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Sample records for residual garnet signature

  1. Synthesis of garnet/perovskite-based ceramic for the immobilization of Pu-residue wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burakov, B.E.; Anderson, E.B.; Knecht, D.A.; Zamoryanskaya, M.A.; Strykanova, E.E.; Yagovkina, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    The use of garnet/perovskite-based ceramic, with formula type (Y, Gd,hor e llipsis) 3 (Al,Ga,hor e llipsis) 5 O 12 /(Y,Gd,hor e llipsis)(Al,Ga, hor e llipsis)O 3 , was tested for immobilizing plutonium residue wastes. Pu residue wastes originate from nuclear weapons production and can contain more than 50% of impurities including such elements as Am, Al, Mg, Ga, Fe, K, La, Na, Mo, Nd, Si, Ta, Ce, Ba, B, W, Zn, Zr, C and Cl. While for some of these residues, direct conversion to typical glass or ceramic forms may be difficult, ceramic forms based on durable actinide host-phases are preferred for Pu, Am and other actinides immobilization. Garnet/perovskite crystalline host-phases are chemically and mechanically durable and desirable for the incorporation of Pu and most of the impurity elements in the Pu residue wastes in the lattices of host-phases in the form of solid solutions. Experiments on the synthesis of garnet/perovskite ceramic samples were carried out using melting in air at temperatures from 1,300 C (for samples doped with 10 wt.% Pu residue waste simulant) to 2,000 C (for samples doped with 10 wt.% Ce or U). Samples were studied by XRD, SEM and cathodoluminescence techniques. It was found that the garnet phase can incorporate up to 6 wt.% Ce and up to 4.0--5.5 wt.% U, which is correlated with the increase of Ga content and decrease of Al content in the melt. In one of the features of the melt, the perovskite phase formation substitutes for the formation of garnet. The capacity of the perovskite lattice to accommodate Ce and U is higher than the capacity of garnet, reaching about 8 and 7 wt.%, respectively. It was shown that cathodoluminescence can be effectively used to determine the valence state of Ce and U, an important step to optimize the starting precursor preparation. In case of U 4+ in the melt, the charge-compensating elements (Sn 2+ , Ca 2+ hor e llipsis) are needed to successfully incorporate U in the garnet lattice

  2. Identification of chemical signatures of gunshot residues in different fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Joao Carlos Dias de

    2010-01-01

    The modern forensic science goes hand in hand with scientific research. The forensic scientists are faced every day with many cases requiring the analysis of residues from firing gun (gunshot residues). This works describes the development of a methodology to determine chemical signatures of shots from a firearm, by measuring the concentrations of Pb, Ba e Sb in the residues from these shots deposited near the entrance hole of bullets, based on the technique with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). Shots were performed on five types of target-fabrics and collected testimonies from regions close to the entrance hole of projectiles. The results showed that the method enabled us to identify and distinguish the residues of the .38 caliber revolver and pistols .40 and 9mm caliber. The use of ternary graphs as a tool for data analysis helped to identify specific patterns of distribution of blank samples and gunshot residues deposited after firing revolvers and pistols. The methodology enabled the assignment of the origin of the shot through the confirmation of the residues collected also from the hands of shooters. As a result the methodology in police procedures and aims to add a valuable contribution to forensic investigations. (author)

  3. Industrial garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  4. Quantification of Residual Stress from Photonic Signatures of Fused Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Hayward, Maurice; Yost, William E.

    2013-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 +/- 0.54 x 10(exp -12)/Pa. Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA's Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented. Keywords: Glass, fused silica, photoelasticity, residual stress

  5. Quantification of residual stress from photonic signatures of fused silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.; Hayward, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    A commercially available grey-field polariscope (GFP) instrument for photoelastic examination is used to assess impact damage inflicted upon the outer-most pane of Space Shuttle windows made from fused silica. A method and apparatus for calibration of the stress-optic coefficient using four-point bending is discussed. The results are validated on known material (acrylic) and are found to agree with literature values to within 6%. The calibration procedure is then applied to fused-silica specimens and the stress-optic coefficient is determined to be 2.43 ± 0.54 × 10 −12 Pa −1 . Fused silica specimens containing impacts artificially made at NASA’s Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HIT-F), to simulate damage typical during space flight, are examined. The damage sites are cored from fused silica window carcasses and examined with the GFP. The calibrated GFP measurements of residual stress patterns surrounding the damage sites are presented

  6. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  7. ScanProsite: detection of PROSITE signature matches and ProRule-associated functional and structural residues in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Edouard; Sigrist, Christian J A; Gattiker, Alexandre; Bulliard, Virginie; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos; Hulo, Nicolas

    2006-07-01

    ScanProsite--http://www.expasy.org/tools/scanprosite/--is a new and improved version of the web-based tool for detecting PROSITE signature matches in protein sequences. For a number of PROSITE profiles, the tool now makes use of ProRules--context-dependent annotation templates--to detect functional and structural intra-domain residues. The detection of those features enhances the power of function prediction based on profiles. Both user-defined sequences and sequences from the UniProt Knowledgebase can be matched against custom patterns, or against PROSITE signatures. To improve response times, matches of sequences from UniProtKB against PROSITE signatures are now retrieved from a pre-computed match database. Several output modes are available including simple text views and a rich mode providing an interactive match and feature viewer with a graphical representation of results.

  8. Garnet compositions and their use as indicators of peraluminous granitoid petrogenesis - southeastern Arabian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Garnet, an uncommon accessory mineral in igneous rocks, occurs in seven small peraluminous granitoid plutons in the southeastern Arabian Shield; textural equilibrium between garnet and other host granitoid minerals indicates that the garnets crystallized from their host magmas. Compositions of the garnets form three groups that reflect host-granitoid compositions, which in turn reflect source compositions and tectonic regimes in which the host magmas were generated. Garnets from the seven plutons have almandine-rich cores and spessartine-rich rims. This reverse zoning depicts host magma compositional evolution; i.e. rimward spessartine enrichment resulted from progressive, host-magma manganese enrichment. The garnets are heavy rare-earth element enriched; (Lu/La)N ranges from 13 to 355 and one of the garnets contains spectacularly elevated abundances of Y, Ta, Th, U, Zn, Zr, Hf, Sn, and Nb. Involvement of garnets with these trace element characteristics in magma genesis or evolution can have dramatic effects on trace element signatures of the resulting magmas. Other researchers suggest that Mn-enriched magmas are most conducive to garnet nucleation. Although the garnetiferous granitoids discussed here are slightly Mn enriched, other genetically similar peraluminous Arabian granitoids lack garnet; Mn enrichment alone does not guarantee garnet nucleation. The presence of excess alumina in the magma may be a prerequisite for garnet nucleation. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Perovskites and garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, C.P.; Wang, F.F.Y.

    1976-01-01

    The preparation and properties of perovskites and garnets are reviewed. Data and information are presented on crystal chemistry, crystal structure, phase equilibria, electrical properties, optical properties, and mechanical properties. (JRD)

  10. Garnets from the Camafuca-Camazambo kimberlite (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Eugénio A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a geochemical study of a set of garnets, selected by their colors, from the Camafuca-Camazambo kimberlite, located on northeast Angola. Mantle-derived garnets were classified according to the scheme proposed by Grütter et al. (2004 and belong to the G1, G4, G9 and G10 groups. Both sub-calcic (G10 and Ca-saturated (G9 garnets, typical, respectively, of harzburgites and lherzolites, were identified. The solubility limit of knorringite molecule in G10D garnets suggests they have crystallized at a minimum pressure of about 40 to 45 kbar (4-4.5 GPa. The occurrence of diamond stability field garnets (G10D is a clear indicator of the potential of this kimberlite for diamond. The chemistry of the garnets suggests that the source for the kimberlite was a lherzolite that has suffered a partial melting that formed basaltic magma, leaving a harzburgite as a residue.

  11. An Enhanced Cosmological Li6 Abundance as a Potential Signature of Residual Dark Matter Annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A; Spanos, Vassilis C

    2011-01-01

    Residual late-time dark matter particle annihilations during and after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) may alter the predicted cosmological abundances of the light elements. Within the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (the CMSSM) with a neutralino LSP, we find negligible effects on the abundances of Deuterium, He3, He4 and Li7 predicted by homogeneous BBN, but potentially a large enhancement in the predicted abundance of Li6. This enhancement may be as much as two orders of magnitude in the focus-point WMAP strip and in the coannihilation and funnel regions for large tan beta for small m_{1/2}, and the effect is still significant at large m_{1/2}. However, the potential Li6 enhancement is negligible in the part of the coannihilation strip for tan beta = 10 that survives the latest LHC constraints. A similar enhancement of the \\li6 abundance may also be found in a model with common, non-universal Higgs masses (the NUHM1).

  12. Subduction of shallowly formed arc cumulates: Evidence from clinopyroxene compositions of garnet peridotites in the Rio San Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K.; Tubrett, M.; Saumur, B.-M.; Guillot, S.

    2009-04-01

    Garnet peridotites are very rare in oceanic subduction complexes, with only two reported occurrences. One is in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt in Shikoku, Japan, and the other example is in the southern part of the Rio Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic. In both locations, garnet peridotite occurs in close association with eclogites in high metamorphic grade of the terranes. The Rio Juan Complex represents rocks formed during the southwestern subduction of the Proto-Caribbean oceanic plate below the Carribean Plate during late Cretaceous to early Eocene. Garnet peridotites (clinopyroxene[Cpx]-bearing dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite) occur as large (The rocks are all low in Ir-group PGE (Ir, Ru, Os), indicating that they are cumulates of a melt, since these remain in the residue during partial melting. A cumulate origin of the ultramafic rocks is consistent with relatively low Mg contents of olivine (Fo 74-83) compared to olivine in mantle peridotites. Extended trace element plots of the bulk rocks show a so-called "arc geochemical signature" with high fluid-mobile element concentrations, such as Sr, U, and Pb, and low HFSE, such as Nb and Zr, indicating that formation of the parental magmas were related to subduction. Two representative garnet-bearing samples (wehrlite and clinopyroxenite) were selected for trace element analysis of Cpx grains using a LA HR ICP-MS. The data show a negatively sloped normalized pattern of REE; low contents of light REE (0.1-0.3 of the primitive mantle values) and similar concentrations of middle to heavy REE (1-2 of the primitive mantle values). Extended trace element patterns of Cpx are similar between two samples and also to that of the bulk rocks, with low Nb and Zr and high fluid-mobile elements. The Y and heavy REE patterns of Cpx do not show anomalies between the samples. As these elements would be preferentially incorporated into garnet, the lack of anomalies indicates early crystallization of Cpx and later

  13. Identification of chemical signatures of gunshot residues in different fabrics; Identificacao de assinaturas quimicas em residuos de disparos de arma de fogo em diferentes alvos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Joao Carlos Dias de

    2010-07-01

    The modern forensic science goes hand in hand with scientific research. The forensic scientists are faced every day with many cases requiring the analysis of residues from firing gun (gunshot residues). This works describes the development of a methodology to determine chemical signatures of shots from a firearm, by measuring the concentrations of Pb, Ba e Sb in the residues from these shots deposited near the entrance hole of bullets, based on the technique with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). Shots were performed on five types of target-fabrics and collected testimonies from regions close to the entrance hole of projectiles. The results showed that the method enabled us to identify and distinguish the residues of the .38 caliber revolver and pistols .40 and 9mm caliber. The use of ternary graphs as a tool for data analysis helped to identify specific patterns of distribution of blank samples and gunshot residues deposited after firing revolvers and pistols. The methodology enabled the assignment of the origin of the shot through the confirmation of the residues collected also from the hands of shooters. As a result the methodology in police procedures and aims to add a valuable contribution to forensic investigations. (author)

  14. Mineral resource of the month: garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald W.

    2011-01-01

    Garnet, the birthstone for the month of January, has been used as a gemstone for centuries. Garnet necklaces dating from the Bronze Age have been found in graves, and garnet is found among the ornaments adorning the oldest Egyptian mummies. However, garnet’s characteristics, such as its relatively high hardness and chemical inertness, make it ideal for many industrial applications.

  15. Rare earth element characteristics of pyrope garnets from the Kaavi-Kuopio kimberlites – implications for mantle metasomatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaleena Lehtonen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Peridotitic garnet xenocrysts from five kimberlite pipes in the Kaavi-Kuopio area of eastern Finland have been studied using major and trace element geochemistry to obtain information on the stratigraphy, compositional variability and evolutionary history of the underlyinglithospheric mantle. Ni thermometry on garnet xenocrysts gives 650–1350°C and, when extrapolated to the geotherm determined using mantle xenoliths, indicates a sampling interval of c. 80–230 km. Three distinct mantle layers are recognized based on the xenolith/xenocryst record: (1 A shallow, 180 km, composed largely of fertile material. The chondrite-normalized REE profiles of subcalcic harzburgitic garnet xenocrysts originating from layer 2 bear evidence of an extensive ancient melt extraction event, similar to that observed in lithosphere underlying Archean cratons elsewhere. Memory of this eventhas possibly also been preserved in the REEN signatures of rare depleted garnets from layer 3 and in the CCGE pyropes from layer 1 despite their saturation in Ca. The lherzolitic and megacryst garnet varieties exhibit LREEN depletion relative to MREEN and HREEN, withthe steady enrichment from SmN to YbN typical of Ca-saturated mantle garnets. The enrichment of MREE and HREE probably derives from a metasomatic event caused by silicate melts close in composition to megacryst magma, which also imprinted a Ti-metasomatic overprint on many pyrope garnets. Harzburgitic and rare lherzolitic garnets, however, appear to have escaped this metasomatism.

  16. Chapter L: U.S. Industrial Garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James G.; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2006-01-01

    The United States presently consumes about 16 percent of global production of industrial garnet for use in abrasive airblasting, abrasive coatings, filtration media, waterjet cutting, and grinding. As of 2005, domestic garnet production has decreased from a high of 74,000 t in 1998, and imports have increased to the extent that as much as 60 percent of the garnet used in the United States in 2003 was imported, mainly from India, China, and Australia; Canada joined the list of suppliers in 2005. The principal type of garnet used is almandite (almandine), because of its specific gravity and hardness; andradite is also extensively used, although it is not as hard or dense as almandite. Most industrial-grade garnet is obtained from gneiss, amphibolite, schist, skarn, and igneous rocks and from alluvium derived from weathering and erosion of these rocks. Garnet mines and occurrences are located in 21 States, but the only presently active (2006) mines are in northern Idaho (garnet placers; one mine), southeastern Montana (garnet placers; one mine), and eastern New York (unweathered bedrock; two mines). In Idaho, garnet is mined from Tertiary and (or) Quaternary sedimentary deposits adjacent to garnetiferous metapelites that are correlated with the Wallace Formation of the Proterozoic Belt Supergroup. In New York, garnet is mined from crystalline rocks of the Adirondack Mountains that are part of the Proterozoic Grenville province, and from the southern Taconic Range that is part of the northern Appalachian Mountains. In Montana, sources of garnet in placers include amphibolite, mica schist, and gneiss of Archean age and younger granite. Two mines that were active in the recent past in southwestern Montana produced garnet from gold dredge tailings and saprolite. In this report, we review the history of garnet mining and production and describe some garnet occurrences in most of the Eastern States along the Appalachian Mountains and in some of the Western States where

  17. Residual expression of reprogramming factors affects the transcriptional program and epigenetic signatures of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Sommer

    Full Text Available Delivery of the transcription factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and c-Myc via integrating viral vectors has been widely employed to generate induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC lines from both normal and disease-specific somatic tissues, providing an invaluable resource for medical research and drug development. Residual reprogramming transgene expression from integrated viruses nevertheless alters the biological properties of iPSCs and has been associated with a reduced developmental competence both in vivo and in vitro. We performed transcriptional profiling of mouse iPSC lines before and after excision of a polycistronic lentiviral reprogramming vector to systematically define the overall impact of persistent transgene expression on the molecular features of iPSCs. We demonstrate that residual expression of the Yamanaka factors prevents iPSCs from acquiring the transcriptional program exhibited by embryonic stem cells (ESCs and that the expression profiles of iPSCs generated with and without c-Myc are indistinguishable. After vector excision, we find 36% of iPSC clones show normal methylation of the Gtl2 region, an imprinted locus that marks ESC-equivalent iPSC lines. Furthermore, we show that the reprogramming factor Klf4 binds to the promoter region of Gtl2. Regardless of Gtl2 methylation status, we find similar endodermal and hepatocyte differentiation potential comparing syngeneic Gtl2(ON vs Gtl2(OFF iPSC clones. Our findings provide new insights into the reprogramming process and emphasize the importance of generating iPSCs free of any residual transgene expression.

  18. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  19. Garnet peridotite found in the Greater Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Richard N., Jr.; Draper, Grenville; Keshav, Shantanu

    Although Alpine peridotites are relatively common in collisional orogenic zones, garnet-bearing peridotites are rare and only associated with high pressure/ultra-high pressure or temperature (HP/UHP or T) terranes [Brueckner and Medaris, 2000; Medaris, 1999]. Until recently all reported occurrences of Alpine-type garnet peridotites and HP/UHP terranes were in Eurasia and Africa, with one occurrence in the Seward Peninsula, Alaska [Till, 1981;Lieberman and Till, 1987]. Now a new Alpine-type garnet peridotite locality has been discovered in the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. This discovery is the second of its kind in the Americas.

  20. Compositional trends among Kaapvaal Craton garnet peridotite xenoliths and their effects on seismic velocity and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt, Derek; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    garnet and clinopyroxene enrichment. Using the parameterization of Schutt and Lesher (2006) we show that at cratonic mantle temperatures and pressures, orthopyroxene enrichment results in little change in bulk density (ρbulk) and shear-wave velocity (VS), but decreases compressional wave velocities (VP......We examine the modes and compositions of garnet-bearing peridotite xenoliths from the Kaapvaal Craton to quantify factors governing density and seismic velocity variations within metasomatically altered cratonic mantle. Three distinct compositional trends are resolved by principal component...... analysis. The first reflects differences in residue composition resulting from partial melting. The second is associated with orthopyroxene (opx) enrichment, possibly due to silica addition by subduction zone fluids in the source region of the xenoliths. The third principal component reflects garnet...

  1. Garnet ships in a quartzite sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowitz, Anna; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard; Huet, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    During progressive deformation, a strong inclusion in a weaker matrix causes a stress concentration that may result in strain localization, seen in a matrix grain-size reduction. A superb example of this phenomena, but rather more complex, has been observed in north Norwegian Caledonides. A probably subvertical metadolerite dyke has been rotated to lie parallel to the penetrative regional low-angled foliation during the emplacement of the overlying nappe. The metadolerite, now only ~1.4 cm thick and lying between two quartzite layers has been retrogressed to a biotite schist with an assemblage of biotite, titanite, epidote group, garnet and quartz. Garnets are from 0.2 mm to 4 cm in size, subhedral and have two growth zones, with inclusions of predominantly titanite and rare amphibole. The country-rock metasedimentary schists contain staurolite, indicating mid-amphibolite-facies conditions (~550 °C and 6 kbar). During late deformation, some garnets were forced into the quartzite, resulting in the development of pronounced gouges (tectoglyphs), up to 70 mm long, 14 mm wide and 14 mm deep, deepening in the direction of movement. Quartz was pushed up at the sides of the gouges and forms a pronounced bow-wave at the front of the garnets. Where garnets are gouged into the quartzite, intense strain localization occurs. Both in front of and under the garnet, a up to 18 mm wide zone of quartz mylonite developed. The mylonitic foliation curves around the garnet, with a relatively sharp boundary to the adjacent quartzite that preserves an older random fabric. Deformation in the mylonite, which shows a strong crystallographic preferred orientation, seems to have occurred by (1) intense dislocation glide followed by (2) subgrain rotation resulting in an almost foam-like fabric. The grain size of the mylonite (at the quartzite-biotite schist interface) increases with increasing distance behind the present position of the garnets. This observation is consistent with an expected

  2. Skarn formation and trace elements in garnet and associated minerals from Zhibula copper deposit, Gangdese Belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Zheng, Youye; Sun, Xiang; Wade, Benjamin P.

    2016-10-01

    . Molybdenum, W, and Sn display excellent co-correlation and shared zonation patterns on LA-ICP-MS maps of garnet, indicating substitution in the crystal lattice. As well as assisting in interpreting skarn evolution in time and space, and providing constraints on ore genesis, the trace element data for garnet explain the range of colours observed. The discovery of garnets carrying significant concentrations of W, Sn and Mo is a valuable finding that deserves evaluation in post-collisional skarns elsewhere, and is potentially of critical significance in prospecting. Together with a conspicuous trace ore mineral signature, garnet compositions at Zhibula support a genetic connection and sharing of ore-forming fluids between the skarn and the Qulong porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, 2 km to the north. Within the Gangdese belt, or in analogous settings elsewhere, the presence of deep-seated porphyry mineralization beneath exposed skarns could be tested for by studying garnet chemistry. As more data become available, such trace element signatures could be viable tools for distinguishing barren from mineralized skarn systems.

  3. Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of doped yttrium iron garnet films on yttrium aluminium garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sposito, A., E-mail: as11g10@orc.soton.ac.uk; Eason, R. W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gregory, S. A.; Groot, P. A. J. de [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-07

    We investigate the crystalline growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films doped with bismuth (Bi) and cerium (Ce) by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition, co-ablating a YIG target and either a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a CeO{sub 2} target, for applications in microwave and optical communications. Substrate temperature is critical for crystalline growth of YIG with simultaneous inclusion of Bi in the garnet lattice, whereas Ce is not incorporated in the garnet structure, but forms a separate CeO{sub 2} phase.

  4. Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of doped yttrium iron garnet films on yttrium aluminium garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposito, A.; Eason, R. W.; Gregory, S. A.; Groot, P. A. J. de

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the crystalline growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films doped with bismuth (Bi) and cerium (Ce) by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition, co-ablating a YIG target and either a Bi 2 O 3 or a CeO 2 target, for applications in microwave and optical communications. Substrate temperature is critical for crystalline growth of YIG with simultaneous inclusion of Bi in the garnet lattice, whereas Ce is not incorporated in the garnet structure, but forms a separate CeO 2 phase

  5. Systematic hardness measurements on some rare earth garnet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Microhardness measurements were undertaken on twelve rare earth garnet crystals. In yttrium aluminium garnet and gadolinium ... syan (1997) has quoted a single value for Gd3Sc2Ga3O12. In the present study measurements have ... small and within the limits of experimental error. There- fore, where pure garnet crystals ...

  6. Quantifying garnet-melt trace element partitioning using lattice-strain theory: New crystal-chemical and thermodynamic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westrenen, W.; Draper, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    Many geochemical models of major igneous differentiation events on the Earth, the Moon, and Mars invoke the presence of garnet or its high-pressure majoritic equivalent as a residual phase, based on its ability to fractionate critical trace element pairs (Lu/Hf, U/Th, heavy REE/light REE). As a

  7. Optical properties of pure and Ce3+ doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystals and epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvorotka, I.I.; Sugak, D.; Wierzbicka, A.; Wittlin, A.; Przybylińska, H.; Barzowska, J.; Barcz, A.; Berkowski, M.; Domagała, J.; Mahlik, S.; Grinberg, M.; Ma, Chong-Geng

    2015-01-01

    Results of X-ray diffraction and low temperature optical absorption measurements of cerium doped gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals and epitaxial layers are reported. In the region of intra-configurational 4f–4f transitions the spectra of the bulk crystals exhibit the signatures of several different Ce 3+ related centers. Apart from the dominant center, associated with Ce substituting gadolinium, at least three other centers are found, some of them attributed to the so-called antisite locations of rare-earth ions in the garnet host, i.e., in the Ga positions. X-ray diffraction data prove lattice expansion of bulk GGG crystals due to the presence of rare-earth antisites. The concentration of the additional Ce-related centers in epitaxial layers is much lower than in the bulk crystals. However, the Ce-doped layers incorporate a large amount of Pb from flux, which is the most probable source of nonradiative quenching of Ce luminescence, not observed in crystals grown by the Czochralski method. - Highlights: • Ce 3+ multicenters found in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet crystals and epitaxial layers. • High quality epitaxial layers of pure and Ce-doped GGG were grown. • Luminescence quenching of Ce 3+ by Pb ions from flux detected in GGG epitaxial layers. • X-ray diffraction allows measuring the amount of the rare-earth antisites in GGG

  8. Super-Si garnet exsolution kinetics denotes multistage mantle exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Dirk; Nishihara, Yu; Fujino, Kiyoshi

    2013-04-01

    Previous decompression experiments have shown that super-Si garnet decomposes to normal garnet + pyroxene, which supports that natural analogues (found in mantle xenoliths, diamond inclusions, peridotite massifs) record up to several hundreds of kilometre exhumation, all proposed to apply to contrasting geological scenarios including mantle convection, kimberlite magmatism and plate tectonics. To verify this proposition we used glass powder with a 'pyrolite minus olivine' composition for polycrystalline dry super-Si garnet synthesis (18 GPa, 1600 °C, 2 1/3 h) and subsequent decompression (10 GPa, 1450 °C, 0-12 h). All samples recovered after decompression share a coronitic texture of new grains of garnet + pyroxene that surround relic super-Si garnet. Quantified XRD spectra show transformed volumes are similar, ~40 %, that mark a rapid decrease of the transformation rate within the first minutes of the decompression runs. Fitted kinetic data does not fulfil conditions for steady nucleation and growth. The Tschermak's component of corona clinopyroxene is four times higher than that of equilibrium clinopyroxene synthesised along with each decompression experiment. Element concentration profiles (TEM EDS) and element mapping (FE-SEM EDS) across the corona microstructure show steep but discontinuous Al concentration gradients at both relic and corona garnet grain margins. Transformation rate and mineral chemistry suggest that volume diffusion (1) exceeds decompression induced initial partial breakdown of super-Si garnet and (2) will be rate limiting for exsolution to reach equilibrium. Modelled Si-Al and Si-Al-Mg interdiffusion in garnet at different water contents in combination with geological cooling rates suggests that diffusion distances exceed metamorphic garnet grain sizes of ≤1 cm within the amphibolit facies, unless dry conditions apply. In contrast, mantle garnet of 1-2 cm in size may allow for up to two types of pyroxene precipitiation, depending on the

  9. Nonlinear FMR spectra in yttrium iron garnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Bunkov, P.M. Vetoshko, I.G. Motygullin, T.R. Safin, M.S. Tagirov, N.A. Tukmakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of demagnetizing effect studies in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 thin films are reported. Experiments were performed on X-Band of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at room temperature. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR spectra were obtained for one-layer single crystal YIG films for different values of the applied microwave power. Nonlinear FMR spectra transformation by the microwave power increasing in various directions of magnetic field sweep was observed. It is explained by the influence of the demagnetization action of nonequilibrium magnons.

  10. Garnet-sillimanite bearing gneisses from Darjeeling, eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Textural relationship suggests sequential growth of progressively higher-grade metamorphic minerals during D1 and D2 deformation. The relative XMg in the minerals varies in the order: biotite>staurolite>garnet, and the XMn decreases in the order: garnet>staurolite>biotite. The P–T evolution of these garnetsillimanite ...

  11. Systematic hardness measurements on some rare earth garnet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    small and within the limits of experimental error. There- fore, where pure garnet crystals are not available for measurement, we may consider the hardness values. Table 1. Description of the rare earth garnet samples. Sample no. Formula. Short symbol. Purity. Colour. Shape of plate Origin. 1. Gd3Ga5O12. GGG. Pure.

  12. Chemistry and mineralogy of garnet pyroxenites from Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B.A.

    1974-01-01

    Garnet pyroxenites and corundum-garnet amphibolites from the Dent peninsula of eastern Sabah (North Borneo) occur as blocks in a slump breccia deposit of late Miocene age. The earliest formed minerals include pyrope-almandine garnet, tschermakitic augite, pargasite, and rutile. Cumulate textures are present in two of the six specimens studied. The earlier fabric has been extensively brecciated and partly replaced by plagioclase, ilmenite, and a fibrous amphibole. The bulk composition and mineralogy of these rocks are similar to those of garnet pyroxenite lenses within ultramafic rocks. Estimated temperature and pressure for the origin of the Sabah garnet pyroxenites is 850??150?? C and 19??4 kbar. ?? 1974 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet ablative laser treatment for endogenous ochronosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Huilgol, Shyamala C

    2015-08-01

    Ochronosis is a rare disease characterised clinically by bluish-grey skin discolouration and histologically by yellow-brown pigment deposits in the dermis. It occurs in endogenous and exogenous forms. Endogenous ochronosis, also known as alkaptonuria, is an autosomal recessive disease of tyrosine metabolism, resulting in the accumulation and deposition of homogentisic acid in connective tissue. We report a case of facial endogenous ochronosis and coexistent photodamage, which was successfully treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser resurfacing and deep focal point treatment to remove areas of residual deep pigment. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Garnet peridotites from Pohorje: Petrography, geothermobarometry and metamorphic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Vrabec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP metamorphism has been recorded in Eo-Alpine garnet peridotites from the PohorjeMts., Slovenia, belonging to the Eastern Alps. The garnet peridotite bodies are found within serpentinized metaultrabasitesin the SE edge of Pohorje and are closely associated with UHP kyanite eclogites. These rocks belongto the Lower Central Austroalpine basement unit of the Eastern Alps, exposed in the proximity of the Periadriaticfault system.Garnet peridotites show signs of a complex four-stage metamorphic history. The protolith stage is represented bya low-P high-T assemblage of olivine + Al-rich orthopyroxene + Al-rich clinopyroxene + Cr-spinel. Due to metamorphism,primary clinopyroxene shows exsolutions of garnet, orthopyroxene, amphibole, Cr-spinel and ilmenite. TheUHP metamorphic stage is defined by the assemblage garnet + olivine + Al-poor orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene +Cr-spinel. Subsequent decompression and final retrogression stage resulted in formation of kelyphitic rims aroundgarnet and crystallization of tremolite, chlorite, serpentine and talc.Pressure and temperature estimates indicate that garnet peridotites reached the peak of metamorphism at 4 GPaand 900 °C, that is well within the UHP stability field. Garnet peridotites in the Pohorje Mountains experiencedUHP metamorphism during the Cretaceous orogeny and thus record the highest-pressure conditions of all Eo-Alpinemetamorphism in the Alps.

  15. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    is robust and provides a reliable means of estimating peak temperatures for different types of high-grade metamorphic rock. The tool could be of particular advantage in rocks where critical assemblages for conventional thermometry do not occur or have been replaced during retrogression.......) to develop a tool that uses the diffusion zoning of these cations in garnet to constrain peak temperature conditions for garnet-bearing rocks. The thermometric approach was externally tested by applying it to garnet crystals from various metamorphic terranes worldwide and comparing the results to published...

  16. Magnetooptical garnet films: preparation, characterisation, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goernert, P.; Lorenz, A.; Lindner, M.; Richert, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In contemporary magnetooptics both Kerr effect and Faraday effect are applied. The Kerr effect of metals and alloys - such as Fe, Ni, Co, FePt, CoPt, MnBi, PtMnSb - with thicknesses 300 μm are established as commercial isolators in optical systems and for developments of waveguide applications. Bi-REIG is prepared mostly by conventional liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) in PbO-B 2 O 3 -Bi 2 O 3 based solvents and sometimes by laser ablation and as nanocrystalline powders. In each case high Faraday rotation and low optical absorption is necessary. Additionally, magnetooptical sensors should possess high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. All these demands can be fulfilled with (REBi) 3 (FeGaAl) 5 O 12 LPE layers. Here we discuss some new results concerning preparation, characterisation, and application of Bi-TmIG and Bi-DyIG LPE layers on high-quality gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) or lattice matched Ca-, Mg-, Zr-substituted GGG substrates. Optimization of flux melt composition and under cooling result in sensor films with a Faraday rotation of e.g. -1.2 0 /μm at a wavelength of l=590 nm and saturation induction of Bs=70 mT. Such films are already applied for forensic investigations. However, the responsivity of the garnet films is restricted by their coercivity Hc. Surface defects are found to give rise to pinned magnetic domains correlated with typical hysteresis. Obviously, Hc and the formation of pits are due to misfit stress and substrate surface quality. Besides, it is shown that an increase of working temperature leads to smaller coercivities. (authors)

  17. Radiation signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, S.P.; Varma, M.N.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept for modelling radiation risk is proposed. This concept is based on the proposal that the spectrum of molecular lesions, which we dub ''the radiation signature'', can be used to identify the quality of the causal radiation. If the proposal concerning radiation signatures can be established then, in principle, both prospective and retrospective risk determination can be assessed on an individual basis. A major goal of biophysical modelling is to relate physical events such as ionization, excitation, etc. to the production of radiation carcinogenesis. A description of the physical events is provided by track structure. The track structure is determined by radiation quality, and it can be considered to be the ''physical signature'' of the radiation. Unfortunately, the uniqueness characteristics of this signature are dissipated in biological systems in ∼10 -9 s. Nonetheless, it is our contention that this physical disturbance of the biological system eventuates later, at ∼10 0 s, in molecular lesion spectra which also characterize the causal radiation. (author)

  18. Optical properties of pure and Ce{sup 3+} doped gadolinium gallium garnet crystals and epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvorotka, I.I. [Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Street, Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Sugak, D. [Scientific Research Company “Carat”, 202 Stryjska Street, Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12, S. Bandera Street, Lviv, 79013 (Ukraine); Wierzbicka, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Wittlin, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, ul. Dewajtis 5, 01-815 Warsaw (Poland); Przybylińska, H. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Barzowska, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Gdańsk University, ul. Wita Stwosza 57, Gdańsk (Poland); Barcz, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Berkowski, M.; Domagała, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Mahlik, S.; Grinberg, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Gdańsk University, ul. Wita Stwosza 57, Gdańsk (Poland); Ma, Chong-Geng [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Results of X-ray diffraction and low temperature optical absorption measurements of cerium doped gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals and epitaxial layers are reported. In the region of intra-configurational 4f–4f transitions the spectra of the bulk crystals exhibit the signatures of several different Ce{sup 3+} related centers. Apart from the dominant center, associated with Ce substituting gadolinium, at least three other centers are found, some of them attributed to the so-called antisite locations of rare-earth ions in the garnet host, i.e., in the Ga positions. X-ray diffraction data prove lattice expansion of bulk GGG crystals due to the presence of rare-earth antisites. The concentration of the additional Ce-related centers in epitaxial layers is much lower than in the bulk crystals. However, the Ce-doped layers incorporate a large amount of Pb from flux, which is the most probable source of nonradiative quenching of Ce luminescence, not observed in crystals grown by the Czochralski method. - Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} multicenters found in Gadolinium Gallium Garnet crystals and epitaxial layers. • High quality epitaxial layers of pure and Ce-doped GGG were grown. • Luminescence quenching of Ce{sup 3+} by Pb ions from flux detected in GGG epitaxial layers. • X-ray diffraction allows measuring the amount of the rare-earth antisites in GGG.

  19. Synthesis of crystalline Ce-activated garnet phosphor powders and technique to characterize their scintillation light yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E.; Fedorov, A.; Radiuk, E.; Mechinsky, V.; Dosovitskiy, G.; Vashchenkova, E.; Kuznetsova, D.; Retivov, V.; Dosovitskiy, A.; Korjik, M.; Sandu, R.

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on a process of preparation of garnet phosphor powders and a technique for light yield evaluation of strongly light scattering samples. Powders of scintillation compounds could be used as individual materials or as samples for express tests of scintillation properties. However, estimation of their light yield (LY) is complicated by strong light scattering of this kind of materials. Ce3+-activated yttrium-aluminum and gallium-gadolinium-aluminum garnet phosphor powders, Y3Al5O12 (YAG:Ce) and Gd3Ga3Al2O12 (GGAG:Ce), were obtained using a modified coprecipitation technique. Ga tends to residue in mother liquor in ammonia media, but the modification allows to avoid the loss of components. We propose an approach for sample preparation and LY measurement setup with alpha particles excitation, allowing to decrease light scattering influence and to estimate a light yield of powder samples. This approach is used to evaluate the obtained powders.

