp., de Grevillea robusta e de Melia azedarach; resíduo de algodão e folhas de Panicum maximum em diferentes composições e suplementados com farelos de soja e de arroz. Verificou-se crescimento micelial por meio de medidas do raio avaliadas pela Análise de Dados Longitudinais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à analise estatística (Manova. O crescimento foi significativamente diferente ao longo do tempo e este influenciou marcadamente o comportamento dos isolados nos diferentes resíduos. Observaram-se quatro padrões de comportamento para o isolado 42 e cinco, para o 47. As serragens de Eucalyptus sp. e de G. robusta mostraram-se as mais propícias ao crescimento dos dois isolados de L. edodes, confirmando ser essa espécie essencialmente de hábito lignícola.With the purpose of verifying the mycelial growth of two isolated strains of Lentinula edodes – 42 and 47 –, the following substrates were used: sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp., Grevillea robusta and Melia azedarach; cotton residue and leaves of Panicum maximum, in different compositions and complemented with crumbs of soy and rice. Mycelial growth was verified through radius measurements as evaluated by Longitudinal Data Analysis. The obtained data was submitted to statistical analysis (Manova. The growth was significantly different along time, and this influenced remarkably the behavior of the isolated strains in the different residues. Four patterns of behavior were observed for isolate 42, and five for number 47. The sawdusts of Eucalyptus sp. and of G. robusta proved to the most favorable for growing the two isolates of L. edodes, confirming this species to be essentially lignous.

  18. Lattice theory special topics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrung, Friedrich

    George Grätzer's Lattice Theory: Foundation is his third book on lattice theory (General Lattice Theory, 1978, second edition, 1998). In 2009, Grätzer considered updating the second edition to reflect some exciting and deep developments. He soon realized that to lay the foundation, to survey the contemporary field, to pose research problems, would require more than one volume and more than one person. So Lattice Theory: Foundation provided the foundation. Now we complete this project with Lattice Theory: Special Topics and Applications, written by a distinguished group of experts, to cover some of the vast areas not in Foundation. This first volume is divided into three parts. Part I. Topology and Lattices includes two chapters by Klaus Keimel, Jimmie Lawson and Ales Pultr, Jiri Sichler. Part II. Special Classes of Finite Lattices comprises four chapters by Gabor Czedli, George Grätzer and Joseph P. S. Kung. Part III. Congruence Lattices of Infinite Lattices and Beyond includes four chapters by Friedrich W...

  19. Testing the holographic principle using lattice simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Raghav G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lattice studies of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills (MSYM theory at strong coupling and large N is important for verifying gauge/gravity duality. Due to the progress made in the last decade, based on ideas from topological twisting and orbifolding, it is now possible to study these theories on the lattice while preserving an exact supersymmetry on the lattice. We present some results from the lattice studies of two-dimensional MSYM which is related to Type II supergravity. Our results agree with the thermodynamics of different black hole phases on the gravity side and the phase transition (Gregory–Laflamme between them.

  20. The Developement of A Lattice Structured Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans

    In this project we have investigated the possibilities to make a system based on the concept algebra described in [3], [4] and [5]. The concept algebra is used for ontology specification and knowledge representation. It is a distributive lattice extended with attribution operations. One of the main...... to a given set of inserted terms, that is the smallest lattice where the inserted terms preserve their value compared to the value in the initial algebra/lattice. The database is the dual representation of this most disjoint lattice. We develop algorithms to construct and make queries to the database....

  1. Cascade Baryon Spectrum from Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Nilmani; Bulava, John; Edwards, Robert; Engelson, Eric; Joo, Balint; Lichtl, Adam; Lin, Huey-Wen; Morningstar, Colin; Richards, David; Wallace, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the cascade baryon spectrum using lattice QCD affords the prospect of predicting the masses of states not yet discovered experimentally, and determining the spin and parity of those states for which the quantum numbers are not yet known. The study of the cascades, containing two strange quarks, is particularly attractive for lattice QCD in that the chiral effects are reduced compared to states composed only of u/d quarks, and the states are typically narrow. We report preliminary results for the cascade spectrum obtained by using anisotropic Nf = 2 Wilson lattices with temporal lattice spacing 5.56 GeV?1.

  2. Elastic lattice in an incommensurate background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, R.; Chudnovsky, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a harmonic triangular lattice, which relaxes in the presence of an incommensurate short-wavelength potential. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the elastic lattice exhibits only short-ranged translational correlations, despite the absence of defects in either lattice. Extended orientational order, however, persists in the presence of the background. Translational correlation lengths exhibit approximate power-law dependence upon cooling rate and background strength. Our results may be relevant to Wigner crystals, atomic monolayers on crystals surfaces, and flux-line and magnetic bubble lattices

  3. Holographic Lattices Give the Graviton a Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike; Vegh, David

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the DC conductivity of holographic theories with translational invariance broken by a background lattice. We show that the presence of the lattice induces an effective mass for the graviton via a gravitational version of the Higgs mechanism. This allows us to obtain, at leading order in the lattice strength, an analytic expression for the DC conductivity in terms of the size of the lattice at the horizon. In locally critical theories this leads to a power law resistivity that is in agreement with an earlier field theory analysis of Hartnoll and Hofman.

  4. Polarization response of RHIC electron lens lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Ranjbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Depolarization response for a system of two orthogonal snakes at irrational tunes is studied in depth using lattice independent spin integration. In particular we consider the effect of overlapping spin resonances in this system, to understand the impact of phase, tune, relative location and threshold strengths of the spin resonances. These results are benchmarked and compared to two dimensional direct tracking results for the RHIC e-lens lattice and the standard lattice. Finally we consider the effect of longitudinal motion via chromatic scans using direct six dimensional lattice tracking.

  5. Lattice Dynamics of fcc Ca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;

    1983-01-01

    A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion.......8, there is a relative decrease in the electronic screening of the vibrational motion of the nuclei, which may account for the positive dispersion exhibited by the T1 [ξξ0] branch in this range of ξ values. The data were used to evaluate the elastic constants, the phonon density of states, and the lattice specific heat...

  6. Lattice dynamics in solid oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobashi, K.; Klein, M.L.; Chandrasekharan, V.

    1979-01-01

    Lattice dynamical calculations for the bulk α, β, and γ phases of solid O 2 and for the monolayer α and β phases have been made in the harmonic approximation. In the α and β phases, atom-atom 6-12 potentials are employed. In the γ phase, effective potentials are used between molecular centers and only the translational lattice vibrations are calculated. It is found that Laufer and Leroi's potential parameters give two k=O frequencies at 42.7 and 43.6 cm -1 in the bulk α-O 2 , and at 40.7 cm -1 for the degenerate k=0 modes in the β phase. The observed Raman lines for α-O 2 at 43 and 79 cm -1 , which are both known to exhibit isotope shifts, are thus tentatively assigned to an accidentally degenerate line and a two-phonon band, respectively, In view of the possible contribution from anharmonic effects, the agreement of the calculation with experiment (48-51 cm -1 ) in β-O 2 may be better than it seems. For the bulk γ-O 2 , a discrepancy is observed between the calculated elastic constants and those derived from Brillouin scattering experiments. This discrepancy may be due to the neglect of translation-rotation coupling. In the monolayer O 2 , Raman active modes at 28.3 and 40.6 cm -1 for the α phase, and 31.9 cm -1 for the β phase are predicted

  7. Introduction to Vortex Lattice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pinzón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panel methods have been widely used in industry and are well established since the 1970s for aerodynamic analysis and computation. The Vortex Lattice Panel Method presented in this study comes across a sophisticated method that provides a quick solution time, allows rapid changes in geometry and suits well for aerodynamic analysis. The aerospace industry is highly competitive in design efficiency, and perhaps one of the most important factors on airplane design and engineering today is multidisciplinary optimization.  Any cost reduction method in the design cycle of a product becomes vital in the success of its outcome. The subsequent sections of this article will further explain in depth the theory behind the vortex lattice method, and the reason behind its selection as the method for aerodynamic analysis during preliminary design work and computation within the aerospace industry. This article is analytic in nature, and its main objective is to present a mathematical summary of this widely used computational method in aerodynamics.

  8. Induced lattice strain in epitaxial Fe-based superconducting films on CaF2 substrates: A comparative study of the microstructures of SmFeAs(O,F), Ba(Fe,Co)2As2, and FeTe0.5Se0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro; Nabeshima, Fuyuki; Imai, Yoshinori; Maeda, Atsutaka; Kurth, Fritz; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Iida, Kazumasa; Ueda, Shinya; Naito, Michio

    2014-03-01

    The microstructures of SmFeAs(O,F), Ba(Fe,Co)2As2, and FeTe0.5Se0.5 prepared on CaF2 substrates were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The SmFeAs(O,F)/CaF2 interface is steep, without a disordered layer. By contrast, a chemical reaction occurs at the interface in the cases of Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 and FeTe0.5Se0.5. The reaction layers are located on opposite sides of the interface for Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 and FeTe0.5Se0.5. We found that the lattice distortion of the three superconducting films on the CaF2 substrates enhances the TC values compared with films prepared on oxide substrates. The origin of this lattice deformation varies depending on the superconducting material.