  20. Neutron scattering study of yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Ito, Takashi U.; Onishi, Hiroaki; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Masato; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Kodama, Katsuaki; Nakao, Akiko; Moyoshi, Taketo; Munakata, Koji; Ohhara, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Nemoto, Yuichi; Shibata, Kaoru

    2018-02-01

    The nuclear and magnetic structure and full magnon dispersions of yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O12 have been studied using neutron scattering. The refined nuclear structure is distorted to a trigonal space group of R 3 ¯ . The highest-energy dispersion extends up to 86 meV. The observed dispersions are reproduced by a simple model with three nearest-neighbor-exchange integrals between 16 a (octahedral) and 24 d (tetrahedral) sites, Ja a, Ja d, and Jd d, which are estimated to be 0.00 ±0.05 , -2.90 ±0.07 , and -0.35 ±0.08 meV, respectively. The lowest-energy dispersion below 14 meV exhibits a quadratic dispersion as expected from ferromagnetic magnons. The imaginary part of q -integrated dynamical spin susceptibility χ″(E ) exhibits a square-root energy dependence at low energies. The magnon density of state is estimated from χ″(E ) obtained on an absolute scale. The value is consistent with the single chirality mode for the magnon branch expected theoretically.

  1. Composite Polymer-Garnet Solid State Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Andres; Oduncu, Muhammed R.; Scofield, Gregory D.; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Forbey, Scott

    Solid-state electrolytes provide a potential solution to the safety and reliability issues of Li-ion batteries. We have synthesized cubic-phase Li7-xLa3Zr2-xBixO12 compounds utilizing inexpensive, scalable Sol-gel synthesis and obtained ionic conductivities 1.2 x 10-4 S/cm at RT in not-fully densified pellets. In this work we report on the fabrication of composite polymer-garnet ceramic particle electrolytes to produce flexible membranes that can be integrated with standard battery electrodes without the need for a separator. As a first step we incorporated the ceramic particles into polyethylene oxide polymers (PEO) to form flexible membranes. Early results are encouraging yielding ionic conductivity values 1.0 x 10-5 S/cm at RT. To increment the conductivity in the membranes, we are optimizing amongst other: the ceramic particle size distribution and weight load, the polymer molecular weight and chemical composition and the solvated Li-salt composition and content. Unhindered ion transport across interfaces between the composites and the battery electrode materials is paramount for battery performance. To this end, we are investigating the effect of interface morphology, its atomic composition and exploring novel electrode structures that facilitate ionic transport.

  2. Garnet Solid Electrolyte Protected Li-Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyang; Gong, Yunhui; Fu, Kun; Han, Xiaogang; Yao, Yonggang; Pastel, Glenn; Yang, Chunpeng; Xie, Hua; Wachsman, Eric D; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-06-07

    Garnet-type solid state electrolyte (SSE) is a promising candidate for high performance lithium (Li)-metal batteries due to its good stability and high ionic conductivity. One of the main challenges for garnet solid state batteries is the poor solid-solid contact between the garnet and electrodes, which results in high interfacial resistance, large polarizations, and low efficiencies in batteries. To address this challenge, in this work gel electrolyte is used as an interlayer between solid electrolyte and solid electrodes to improve their contact and reduce their interfacial resistance. The gel electrolyte has a soft structure, high ionic conductivity, and good wettability. Through construction of the garnet/gel interlayer/electrode structure, the interfacial resistance of the garnet significantly decreased from 6.5 × 10 4 to 248 Ω cm 2 for the cathode and from 1.4 × 10 3 to 214 Ω cm 2 for the Li-metal anode, successfully demonstrating a full cell with high capacity (140 mAh/g for LiFePO 4 cathode) over 70 stable cycles in room temperature. This work provides a binary electrolyte consisting of gel electrolyte and solid electrolyte to address the interfacial challenge of solid electrolyte and electrodes and the demonstrated hybrid battery presents a promising future for battery development with high energy and good safety.

  3. Effects of ion-implantation in magnetic garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsui, Keiichi; Komenou, Kazunari

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation in magnetic garnet film induces anisotropy field change, ΔH k . The primary origin of the ΔH k is the stress-induced anisotropy, but it was precisely reported that ion-implantation also induces non-magnetostrictive anisotropy change due to the growth-induced anisotropy suppression. The hydrogen ion-implantation induces a large ΔH k due to the chemical effects of the hydrogen in the implanted layer. The ΔH k in ion-implanted garnet is greatly enhanced by exposing implanted films to plasma of hydrogen or rare gases. These large anisotropy changes in hydrogen implantation and plasma exposure are attributed to the change in valence state of Fe-ions. This report reviews these recent developments on ion-implanted garnets. (author)

  4. FERROMAGNETIC RESONANCE AND THE FARADAY EFFECT IN SOME FERRITES WITH A SPINEL AND GARNET STRUCTURE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAGNETIC MATERIALS, * MAGNETIC RESONANCE), (*MAGNETOOPTICS, MAGNETIC MATERIALS), FERRITES , GARNET, SINGLE CRYSTALS, ANISOTROPY, CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS, SUPERHIGH FREQUENCY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, POLARIZATION, USSR

  5. Analysis of garnets from the archaeological sites in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šmit, Ž., E-mail: ziga.smit@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fajfar, H. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jeršek, M. [Slovenian Museum of National History, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knific, T. [National Museum of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lux, J. [Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-06-01

    Garnets (62 individual stones) originating from the Migration Period cemeteries and hilltop settlements in Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE/PIGE method for their chemical composition. Typologically, the analyzed stones may be classified as almandines originating from the sites in India, belonging to types I and II according to Calligaro. A smaller group of pyraldines intermediate between almandines and pyropes was also determined; identified as type III, their source is most likely in Sri Lanka. No garnets from Bohemia (Czech Republic) have been discovered, which may be related to important political changes in the 7th c. AD, induced by Slavic and Avaric migrations.

  6. Lu-Hf geochronology on cm-sized garnets using microsampling: New constraints on garnet growth rates and duration of metamorphism during continental collision (Menderes Massif, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Pourteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2015-12-01

    This study shows Lu-Hf geochronology of zoned garnet crystals contained in mica schists from the southern Menderes Massif, Turkey. Selected samples are four 3-5 cm large garnet megacrysts of which several consecutive garnet shells have been sampled with a micro-saw and analyzed for dating. The results are used to extract growth rates of garnet, and also to improve the time constraint for Alpine-aged overprint of the Pan-African basement in the Menderes Massif. Lu-Hf ages of the sampled garnet shells are determined by two-point garnet-only isochrons using the garnets' Lu-depleted rim compositions. This yields a consistent decrease of age information from core to rim segments of individual garnet crystals and the calculated isochron ages propose a time frame of growth between 42.6 ± 1.9 and 34.8 ± 3.1 Ma. Major element profiles in the investigated garnets characterize zoning patterns indicative of prograde conditions: Rayleigh fractionated bell-shaped Mn and decreasing Fe/(Fe + Mg) are recorded by the garnets' core to rim compositions. Therefore the obtained Lu-Hf ages record timing of early prograde growth for the cores of the garnets. Two of the large garnet crystals also yield isochron ages of 58.83 ± 0.69 and 50.16 ± 0.84 Ma in their innermost cores, which appear to record an early nucleation event. This view, however, is not in concordance with the observed major element profiles of these garnets, and therefore is interpreted with caution. Termination of the garnet growth period is determined through the calculation of radial growth rates based on the size of the garnets and the Lu-Hf ages obtained for consecutive shells. Extrapolation of these rates potentially constrains the total duration for garnet growth terminating at 31 ± 6 Ma. Comparison of the growth rates calculated for individual crystals shows a variety of slow and fast growing garnets, and similar results have been previously obtained with the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systems. The new data

  7. Analysis of magnetic ground state in thulium iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, A.; Lehmann-Szweykowska, A.; Wigen, P.E.; Bornfreund, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic phase diagrams of thulium iron garnets at T = 0 K are obtained by means of the so-called Monte Carlo relaxation method. The diagrams are given in terms of respective strength of the superexchange couplings. There are five different phases and one spin-flop line on the diagram obtained. Two of these phases are of semi-spin glass type. (author)

  8. Static Magnetic Properties of AL800 Garnet Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuharik, J. [Fermilab; Madrak, R. [Fermilab; Makarov, A. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Sun, S. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Terechkine, I. [Fermilab

    2017-05-17

    A second harmonic tunable RF cavity is being devel-oped for the Fermilab Booster. This device, which prom-ises reduction of the particle beam loss at the injection, transition, and extraction stages, employs perpendicularly biased garnet material for frequency tuning. The required range of the tuning is significantly wider than in previously built and tested tunable RF devices. As a result, the mag-netic field in the garnet comes fairly close to the gyromag-netic resonance line at the lower end of the frequency range. The chosen design concept of a tuner for the cavity cannot ensure uniform magnetic field in the garnet mate-rial; thus, it is important to know the static magnetic prop-erties of the material to avoid significant increase in the lo-cal RF loss power density. This report summarizes studies performed at Fermilab to understand variations in the mag-netic properties of the AL800 garnet material used to build the tuner of the cavity.

  9. Microstructure and defect chemistry of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes basic aspects concerning the defect chemistry and the microstructure of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics. The work consists of three parts: a literature study, an experimental part and a section giving computer simulation data of defects. (author). 320 refs.; 68 figs.; 72 schemes; 32 tabs

  10. Garnet-sillimanite bearing gneisses from Darjeeling, eastern Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phism of pelitic rocks around Kandra Singhbhum Bihar;. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 16 210–232. Chinner G A 1961 The origin of sillimanite in Glen Clova,. Angus; J. Petrol. 2 312–323. Coggon R and Holland T J B 2002 Mixing properties of phengitic micas and revised garnet-phengite thermo- barometers; J. Metamor. Geol.

  11. On fabrication procedures of Li-ion conducting garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanc, Emil [The Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Wybickiego 7, 31-261 Kraków (Poland); Zając, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.zajac@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Lu, Li; Yan, Binggong; Kotobuki, Masashi [Materials Science Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ziąbka, Magdalena [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Molenda, Janina [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-04-15

    Ceramic oxides exhibiting high lithium-ion mobility at room temperature receive broad attention as candidate electrolytes for lithium batteries. Lithium-stuffed garnets from the Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} group seem to be especially promising because of their high ionic conductivity at room temperature and their electrochemical stability. In this work, we discuss factors that affect formation of the garnet in its bulk form or in the form of thick and thin films. We demonstrate that zinc oxide can be applied as a sintering aid that facilitate the formation of the highly conducting cubic Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} garnet phase in a single-step sintering procedure. Based on our experience with the single-step sintering experiments, we successfully fabricated a thick-film membrane consisting of a garnet solid electrolyte using the tape casting technique. In order to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte even further we investigated the fabrication of a thin-film Li{sub 7}La{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 12} electrolyte by means of the pulsed laser deposition technique.

  12. Polyphase deformation and garnet growth in politic schists of Sausar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 5. Polyphase deformation and garnet growth in politic schists of Sausar Group in Ramtek area, Maharashtra, India: A study of porphyroblast–matrix relationship. A Chattopadhyay N Ghosh. Volume 116 Issue 5 October 2007 pp 423-432 ...

  13. On fabrication procedures of Li-ion conducting garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Emil; Zając, Wojciech; Lu, Li; Yan, Binggong; Kotobuki, Masashi; Ziąbka, Magdalena; Molenda, Janina

    2017-04-01

    Ceramic oxides exhibiting high lithium-ion mobility at room temperature receive broad attention as candidate electrolytes for lithium batteries. Lithium-stuffed garnets from the Li7La3Zr2O12 group seem to be especially promising because of their high ionic conductivity at room temperature and their electrochemical stability. In this work, we discuss factors that affect formation of the garnet in its bulk form or in the form of thick and thin films. We demonstrate that zinc oxide can be applied as a sintering aid that facilitate the formation of the highly conducting cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 garnet phase in a single-step sintering procedure. Based on our experience with the single-step sintering experiments, we successfully fabricated a thick-film membrane consisting of a garnet solid electrolyte using the tape casting technique. In order to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte even further we investigated the fabrication of a thin-film Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte by means of the pulsed laser deposition technique.

  14. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik E.; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the systematics of the 176Lu–176Hf and 147Sm–143Nd garnet chronometers, we performed REE and isotope analyses on garnet crystals of different size (0.55–3.1 mm radius) from a single granulite specimen (Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Manitoba, Canada). The Lu–Hf dates are simi......To investigate the systematics of the 176Lu–176Hf and 147Sm–143Nd garnet chronometers, we performed REE and isotope analyses on garnet crystals of different size (0.55–3.1 mm radius) from a single granulite specimen (Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Manitoba, Canada). The Lu–Hf dates...... are similar among grains having radii larger than 1.3 mm (weighted mean: 2714±6 Ma2714±6 Ma; 2 s.d.) and up to 20 Myr younger for finer fractions. In contrast, Sm–Nd dates are equal to or younger than the 2641–2637 Ma age of peak metamorphism. The roles of concurrently digested inclusions and core–rim Lu/Sm...

  15. Luminescence of dimer lead centers in aluminium perovskites and garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babin, V.; Bichevin, V.; Gorbenko, V.; Makhov, A.; Mihóková, Eva; Nikl, Martin; Vedda, A.; Zazubovich, S.; Zorenko, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 246, č. 6 (2009), s. 1318-1326 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : aluminum garnets and perovskites * Pb 2+ contamination * luminescence * liquid phase epitaxy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.150, year: 2009

  16. The Use of Chemistry of Garnets and Heavy Minerals Around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than three hundred kimberlite pipes have been reported in Tanzania. Only a few are diamond–bearing. A prospecting criteria to outline the diamond and non-diamond bearing kimberlites has been proposed. Bulk rock chemical analyses and chemistry of garnets and black minerals (picroilmenite, magnetite, rutile and ...

  17. Melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite minor intrusion in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Chattopadhyay and Hashmi 1984; Maitra 1992;. Srivastava et al 2005; Srivastava ... Keywords. Melanite garnet; nepheline syenite minor intrusion; Mesozoic magmatism; Mawpyut complex; Meghalaya plateau. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 120, No. 6, December 2011, pp. ... dated 110–120 Ma (Coffin et al 2002; Srivastava et al 2005).

  18. Trap levels in Y-aluminium garnet scintillating crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vedda, A.; Di Martino, D.; Martini, M.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Mihóková, Eva; Nikl, Martin; Solovieva, Natalia; Blažek, K.; Nejezchleb, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2004), s. 673-676 ISSN 1350-4487 Grant - others:NATO SfP (XX) 973510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : aluminium garnets * scintillators * cerium * thetmoluminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.664, year: 2004

  19. GARNET – gene set analysis with exploration of annotation relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Jihae

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene set analysis is a powerful method of deducing biological meaning for an a priori defined set of genes. Numerous tools have been developed to test statistical enrichment or depletion in specific pathways or gene ontology (GO terms. Major difficulties towards biological interpretation are integrating diverse types of annotation categories and exploring the relationships between annotation terms of similar information. Results GARNET (Gene Annotation Relationship NEtwork Tools is an integrative platform for gene set analysis with many novel features. It includes tools for retrieval of genes from annotation database, statistical analysis & visualization of annotation relationships, and managing gene sets. In an effort to allow access to a full spectrum of amassed biological knowledge, we have integrated a variety of annotation data that include the GO, domain, disease, drug, chromosomal location, and custom-defined annotations. Diverse types of molecular networks (pathways, transcription and microRNA regulations, protein-protein interaction are also included. The pair-wise relationship between annotation gene sets was calculated using kappa statistics. GARNET consists of three modules - gene set manager, gene set analysis and gene set retrieval, which are tightly integrated to provide virtually automatic analysis for gene sets. A dedicated viewer for annotation network has been developed to facilitate exploration of the related annotations. Conclusions GARNET (gene annotation relationship network tools is an integrative platform for diverse types of gene set analysis, where complex relationships among gene annotations can be easily explored with an intuitive network visualization tool (http://garnet.isysbio.org/ or http://ercsb.ewha.ac.kr/garnet/.

  20. Combined external-beam PIXE and {mu}-Raman characterisation of garnets used in Merovingian jewellery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr; Colinart, S.; Poirot, J.-P.; Sudres, C

    2002-04-01

    Red garnets were the dominant gemstones used for jewels in Europe during the Early Middle Ages. We have studied over 350 garnets set on 12 jewels unearthed in the royal necropolis of the Saint-Denis Basilica, close to Paris. This famous collection of 'cloisonne' style artefacts dates from the Merovingian period (late fifth century AD to early seventh century AD). The archaeological issue addressed is the identification of the geographical origin of these garnets, in view to establish the gem trading routes during the Dark Ages. External beam PIXE was used to determine the major constituents (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe), specifying the garnet type (composition in various mineralogical end-members, e.g. almandine, pyrope, spessartite, ...), and the trace element content (Cr, Y). Three sorts of garnets were identified. Ten jewels are adorned with almandine garnets (Fe-rich). One jewel has intermediate almandine-pyrope garnets ('rhodolite'). The last and most recent jewel is inlaid with pyrope (Mg-rich) garnets. Trace element content and slight differences in major composition allowed to distinguish five different sources: two sources for pyrope garnets (with and without chromium), and two sources for almandine garnets (distinctive calcium, magnesium and yttrium contents). A preliminary comparison with literature data suggested that almandine garnets may have been mined from India while the 'rhodolite' garnets may have been imported from Sri Lanka. The sources of pyrope garnets could be the Bohemian deposits (Czech republic). In addition, {mu}-Raman spectrometry was used to identify most of the mineral inclusions (apatite, zircon, ilmenite, monazite, calcite, quartz) present in almandine garnets. Even if two specific types of inclusions were not identified, due to the lack of corresponding reference spectra in our database, the Raman spectra collected provided an interesting inclusion fingerprint.

  1. The Friningen Garnet Peridotite (central Swedish Caledonides). A good example of the characteristic PTt path of a cold mantle wedge garnet peridotite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; van Roermund, Herman L M

    2015-01-01

    We present pseudosections of Cr-bearing garnet peridotite that together with new mineral–chemical data allow quantification of the early PT conditions of the original lithospheric mantle assemblage (M1) of the Friningen Garnet Peridotite (FGP) located in the central/middle belt of the Seve Nappe

  2. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  3. Coercive force features in stressed epitaxial ferrite-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, S.V.; Nedviga, A.S.; Vishnevskij, V.G.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Yagupov, V.S.; Nesteruk, A.G.; Prokopov, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    One has investigated into effect of a relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate within 0.5-0.85% range on behavior of the coercive force of (Bi, Sm, Lu, Ca) 3 (Fe, Sc, Ga, Al) 5 O 12 composition ferrite garnet epitaxial films (FGEF) synthesized at (111) orientation gadolinium-gallium garnet substrates. One has revealed that the FGEF coercive force at increase of the relative mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate increases at first, while when reaching the maximum value it begins to decrease. The coercive force maximum value is shown to result from the periodical localized stresses. The period of the localized stresses is determined by the value of mismatching of periods of lattices of a film and of a substrate [ru

  4. Garnet growth interruptions during high- and ultra high-pressure metamorphism constrained by thermodynamic forward models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Schildhauer, H.

    2013-12-01

    Growth and chemical composition of garnet in metamorphic rocks excellently reflect thermodynamic as well kinetic properties of the host rock during garnet growth. This valuable information can be extracted from preserved compositional growth zoning patterns in garnet. However, metamorphic rocks often contain multiple garnet generations that commonly develop as corona textures with distinct compositional core-overgrowth features. This circumstance can lead to a misinterpretation of information extracted from such grains if the age- and metamorphic relations between different garnet generations are unclear. Especially garnets from high-pressure (HP) and ultra high-pressure (UHP) rocks often preserve textures that show multiple growth stages reflected in core-overgrowth differences both in main and trace element composition and in the inclusion assemblage. Distinct growth zones often have sharp boundaries with strong compositional gradients and/or inclusion- and trace-element-enriched zones. Such growth patterns indicate episodic garnet growth as well as growth interruptions during the garnet evolution. A quantitative understanding of these distinct growth pulses enables the relationship between reaction path, age determinations in spatially controlled garnet domains or temperature-time constraints to be fully characterised. In this study we apply thermodynamic forward models to simulate garnet growth along a series of HP and UHP P-T paths, representative for subducted oceanic crust. We study garnet growth in different basaltic rock compositions and under different element fractionation scenarios in order to detect path-dependent P-T regions of limited or ceased garnet growth. Modeled data along P-T trajectories involving fractional crystallisation are assembled in P-T diagrams reflecting garnet growth in a changing bulk rock composition. Our models show that in all investigated rock compositions garnet growth along most P-T trajectories is discontinuous, pulse

  5. Intercalibration of FTIR and SIMS for Hydrogen Measurements in Garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Rossman, G.; Guan, Y.; Ma, C.

    2008-12-01

    The importance of understanding the hydrogen incorporated in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) that influences their physical and chemical properties significantly is well accepted, however, quantitatively experimental constraints between hydrogen concentration and physical and chemical properties are only meaningful if hydrogen concentration can be accurately determined. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) may be the most powerful technique since it provides information about both bulk concentration and local bonding environments, while Secondary Ion Mass Spec-trometry (SIMS) has held promise as an ideal method for hydrogen analyses for its advantages of high spatial resolution and insensitivity to crystal orientation. Great efforts have been made to establish experimental standards for these two techniques since they have no rigorous self-calibration. We here present new Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of 1H in 11 natural garnets (grossular, spessartite and pyrope). This set of garnets extends to a wider range of H2O contents (~4 to 6790 wt. ppm H2O) than previous studies and can be more reliable if more garnets can be investigated. We routinely achieve a less than 5 ppm by weight H2O with high vacuum quality, the use of a Cs+ primary beam, and carefully prepared samples using a resin-free mounting technique (described in Aubaud C. et al., 2007. Intercalibration of FTIR and SIMS for hydrogen measurements in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals. American Mineralogist, 92, 811-828). Although some scatter is observed, the straight line with a slope of 0.0722 defined by all garnets in a plot of (H)FTIR vs. (H+/Si+)SIMS* (SiO2)EMP suggests small matrix effects, while some previous efforts demonstrated the existence of such matrix effects. Discrepancies between FTIR and SIMS measurements can be partially distributed to the impurities, which have different hydrogen concentration as the

  6. Mixed garnet laser for a water vapour DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Rainer; Strohmaier, Stephan; Nikolov, Susanne; Eichler, Hans-Joachim; Murphy, Eamonn

    2017-11-01

    For the water vapour DIAL "WALES" the wavelength regions around 935 nm, 942 nm and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. These wavelengths can be obtained using opticalparametric-oscillators (OPOs), stimulated Raman shifters and the Ti-Sapphire laser but none of these systems could deliver all the needed parameters like beam quality, efficiency, pulse length and energy yet. Also these systems are comparably big and heavy making them less suitable for a satellite based application. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the quasi-3-level laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing aluminium and yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals or special pump lasers are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. In a first phase such mixed garnet crystals had been grown and characterised. The outcome was the selection of the gadolinium-scandium garnet for the most suitable laser crystal. During a second phase the complete laser system with output energy about 18 mJ in single 20 ns pulses and up to 8 mJ in free running mode with a combined pulse width of 250 μs at 942 nm have been demonstrated. The results of the first laser operation and the achieved performance parameter are reported.

  7. Low temperature delayed recombination decay in scintillating garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Babin, Vladimir; Bartosiewicz, Karol; Schulman, L. S.; Čuba, V.; Kučera, M.; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, Fešb (2015), s. 127-131 ISSN 0925- 3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316906 - LUMINET Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101212 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : luminescence * garnets * scintillator * tunneling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015

  8. Laser ablation of Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Hayashida, K.; Kawano, K.; Higuchi, K.; Ohkoshi, M.; Tsushima, K.

    1995-01-01

    Bi-substituted gadolinium iron garnet films were deposited by laser ablation. The composition, the structure and the magnetic properties of the films were found to be strongly dependent both on the compositions of the targets and on the pressure of oxygen. The highest values of Bi-substitution up to x=1.44 with uniform composition were obtained, after annealing in air. ((orig.))

  9. Timing and duration of garnet granulite metamorphism in magmatic arc crust, Fiordland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, H.; Tulloch, A.; Zuluaga, C.; Koenig, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pembroke Granulite from Fiordland, New Zealand provides a window into the mid- to lower crust of magmatic arcs. Garnet Sm-Nd and zircon U-Pb ages constrain the timing and duration of high-P partial melting that produced trondhjemitic high Sr/Y magma. Trace element zoning in large, euhedral garnet is compatible with little post growth modification and supports the interpretation that garnet Sm-Nd ages of 126.1??2.0 and 122.6??2.0. Ma date crystal growth. Integration of the garnet ages with U-Pb zircon ages elucidates a history of intrusion(?) and a protracted period of high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting. The oldest zircon ages of 163 to 150. Ma reflect inheritance or intrusion and a cluster of zircon ages ca. 134. Ma date orthopyroxene-bearing mineral assemblages that may be magmatic or metamorphic in origin. Zircon and garnet ages from unmelted gneiss and garnet reaction zones record garnet granulite facies metamorphism at 128 to 126. Ma. Peritectic garnet and additional zircon ages from trondhjemite veins and garnet reaction zones indicate that garnet growth and partial melting lasted until ca. 123. Ma. Two single fraction garnet ages and young zircon ages suggest continued high-temperature re-equilibration until ca. 95. Ma. Phase diagram sections constrain orthopyroxene assemblages to <0.6 GPa @ 650??C, peak garnet granulite facies metamorphic conditions to 680-815??C @ 1.1-1.4. GPa, and a P-T path with a P increase of???0.5. GPa. These sections are compatible with water contents???0.28wt.%, local dehydration during garnet granulite metamorphism, and <0.3. GPa P increases during garnet growth. Results demonstrate the utility of integrated U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd garnet ages, and phase diagram sections for understanding the nature, duration, and conditions of deep crustal metamorphism and melting. Geochronologic and thermobarometric data for garnet granulite indicate that thickening of arc crust, which caused high-pressure metamorphism in northern

  10. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, Elena; Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe; Deb, Marwan; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte; Kachkachi, Hamid; Gendron, François; Ott, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed

  11. Magnetic anisotropies in ultrathin bismuth iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Elena, E-mail: popova@physique.uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Franco Galeano, Andres Felipe [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Deb, Marwan [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), CNRS/Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [Centre d' Elaboration de Matériaux et d' Etudes Structurales (CEMES), CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS–Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Kachkachi, Hamid [Laboratoire PROcédés, Matériaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), CNRS/Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860 Perpignan (France); Gendron, François [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris (INSP), CNRS/Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, Boîte courrier 840, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ott, Frédéric [Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CNRS/CEA, Bâtiment 563, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    Ultrathin bismuth iron garnet Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet substrates. Film thickness varied from two to three dozens of unit cells. Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films grow pseudomorphically on substrates up to a thickness of 20 nm, and then a lattice relaxation occurs. Magnetic properties of the films were studied as a function of bismuth iron garnet thickness. The magnetization and cubic anisotropy decrease with decreasing film thickness. The uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy is constant for all film thicknesses. For two unit cell thick films, the easy magnetization axis changes from in-plane to perpendicular to the plane direction. Such a reorientation takes place as a result of the competition of constant uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy with weakening film magnetization. - Highlights: ► Ultrathin Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} films were grown epitaxially on structure-matching substrates. ► Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} were studied down to the thickness of 2.5 nm. ► Reorientation of easy magnetization axis as a function of film thickness was observed.

  12. Understanding garnet variability: Application of geometallurgy to diamonds and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoal, K. O.; Appleby, S. K.; Stammer, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    Peridotitic and eclogitic garnets are a fundamental component in understanding mantle petrology, diamond petrogenesis, and the ascent of mantle materials in kimberlites. They are also critical in exploration programs, as the presence of mantle garnets at the earth's surface provides an indication of dispersion from a deeply derived magmatic carrier. The composition of these garnets further is used as an indicator of diamond prospectivity, on the basis of comparison with garnet compositions known to be in some degree of equilibrium with diamonds. For mantle xenoliths and kimberlites, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are the main tools used for understanding key mineralogical and textural variability relationships. Mineralogy and texture reflect diamond genesis, metasomatic alteration, fluid migration and manifestation, volcanological processes, peridotite disaggregation, and other manifestations of mantle processes that are observable, describable, and applicable in exploration and mining. Mineralogy and texture studies lead to further questions that are better addressed by higher resolution chemical analysis of isotopes and rare earth elements, or luminescence. Understanding mineralogical and textural variability is the primary geological input for geometallurgy (geomet), the field integrating the earth sciences with the extractive industries. The framework for geomet encompasses geology, mineralogy, deposit modeling and extraction methods for the optimum value return of resources, and it relies on the fact that the mineralogy and texture of rocks influence subsequent interpretation and downstream applications. Developments in this area have been made possible by the new generation of high-speed SEM-based quantitative mineralogical instruments, enabling the statistical assessment of thousands of grains or particles, or samples, and their application to models for exploration, ore deposits, or geomet

  13. Low Signature Tent Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Randy

    1998-01-01

    .... Modeling shows that visual, near infrared, thermal, and radar signatures should be reduced when compared to other current tent designs. A brief treatise on the role of tent signatures and their results is included.

  14. Structure-terahertz property relationship in yttrium aluminum garnet ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steere, D.W.; Clark, B.M.; Sundaram, S.K. [Alfred University, Terahertz and Millimeter Waves Laboratory (T-Lab), Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, The New York State College of Ceramics, Alfred, NY (United States); Gaume, R. [Townes Laser Institute and the NanoScience Technology Center, CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Terahertz (THz) transmission measurements on chemically variant yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramics are described. Chemical compositions and processing parameters were varied to determine the effect of stoichiometry, density, and pore volume distribution on the optical and dielectric properties in the THz frequency regime. Density has the largest effect on properties out of the parameters that were investigated. In addition, a linear correlation between cubic root of real permittivity at 1 THz and average density of these samples is observed. Our results show promise for design and fabrication of advanced optical materials and devices with desired THz properties via controlling density and porosity of the materials. (orig.)

  15. Garnet Yield Strength at High Pressures and Implications for Upper Mantle and Transition Zone Rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavner, A.

    2008-01-01

    Garnet helps control the mechanical behavior of the Earth's crust, mantle, and transition zone. Here, measurements are presented suggesting that garnet, long considered to be a high-viscosity phase, is actually weaker than the other dominant components in the transition zone. The mechanical behavior of garnet at high pressures was examined using radial diffraction techniques in the diamond anvil cell. The yield strength of grossular garnet was inferred from synchrotron X-ray measurements of differential lattice strains. The differential stress was found to increase from 1.3 (±0.6) GPa at a hydrostatic pressure 5.8 (±1.1) GPa to 4.1 (±0.4) GPa at 15.7 (±1.0) GPa, where it was level to 19 GPa. The strength results are consistent with inferred strength values for majorite garnet from measurements in the diamond cell normal geometry, bolstering the idea that garnet-structured materials may all have similar strengths. In this low-temperature, high differential stress regime, garnet is shown to be significantly weaker than anhydrous ringwoodite and to have a strength similar to hydrous ringwoodite. This result suggests that the presence of water in the transition zone may not be required to explain a weak rheology, and therefore models of transition zone behavior built assuming that garnet is the high-strength phase may need to be revised.

  16. Structural petrology of the garnet-peridotite of Alpe Arami (Ticino, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möckel, J.R.

    1969-01-01

    The decomposition of pyrope-rich garnet into spinel-amphibole symplektite and the alteration of the latter into chlorite indicate the presence of three successive mineral parageneses in the peridotite of Alpe Arami: a garnet-peridotite, a spinelamphibole-peridotite, and a chlorite-peridotite

  17. Experimental investigation of Fe3+-rich majoritic garnet and its effect on majorite geobarometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Renbiao; Fei, Yingwei; Bullock, Emma S.; Xu, Cheng; Zhang, Lifei

    2018-03-01

    Majoritic garnet [(Ca, Mg, Fe2+)3(Fe3+, Al, Si)2(SiO4)3] is one of the predominant and important constituents of upper mantle peridotite and ultra-deep subducted slabs. Majoritic substitution in garnet depends on pressure, and it has been used to estimate the formation pressure of natural majoritic garnet. Ferric iron (Fe3+) substitution occurs in natural majoritic garnets from mantle diamonds and shocked meteorites. However, available majorite geobarometers were developed without considering the effect of Fe3+ substitution in the structure. In this study, we systematically synthesized Fe3+- bearing majoritic garnets from 6.5 GPa to 15 GPa to evaluate the effect of Fe3+ on the majorite geobarometer. The Fe3+ contents of synthetic majoritic garnets were analyzed using the "Flank method" with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The results were compared with those based on the charge balance calculations. From the known synthesis pressures and measured Fe3+ contents, we developed a new majorite geobarometer for Fe3+-bearing majoritic garnets. Our results show that the existing majorite geobarometer, which does not take into account the Fe3+ substitution, could underestimate the formation pressure of majoritic garnets, especially for samples with a high majoritic component.

  18. Ce3+-Doped garnet phosphors : Composition modification, luminescence properties and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, Zhiguo; Meijerink, Andries

    2017-01-01

    Garnets have the general formula of A3B2C3O12 and form a wide range of inorganic compounds, occurring both naturally (gemstones) and synthetically. Their physical and chemical properties are closely related to the structure and composition. In particular, Ce3+-doped garnet phosphors have a long

  19. Effect of Different Modes of Erbium:yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... surface treatment before application of total etch adhesives is still not an sufficient alternative compared to acid etching. KEYWORDS: Acid etching, dentin conditioning, erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser, quantum square pulse mode. Effect of Different Modes of Erbium:yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser.

  20. Nanogranitoids in garnet clinopyroxenites of the Granulitgebirge (Bohemian Massif): evidence for metasomatism and partial melting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghini, Alessia; Ferrero, Silvio; Wunder, Bernd; O'Brien, Patrick J.; Ziemann, Martin A.

    2017-04-01

    Primary nanogranitoids occur in garnet from the garnet clinopyroxenites of the Granulitgebirge, Bohemian Massif. They form clusters in the inner part of the garnet, and may occur both as polycrystalline and glassy inclusions with size from 5 to 20 µm. Because of their random distribution in garnet these inclusions are interpreted as primary inclusions, thus formed during the growth of the garnet. Garnet does not show any major element zoning. Nanogranitoids were identified in garnet clinopyroxenites from two different locations and show slightly different mineral assemblages. Kumdykolite or albite, phlogopite, osumilite, kokchetavite and a variable amount of quartz occur in both locations. However, osumilite is more abundant in one locality and kokchetavite in the other. All these phases are identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Both assemblages are consistent with the origin of these inclusions as former droplets of melt. Nanogranitoids from one locality have been re-homogenized at 1000°C and 22 kbar to a hydrous glass of granodioritic/quartz-monzonitic composition in a piston cylinder apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions correspond to the formation of the host garnet (O'Brien & Rötzler, 2003) and thus of melt entrapment. Nanogranitoid-bearing garnet clinopyroxenites occur in bodies of serpentinized peridotites, hosted in turn in felsic granulites. The garnet clinopyroxenites show granoblastic texture dominated by garnet and clinopyroxene porphyroblasts with a variable amount of interstitial plagioclase, biotite, two generations of amphiboles (brown and green) and rutile and opaque minerals as accessories. The bulk rock composition is basic to intermediate, and the garnet chemistry varies from 24% Alm, 65% Prp and 11% Grs to 38% Alm, 36% Prp and 26 % Grs between one outcrop and the other. The origin of the investigated inclusions could be due to different processes: localized melting of metasomatized mafic rocks with simultaneous production of garnet or

  1. Properties of Exchange Coupled All-garnet Magneto-Optic Thin Film Multilayer Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nur-E-Alam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exchange coupling on magnetic switching properties of all-garnet multilayer thin film structures are investigated. All-garnet structures are fabricated by sandwiching a magneto-soft material of composition type Bi1.8Lu1.2Fe3.6Al1.4O12 or Bi3Fe5O12:Dy2O3 in between two magneto-hard garnet material layers of composition type Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12 or Bi2Dy1Fe4Ga1O12:Bi2O3. The fabricated RF magnetron sputtered exchange-coupled all-garnet multilayers demonstrate a very attractive combination of magnetic properties, and are of interest for emerging applications in optical sensors and isolators, ultrafast nanophotonics and magneto-plasmonics. An unconventional type of magnetic hysteresis behavior not observed previously in magnetic garnet thin films is reported and discussed.

  2. The potential of detrital garnet as a provenance proxy in the Central Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutenbecker, Laura; Berger, Alfons; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2017-04-01

    Detrital garnet is a promising candidate to reliably fingerprint sediment sources in the Alps, which has so far been complicated by the wide range and similarity of some of the lithologies. Garnet is present in most Alpine sediments, is easy to identify, is fairly stable and, most importantly, reflects the type and the metamorphic grade of its source rock in its chemical composition. This study aims to establish fingerprints based on detrital garnet composition for the most important tectonic units of the Central Alps, including European, Penninic and Adriatic basement rocks and their respective metasedimentary covers. Sediments collected from modern rivers, which drain representative portions of the individual tectonic units, contain a natural mixture of the various garnet populations present in each unit. We selected six catchments in southwestern Switzerland draining the External massifs, Helvetic sediments and the Penninic nappe stack at the transition of Alpine greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism in order to test the variability of Alpine garnets and the role of inherited (pre-Alpine) garnets. Extraordinary grossular- and spessartine-rich garnets of the External massifs, which experienced greenschist facies metamorphism, are clearly distinguishable from generally almandine-rich garnets supplied by the higher-grade metamorphic Penninic nappe stack. The variable pyrope, grossular and spessartine components of these almandine-rich garnets can be used to further distinguish pre-Alpine, Alpine eclogite-facies and low-grade metasedimentary garnets. This provenance proxy has the potential to be used for reconstructing sediment sources, transport and dispersal patterns in a variety of settings throughout the Alpine sedimentary record.

  3. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mallika K.; Karmalkar, Nitin R.; Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Harshe, Shivani; Gain, Sarah; Griffin, William L.

    2017-12-01

    The eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, NW Himalayas preserve both garnets with spectacular atoll textures, as well as whole porphyroblastic garnets. Whole garnets are euhedral, idiomorphic and enclose inclusions of amphibole, phengite and zoisite within the cores, and omphacite and quartz/coesite towards the rims. Detailed electron microprobe analyses and back-scattered electron images show well-preserved prograde zoning in the whole garnets with an increase in Mg and decrease in Ca and Mn contents from the core to the rim. The atoll garnets commonly consist of euhedral ring over island/peninsular core containing inclusions of phengite, omphacite and rarely amphibole between the core and ring. Compositional profiles across the studied atoll grains show elemental variations with higher concentrations of Ca and Mn with low Mg at the peninsula/island cores; contrary to this low Ca, Mn and high Mg is observed at the outer rings. Temperature estimates yield higher values at the Mg-rich atoll garnet outer rings compared to the atoll cores. Atoll garnet formation was favoured by infiltration of fluid formed due to breakdown of hydrous phases, and/or the release of structurally bounded OH from nominally anhydrous minerals at the onset of exhumation. Infiltration of fluids along pre-existing fracture pathways and along mineral inclusion boundaries triggered breakdown of the original garnet cores and released elements which were subsequently incorporated into the newly-grown garnet rings. This breakdown of garnet cores and inward re-growth at the outer ring produced the atoll structure. Calibrated geo-thermobarometers and mineral equilibria reflect that the Tso Morari eclogites attain peak pressures prior to peak temperatures representing a clockwise path of evolution.

  4. Influence of strain on local structure and lithium ionic conduction in garnet-type solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Ito, Tomoko; Hongahally Basappa, Rajendra; Bekarevich, Raman; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka

    2017-11-01

    All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have various problems associated with their usage that are normally not encountered in conventional lithium-ion batteries. Stress on interfaces between solid electrolytes and active materials is one of the key issues because the active materials change their volume during charging/discharging. In this work, first, we reveal that garnet-type solid electrolytes, Li6.5La3Zr1.5Ta0.5O12 (LLZT), prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique, exhibit a residual tensile stress of more than 100 MPa in the direction of the SPS pressure. Then, the influence of the strain on ionic conduction is investigated in detail. It is demonstrated that the strain causes no change in the bulk resistance, while the grain boundary resistance increases in both the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy. The results suggest the importance of the strength of grain boundaries (including interfaces) for the practical application of ASSBs.

  5. Modification of an ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle by continental subduction: Insight from the Maowu garnet peridotites in the Dabie UHP belt, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Su, Bin; Chu, Zhuyin

    2017-05-01

    Orogenic mantle-derived peridotites commonly originate from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and thus provide a key target to investigate the modification of the SCLM by a subducting slab. The Maowu ultramafic rocks from the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt have formerly been debated as representing cumulates or mantle-derived peridotites. Detailed petrological and geochemical data presented in this study provide new constraints on the origin and formation of the peridotites involving melt depletion in the ancient SCLM and deep crustal metasomatism. The Maowu garnet dunites have refractory bulk compositions characterized by high Mg# (91.9-92.0) and Ni (2537-2892 ppm) values and low Al2O3 (0.26-0.76 wt.%), CaO (0.05-0.32 wt.%), TiO2 (China craton. Many garnet orthopyroxenite veins crosscutting the Maowu dunites preserve abundant metasomatic textures and show variable enrichment in incompatible elements. Mineral and whole-rock chemistry indicate that these veins represent metasomatic products between the wall dunites and silica-rich hydrous melts under UHP conditions. The veins show large variations in platinum-group element (PGE) signatures and Re-Os isotopes. The garnet-poor orthopyroxenite veins are characterized by low Al2O3 ( 6 wt.%) and S (99-306 ppm) contents and show melt-like PGE patterns and high 187Os/188Os ratios (up to 0.36910). These features, combined with the occurrence of interstitial sulfides in the garnet-rich orthopyroxenite veins, suggest that crust-derived sulfur-saturated silicate melts may have significantly modified the PGE signature and destroyed the Re-Os systematics of the SCLM. However, when the crust-derived silicate melts became sulfur-depleted, such melts would not significantly modify the PGE patterns, radiogenic Os-isotope compositions or the Re-depletion model ages of the SCLM. Consequently, deep crust-mantle interactions in continental subduction zones could induce high degrees of Os isotopic

  6. Unconditionally Secure Quantum Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Amiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Signature schemes, proposed in 1976 by Diffie and Hellman, have become ubiquitous across modern communications. They allow for the exchange of messages from one sender to multiple recipients, with the guarantees that messages cannot be forged or tampered with and that messages also can be forwarded from one recipient to another without compromising their validity. Signatures are different from, but no less important than encryption, which ensures the privacy of a message. Commonly used signature protocols—signatures based on the Rivest–Adleman–Shamir (RSA algorithm, the digital signature algorithm (DSA, and the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA—are only computationally secure, similar to public key encryption methods. In fact, since these rely on the difficulty of finding discrete logarithms or factoring large primes, it is known that they will become completely insecure with the emergence of quantum computers. We may therefore see a shift towards signature protocols that will remain secure even in a post-quantum world. Ideally, such schemes would provide unconditional or information-theoretic security. In this paper, we aim to provide an accessible and comprehensive review of existing unconditionally securesecure signature schemes for signing classical messages, with a focus on unconditionally secure quantum signature schemes.

  7. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  8. Ce3+-Doped garnet phosphors: composition modification, luminescence properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiguo; Meijerink, Andries

    2017-01-03

    Garnets have the general formula of A 3 B 2 C 3 O 12 and form a wide range of inorganic compounds, occurring both naturally (gemstones) and synthetically. Their physical and chemical properties are closely related to the structure and composition. In particular, Ce 3+ -doped garnet phosphors have a long history and are widely applied, ranging from flying spot cameras, lasers and phosphors in fluorescent tubes to more recent applications in white light LEDs, as afterglow materials and scintillators for medical imaging. Garnet phosphors are unique in their tunability of the luminescence properties through variations in the {A}, [B] and (C) cation sublattice. The flexibility in phosphor composition and the tunable luminescence properties rely on design and synthesis strategies for new garnet compositions with tailor-made luminescence properties. It is the aim of this review to discuss the variation in luminescence properties of Ce 3+ -doped garnet materials in relation to the applications. This review will provide insight into the relation between crystal chemistry and luminescence for the important class of Ce 3+ -doped garnet phosphors. It will summarize previous research on the structural design and optical properties of garnet phosphors and also discuss future research opportunities in this field.

  9. Digital Signature Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

  10. Tattoo removal by Q-switched yttrium aluminium garnet laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Esmann, J; Serup, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tattoo removal by Q-switched yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) lasers is golden standard; however, clients' satisfaction with treatment is little known. OBJECTIVE: To determine clients' satisfaction with tattoo removal. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four tattoo removal clients who had...... attended the private clinic 'Centre for Laser Surgery', Hellerup, Denmark, from 2001 to 2013 completed a questionnaire concerning outcome expectations, level of pain experiences and satisfaction with tattoo removal. The laser surgeon and his team were blinded from data handling. The study design included...... relative to colour of tattoo on a scale from 0 (no effect) to 10 (complete removal) scored a mean of blue 9.5, black 9.4, yellow 8.9, red 8.8 and green 6.5. Clients were dissatisfied with green pigment remnants, which could mimic bruising. One hundred and twenty-nine clients (84%) experienced moderate...

  11. Optical spectroscopy of the Ce-doped multicomponent garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canimoglu, A.; Karabulut, Y.; Ayvacikli, M.; Muresan, L.E.; Perhaita, I.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.; Garcia Guinea, J.; Karali, T.; Can, N.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report our results referring to the preparation of Ce doped Y 2.22 MgGa 2 Al 2 SiO 12 , Y 1.93 MgAl 4 SiO 12 and Y 2.22 Gd 0.75 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 using solid state reaction at high temperature. Several complementary methods (i.e. powder x-ray diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) were studied to examine the effects of the synthesis procedure on the morphology and structure. XRD analyses revealed that all compounds include yttrium aluminate phase with garnet structure. Cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out for clarification of relationship between host lattice defects and the spectral luminescence emissions. Luminescence emission of phosphors is peaked at 530 nm assigned to 5d-4f transitions of the dopant Ce 3+ ions with a broad emission band in 400–700 nm range. Under electron irradiation, the emission spectrum of Ce doped (YGd) 3 Ga 2 Al 3 O 12 is well defined and has a characteristic fairly narrow and sharp emission band peaking at 312 nm and 624 nm corresponding to transition of 6 P 7/2 → 8 S 7/2 and 6 G J → 6 P J (Gd 3+ ), respectively. We suggest some of phosphors might be excellent phototherapy phosphor materials under electron excitation. - Highlights: • Ce-doped Multicomponent Garnets were prepared solid state reaction method. • The shape and size of phosphor particles were examined. • The narrow band UV B emission due to Gd 3+ ions were observed.

  12. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  13. UV Signature Mutations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  14. Machine Fault Signature Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratesh Jayaswal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present recent developments in the field of machine fault signature analysis with particular regard to vibration analysis. The different types of faults that can be identified from the vibration signature analysis are, for example, gear fault, rolling contact bearing fault, journal bearing fault, flexible coupling faults, and electrical machine fault. It is not the intention of the authors to attempt to provide a detailed coverage of all the faults while detailed consideration is given to the subject of the rolling element bearing fault signature analysis.

  15. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  16. Fractographic and three body abrasion behaviour of Al-Garnet-C hybrid chill cast composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandekar, Nityanand; Prasad, M. G. Anantha

    2017-08-01

    Fractographic and tribological behaviour of hybrid composite of aluminum alloy LM13 matrix with garnet and carbon was investigated. Conventional stir casting technique was used to fabricate the composites with chill cast technique. Various chill materials like Copper, Steel, Iron and Silicon carbide were used to improve the directional solidification. The garnet being added ranges from 3 to 12 wt-% in steps of 3wt-% and constant 3wt-% of carbon. The experiment evaluates the mechanical, fractographic and three body abrasion behaviour of the hybrid composites for various parameters of load, garnet and chills. Microstructural characterization of the composite samples revealed a uniform distribution of reinforcements with minimum clustering. SEM was used for examine worn surfaces. The addition of garnet and carbon reinforcement decreases the wear rate of hybrid composites. Fracture behaviour showed the changes from ductile mode to brittle mode of failure. Further, directional chilling with copper chill improves the wear resistance of the composites.

  17. Variety in chemical zonation of garnet in eclogite from Nové Dvory, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakamura, D.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 150, - (2005) ISSN 1609-0144. [International eclogite conference /7./. 03.07.2005-09.07.2005, Graz] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : garnet * zonation * eclogite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. An experimental study on the transformation kinetics of spinel lherzolite to garnet lherzolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, M.; Kubo, T.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    The phase transformation from spinel lherzolite to garnet lherzolite occurs at around 2.0 GPa in the upper mantle. In this transformation, spinel reacts with pyroxenes to form garnet. Previous studies have reported the reaction textures of natural peridotite samples (e.g., Obata and Morten, 1987), the phase boundary of this transformation from high-pressure experiments (e.g., Walter et al., 2002), and the behavior of the plates affected by this transformation (e.g., Simon and Podladchikov, 2008). In spite of many studies on this transformation, the reaction kinetics has been poorly known and it is difficult to discuss time-dependent processes of the transformation. In order to study the kinetics of this reaction, we conducted the high-pressure experiments in the garnet lherzoltite stability field (3.2 GPa and 1000-1200°C for 0.6-30 hours) with a spinel single crystal embedded into powder mixture of orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene. Starting materials were the crystals from San Carlos mantle xenolith. In some experiments, spinel surface was deposited by platinum and half of the spinel was covered with powdered olivine to examine the Kirkendall effect. Microstructural observations of recovered samples revealed that garnet reaction rim was formed between single crystalline spinel and polycrystalline pyroxenes. The width of garnet reaction rim (x)t linearly increased with the square root of time t and the kinetics of garnet growth can be described by [x(t)]2 = 1.3×10-8m2s-1exp(-188kJmol-1/RT)t, based on the diffusion-controlled growth mechanism. This is much faster than the lattice diffusion coefficients of divalent species in garnet previously reported (e.g., Ganguly et al., 1998). Platinum markers were found to be located at the spinel-garnet interface, suggesting that the garnet reaction rim grew toward the pyroxene region, and the slowest diffusion species was Si4+. We experimentally reproduced the formation of corona texture developed around spinel core with

  19. Synthesis, characterization and luminescence spectroscopy of oxide nanopowders activated with trivalent lanthanide ions: The garnet family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speghini, Adolfo; Piccinelli, Fabio; Bettinelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we deal with the preparation, structural investigation and especially optical spectroscopy of the garnet family of oxide materials activated with trivalent lanthanide ions, in the nanocrystalline form. In particular, attention is devoted here to the important garnet hosts; their synthesis, structure and luminescence spectroscopy are presented and discussed, with particular emphasis given to the possibility of obtaining efficient luminescence from trivalent lanthanide ions at the nanoscale, and to the potential and envisaged technological applications of this class of materials.

  20. Genesis of Ultra-High Pressure Garnet Pyroxenite in Orogenic Peridotites and its bearing on the Isotopic Chemical Heterogeneity in the Mantle Source of Oceanic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly

    2017-04-01

    The genesis of ultra-high pressure (UHP) garnet pyroxenites in orogenic peridotite massifs and its implications on the formation of chemical heterogeneities in the mantle and on basalt petrogenesis are still not fully understood. Some UHP (diamond-bearing) garnet pyroxenites have isotopic, and major and trace element compositions similar to the recycled oceanic crustal component observed in oceanic basalts [1-6]. These pyroxenites hence provide an exceptional opportunity to investigate in situ the nature and scale of the Earth's mantle chemical heterogeneities. Here, we present an integrated geochemical study of UHP garnet pyroxenites from the Ronda (Betic Belt, S. Spain) and Beni Bousera (Rif Belt, N. Morocco) peridotite massifs. This investigation encompasses, in the same sample, bulk rock major and trace elements, as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic analyses. According to their Al2O3 content, we classify UHP garnet pyroxenites into three groups that have distinct trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signatures. Group A pyroxenites (Al2O3: 15 - 17.5 wt. %) are characterized by low initial 87Sr/86Sr, relatively high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb and 176Hf/177Hf ratios, and highly variable 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios. Group B pyroxenites (Al2O3 element, and isotopic compositions of the studied Ronda and Beni Bousera UHP garnet pyroxenites lend support to the "Marble Cake Mantle" model [7] for the genesis of these pyroxenites. This model envisions the mantle source of oceanic basalts as a mélange of subducted, ancient oceanic crust —-represented by garnet pyroxenites in orogenic peridotites—- intimately mixed with peridotites by mantle convection. The present study reveals, however, that besides this exotic component of ancient recycled oceanic crust, the genesis of these pyroxenites requires a previously unnoticed component of recycled lower continental crust akin to the lower crustal section of the lithosphere where these UHP garnet pyroxenites now reside in

  1. Advanced Missile Signature Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  2. Metastable garnet in oceanic crust at the top of the lower mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tomoaki; Ohtani, Eiji; Kondo, Tadashi; Kato, Takumi; Toma, Motomasa; Hosoya, Tomofumi; Sano, Asami; Kikegawa, Takumi; Nagase, Toshiro

    As oceanic tectonic plates descend into the Earth's lower mantle, garnet (in the basaltic crust) and silicate spinel (in the underlying peridotite layer) each decompose to form silicate perovskite-the 'post-garnet' and 'post-spinel' transformations, respectively. Recent phase equilibrium studies have shown that the post-garnet transformation occurs in the shallow lower mantle in a cold slab, rather than at approximately 800 km depth as earlier studies indicated, with the implication that the subducted basaltic crust is unlikely to become buoyant enough to delaminate as it enters the lower mantle. But here we report results of a kinetic study of the post-garnet transformation, obtained from in situ X-ray observations using sintered diamond anvils, which show that the kinetics of the post-garnet transformation are significantly slower than for the post-spinel transformation. Although metastable spinel quickly breaks down at a temperature of 1,000 K, we estimate that metastable garnet should survive of the order of 10 Myr even at 1,600 K. Accordingly, the expectation of where the subducted oceanic crust would be buoyant spans a much wider depth range at the top of the lower mantle, when transformation kinetics are taken into account.

  3. High-pressure crystallization vs. recrystallization origin of garnet pyroxenite-eclogite within subduction related lithologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryad, S. W.; Jedlicka, R.; Hauzenberger, C.; Racek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Mafic layers displaying transition between clinopyroxenite and eclogite within peridotite from felsic granulite in the Bohemian Massif (Lower Austria) have been investigated. The mafic-ultramafic bodies shared a common granulite facies metamorphism with its hosting felsic rocks, but they still preserve evidence of eclogite facies metamorphism. The selected mafic layer for this study is represented by garnet with omphacite in the core of coarse-grained clinopyroxene, while fine-grained clinopyroxene in the matrix is diopside. In addition, garnet contains inclusions of omphacite, alkali feldspars, hydrous and other phases with halogens and/or CO2. Textural relations along with compositional zoning in garnet from the clinopyroxenite-eclogite layers favour solid-state recrystallization of the precursor minerals in the inclusions and formation of garnet and omphacite during subduction. Textures and major and trace element distribution in garnet indicate two stages of garnet growth that record eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies overprint. The possible model explaining the textural and compositional changes of minerals is that the granulite facies overprint occurred after formation and exhumation of the eclogite facies rocks.

  4. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarulu, P.; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Kasipathi, C.; Ramakrishna, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology. - Highlights: ► For the first time, External PIXE technique was employed to analyse the East Indian garnet gemstones. ► The trace and minor elements are estimated using External PIXE technique. ► Major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD (Crystal structure and lattice parameters). ► Almandine variety of garnet gemstone is found to be abundant fraction in the present study.

  5. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  6. Metamorphic re-equilibration of highly chromian garnet-rich xenoliths from South African kimberlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, Tim; Harte, Ben; Gurney, John

    2010-05-01

    A history of decompression and metasomatism is preserved in a suite of highly chromian, garnet-rich peridotitic xenoliths with peridotitic affinities from the Newlands and Bobbejaan kimberlites, South Africa. A high proportion of the garnets and chromites in these rocks plot in the diamond facies fields on Cr2O3-CaO and Cr2O3-MgO wt. % plots; Cr-rich compositions are found extensively in the lherzolite field as well as in the harzburgitic field. Compositions at clinopyroxene-garnet boundaries for the final stages of mineral equilibration indicate conditions corresponding to cool, continental, geotherms with pressures of 35-55 kb and temperatures of 850-1250°C. Petrographic evidence suggests that the earliest known mineralogies were those of olivine-bearing garnet-rich rocks with granuloblastic textures. These were modified by a decompression event driving the reaction garnet + olivine = spinel (chromite) + pyroxene(s), the evidence for which is preserved in garnets showing crystalligraphically orientated inclusions of spinel and pyroxenes. In addition, most of the garnets have strongly developed major element zonation patterns which are of three principal types: (1) external re-equilibration between garnet and matrix; (2) internal re-equilibration between garnet and its chromite and pyroxene inclusions; (3) metasomatically induced zoning between garnet core and a metasomatic rim. Formation of these zonations appears to have overlapped in time. (1) and (2) show a major decrease in Cr/Al and modification of Ca/Mg, whilst (3) primarily involves an increase in Ca/Mg and Ti towards the garnet rim. The compositional trajectories associated with zonations (1) and (2) in Ca-Cr plots, may be closely modelled by means of sliding, garnet-spinel transition reactions whose slopes vary with bulk Ca composition; at intermediate Ca compositions the trajectories closely match the slope of the lherzolite line or harzburgite/lherzolite boundary. The decreasing Cr/Al of the garnet in

  7. Physical Properties and Behaviour of Highly Bi-Substituted Magneto-Optic Garnets for Applications in Integrated Optics and Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nur-E-Alam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth and Bi-substituted iron garnet thin film materials exhibit strong potential for application in various fields of science and frontier optical technologies. Bi-substituted iron garnets possess extraordinary optical and MO properties and are still considered as the best MO functional materials for various emerging integrated optics and photonics applications. However, these MO garnet materials are rarely seen in practical photonics use due to their high optical losses in the visible spectral region. In this paper, we report on the physical properties and magneto-optic behaviour of high-performance RF sputtered highly bismuth-substituted iron garnet and garnet-oxide nanocomposite films of generic composition type (Bi, Dy/Lu3(Fe, Ga/Al5O12. Our newly synthesized garnet materials form high-quality nanocrystalline thin film layers which demonstrate excellent optical and MO properties suitable for a wide range of applications in integrated optics and photonics.

  8. Bonding mechanism of a yttrium iron garnet film on Si without the use of an intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, Konstantinos; Patriarche, Gilles; Talneau, Anne; Youssef, Jamal Ben

    2014-01-01

    Direct bonding of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) on silicon without the use of an intermediate bonding layer is demonstrated and characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. During the bonding experiment, the garnet is reduced in the presence of oxide-free silicon. As a result, a 5 nm thick SiO 2 /amorphous-YIG bilayer is formed and welds the garnet to silicon.

  9. The Friningen Garnet Peridotite (central Sweden): a good example of the characteristic PTt path of a cold mantle wedge garnet peridotite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillio, M.; van Roermund, H.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    were traditionally interpreted as fragments of sub-oceanic, Iapetus-related, lithosphere, incorporated into the Scandian nappe pile during the Caledonian orogeny. This interpretation was first challenged by Van Roermund (1989) who described for the first time the occurrence of garnet-bearing

  10. Immiscible melt droplets in garnet, as represented by ilmenite-magnetite-spinel spheroids in an eclogite-garnet peridotite association, Blanský les Granulite Massif, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, S.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Erban, V.; Halodová, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 1 (2016), s. 82-92 ISSN 0003-004X Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : eclogite * Fe-Ti-rich melt * garnet peridotite * garnetite * Ilmenite-magnetite-spinel * Invited Centennial article * Moldanubian Zone * UHP crystallization Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2016

  11. Characterisation of a garnet population from the Sikkim Himalaya: insights into the rates and mechanisms of porphyroblast crystallisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F. R.; Gaidies, F.

    2017-07-01

    The compositional zoning of a garnet population contained within a garnet-grade metapelitic schist from the Lesser Himalayan Sequence of Sikkim (India) provides insight into the rates and kinetic controls of metamorphism, and the extent of chemical equilibration during porphyroblast crystallisation in the sample. Compositional profiles across centrally sectioned garnet crystals representative of the observed crystal size distribution indicate a strong correlation between garnet crystal size and core composition with respect to major end-member components. Systematic steepening of compositional gradients observed from large to small grains is interpreted to reflect a progressive decrease in the growth rate of relatively late-nucleated garnet as a result of an increase in interfacial energies during progressive crystallisation. Numerical simulation of garnet nucleation and growth using an equilibrium approach accounting for chemical fractionation associated with garnet crystallisation reproduces both the observed crystal size distribution and the chemical zoning of the entire garnet population. Simulation of multicomponent intracrystalline diffusion within the population indicates rapid heating along the pressure-temperature path, in excess of 100°C Myr^{-1}. Radial garnet growth is correspondingly rapid, with minimum rates of 1.4 mm Myr^{-1}. As a consequence of such rapid crystallisation, the sample analysed in this study provides a close to primary record of the integrated history of garnet nucleation and growth. Our model suggests that nucleation of garnet occurred continuously between incipient garnet crystallisation at ˜520°C, 4.5 kbar and peak metamorphic conditions at ˜565°C, 5.6 kbar. The good fit between the observed and predicted garnet growth zoning suggests that the departure from equilibrium associated with garnet nucleation and growth was negligible, despite the particularly fast rates of metamorphic heating. Consequently, rates of major element

  12. Melts of garnet lherzolite: experiments, models and comparison to melts of pyroxenite and carbonated lherzolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Timothy L.; Holbig, Eva S.; Barr, Jay A.; Till, Christy B.; Krawczynski, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Phase equilibrium experiments on a compositionally modified olivine leucitite from the Tibetan plateau have been carried out from 2.2 to 2.8 GPa and 1,380–1,480 °C. The experiments-produced liquids multiply saturated with spinel and garnet lherzolite phase assemblages (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel ± garnet) under nominally anhydrous conditions. These SiO2-undersaturated liquids and published experimental data are utilized to develop a predictive model for garnet lherzolite melting of compositionally variable mantle under anhydrous conditions over the pressure range of 1.9–6 GPa. The model estimates the major element compositions of garnet-saturated melts for a range of mantle lherzolite compositions and predicts the conditions of the spinel to garnet lherzolite phase transition for natural peridotite compositions at above-solidus temperatures and pressures. We compare our predicted garnet lherzolite melts to those of pyroxenite and carbonated lherzolite and develop criteria for distinguishing among melts of these different source types. We also use the model in conjunction with a published predictive model for plagioclase and spinel lherzolite to characterize the differences in major element composition for melts in the plagioclase, spinel and garnet facies and develop tests to distinguish between melts of these three lherzolite facies based on major elements. The model is applied to understand the source materials and conditions of melting for high-K lavas erupted in the Tibetan plateau, basanite–nephelinite lavas erupted early in the evolution of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, as well as younger tholeiitic to alkali lavas from Kilauea.

  13. Practical quantum digital signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-03-01

    Guaranteeing nonrepudiation, unforgeability as well as transferability of a signature is one of the most vital safeguards in today's e-commerce era. Based on fundamental laws of quantum physics, quantum digital signature (QDS) aims to provide information-theoretic security for this cryptographic task. However, up to date, the previously proposed QDS protocols are impractical due to various challenging problems and most importantly, the requirement of authenticated (secure) quantum channels between participants. Here, we present the first quantum digital signature protocol that removes the assumption of authenticated quantum channels while remaining secure against the collective attacks. Besides, our QDS protocol can be practically implemented over more than 100 km under current mature technology as used in quantum key distribution.

  14. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET POWDERS Y3AL5O12, SYNTHESIZED BY SOL–GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Baranchikov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper presents results of characterization for neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanopowders - YAG:Nd3+ by the method of scanning electronic microscopy. Method. Synthesis of YAG:Nd3+ was carried out by sol-gel method from nitrate or acetate - nitrate solutions with addition of some organic compounds and ammonia as well. Such substances were used as the source ones: oxides of neodymium and yttrium with the content of the basic substance equal to 99.999 %; organic compounds: citric acid with the content of the basic substance not less than 99.0 %; ethylene glycol (99.5%; the ammonium lauryl sulfate (99.0 %; urea (99.0 % of Alfa Aesar, Fluka, Aldrich companies. Oxides of yttrium and neodymium (5 at. % were dissolved in 50% acetic acid, nitrate aluminum was added with a view to the resulting product Y2,85Nd0,15Al5,0O12, the solution was stirred and heated to 60С before reaching its transparency and uniformity. The weight of the portion corresponding to the stoichiometry YAG was 2.0 g. 50 % aqueous solutions of organic substances or 5% NH4OH in a weight ratio of 1:1 to the weight of the garnet were added in aqueous solutions, placed into glass cups. The solutions were thoroughly mixed first using a conventional stirrer, then on ultrasonic installation with simultaneous 60 С heating for 2 hours. Drying of solutions to the consistency of a powder or a thick gel was carried out at 110 С. Then the samples were placed into platinum cups and annealed in a tube furnace at 950 - 1050 С for the period from 0.5 to 2 hours. Additional annealing of the powders in the air at 950 - 1060С were carried out for the purpose of powders clarifying for residual amorphous carbon removal. Main Results. The synthesized powder precursors and powders after annealing were examined using a polarizing microscope to identify anisotropic crystalline phases. X-ray analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out on a DRON - 4 and UDR - 63

  15. Experimental Constraints on the Partitioning and Valence of V and Cr in Garnet and Coexisting Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Berthet, S.; Newville, M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments with garnet and coexisting melt have been carried out across a range of oxygen fugacities (near hematite-magnetite (HM) to below the iron-wustite (IW) buffers) at 1.7 GPa to study the partitioning and valence of Cr and V in both phases. Experiments were carried out in a non end loaded piston cylinder apparatus, and the run products were analyzed with electron microprobe and xray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis at beamline 13-ID at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Lab. The valence of vanadium and chromium were determined using the position and intensity of the Ka pre-edge peaks, calibrated on a series of Cr and Vbearing standard glasses. This technique has been applied to V and Cr in glasses and V in spinels previously, and in these isotropic phases there are no orientational effects on the XANES spectra (Righter et al., 2006, Amer. Mineral. 91, 1643-1656). We also now demonstrate this to be true for V and Cr in garnet. Also, previous work has shown that V has a higher valence in the glass (or melt) than in the coexisting spinel. This is also true for V in garnet-glass pairs in this study. Vanadium valence in garnets varies from 2.7 below the IW buffer to 3.7 near HM, and for coexisting glass it varies from 3.2 to 4.3. Vanadium valence measured in some natural garnets from mantle localities indicates V in the more reduced range at 2.5. Comparisons will be made between fO2 estimated from V valence and other methods for garnet-bearing mantle samples. In contrast, Cr valence measured in garnet and coexisting glass for all experimental and natural samples is 2.9- 3.0, suggesting that the valence of Cr does not vary within either phase across a large fO2 range. These results demonstrate that while V varies from 2+ to 3+ to 4+ in garnet-melt systems, Cr does not, and this will ultimately affect the partitioning behavior of these two elements in natural systems. Garnet/melt D(Cr) are between 12 and 17 across this range

  16. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  17. Anisotropic magnetic properties of dysprosium iron garnet (DyIG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahoubi, M; Younsi, W; Soltani, M-L; Ouladdiaf, B

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic properties of dysprosium iron garnet (DyIG) have been studied by performing high resolution powder neutron diffraction experiments and high dc fields magnetizations on single crystals. Among all the reflections (hkl) indexed in the nuclear cubic space group (CSG) Ia 3-bar d with h+k+l=2n and k=[000], the superstructure lines (hkl)* forbidden by the symmetry (222)* and (622)* are not observed in the patterns at all temperatures. The pattern at 130 K is well interpreted within the magnetic modes F belonging to the irreducible representation (IR) T 1g of the CSG and identified to the room temperature ferrimagnetic Neel model. The high magnetic field behavior of the spontaneous collinear magnetic structure (MS) along the easy axis (EA) is isotropic. Below 130 K, the patterns exhibit additional magnetic superstructure lines. They are associated to the appearance of the spontaneous non collinear MS which is described in the subgroup of the CSG, R 3-bar c within the IR A 2g . A strong magnetization anisotropy (MA) is observed at 1.5 K in the low symmetry phases were the spin reorientation transition (SR) occur at T RS =14.5 K. The onset of MA is detected below two characteristic temperatures, Ta 1 =125 K and Ta 2 =75 K respectively to the hard axis (HA) and . Symmetry arguments are used in the framework of the theory of representation analysis (RA) applied to the subgroup of R 3-bar c, C2/c within the IR A g . It seems that this MA results essentially from the difference between the spontaneous non collinear MS and the field induced (FI) configurations. All results are discussed with previous neutrons studies.

  18. Metamorphic re-equilibration and metasomatism of highly chromian, garnet-rich peridotitic xenoliths from South African kimberlites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, Tim J.; Harte, Ben; Gurney, John J.

    2012-09-01

    A history of decompression and metasomatism is preserved in a suite of highly chromian, garnet-rich peridotitic xenoliths from the diamondiferous Newlands and Bobbejaan kimberlites, South Africa. A high proportion of the garnets and chromites in these rocks plot in the diamond-facies fields on Cr2O3-CaO and Cr2O3-MgO wt% plots, and Cr-rich compositions are found in both the harzburgitic and lherzolitic fields. Petrographic evidence suggests that the earliest known mineralogies were those of olivine-bearing, garnet-rich rocks. These were modified by a decompression event that caused recrystallization of garnets and led to orientated spinel and pyroxene inclusions in garnet. Chemical zonation within garnet is divided into (1) external re-equilibration between garnet and matrix; (2) internal re-equilibration between garnet and its inclusions; and (3) metasomatically induced zoning between garnet core and a metasomatic rim. The compositional trajectories associated with zonations (1) and (2) in Ca-Cr plots may be closely modelled by means of sliding, garnet-spinel transition reactions whose slopes vary with bulk Ca composition; at intermediate Ca compositions, the trajectories closely match the slope of the lherzolite line or harzburgite/lherzolite boundary. The decreasing Cr/(Cr + Al) of the garnet in these zonations is in agreement with the evidence for decompression given by the petrographic recrystallization features, and overall decompression of probably 10-20 kb is indicated. We speculate on the age of these events, and consider the possibility of their association with major orogenic events documented by South African crustal rocks at 2.9-2.7 Ga, and events evidenced by peridotite-xenolith Re-Os model ages at 2.8-2.7 Ga.

  19. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M.E.; Krol, M.C.; Hofmann, M.E.G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of

  20. Signatures of the Invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    Strom, D

    2003-01-01

    On the Net it is possible to take a look at art from afar via Virtual Museums. One such exhibition was recently in the New York Museum of Modern Art's branch, PS1. Entitled 'Signatures of the Invisible' it was a collaborative effort between artists and physicists (1/2 page).

  1. Massively parallel signature sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daixing; Rao, Mahendra S; Walker, Roger; Khrebtukova, Irina; Haudenschild, Christian D; Miura, Takumi; Decola, Shannon; Vermaas, Eric; Moon, Keith; Vasicek, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    Massively parallel signature sequencing is an ultra-high throughput sequencing technology. It can simultaneously sequence millions of sequence tags, and, therefore, is ideal for whole genome analysis. When applied to expression profiling, it reveals almost every transcript in the sample and provides its accurate expression level. This chapter describes the technology and its application in establishing stem cell transcriptome databases.