  9. Lattice-registered growth of GaSb on Si (211) with molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ghanad-Tavakoli, S. [Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Preston, J. S.; Kleiman, R. N. [Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2012-11-01

    A GaSb film was grown on a Si(211) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy indicating full lattice relaxation as well as full lattice registration and dislocation-free growth in the plane perpendicular to the [01 - 1]-direction. Heteroepitaxy of GaSb on a Si(211) substrate is dominated by numerous first order and multiple higher order micro-twins. The atomic-resolved structural study of GaSb films by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that slight tilt, along with twinning, favors the lattice registry to Si(211) substrates. Preferential bonding of impinging Ga and Sb atoms at the interface due to two distinctive bonding sites on the Si(211) surface enables growth that is sublattice-ordered and free of anti-phase boundaries. The role of the substrate orientation on the strain distribution of GaSb epilayers is further elucidated by investigating the local change in the lattice parameter using the geometric phase analysis method and hence effectiveness of the lattice tilting in reducing the interfacial strain was confirmed further.

  10. TEM nano-Moiré evaluation for an invisible lattice structure near the grain interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Wen, Huihui; Liu, Zhanwei; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Huimin

    2017-10-26

    Moiré technique is a powerful, important and effective tool for scientific research, from the nano-scale to the macro-scale, which is essentially the interference between two or more periodic structures with a similar frequency. In this study, an inverse transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nano-Moiré method has been proposed, for the first time, to reconstruct an invisible lattice structure near the grain interface, where only one kind of lattice structure and Moiré fringe were visible in a high resolution TEM (HRTEM) image simultaneously. The inversion process was performed in detail. Three rules were put forward to ensure the uniqueness of the inversion result. The HRTEM image of a top-coat/thermally grown oxide interface in a thermal barrier coating (TBC) structure was observed with coexisting visible lattice and Moiré fringes. Using the inverse TEM nano-Moiré method, the invisible lower layer lattice was inversed and a 3-dimensional structure near the interface was also reconstructed to some degree. The real strain field of oriented invisible and visible lattices and the relative strain field of the Moiré fringe in the grain and near the grain boundary were obtained simultaneously through the subset geometric phase analysis method. The possible failure mechanism and position of the TBC spallation from the nano-scale to the micro-scale were discussed.

  11. Mechanical behavior of open-cell rhombic dodecahedron Ti–6Al–4V lattice structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Lijun [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Song, Weidong, E-mail: swdgh@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Haiyan; Tang, Huiping; Wang, Jianzhong [State Key Laboratory of Porous Metal Materials, Northwest Institute for Non-ferrous Metal Research, Xi’an 710016 (China)

    2015-07-29

    The compression behavior of Ti–6Al–4V lattice structure with a cell shape of rhombic dodecahedron, which was fabricated by electron beam melting, was investigated at different temperatures. A series of quasi-static compression tests were performed at ambient temperature, 200 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C with a strain rate of 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. Two groups of design configurations were adopted by changing the cell size and thickness of struts with the sample size maintained unchanged. The results revealed that their properties varied with different cell sizes and temperatures. Larger cell size leaded to lower modulus and strength of the lattice. Higher temperatures resulted in lower strengths, modulus, densification strains and plateau stresses. The energy absorption of lattice at high temperature was discussed, and the experimental data were compared with aluminum foams, titanium foams and stainless steel lattice. It demonstrated that the rhombic dodecahedron Ti–6Al–4V lattice structure could be applied as load-bearing components and energy absorber at high temperature.

  12. Residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction method has great advantages, allowing us to determine the residual stress deep present within the bulk materials and components nondestructively. Therefore, the method has been applied to confirm the structural integrity of the actual mechanical components and structures and to improve the manufacturing process and strength reliability of the products. This article reviews the residual stress measurement methodology of neutron diffraction. It also refers to the appropriate treatments of diffraction plane, stress-free lattice spacing, coarse grain and surface error to obtain reliable results. Finally, a few applications are introduced to show the capabilities of the neutron stress measurement method for the studies on the strength and elasto-plastic behaviors of crystalline materials. (author)

  13. Strain-enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Loong, Li Ming; Qiu, Xuepeng; Neo, Zhi Peng; Deorani, Praveen; Wu, Yang; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Saeys, Mark; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2014-01-01

    While the effects of lattice mismatch-induced strain, mechanical strain, as well as the intrinsic strain of thin films are sometimes detrimental, resulting in mechanical deformation and failure, strain can also be usefully harnessed for applications such as data storage, transistors, solar cells, and strain gauges, among other things. Here, we demonstrate that quantum transport across magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) can be significantly affected by the introduction of controllable mechanical...

  14. Lattices for laymen: a non-specialist's introduction to lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, D.J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The review on lattice gauge theory is based upon a series of lectures given to the Materials Science and Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory. Firstly the structure of gauge theories in the continuum is discussed. Then the lattice formulation of these theories is presented, including quantum electrodynamics and non-abelian lattice gauge theories. (U.K.)

  15. Hadron physics from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2016-11-01

    Particle physics experiments at modern high luminosity particle accelerators achieve orders of magnitude higher count rates than what was possible ten or twenty years ago. This extremely large statistics allows to draw far reaching conclusions even from minute signals, provided that these signals are well understood by theory. This is, however, ever more difficult to achieve. Presently, technical and scientific progress in general and experimental progress in particle physics in particular, shows typically an exponential growth rate. For example, data acquisition and analysis are, among many other factor, driven by the development of ever more efficient computers and thus by Moore's law. Theory has to keep up with this development by also achieving an exponential increase in precision, which is only possible using powerful computers. This is true for both types of calculations, analytic ones as, e.g., in quantum field perturbation theory, and purely numerical ones as in Lattice QCD. As stated above such calculations are absolutely indispensable to make best use of the extremely costly large particle physics experiments. Thus, it is economically reasonable to invest a certain percentage of the cost of accelerators and experiments in related theory efforts. The basic ideas behind Lattice QCD simulations are the following: Because quarks and gluons can never be observed individually but are always ''confined'' into colorless hadrons, like the proton, all quark-gluon states can be expressed in two different systems of basis states, namely in a quark-gluon basis and the basis of hadron states. The proton, e.g., is an eigenstate of the latter, a specific quark-gluon configuration is part of the former. In the quark-gluon basis a physical hadron, like a proton, is given by an extremely complicated multi-particle wave function containing all effects of quantum fluctuations. This state is so complicated that it is basically impossible to model it

  16. The effects of different possible modes of uniaxial strain on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimple

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... strain along its two non-equivalent lattice directions, namely, the zig-zag and the arm-chair directions. Among all the strain types considered in this study, uniaxial tensile strain applied along the zig-zag direction is found to be the most efficacious, inducing a greater tunability in the band gap over a large ...

  17. Three-dimensional lattice matching of epitaxially embedded nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Brelon J.; Anderson, Peter M.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2017-02-01

    For a given degree of in-plane lattice mismatch between a two-dimensional (2D) epitaxial layer and a substrate (ɛIP*), there is a critical thickness above which interfacial defects form to relax the elastic strain energy. Here, we extend the 2D lattice-matching conditions to three-dimensions in order to predict the critical size beyond which epitaxially encased nanoparticles, characterized by both ɛIP* and out-of-plane lattice mismatch (ɛOP*), relax by dislocation formation. The critical particle length (Lc) at which defect formation proceeds is determined by balancing the reduction in elastic energy associated with dislocation introduction with the corresponding increase in defect energy. Our results, which use a modified Eshelby inclusion technique for an embedded, arbitrarily-faceted nanoparticle, provide new insight to the nanoepitaxy of low dimensional structures, especially quantum dots and nanoprecipitates. By engineering ɛIP* and ɛOP* , the predicted Lc for nanoparticles can be increased to well beyond the case of encapsulation in a homogenous matrix. For the case of truncated pyramidal shaped InAs, Lc 10.8 nm when fully embedded in GaAs (ɛIP* = ɛOP* = - 0.072); 16.4 nm when the particle is grown on GaAs, but capped with InSb (ɛIP* = - 0.072 and ɛOP* =+0.065); and a maximum of 18.4 nm if capped with an alloy corresponding to ɛOP* =+0.037. The effect, which we term "3D Poisson-stabilization" provides a means to increase the epitaxial strain tolerance in epitaxial heterostructures by tailoring ɛOP*.