  2. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  3. Compositional tuning of yttrium iron garnet film properties by multi-beam pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposito, Alberto; Stenning, Gavin B.G.; Gregory, Simon A.; Groot, Peter A.J. de; Eason, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    We report an investigation of the effects of variation of composition on the properties of yttrium iron garnet films grown on yttrium aluminium garnet substrates by multi-beam pulsed laser deposition. The ferromagnetic resonance linewidth is used as a quality factor: a significant variation is noticed from changing composition, with an experimentally observed optimum at Y 3.5 Fe 4.5 O 12 . - Highlights: • Compositional tuning of materials is demonstrated via multi-pulsed laser deposition. • YIG (yttrium iron garnet) films with variable composition are prepared. • Variation of YIG properties with changing composition is investigated. • Growth dynamics of YIG is investigated to optimise FMR (ferromagnetic resonance). • FMR linewidth is minimised approximately at Y 3.5 Fe 4.5 O 12

  4. Compositional tuning of yttrium iron garnet film properties by multi-beam pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sposito, Alberto, E-mail: as11g10@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO171BJ (United Kingdom); Stenning, Gavin B.G.; Gregory, Simon A.; Groot, Peter A.J. de [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO171BJ (United Kingdom); Eason, Robert W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO171BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    We report an investigation of the effects of variation of composition on the properties of yttrium iron garnet films grown on yttrium aluminium garnet substrates by multi-beam pulsed laser deposition. The ferromagnetic resonance linewidth is used as a quality factor: a significant variation is noticed from changing composition, with an experimentally observed optimum at Y{sub 3.5}Fe{sub 4.5}O{sub 12}. - Highlights: • Compositional tuning of materials is demonstrated via multi-pulsed laser deposition. • YIG (yttrium iron garnet) films with variable composition are prepared. • Variation of YIG properties with changing composition is investigated. • Growth dynamics of YIG is investigated to optimise FMR (ferromagnetic resonance). • FMR linewidth is minimised approximately at Y{sub 3.5}Fe{sub 4.5}O{sub 12}.

  5. Characteristics of Polycrystalline Garnets in Micaschists From the Southern Menderes Massif (Turkey) and the Solitude Range (BC, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Seaton, N.

    2008-12-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis of garnets in metamorphic rocks has revealed the presence of grain boundaries within what appear, based on morphology, to be single crystals. There have only been a few previous studies that have described these types of polycrystals in nature. In this study we analyzed garnets from two suites of metamorphic rocks: kyanite-staurolite schist from the Solitude Range, SW Rocky Mountains (BC, Canada), and mica schist from the southern Menderes Massif (western Turkey). Garnets from both sites are growth zoned and formed during a single metamorphic event, although the Solitude Range garnets record in their zoning and inclusion textures a change from chloritoid-present to staurolite- present (chloritoid-out) reaction history. The garnet-bearing rocks from these sites formed at P-T conditions of 430-550 C, 7-8 kbar (Menderes) and 550-600 C, 6-7 kbar (BC). Less than 10% of the garnets analyzed are polycrystals, but all polycrystals detected have similar characteristics: high-angle misorientation boundaries that crosscut inclusions and inclusion trails. Most polycrystals have 2-3 domains (crystals), but one complex polycrystal was comprised of 16 distinct lattice domains. In most cases, misorientation boundaries crosscut growth zoning, but one Menderes polycrystal exhibited distinct zoning in each domain. Most polycrystals likely formed early in the garnet growth history as closely-spaced nuclei coalesced, but clustering (coalescence) continued throughout the history of garnet crystallization in these rocks.

  6. Defining conditions of garnet growth across the central and southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, T. M.; Catlos, E. J.; Kelly, E. D.; Cemen, I.; Ozerdem, C.; Atakturk, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we apply thermodynamic modeling using Theriak-Domino to garnet-bearing rocks from the central and southern portions of the Menderes Massif to gain insight into the dynamics of western Turkey as the region experienced a transition from collisional to extensional tectonics. To this end, we report new pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from garnet-bearing rocks collected along the Alasehir detachment fault, a prominent exhumation structure in the central portion of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, constituting the southern margin of the Alasehir Graben. These paths are compared to those from the Selimiye shear zone in the Southern (Cine) Massif. Two Alasehir garnets collected from the same outcrop record two P-T paths: 1) a prograde path beginning at 565oC and 6.4 kbar increasing to 592 oC and 7.5 kbar; and 2) near isobaric growth initiating at 531oC and 7.1 kbar and terminating at 571oC and 7.3 kbar. High-resolution P-T paths could not be modeled for the majority of Alasehir samples due to diffusional modification of garnet. However, conditions were estimated by garnet isopleth thermobarometry at the point of highest spessartine content for each crystal. Calculated P-T values for this subset of samples range between 566-651oC and 6.2-6.8 kbar. Despite this broad range, these P-T conditions are consistent with what is observed in the modeled paths. Th-Pb ages of matrix monazite range from 35.8±3.0 to 20.6±2.4 Ma, suggesting metamorphism in the central Menderes Massif occurred over a 15 m.y. period. Selimiye shear zone rocks show distinct N-shaped P-T paths, suggesting garnets in the central and southern portion of the Menderes Massif record distinctly different tectonic histories.

  7. Optical bistability in erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal combined with a laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-01-10

    Optical bistability was observed in a simple structure of an injection laser diode combined with an erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. Since a hysteresis characteristic exists in the relationship between the wavelength and the injection current of a laser diode, an optical memory function capable of holding the output status is confirmed. In addition, an optical signal inversion was caused by the decrease of transmission of the erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal against the red shift (principally mode hopping) of the laser diode. It is suggested that the switching time of this phenomenon is the time necessary for a mode hopping by current injection.

  8. Comparison of iron ion implantation effects in bubble garnet and YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marest, G.; Perez, A.; Gerard, P.

    1984-06-01

    Ferrimagnetic bubble garnets and YAG single crystals were implanted at room temperature with 100 keV 57 Fe + ions in the dose range 10 16 up to 10 17 ions.cm 2 . The samples were analyzed using the conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy technique. In both materials implanted iron is found in three states: metallic precipitates, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ with the dominant role for Fe 3+ in bubble garnet whereas metallic precipitates constitute the main component in YAG. The existence and the different behaviour of these species as a function of implanted ion dose are discussed taking into account the nature of the elements present in the two targets

  9. Spectral and luminescence properties of Cr(3+) ad Nd(3+) ions in gallium garnet crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, A. L.; Ostroumov, V. G.; Saidov, Z. S.; Smirnov, V. A.; Shcherbakov, I. A.

    1986-01-01

    The effective peak stimulated-emission cross section of chromium-doped gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnets (GSGG) has been determined to be 8.5 x 10 to the -21st sq cm at room temperature. The values of the energy-gap Delta E(2E-4T2) chromim fluorescence lifetime and the chromium to neodymium energy-transfer parameter C(DA) (Cr-Nd) are determined for several gallium garnets. Temperature-dependent absorption and luminescence spectra of neodymium-doped GGG and GSGG are reported and discussed in the context of their use as laser materials.

  10. Tibetan garnet records early Eocene initiation of thickening in the Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Hacker, Bradley; Lee, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Himalayan orogeny depend on the age at which crustal thickening commenced. To investigate this age, we analyzed garnet from middle crustal rocks exposed in the north Himalayan Mabja and Kangmar gneiss domes of Tibet using Lu-Hf geochronology. Garnet yielded Lu-Hf a...... recrystallization during subsequent high-temperature ductile extension. The new Lu-Hf ages are the first to confirm that crustal thickening and contraction in the Tibetan Himalaya was broadly synchronous with the early Eocene collision between Greater India and the Eurasian plate...

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG and yttrium aluminum iron garnet (YAlG nanoferrite via sol-gel synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiyyu Abdullahi Musa

    Full Text Available The structural and magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG and yttrium aluminum iron garnet (Y3AlxFe5−xO12, YAIG (x = 0.2, 0.6, 1, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2 nanoparticles were investigated. The samples were prepared via auto combustion sol-gel technique, using citric acid as chelating agent and fuel for the combustion process. The obtained powder was heated at 950 °C. X-ray diffraction peaks confirmed the garnet phase formation. Crystallite size increases with Al from 28.5894 to 28.6170 nm. Lattice constant of the samples was found to decrease from 12.4674 Å to 12.3233 Å as Al increase from 0.0 to 2.2. FTIR was used to confirm the garnet structure, the main vibrating modes were observed to shift to higher wave number with increasing Al concentration. Saturation magnetization, Ms shows a decreasing trend from 20.721 to 0.7586 emu/g with increasing Al from 0.0 to 2.2. Furthermore, the decreasing trends in the static magnetic properties of YAIG samples may be due to the introduction of Al ions in the YIG crystal lattice. High content of Al substitution on YIG leads to paramagnetic behavior of the ferrite. The grain size decreased from 0.64 μm to 0.32 μm, while the bulk density decreased from 5.058 gcm−3 to 4.233 gcm−3 as Al increase from 0.0 to 2.2. Keywords: YIG, YAIG, Sol-gel, Phase composition, Magnetic properties

  12. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  13. Influence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals with garnet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Zharikov, E.V.; Laptev, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The in fluence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet, gadolinium-gallium garnet, gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnet, and yttrium-scandium-gallium garnet is studied. In addition to basic activator ions these crystals were coactivated also by chromium ions with two wide bands of fundamental absorption within the range of pump tube radiation with maximas close to 450 and 650 nm. The color centers for γ-irradiated samples were observed at 300 K by measuring the adsorption spectra within the 300-800 nm range. Temperature of destruction of the charge trapping sites was determined by the method of thermoluminescence measuring in the 100-500 K temperature range. Detection of recombination center luminescence was accomplished within the 200-1600 nm wavelength range. Chromium ions are found to hinder the formation of color centers as a result of γ-irradiation at room and higher temperatures within the wavelength range over 300 nm; i.e. Cr 3+ ions increase radiation resistance of all the investigated crystals

  14. Scintillating screens based on the single crystalline films of multicomponent garnets: new achievements and possibilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorenko, Yu.; Gorbenko, V.; Zorenko, T.; Paprocki, K.; Nikl, Martin; Mareš, Jiří A.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.; Sidletskiy, O.; Gerasymov, I.; Grinyov, B.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2016), s. 497-502 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ce dopant * garnets * liquid phase epitaxy * luminescence * scintillators * single crystalline films Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.171, year: 2016

  15. Calculation of the a0 value of the unitary cell of garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, N.R.

    1984-06-01

    The calculation of the a 0 (Angstrom) reticular constant of four samples of garnets, collected in the States of Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo and Bahia, in Brazil, is presented. The objective of this calculation is to determine the molecular composition of samples to complete other experimental studies. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Crystal field and magnetism with Wannier functions: rare-earth dopedaluminum garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihóková, Eva; Novák, Pavel; Laguta, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 12 (2015), 1316-1323 ISSN 1002-0721 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal field * ab initio calculations * garnets * rare earths Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.188, year: 2015

  17. Formation of Atoll Garnets in the UHP Eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    bARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems and GEMOC, Department of Earth. 8 and Planetary Sciences ... breakdown of the original. 16 garnet cores and released elements which were subsequently incorporated into the newly-grown. 17 .... The eclogites under investigation form. 14 a part of the Tso Morari ...

  18. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mallika K Jonnalagadda

    2017-11-22

    10.1007/s12040-017-0887-y. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, ... ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems and GEMOC, Department of Earth and Planetary. Sciences ...

  19. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, Himalaya. Mallika K Jonnalagadda Nitin R ... Pune 411 007, India. ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems and GEMOC, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

  20. Single crystalline film scintillators based on the orthosilicate, perovskite and garnet compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Sidletskiy, O.; Grinyov, B.; Nikl, Martin; Mareš, Jiří A.; Martin, T.; Douissard, P.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2012), s. 2260-2268 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Ce 3+ , Tb 3+ and Sc 3+ dopants * garnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2012

  1. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarulu, P; Srinivasa Rao, K; Kasipathi, C; Ramakrishna, Y

    2012-12-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical and magnetooptical properties of bismuth and gallium substituted iron garnet films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansteen, F.; Helseth, L.E.; Johansen, T.H.; Hunderi, O.; Kirilyuk, A.I.; Rasing, T.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    A series of iron garnet films of composition Lu3-xBixFe5-yGayO12 grown on (100) oriented GGG substrates have been studied using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and polar Keff spectroscopy (MOKE). The diagonal and off-diagonal components of the permittivity tensor have been determined in

  3. Origin of garnet and clinopyroxene in Kaapvaal low-T peridotite xenoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, N.S.C.; Irvine, G.J.; Davies, G.R.; Pearson, D.G.; Carlson, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed petrographic, major and trace element and isotope (Re-Os) study is presented on 18 xenoliths from Northern Lesotho kimberlites. The samples represent typical coarse, low-temperature garnet and spinel peridotites and span a P-T range from ∼60 to 150 km depth. With the exception of one

  4. Composition tailoring in the Ce-doped multicomponent garnet epitaxial film scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kučera, M.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Onderišinová, Z.; Hanuš, M.; Babin, Vladimir; Beitlerová, Alena; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2015), s. 3715-3723 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillation * liquid phase epitaxy * photoelectron yield * Ce 3+ * multicomponent garnet Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.425, year: 2015

  5. Rare earth distribution in Peruvian circons, fluorites, apatites, garnets and allanites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, M.J.; Mendoza A, A.

    1981-12-01

    Using spectrographic methods, the distribution of rare earths in different locations of Peru were determinated. La-Ce-Pr-Nd-Pm-Sm-Eu-Gd-Ts-Dy-Ho-Er-Tm-Ys-Lu and their compounds with Y-Sc-Tm in circon, fluorite, apatite, garnet and allanite. Their geochemistry and frequency as well as the economic aspects exploration and applications were analyzed.

  6. Band-gap and band-edge engineering of multicomponent garnet scintillators from first principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yadav, S.K.; Uberuaga, B.P.; Nikl, Martin; Jiang, C.; Stanek, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 5 (2015), "054012-1"-"054012-9" ISSN 2331-7019 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * electronic band gap structure * garnets * band gap engineering Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.061, year: 2015

  7. Reaction texture and Fe-Mg zoning in granulite garnet from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    duration of peak metamorphism during the Pan-African event seems to be in good agreement with ... Pan-African collisional event. 307. Figure 2. Photomicrograph showing the reaction texture and fracture cleavage of a large garnet grain in the sample 881307. The coarse .... the effect of movement of the boundary between.

  8. Temperature evolution of electromotive force from Pt on yttrium-iron-garnet under ferromagnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Ryo; Emoto, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Shinjo, Teruya; Ando, Yuichiro [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Shiraishi, Masashi, E-mail: mshiraishi@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Temperature evolution of electromotive force from Pt due to the inverse spin Hall effect is studied. Pure spin current is injected from yttrium-iron-garnet by using spin pumping technique. The electromotive force from the Pt monotonically decreases with decreasing temperature, and it is showed that there is a deviation between the measured and the calculated electromotive forces.

  9. Origin of sapphirine- and garnet-bearing clinopyroxenite xenoliths entrained in the Jiande basalts, SE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Liang, Zi; Su, Ben-Xun; Zhu, Bin; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah

    2018-04-01

    We present petrological and geochemical data of sapphirine- and garnet-bearing clinopyroxenite xenoliths entrained in the Jiande Cenozoic basalts, SE China, to investigate their igneous and metamorphic history, and reconstruct of the thermal-tectonic evolution of the lithospheric mantle. These xenoliths have an unusual mineral association consisting of clinopyroxene + garnet/kelyphite + spinel (±sapphirine). Clinopyroxene has high Mg# (89-93) and displays convex-upward REE pattern. Garnet, partially to completely kelyphitized, is rich in pyrope end-member. It usually includes relics of spinel, suggesting that garnet was formed at the expense of spinel. The spinel has high MgO (20.8-22.9 wt%) and Al2O3 (64.8-67.9 wt%) contents. Sapphirine, forming a rim on spinel, has homogeneous SiO2 (14.5-14.9 wt%), Al2O3 (60.9-61.7 wt%) and MgO (19.7-20.1 wt%) contents, interpreted to be of metamorphic origin. The subsolidus reaction for the formation of sapphirine is as follows: spinel + garnet = sapphirine + clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene. Thus, the earliest mineral assemblage recorded in these xenoliths was spinel + clinopyroxene. The clinopyroxene in the Jiande clinopyroxenite xenoliths has Li abundances (1.04-1.63 ppm) similar to high-P mafic cumulate but much lower than those in crustal eclogite. In addition, the clinopyroxene and garnet do not show positive Eu anomalies. Therefore, the protolith of these three clinopyroxenite xenoliths was most likely a pyroxenite, originating as clinopyroxene + spinel cumulates from mafic melts percolating through the mantle. Many reaction textures such as formation of garnet and sapphirine were developed during decompression possibly coupled with cooling and melt percolation. During this process, the earlier composition of clinopyroxene and spinel also changed. The latest P-T conditions recorded in these xenoliths were at pressure of 8-10 kbar and temperatures of 1069-1094 °C. These observations imply that these rocks have been

  10. Garnet - two pyroxene rock from the Gridino complex, Russia: a record of the early metasomatic stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgunova, Alena A.; Perchuk, Alexei L.

    2010-05-01

    The Gridino complex is one of the oldest high pressure complexes on the Earth. The most spectacular exposures occur in islands and in a 10-50 m wide belt along the shore of the White Sea in the Gridino area. The exotic blocks show wide range of compositions. In addition to predominating amphibolites and eclogites, there are also peridotites, zoisitites and sapphirine-bearing rocks. The peridotites are represented by garnet - two pyroxene rocks and orthopyroxenites. It this paper we present an intriguing results of the petrological study of the garnet- two pyroxene rock. The garnet- two pyroxene rock considered occurs as elliptical body 4×6 m in size within amphibole-biotite gneiss in the island Visokii. The rock consists of mosaic of coarse-grained primary garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. Accessories are represented by magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and zircon. Garnet contains inclusions of clinopyroxene, Mg-calcite and chlorite. The chlorite inclusions always intergrow with dendritic mineral enriched in REE (mainly Ce) situated on the wall of vacuole which shows the tendency of negative crystal shape. Similar chlorite inclusions are hosted by clino- and orthopyroxenes. The chlorite is of diabantite composition. The inclusions are often surrounded by the two systems of cracks - radial and concentric, which is really exotic phenomenon for crystalline rock. The primary minerals experienced different degree of the retrograde alteration expressed as amphibolization and/or growth of the orthopyroxene-amphibole-garnet symplectites. The retrogression is patchy in the central part of garnet- two pyroxene body, but intensifies towards the rims where primary minerals are absent. Mineral thermobarometry reveals HP rock equilibration at 670-750 оС and 14-20 kbar followed by subisothermal decompression down to 640-740 оС and 6-14 kbar. Specific composition of the chlorite and its association with REE phase in all rock-forming minerals suggests that anhydrous HP

  11. Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the Salmon River Suture Zone, West-Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, D. E.; Vervoort, J. D.; Lewis, R.; Tikoff, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Salmon River Suture Zone (SRSZ) in west-central Idaho records the accretion of island arc terranes to North America. It is modified by the Western Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), a high strain zone within the SRSZ, which defines the present-day boundary between old continental North America and the accreted oceanic assemblages. Timing of the onset of deformation on the WISZ is not well established, primarily due to a poorly constrained metamorphic history. Existing garnet geochronologic studies of units within the SRSZ, using the Sm-Nd isotope system, have provided a framework towards a progressive accretion of arc-derived rocks to North America [1,2]. In this study, we report on the application of the Lu-Hf isotope system to provide ages of garnet growth within the suture zone. This system has the advantage of being insensitive to light rare earth element (LREE)-rich inclusions in garnet, which can complicate Sm-Nd geochronology. Samples were taken from several locations from both along and perpendicular to the suture zone. We report results on two of these samples, within and east of the WISZ. First, a garnet bearing leucocratic layer in a gneissic meta-sedimentary screen near Cascade, Idaho, yields a garnet age of 98 ± 2.0 Ma (2SD). The screen occurs completely within the orthogneisses of the WISZ, and displays similar fabrics and kinematics. Second, a biotite quartzo-feldspathic garnet gneiss from Elk City, Idaho, yields an age 100 ± 2.9 Ma (2SD). This location is ~35 km east of the WISZ, on a sub-parallel deformation zone that was active at the same time. Both samples were single-stage garnet fractions consisting of inclusion-free to inclusion-bearing fragments and whole rock pairs. These ages provide two important implications for the Mesozoic evolution of the western edge of North America. First, transpressional deformation in the WISZ occurred simultaneously with deformation on parallel structures in central Idaho, indicating that a wide zone of deformation

  12. From coronitic to vein garnet growth: the importance of fluid-mineral interplays during granulitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzhorn, Anne-Céline; Verlaguet, Anne; Austrheim, Håkon

    2017-04-01

    Porosity, permeability and fluid content of deep continental crustal rocks play a fundamental role on crucial properties such as rock rheology and rock ability to concentrate mineral resources. Granulitic rocks correspond to high - temperature metamorphic rocks that constitute most of the lower crust. Granulites are classically considered as dry rocks, mostly because their equilibrium P-T conditions are above the dry solidus. However, numerous studies have evidenced the presence of low water activity and CO2-rich fluids during granulitic reactions. A fundamental issue is to understand the potential role of such fluids during granulitization processes: are granulitization reactions fluid-assisted or can they occur in completely dry conditions? How do fluids influence granulitic mineral growth and associated element transfer? To address these key questions, we studied a massif of Precambrian granulitic rocks from the Western Gneiss Region in Norway: the Flatraket massif. It corresponds to quartz-monzonites exhibiting the granulite facies assemblage garnet + plagioclase + K-feldspar + biotite +/- clinopyroxene +/- quartz. These rocks are considered as completely dry, due to both the coronitic texture of garnets, interpreted as solid-state diffusion, and the absence of younger Caledonian eclogitic retrogression. However, we observed garnet veins texturally associated to these coronas, suggesting fluid-driven mass transfer. Moreover, the similar garnet composition in both textures (EMPA analyses) suggests that veins and coronas formed coevally, at granulitic P-T conditions. We performed a detailed microstructural and petrological study (EMPA, SEM) of these rocks that allowed deciphering the complex sequence of granulitic reactions that finally gave rise to both garnet coronas and veins. We here present the results of the detailed microstructural study and propose a scenario that reconciles the a priori paradoxal coeval formation of garnet veins and coronas. The proposed

  13. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  14. Contribution to 57Fe ion implanted garnet study by Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilios, N.

    1986-11-01

    Due to because of their numerous physical properties, garnets are often used in new technologies. In order to improve their properties, ion implantation of inert gases has been proved to be a powerful technique to elaborate bubble memories. Recently it has been shown that high doses implanted ions, chemically reacting with the matrix could give interesting results. If the bulk is completely amorphized after implantation, further annealings can recrystallize it. In this study Y 3 F 5 O 12 , Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 single crystals were 100 keV implanted with 57 Fe ions at doses ranging between 10 16 and 10 17 ions cm -2 . The iron chemical states were determined thanks to Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) and it was shown that the alloying elements of the matrix could influence the nature of the created phases. After thermal treatments the sample superficial layers were characterized using CEMS, grazing angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). Different annealing stages were put forward: the oxidation of the implanted iron below 650 0 C and the garnet recrystallization around 850 0 C with some iron substitution in the garnet octahedral and tetraedral sites. The overstoechiometric iron forms particles of mixed oxides (FeAl) 2 O 3 , (FeGa) 2 O 3 or particles of pure Fe 2 O 3 oxide depending on the garnet. For the first time it is proved that after annealing around 1200-1300 0 C a complete rebuilding of the garnet matrix can induce for these oxide particles at room temperature a Morin transition [fr

  15. Signatures of topological superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yang

    2017-07-19

    The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses

  16. Signature CERN-URSS

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschke,W

    1975-01-01

    Le DG W.Jentschke souhaite la bienvenue à l'assemblée et aux invités pour la signature du protocole entre le Cern et l'URSS qui est un événement important. C'est en 1955 que 55 visiteurs soviétiques ont visité le Cern pour la première fois. Le premier DG au Cern, F.Bloch, et Mons.Amaldi sont aussi présents. Tandis que le discours anglais de W.Jentschke est traduit en russe, le discours russe de Mons.Morozov est traduit en anglais.

  17. Electronic Signature (eSig)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Beginning with the Government Paperwork Elimination Act of 1998 (GPEA), the Federal government has encouraged the use of electronic / digital signatures to enable...

  18. Expressiveness considerations of XML signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    XML Signatures are used to protect XML-based Web Service communication against a broad range of attacks related to man-in-the-middle scenarios. However, due to the complexity of the Web Services specification landscape, the task of applying XML Signatures in a robust and reliable manner becomes...... more and more challenging. In this paper, we investigate this issue, describing how an attacker can still interfere with Web Services communication even in the presence of XML Signatures. Additionally, we discuss the interrelation of XML Signatures and XML Encryption, focussing on their security...

  19. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  20. Chemical and oxygen isotope zonings in garnet from subducted continental crust record mineral replacement and metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Rubatto, Daniela; Regis, Daniele; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Garnet is a key mineral in metamorphic petrology for constraining pressure, temperature and time paths. Garnet can preserve multiple growth stages due to its wide P-T stability field and the relatively slow diffusivity for major and trace elements at sub-solidus temperatures. Pressure-temperature-time-fluid paths of the host rock may be reconstructed by combining metamorphic petrology with microscale trace element and oxygen isotope measurements in garnet. Subduction zones represent relevant geological settings for geochemical investigation of element exchanges during aqueous fluid-rock interactions. The Sesia Zone consists of a complex continental sequence containing a variety of mono-metamorphic and poly-metamorphic lithologies such as metagranitoids, sediments and mafic boudins. The precursor Varisican-Permian amphibolite-facies basement (6-9 kbar 650-850°C; Lardeaux and Spalla, 1991; Robyr et al., 2013) experienced high pressure metamorphism (15-22 kbar 500-550°C; Regis, et al. 2014; Robyr et al., 2013) during Alpine subduction. In different lithologies of the Internal Complex (Eclogitic Micaschist Complex), including metabasites from the Ivozio Complex, Ti-rich metasediments from Val Malone and pre-Alpine Mn-quartzites associated to metagabbros from Cima Bonze, garnet is abundant and shows a variety of complex textures that cannot be reconciled with typical growth zoning, but indicate resorption and replacement processes and possible metasomatism. In-situ, microscale oxygen isotopes analysis of garnet zones was performed by ion microprobe with the SwissSIMS Cameca IMS 1280-HR at University of Lausanne and SHRIMP-SI at the Australian National University. Each sample has a distinct δ18O composition, and the δ18O values show different degrees of variation between domains. Homogeneously low values of Geology, 9, 35-59. Regis, D., Rubatto, D., Darling, J., Cenki-Tok, B., Zucali, M., & Engi, M. (2014). Multiple metamorphic stages within an eclogite

  1. The Lu-Hf isotope composition of cratonic lithosphere: disequilibrium between garnet and clinopyroxene in kimberlite xenoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, N.S.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Pearson, D.G.; Davies, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    12th Annual V.M. Goldschmidt Conference Davos Switzerland, The Lu-Hf isotope composition of cratonic lithosphere: disequilibrium between garnet and clinopyroxene in kimberlite xenoliths (DTM, Carnegie Institution of Washington), Pearson, D.G. (University of Durham)

  2. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  3. Multisensors signature prediction workbench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latger, Jean; Cathala, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Guidance of weapon systems relies on sensors to analyze targets signature. Defense weapon systems also need to detect then identify threats also using sensors. The sensors performance is very dependent on conditions e.g. time of day, atmospheric propagation, background ... Visible camera are very efficient for diurnal fine weather conditions, long wave infrared sensors for night vision, radar systems very efficient for seeing through atmosphere and/or foliage ... Besides, multi sensors systems, combining several collocated sensors with associated algorithms of fusion, provide better efficiency (typically for Enhanced Vision Systems). But these sophisticated systems are all the more difficult to conceive, assess and qualify. In that frame, multi sensors simulation is highly required. This paper focuses on multi sensors simulation tools. A first part makes a state of the Art of such simulation workbenches with a special focus on SE-Workbench. SEWorkbench is described with regards to infrared/EO sensors, millimeter waves sensors, active EO sensors and GNSS sensors. Then a general overview of simulation of targets and backgrounds signature objectives is presented, depending on the type of simulation required (parametric studies, open loop simulation, closed loop simulation, hybridization of SW simulation and HW ...). After the objective review, the paper presents some basic requirements for simulation implementation such as the deterministic behavior of simulation, mandatory to repeat it many times for parametric studies... Several technical topics are then discussed, such as the rendering technique (ray tracing vs. rasterization), the implementation (CPU vs. GP GPU) and the tradeoff between physical accuracy and performance of computation. Examples of results using SE-Workbench are showed and commented.

  4. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  5. Investigation on the Usage of Some Non-Almandine Garnet Minerals as Abrasive Material in Waterjet Cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Engin, Irfan; Ozkan, Erkan; Kulaksiz, Seyfi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, some non-almandine garnet minerals were investigated in terms of their usage possibilities as alternate abrasive materials in waterjet cutting operations. For this purpose, garnet samples were taken from various deposits and mineralization zones in Turkey. These samples were crushed, ground, screened, concentrated and prepared as having desired particle size distribution, and then used in waterjet cutting practices performed on different materials. Cut surfaces were also invest...

  6. Nano- and micro-scale Bi-substituted iron garnet films for photonics and magneto-optic eddy current defectoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzhansky, V. N.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V.; Prokopov, A. R.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Shumilov, A. G.; Lugovskoy, N. V.; Semuk, E. Yu.; Kharchenko, M. F.; Lukienko, I. M.; Kharchenko, Yu. M.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis technology of nano-scale Bi-substituted iron garnets films with high magneto-optic activity for photonics and plasmonics applications were proposed. The micro-scale single-crystal garnet films with different types of magnetic anisotropy as a magneto-optic sensors were synthesized. It was shown that easy-axis anisotropy films demonstrated the best results for visualization of redistribution eddy current magnetic field near defects.

  7. Signatures de l'invisible

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    "Signatures of the Invisible" is an unique collaboration between contemporary artists and contemporary physicists which has the potential to help redefine the relationship between science and art. "Signatures of the Invisible" is jointly organised by the London Institute - the world's largest college of art and design and CERN*, the world's leading particle physics laboratory. 12 leading visual artists:

  8. Determination of rare earth element content in yttrium aluminium garnet crystals by absorption spectrophotometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejl'man, M.L.; Kolomijtsev, A.I.; Baskakova, Z.M.; Bagdasarov, Kh.S.; Kevorkov, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of determination of relative and absolute contents of impurity trivalent REE ions in yttrium aluminium garnet of (YAG) monocrystals has been studied by the absorption spectrophotometry method. Absorption spectra in UV and visible regions YAG monocrystals doped by REE are studied. For each admixture the characteristic lines or absorption bands not overlapping with lines of other admixtures are defined and investigated. The extinction coefficients of characteristic lines are determined which allow one to measure absolute REE admixture concentrations in garnet crystals. A conclusion is drawn that the absorption spectrophotometry method permits to measure REE admixture content in YAG monocrystals within the concentration range of approximately 1x10sup(-3)-5 mas. % with an accuracy not less than 20% (with sample thickness of approximately 1 cm)

  9. Thermodynamic property evaluation and magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis for gadolinium gallium garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    Based on relevant material property data and previous model formulations, a magnetothermodynamic property map for gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12}) was adapted for refrigeration cycle analysis in the temperature range 4-40 K and the magnetic field range 0-6 T. Employing methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges, assessments of limitations and relative performance were made for Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. It was found that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as the limitations for materials previously examined, considerable improvement in cooling capacity and temperature lift combinations can be achieved by using regenerative cycles if serious loss mechanisms are avoided.

  10. Synthesis, Characteristics, and Material Properties Dataset of Bi:DyIG-Oxide Garnet-Type Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nur-E-Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication, annealing crystallization processes, and material properties of (Bi,Dy3(Fe,Ga5O12:Bi2O3 nanocomposites are investigated and summarized. The stoichiometry of these nanocomposites is optimized for magnetooptic applications using the approach of stoichiometry adjustment (implemented by means of varying RF power densities applied to the sputtering targets used to prepare the nanocomposite thin films. The crystallization processes for all developed batches of as-deposited films are carried out by annealing runs at different temperatures and process durations. This paper describes the methodologies used to optimize the compositions (by calculating the volumetric fractions of excess bismuth oxide to be mixed with the garnet-stoichiometry species during cosputtering processes and to obtain the optical and magnetooptical properties data and presents the materials properties summary of garnet-bismuth oxide thin film composites as well.

  11. Ultra-low damping in lift-off structured yttrium iron garnet thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofik, A.; Coy, L. E.; Kuświk, P.; Załeski, K.; Głowiński, H.; Dubowik, J.

    2017-11-01

    We show that using maskless photolithography and the lift-off technique, patterned yttrium iron garnet thin films possessing ultra-low Gilbert damping can be accomplished. The films of 70 nm thickness were grown on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet by means of pulsed laser deposition, and they exhibit high crystalline quality, low surface roughness, and the effective magnetization of 127 emu/cm3. The Gilbert damping parameter is as low as 5 ×10-4. The obtained structures have well-defined sharp edges which along with good structural and magnetic film properties pave a path in the fabrication of high-quality magnonic circuits and oxide-based spintronic devices.

  12. Magnetic refrigeration cycle analysis using selected thermodynamic property characterizations for gadolinium gallium garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Magneto-thermodynamic property characterizations were selected, adapted, and compared to material property data for gadolinium gallium garnet in the temperature range 4--40 K and magnetic field range 0--6 T. The most appropriate formulations were incorporated into a model in which methods similar to those previously developed for other materials and temperature ranges were used to make limitation and relative performance assessments of Carnot, ideal regenerative, and pseudo-constant field regenerative cycles. Analysis showed that although Carnot cycle limitations on available temperature lift for gadolinium gallium garnet are not as severe as those for materials previously examined, substantial improvements in cooling capacity/temperature lift combinations can be achieved using regenerative cycles within specified fields limits if significant loss mechanisms are mitigated

  13. Mechanical properties and microstructure of stir casted Al/B{sub 4}C/garnet composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rathinam Ashok [Chendhuran College of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Sait, Abdullah Naveen [Chendhuran College of Engineering and Technology, Tamil Nadu (India); Subramanian, Karuppazhi [Government College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-05-01

    Aluminum based metal matrix composites are one of the advanced engineering materials that have been developed for low weight and high strength applications in automotive industries due to high specific strength and good wear resistance. In this context, aluminum alloy boron carbide and garnet composites were fabricated by the stir casting process. The microstructural examination was done by using a scanning electron microscope to assess the distribution of particulates in the aluminum matrix. The composites were characterized by hardness and tensile tests. The wear behavior of the composites was analyzed with the help of a pin-on-disc wear test. By increasing the amount of garnet in the composite, it has been observed that the tensile strength and hardness increase. The wear test analysis proved that the addition of reinforcements reduces the wear rate behavior of composite.

  14. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  15. Garnet scintillators of superior timing characteristics: material, engineering by liquid phase epitaxy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kučera, M.; Babin, Vladimir; Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Beitlerová, Alena; Mareš, Jiří A.; Hanuš, M.; Lučeničová, Z.; Nikl, Martin; Parkman, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 1600875. ISSN 2195-1071 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Ce * liquid phase epitaxy * Mg co-doping * multicomponent garnets * scintillators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 6.875, year: 2016

  16. Electromagnetic properties of terbium gallium garnet at millikelvin temperatures and single photon energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of single crystal terbium gallium garnet (TGG) are characterised from room down to millikelvin temperatures using the whispering gallery mode method. Microwave spectroscopy is performed at low powers equivalent to a few photons in energy and conducted as functions of the magnetic field and temperature. A phase transition is detected close to the temperature of 3.5 K. This is observed for multiple whispering gallery modes causing an abrupt negative frequency shift an...