  18. Strain tuning of topological band order in cubic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhu, Wenguang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weitering, Hanno [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Xiao, Di [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of tuning the topological order of cubic diamond/zinc-blende semi- conductors with external strain. Based on a simple tight-binding model, we analyze the evolution of the cubic semiconductor band structure under hydrostatic or biaxial lattice expansion, by which a generic guiding princi- ple is established that biaxial lattice expansion can induce a topological phase transition of small band-gap cubic semiconductors via a band inversion and symmetry breaking at point. Using density functional theory cal- culations, we demonstrate that a prototype topological trivial semiconductor, InSb, is converted to a nontrivial topological semiconductor with a 2% 3% biaxial lattice expansion.

  19. The kaon B-parameter from unquenched mixed action lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Christopher A.; Laiho, Jack; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2007-10-01

    We present a preliminary calculation of B{sub K} using domain-wall valence quarks and 2+1 flavors of improved staggered sea quarks. Both the size of the residual quark mass, which measures the amount of chiral symmetry breaking, and of the mixed meson splitting Delta{sub mix}, a measure of taste-symmetry breaking, show that discretization effects are under control in our mixed action lattice simulations. We show preliminary data for pseudoscalar meson masses, decay constants and B{sub K}. We discuss general issues associated with the chiral extrapolation of lattice data, and, as an example, present a preliminary chiral and continuum extrapolation of f{sub pi}. The quality of our data shows that the good chiral properties of domain-wall quarks, in combination with the light sea quark masses and multiple lattice spacings available with the MILC staggered configurations, will allow for a precise determination of B{sub K}.

  20. 75 FR 8504 - Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... children, to residues of the Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 in or on all food and feed commodities. This... of a tolerance for residues of the Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080 on all food/feed commodities... special consideration to exposure of infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in...

  1. Spin qubits in antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    We suggest and study designed defects in an otherwise periodic potential modulation of a two-dimensional electron gas as an alternative approach to electron spin based quantum information processing in the solid-state using conventional gate-defined quantum dots. We calculate the band structure a...... electron transport between distant defect states in the lattice, and for a tunnel coupling of neighboring defect states with corresponding electrostatically controllable exchange coupling between different electron spins.......We suggest and study designed defects in an otherwise periodic potential modulation of a two-dimensional electron gas as an alternative approach to electron spin based quantum information processing in the solid-state using conventional gate-defined quantum dots. We calculate the band structure...

  2. Monte Carlo lattice program KIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupini, E.; De Matteis, A.; Simonini, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Monte Carlo program KIM solves the steady-state linear neutron transport equation for a fixed-source problem or, by successive fixed-source runs, for the eigenvalue problem, in a two-dimensional thermal reactor lattice. Fluxes and reaction rates are the main quantities computed by the program, from which power distribution and few-group averaged cross sections are derived. The simulation ranges from 10 MeV to zero and includes anisotropic and inelastic scattering in the fast energy region, the epithermal Doppler broadening of the resonances of some nuclides, and the thermalization phenomenon by taking into account the thermal velocity distribution of some molecules. Besides the well known combinatorial geometry, the program allows complex configurations to be represented by a discrete set of points, an approach greatly improving calculation speed

  3. Weak transitions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some techniques to calculate the effects of the strong interactions on the matrix elements of weak processes are described. The lattice formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics is used to account for the low energy gluons, and the corresponding numerical methods are explained. The high energy contributions are included in effective lagrangians and the problem of matching the different scales related to the renormalization of the operators and wavefunctions is also discussed. The ..delta..l = 1/2 enhancement rule and the K/sup 0/-anti-K/sup 0/ are used to illustrate these techniques and the results of a numerical calculation is reported. The values obtained are very encouraging and they certainly show good qualitative agreement with the experimental values. The emphasis is on general techniques, and in particular, several improvements to this particular calculation are proposed.

  4. Nuclear matter on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.-M.; Koonin, S. E.; Seki, R.; van Kolck, U.

    2000-04-01

    We investigate nuclear matter on a cubic lattice. An exact thermal formalism is applied to nucleons with a Hamiltonian that accommodates on-site and next-neighbor parts of the central, spin-, and isospin-exchange interactions. We describe the nuclear matter Monte Carlo methods which contain elements from shell model Monte Carlo methods and from numerical simulations of the Hubbard model. We show that energy and basic saturation properties of nuclear matter can be reproduced. Evidence of a first-order phase transition from an uncorrelated Fermi gas to a clustered system is observed by computing mechanical and thermodynamical quantities such as compressibility, heat capacity, entropy, and grand potential. We compare symmetry energy and first sound velocities with literature and find reasonable agreement.

  5. Pion structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadi Motaghi, Narjes

    2015-05-12

    In this thesis we use lattice QCD to compute the second Mellin moments of pion generalized parton distributions and pion electromagnetic form factors. For our calculations we are able to analyze a large set of gauge configurations with 2 dynamical flavours using non-perturbatively the improved Wilson-Sheikholeslami-Wohlert fermionic action pion masses ranging down to 151 MeV. By employing improved smearing we were able to suppress excited state contamination. However, our data in the physical quark mass limit show that some excited state contamination remains. We show the non-zero sink momentum is optimal for the computation of the electromagnetic form factors and generalized form factors at finite momenta.

  6. Particle states of lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoyannis, A.S.; Panagiotou, A.D. [University of Athens, Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Faculty of Physics, Athens (Greece)

    2017-11-15

    We determine the degeneracy factor and the average particle mass of particles that produce the lattice QCD pressure and specific entropy at zero baryon chemical potential. The number of states of the gluons and the quarks are found to converge above T = 230 MeV to almost constant values, close to the number of states of an ideal quark-gluon phase, while their assigned masses retain high values. The number of states and the average mass of a system containing quarks in interaction with gluons are found to decrease steeply with increase of temperature between T ∝ 150 and 160 MeV, a region contained within the region of the chiral transition. The minimum value of the number of states within this temperature interval indicates that the states are of hadronic nature. (orig.)

  7. Lattice studies of hadrons with heavy flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin, C.

    2009-01-01

    I will discuss recent developments in lattice studies of hadrons composed of heavy quarks. I will mostly cover topics which are at a state of direct comparison with experiment, but will also discuss new ideas and promising techniques to aid future studies of lattice heavy quark physics.

  8. Lattice Boltzmann scheme for relativistic fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, M.; Boghosian, B.; Herrmann, H. J.; Succi, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically verified through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shock-wave propagation in viscous quark-gluon plasmas. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the main advantages of Lattice Boltzmann methods to the relativistic context, which seems particularly useful for the simulation of relativistic fluids in complicated geometries.

  9. Lattice dynamics of ferromagnetic superconductor UGe2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the lattice dynamical study of the UGe2 using a lattice dynamical model theory based on pairwise interactions under the framework of the shell model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves and phonon density of states are in good agreement with the measured data.

  10. The contact polytope of the leech lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikiric, M.D.; Schürmann, A.; Vallentin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The contact polytope of a lattice is the convex hull of its shortest vectors. In this paper we classify the facets of the contact polytope of the Leech lattice up to symmetry. There are 1, 197, 362, 269, 604, 214, 277, 200 many facets in 232 orbits.

  11. The contact polytope of the Leech lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dutour Sikiric; A. Schuermann; F. Vallentin (Frank)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe contact polytope of a lattice is the convex hull of its shortest vectors. In this paper we classify the facets of the contact polytope of the Leech lattice up to symmetry. There are 1,197,362,269,604,214,277,200 many facets in 232 orbits.

  12. The contact polytope of the Leech lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Dutour Sikiric; A. Schuermann; F. Vallentin (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractThe contact polytope of a lattice is the convex hull of its shortest vectors. In this paper we classify the facets of the contact polytope of the Leech lattice up to symmetry. There are 1,197,362,269,604,214,277,200 many facets in 232 orbits.

  13. An Application of Linear Algebra over Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseinyazdi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first we consider L n as a semimodule over a complete bounded distributive lattice L. Then we define the basic concepts of module theory for L n. After that, we proved many similar theorems in linear algebra for the space L n. An application of linear algebra over lattices for solving linear systems, was given

  14. Lattice-Valued Possibilistic Entropy Measure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kramosil, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2008), s. 829-846 ISSN 0218-4885 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : complete lattice * lattice-valued possibilistic distribution * entropy measure * product of possibilistic distribution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2008

  15. Spectral Gaps in Graphene Antidot Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbaroux, Jean-Marie; Cornean, Decebal Horia; Stockmeyer, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    We consider the gap creation problem in an antidot graphene lattice, i.e. a sheet of graphene with periodically distributed obstacles. We prove several spectral results concerning the size of the gap and its dependence on different natural parameters related to the antidot lattice....