  17. Enhancement of Faraday rotation at photonic-band-gap edge in garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.G.; Fedyanin, A.A.; Aktsipetrov, O.A.; Kobayashi, D.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral dependences of Faraday rotation angle in one-dimensional garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals are considered. The enhancement of Faraday angle is demonstrated at the photonic band gap (PBG) edge both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown to be associated with the optical field localization in the magnetic layers of the structure. The advantages of magnetophotonic crystals in comparison with traditional magnetic microcavities are discussed. The specially designed microcavity structures optimized for the Faraday effect enhancement at the PBG edge are suggested

  18. LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping: insights into the crystallisation history of a metamorphic garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Freya; Gaidies, Fred

    2017-04-01

    In comparison to our understanding of major element zoning, relatively little is known about the incorporation of trace elements into metamorphic garnet. Given their extremely slow diffusivities and sensitivity to changing mineral assemblages, the analysis of the distribution of trace elements in garnet has the potential to yield a wealth of information pertaining to interfacial attachment mechanisms during garnet crystallisation, the mobility of trace elements in both garnet and the matrix, and trace element geochronology. Due to advances in the spatial resolution and analytical precision of modern microbeam techniques, small-scale trace element variations can increasingly be documented and used to inform models of metamorphic crystallisation. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in particular, can be used to rapidly quantify a wide range of elemental masses as a series of laser rasters, producing large volumes of spatially constrained trace element data. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS maps of trace element concentrations from numerous centrally-sectioned garnets representative of the crystal size-distribution of a single sample's population. The study sample originates from the garnet-grade Barrovian zone of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence in Sikkim, northeast India, and has been shown to have crystallised garnet within a single assemblage between 515 ˚C and 565˚C, with no evidence for accessory phase reaction over the duration of garnet growth. Previous models have indicated that the duration of garnet crystallisation was extremely rapid (growth. In spite of straightforward (i.e. concentrically-zoned) major element garnet zonation, trace elements maps are characterised by significant complexity and variability. Y and the heavy rare earth elements are strongly enriched in crystal cores, where there is overprinting of the observed internal fabric, and exhibit numerous concentric annuli towards crystal rims. Conversely, the

  19. Thermodynamic modelling of Cr-bearing garnets with implications for diamond inclusions and peridotite xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemme, S.; Ivanic, T. J.; Connolly, J. A. D.; Harte, B.

    2009-11-01

    A new approach is presented for modelling Cr-rich peridotite compositions and garnet-spinel compositions found in diamonds and xenoliths at conditions relevant to the deep continental Earth. Using recent experimental data, it is now possible to calculate phase relations and mineral compositions relevant to pressures, temperatures, and compositions of the deep lithospheric Earth using free energy minimization techniques. Here we present calculated phase relations in Cr-rich mantle compositions from pressures of 20-60 kbar, and temperatures 800-1400 °C. The model is successful at modelling a wide range of natural mineral compositions which are found as xenoliths in diamond-bearing kimberlites from South Africa, and is illustrated using suites of Cr-rich xenoliths from near Kimberley, South Africa. The model can explain and quantify instances of garnet zonation in naturally occurring mantle rocks as a consequence of pressure-temperature re-equilibration; and shows that not all garnet zonations result from metasomatic processes. This sheds further light on peridotitic diamond inclusions and their abundances, and allows further quantitative constraints to be applied to diamond-indicator mineral chemistry.

  20. Raman mapping of coesite inclusions in garnet from the Kokchetav Massif (Northern Kazakhstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsakov, Andrey V; Hutsebaut, Didier; Theunissen, Karel; Vandenabeele, Peter; Stepanov, Alexander S

    2007-12-15

    Coesite inclusions occur in a wide range of lithologies and coesite is therefore a powerful ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) indicator. The transformation of coesite to quartz is evidenced by three optically well identifiable characteristics (e.g. palisade textures, radial crack patterns, polycrystalline quartz pseudomorphs). Under overpressure monomineralic coesite (on an optical basis), lacking the above transformation characteristics may survive. Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied on monomineralic coesite inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts from diamond-bearing garnet-clinozoisite-biotite gneisses of the Barchi-Kol area (Kokchetav Massif, Northern Kazakhstan). These coesite inclusions are euhedral and display a characteristic anisotropic hallo. However, Raman maps and separate spectra of these inclusions display shifted bands for coesite and quartz. Microscopically undetectable, quartz shows on the Raman map as a thin shell around coesite inclusion. Shift of the main coesite band allows to estimate their overpressure: coesite inclusions record 0-2.4 GPa in garnet and zircon. The quartz shell remains under lower pressure 0-1.6 GPa. The possible application of coesite and quartz Raman geobarometers for UHP metamorphic rocks is discussed.

  1. Faraday effect in rare-earth ferrite garnets located in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, U.V.; Zvezdin, A.K.; Krinchik, G.S.; Levitin, R.Z.; Mukimov, K.M.; Popov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The Faraday effect is investigated experimentally in single crystal specimens of rare earth iron garnets (REIG) R 3 Fe 5 O 12 (R=Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb, Eu, Sm and Ho) and also in mixed iron garnets Rsub(x)Ysub(3-x)Fesub(5)Osub(12) (R=Tb, Dy). The m.easurements are carried out in pulsed magnetic fields of intensity up to 200 kOe, in a temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K and at a wavelength of the light lambda=1.15 μm. The field dependence of the Faraday effect observed in the REIG cannot be explained if only the usually considered ''paramagnetic'' contribution to the Faraday effect is taken into account. A theory is developed which, besides the paramagnetic mechanism, takes into account a diamagnetic mechanism and also the mixing of the wave functions of the ground and excited multiplets. The contributions of each of these three mechanisms to the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization by the rare earth sublattice of the iron garnet are estimated theoretically. It is concluded that the mixing mechanism contributes significantly to the field and temperature dependences of the Faraday effect in REIG

  2. Thermal signature measurements for ammonium nitrate/fuel mixtures by laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary, E-mail: cpresser@nist.gov

    2016-01-10

    Highlights: • LDTR is a useful diagnostic for characterizing AN/fuel mixture thermochemical behavior. • Each AN/fuel mixture thermal signature was different. • AN/fuel mixture signature features were defined by the individual constituents. • Baseline signatures changed after an experiment. - Abstract: Measurements were carried out to obtain thermal signatures of several ammonium nitrate/fuel (ANF) mixtures, using a laser-heating technique referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR). The mixtures were ammonium nitrate (AN)/kerosene, AN/ethylene glycol, AN/paraffin wax, AN/petroleum jelly, AN/confectioner's sugar, AN/cellulose (tissue paper), nitromethane/cellulose, nitrobenzene/cellulose, AN/cellulose/nitromethane, AN/cellulose/nitrobenzene. These mixtures were also compared with AN/nitromethane and AN/diesel fuel oil, obtained from an earlier investigation. Thermograms for the mixtures, as well as individual constituents, were compared to better understand how sample thermal signature changes with mixture composition. This is the first step in development of a thermal-signature database, to be used along with other signature databases, to improve identification of energetic substances of unknown composition. The results indicated that each individual thermal signature was associated unambiguously with a particular mixture composition. The signature features of a particular mixture were shaped by the individual constituent signatures. It was also uncovered that the baseline signature was modified after an experiment due to coating of unreacted residue on the substrate surface and a change in the reactor sphere oxide layer. Thus, care was required to pre-oxidize the sphere prior to an experiment. A minimum sample mass (which was dependent on composition) was required to detect the signature characteristics. Increased laser power served to magnify signal strength while preserving the signature features. For the mixtures examined, the thermal

  3. Metabolic signature of electrosurgical liver dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witigo von Schönfels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High frequency electrosurgery has a key role in the broadening application of liver surgery. Its molecular signature, i.e. the metabolites evolving from electrocauterization which may inhibit hepatic wound healing, have not been systematically studied. METHODS: Human liver samples were thus obtained during surgery before and after electrosurgical dissection and subjected to a two-stage metabolomic screening experiment (discovery sample: N = 18, replication sample: N = 20 using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In a set of 208 chemically defined metabolites, electrosurgical dissection lead to a distinct metabolic signature resulting in a separation in the first two dimensions of a principal components analysis. Six metabolites including glycolic acid, azelaic acid, 2-n-pentylfuran, dihydroactinidiolide, 2-butenal and n-pentanal were consistently increased after electrosurgery meeting the discovery (p<2.0 × 10(-4 and the replication thresholds (p<3.5 × 10(-3. Azelaic acid, a lipid peroxidation product from the fragmentation of abundant sn-2 linoleoyl residues, was most abundant and increased 8.1-fold after electrosurgical liver dissection (preplication = 1.6 × 10(-4. The corresponding phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl glycerophosphocholine inhibited wound healing and tissue remodelling in scratch- and proliferation assays of hepatic stellate cells and cholangiocytes, and caused apoptosis dose-dependently in vitro, which may explain in part the tissue damage due to electrosurgery. CONCLUSION: Hepatic electrosurgery generates a metabolic signature with characteristic lipid peroxidation products. Among these, azelaic acid shows a dose-dependent toxicity in liver cells and inhibits wound healing. These observations potentially pave the way for pharmacological intervention prior liver surgery to modify the metabolic response and prevent postoperative complications.

  4. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report here for the first time the occurrence of garnet and corundum in Mg-Al-rich rocks at Sevitturangampatti (Namakkal district) in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (PCSS), southern India. The rocks contain several rare mineral assemblages such as garnet-corundum-sillimanite-cordierite-sapphirine-spinel-Mg-rich staurolite, garnet-corundum-sodic gedrite-cordierite-sillimanite/kyanite, garnet-Mg-rich staurolite-sillimanite/kyanite, sodic gedrite-Mg-rich staurolite-corundum-sapphirine, biotite-corundum-sapphirine and sodic gedrite-sapphirine-spinel-cordierite. Both garnet and corundum in these rocks occur as coarse-grained (1 mm to 10 cm) porphyroblasts in the matrix of sillimanite, cordierite and gedrite. Kyanite is common as inclusions in garnet, but matrix aluminosilicates are mainly sillimanite. The presence of rare garnet + corundum, which has so far been reported from kimberlite xenoliths, aluminous eclogites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks as well as in high-pressure experiments, suggests that the assemblage is an indicator of an unusually high-pressure event, which has not been recorded in previous studies from southern India. Phase analysis of quartz-absent MAS system also suggests high-pressure stability of the assemblage. The inference of high pressure metamorphism is also supported by the presence of Mg-rich [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.51] staurolite, which has been reported from high-pressure rocks, included from cores of coarse-grained garnet and gedrite. Porphyroblastic occurrence of garnet + corundum as well as staurolite and kyanite inclusions suggests that the area underwent prograde high-pressure metamorphism, probably in the eclogite field. The rocks subsequently underwent continuous heating at 940 to 990 °C, suggesting ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism along a clockwise trajectory. Sapphirine + cordierite and spinel + cordierite symplectites between garnet and sillimanite suggest near isothermal decompression after the peak event

  5. Statistical clumped isotope signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röckmann, T.; Popa, M. E.; Krol, M. C.; Hofmann, M. E. G.

    2016-01-01

    High precision measurements of molecules containing more than one heavy isotope may provide novel constraints on element cycles in nature. These so-called clumped isotope signatures are reported relative to the random (stochastic) distribution of heavy isotopes over all available isotopocules of a molecule, which is the conventional reference. When multiple indistinguishable atoms of the same element are present in a molecule, this reference is calculated from the bulk (≈average) isotopic composition of the involved atoms. We show here that this referencing convention leads to apparent negative clumped isotope anomalies (anti-clumping) when the indistinguishable atoms originate from isotopically different populations. Such statistical clumped isotope anomalies must occur in any system where two or more indistinguishable atoms of the same element, but with different isotopic composition, combine in a molecule. The size of the anti-clumping signal is closely related to the difference of the initial isotope ratios of the indistinguishable atoms that have combined. Therefore, a measured statistical clumped isotope anomaly, relative to an expected (e.g. thermodynamical) clumped isotope composition, may allow assessment of the heterogeneity of the isotopic pools of atoms that are the substrate for formation of molecules. PMID:27535168

  6. Metasomatic Control of Water in Garnet and Pyroxene from Kaapvaal Craton Mantle Xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) were used to determine water, rare earth (REE), lithophile (LILE), and high field strength (HFSE) element contents in garnet and pyroxene from mantle xenoliths, Kaapvaal craton, southern Africa. Water enters these nominally anhydrous minerals as protons bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. Pyroxene water contents (150-400 ppm in clinopyroxene; 40-250 ppm in orthopyroxene) correlate with their Al, Fe, Ca and Na and are homogeneous within a mineral grains and a xenolith. Garnets from Jagersfontein are chemically zoned for Cr, Ca, Ti and water contents. Garnets contain 0 to 20 ppm H2 Despite the fast diffusion rate of H in mantle m inerals, the observations above indicate that the water contents of mantle xenolith minerals were not disturbed during kimberlite entrainment and that the measured water data represent mantle values. Trace elements in all minerals show various degrees of light REE and LILE enrichments indicative of minimal to strong metasomatism. Water contents of peridotite minerals from the Kaapvaal lithosphere are not related to the degree of depletion of the peridotites. Instead, metasomatism exerts a clear control on the amount of water of mantle minerals. Xenoliths from each location record specific types of metasomatism with different outcomes for the water contents of mantle minerals. At pressures . 5.5 GPa, highly alkaline melts metasomatized Liqhobong and Kimberley peridotites, and increased the water contents of their olivine, pyroxenes and garnet. At higher pressures, the circulation of ultramafic melts reacting with peridotite resulted in co-variation of Ca, Ti and water at the edge of garnets at Jagersfontein, overall decreasing their water content, and lowered the water content of olivines at Finsch Mine. The calculated water content of these melts varies depending on whether the water content of the peridotite

  7. An experimental magnetic moment determination method based on spatial harmonic analysis of magnetic flux density signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Getman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of an experimental determination method for residual and inductive magnetic moments of a technical object are considered. As input data, the technical object magnetic induction signatures obtained under its linear movement near a pair of three-component sensors are used. A magnetic signature integration technique based on spatial harmonic analysis of the magnetic field represented by twenty-four multipole coefficients is introduced.

  8. Leak signature space: an original representation for robust leak location in water distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Casillas, Myrna V.; Garza Castañón, Luís Eduardo; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Vargas Martinez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an original model-based scheme for leak location using pressure sensors in water distribution networks is introduced. The proposed approach is based on a new representation called the Leak Signature Space (LSS) that associates a specific signature to each leak location being minimally affected by leak magnitude. The LSS considers a linear model approximation of the relation between pressure residuals and leaks that is projected onto a selected hyperplane. This new approach allo...

  9. Leak Signature Space: An Original Representation for Robust Leak Location in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna V. Casillas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an original model-based scheme for leak location using pressure sensors in water distribution networks is introduced. The proposed approach is based on a new representation called the Leak Signature Space (LSS that associates a specific signature to each leak location being minimally affected by leak magnitude. The LSS considers a linear model approximation of the relation between pressure residuals and leaks that is projected onto a selected hyperplane. This new approach allows to infer the location of a given leak by comparing the position of its signature with other leak signatures. Moreover, two ways of improving the method’s robustness are proposed. First, by associating a domain of influence to each signature and second, through a time horizon analysis. The efficiency of the method is highlighted by means of a real network using several scenarios involving different number of sensors and considering the presence of noise in the measurements.

  10. Retail applications of signature verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  11. Password-based digital signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Sivagnanasuntharam, Sangeepan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about implementing a digital signature scheme proposed by associate professor Kristian Gjøsteen and Oystein Thuen.The thesis explains the implementation, the challenges met and a security assessment of the implementation.

  12. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  13. Defect-property correlations in garnet crystals. III. The electrical conductivity and defect structure of luminescent nickel-doped yttrium aluminum garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotman, S.R.; Tuller, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The conduction mechanisms in nickel-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ni:YAG) have been studied as a function of temperature and partial pressue of oxygen. ac conductivity and ionic transference measurements show that Ni:YAG is a mixed ionic-electronic conductor with an ionic mobility characterized by an activation energy of 2.0--2.2 eV. The reduction of Ni +3 to Ni +2 causes an increase in the oxygen vacancy concentration and a concurrent rise in the magnitude of the ionic conductivity. Codoping with zirconium, on the other hand, fixes the nickel in the divalent state, increases the n-type conductivity, and lowers the degree of ionic conductivity. A defect model is presented which is consistent with all of these observations

  14. SIGNATURE: A workbench for gene expression signature analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jeffrey T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenotype of a cell, such as a characteristic visual image or behavior, reflects activities derived from the expression of collections of genes. As such, an ability to measure the expression of these genes provides an opportunity to develop more precise and varied sets of phenotypes. However, to use this approach requires computational methods that are difficult to implement and apply, and thus there is a critical need for intelligent software tools that can reduce the technical burden of the analysis. Tools for gene expression analyses are unusually difficult to implement in a user-friendly way because their application requires a combination of biological data curation, statistical computational methods, and database expertise. Results We have developed SIGNATURE, a web-based resource that simplifies gene expression signature analysis by providing software, data, and protocols to perform the analysis successfully. This resource uses Bayesian methods for processing gene expression data coupled with a curated database of gene expression signatures, all carried out within a GenePattern web interface for easy use and access. Conclusions SIGNATURE is available for public use at http://genepattern.genome.duke.edu/signature/.

  15. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  16. Toward garnet electrolyte–based Li metal batteries: An ultrathin, highly effective, artificial solid-state electrolyte/metallic Li interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun (Kelvin); Gong, Yunhui; Liu, Boyang; Zhu, Yizhou; Xu, Shaomao; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chengwei; Lacey, Steven D.; Dai, Jiaqi; Chen, Yanan; Mo, Yifei; Wachsman, Eric; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries are a promising option toward high energy and power densities due to the use of lithium (Li) metal as an anode. Among all solid electrolyte materials ranging from sulfides to oxides and oxynitrides, cubic garnet–type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) ceramic electrolytes are superior candidates because of their high ionic conductivity (10−3 to 10−4 S/cm) and good stability against Li metal. However, garnet solid electrolytes generally have poor contact with Li metal, which causes high resistance and uneven current distribution at the interface. To address this challenge, we demonstrate a strategy to engineer the garnet solid electrolyte and the Li metal interface by forming an intermediary Li-metal alloy, which changes the wettability of the garnet surface (lithiophobic to lithiophilic) and reduces the interface resistance by more than an order of magnitude: 950 ohm·cm2 for the pristine garnet/Li and 75 ohm·cm2 for the surface-engineered garnet/Li. Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) was selected as the solid-state electrolyte (SSE) in this work because of its low sintering temperature, stabilized cubic garnet phase, and high ionic conductivity. This low area-specific resistance enables a solid-state garnet SSE/Li metal configuration and promotes the development of a hybrid electrolyte system. The hybrid system uses the improved solid-state garnet SSE Li metal anode and a thin liquid electrolyte cathode interfacial layer. This work provides new ways to address the garnet SSE wetting issue against Li and get more stable cell performances based on the hybrid electrolyte system for Li-ion, Li-sulfur, and Li-oxygen batteries toward the next generation of Li metal batteries. PMID:28435874

  17. Raman spectroscopic study of synthetic pyrope-grossular garnets: structural implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Han, Baofu; Clark, Simon Martin; Wang, Yichuan; Liu, Xi

    2017-06-01

    A study of the effect of substitution of Mg and Ca in garnet solid solution (Grtss) was carried out using Raman spectroscopy to probe changes to the crystal lattice. The garnet solid solutions with composition changing along pyrope (Py; Mg3Al2Si3O12) and grossular (Gr; Ca3Al2Si3O12) binary were synthesized from glass at 6 GPa and 1400 °C and a second series of Grtss with composition Py40Gr60 were synthesized at 6 GPa but different temperatures from 1000 to 1400 °C. Raman mode assignments were made based on a comparison with the two end members pyrope and grossular, which show consistent result with literature study on single crystals data. The correlation between the Raman mode frequencies and compositional changes along the pyrope-grossular binary suggests a two-mode behavior for Mg and Ca cations in the garnet structure. The full widths at half-maximum of selected Raman modes increase on moving away from the end members and are about double the end-member values in the mid-position, where the frequencies closely linearly change with composition. The frequencies of the translational modes of the SiO4 tetrahedron (T(SiO4)) show large deviations from linearity indicating a strong kinematic coupling with the translational modes of the Ca and Mg cations. The anomalies in T(SiO4) are linked to mixing unit cell volume, suggesting that the nonlinear mixing volume behavior along the pyrope-grossular binary is related to the resistance of the Si-O bond to expansion and compression, which is caused by substitution of Mg and Ca cations in the dodecahedral sites. Annealing temperature also shows effect on Raman mode frequencies, but the main factor controlling the changes in mode frequencies along pyrope-grossular binary is composition.

  18. Raman spectroscopic study of synthetic pyrope-grossular garnets: structural implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Han, Baofu; Clark, Simon Martin; Wang, Yichuan; Liu, Xi

    2018-02-01

    A study of the effect of substitution of Mg and Ca in garnet solid solution (Grtss) was carried out using Raman spectroscopy to probe changes to the crystal lattice. The garnet solid solutions with composition changing along pyrope (Py; Mg3Al2Si3O12) and grossular (Gr; Ca3Al2Si3O12) binary were synthesized from glass at 6 GPa and 1400 °C and a second series of Grtss with composition Py40Gr60 were synthesized at 6 GPa but different temperatures from 1000 to 1400 °C. Raman mode assignments were made based on a comparison with the two end members pyrope and grossular, which show consistent result with literature study on single crystals data. The correlation between the Raman mode frequencies and compositional changes along the pyrope-grossular binary suggests a two-mode behavior for Mg and Ca cations in the garnet structure. The full widths at half-maximum of selected Raman modes increase on moving away from the end members and are about double the end-member values in the mid-position, where the frequencies closely linearly change with composition. The frequencies of the translational modes of the SiO4 tetrahedron (T(SiO4)) show large deviations from linearity indicating a strong kinematic coupling with the translational modes of the Ca and Mg cations. The anomalies in T(SiO4) are linked to mixing unit cell volume, suggesting that the nonlinear mixing volume behavior along the pyrope-grossular binary is related to the resistance of the Si-O bond to expansion and compression, which is caused by substitution of Mg and Ca cations in the dodecahedral sites. Annealing temperature also shows effect on Raman mode frequencies, but the main factor controlling the changes in mode frequencies along pyrope-grossular binary is composition.

  19. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN)

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  20. KINETICS OF GRAIN-GROWTH OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET FIBERS PREPARED BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan H.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG long fibers were prepared by the sol-gel method using aluminum chloride, aluminum powder, yttrium oxide and acetic acid as raw materials. The grain growth law is given by Dn – D0n = Kt (D0 = initial grain size, D = average grain size at time t, n = grain growth exponent and K = reaction constant. The grain growth exponent and activation energy of YAG fibers are ≈ 3 and 200 kJ/mol, respectively. The grain-growth behaviors of YAG were influenced by experimental conditions such as raw materials, initial particle size, initial particle distribution, etc.

  1. Effects of Sublattice Symmetry and Frustration on Ionic Transport in Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinsky, Boris; Akhade, Sneha A.; Hirel, Pierre; Hashibon, Adham; Elsässer, Christian; Mehta, Prateek; Logeat, Alan; Eisele, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    We use rigorous group-theoretic techniques and molecular dynamics to investigate the connection between structural symmetry and ionic conductivity in the garnet family of solid Li-ion electrolytes. We identify new ordered phases and order-disorder phase transitions that are relevant for conductivity optimization. Ionic transport in this materials family is controlled by the frustration of the Li sublattice caused by incommensurability with the host structure at noninteger Li concentrations, while ordered phases explain regions of sharply lower conductivity. Disorder is therefore predicted to be optimal for ionic transport in this and other conductor families with strong Li interaction.

  2. Electromagnetic properties of terbium gallium garnet at millikelvin temperatures and low photon energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostylev, Nikita; Goryachev, Maxim; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2017-07-01

    Electromagnetic properties of single crystal terbium gallium garnet are characterised from room down to millikelvin temperatures using the whispering gallery mode method. Microwave spectroscopy is performed at low powers equivalent to a few photons in energy and conducted as functions of the magnetic field and temperature. A phase transition is detected close to the temperature of 3.5 K. This is observed for multiple whispering gallery modes causing an abrupt negative frequency shift and a change in transmission due to extra losses in the new phase caused by a change in complex magnetic susceptibility.

  3. Theoretical investigation of magnetic property in paramagnetic neodymium gallium garnet under high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Liu Gongqiang; Wang Jinhui

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic property in neodymium gallium garnet (NdGaG) is studied by the quantum theory. The ground configuration split states are calculated taking into account the spin-orbit interaction and crystal field effect. Taking account of the Nd-Nd exchange interaction, a good agreement between experimental and theoretical values can be obtained for the variation of the magnetic moment with the external magnetic field under 'extreme' conditions (low temperature and high magnetic field). Moreover, the temperature dependence of magnetic moment and the magnetic susceptibility χ is also discussed. Above 30 K, the magnetization (M) shows a linear field (H e ) dependence

  4. Features of photoinduced magnetism in some yttrium–iron-garnet single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorob’eva, N. V., E-mail: vnv@anrb.ru [Akmulla Bashkir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Mityukhlyaev, V. B. [Investigation Center for Surface and Vacuum (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Photoinduced magnetic phenomena are considered in yttrium–iron single-crystalline garnets grown from a BaO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} molten solution with the addition of iridium to the initial melt. The features of the composition and defects of the crystal structure of the samples in the surface layer are determined. In view of this, explanations for features of the photoinduced magnetic phenomena in the investigated crystals are proposed. The determining role of oxygen anions for the photoinduced magnetic phenomena at room temperature is highlighted, and the possible role of a variation in the dopant content and composition is considered.

  5. Cerium-doped single crystal and transparent ceramic lutetium aluminum garnet scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Speaks, Derrick T.; Payne, Stephen A.; Chai, B.H.T.; Porter-Chapman, Yetta; Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    For rapid, unambiguous isotope identification, scintillator detectors providing high-resolution gamma ray spectra are required. We have fabricated Lutetium Aluminum Garnet (LuAG) using transparent ceramic processing, and report a 2-mm thick ceramic exhibiting 75% transmission and light yield comparable to single-crystal LuAG:Ce. The LuAG:Ce luminescence peaks at 550 nm, providing an excellent match for Silicon Photodiode readout. LuAG is dense (6.67 g/cm 3 ) and impervious to water, exhibits good proportionality and a fast decay (∼40 ns), and we measure light yields in excess of 20,000 photons/MeV

  6. Electrical properties of single crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet ultra-thin films at high temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery, Nicolas; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Vila, Laurent; Marty, Alain; Brenac, Ariel; Jacquot, Jean-François; de Loubens, Grégoire; Viret, Michel; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Cros, Vincent; Youssef, Jamal Ben; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Demokritov, Sergej O.; Klein, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We report a study on the electrical properties of 19 nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) films grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The electrical conductivity and Hall coefficient are measured in the high temperature range [300,400]~K using a Van der Pauw four-point probe technique. We find that the electrical resistivity decreases exponentially with increasing temperature following an activated behavior corresponding to a band-gap of $E_g\\approx 2$ eV, indicating that epitaxial YIG ultra-thin film...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of charge-substituted garnets YCaLnGa5O12 (Ln = Ce,Pr,Tb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramsch, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A low temperature method is described for the preparation of the new garnet compounds YCaLnGa 5 O l2 (Ln=Ce, Pr, Th). In this set of compounds (Ca 2+ + Ln 4+ ) replaces 2 Y 3+ in the parent gallium based garnet Y 3 Ga 5 O l2 in order to stabilize as effectively as possible the Ln 4+ species in the eight-coordinate ''A'' site of the garnet structure. Characterization of the oxides by x-ray powder diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis is discussed with regard to the structural relationship of the substituted compound to the parent material. The tetravalent ions Pr 4+ and Tb 4+ exhibit increased thermal stability in reducing conditions as compared to the Ln 4+ states in the fluorite (LnO 2 ) and perovskite (BaLnO 3 ) type structures. This result is discussed with reference to the complex crystal chemistry of these systems

  8. Preparation of epitaxial yttrium-iron garnet micropatterns using metal-organic decomposition with electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kenji; Manago, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    We have succeeded in obtaining epitaxial yttrium-iron garnet (YIG) micropatterns on a gadolinium-gallium garnet (GGG) substrate by a metal-organic decomposition method with electron-beam (EB) irradiation. We have demonstrated that metal-octylates of Y and Fe showed negative exposure behavior for EB irradiation. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that the YIG micropatterns were epitaxially well grown on a GGG(111) substrate. The magnetization curve of the YIG micropatterns showed a clear hysteresis loop and the saturation magnetization was estimated to be approximately 100 emu/cm3, which is consistent with that of bulk YIG.

  9. Effects of higher-coordination shells in garnets detected by XAS at the Al K-edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcelli, A.; Wu, Z.; Mottana, A.; Giuli, G.; Paris, E.; Seifert, F.

    1996-03-01

    The aluminium 1 s x-ray-absorption spectra of a series of garnets, pyrope, almandine, spessartine and grossular, are compared to full multiple-scattering calculation using cluster models. An overall good agreement between experiment and calculation, extended also to the edge region,is obtained in the energy range in up to 60 e V above the threshold, provided cluster containing at least 40 atoms are used. The analysis of these garnet XAS spectra provides clear evidence on the effect of probe, XANES spectroscopy at the edge of low Z elements appears to be a perfect tool to investigate the role played by atoms located in higher-coordination shells

  10. Effects of higher-coordination shells in garnets detected by XAS at the Al K-edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati; Wu, Z. [CNRS UMR 110, Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, Nantes Cedex (France). Institut de materiaux de Nantes; Mottana, A. [Roma III Univ., Rome (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche; Giuli, G.; Paris, E. [Camerino Univ., Camerino (Italy).Diparimento di Scienze della Terra; Seifert, F [Univ. Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Italy). Bayerisches Geoinstitut (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    The aluminium 1 s x-ray-absorption spectra of a series of garnets, pyrope, almandine, spessartine and grossular, are compared to full multiple-scattering calculation using cluster models. An overall good agreement between experiment and calculation, extended also to the edge region,is obtained in the energy range in up to 60 e V above the threshold, provided cluster containing at least 40 atoms are used. The analysis of these garnet XAS spectra provides clear evidence on the effect of probe, XANES spectroscopy at the edge of low Z elements appears to be a perfect tool to investigate the role played by atoms located in higher-coordination shells.

  11. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  12. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugoi, R., E-mail: bugoi@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Măgurele 077125 (Romania); Oanţă-Marghitu, R., E-mail: rodicamarghitu@yahoo.com [Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României, Bucureşti 030026 (Romania); Calligaro, T., E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  13. Extracellular Signatures as Indicators of Processing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Karen L.

    2012-01-09

    As described in other chapters within this volume, many aspects of microbial cells vary with culture conditions and therefore can potentially be analyzed as forensic signatures of growth conditions. In addition to changes or variations in components of the microbes themselves, extracellular materials indicative of production processes may remain associated with the final bacterial product. It is well recognized that even with considerable effort to make pure products such as fine chemicals or pharmaceuticals, trace impurities from components or synthesis steps associated with production processes can be detected in the final product. These impurities can be used as indicators of production source or methods, such as to help connect drugs of abuse to supply chains. Extracellular residue associated with microbial cells could similarly help to characterize production processes. For successful growth of microorganisms on culture media there must be an available source of carbon, nitrogen, inorganic phosphate and sulfur, trace metals, water and vitamins. The pH, temperature, and a supply of oxygen or other gases must also be appropriate for a given organism for successful culture. The sources of these components and the range in temperature, pH and other variables has adapted over the years with currently a wide range of possible combinations of media components, recipes and parameters to choose from for a given organism. Because of this wide variability in components, mixtures of components, and other parameters, there is the potential for differentiation of cultured organisms based on changes in culture conditions. The challenge remains how to narrow the field of potential combinations and be able to attribute variations in the final bacterial product and extracellular signatures associated with the final product to information about the culture conditions or recipe used in the production of that product.

  14. Five Guidelines for Selecting Hydrological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, H. K.; Westerberg, I.; Branger, F.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological signatures are index values derived from observed or modeled series of hydrological data such as rainfall, flow or soil moisture. They are designed to extract relevant information about hydrological behavior, such as to identify dominant processes, and to determine the strength, speed and spatiotemporal variability of the rainfall-runoff response. Hydrological signatures play an important role in model evaluation. They allow us to test whether particular model structures or parameter sets accurately reproduce the runoff generation processes within the watershed of interest. Most modeling studies use a selection of different signatures to capture different aspects of the catchment response, for example evaluating overall flow distribution as well as high and low flow extremes and flow timing. Such studies often choose their own set of signatures, or may borrow subsets of signatures used in multiple other works. The link between signature values and hydrological processes is not always straightforward, leading to uncertainty and variability in hydrologists' signature choices. In this presentation, we aim to encourage a more rigorous approach to hydrological signature selection, which considers the ability of signatures to represent hydrological behavior and underlying processes for the catchment and application in question. To this end, we propose a set of guidelines for selecting hydrological signatures. We describe five criteria that any hydrological signature should conform to: Identifiability, Robustness, Consistency, Representativeness, and Discriminatory Power. We describe an example of the design process for a signature, assessing possible signature designs against the guidelines above. Due to their ubiquity, we chose a signature related to the Flow Duration Curve, selecting the FDC mid-section slope as a proposed signature to quantify catchment overall behavior and flashiness. We demonstrate how assessment against each guideline could be used to

  15. Platinum/yttrium iron garnet inverted structures for spin current transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldosary, Mohammed; Li, Junxue; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Shi, Jing [Department of Physics and Astronomy and SHINES Energy Frontier Research Center, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Zheng, Jian-Guo [Irvine Materials Research Institute, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Bozhilov, Krassimir N. [Central Facility for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2016-06-13

    30-80 nm thick yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are grown by pulsed laser deposition on a 5 nm thick sputtered Pt atop gadolinium gallium garnet substrate (GGG) (110). Upon post-growth rapid thermal annealing, single crystal YIG(110) emerges as if it were epitaxially grown on GGG(110) despite the presence of the intermediate Pt film. The YIG surface shows atomic steps with the root-mean-square roughness of 0.12 nm on flat terraces. Both Pt/YIG and GGG/Pt interfaces are atomically sharp. The resulting YIG(110) films show clear in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with a well-defined easy axis along 〈001〉 and a peak-to-peak ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of 7.5 Oe at 9.32 GHz, similar to YIG epitaxially grown on GGG. Both spin Hall magnetoresistance and longitudinal spin Seebeck effects in the inverted bilayers indicate excellent Pt/YIG interface quality.

  16. Sub-micrometer yttrium iron garnet LPE films with low ferromagnetic resonance losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubs, Carsten; Surzhenko, Oleksii; Linke, Ralf; Danilewsky, Andreas; Brückner, Uwe; Dellith, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Using a liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique (1 1 1) yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films with thicknesses of  ≈100 nm and surface roughnesses as low as 0.3 nm have been grown on (1 1 1) gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates as a basic material for spin-wave propagation experiments in microstructured waveguides. The continuously strained films exhibit nearly perfect crystallinity without significant mosaicity and with effective lattice misfits of Δ {{a}\\bot}/{{a}s}≈ {{10}-4} and below. The film/substrate interface is extremely sharp without broad interdiffusion layer formation. All LPE films exhibit a nearly bulk-like saturation magnetization of (1800+/- 20 ) Gs and an ‘easy cone’ anisotropy type with extremely small in-plane coercive fields  <0.2 Oe. There is a rather weak in-plane magnetic anisotropy with a pronounced six-fold symmetry observed for the saturation field  <1.5 Oe. No significant out-of-plane anisotropy is observed, but a weak dependence of the effective magnetization on the lattice misfit is detected. The narrowest ferromagnetic resonance linewidth is determined to be 1.4 Oe @ 6.5 GHz which is the lowest value reported so far for YIG films of 100 nm thicknesses and below. The Gilbert damping coefficient for investigated LPE films is estimated to be close to 1× {{10}-4} .

  17. A method of producing garnet materials for use in circular magnetic domain devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing iron garnet materials for use in circular magnetic domain devices. It comprises providing material having complex domain wall behaviour, and implanting ions having an atomic number of at least 15 into the material. The energy and dose of the ions are such that the lattice is expanded and its crystallinity preserved, and the lattice expansion is such that the complex domain wall behaviour is substantially eliminated. The ions should have an energy in the range 100 to 500 keV and the dose should be in the range 10 12 to 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The implanted ions may be Ar, Sm, Te, or Lu. It is thought that the use of rare earth ions allows the magnetostriction constant of the implanted ion to operate in addition to that of the implanted garnet. An advantage of the method is that doses used for implantation using Ar or rare earth ions are less than for implantation using lighter ions, thereby allowing implantations to be performed in a shorter time for the same beam currency density. (UK)

  18. Garnet peridotite xenoliths in a Montana, U.S.A., kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Hearn B.; Boyd, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    Within a swarm of late middle Eocene subsilicic-alkalic diatremes, one diatreme 270 by 370 m and an associated dike contain common xenoliths of granulite and rare xenoliths of spinel peridotite and garnet peridotite. Six garnet lherzolite xenoliths have been found and these show a range of textures. Four are granular, and two are intensely sheared. Phlogopite is absent from the intensely sheared xenoliths and is thought to be primary in part in the granular xenoliths. Estimated temperatures and depths of equilibration of xenolith pyroxenes range from 920??C, 106 km (32 kbar) to 1315??C, 148 km (47 kbar). The xenoliths show increasing amounts of deformation with greater inferred depths of origin. The temperature-depth points suggest a segment of an Eocene geotherm for Montana which is similar in slope to the steep portion of the pyroxene-determined Lesotho geotherm (Boyd and Nixon, this volume) and is considerably steeper than typical calculated shield and continental geotherms at present. The steep trend could be a result of plate-tectonic shearing and magma ascension within an Eocene low-velocity zone. Preservation of intensely sheared textures requires rapid transport of material from about 150 km depth during active deformation of relatively dry rock. The occurrence of monticellite peridotite in this kimberlite diatreme suggests that magmas which crystallized to monticellite peridotite at relatively shallow depth could be one of the primitive types of kimberlite magma. ?? 1975.

  19. LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping and its application to geochemical transport in garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Tom; Wade, Ben; Payne, Justin; Hand, Martin; Clark, Chris; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Reid, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Existing instrumentation used to interrogate trace element distributions in geological samples includes EPMA, TEM, SEM, SIMS and synchrotron XRF/XRD analysis. Each technique has its inherent strengths and limitations, whether they relate to detection limits, analytical volumes, sample preparation, and/or instrumentation cost and accessibility. Traditionally, LA-ICP-MS has been used to quantify trace element (wt%-ppb) content in a wide variety of materials via spot analysis. However, its utility as an imaging tool has recently emerged to allow 2D mapping with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U), with minimal sample preparation required. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution. Large suites of isotopes are able to be collected simultaneously, allowing access to substantially increased geochemical information from analysed samples. We demonstrate the use of the LA-ICP-MS imaging technique to reveal complex trace element zonation patterns in a variety of garnets affected by fluid-rock interaction, including those from metasomatised mid-crustal shear zones and a calcsilicate skarn deposit. Such detailed geochemical records shed light on trace element behaviour during metasomatic processes, including their impact on Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Ultimately, this allows for the construction of coupled P -T -t-fluid histories from individual samples.

  20. X ray topographic study of defects and magnetic domains in rare earth iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiot, Alain.

    1975-11-01

    X ray topographs allow simultaneous observations of crystalline defects and magnetic domain walls (except 180 deg ones). The easy magnetization directions of rare earth iron garnets are and the equilibrium texture of (110) silices is limited by a rectangular array of 71 deg and 109 deg walls. Since the anisotropy and magnetostriction of the choosen compounds (TbIG and DyIG) increase sharply when the temperature is lowered, the influence of these parameters has been studied between 300K and 4.2K. Because of the increase of spontaneous magnetization and anisotropy, the domain number increases at low temperatures and the texture becomes less sensitive to the crystal imperfections. Besides the 109 deg walls disappear almost completely from the pattern; this has been shown to be due to the respective values of the wall energies, and particularly to the influence of the K 2 anisotropy constant. The contrasts observed on the topographs increase also sharply, because of the high values of the lambda 111 coefficient of spontaneous magnetostriction at low temperatures. A splitting of the Brugg reflection peak into two, below 60K for TbIG, each part corresponding to one family of domains, allowed a direct of lambda 111 . The garnets are materials chosen to study domain walls because of the large range of the anisotropy and magnetostriction values obtained in those compounds [fr

  1. Hysteresis loop design by geometry of garnet film element with single domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidanov, V A; Vetoshko, P M; Stempkovskiy, A L

    2011-01-01

    Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of magnetostatic stable states of two-domain structure in Bi-substituted uniaxial garnet film elements was made. Single domain walls (DW) between two opposite normally magnetized parts in isolated rectangular strip and strip-like bridge are found to exhibit different behavior. DW inside strip (bridge) suffers increasing repulsion (attraction) from nearest edge when shifted from element center. DW position center position is stable in isolated strip but bridge is magnetized spontaneously to one of two saturated states in zero external field. Isolated strip magnetization process occurs reversibly while bridge magnetization reversal occurs by coercive manner. Strip susceptibility and bridge coercive field are entirely defined by magnetostatic barrier created by element boundary stray field in case of constant DW length during magnetization reversal. Variation of strip and bridge boundary shape along DW trajectory gives the opportunity to create additional controllable potential profile due to DW surface energy modulation by DW length. Garnet elements with high Faraday rotation and low light switching field were developed for fine magnetic sensing and optical data processing applications.

  2. Investigation of the garnet-perovskite transition in Nd doped YIG by means of magnetic disaccommodation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Gomez, P.; De Francisco, C.; Torres, C. [Dpt. Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Iniguez, J.; Raposo, V. [Dpt. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Pza. la Merced s/n, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Perdigao, J.M.; Ferreira, A.R. [Dpt. Engenharia Electrotecnica e Computadores, Universidade de Coimbra, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2004-05-01

    The garnet-perovskite transition is studied in this work with magnetic disaccommodation on polycrystalline Nd doped YIG samples Y{sub 3-x}Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (0garnet-perovskite transition which takes place with x{approx}1.4 doping. Thermal evolution of magnetic permeability and X-ray diffraction support the behaviour observed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Absence of magnetic ordering and field-induced phase diagram in the gadolinium aluminum garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, O.; Lhotel, E.; Jacobsen, H.; Knee, C. S.; Deen, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness of spin liquids with respect to small perturbations, and the way magnetic frustration can be lifted by slight changes in the balance between competing magnetic interactions, remains a rich and open issue. We address this question through the study of the gadolinium aluminum garnet Gd3Al5O12 , a related compound to the extensively studied Gd3Ga5O12 . We report on its magnetic properties at very low temperatures. We show that despite a freezing at about 300 mK, no magnetic transition is observed, suggesting the presence of a spin-liquid state down to the lowest temperatures, similarly to Gd3Ga5O12 , in spite of a larger ratio between exchange and dipolar interactions. Finally, the phase diagram as a function of field and temperature is strongly reminiscent of the one reported in Gd3Ga5O12 . This study reveals the robust nature of the spin-liquid phase for Gd ions on the garnet lattice, in stark contrast to Gd ions on the pyrochlore lattice for which a slight perturbation drives the compound into a range of magnetically ordered states.

  4. Punctuated HT/UHT metamorphism during prolonged Archean orogenesis in the Pikwitonei Granulite Domain revealed by garnet petrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovic, Besim; Guevara, Victor; Caddick, Mark; Couëslan, Chris; Baxter, Ethan

    2017-04-01

    Fundamental to every modern continent's early (Archean) history is the generation of high temperature conditions required to produce the dense, strong, relatively anhydrous rocks that comprise most of Earth's stable cratonic crust. While the thermal gradients supported in Archean terranes are better understood, the timescales over which these conditions occur are more enigmatic. Garnet petrochronology allows for the interrogation of a semi-continuous record of these tectonometamorphic conditions, by linking pressure-temperature-fluid conditions (using phase equilibria modeling, trace element thermometry, stable isotope geochemistry) to a precise chronologic/chronometric record (e.g. high-precision Sm-Nd geochronology, geospeedometry of major and trace element diffusion profiles). Here, we utilize techniques from this burgeoning field of study to elucidate the rates and conditions of high temperature/ultra-high temperature (HT/UHT) metamorphism in the 2.7 Ga Pikwitonei Granulite Domain (PGD). The PGD represents over 150,000 km2 of dominantly granulite-facies metamorphic rocks situated at the NW edge of the Superior Province. Peak temperatures in the region range from 760°C in the southernmost part of the PGD, to 900-960˚C in the central/western PGD ( 40-60 km apart). Previous studies have suggested that metamorphism was long-lived in the region, occurring over 100 Ma, from 2.71-2.60 Ga [1, 2, 3]. High-precision garnet geochronology on microsampled garnets provides a detailed growth history of several lithologies across the region. Where necessary, bulk garnet analysis (i.e. dating based upon multiple whole garnet crystals rather than portions thereof) was also performed. While cooling from HT/UHT will result in some degree of intra-mineral age resetting, a detailed isotopic study of a range of large garnet porphyroblasts from the PGD (those which would be variably reset depending on peak T, grain size, and initial cooling rate) can retain information about both

  5. Motif signatures of transcribed enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-09-14

    In mammalian cells, transcribed enhancers (TrEn) play important roles in the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of gene expression levels in spatiotemporal manner. One of the most challenging questions in biology today is how the genomic characteristics of enhancers relate to enhancer activities. This is particularly critical, as several recent studies have linked enhancer sequence motifs to specific functional roles. To date, only a limited number of enhancer sequence characteristics have been investigated, leaving space for exploring the enhancers genomic code in a more systematic way. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational method, TELS, aimed at identifying predictive cell type/tissue specific motif signatures. We used TELS to compile a comprehensive catalog of motif signatures for all known TrEn identified by the FANTOM5 consortium across 112 human primary cells and tissues. Our results confirm that distinct cell type/tissue specific motif signatures characterize TrEn. These signatures allow discriminating successfully a) TrEn from random controls, proxy of non-enhancer activity, and b) cell type/tissue specific TrEn from enhancers expressed and transcribed in different cell types/tissues. TELS codes and datasets are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/TELS.

  6. Signature simulation of mixed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Tyler D.; Salvaggio, Carl

    2015-05-01

    Soil target signatures vary due to geometry, chemical composition, and scene radiometry. Although radiative transfer models and function-fit physical models may describe certain targets in limited depth, the ability to incorporate all three signature variables is difficult. This work describes a method to simulate the transient signatures of soil by first considering scene geometry synthetically created using 3D physics engines. Through the assignment of spectral data from the Nonconventional Exploitation Factors Data System (NEFDS), the synthetic scene is represented as a physical mixture of particles. Finally, first principles radiometry is modeled using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. With DIRSIG, radiometric and sensing conditions were systematically manipulated to produce and record goniometric signatures. The implementation of this virtual goniometer allows users to examine how a target bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) will change with geometry, composition, and illumination direction. By using 3D computer graphics models, this process does not require geometric assumptions that are native to many radiative transfer models. It delivers a discrete method to circumnavigate the significant cost of time and treasure associated with hardware-based goniometric data collections.

  7. Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Joehanes (Roby); Just, A.C. (Allan C.); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); L.C. Pilling (Luke); L.M. Reynolds (Lindsay); Mandaviya, P.R. (Pooja R.); W. Guan (Weihua); Xu, T. (Tao); C.E. Elks (Cathy); Aslibekyan, S. (Stella); H. Moreno-Macías (Hortensia); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J. Brody (Jennifer); Dhingra, R. (Radhika); P. Yousefi (Paul); J.S. Pankow (James); Kunze, S. (Sonja); Shah, S.H. (Sonia H.); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); K. Lohman (Kurt); Sha, J. (Jin); D. Absher (Devin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Zhao, W. (Wei); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); J. Bressler (Jan); M.L. Grove (Megan); T. Huan (Tianxiao); C. Liu (Chunyu); Mendelson, M.M. (Michael M.); C. Yao (Chen); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); A. Peters (Annette); R. Wang-Sattler (Rui); P.M. Visscher (Peter); N.R. Wray (Naomi); J.M. Starr (John); Ding, J. (Jingzhong); Rodriguez, C.J. (Carlos J.); N.J. Wareham (Nick); Irvin, M.R. (Marguerite R.); Zhi, D. (Degui); M. Barrdahl (Myrto); P. Vineis (Paolo); Ambatipudi, S. (Srikant); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); Schwartz, J. (Joel); Colicino, E. (Elena); Hou, L. (Lifang); Vokonas, P.S. (Pantel S.); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); S.T. Turner (Stephen); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); Smith, A.K. (Alicia K.); T. Klengel (Torsten); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); S.A. Gharib (Sina); Swenson, B.R. (Brenton R.); Liang, L. (Liming); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); Z. Herceg (Zdenko); Ressler, K.J. (Kerry J.); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); Kardia, S.L.R. (Sharon L. R.); D. Melzer (David); A.A. Baccarelli (Andrea A.); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); I. Romieu (Isabelle); D.K. Arnett (Donna); Ong, K.K. (Ken K.); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Fornage (Myriam); D. Levy (Daniel); S.J. London (Stephanie J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground-DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. Methods and Results-To comprehensively determine

  8. Signature Pedagogy in Theatre Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornetsky, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Critique in undergraduate theatre programs is at the heart of training actors at all levels. It is accepted as the signature pedagogy and is practiced in multiple ways. This essay defines critique and presents the case for why it is used as the single most important way that performers come to understand the language, values, and discourse of the…

  9. Galaxy interactions : The HI signature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Barnes, JE; Sanders, DB

    1999-01-01

    HI observations are an excellent tool for investigating tidal interactions. Ongoing major and minor interactions which can lead to traumatic mergers or to accretion and the triggering of star formation, show distinct HI signatures. Interactions and mergers in the recent past can also be recognized

  10. Metamorphic history of garnet-rich gneiss at Ktiš in the Lhenice shear zone, Moldanubian Zone of the southern Bohemian Massif, inferred from inclusions and compositional zoning of garnet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobayashi, T.; Hirajima, T.; Kawakami, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 124, 1/2 (2011), s. 46-65 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Lhenice shear zone * garnet * P-T path * partial melting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.246, year: 2011

  11. Fungicide residue identification and discrimination using a conducting polymer electronic-nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    The identification of fungicide residues on crop foliage is necessary to make periodic pest management decisions. The determination of fungicide residue identities currently is difficult and time consuming using conventional chemical analysis methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Different fungicide types produce unique electronic aroma signature...

  12. Thermal Signature Measurements for Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Mixtures by Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary

    2016-01-10

    Measurements were carried out to obtain thermal signatures of several ammonium nitrate/fuel (ANF) mixtures, using a laser-heating technique referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor (LDTR). The mixtures were ammonium nitrate (AN)/kerosene, AN/ethylene glycol, AN/paraffin wax, AN/petroleum jelly, AN/confectioner's sugar, AN/cellulose (tissue paper), nitromethane/cellulose, nitrobenzene/cellulose, AN/cellulose/nitromethane, AN/cellulose/nitrobenzene. These mixtures were also compared with AN/nitromethane and AN/diesel fuel oil, obtained from an earlier investigation. Thermograms for the mixtures, as well as individual constituents, were compared to better understand how the sample thermal signature changes with mixture composition. This is the first step in development of a thermal-signature database, to be used along with other signature databases, to improve identification of energetic substances of unknown composition. The results indicated that each individual thermal signature was associated unambiguously with a particular mixture composition. The signature features of a particular mixture were shaped by the individual constituent signatures. It was also uncovered that the baseline signature was modified after an experiment due to coating of unreacted residue on the substrate surface and a change in the reactor sphere oxide layer. Thus, care was required to pre-oxidize the sphere prior to an experiment. A minimum sample mass (which was dependent on composition) was required to detect the signature characteristics. Increased laser power served to magnify signal strength while preserving the signature features. For the mixtures examined, the thermal response of each ANF mixture was found to be different, which was based on the mixture composition and the thermal behavior of each mixture constituent.

  13. Garnet Breakdown, Symplectite Formation and Melting in Basanite-hosted Peridotite Xenoliths from Zinst (Bavaria, Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, Petr; Ackerman, Lukáš; Habler, G.; Abart, R.; Ulrych, Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 8 (2013), s. 1691-1723 ISSN 0022-3530 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1170 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : garnet * symplectite * kelyphite * xenolith * Eger Rift Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.485, year: 2013

  14. Rare-earth antisites in lutetium aluminum garnets: influence on lattice parameter and Ce.sup.3+./sup. multicenter structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Przybylińska, H.; Wittlin, A.; Ma, C.G.; Brik, M.G.; Kamińska, A.; Sybilski, P.; Zorenko, Yu.; Nikl, Martin; Gorbenko, V.; Fedorov, A.; Kučera, M.; Suchocki, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2014), s. 1515-1519 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : garnets * scintillators * laser materials * phosphors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2014

  15. Influence of yttrium iron garnet thickness and heater opacity on the nonlocal transport of electrically and thermally excited magnons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Juan; Cornelissen, Ludo Johannes; Vlietstra, Nynke; Ben Youssef, J.; Kuschel, Timo; Duine, R A; van Wees, Bart

    2016-01-01

    We studied the nonlocal transport behavior of both electrically and thermally excited magnons in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) as a function of its thickness. For electrically injected magnons, the nonlocal signals decrease monotonically as the YIG thickness increases. For the nonlocal behavior of the

  16. Constituting Antebellum African American Identity: Resistance, Violence, and Masculinity in Henry Highland Garnet's (1843) "Address to the Slaves"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, James

    2007-01-01

    In August 1843 Presbyterian minister Henry Highland Garnet delivered his "Address to the Slaves of the United States of America" to the National Convention of Colored Citizens in Buffalo, NY. While often read (and almost as often dismissed) as either an unqualified call for a violent slave rebellion or, at the least, a celebration of…

  17. Study on shaped single crystal growth and scintillating properties of Bi-doped rare-earth garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novoselov, A.; Yoshikawa, A.; Nikl, Martin; Solovieva, Natalia; Fukuda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, 4/5 (2005), s. 419-423 ISSN 0232-1300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04ME716 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : garnet * shaped single crystal growth * luminescent properties * Bi 3+ Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2005

  18. Luminescence and defects creation in Ce.sup.3+./sup.-doped aluminium and lutetium perovskites and garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasnikov, A.; Savikhina, T.; Zazubovich, S.; Nikl, Martin; Mareš, Jiří A.; Blažek, K.; Nejezchleb, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 537, - (2005), s. 130-133 ISSN 0168-9002 Grant - others:NATO(XX) SfP Project 973510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : luminescence * defects * scintillator * Ce 3+ -doped perovskites and garnets * Zr 4+ co-doping Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  19. Online Signature Verification on MOBISIG Finger-Drawn Signature Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Antal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present MOBISIG, a pseudosignature dataset containing finger-drawn signatures from 83 users captured with a capacitive touchscreen-based mobile device. The database was captured in three sessions resulting in 45 genuine signatures and 20 skilled forgeries for each user. The database was evaluated by two state-of-the-art methods: a function-based system using local features and a feature-based system using global features. Two types of equal error rate computations are performed: one using a global threshold and the other using user-specific thresholds. The lowest equal error rate was 0.01% against random forgeries and 5.81% against skilled forgeries using user-specific thresholds that were computed a posteriori. However, these equal error rates were significantly raised to 1.68% (random forgeries case and 14.31% (skilled forgeries case using global thresholds. The same evaluation protocol was performed on the DooDB publicly available dataset. Besides verification performance evaluations conducted on the two finger-drawn datasets, we evaluated the quality of the samples and the users of the two datasets using basic quality measures. The results show that finger-drawn signatures can be used by biometric systems with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Y3Fe5O12 nanoparticulate garnet ferrites: Comprehensive study on the synthesis and characterization fabricated by various routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaz Akhtar, Majid; Azhar Khan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Murtaza, G.; Raza, Rizwan; Shaukat, S.F.; Asif, M.H.; Nasir, Nadeem; Abbas, Ghazanfar; Nazir, M.S.; Raza, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synthesis methods such as sol–gel (SG), self combustion (SC) and modified conventional mixed oxide (MCMO) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the (Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 ) garnet ferrites have been studied in the present work. The samples of Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 were sintered at 950 °C and 1150 °C (by SG and SC methods). For MCMO route the sintering was done at 1350 °C for 6 h. Synthesized samples prepared by various routes were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Impedance network analyzer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural analysis reveals that the samples are of single phase structure and shows variations in the particle sizes and cells volumes, prepared by various routes. FESEM and TEM images depict that grain size increases with the increase of sintering temperature from 40 nm to 100 nm.Magnetic measurements reveal that garnet ferrite synthesized by sol gel method has high initial permeability (60.22) and low magnetic loss (0.0004) as compared to other garnet ferrite samples, which were synthesized by self combustion and MCMO methods. The M–H loops exhibit very low coercivity which enables the use of these materials in relays and switching devices fabrications. Thus, the garnet nanoferrites with low magnetic loss prepared by different methods may open new horizon for electronic industry for their use in high frequency applications. - Highlights: • Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 garnet ferrites nanoparticles were synthesized by three different routes. • Impact of sintering temperature on the particle size of Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 was evaluated. • The magnetic studies suggest the applications in relays and switching devices

  1. Differential equilibration and intergranular diffusion of trace elements during rapid regional metamorphism: constraints from LA-ICP-MS mapping of a garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F. R.; Gaidies, F.

    2017-12-01

    Trace element zoning contained within a metapelitic garnet population yields information pertaining to a more complex prograde reaction history than is evident in major element zoning patterns and other conventional analyses. In particular, while trace elements may not act as a rate-limiting component for garnet crystallization, their incorporation into garnet growth surfaces provides a nuanced insight into the crystallization history of the population, and the extent of equilibration of trace elements in the matrix. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS raster maps of trace element concentrations from several population-representative, centrally sectioned garnets from a garnet-grade metapelite of the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Equilibrium forward modeling of garnet crystallization and simulation of diffusional modification indicates that the garnet population crystallized rapidly over <1 Myr between 515 °C/4.5 kbar and 565 °C/5.5 kbar, as a consequence of high heating rates during regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism. While the rate of diffusional homogenization of major divalent cations is interpreted to have exceeded the rate of interfacial advance (yielding simple prograde growth zoning), trace element distributions record a more complex transport history. In particular, yttrium and the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) document a transition from an overprinted sigmoidal core to concentric repeated HREE and yttrium annuli in all crystals. This suggests that there was a discrete increase in the length scale of equilibration along the advancing garnet interface at some point in the growth history. However, there is no evidence for a coeval change in HREE transport thorough the intergranular network. Conversely, spiral core-to-rim zoning of chromium indicates the element remains almost completely immobile in the matrix over the duration of garnet growth.

  2. Polarized neutron diffraction - a tool for testing extinction models: application to yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, M.; Delapalme, A.; Becker, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper shows that polarized neutron experiments, which do not depend on any scale factor, are very dependent on extinction and provide original tests for extinction models. Moon, Koehler, Cable and Child (1972) have formulated the problem and proposed a first-order solution applicable only when the extinction is small. In the first part, some analytical derivations of secondary extinction corrections are discussed, using the formalism of Becker and Coppens (1974). In the second part, the main principles governing polarized neutron diffraction are briefly reviewed, with a special discussion of extinction problems. The method is then applied to the case of yttrium iron garnet (YIG). This experiment shows the technique of polarized neutrons to be very powerful for testing extinction models and for deciding whether the crystal behaves dynamically or kinematically (following Kato's criterion). (Auth.)

  3. Direct observation of magnon-phonon coupling in yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Haoran; Shi, Zhong; Xu, Guangyong; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Xi; Sullivan, Sean; Zhou, Jianshi; Xia, Ke; Shi, Jing; Dai, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    The magnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with a ferrimagnetic transition temperature of ˜560 K has been widely used in microwave and spintronic devices. Anomalous features in spin Seeback effect (SSE) voltages have been observed in Pt/YIG and attributed to magnon-phonon coupling. Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering to map out low-energy spin waves and acoustic phonons of YIG at 100 K as a function of increasing magnetic field. By comparing the zero and 9.1 T data, we find that instead of splitting and opening up gaps at the spin wave and acoustic phonon dispersion intersecting points, magnon-phonon coupling in YIG enhances the hybridized scattering intensity. These results are different from expectations of conventional spin-lattice coupling, calling for different paradigms to understand the scattering process of magnon-phonon interactions and the resulting magnon polarons.

  4. Luminescent down shifting effect of Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films on solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Guojian; Lou, Chaogang; Kang, Jian; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) thin films as luminescent down shifting (LDS) materials are introduced into the module of crystalline silicon solar cells. The films are deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on the lower surface of the quartz glass. They convert ultraviolet and blue light into yellow light. Experiments show that the introduction of YAG:Ce films improves the conversion efficiency from 18.45% of the cells to 19.27% of the module. The increasing efficiency is attributed to LDS effect of YAG:Ce films and the reduced reflection of short wavelength photons. Two intentionally selected samples with similar reflectivities are used to evaluate roughly the effect of LDS alone on the solar cells, which leads to a relative increase by 2.68% in the conversion efficiency

  5. Spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaos in yttrium-iron-garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, S.M.; de Aguiar, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Spin-wave instabilities driven by microwave fields display auto-oscillations, intermittency, quasiperiodicity, period-doubling and chaos like other nonlinear dynamic systems. Several of these phenomena, first observed nearly 30 years ago, only recently have been investigated systematically and understood in the light of modern nonlinear dynamics. The authors review recent experimental results in yttrium-iron-garnet subject to three different spin-wave pumping mechanisms: parallel pumping, subsidiary resonance (first-order Suhl process) and premature saturation of the main resonance (second-order Suhl process). A theoretical model derived from first principles leading to coupled nonlinear spin-ave equations is used to interpret the observed spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaotic dynamics. Improvements needed in the model are also indicated

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of three-magnon process driven by ferromagnetic resonance in yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, R. O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Interdisciplinar de Ciências da Natureza, Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, PR (Brazil); Holanda, J.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M., E-mail: rezende@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Vilela-Leão, L. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Centro Acadêmico do Agreste, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 55002-970 Caruaru, PE (Brazil); Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-05-11

    We report an investigation of the dynamics of the three-magnon splitting process associated with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in films of the insulating ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The experiments are performed with a 6 μm thick YIG film close to a microstrip line fed by a microwave generator operating in the 2–6 GHz range. The magnetization precession is driven by the microwave rf magnetic field perpendicular to the static magnetic field, and its dynamics is observed by monitoring the amplitude of the FMR absorption peak. The time evolution of the amplitude reveals that if the frequency is lowered below a critical value of 3.3 GHz, the FMR mode pumps two magnons with opposite wave vectors that react back on the FMR, resulting in a nonlinear dynamics of the magnetization. The results are explained by a model with coupled nonlinear equations describing the time evolution of the magnon modes.

  7. Iron implantation in gadolinium gallium garnet studied by conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Szucs, I; Fetzer, C; Langouche, G

    1998-01-01

    Gadolinium gallium garnet single crystals were implanted with doses of sup 5 sup 7 Fe ions in the range 8x10 sup 1 sup 5 - 6x10 sup 1 sup 6 atoms cm sup - sup 2. Depending on the dose, iron with Fe sup 2 sup + or Fe sup 3 sup + charge states was found to have formed after the implantation. After a subsequent annealing in air, the iron oxidized to Fe sup 3 sup +. The Moessbauer and channelling measurements showed lattice recrystallization taking place at 600 deg. C. After recrystallization, the iron was found to have substituted for gallium ions both at the octahedral and at the tetrahedral positions. The relative concentration of the two types of iron at the two sites shifted towards the equilibrium distribution upon high-temperature annealing. (author)

  8. Spin wave propagation in perpendicularly magnetized nm-thick yttrium iron garnet films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jilei; Heimbach, Florian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Haiming; Liu, Chuanpu; Chang, Houchen; Stückler, Tobias; Hu, Junfeng; Zeng, Lang; Zhang, Youguang; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng; Wu, Mingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Magnonics offers a new way for information transport that uses spin waves (SWs) and is free of charge currents. Unlike Damon-Eshbach SWs, the magneto-static forward volume SWs offer the reciprocity configuration suitable for SW logic devices with low power consumption. Here, we study forward volume SW propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films with an ultra-low damping constant α = 8 ×10-5 . We design different integrated microwave antenna with different k-vector excitation distributions on YIG thin films. Using a vector network analyzer, we measured SW transmission with the films magnetized in perpendicular orientation. Based on the experimental results, we extract the group velocity as well as the dispersion relation of SWs and directly compare the power efficiency of SW propagation in YIG using coplanar waveguide and micro stripline for SW excitation and detection.

  9. High-energy xenon ion irradiation effects on the electrical properties of yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, J.M.; Flament, J.L.; Sinopoli, L.; Trochon, J.; Uzureau, J.L.; Groult, D.; Studer, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    1989-01-01

    Thin monocristalline samples of yttrium iron garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) were irradiated at room temperature with 27 MeV/A 132 Xe ions at varying fluences up to 3.5 x 10 12 ions cm -2 . Sample thickness (100 μm) was smaller than the mean projected range of ions (170 μm) so that we were able to study the effects of irradiation damage solely. At such a high ion energy the nuclear energy loss is negligible and damage is mainly due to electronic excitation energy loss. YIG d.c conductivity is found to rise by a factor 40 for the highest dose while the permittivity increases only slightly after irradiation (40% max.). The dielectric losses are also enhanced as the ion fluence increases especially at lower frequencies (by a factor 6 at 10 KHz). No dielectric relaxation peak is observed in the frequency range explored here (10 KHz - 10 MHz)

  10. Field and power dependence of auto-oscillations in yttrium-iron-garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, R.D.; Wigen, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear response of the magnetic spin system in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) thin films to high-power ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) at perpendicular resonance was studied and the results are presented. A diagram of the regions of auto-oscillation of the system as a function of field and power is presented which shows the modes that appear in low-power FMR becoming unstable to auto-oscillations with increased power. The auto-oscillations exhibit periodic, quasiperiodic, period doubling, and chaotic behavior with typical frequencies in the MHz range. The domains of oscillatory behavior due to individual resonance modes are seen to merge and shift to lower fields as power is increased. Possible mechanisms for the behavior are proposed

  11. Effect of substrate crystallographic orientation of garnet-ferrite film properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burym, Yu.A.; Dubinko, S.V.; Mitsaj, Yu.N.; Borovitskaya, L.N.; Prokopov, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of garnet-ferrite films with a composition (YbGdPrBi) 3 (FeAlGa) 5 O 12 grown under identical conditions on variously oriented substrates, have been studied. The substrate orientation was changed in such a way that the vector of the substrate normal was in the [110] plane between the [111] and [112] directions. We have found that the substrate misorientation leads to an inclined position of the easy magnetization axis (EMA) and a reduction of the film growth rate. The change of the film physical properties (Faraday rotation, Curie temperature, magnetization) indicates the film composition variation with the substrate orientation change. The temperature dependence of the EMA slope angle in the studied samples is determined by the magnetoelastic contribution to the anisotropy constants. (author)

  12. Boron codoping of Czochralski grown lutetium aluminum garnet and the effect on scintillation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Camera; Koschan, Merry; Wu, Yuntao; Melcher, Charles L.

    2018-03-01

    Many single crystal scintillators, such as Lu3Al5O12, have intrinsic defects that impede their performance. In addition to doping with activators such as cerium, codoping can be used to improve the scintillation properties of a variety of scintillators. In particular, boron has been shown to improve the light yield, energy resolution, and self-absorption of other garnet scintillators, such as GGAG, when incorporated into the lattice via codoping. In this study, single crystals of LuAG: 0.2 at.% Ce codoped with varying concentrations of boron were grown via the Czochralski method at a rate of 1.2 mm/h. Results will show the effect boron codoping has on the scintillation properties of LuAG: Ce, including light yield, decay time, and self-absorption.

  13. Nonlinear control of magnetic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemoczynski, Bogdan

    Magnetic properties of ferrite structures are known to cause fluctuations in Earth's magnetic field around the object. These fluctuations are known as the object's magnetic signature and are unique based on the object's geometry and material. It is a common practice to neutralize magnetic signatures periodically after certain time intervals, however there is a growing interest to develop real time degaussing systems for various applications. Development of real time degaussing system is a challenging problem because of magnetic hysteresis and difficulties in measurement or estimation of near-field flux data. The goal of this research is to develop a real time feedback control system that can be used to minimize magnetic signatures for ferrite structures. Experimental work on controlling the magnetic signature of a cylindrical steel shell structure with a magnetic disturbance provided evidence that the control process substantially increased the interior magnetic flux. This means near field estimation using interior sensor data is likely to be inaccurate. Follow up numerical work for rectangular and cylindrical cross sections investigated variations in shell wall flux density under a variety of ambient excitation and applied disturbances. Results showed magnetic disturbances could corrupt interior sensor data and magnetic shielding due to the shell walls makes the interior very sensitive to noise. The magnetic flux inside the shell wall showed little variation due to inner disturbances and its high base value makes it less susceptible to noise. This research proceeds to describe a nonlinear controller to use the shell wall data as an input. A nonlinear plant model of magnetics is developed using a constant tau to represent domain rotation lag and a gain function k to describe the magnetic hysteresis curve for the shell wall. The model is justified by producing hysteresis curves for multiple materials, matching experimental data using a particle swarm algorithm, and

  14. The formation and trace elements of garnet in the skarn zone from the Xinqiao Cu-S-Fe-Au deposit, Tongling ore district, Anhui Province, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhou, Tao-fa; White, Noel C.; Zhang, Le-jun; Fan, Yu; Wang, Fang-yue; Chen, Xue-feng

    2018-03-01

    Xinqiao is a large copper-gold deposit and consists of two major mineralization types: stratabound and skarn. The skarn occurs along the contact between a quartz diorite intrusion and Carboniferous-Triassic limestone. Xinqiao has a strongly developed skarn zone, including endoskarn and exoskarn; the exoskarn is divided into proximal and distal exoskarn. We present systematic major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for garnets from the skarn zone, discuss the factors controlling the incorporation of trace elements into the garnets, and constrain the formation and evolution of the garnet from skarn zone in Xinqiao deposit. Grossular (Adr20-44Grs56-80) mostly occurs in endoskarn and has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns, with small Eu anomalies and low ∑REE. Garnets from the exoskarn show complex textures and chemical compositions. The composition of garnets range from Al-rich andradite (Adr63-81Grs19-47) to andradite (Adr67-98Grs2-33). Garnet in endoskarn has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns. Al-rich andradite in proximal skarn has small Eu anomalies and moderate ∑REE. Andradite from distal exoskarn shows strong positive Eu anomalies and has variable ∑REE. The U, Y, Fe and Al relationship with ∑REE shows that two mechanisms controlled incorporation of REE into the garnets: crystal chemistry (substitution and interstitial solid solution) mainly controlled in the endoskarn garnet (grossular) and the proximal exoskarn (Al-rich andradite), and fluid and rock chemistry (surface adsorption and occlusion) controlled REEs in the distal exoskarn. Furthermore, Al has a negative relationship with ∑REE indicating that REE3+ did not follow a coupled, YAG-type substitution into the garnets. Variations in textures and trace and rare earth elements of garnets suggest that the garnets in the endoskarn formed by slow crystal growth at low W/R ratios and near-neutral pH in a closed system during periods of diffusive metasomatism

  15. X-ray color maps of the zoned garnets from Silgará Formation metamorphic rocks,SantanderMassif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasu Akira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The metamorphic rocks of the Lower Paleozoic Silgará Formation of the Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia, were affected by a Barrovian-type metamorphism under low to high temperature and medium pressure conditions. These rocks contain garnet porphyroblasts, which show several kinds of chemical zoning patterns. The garnet grains behave as closed systems with respect to the rock matrix. Most of the observed zoning patterns are due to gradual changes in physicochemical conditions during growth. However, some garnet grains show complex zoning patterns during multiple deformation and metamorphic events.