  16. Abelian gauge potentials on cubic lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrello, M.; Lepori, L.; Paganelli, S.

    2017-01-01

    fields in a system of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. After reviewing two of the main experimental schemes for the physical realization of synthetic gauge potentials in ultracold setups, we study cubic lattice tight-bindingmodels with commensurate flux.We finally discuss applications of gauge...

  17. Selective nanoscale growth of lattice mismatched materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Chang; Brueck, Steven R. J.

    2017-06-20

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods of forming high-quality semiconductor devices using lattice-mismatched materials. In one embodiment, a composite film including one or more substantially-single-particle-thick nanoparticle layers can be deposited over a substrate as a nanoscale selective growth mask for epitaxially growing lattice-mismatched materials over the substrate.

  18. The mystery of the fifteenth Bravais lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Allen

    2000-10-01

    An understanding of the principles of crystal structure is necessary for the study of solids. There are contradictions in the literature dealing with the nature of crystal lattices, and there is also a miscounting of the number of possible lattices. This paper clarifies the situation in a systematic and simple way.

  19. The Chroma Software System for Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.; Joo, Balint

    2005-01-01

    We describe aspects of the Chroma software for lattice QCD calculations. Chroma is an open source C++ based software system developed using the software infrastructure of the US SciDAC initiative. Chroma interfaces with output from the BAGEL assembly generator for optimised lattice fermion kernels on some architectures. It can be run on workstations, clusters and the QCDOC supercomputer

  20. The Chroma Software System for Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Edwards; Balint Joo

    2004-01-01

    We describe aspects of the Chroma software system for lattice QCD calculations. Chroma is an open source C++ based software system developed using the software infrastructure of the US SciDAC initiative. Chroma interfaces with output from the BAGEL assembly generator for optimized lattice fermion kernels on some architectures. It can be run on workstations, clusters and the QCDOC supercomputer

  1. Gap solitons in Rabi lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaopin; Malomed, Boris A

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted waveguides. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. These include on- and off-site-centered solitons (the GSs of the off-site type are additionally categorized as spatially even and odd ones), which may be symmetric or antisymmetric, with respect to the coupled components. The GSs are chiefly stable in the first finite bandgap and unstable in the second one. In addition to that, there are narrow regions near the right edge of the first bandgap, and in the second one, which feature intricate alternation of stability and instability. Unstable solitons evolve into robust breathers or spatially confined turbulent modes. On-site-centered GSs are also considered in a version of the system that is made asymmetric by the Zeeman effect, or by birefringence of the optical waveguide. A region of alternate stability is found in the latter case too. In the limit of strong asymmetry, GSs are obtained in a semianalytical approximation, which reduces two coupled GPEs to a single one with an effective lattice potential.

  2. Gap solitons in Rabi lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaopin; Malomed, Boris A.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted waveguides. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum. These include on- and off-site-centered solitons (the GSs of the off-site type are additionally categorized as spatially even and odd ones), which may be symmetric or antisymmetric, with respect to the coupled components. The GSs are chiefly stable in the first finite bandgap and unstable in the second one. In addition to that, there are narrow regions near the right edge of the first bandgap, and in the second one, which feature intricate alternation of stability and instability. Unstable solitons evolve into robust breathers or spatially confined turbulent modes. On-site-centered GSs are also considered in a version of the system that is made asymmetric by the Zeeman effect, or by birefringence of the optical waveguide. A region of alternate stability is found in the latter case too. In the limit of strong asymmetry, GSs are obtained in a semianalytical approximation, which reduces two coupled GPEs to a single one with an effective lattice potential.

  3. Cold collisions in dissipative optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piilo, J; Suominen, K-A

    2005-01-01

    The invention of laser cooling methods for neutral atoms allows optical and magnetic trapping of cold atomic clouds in the temperature regime below 1 mK. In the past, light-assisted cold collisions between laser cooled atoms have been widely studied in magneto-optical atom traps (MOTs). We describe here theoretical studies of dynamical interactions, specifically cold collisions, between atoms trapped in near-resonant, dissipative optical lattices. The extension of collision studies to the regime of optical lattices introduces several complicating factors. For the lattice studies, one has to account for the internal substates of atoms, position-dependent matter-light coupling, and position-dependent couplings between the atoms, in addition to the spontaneous decay of electronically excited atomic states. The developed one-dimensional quantum-mechanical model combines atomic cooling and collision dynamics in a single framework. The model is based on Monte Carlo wavefunction simulations and is applied when the lattice-creating lasers have frequencies both below (red-detuned lattice) and above (blue-detuned lattice) the atomic resonance frequency. It turns out that the radiative heating mechanism affects the dynamics of atomic cloud in a red-detuned lattice in a way that is not directly expected from the MOT studies. The optical lattice and position-dependent light-matter coupling introduces selectivity of collision partners. The atoms which are most mobile and energetic are strongly favoured to participate in collisions, and are more often ejected from the lattice, than the slow ones in the laser parameter region selected for study. Consequently, the atoms remaining in the lattice have a smaller average kinetic energy per atom than in the case of non-interacting atoms. For blue-detuned lattices, we study how optical shielding emerges as a natural part of the lattice and look for ways to optimize the effect. We find that the cooling and shielding dynamics do not mix

  4. Pseudomagnetic fields and triaxial strain in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions ("pseudoma......Pseudomagnetic fields, which can result from nonuniform strain distributions, have received much attention in graphene systems due to the possibility of mimicking real magnetic fields with magnitudes of greater than 100 T. We examine systems with such strains confined to finite regions......-binding calculations of single pseudomagnetic dots in extended graphene sheets confirm these predictions, and are also used to study the effect of rotating the strain direction with respect to the underlying graphene lattice, and varying the size of the pseudomagnetic dot....

  5. Atom interferometry using a shaken optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C. A.; Yu, Hoon; Kosloff, Ronnie; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2017-04-01

    We introduce shaken lattice interferometry with atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. By phase modulating (shaking) the lattice, we control the momentum state of the atoms. Through a sequence of shaking functions, the atoms undergo an interferometer sequence of splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination. Each shaking function in the sequence is optimized with a genetic algorithm to achieve the desired momentum state transitions. As with conventional atom interferometers, the sensitivity of the shaken lattice interferometer increases with interrogation time. The shaken lattice interferometer may also be optimized to sense signals of interest while rejecting others, such as the measurement of an ac inertial signal in the presence of an unwanted dc signal.

  6. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lingzhen; Marthaler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In one dimensional systems, it is possible to create periodic structures in phase space through driving, which is called phase space crystals (Guo et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 205303). This is possible even if for particles trapped in a potential without periodicity. In this paper we discuss ultracold atoms in a driven optical lattice, which is a realization of such a phase space crystals. The corresponding lattice structure in phase space is complex and contains rich physics. A phase space lattice differs fundamentally from a lattice in real space, because its coordinate system, i.e., phase space, has a noncommutative geometry, which naturally provides an artificial gauge (magnetic) field. We study the behavior of the quasienergy band structure and investigate the dissipative dynamics. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space provides a new platform to simulate the condensed matter phenomena and study the intriguing phenomena of driven systems far away from equilibrium. (paper)

  7. A lattice approach to spinorial quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteln, Paul; Smolin, Lee

    1989-01-01

    A new lattice regularization of quantum general relativity based on Ashtekar's reformulation of Hamiltonian general relativity is presented. In this form, quantum states of the gravitational field are represented within the physical Hilbert space of a Kogut-Susskind lattice gauge theory. The gauge field of the theory is a complexified SU(2) connection which is the gravitational connection for left-handed spinor fields. The physical states of the gravitational field are those which are annihilated by additional constraints which correspond to the four constraints of general relativity. Lattice versions of these constraints are constructed. Those corresponding to the three-dimensional diffeomorphism generators move states associated with Wilson loops around on the lattice. The lattice Hamiltonian constraint has a simple form, and a correspondingly simple interpretation: it is an operator which cuts and joins Wilson loops at points of intersection.

  8. Supersymmetry on a space-time lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaestner, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the WZ model in one and two dimensions has been thoroughly investigated. With the help of the Nicolai map it was possible to construct supersymmetrically improved lattice actions that preserve one of several supersymmetries. For the WZ model in one dimension SLAC fermions were utilized for the first time leading to a near-perfect elimination of lattice artifacts. In addition the lattice superpotential does not get modified which in two dimensions becomes important when further (discrete) symmetries of the continuum action are considered. For Wilson fermions two new improvements have been suggested and were shown to yield far better results than standard Wilson fermions concerning lattice artifacts. In the one-dimensional theory Ward Identities were studied.However, supersymmetry violations due to broken supersymmetry could only be detected at coarse lattices and very strong couplings. For the two-dimensional models a detailed analysis of supersymmetric improvement terms was given, both for Wilson and SLAC fermions. (orig.)

  9. Lattice gravity near the continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, G.; Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.; Ren, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    We prove that the lattice gravity always approaches the usual continuum limit when the link length l -> 0, provided that certain general boundary conditions are satisfied. This result holds for any lattice, regular or irregular. Furthermore, for a given lattice, the deviation from its continuum limit can be expressed as a power series in l 2 . General formulas for such a perturbative calculation are given, together with a number of illustrative examples, including the graviton propagator. The lattice gravity satisfies all the invariance properties of Einstein's theory of general relativity. In addition, it is symmetric under a new class of transformations that are absent in the usual continuum theory. The possibility that the lattice theory (with a nonzero l) may be more fundamental is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed.

  11. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed

  12. Interstructure Lattices and Types of Peano Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Quader, Athar

    The collection of elementary substructures of a model of PA forms a lattice, and is referred to as the substructure lattice of the model. In this thesis, we study substructure and interstructure lattices of models of PA. We apply techniques used in studying these lattices to other problems in the model theory of PA. In Chapter 2, we study a problem that had its origin in Simpson ([Sim74]), who used arithmetic forcing to show that every countable model of PA has an expansion to PA* that is pointwise definable. Enayat ([Ena88]) later showed that there are 2N0 models with the property that every expansion to PA* is pointwise definable. In this Chapter, we use techniques involved in representations of lattices to show that there is a model of PA with this property which contains an infinite descending chain of elementary cuts. In Chapter 3, we study the question of when subsets can be coded in elementary end extensions with prescribed interstructure lattices. This problem originated in Gaifman [Gai76], who showed that every model of PA has a conservative, minimal elementary end extension. That is, every model of PA has a minimal elementary end extension which codes only definable sets. Kossak and Paris [KP92] showed that if a model is countable and a subset X can be coded in any elementary end extension, then it can be coded in a minimal extension. Schmerl ([Sch14] and [Sch15]) extended this work by considering which collections of sets can be the sets coded in a minimal elementary end extension. In this Chapter, we extend this work to other lattices. We study two questions: given a countable model M, which sets can be coded in an elementary end extension such that the interstructure lattice is some prescribed finite distributive lattice; and, given an arbitrary model M, which sets can be coded in an elementary end extension whose interstructure lattice is a finite Boolean algebra?

  13. Determination of residual stresses in steel 20 comparison of the results obtained by the Barkhausen noise and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L. M.; Herrera, V.; Suarez, J.C.; Merino, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    During a heat treatment (quenching, surface hardening, Thermochemical treatment) the metallic alloys undergo temperature variations and phase transformation. The resulting changes give rise to internal stresses in the piece. Phase transformation modifies the thermomechanical behavior of the material through the change of mechanical properties ( hardness, fatigue-behaviour, corrosion resistance, electric resistivity, etc.) The aim of this paper is residual stress measurements in specimens of steel-20 submitted to different heat treatment, by two non destructive methods: Barkhausen and X-ray diffraction. Brakhausen Effects utilizes the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials such as ferritic and perlitic steels and provides a practical tool for surface streets evaluation. X-ray streets analysis is based on the measurement of lattice strains in different directions of specimen The results obtained by two techniques are compared, avowing a good agreement

  14. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, Lauren M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d 33 piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m −1 . It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response

  15. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, Lauren M., E-mail: lmg309@psu.edu; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d{sub 33} piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m{sup −1}. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  16. Enhanced flexoelectricity through residual ferroelectricity in barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Lauren M.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Residual ferroelectricity is observed in barium strontium titanate ceramics over 30 °C above the global phase transition temperature, in the same temperature range in which anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients are reported. The application of a strain gradient leads to strain gradient-induced poling or flexoelectric poling. This was observed by the development of a remanent polarization in flexoelectric measurements, an induced d33 piezoelectric response even after the strain gradient was removed, and the production of an internal bias of 9 kV m-1. It is concluded that residual ferroelectric response considerably enhances the observed flexoelectric response.

  17. Vortex lattices in superconducting niobium and skyrmion lattices in chiral MnSi. An investigation by neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlbauer, Sebastian C.

    2009-12-10

    In this thesis, we present a comprehensive small angle neutron scattering study of the vortex lattice (VL) in an ultra-pure Nb single crystal sample, characterized by a residual resistivity ratio of {proportional_to} 10{sup 4}. We systematically investigate the morphology of vortex structures with the magnetic field applied along a four-fold left angle 100 right angle axis. We succeed to deconvolute the general morphology of the VL and its orientation to three dominant mechanisms: First, non-local contributions, second, the transition between open and closed Fermi surface sheets and, third, the intermediate mixed state (IMS) between the Meissner and the Shubnikov phase. We present first time microscopic measurements of the intrinsic bulk VL tilt modulus c{sub 44} by means of time resolved stroboscopic small angle neutron scattering in combination with a tailored magnetic field setup. In our study we find that the VL in Nb responds to an external force - in the form of a changed magnetic field - with an exponential relaxation. As expected, the relaxation process shows increasing VL stiffness with increasing magnetic field and reduced damping with increasing temperature. Besides this general trend, we observe a dramatic changeover of the relaxation process associated with the non-trivial VL morphology in the IMS and the crossover from attractive to repulsive vortex-vortex interaction. Furthermore we use small angle neutron scattering to establish the existence of a skyrmion lattice in the A-phase of MnSi. Due to a parallel alignment of the magnetic field with respect to the neutron beam, we are able to resolve the complete magnetic structure of the A-phase: The structure in the A-phase, reminiscent of a vortex lattice, consists of topological knots of the magnetization with particle-like properties, arranged in a regular six-fold lattice. The orientation of this lattice is strictly driven by the orientation of the applied magnetic field, regardless of the underlying

  18. Vortex lattices in superconducting niobium and skyrmion lattices in chiral MnSi. An investigation by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, Sebastian C.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a comprehensive small angle neutron scattering study of the vortex lattice (VL) in an ultra-pure Nb single crystal sample, characterized by a residual resistivity ratio of ∝ 10 4 . We systematically investigate the morphology of vortex structures with the magnetic field applied along a four-fold left angle 100 right angle axis. We succeed to deconvolute the general morphology of the VL and its orientation to three dominant mechanisms: First, non-local contributions, second, the transition between open and closed Fermi surface sheets and, third, the intermediate mixed state (IMS) between the Meissner and the Shubnikov phase. We present first time microscopic measurements of the intrinsic bulk VL tilt modulus c 44 by means of time resolved stroboscopic small angle neutron scattering in combination with a tailored magnetic field setup. In our study we find that the VL in Nb responds to an external force - in the form of a changed magnetic field - with an exponential relaxation. As expected, the relaxation process shows increasing VL stiffness with increasing magnetic field and reduced damping with increasing temperature. Besides this general trend, we observe a dramatic changeover of the relaxation process associated with the non-trivial VL morphology in the IMS and the crossover from attractive to repulsive vortex-vortex interaction. Furthermore we use small angle neutron scattering to establish the existence of a skyrmion lattice in the A-phase of MnSi. Due to a parallel alignment of the magnetic field with respect to the neutron beam, we are able to resolve the complete magnetic structure of the A-phase: The structure in the A-phase, reminiscent of a vortex lattice, consists of topological knots of the magnetization with particle-like properties, arranged in a regular six-fold lattice. The orientation of this lattice is strictly driven by the orientation of the applied magnetic field, regardless of the underlying crystal symmetry. The

  19. Synthesis and characterization of homogeneous interstitial solutions of nitrogen and carbon in iron-based lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Bastian Klüge

    work in synthesis and characterization of interstitial solutions ofnitrogen and carbon in iron-based lattices. In order to avoid the influences of gradients incomposition and residual stresses, which are typically found in treated surface layers,homogenous samples are needed. These were prepared from...... pure iron or austeniticstainless steel using gaseous mixtures of ammonia, hydrogen, acetylene and propene atelevated temperatures.Structural and magnetic properties have been characterized with neutron diffraction,vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Thermal expansion...

  20. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as “homogeneous holographic lattices." Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities. However, it is not clear whether they are able to capture other lattice effects which are of interest in condensed matter. In this paper we investigate this question focusing our attention on the phenomenon of commensurability, which arises when the lattice scale is tuned to be equal to (an integer multiple of) another momentum scale in the system. We do so by studying the formation of spatially modulated phases in various models of homogeneous holographic lattices. Our results indicate that the onset of the instability is controlled by the near horizon geometry, which for insulating solutions does carry information about the lattice. However, we observe no sharp connection between the characteristic momentum of the broken phase and the lattice pitch, which calls into question the applicability of these models to the physics of commensurability.