  16. Magnetic properties of Al-Cr Co-substituted yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murumkar, V.D.; Dorik, R.G.; Aghav, P.S.; Makane, N.M.; Jadhav, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Yttrium Iron Garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) is a well-known magnetic material used in several applications such as permanent magnet, microwave applications etc. The properties of YIG are sensitive to type and amount of substituent. In this work, we report magnetic properties of Al-Cr co-substitution YIG for microwave applications. Y 3 Al x Cr x Fe 5-2x O 12 with x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 have been prepared by standard ceramic technique at relatively high sintering temperature (about 1400℃). X- ray diffraction technique was employed to detect single phase formation of all samples and to study the structural parameters. The analysis of XRD pattern confirms the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure of Y 3 Al x Cr x Fe 5-2x O 12 garnet system. The lattice constant obtained by using XRD data found to decrease with Al-Cr substitution. The decrease in lattice constant is uniform, linear and can be attributed to variation in ionic radii of Al 3+ , Cr 3+ and Fe 3+ . The observed decrease in lattice constant is well matching with the reported data. The bulk density of the entire sample was measured by Archimedes' principle and found to be 90-95 % to that of X- ray density. X-ray density was calculated using the values of lattice constant and molecular weight of each sample. The magnetic properties of Y 3 Al x Cr x Fe 5-2x O 12 samples was studied using hysteresis loop technique at room temperature. The saturation magnetization and magneton number (n B ) decreases with Al-Cr co-substitution. The obtained structural and magnetic parameters are best suited for microwave as well as for application in permanent magnet. (author)

  17. Swift heavy ion-beam induced amorphization and recrystallization of yttrium iron garnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Miro, Sandrine; Beuneu, François; Toulemonde, Marcel

    2015-12-16

    Pure and (Ca and Si)-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12 or YIG) epitaxial layers and amorphous films on gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd3Ga5O12, or GGG) single crystal substrates were irradiated by 50 MeV (32)Si and 50 MeV (or 60 MeV) (63)Cu ions for electronic stopping powers larger than the threshold value (~4 MeV μm(-1)) for amorphous track formation in YIG crystals. Conductivity data of crystalline samples in a broad ion fluence range (10(11)-10(16) cm(-2)) are modeled with a set of rate equations corresponding to the amorphization and recrystallization induced in ion tracks by electronic excitations. The data for amorphous layers confirm that a recrystallization process takes place above ~10(14) cm(-2). Cross sections for both processes deduced from this analysis are discussed in comparison to previous determinations with reference to the inelastic thermal-spike model of track formation. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was also used to follow the related structural modifications. Raman spectra show the progressive vanishing and randomization of crystal phonon modes in relation to the ion-induced damage. For crystalline samples irradiated at high fluences (⩾10(14) cm(-2)), only two prominent broad bands remain like for amorphous films, thereby reflecting the phonon density of states of the disordered solid, regardless of samples and irradiation conditions. The main band peaked at ~660 cm(-1) is assigned to vibration modes of randomized bonds in tetrahedral (FeO4) units.

  18. Magneto-optical properties of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films elaborated by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudiar, T.; Payet-Gervy, B.; Blanc-Mignon, M.-F.; Rousseau, J.-J.; Le Berre, M.; Joisten, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are grown by radio frequency magnetron non reactive sputtering system. Thin films are crystallised by heat-treatment to obtain magneto-optical properties. On quartz substrate, the network of cracks observed on the annealed samples can be explained by the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of substrate and YIG. Physico-chemical analysis shown that the obtained material has a correct stoichiometry and is crystallised as FCC. The Faraday rotation of thin films is measured with a classical ellipsometric system based on transmission which allows us to obtained an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The variation of Faraday rotation is studied on the one hand versus radio frequency power applied to the cathode during the deposition and on the other hand versus the applied magnetic field. The results are compared with those obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer analysis in perpendicular configuration. A maximum Faraday rotation is observed to be 1900 deg./cm at the wavelength of 594nm for a YIG thin film formed on quartz substrate and annealed at 740 deg. C. The values of the Faraday rotation coefficients obtained in the study versus the wavelength are comparable to those of the literature for the bulk material. In order to eliminate the stress due to the heat-treatment, we made some films on single crystals of gadolinium gallium garnet (111) substrates for which thermal expansion coefficient is near than the YIG one. The material crystallises with no crackles and the Faraday effect is equivalent

  19. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  20. Time Series Based for Online Signature Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Gede Darma Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Signature verification system is to match the tested signature with a claimed signature. This paper proposes time series based for feature extraction method and dynamic time warping for match method. The system made by process of testing 900 signatures belong to 50 participants, 3 signatures for reference and 5 signatures from original user, simple imposters and trained imposters for signatures test. The final result system was tested with 50 participants with 3 references. This test obtained that system accuracy without imposters is 90,44897959% at threshold 44 with rejection errors (FNMR is 5,2% and acceptance errors (FMR is 4,35102%, when with imposters system accuracy is 80,1361% at threshold 27 with error rejection (FNMR is 15,6% and acceptance errors (average FMR is 4,263946%, with details as follows: acceptance errors is 0,391837%, acceptance errors simple imposters is 3,2% and acceptance errors trained imposters is 9,2%.

  1. Spectral signature selection for mapping unvegetated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, G. A.; Petersen, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data covering the wavelength interval from 0.40-2.60 microns were collected at an altitude of 1000 m above the terrain in southeastern Pennsylvania. Uniform training areas were selected within three sites from this flightline. Soil samples were collected from each site and a procedure developed to allow assignment of scan line and element number from the multispectral scanner data to each sampling location. These soil samples were analyzed on a spectrophotometer and laboratory spectral signatures were derived. After correcting for solar radiation and atmospheric attenuation, the laboratory signatures were compared to the spectral signatures derived from these same soils using multispectral scanner data. Both signatures were used in supervised and unsupervised classification routines. Computer-generated maps using the laboratory and multispectral scanner derived signatures resulted in maps that were similar to maps resulting from field surveys. Approximately 90% agreement was obtained between classification maps produced using multispectral scanner derived signatures and laboratory derived signatures.

  2. Genetic Signatures of HIV-1 Envelope-mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Lee, Raphael T. C.; Mohl, Jonathan; Sedano, Melina; Khong, Wei Xin; Ng, Oon Tek; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Garg, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    The envelope (Env) glycoprotein of HIV is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence support the role of HIV-1 Env in inducing bystander apoptosis that may be a contributing factor in CD4+ T cell loss. However, most of the studies testing this phenomenon have been conducted with laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates. This raises the question of whether primary Envs derived from HIV-infected patients are capable of inducing bystander apoptosis and whether specific Env signatures are associated with this phenomenon. We developed a high throughput assay to determine the bystander apoptosis inducing activity of a panel of primary Envs. We tested 38 different Envs for bystander apoptosis, virion infectivity, neutralizing antibody sensitivity, and putative N-linked glycosylation sites along with a comprehensive sequence analysis to determine if specific sequence signatures within the viral Env are associated with bystander apoptosis. Our studies show that primary Envs vary considerably in their bystander apoptosis-inducing potential, a phenomenon that correlates inversely with putative N-linked glycosylation sites and positively with virion infectivity. By use of a novel phylogenetic analysis that avoids subtype bias coupled with structural considerations, we found specific residues like Arg-476 and Asn-425 that were associated with differences in bystander apoptosis induction. A specific role of these residues was also confirmed experimentally. These data demonstrate for the first time the potential of primary R5 Envs to mediate bystander apoptosis in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we identify specific genetic signatures within the Env that may be associated with the bystander apoptosis-inducing phenotype. PMID:24265318

  3. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvey, Daniel C.; Morton, Kenneth; Harmon, Russell S.; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Remus, Jeremiah J.; Collins, Leslie M.; Wise, Michael A.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique real-time geochemical analysis that is being developed for portable use outside of the laboratory. In this study, statistical signal processing and classification techniques were applied to single-shot, broadband LIBS spectra, comprising measured plasma light intensities between 200 and 960 nm, for a suite of 157 garnets of different composition from 92 locations worldwide. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied to sets of 25 LIBS spectra for each garnet sample and used to classify the garnet samples based on composition and geographic origin. Careful consideration was given to the cross-validation procedure to ensure that the classification algorithm is robust to unseen data. The results indicate that broadband LIBS analysis can be used to discriminate garnets of different composition and has the potential to discern geographic origin.

  4. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvey, Daniel C.; Morton, Kenneth; Harmon, Russell S.; Gottfried, Jennifer L.; Remus, Jeremiah J.; Collins, Leslie M.; Wise, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique real-time geochemical analysis that is being developed for portable use outside of the laboratory. In this study, statistical signal processing and classification techniques were applied to single-shot, broadband LIBS spectra, comprising measured plasma light intensities between 200 and 960 nm, for a suite of 157 garnets of different composition from 92 locations worldwide. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied to sets of 25 LIBS spectra for each garnet sample and used to classify the garnet samples based on composition and geographic origin. Careful consideration was given to the cross-validation procedure to ensure that the classification algorithm is robust to unseen data. The results indicate that broadband LIBS analysis can be used to discriminate garnets of different composition and has the potential to discern geographic origin.

  5. Infrared signatures for remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, R.S.; Sharpe, S.W.; Kelly, J.F.

    1994-04-01

    PNL`s capabilities for infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy include tunable-diode-laser (TDL) systems covering 300--3,000 cm{sup {minus}1} at <10-MHz bandwidth; a Bruker Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for the near- to far-infrared at 50-MHz resolution; and a stable line-tunable, 12-w cw CO{sub 2} laser. PNL also has a beam expansion source with a 12-cm slit, which provides a 3-m effective path for gases at {approximately}10 K, giving a Doppler width of typically 10 MHz; and long-path static gas cells (to 100 m). In applying this equipment to signatures work, the authors emphasize the importance of high spectral resolution for detecting and identifying atmospheric interferences; for identifying the optimum analytical frequencies; for deriving, by spectroscopic analysis, the molecular parameters needed for modeling; and for obtaining data on species and/or bands that are not in existing databases. As an example of such spectroscopy, the authors have assigned and analyzed the C-Cl stretching region of CCl{sub 4} at 770--800 cm{sup {minus}1}. This is an important potential signature species whose IR absorption has remained puzzling because of the natural isotopic mix, extensive hot-band structure, and a Fermi resonance involving a nearby combination band. Instrument development projects include the IR sniffer, a small high-sensitivity, high-discrimination (Doppler-limited) device for fence-line or downwind monitoring that is effective even in regions of atmospheric absorption; preliminary work has achieved sensitivities at the low-ppb level. Other work covers trace species detection with TDLs, and FM-modulated CO{sub 2} laser LIDAR. The authors are planning a field experiment to interrogate the Hanford tank farm for signature species from Rattlesnake Mountain, a standoff of ca. 15 km, to be accompanied by simultaneous ground-truthing at the tanks.

  6. Metabolic signatures of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Morgan, Martin T; Fiedler, Tina L; Djukovic, Danijel; Hoffman, Noah G; Raftery, Daniel; Marrazzo, Jeanne M; Fredricks, David N

    2015-04-14

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by shifts in the vaginal microbiota from Lactobacillus dominant to a microbiota with diverse anaerobic bacteria. Few studies have linked specific metabolites with bacteria found in the human vagina. Here, we report dramatic differences in metabolite compositions and concentrations associated with BV using a global metabolomics approach. We further validated important metabolites using samples from a second cohort of women and a different platform to measure metabolites. In the primary study, we compared metabolite profiles in cervicovaginal lavage fluid from 40 women with BV and 20 women without BV. Vaginal bacterial representation was determined using broad-range PCR with pyrosequencing and concentrations of bacteria by quantitative PCR. We detected 279 named biochemicals; levels of 62% of metabolites were significantly different in women with BV. Unsupervised clustering of metabolites separated women with and without BV. Women with BV have metabolite profiles marked by lower concentrations of amino acids and dipeptides, concomitant with higher levels of amino acid catabolites and polyamines. Higher levels of the signaling eicosanoid 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), a biomarker for inflammation, were noted in BV. Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus jensenii exhibited similar metabolite correlation patterns, which were distinct from correlation patterns exhibited by BV-associated bacteria. Several metabolites were significantly associated with clinical signs and symptoms (Amsel criteria) used to diagnose BV, and no metabolite was associated with all four clinical criteria. BV has strong metabolic signatures across multiple metabolic pathways, and these signatures are associated with the presence and concentrations of particular bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common but highly enigmatic condition that is associated with adverse outcomes for women and their neonates. Small molecule metabolites in the

  7. Rare evidence for formation of garnet + corundum during isobaric cooling of ultrahigh temperature metapelites: New insights for retrograde P-T trajectory of the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmapriya, P. L.; Malaviarachchi, Sanjeeva P. K.; Galli, Andrea; Su, Ben-Xun; Subasinghe, N. D.; Dissanayake, C. B.

    2015-04-01

    We report the occurrence of coexisting garnet + corundum in spinel- and corundum-bearing, garnet-sillimanite-biotite-graphite gneiss (pelitic granulites) from the Highland Complex (HC), Sri Lanka. In the investigated pelitic granulites, two domains such as quartz-saturated and quartz-undersaturated are distinguishable. The quartz-saturated domains consist of porphyroblastic garnet, quartz, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar and biotite flakes rimming garnet. The quartz-undersaturated domains are constituted of two generations of garnet (Grt1 and Grt2), sillimanite, plagioclase, alkali-feldspar, corundum, spinel and biotite. Grt1 encloses rare Ti-rich biotite and numerous rutile needles and apatite rods. Grt2 contains rare sillimanite and/or spinel inclusions. Corundum occurs in mutual contact with Grt2, partially embedded at the rim or as an inclusions in Grt2. Thermobarometry on inclusion phases in Grt1 indicates that during the prograde history pelitic granulites attained a P of 10.5-11 kbar at T of ~ 850 °C. Textural observations coupled with both pseudosections calculated in the NCKFMASHTMnO system and Ti-in-Garnet geothermobarometry suggest that peak metamorphism occurred at ultrahigh temperature (UHT) conditions of 950-975 °C and pressures of 9-9.5 kbar. Peak T was followed by a period of isobaric cooling that formed corundum and Grt2 at approx. 930 °C along with exsolution of rutile needles and apatite rods in Grt1. Thermodynamic modelling confirms that corundum appears along an isobaric cooling path at about 920-930 °C and 9-9.5 kbar. Therefore, the investigated granulites provide a rare example of post-peak crystallization of garnet + corundum along a retrograde metamorphic trajectory under UHT conditions. Thus, isobaric cooling at the base of the crust could be regarded as an alternative process to form coexisting garnet + corundum.

  8. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films with low Gilbert damping and bulk-like magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Onbasli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium iron garnet (YIG, Y 3Fe5O12 films have been epitaxially grown on Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG, Gd3Ga5O12 substrates with (100 orientation using pulsed laser deposition. The films were single-phase, epitaxial with the GGG substrate, and the root-mean-square surface roughness varied between 0.14 nm and 0.2 nm. Films with thicknesses ranging from 17 to 200 nm exhibited low coercivity (<2 Oe, near-bulk room temperature saturation moments (∼135 emu cm−3, in-plane easy axis, and damping parameters as low as 2.2 × 10−4. These high quality YIG thin films are useful in the investigation of the origins of novel magnetic phenomena and magnetization dynamics.

  9. Diode-pumped nd:mixed-garnet laser with emission at 943 nm for water vapor DIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Enzo; Mariottini, C.; Tobia, M.; Stucchi, E.

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of a technological development for ESA space water vapor DIAL application, we show that, by the compositional tuning technique, wavelength tuning of laser materials to match the water vapor absorption lines in the wavelength region 942-943 nm (and at about 935 nm) can be achieved. From preliminary investigations, two mixed-garnet crystal families have been identified as favorable ones, Nd:YAG1-xYSGGx and Nd:YSAG1-xGGGx. In this work, two compositionally tuned Nd:mixed-garnet laser systems have been developed and tested. The first one (Nd(1%):YSAG0.91 / GGG0.09) exhibits an output wavelength peak at about 942.8-943.0 nm, the latter (Nd(0.83%):YAG0.43 / YSGG0.57) at 943.2 nm. Laser action of the two compositions has been obtained both in long pulse and in Q-switching mode.

  10. Enrichment of trace elements in garnet amphibolites from a paleo-subduction zone: Catalina Schist, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Sorena S.; Grossman, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The abundance, P-T stability, solubility, and element-partitioning behavior of minerals such as rutile, garnet, sphene, apatite, zircon, zoisite, and allanite are critical variables in models for mass transfer from the slab to the mantle wedge in deep regions of subduction zones. The influence of these minerals on the composition of subduction-related magmas has been inferred (and disputed) from inverse modelling of the geochemistry of island-arc basalt, or by experiment. Although direct samples of the dehydration + partial-melting region of a mature subduction zone have not been reported from subduction complexes, garnet amphibolites from melanges of circumpacific and Caribbean blueschist terranes reflect high T (>600??C) conditions in shallower regions. Such rocks record geochemical processes that affected deep-seated, high-T portions of paleo-subduction zones. In the Catalina Schist, a subduction-zone metamorphic terrane of southern California, metasomatized and migmatitic garnet amphibolites occur as blocks in a matrix of meta-ultramafic rocks. This mafic and ultramafic complex may represent either slab-derived material accreted to the mantle wedge of a nascent subduction zone or a portion of a shear zone closely related to the slab-mantle wedge contact, or both. The trace-element geochemistry of the complex and the distribution of trace elements among the minerals of garnet amphibolites were studied by INAA, XRF, electron microprobe, and SEM. In order of increasing alteration from a probable metabasalt protolith, three common types of garnet amphibolite blocks in the Catalina Schist are: (1) non-migmatitic, clinopyroxene-bearing blocks, which are compositionally similar to MORB that has lost an albite component; (2) garnet-amphibolite blocks, which have rinds that reflect local interaction between metabasite, metaperidotite, and fluid; and (3) migmatites that are extremely enriched in Th, HFSE, LREE, and other trace elements. These trace-element enrichments

  11. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  12. Theoretical Characterizaiton of Visual Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinski, D. O.; Chase, G. M.; di Nallo, O. E.; Scales, A. N.; Vanderley, D. L.; Byrd, E. F. C.

    2015-05-01

    We are investigating the accuracy of theoretical models used to predict the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared spectra, as well as other properties, of product materials ejected from the muzzle of currently fielded systems. Recent advances in solid propellants has made the management of muzzle signature (flash) a principle issue in weapons development across the calibers. A priori prediction of the electromagnetic spectra of formulations will allow researchers to tailor blends that yield desired signatures and determine spectrographic detection ranges. Quantum chemistry methods at various levels of sophistication have been employed to optimize molecular geometries, compute unscaled vibrational frequencies, and determine the optical spectra of specific gas-phase species. Electronic excitations are being computed using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). A full statistical analysis and reliability assessment of computational results is currently underway. A comparison of theoretical results to experimental values found in the literature is used to assess any affects of functional choice and basis set on calculation accuracy. The status of this work will be presented at the conference. Work supported by the ARL, DoD HPCMP, and USMA.

  13. Timescales between mantle metasomatism and kimberlite ascent indicated by diffusion profiles in garnet crystals from peridotite xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollands, Michael C.; Hanger, Brendan J.; Yaxley, Gregory M.; Hermann, Jörg; Kilburn, Matthew R.

    2018-01-01

    Rare garnet crystals from a peridotite xenolith from the Wesselton kimberlite, South Africa, have distinct zones related to two separate episodes of mantle metasomatism. The garnet cores were firstly depleted through melt extraction, then equilibrated during metasomatism by a potentially diamond-forming carbonate-bearing or proto-kimberlitic fluid at 1100-1300 °C and 4.5-5.5 GPa. The garnet rim chemistry, in contrast, is consistent with later overgrowth in equilibrium with a kimberlite at around 1025 ± 25 °C and 4.2 ± 0.5 GPa. This suggests that the rock was physically moved upwards by up to tens of kilometres between the two metasomatic episodes. Preserved high Ca, Al and Cr contents in orthopyroxenes suggest this uplift was tectonic, rather than magmatic. Diffusion profiles were measured over the transitions between garnet cores and rims using electron microprobe (Mg, Ca, Fe for modelling, plus Cr, Mn, Ti, Na, Al) and nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS; 89Y, along with 23Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ti) analyses. The short profile lengths (generally <10 μm) and low Y concentrations (0.2-60 ppm) make the NanoSIMS approach preferable. Diffusion profiles at the interface between the zones yield constraints on the timescale between the second metasomatic event and eruption of the kimberlite magma that brought the xenolith to the surface. The time taken to form the diffusion profiles is on the order of 25 days to 400 yr, primarily based on modelling of Y diffusion along with Ca, Fe and Mg (multicomponent diffusion) profiles. These timescales are too long to be produced by the interaction of the mantle xenolith with the host kimberlite magma during a single-stage ascent to the crust (hours to days). The samples offer a rare opportunity to study metasomatic processes associated with failed eruption attempts in the cratonic lithosphere.

  14. Energy resolution studies of Ce- and Pr-doped aluminum and multicomponent garnets: the escape and photo-peaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří A.; Beitlerová, Alena; Průša, Petr; Blažek, K.; Horodysky, P.; Kamada, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Nikl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2016), s. 701-705 ISSN 0022-2313. [International Conference on Luminescence and Optical Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter /17./. Wroclaw, 13.07.2014-18.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : multicomponent garnets * energy resolution * photo and escape peaks * Ce and Pr dopants * pulse height spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.686, year: 2016

  15. High-pressure optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies on synthetic cobalt aluminum silicate garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Taran, Michail; Nestola, Fabrizio; Ohashi, Haruo

    2007-01-01

    The pressure-induced behavior of spin-allowed dd-bands of VIIICo2+ in the absorption spectra of synthetic Co3Al2Si3O12 garnet was studied from 10-4 to 13 GPa. The plots of the peak energy vs. pressure for the three sharpest well resolved bands at ca. 5160, 17 680, and 18 740 cm-1 display small bu...

  16. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  17. Effect of Mg co-doping on cathodoluminescence properties of LuGAGG:Ce single crystalline garnet films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Petr; Lalinský, Ondřej; Kučera, M.; Lučeničová, Z.; Hanuš, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, OCT (2017), s. 359-366 ISSN 0925- 3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05631S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : multicomponent garnet film * LuGAGG:Ce,Mg * liquid phase epitaxy * cathodoluminescence * scintillator * electron detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  18. Ce.sup.3+./sup.-doped scintillators: status and properties of (Y,Lu) aluminium perovskites and garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří A.; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerová, Alena; Solovieva, Natalia; D´Ambrosio, C.; Blažek, K.; Malý, P.; Nejezchleb, K.; Fabeni, P.; Pazzi, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 537, - (2005), s. 271-275 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 462 Grant - others:NATO SFP (XX) 973510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Ce 3+ -doped scintillators * perovskites * garnets * photoelectron and light yield * energy resolution * re-absorption Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  19. Intrusion signature creation via clustering anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Gilbert R.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

    2008-03-01

    Current practices for combating cyber attacks typically use Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to detect and block multistage attacks. Because of the speed and impacts of new types of cyber attacks, current IDSs are limited in providing accurate detection while reliably adapting to new attacks. In signature-based IDS systems, this limitation is made apparent by the latency from day zero of an attack to the creation of an appropriate signature. This work hypothesizes that this latency can be shortened by creating signatures via anomaly-based algorithms. A hybrid supervised and unsupervised clustering algorithm is proposed for new signature creation. These new signatures created in real-time would take effect immediately, ideally detecting new attacks. This work first investigates a modified density-based clustering algorithm as an IDS, with its strengths and weaknesses identified. A signature creation algorithm leveraging the summarizing abilities of clustering is investigated. Lessons learned from the supervised signature creation are then leveraged for the development of unsupervised real-time signature classification. Automating signature creation and classification via clustering is demonstrated as satisfactory but with limitations.

  20. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  1. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkegren Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  2. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement"*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui-Ran; Luo Ming-Xing; Peng Dai-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks . (paper)

  3. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  4. Garnet-Amphibolites Mineralogy and thermobarometry in Aliabad-Damagh (south of Hamedan, Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Baharifar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The garnet-amphibolites in Aliabad-Damagh area, occurs as layers and are enveloped by staurolite-schist. They composed predominantly of garnet, hornblende, feldspar (± muscovite and quartz with titanite, epidote, ilmenite and graphite as accessory minerals. The euhedral garnet porphyroblasts mainly composed of almandine and grossular components, with normal compositional zoning. The hornblende crystals as prophyroblast or in the matrix, are magnesio- and ferro-hornblende (amphibole core to tchermakitic-hornbelende (amphibole rim in composition. Muscovites, if present, with minor phengite and paragonite components, are foliated forming minerals. Feldspars vary from pure K-feldspar to sanidine composition in the vicinity of hornblendes and oligoclase in matrix. Epidotes as pure clinozoisite to epidote, form small crystals inside hornblende or in the matrix. Using different thermobarometry methods, T and P estimated as 600-620 (± 25 °C and 5-6 (± 1 kbar, respectively. Calculated P-T-t path, considering core and rim composition of hornblendes, is in accordance with low-pressure (at the beginning of metamorphism to medium-pressure type (at the end. Considering P-T-t path, metamorphism could occur during Neo-Tethys subduction and collision process in the Mesozoic time

  5. Magneto-optical Faraday spectroscopy of completely bismuth-substituted Bi3Fe5O12 garnet thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, M; Popova, E; Fouchet, A; Keller, N

    2012-01-01

    We performed a magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectroscopy study of bismuth iron garnet Bi 3 Fe 5 O 12 thin single-crystalline films with thickness from 5 to 220 nm. The Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra were measured for photon energies ranging from 1.7 to 4.2 eV. Using a model based on two electric dipole transitions associated with tetrahedral and octahedral iron sites, we successfully reproduce the observed rotation and ellipticity spectra. The sign of both site contributions to the Faraday rotation and ellipticity spectra has been used to interpret the complex thermal dependence of the Faraday rotation and ellipticity. For a Faraday ellipticity, anomalous hysteresis loops have been observed around specific photon energies. To explain the surprising shape of hysteresis loop, a model based on the superposition of two hysteresis loops with opposite sign associated with both sites is proposed. The modelling of these hysteresis loops allows accessing the magnetic properties of each individual sublattice. Finally, we have studied the dependence of the energy level parameters on bismuth content in Yi 3-x Bi x Fe 5 O 12 garnet and on the thickness of bismuth iron garnet. Based on this analysis, we show that MO spectroscopy is a fast and non-destructive technique to determine the bi-deficiency of BIG films.

  6. Treatment outcome following use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser in the non-surgical management of peri-implantitis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Falaki, R; Cronshaw, M; Hughes, F J

    2014-10-01

    To date there is no consensus on the appropriate usage of lasers in the management of peri-implantitis. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective clinical analysis of a case series of implants treated using an erbium, chromium:yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser. Twenty-eight implants with peri-implantitis in 11 patients were treated with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser (68 sites >4 mm), using a 14 mm, 500 μm diameter, 60° (85%) radial firing tip (1.5 W, 30 Hz, short (140 μs) pulse, 50 mJ/pulse, 50% water, 40% air). Probing depths were recorded at baseline after 2 months and 6 months, along with the presence of bleeding on probing. The age range was 27-69 years (mean 55.9); mean pocket depth at baseline was 6.64 ± SD 1.48 mm (range 5-12 mm),with a mean residual depth of 3.29 ± 1.02 mm (range 1-6 mm) after 2 months, and 2.97 ± 0.7 mm (range 1-9 mm) at 6 months. Reductions from baseline to both 2 and 6 months were highly statistically significant (P <0.001). Patient level reduction in bleeding from baseline to both 2 and 6 months were statistically significant (P <0.001). In view of the positive findings in this pilot study, well-designed randomised controlled trials of the use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in the non-surgical management of peri-implantitis are required to validate our clinical findings.

  7. A comparative scanning electron microscopy study between hand instrument, ultrasonic scaling and erbium doped:Yttirum aluminum garnet laser on root surface: A morphological and thermal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitul Kumar Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Scaling and root planing is one of the most commonly used procedures for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Removal of calculus using conventional hand instruments is incomplete and rather time consuming. In search of more efficient and less difficult instrumentation, investigators have proposed lasers as an alternative or as adjuncts to scaling and root planing. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of erbium doped: Yttirum aluminum garnet (Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing alone or as an adjunct to hand and ultrasonic instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: A total of 75 freshly extracted periodontally involved single rooted teeth were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 15 teeth each: Hand scaling only, ultrasonic scaling only, Er:YAG laser scaling only, hand scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling and ultrasonic scaling + Er:YAG laser scaling. Specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscopy and photographs were evaluated by three examiners who were blinded to the study. Parameters included were remaining calculus index, loss of tooth substance index, roughness loss of tooth substance index, presence or absence of smear layer, thermal damage and any other morphological damage. Results: Er:YAG laser treated specimens showed similar effectiveness in calculus removal to the other test groups whereas tooth substance loss and tooth surface roughness was more on comparison with other groups. Ultrasonic treated specimens showed better results as compared to other groups with different parameters. However, smear layer presence was seen more with hand and ultrasonic groups. Very few laser treated specimens showed thermal damage and morphological change. Interpretation and Conclusion: In our study, ultrasonic scaling specimen have shown root surface clean and practically unaltered. On the other hand, hand instrument have produced a plane surface

  8. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  9. The solubility and site preference of Fe3+ in Li7-3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenwander, D.; Geiger, C. A.; Tribus, M.; Tropper, P.; Wagner, R.; Tippelt, G.; Lottermoser, W.; Amthauer, G.

    2015-10-01

    A series of Fe3+-bearing Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets was synthesized using solid-state synthesis methods. The synthetic products were characterized compositionally using electron microprobe analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structurally using X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. A maximum of about 0.25 Fe3+ pfu could be incorporated in Li7-3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnet solid solutions. At Fe3+ concentrations lower than about 0.16 pfu, both tetragonal and cubic garnets were obtained in the synthesis experiments. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed only a garnet phase for syntheses with starting materials having intended Fe3+ contents lower than 0.52 Fe3+ pfu. Back-scattered electron images made with an electron microprobe also showed no phase other than garnet for these compositions. The lattice parameter, a0, for all solid-solution garnets is similar with a value of a0≈12.98 Å regardless of the amount of Fe3+. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate the presence of poorly- or nano-crystalline FeLaO3 in syntheses with Fe3+ contents greater than 0.16 Fe3+ pfu. The composition of different phase pure Li7-3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets, as determined by electron microprobe (Fe, La, Zr) and ICP-OES (Li) measurements, give Li6.89Fe0.03La3.05Zr2.01O12, Li6.66Fe0.06La3.06Zr2.01O12, Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12, and Li6.19Fe0.19La3.02Zr2.04O12. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of cubic Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 garnet indicates that most Fe3+ occurs at the special crystallographic 24d position, which is the standard tetrahedrally coordinated site in garnet. Fe3+ in smaller amounts occurs at a general 96h site, which is only present for certain Li-oxide garnets, and in Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 this Fe3+ has a distorted 4-fold coordination.

  10. Magmatic garnet in the Cordilleran-type Galiléia granitoids of the Araçuaí belt (Brazil): Evidence for crystallization in the lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, F.; Farina, F.; Stevens, G.; Lana, C.; Nalini, H. A.

    2017-06-01

    Magmatic garnet, together with epidote, is a rare mineral association in cordilleran-I-type granitoids and of special petrogenetic significance. The metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (ASI = 0.97-1.07) Galiléia batholith (Brazil) is a large (ca. 30,000 km2), Neoproterozoic (ca. 632-570 Ma) weakly foliated calc-alkaline granitoid body, characterized by the widespread occurrence of garnet (grossular 25-43 mol%) and epidote (pistacite 9.3-22.7 mol%). Field, petrographic and mineral chemical evidence indicates that garnet, epidote, biotite as well as white mica crystals (low-Si phengite), are magmatic. There is no difference in bulk rock major and trace element composition between the Galiléia granitoids and other garnet-free cordilleran-type granitoids worldwide. This evidence strongly suggests that the origin of the uncommon garnet + epidote parageneses is related to the conditions of magma crystallization, such as pressure, temperature and water content. Comparison between the mineral assemblages and mineral compositions from this study and those recorded in crystallization experiments on metaluminous calc-alkaline magmas, as well as within garnet-bearing metaluminous volcanic rocks and granitoids, indicates that the supersolidus coexistence of grossular-rich garnet, epidote and white mica is consistent with magma crystallization at pressures greater than 0.8 GPa (above 25 km depth) and at temperatures below 700 °C, i.e. near the water saturated solidus. Furthermore, resorption textures around garnet (plagioclase ± quartz coronas) and epidote suggest that these minerals have been partially consumed prior to complete crystallization. These findings demonstrate that at 630 Ma the crust underneath the Araçuaí Orogen was already at least 25-30 km thick and relatively cool. However, this contrasts with the marked high heat flow registered from the neighbour Carlos Chagas Batholith located 50 km to the east. In fact such granitoids record granulite

  11. The solubility and site preference of Fe3+ in Li7−3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenwander, D.; Geiger, C.A.; Tribus, M.; Tropper, P.; Wagner, R.; Tippelt, G.; Lottermoser, W.; Amthauer, G.

    2015-01-01

    A series of Fe3+-bearing Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets was synthesized using solid-state synthesis methods. The synthetic products were characterized compositionally using electron microprobe analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structurally using X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. A maximum of about 0.25 Fe3+ pfu could be incorporated in Li7−3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnet solid solutions. At Fe3+ concentrations lower than about 0.16 pfu, both tetragonal and cubic garnets were obtained in the synthesis experiments. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed only a garnet phase for syntheses with starting materials having intended Fe3+ contents lower than 0.52 Fe3+ pfu. Back-scattered electron images made with an electron microprobe also showed no phase other than garnet for these compositions. The lattice parameter, a0, for all solid-solution garnets is similar with a value of a0≈12.98 Å regardless of the amount of Fe3+. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate the presence of poorly- or nano-crystalline FeLaO3 in syntheses with Fe3+ contents greater than 0.16 Fe3+ pfu. The composition of different phase pure Li7−3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets, as determined by electron microprobe (Fe, La, Zr) and ICP-OES (Li) measurements, give Li6.89Fe0.03La3.05Zr2.01O12, Li6.66Fe0.06La3.06Zr2.01O12, Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12, and Li6.19Fe0.19La3.02Zr2.04O12. The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of cubic Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 garnet indicates that most Fe3+ occurs at the special crystallographic 24d position, which is the standard tetrahedrally coordinated site in garnet. Fe3+ in smaller amounts occurs at a general 96h site, which is only present for certain Li-oxide garnets, and in Li6.54Fe0.12La3.01Zr1.98O12 this Fe3+ has a distorted 4-fold coordination. PMID:26435549

  12. Dependence of developing magnetic hysteresis characteristics on stages of evolving microstructure in polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodziah, N.; Hashim, M.; Idza, I.R.; Ismayadi, I.; Hapishah, A.N.; Khamirul, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure evolution in several polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet samples as a result of a sintering scheme was studied in detail, in parallel with the changes in their magnetic properties. Samples with nanometer sized starting powder were synthesized by employing the High-Energy Ball Milling technique and then sintering toroidal compacts of the milled powder. Nine sintered samples were obtained, each corresponding to a particular sintering from 600 °C to 1400 °C. The samples were characterized for their evolution in crystalline phases, microstructure and magnetic hysteresis-loops parameters. The results showed an increasing tendency of the saturation magnetization and saturation induction with grain size, which is attributed to crystallinity increase and to reduction of demagnetizing fields in the grains. The variation in coercivity could be related to anisotropy field changes within the samples due to grain size changes. In particular, the starting appearance of room temperature ferromagnetic order suggested by the sigmoid-shaped B-H loops seems to be dependent on a sufficient number of large enough magnetic domain-containing grains having been formed in the microstructure. Viewed simultaneously, the hysteresis loops appear to belong to three groups with different magnetism-type dominance, respectively dependent on phase purity and three different groups of grain size distributions.

  13. Relieving the frustration through M n3 + substitution in holmium gallium garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Paromita; Glass, Hugh F. J.; Suard, Emmanuelle; Dutton, Siân E.

    2017-10-01

    We present a Rapid Communication on the impact of M n3 + substitution in the geometrically frustrated Ising garnet H o3G a5O12 using bulk magnetic measurements and low-temperature powder neutron diffraction. We find that the transition temperature TN=5.8 K for H o3MnG a4O12 is raised by a factor of almost 20 when compared to H o3G a5O12 . Powder neutron diffraction on H o3M nxG a5 -xO12 (x =0.5 ,1 ) below TN shows the formation of a long-range-ordered state with k =(0 ,0 ,0 ) . H o3 + spins are aligned antiferromagnetically along the six crystallographic axes with no resultant moment, whereas the M n3 + spins are oriented along the body diagonals such that there is a net moment along [111]. The magnetic structure can be visualized as ten-membered rings of corner-sharing triangles of H o3 + spins with the M n3 + spins ferromagnetically coupled to each individual H o3 + spin in the triangle. Substitution of M n3 + completely relieves the magnetic frustration with f =θCW/TN˜1.1 for H o3MnG a4O12 .