  1. 3D Metallic Lattices for Accelerator Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Michael A; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R; Temkin, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of research on 3D metallic lattices operating at microwave frequencies for application in (1) accelerator structures with higher order mode suppression, (2) Smith-Purcell radiation beam diagnostics, and (3) polaritonic materials for laser acceleration. Electromagnetic waves in a 3D simple cubic lattice formed by metal wires are calculated using HFSS. The bulk modes in the lattice are determined using single cell calculations with different phase advances in all three directions. The Brillouin diagram for the bulk modes is presented and indicates the absence of band gaps in simple lattices except the band below the cutoff. Lattices with thin wires as well as with thick wires have been analyzed. The Brillouin diagram also indicates the presence of low frequency 3D plasmon mode as well as the two degenerate photon modes analogous to those in a 2D lattice. Surface modes for a semi-infinite cubic lattice are modeled as a stack of cells with different phase advances in the two directions alon...

  2. Lattice-Based Revocable Certificateless Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hao Hung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless signatures (CLS are noticeable because they may resolve the key escrow problem in ID-based signatures and break away the management problem regarding certificate in conventional signatures. However, the security of the mostly previous CLS schemes relies on the difficulty of solving discrete logarithm or large integer factorization problems. These two problems would be solved by quantum computers in the future so that the signature schemes based on them will also become insecure. For post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography is significant due to its efficiency and security. However, no study on addressing the revocation problem in the existing lattice-based CLS schemes is presented. In this paper, we focus on the revocation issue and present the first revocable CLS (RCLS scheme over lattices. Based on the short integer solution (SIS assumption over lattices, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is shown to be existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attacks. By performance analysis and comparisons, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is better than the previously proposed lattice-based CLS scheme, in terms of private key size, signature length and the revocation mechanism.

  3. On Decompositions of Matrices over Distributive Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let L be a distributive lattice and Mn,q (L(Mn(L, resp. the semigroup (semiring, resp. of n × q (n × n, resp. matrices over L. In this paper, we show that if there is a subdirect embedding from distributive lattice L to the direct product ∏i=1m‍Li of distributive lattices L1,L2, …,Lm, then there will be a corresponding subdirect embedding from the matrix semigroup Mn,q(L (semiring Mn(L, resp. to semigroup ∏i=1m‍Mn,q(Li (semiring ∏i=1m‍Mn(Li, resp.. Further, it is proved that a matrix over a distributive lattice can be decomposed into the sum of matrices over some of its special subchains. This generalizes and extends the decomposition theorems of matrices over finite distributive lattices, chain semirings, fuzzy semirings, and so forth. Finally, as some applications, we present a method to calculate the indices and periods of the matrices over a distributive lattice and characterize the structures of idempotent and nilpotent matrices over it. We translate the characterizations of idempotent and nilpotent matrices over a distributive lattice into the corresponding ones of the binary Boolean cases, which also generalize the corresponding structures of idempotent and nilpotent matrices over general Boolean algebras, chain semirings, fuzzy semirings, and so forth.

  4. Studies of the strain-dependent properties of A15 filamentary conductors at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, T.; Welch, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    Work at BNL pertaining to the strain response of filamentary bronze-processed superconductors is reviewed. This work includes the intrinsic strain dependence of the critical properties of A15 structure compounds, the nature of the initial internal strain state of composite conductors, and the interplay between these residual strains and applied strains which governs the response of the conductor to external strain. Some factors which can enhance the strain tolerances of filamentary conductors are briefly discussed

  5. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  6. Final analysis of the ALS lattice magnet data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.

    1993-05-01

    A preliminary analysis of the measured magnet data of the multipole magnets to be installed in the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring had been given in the last conference of this series. That analysis was based on measurements of about one-third of the entire magnet complement, and some of its findings had to be revised after obtaining more data. The present paper gives an account of the integrated fundamental field strengths of all installed storage ring lattice magnets. For the multipole magnets, these values are listed as analytical expressions with four or five parameters, that cover the entire excitation range and include residual strength. Based on this final analysis, all gradient and quadrupole magnets were qualified for installation, whereas the sextupole magnets had to be individually trimmed to bring their effective fundamental strengths into the desired tolerance band

  7. Coherent collisional spin dynamics in optical lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Artur; Gerbier, Fabrice; Fölling, Simon; Gericke, Tatjana; Mandel, Olaf; Bloch, Immanuel

    2005-11-04

    We report on the observation of coherent, purely collisionally driven spin dynamics of neutral atoms in an optical lattice. For high lattice depths, atom pairs confined to the same lattice site show weakly damped Rabi-type oscillations between two-particle Zeeman states of equal magnetization, induced by spin-changing collisions. Moreover, measurement of the oscillation frequency allows for precise determination of the spin-changing collisional coupling strengths, which are directly related to fundamental scattering lengths describing interatomic collisions at ultracold temperatures.

  8. Construction of Capacity Achieving Lattice Gaussian Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Wael

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new approach to proving results regarding channel coding schemes based on construction-A lattices for the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel that yields new characterizations of the code construction parameters, i.e., the primes and dimensions of the codes, as functions of the block-length. The approach we take introduces an averaging argument that explicitly involves the considered parameters. This averaging argument is applied to a generalized Loeliger ensemble [1] to provide a more practical proof of the existence of AWGN-good lattices, and to characterize suitable parameters for the lattice Gaussian coding scheme proposed by Ling and Belfiore [3].

  9. Measurement Based Quantum Computation on Fractal Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hajdušek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we extend on work which establishes an analology between one-way quantum computation and thermodynamics to see how the former can be performed on fractal lattices. We find fractals lattices of arbitrary dimension greater than one which do all act as good resources for one-way quantum computation, and sets of fractal lattices with dimension greater than one all of which do not. The difference is put down to other topological factors such as ramification and connectivity. This work adds confidence to the analogy and highlights new features to what we require for universal resources for one-way quantum computation.

  10. Topology and symmetries in gyroscopic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Lisa M.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Turner, Ari M.; Irvine, William T. M.

    Mechanical metamaterials - including static frames, coupled pendula, and gyroscopic lattices - can support topologically protected vibrational behavior. In particular, fast-spinning gyroscopes pinned on a honeycomb lattice break time-reversal symmetry and exhibit topologically protected, one-way edge modes. As in electronic systems, symmetries play an important role in determining the topological properties of the material. Here we present the roles of inversion symmetry, local coordination number, and time reversal symmetry on the band topology of gyroscopic metamaterials with several lattice geometries.

  11. Racetrack lattices for the TRIUMF KAON factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servranckx, R.V.; Craddock, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    Separated-function racetrack lattices have been developed for the KAON Factory accelerators that have more flexibility than the old circular lattices. The arcs of the large rings have a regular FODO structure with a superimposed six-fold symmetric modulation of the betafunction in order to raise γ t to infinity. In the small rings, γ t is kept high enough by choosing a sufficiently large phase advance in the arcs. Straight sections with zero dispersion are provided for rf cavities and fast injection and extraction, and with controlled dispersion for H - injection and slow extraction. The ion-optical properties of the lattices and the results from tracking studies are discussed

  12. The η' meson from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, K.; Michael, C.; Urbach, C.

    2008-04-01

    We study the flavour singlet pseudoscalar mesons from first principles using lattice QCD. With N f =2 flavours of light quark, this is the so-called η 2 meson and we discuss the phenomenological status of this. Using maximally twisted-mass lattice QCD, we extract the mass of the η 2 meson at two values of the lattice spacing for lighter quarks than previously discussed in the literature. We are able to estimate the mass value in the limit of light quarks with their physical masses. (orig.)

  13. Continuum methods in lattice perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, Thomas G

    2002-01-01

    We show how methods of continuum perturbation theory can be used to simplify perturbative lattice calculations. We use the technique of asymptotic expansions to expand lattice loop integrals around the continuum limit. After the expansion, all nontrivial dependence on momenta and masses is encoded in continuum loop integrals and the only genuine lattice integrals left are tadpole integrals. Using integration-by-parts relations all of these can be expressed in terms of a small number of master integrals. Four master integrals are needed for bosonic one loop integrals, sixteen in QCD with Wilson or staggered fermions

  14. Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Graphene antidot lattices constitute a novel class of nano-engineered graphene devices with controllable electronic and optical properties. An antidot lattice consists of a periodic array of holes that causes a band gap to open up around the Fermi level, turning graphene from a semimetal...... into a semiconductor. We calculate the electronic band structure of graphene antidot lattices using three numerical approaches with different levels of computational complexity, efficiency and accuracy. Fast finite-element solutions of the Dirac equation capture qualitative features of the band structure, while full...

  15. Optical lattice on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, D.; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2009-01-01

    Optical dipole traps and atom chips are two very powerful tools for the quantum manipulation of neutral atoms. We demonstrate that both methods can be combined by creating an optical lattice potential on an atom chip. A red-detuned laser beam is retroreflected using the atom chip surface as a high......-quality mirror, generating a vertical array of purely optical oblate traps. We transfer thermal atoms from the chip into the lattice and observe cooling into the two-dimensional regime. Using a chip-generated Bose-Einstein condensate, we demonstrate coherent Bloch oscillations in the lattice....

  16. Supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Anosh

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we detail the lattice constructions of several classes of supersymmetric quiver gauge theories in two and three Euclidean spacetime dimensions possessing exact supersymmetry at finite lattice spacing. Such constructions are obtained through the methods of topological twisting and geometric discretization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories with eight and sixteen supercharges in two and three dimensions. We detail the lattice constructions of two-dimensional quiver gauge theories possessing four and eight supercharges and three-dimensional quiver gauge theories possessing eight supercharges.

  17. Dynamical Regge calculus as lattice gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagura, Hiroyuki

    2001-01-01

    We propose a hybrid approach to lattice quantum gravity by combining simultaneously the dynamical triangulation with the Regge calculus, called the dynamical Regge calculus (DRC). In this approach lattice diffeomorphism is realized as an exact symmetry by some hybrid (k, l) moves on the simplicial lattice. Numerical study of 3D pure gravity shows that an entropy of the DRC is not exponetially bounded if we adopt the uniform measure Π i dl i . On the other hand, using the scale-invariant measure Π i dl i /l i , we can calculate observables and observe a large hysteresis between two phases that indicates the first-order nature of the phase transition

  18. Vortex-Peierls States in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, A.A.; Demler, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    We show that vortices, induced in cold atom superfluids in optical lattices, may order in a novel vortex-Peierls ground state. In such a state vortices do not form a simple lattice but arrange themselves in clusters, within which the vortices are partially delocalized, tunneling between classically degenerate configurations. We demonstrate that this exotic quantum many-body state is selected by an order-from-disorder mechanism for a special combination of the vortex filling and lattice geometry that has a macroscopic number of classically degenerate ground states

  19. How to Share a Lattice Trapdoor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendlin, Rikke; Peikert, Chris; Krehbiel, Sara

    2013-01-01

    We develop secure threshold protocols for two important operations in lattice cryptography, namely, generating a hard lattice Λ together with a "strong" trapdoor, and sampling from a discrete Gaussian distribution over a desired coset of Λ using the trapdoor. These are the central operations...... delegation, which is used in lattice-based hierarchical IBE schemes. Our work therefore directly transfers all these systems to the threshold setting. Our protocols provide information-theoretic (i.e., statistical) security against adaptive corruptions in the UC framework, and they are robust against up to ℓ...

  20. Application of model search to lattice theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, M.; Wilkinson, K.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2001-08-01

    We have used the first-order model-searching programs MACE and SEM to study various problems in lattice theory. First, we present a case study in which the two programs are used to examine the differences between the stages along the way from lattice theory to Boolean algebra. Second, we answer several questions posed by Norman Megill and Mladen Pavicic on ortholattices and orthomodular lattices. The questions from Megill and Pavicic arose in their study of quantum logics, which are being investigated in connection with proposed computing devices based on quantum mechanics. Previous questions of a similar nature were answered by McCune and MACE in [2].

  1. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.

  2. Lattice-Like Total Perfect Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A contribution is made to the classification of lattice-like total perfect codes in integer lattices Λn via pairs (G, Φ formed by abelian groups G and homomorphisms Φ: Zn → G. A conjecture is posed that the cited contribution covers all possible cases. A related conjecture on the unfinished work on open problems on lattice-like perfect dominating sets in Λn with induced components that are parallel paths of length > 1 is posed as well.

  3. Lattice-induced modulators at terahertz frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Guillermo A; Peralta, Xomalin G

    2017-12-01

    We measured the transmission spectra of an array of split-ring resonators (SRRs) up to 10 terahertz for parallel and perpendicular polarizations. Calculations of the lattice and plasmon mode dispersion relations, in combination with electromagnetic simulations, confirm the presence of multiple higher-order lattice and plasmon modes. We modify the quality factor of higher-order plasmon resonances by modulating the lattice-plasmon mode coupling via changes in the period of the array. We also propose single frequency switches and a broadband dual-state amplitude modulator based on structured illumination that actively modifies the period of the SRR array.

  4. Group theory and lattice gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1988-09-01

    Lattice gauge theory, formulated in terms of invariant integrals over group elements on lattice bonds, benefits from many group theoretical notions. Gauge invariance provides an enormous symmetry and powerful constraints on expectation values. Strong coupling expansions require invariant integrals over polynomials in group elements, all of which can be evaluated by symmetry considerations. Numerical simulations involve random walks over the group. These walks automatically generate the invariant group measure, avoiding explicit parameterization. A recently proposed overrelaxation algorithm is particularly efficient at exploring the group manifold. These and other applications of group theory to lattice gauge fields are reviewed in this talk. 17 refs

  5. Cold quarks stars from hot lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.; Kaempfer, B.

    2010-01-01

    At small net baryon densities ab initio lattice QCD provides valuable information on the finite-temperature equation of state of strongly interacting matter. Our phenomenological quasiparticle model provides a means to map such lattice results to regions relevant for future heavy-ion experiments at large baryon density; even the cool equation of state can be inferred to address the issue of quark stars. We report on (i) the side conditions (charge neutrality, beta equilibrium) in mapping latest lattice QCD results to large baryon density and (ii) scaling properties of emerging strange quark stars. (author)

  6. Lattice QCD exploration of parton pseudo-distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orginos, Kostas; Radyushkin, Anatoly; Karpie, Joseph; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2017-11-01

    We demonstrate a new method of extracting parton distributions from lattice calculations. The starting idea is to treat the generic equal-time matrix element M (P z3,z32) as a function of the Ioffe time ν =P z3 and the distance z3. The next step is to divide M (P z3,z32) by the rest-frame density M (0 ,z32). Our lattice calculation shows a linear exponential z3-dependence in the rest-frame function, expected from the Z (z32) factor generated by the gauge link. Still, we observe that the ratio M (P z3,z32)/M (0 ,z32) has a Gaussian-type behavior with respect to z3 for 6 values of P used in the calculation. This means that Z (z32) factor was canceled in the ratio. When plotted as a function of ν and z3, the data are very close to z3-independent functions. This phenomenon corresponds to factorization of the x - and k⊥-dependence for the TMD F (x ,k⊥2). For small z3≤4 a , the residual z3-dependence is explained by perturbative evolution, with αs/π =0.1 .

  7. Anderson localization in bipartite lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizio, Michele; Castellani, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    We study the localization properties of a disordered tight-binding Hamiltonian on a generic bipartite lattice close to the band center. By means of a fermionic replica trick method, we derive the effective non-linear σ-model describing the diffusive modes, which we analyse by using the Wilson-Polyakov renormalization group. In addition to the standard parameters which define the non-linear σ-model, namely, the conductance and the external frequency, a new parameter enters, which may be related to the fluctuations of the staggered density of states. We find that, when both the regular hopping and the disorder only couple one sublattice to the other, the quantum corrections to the Kubo conductivity vanish at the band center, thus implying the existence of delocalized states. In two dimensions, the RG equations predict that the conductance flows to a finite value, while both the density of states and the staggered density of states fluctuations diverge. In three dimensions, we find that, sufficiently close to the band center, all states are extended, independently of the disorder strength. We also discuss the role of various symmetry breaking terms, as a regular hopping between same sublattices, or an on-site disorder

  8. Infinitesimal diffeomorfisms on the lattice

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The energy-momentum tensor and local translation Ward identities constitute the essential toolkit to probe the response of a QFT to an infinitesimal change of geometry. This is relevant in a number of contexts. For instance in order to get the thermodynamical equation of state, one wants to study the response of a Euclidean QFT in a finite box to a change in the size of the box. The lattice formulation of QFTs is a prime tool to study their dynamics beyond perturbation theory. However Poincaré invariance is explicitly broken, and is supposed to be recovered only in the continuum limit. Approximate local Ward identities for translations can be defined, by they require some care for two reasons: 1) the energy-momentum tensor needs to be properly defined through a renormalization procedure; 2) the action of infinitesimal local translations (i.e. infinitesimal diffeomorfisms) is ill-defined on local observables. In this talk I will review the issues related to the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor ...

  9. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  10. Essentially Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Mohammad; Kolluru, Praveen Kumar; Thantanapally, Chakradhar; Ansumali, Santosh

    2017-12-01

    The entropic lattice Boltzmann model (ELBM), a discrete space-time kinetic theory for hydrodynamics, ensures nonlinear stability via the discrete time version of the second law of thermodynamics (the H theorem). Compliance with the H theorem is numerically enforced in this methodology and involves a search for the maximal discrete path length corresponding to the zero dissipation state by iteratively solving a nonlinear equation. We demonstrate that an exact solution for the path length can be obtained by assuming a natural criterion of negative entropy change, thereby reducing the problem to solving an inequality. This inequality is solved by creating a new framework for construction of Padé approximants via quadrature on appropriate convex function. This exact solution also resolves the issue of indeterminacy in case of nonexistence of the entropic involution step. Since our formulation is devoid of complex mathematical library functions, the computational cost is drastically reduced. To illustrate this, we have simulated a model setup of flow over the NACA-0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 2.88 ×106.

  11. Anderson localization in bipartite lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizio, M.; Castellani, C.

    2000-04-01

    We study the localization properties of a disordered tight-binding Hamiltonian on a generic bipartite lattice close to the band center. By means of a fermionic replica trick method, we derive the effective non-linear σ-model describing the diffusive modes, which we analyse by using the Wilson-Polyakov renormalization group. In addition to the standard parameters which define the non-linear σ-model, namely the conductance and the external frequency, a new parameter enters, which may be related to the fluctuations of the staggered density of states. We find that, when both the regular hopping and the disorder only couple one sublattice to the other, the quantum corrections to the Kubo conductivity vanish at the band center, thus implying the existence of delocalized states. In two dimensions, the RG equations predict that the conductance flows to a finite value, while both the density of states and the staggered density of states fluctuations diverge. In three dimensions, we find that, sufficiently close to the band center, all states are extended, independently of the disorder strength. We also discuss the role of various symmetry breaking terms, as a regular hopping between same sublattices, or an on-site disorder. (author)

  12. On the reliability of neutron diffraction for residual stress measurement in cold-drawn steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Hervias, J; Atienza, J M; Mompean, F; Hofmann, M

    2011-01-01

    Residual strains were measured in the ferrite phase of pearlitic steel rods along the radial, axial and hoop directions. Two samples with different initial diameters were subjected to one drawing pass (using same drawing parameters) with 20% section reduction and measured in two different neutron diffraction instruments. The results show that the residual strain state is very similar in both cases, regardless of the diameter of the initial rod. This means that the final residual strain-stress state is unique and it is related to the cold-drawing process parameters. In addition, the results show the reliability of strain scanning with different neutron instruments and experimental conditions.

  13. Evaluation of phase stresses of Al sub 2 O sub 3 /YAG binary MGC by synchrotron radiation. Residual stress states and stress behavior of YAG phase

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, H; Akita, K; Yoshioka, Y; Waku, Y

    2003-01-01

    Melt Growth Composite material (MGC) consists of multiple single crystal with fine entangled in three dimensional network structures. The MGCs are thermally stable and have higher creep resistance. Furthermore, the flexural strength at room temperature can be maintained almost up to the melting point. In this study, in order to discuss the generation mechanism of residual stress in an Al sub 2 O sub 3 /Y sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 1 sub 2 (YAG) binary MGC, the residual stresses of YAG phase were measured by X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. We used a method for stress determination of single crystal by using a position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) system and a specimen-oscillating device. Lattice strains of left brace 4 6 10 right brace in the YAG phase were measured. The residual stresses were from 40 to 120 MPa in tension in the longitudinal direction which corresponds to the solidification direction, 80MPa in compression in the thickness direction, and 70MPa in tension in the width direction. Si...

  14. Stability analysis of a new lattice hydrodynamic model by considering lattice's self-anticipative density effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Liu, Hui; Chen, Dong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a new lattice hydrodynamic model with consideration of the density difference of a lattice's current density and its anticipative density is proposed. The influence of lattice's self-anticipative density on traffic stability is revealed through linear stability theory and it shows that lattice's self-anticipative density can improve the stability of traffic flow. To describe the phase transition of traffic flow, the mKdV equation near the critical point is derived by using nonlinear analysis method. The propagating behavior of density wave in the unstable region can be described by the kink-antikink soliton of the mKdV equation. Numerical simulation validates the analytical results, which shows that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering lattice's self-anticipative density in the modified lattice hydrodynamic model.

  15. Full in-plane strain tensor analysis using the microscale ring-core FIB milling and DIC approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Alexander J. G.; Salvati, Enrico; Ma, Lifeng; Dolbyna, Igor P.; Neo, Tee K.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2016-09-01

    Microscale Full In-plane Strain Tensor (FIST) analysis is crucial for improving understanding of residual stress and mechanical failure in many applications. This study outlines the first Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) based technique capable of performing precise, reliable and rapid quantification of this behaviour. The nature of semi-destructive FIB milling overcomes the main limitations of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) strain tensor quantification: unstrained lattice parameter estimates are not required, analysis is performed in within a precisely defined 3D microscale volume, both amorphous and crystalline materials can be studied and access to X-ray/neutron facilities is not required. The FIST FIB milling and DIC experimental technique is based on extending the ring-core milling geometry to quantify the strain variation with angle and therefore benefits from the excellent precision and simple analytical approach associated with this method. In this study in-plane strain analysis was performed on sample of commercial interest: a porcelain veneered Yttria Partially Stabilised Zirconia (YPSZ) dental prosthesis, and was compared with the results of XRD. The two methods sample different gauge volumes and mechanical states: approximately plane stress for ring-core milling, and a through-thickness average for XRD. We demonstrate using complex analysis methods and Finite Element (FE) modelling that valid comparisons can be drawn between these two stress states. Excellent agreement was obtained between principal stress orientation and magnitudes, leading to realistic residual stress estimates that agree well with the literature (σAv ≈ 460 MPa) . As a measure of validity of the matching approach we report the upper and lower bounds on the (101) interplanar spacing of YPSZ that are found to correspond to the range 2.9586 - 2.9596 Å , closely matching published values.

  16. Annealing effect of H+ -implanted single crystal silicon on strain and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duo Xinzhong; Liu Weili; Zhang Miao; Gao Jianxia; Fu Xiaorong; Lin Chenglu

    2000-01-01

    The work focuses on the rocking curves of H + -implanted single silicon crystal detected by Four-Crystal X-ray diffractometer. The samples were annealed under different temperatures. Lattice defect in H + -implanted silicon crystals was detected by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. It appeared that H-related complex did not crush until annealing temperature reached about 400 degree C. At that temperature H 2 was formed, deflated in silicon lattice and strained the lattice. But defects did not come into being in large quantity. The lattice was undamaged. When annealing temperature reached 500 degree C, strain induced by H 2 deflation crashed the silicon lattice. A large number of defects were formed. At the same time bubbles in the crystal and blister/flaking on the surface could be observed

  17. Link fermions in Euclidean lattice gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, R.; Giles, R.; Maturana, G.

    1984-02-15

    The representation of the Wilson lattice fermion propagator as a sum over classical particle trajectories is discussed. A simple generalization of this path sum leads to an extended set of fermion theories characterized by one (or more) additional parameters. Such theories are nonlocal when written in terms of the usual four-component Dirac field. They are more naturally characterized by a local action functional whose degrees of freedom are those of a set of two-component Fermi fields defined on directed links of the lattice. Such lattice fields correspond to the direct product of a four-vector and Dirac spinor. For a suitable choice of parameters, the extended fermion theory offers a precocious approach to the continuum dispersion relation as the lattice spacing goes to zero and is therefore of interest for numerical studies of QCD.

  18. Renormalization transformation of periodic and aperiodic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macia, Enrique; Rodriguez-Oliveros, Rogelio

    2006-01-01

    In this work we introduce a similarity transformation acting on transfer matrices describing the propagation of elementary excitations through either periodic or Fibonacci lattices. The proposed transformation can act at two different scale lengths. At the atomic scale the transformation allows one to express the systems' global transfer matrix in terms of an equivalent on-site model one. Correlation effects among different hopping terms are described by a series of local phase factors in that case. When acting on larger scale lengths, corresponding to short segments of the original lattice, the similarity transformation can be properly regarded as describing an effective renormalization of the chain. The nature of the resulting renormalized lattice significantly depends on the kind of order (i.e., periodic or quasiperiodic) of the original lattice, expressing a delicate balance between chemical complexity and topological order as a consequence of the renormalization process

  19. Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1962-03-01

    Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)

  20. Benchmarking computer platforms for lattice QCD applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenbusch, M.; Jansen, K.; Pleiter, D.; Wegner, P.; Wettig, T.

    2003-09-01

    We define a benchmark suite for lattice QCD and report on benchmark results from several computer platforms. The platforms considered are apeNEXT, CRAY T3E, Hitachi SR8000, IBM p690, PC-Clusters, and QCDOC. (orig.)