  14. Research in garnet crystal (GSGG) development. Final report, 1 May 1984-31 December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belt, R.F.; Uhrin, R.; Vemuri, K.

    1985-01-01

    This program describes the crystal growth of neodymium and chromium doped simultaneously into the host crystal of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd 3+ , Cr 3 +:Gd 3 (Sc,Ga) 2 Ga 3 O 12 or Nd,Cr:GSGG). Ten experimental boules were grown by the Czochralski method at a diameter of 1.0-1.2 inch. Special attention was given to congruently melting compositions, the Nd and Cr content, growth rate, atmosphere of growth, control of the solid liquid interface, and boule orientation. For each of our crystals a (0.25 x 3.00) inch cylindrical laser rod was extracted, fabricated, tested passively, and delivered to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for active testing. At the same time, boule samples were examined for optical absorption, loss at 1.06μm, refractive index birefringence, and other physical properties. Results have demonstrated that optical quality can approach that of Nd:YAG in rod form. The increased efficiency of Nd,Cr:GSGG was confirmed to be about 2 times that of Nd:YAG. We also show that 2 inch diameter crystal boules can be grown successfully. It appears that larger boules are feasible for slab laser experiments

  15. Thermographic measurements of the spin Peltier effect in metal/yttrium-iron-garnet junction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Shunsuke; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Iguchi, Ryo; Hioki, Tomosato; Saitoh, Eiji

    2017-07-01

    The spin Peltier effect (SPE), heat-current generation due to spin-current injection, in various metal (Pt, W, and Au single layers and Pt/Cu bilayer)/ferrimagnetic insulator [yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG)] junction systems has been investigated by means of a lock-in thermography (LIT) method. The SPE is excited by a spin current across the metal/YIG interface, which is generated by applying a charge current to the metallic layer via the spin Hall effect. The LIT method enables the thermal imaging of the SPE free from the Joule-heating contribution. Importantly, we observed spin-current-induced temperature modulation not only in the Pt/YIG and W/YIG systems, but also in the Au/YIG and Pt/Cu/YIG systems, excluding the possible contamination by anomalous Ettingshausen effects due to proximity-induced ferromagnetism near the metal/YIG interface. As demonstrated in our previous study, the SPE signals are confined only in the vicinity of the metal/YIG interface; we buttress this conclusion by reducing a spatial blur due to thermal diffusion in an infrared-emission layer on the sample surface used for the LIT measurements. We also found that the YIG-thickness dependence of the SPE is similar to that of the spin Seebeck effect measured in the same Pt/YIG sample, implying the reciprocal relation between them.

  16. Microstructure and hysteresis curves of samarium-holmium-iron garnet synthesized by coprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffarena Valeska da Rocha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-xHo xFe5O12 (samarium-holmium-iron garnet ferrite, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing, drying and sintering from 1200 to 1450 °C. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases, and that the effect of substituting holmium for samarium in SmIG is entirely different from that provided by replacing yttrium by gadolinium in YIG, which is the most important result of this work. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

  17. Magnetoelastic effects associated with elastic surface wave propagation in epitaxial garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volluet, G.; Desormiere, B.; Auld, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    Surface wave delay lines have been fabricated on epitaxial garnet films, using a ZnO coating and interdigital transducers for elastic wave excitation. Amplitude and phase delay variations of the delayed signal have been measured as a function of an in-plane magnetic field, at frequencies of 210 MHz and 335 MHz. For pure YIG films, the strongest effects are observed when the films are not magnetically saturated, exhibiting stripe domain patterns. The observed absorptions are explained by the gyromagnetic resonances driven by the effective field associated with the elastic strains. This effective field was determined from the relevant terms of the magnetoelastic energy; the stripe domain resonances were computed only for a (1,0,0) oriented film. An ''easy-plane'' film of GdGa doped YIG was also used and good agreement was found between gyromagnetic resonances and acoustic absorptions. Also the motion of stripe domains induced by an elastic wave has been observed. The drift velocity has been measured as a function of incident power. A discussion of this new effect is given

  18. Observation of auto-oscillations and chaos in subsidiary absorption in yttrium iron garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Chen, M.; Patton, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Auto-oscillations of the dynamic magnetization and routes to chaos for the first-order transverse pump spin-wave instability have been studied in single-crystal yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) films. The measurements reported here were made on a 20.8-μm-thick YIG film at 9.4 GHz with the static and microwave fields in the plane of the film. Auto-oscillations at 100--400 kHz were observed in the power absorbed by the film over a relatively narrow static field range of 1100--1460 Oe, compared to the first-order instability (FOI) range of 0--1630 Oe. The auto-oscillation frequency and threshold microwave field amplitude were both strongly field dependent. The threshold amplitudes were about a factor of 2 larger than the FOI threshold amplitudes. At even higher power levels and for an even narrower field range of 1300--1380 Oe, the auto-oscillations showed frequency changes indicative of chaotic behavior. Several different subharmonic bifurcation routes to chaos were observed for different fields within the chaotic region

  19. Dynamics of laser-induced magnetization in Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, Roman

    2007-01-01

    Circularly polarized short laser pulse induces nonequilibrium population of spin levels in the excited state of Ce 3+ -ion embedded in yttrium aluminium garnet crystal and, consequently, the magnetization of the crystal associated with spin polarization. Dynamic behavior of laser-induced magnetization is studied as a function of the external magnetic field. It reveals spin oscillations attributed to the effect of hyperfine magnetic field produced by 27 Al nuclei on the Ce 3+ spin. A simple theoretical model explaining spin oscillations is presented. It shows that circularly polarized light induces spin coherence at the transition between Zeeman sublevels of Ce 3+ ion in the lowest 5d state. Temporal shape of laser-induced magnetization signal reveals the following parameters of this state: (1) the spin-lattice relaxation constant is ≅2x10 7 s -1 , (2) inhomogeneous spin dephasing time is ≅4 ns, and (3) the g tensor of the state seems to be isotropic with the g factor being in the range 0.7-0.9. In addition, the width of the local hyperfine field distribution is ≅40 G

  20. Percutaneous yttrium aluminum garnet-laser lithotripsy of intrahepatic stones and casts after liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlesinger, Nis Hallundbaek; Svenningsen, Peter; Frevert, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Bile duct stones and casts (BDSs) contribute importantly to morbidity after liver transplantation (LT). The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical efficacy, safety, and long-term results of percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy (PTCSL) in transplant recipients and to d......Bile duct stones and casts (BDSs) contribute importantly to morbidity after liver transplantation (LT). The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical efficacy, safety, and long-term results of percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopic lithotripsy (PTCSL) in transplant recipients...... and to discuss underlying factors affecting the outcome. A retrospective chart review revealed 18 recipients with BDSs treated by PTCSL laser lithotripsy with a holmium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser probe at 365 to 550 µm. They were analyzed in a median follow-up time of 55 months. In all but 1 patient (17......% needed additional interventions in the form of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and dilation (17%), re-PTCSL (11%), self-expandable metallic stents (22%), or hepaticojejunostomy (6%); and 22% eventually underwent retransplantation. The overall liver graft survival rate was 78%. Two patients died...

  1. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  2. Preparation, microstructure and properties of yttrium aluminum garnet fibers prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chengshun [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang Yujun [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: yujunzhangcn@sdu.edu.cn; Gong Hongyu; Zhang Jingde; Nie Lifang [Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-01-15

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) fiber was prepared by sol-gel method using water as the solvent. The spinnable YAG sol was synthesized using Al powder, Y(CH{sub 3}COOH){sub 3}.4H{sub 2}O and HCl as precursors, polyethylene oxide as viscosity adjusting agent. Gel fibers with diameter of 5-10 {mu}m were prepared from the YAG sol by using centrifugal spinning technique. YAG crystalline fibers were obtained by drying gel fibers and heat-treating at selected temperature. TG/DTA analysis showed an exotherm at 906 deg. C attributed to formation of YAG phase and weight loss of 45% at 1000 deg. C. XRD and FT-IR analysis showed that phase-pure YAG can be formed at 900 deg. C, and no other intermediate was observed. The grain size of YAG fibers increased from 25 to 220 nm and tensile strength decreased rapidly from 970 to 380 MPa when the sintering temperature increased from 900 to 1550 deg. C.

  3. Untangling the cerium and iron contributions to the magnetism of Ce-doped yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, G.; Casals, B.; Cichelero, R.; Fontcuberta, J.; Vasili, H. B.; Gargiani, P.; Valvidares, M.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Pellegrin, E.; Geshev, J.

    Due to their large magneto-optic responses, rare-earth-doped yttrium iron garnets, Y3Fe5O12 (YIG), are highly regarded for their potential in photonics and magnonics. Here we consider the case of Ce-doped YIG (Ce-YIG), in which substitutional Ce3+ ions are magnetic because of their 4f1 ground state. Hence, it is expected that Ce substitution can remarkably impact on the magnetization of YIG. However, it is not completely understood how exactly the Ce ions contribute to the macroscopic magnetic properties. Having this in mind, we have carried out magneto-optical and soft x-ray spectroscopy measurements on Ce-YIG thin films. In particular, we have used the element-specificity of XMCD to extract the individual magnetic hysteresis loops linked to Ce3+ and Fe3+ ions, respectively. Our results show that the doping of YIG with Ce causes a disruption of the electronic and magnetic properties of the parent compound, which results into a reduction of the magnetic coupling between the Ce and Fe magnetic moments, especially at low magnetic fields. Our results are relevant for the understanding of magnetism in rare-earth doped YIG and, eventually, may enable a quantitative evaluation of the magneto-optic properties of rare earth incorporation into YIG.

  4. Water in Earth's mantle: Hydrogen analysis of mantle olivine, pyroxenes and garnet using the SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Masanori; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Sueno, Shigeho

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen (or water) in the Earth's interior plays a key role in the evolution and dynamics of the planet. However, the abundance and the existence form of the hydrogen have scarcely been clear in practice. Hydrogen in the mantle was incorporated in the interior during the formation of the Earth. The incorporated hydrogen was hardly possible to concentrate locally inside the Earth considering its high mobility and high reactivity. The hydrogen, preferably, could be distributed homogeneously over the mantle and the core by the subsequent physical and chemical processes. Therefore, hydrogen in the mantle could be present in the form of trace hydrogen in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals. The hydrogen and the other trace elements in mantle olivines, orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, and garnets were determined using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for elucidating (1) the exact hydrogen contents, (2) the correlation between the hydrogen and the other trace elements, (3) the dependence of the hydrogen contents on the depth, and (4) the dependence of the whole rock water contents on the depth.

  5. Magnetic properties of epitaxial bismuth ferrite-garnet mono- and bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semuk, E.Yu.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Avenue, 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Salyuk, O.Yu. [Institute of Magnetism NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine); Golub, V.O., E-mail: golub@imag.kiev.ua [Institute of Magnetism NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-11-15

    Magnetic properties of Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} (84 nm) and Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (180 nm) films epitaxially grown on gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) single crystal (111) substrate as well as Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12}/Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} bilayer were investigated using ferromagnetic resonance technique. The mismatch of the lattice parameters of substrate and magnetic layers leads to formation of adaptive layers which affect on the high order anisotropy constant of the films but practically do not affect on uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy The magnetic properties of the bilayer film were explained in supposition of strong exchange coupling between magnetic layers taking into account film-film and film-substrate elastic interaction. - Highlights: • Magnetic parameters of epitaxial Bi-YIG films and bilayers on GGG substrate. • Adaptive layers affect on high order magnetic anisotropy. • Magnetic properties of bilayers are result of strong exchange interaction.

  6. Magnetic properties of epitaxial bismuth ferrite-garnet mono- and bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semuk, E.Yu.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Salyuk, O.Yu.; Golub, V.O.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 (84 nm) and Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 (180 nm) films epitaxially grown on gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) single crystal (111) substrate as well as Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 /Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 bilayer were investigated using ferromagnetic resonance technique. The mismatch of the lattice parameters of substrate and magnetic layers leads to formation of adaptive layers which affect on the high order anisotropy constant of the films but practically do not affect on uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy The magnetic properties of the bilayer film were explained in supposition of strong exchange coupling between magnetic layers taking into account film-film and film-substrate elastic interaction. - Highlights: • Magnetic parameters of epitaxial Bi-YIG films and bilayers on GGG substrate. • Adaptive layers affect on high order magnetic anisotropy. • Magnetic properties of bilayers are result of strong exchange interaction

  7. Structure and scintillation yield of Ce-doped Al–Ga substituted yttrium garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidletskiy, Oleg; Kononets, Valerii; Lebbou, Kheirreddine; Neicheva, Svetlana; Voloshina, Olesya; Bondar, Valerii; Baumer, Vyacheslav; Belikov, Konstantin; Gektin, Alexander; Grinyov, Boris; Joubert, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of Y 3 (Al 1−x Ga x ) 5 O 12 :Ce solid solution crystals are grown from melt by the Czochralski method. ► Light yield of mixed crystals reaches 130% of the YAG:Ce value at x ∼ 0.4. ► ∼1% of antisite defects is formed in YGG:Ce, but no evidence of this is obtained for the rest of crystals. -- Abstract: Structure and scintillation yield of Y 3 (Al 1−x Ga x ) 5 O 12 :Ce solid solution crystals are studied. Crystals are grown from melt by the Czochralski method. Distribution of host cations in crystal lattice is determined. Quantity of antisite defects in crystals is evaluated using XRD and atomic emission spectroscopy data. Trend of light output at Al/Ga substitution in Y 3 (Al 1−x Ga x ) 5 O 12 :Ce is determined for the first time. Light output in mixed crystals reaches 130% comparative to Ce-doped yttrium–aluminum garnet. Luminescence properties at Al/Ga substitution are evaluated.

  8. Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in Yttrium Iron Garnet loaded split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of controlling microwave transmission from Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). EIA describes the state where the system strongly absorbs microwaves, whereas EIT describes the state in which the system is transparent to microwaves. Control is achieved via coupling of the 3 GHz photon mode of a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) to the spin wave magnon modes of a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) bulk. The system is described by a 2-body interaction matrix with an additional fitting parameter τ which takes into account the fact that the microstrip feed line could excite the SRR as well as the YIG. The parameter τ reveals the effect of geometry and shielding on the coupling behaviour and gives rise to unique physics. In low τ (τ ⩽ 2) configurations, only EIT is reported. However, in high τ (τ ≈ 10) configurations, EIA is reported. Furthermore, we report that the system can be easily changed from a low τ to high τ configuration by shielding the SRR from the microstrip with a thin metal piece. Varying the τ parameter through shielding is thus proposed as a new method of controlling the microwave transmission at the coupling region.

  9. Bi-substituted iron garnet films for one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals: Synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Prokopov, A.R.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Salyuk, O.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Faraday hysteresis loops for Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 film on glass-ceramic substrate (a), Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 film on gallium–gadolinium garnet (b) and for glass-ceramic/SiO 2 /Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 /Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 structure (c). Highlights: ► Bismuth-substituted iron garnet films as magneto-optical layers in magneto-photonic crystals. ► It is impossible to crystallize the films with high Bi content on amorphous substrates. ► The crystallization of the films can be achieved by their deposition on buffer layer with low bismuth content. -- Abstract: The crystallization processes in Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 , Bi 2.5 Gd 0.5 Fe 3.8 Al 1.2 O 12 , Bi 1.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.5 Al 0.5 O 12 and Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 Al 0.8 O 12 garnet films deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering on (1 1 1) gadolinium–gallium garnet substrates, optical glass-ceramic and SiO 2 films have been studied. Films were annealed at low pressure in oxygen atmosphere and in the air. The possibility of preparation of crystalline garnet films with high concentration of bismuth on the SiO 2 films using a buffer layer with low concentration of Bi has been shown. This allows to produce one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with high effective Faraday rotation (several tens of°/μm for the visible optical spectrum).

  10. Bi-substituted iron garnet films for one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals: Synthesis and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Prokopov, A.R.; Berzhansky, V.N. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Av., 4, 95007 Simferopol (Ukraine); Salyuk, O.Y., E-mail: olga-saliuk@yandex.ru [Institute of Magnetizm NASU and MESU, 36-B Vernadsky Blvd., 03142 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Faraday hysteresis loops for Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} film on glass-ceramic substrate (a), Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} film on gallium–gadolinium garnet (b) and for glass-ceramic/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12}/Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} structure (c). Highlights: ► Bismuth-substituted iron garnet films as magneto-optical layers in magneto-photonic crystals. ► It is impossible to crystallize the films with high Bi content on amorphous substrates. ► The crystallization of the films can be achieved by their deposition on buffer layer with low bismuth content. -- Abstract: The crystallization processes in Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, Bi{sub 2.5}Gd{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 3.8}Al{sub 1.2}O{sub 12}, Bi{sub 1.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 12} and Bi{sub 1.0}Y{sub 0.5}Gd{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 4.2}Al{sub 0.8}O{sub 12} garnet films deposited by reactive ion beam sputtering on (1 1 1) gadolinium–gallium garnet substrates, optical glass-ceramic and SiO{sub 2} films have been studied. Films were annealed at low pressure in oxygen atmosphere and in the air. The possibility of preparation of crystalline garnet films with high concentration of bismuth on the SiO{sub 2} films using a buffer layer with low concentration of Bi has been shown. This allows to produce one-dimensional magneto-photonic crystals with high effective Faraday rotation (several tens of°/μm for the visible optical spectrum).

  11. Signature spectrale des grains interstellaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, A.

    Notre connaissance de la nature des grains interstellaires reposait sur un nombre très restreint de signatures spectrales dans la courbe d'extinction du milieu interstellaire. Une information considérable est contenue dans les 40 bandes interstellaires diffuses dans le visible, mais reste inexploitée. L'interprétation récente des cinq bandes IR en émission, en terme de molécules d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques, est développée. Elle permet l'utilisation d'une information spectroscopique comparable, à elle seule, à ce sur quoi était basée jusqu'alors notre connaissance de la matière interstellaire condensée. Différentes implications de cette mise en évidence sont proposées.

  12. Prediction of soil effects on GPR signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Lensen, H.A.; Wijk, C.V. van; Hendrickx, J.M.H.; Dam, R. van; Borchers, B.

    2004-01-01

    In previous work we have shown that GPR signatures are affected by soil texture and soil water content. In this contribution we will use a three dimensional electromagnetic model and a hydrological soil model to explore in more detail the relationships between GPR signatures, soil physical

  13. Measuring ship acoustic signatures against mine threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Quesson, B.A.J.; Ainslie, M.A.; Vermeulen, R.C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The NATO standard ‘AMP-15’ [1] provides procedures for the measurement and reporting of the acoustic signature of ships and for the establishment of acoustic signature goals to counter the naval mine threat. Measurements are carried out at dedicated shallow water acoustic ranges. Measurements

  14. The Pedagogic Signature of the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Ewald; Lerche, Thomas; Kollmannsberger, Markus; Oubaid, Viktor; Weiss, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Lee S. Shulman deplores that the field of education as a profession does not have a pedagogic signature, which he characterizes as a synthesis of cognitive, practical and moral apprenticeship. In this context, the following study has three goals: 1) In the first theoretical part, the basic problems of constructing a pedagogic signature are…

  15. Infrared ship signature analysis and optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The last decade has seen an increase in the awareness of the infrared signature of naval ships. New ship designs show that infrared signature reduction measures are being incorporated, such as exhaust gas cooling systems, relocation of the exhausts and surface cooling systems. Hull and

  16. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  17. Analysis of signature wrapping attacks and countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajek, Sebastian; Jensen, Meiko; Liao, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    In recent research it turned out that Boolean verification, of digital signatures in the context of WSSecurity, is likely to fail: If parts of a SOAP message, are signed and the signature verification applied to, the whole document returns true, then nevertheless the, document may have been...

  18. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  19. Redactable signatures for signed CDA Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Hsueh, Chih-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lai, Feipei; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chung, Yufang

    2012-06-01

    The Clinical Document Architecture, introduced by Health Level Seven, is a XML-based standard intending to specify the encoding, structure, and semantics of clinical documents for exchange. Since the clinical document is in XML form, its authenticity and integrity could be guaranteed by the use of the XML signature published by W3C. While a clinical document wants to conceal some personal or private information, the document needs to be redacted. It makes the signed signature of the original clinical document not be verified. The redactable signature is thus proposed to enable verification for the redacted document. Only a little research does the implementation of the redactable signature, and there still not exists an appropriate scheme for the clinical document. This paper will investigate the existing web-technologies and find a compact and applicable model to implement a suitable redactable signature for the clinical document viewer.

  20. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  1. Maximizing biomarker discovery by minimizing gene signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene signatures can potentially be of considerable value in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, gene signatures defined with different methods can be quite various even when applied the same disease and the same endpoint. Previous studies have shown that the correct selection of subsets of genes from microarray data is key for the accurate classification of disease phenotypes, and a number of methods have been proposed for the purpose. However, these methods refine the subsets by only considering each single feature, and they do not confirm the association between the genes identified in each gene signature and the phenotype of the disease. We proposed an innovative new method termed Minimize Feature's Size (MFS based on multiple level similarity analyses and association between the genes and disease for breast cancer endpoints by comparing classifier models generated from the second phase of MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II, trying to develop effective meta-analysis strategies to transform the MAQC-II signatures into a robust and reliable set of biomarker for clinical applications. Results We analyzed the similarity of the multiple gene signatures in an endpoint and between the two endpoints of breast cancer at probe and gene levels, the results indicate that disease-related genes can be preferably selected as the components of gene signature, and that the gene signatures for the two endpoints could be interchangeable. The minimized signatures were built at probe level by using MFS for each endpoint. By applying the approach, we generated a much smaller set of gene signature with the similar predictive power compared with those gene signatures from MAQC-II. Conclusions Our results indicate that gene signatures of both large and small sizes could perform equally well in clinical applications. Besides, consistency and biological significances can be detected among different gene signatures, reflecting the

  2. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  3. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  4. Trace element chemistry of peridotitic garnets in diamonds from the Premier (Cullinan) and Finsch kimberlites, South Africa: Contrasting styles of mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, K. S.; Harris, J. W.; Ivanic, T.; Richardson, S. H.; Gray, K.

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide, discuss, and interpret a comprehensive set of geochemical data (involving major elements as well as Ni, Ti, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and the rare earth elements) for peridotitic garnets in diamonds from Premier and Finsch, with a view on the nature of the metasomatic processes operating up to the time of diamond crystallisation, and the location of these two diamondiferous kimberlites within and outside the region of low seismic velocity in the Kaapvaal lithosphere. Trace element data were acquired using an ion microprobe, and a new method for the analysis of Ni in garnet by ion microprobe is presented. Peridotitic garnets in diamonds from the Premier mine are characterised by a significantly higher proportion of the lherzolite paragenesis relative to diamonds from other South African mines, such as Finsch, Venetia and De Beers Pool. Based on Ni-in-garnet thermometry, inclusion encapsulation temperatures of 1055 °C to 1669 °C are calculated for peridotitic garnets from Premier, with an average temperature of 1215 °C. Calculated temperatures for garnets from Finsch range from 1036 °C to 1167 °C, and are generally lower than for Premier, with an average of 1098 °C. The garnets in the diamonds from Premier and Finsch reflect contrasting styles of metasomatism associated with diamond crystallisation, with a low temperature fluid-type metasomatism prevalent in the case of the Paleoarchean diamonds from Finsch, and a higher temperature melt-related metasomatism occurring in the case of the Paleoproterozoic diamonds from Premier. The metasomatic agent accompanying diamond crystallisation at Finsch is effective at introducing Sr, the light rare earth elements, and some Zr into the lithosphere, but is ineffective at transporting much Ca, Ti, Y and heavy rare earth elements. In the case of Premier the metasomatic agent is highly effective at element transport, introducing e.g. Ca, Fe, Ti, Zr, Y and the rare earth elements. The location

  5. Major element and oxygen isotope geochemistry of vapour-phase garnet from the Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty vapour-phase garnets were studied in two samples of the Topopah Spring Tuff of the Paintbrush Group from Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada. The Miocene-age Topopah Spring Tuff is a 350 m thick, devitrified, moderately to densely welded ash-flow tuff that is zoned compositionally from high-silica rhyolite to latite. During cooling of the tuff, escaping vapour produced lithophysae (former gas cavities) lined with an assemblage of tridymite (commonly inverted to cristobalite or quartz), sanidine and locally, hematite and/or garnet. Vapour-phase topaz and economic deposits associated commonly with topaz-bearing rhyolites (characteristically enriched in F) were not found in the Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain. Based on their occurrence only in lithophysae, the garnets are not primary igneous phenocrysts, but rather crystals that grew from a F-poor magma-derived vapour trapped during and after emplacement of the tuff. The garnets are euhedral, vitreous, reddish brown, trapezohedral, as large as 2 mm in diameter and fractured. The garnets also contain inclusions of tridymite. Electron microprobe analyses of the garnets reveal that they are almandine-spessartine (48.0 and 47.9 mol.%, respectively), have an average composition of (Fe1.46Mn1.45Mg0.03Ca0.10)(Al1.93Ti0.02)Si3.01O12 and are comparatively homogeneous in Fe and Mn concentrations from core to rim. Composited garnets from each sample site have δ18O values of 7.2 and 7.4‰. The associated quartz (after tridymite) has δ18O values of 17.4 and 17.6‰, values indicative of reaction with later, low-temperature water. Unaltered tridymite from higher in the stratigraphic section has a δ18O of 11.1‰ which, when coupled with the garnet δ18O values in a quartz-garnet fractionation equation, indicates isotopic equilibration (vapour-phase crystallization) at temperatures of ~600°C. This high-temperature mineralization, formed during cooling of the tuffs, is distinct from the later and commonly recognized

  6. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution-precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps). These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid-rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian) granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a) resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b) peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c) spatially limited resorption and enhanced transport

  7. Deeply subducted continental fragments – Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution–precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Giuntoli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps. These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid–rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c spatially limited resorption and

  8. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  9. Dating Ore Deposit Using Garnet U–Pb Geochronology: Example from the Xinqiao Cu–S–Fe–Au Deposit, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The large Xinqiao Cu–S–Fe–Au deposit in the Tongling ore district, Eastern China, is characterized by a large-scale stratiform orebody, in which garnet is widely distributed as the main gangue mineral associated with mineralization. Xinqiao garnet can be divided into early (Grt1 and late (Grt2 generations based on extensive back-scattered electron (BSE imaging observations. Laser ablation (LA-ICP-MS trace element and U–Pb isotope composition analyses indicate that uranium occurs homogeneously within the Xinqiao garnet, and Grt1 and Grt2 have weighted average 207Pb-corrected 206Pb/238U ages of 137.0 ± 7.8 Ma (Mean standard weighted deviation (MSWD = 4.9 and 129.6 ± 7.1 Ma (MSWD = 1.6, respectively, similar to the zircon U–Pb age (139.6 ± 1.5 Ma of the Jitou intrusion. These garnet U–Pb ages, combined with the low MnO content and various Y/Ho ratios, suggest that the Xinqiao garnet is likely to have a magmatic hydrothermal replacement origin associated with the Jitou stock. Based on previous studies of the Xinqiao deposit, we infer that the Xinqiao stratiform orebody may have formed from the Early Cretaceous magmatic hydrothermal fluids associated with the Jitou stock, and may have been generated by the Early Cretaceous tectono-thermal event in Eastern China.

  10. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  11. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  12. Tattoo removal by Q-switched yttrium aluminium garnet laser: client satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton Carlsen, K; Esmann, J; Serup, J

    2017-05-01

    Tattoo removal by Q-switched yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) lasers is golden standard; however, clients' satisfaction with treatment is little known. To determine clients' satisfaction with tattoo removal. One hundred and fifty-four tattoo removal clients who had attended the private clinic 'Centre for Laser Surgery', Hellerup, Denmark, from 2001 to 2013 completed a questionnaire concerning outcome expectations, level of pain experiences and satisfaction with tattoo removal. The laser surgeon and his team were blinded from data handling. The study design included a minimum 2-year postlaser treatment observation period from 2013 to 2015. Overall, clients were satisfied with their laser treatment; 85% assessed their treatment and results to be acceptable to superb, while 15% assessed their treatment and results to be inferior to unacceptable. Effectiveness relative to colour of tattoo on a scale from 0 (no effect) to 10 (complete removal) scored a mean of blue 9.5, black 9.4, yellow 8.9, red 8.8 and green 6.5. Clients were dissatisfied with green pigment remnants, which could mimic bruising. One hundred and twenty-nine clients (84%) experienced moderate to extreme pain during treatment. Twenty-eight (20%) developed minor scarring. There were many reasons for tattoo removal; e.g. stigmatisation (33%), conspicuousness (29%) and poor artistic quality (22%). One hundred and two clients had expected complete removal of tattoos without a blemish, expectations that were only partly fulfilled. During the treatment period, clients adjusted expectations and adapted more realistic views of outcomes. The majority of clients were satisfied with Q-switched YAG laser removal of tattoos despite high pretreatment expectations which were only partly met. The study supports YAG lasers for tattoo removal as acceptable therapy of today, with room for new approaches. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Neodymium:Yttrium aluminum garnet laser in the management of oral leukoplakia: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdipto Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral leukoplakia is a nonscrappable whitish patch described as a potentially malignant disorder with high prevalence in India. Besides medicinal treatment, neodymium: Yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG laser is also used for the management of oral leukoplakia. This study evaluated the role of Nd: YAG laser in the management of oral leukoplakia and also investigated postoperative complications along with long-term prognosis of the disease. Settings and Designs: The study is a prospective cohort study conducted for 24 months (June 2011 to May 2013 in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 42 patients, both male and female of Indian origin and diagnosed with oral leukoplakic lesions. Patients with biopsy proven squamous cell carcinoma and medically compromised are excluded from the study. All patients has undergone ablation of lesion by pulsed Nd: YAG laser and were followed after 24 h, 72 h, 1-week and then successively for 1, 3, 6 months and then 1 st and 2 nd postoperative years. Results: Pain and slough were evaluated by Wicoxon rank test (P = 0.0001 statistically significant which decreased from 24 h to 1-week and became nil in subsequent follow-ups. Similarly, McNemar′s test (P = 0.001 statistically significant was used for evaluation of burning sensation, paresthesia, infection and recurrences. Recurrence was noted in 2 patients but following the second application, there were no recurrences over the period of further follow-up. None of the patient suffered from an infection, paresthesia or anesthesia. Conclusion: Hence, Nd: YAG laser was found to be effective in ablating leukoplakia. It is convenient, economical with minimum complications and morbidities.

  14. A Li-Garnet composite ceramic electrolyte and its solid-state Li-S battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Liu, Cai; Lu, Yang; Xiu, Tongping; Jin, Jun; Badding, Michael E.; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2018-04-01

    A high strength Li-Garnet solid electrolyte composite ceramic is successfully prepared via conventional solid state method with Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 and nano MgO powders. Well sintered ceramic pellets and bars are obtained with 0-9 wt.% MgO. Fracture strength is approximately 135 MPa for composite ceramics with 5-9 wt.% MgO, which is ∼50% higher than that of pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 (90 MPa). Lithium-ion conductivity of the composite is above 5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature; comparable to the pure Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 material. SEM cross-sections of the composite ceramic shows a much more uniform microstructure comparing with pure ones, owing to the grain growth inhibition effect of the MgO second phase. A battery cell consisting of Li/composite ceramics/Sulfur-Carbon at 25 °C exhibits a capacity of 685 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C at the 200th cycle, while maintaining a coulombic efficiency of 100%. These results indicate that the composite ceramic Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12-MgO is promising for the production of electrolyte membrane and fabrication of Li-Sulfur batteries.

  15. The strain-dependent spatial evolution of garnet in a high- P ductile shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway): a synchrotron X-ray microtomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macente, A. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Fusseis, F. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Menegon, L. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Fitzroy Drake Circus Plymouth Devon PL4 8AA UK; Xianghui, X. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave Building 431-B003 Argonne IL USA; John, T. [Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100 12249 Berlin Germany

    2017-03-27

    Reaction and deformation microfabrics provide key information to understand the thermodynamic and kinetic controls of tectono-metamorphic processes, however they are usually analysed in two dimensions, omitting important information regarding the third spatial dimension. We applied synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography to document the evolution of a pristine olivine gabbro into a deformed omphacite-garnet eclogite in four dimensions, where the 4th dimension is represented by the degree of strain. In the investigated samples, which cover a strain gradient into a shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), we focused on the spatial transformation of garnet coronas into elongated clusters of garnets with increasing strain. Our microtomographic data allowed quantification of garnet volume, shape and spatial arrangement evolution with increasing strain. We combined microtomographic observations with light microscope- and backscatter electron images as well as electron microprobe- (EMPA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to correlate mineral composition and orientation data with the X-ray absorption signal of the same mineral grains. With increasing deformation, the garnet volume almost triples. In the low strain domain, garnets form a well interconnected large garnet aggregate that develops throughout the entire Page 1 of 52 sample. We also observed that garnet coronas in the gabbros never completely encapsulate olivine grains. In the most highly deformed eclogites, the oblate shapes of garnet clusters reflect a deformational origin of the microfabrics. We interpret the aligned garnet aggregates to direct synkinematic fluid flow and consequently influence the transport of dissolved chemical components. EBSD analyses reveal that garnet show a near-random crystal preferred orientation that testifies no evidence for crystal plasticity. There is, however evidence for minor fracturing, neo-nucleation and overgrowth. Microprobe chemical analysis

  16. Anisotropy signature in reverse-time migration extended images

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul C.

    2014-11-04

    Reverse-time migration can accurately image complex geologic structures in anisotropic media. Extended images at selected locations in the Earth, i.e., at common-image-point gathers, carry rich information to characterize the angle-dependent illumination and to provide measurements for migration velocity analysis. However, characterizing the anisotropy influence on such extended images is a challenge. Extended common-image-point gathers are cheap to evaluate since they sample the image at sparse locations indicated by the presence of strong reflectors. Such gathers are also sensitive to velocity error that manifests itself through moveout as a function of space and time lags. Furthermore, inaccurate anisotropy leaves a distinctive signature in common-image-point gathers, which can be used to evaluate anisotropy through techniques similar to the ones used in conventional wavefield tomography. It specifically admits a V-shaped residual moveout with the slope of the "V" flanks depending on the anisotropic parameter η regardless of the complexity of the velocity model. It reflects the fourth-order nature of the anisotropy influence on moveout as it manifests itself in this distinct signature in extended images after handling the velocity properly in the imaging process. Synthetic and real data observations support this assertion.

  17. Crystal structure refinements of tetragonal (OH,F)-rich spessartine and henritermierite garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Sytle M.; Cruickshank, Laura A.

    2018-01-30

    Cubic garnet (space group Ia\\overline 3 d) has the general formulaX3Y2Z3O12, whereX,YandZare cation sites. In the tetragonal garnet (space groupI41/acd), the corresponding cation sites areX1 andX2,Y, andZ1 andZ2. In both space groups only theYsite is the same. The crystal chemistry of a tetragonal (OH,F)-rich spessartine sample from Tongbei, near Yunxiao, Fujian Province, China, with compositionX(Mn2.82Fe^{2+}_{0.14}Ca0.04)Σ3Y{Al1.95Fe^{3+}_{0.05}}Σ2Z[(SiO4)2.61(O4H4)0.28(F4)0.11]Σ3(Sps94Alm5Grs1) was studied with single-crystal X-ray diffraction and space groupI41/acd. The deviation of the unit-cell parameters from cubic symmetry is small [a= 11.64463(1),c= 11.65481 (2) Å,c/a= 1.0009]. Point analyses and back-scattered electron images, obtained by electron-probe microanalysis, indicate a homogeneous composition. TheZ2 site is fully occupied, but theZ1 site contains vacancies. The occupiedZ1 andZ2 sites with Si atoms are surrounded by four O atoms, as in anhydrous cubic garnets. Pairs of split sites are O1 with F11 and O2 with O22. When theZ1 site is vacant, a larger [(O2H2)F2] tetrahedron is formed by two OH and two F anions in the O22 and F11 sites, respectively. This [(O2

  18. Genomic Signatures of Sexual Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja R; Nelson, Thomas C; Phillips, Patrick C

    2017-10-30

    Sexual conflict is a specific class of intergenomic conflict that describes the reciprocal sex-specific fitness costs generated by antagonistic reproductive interactions. The potential for sexual conflict is an inherent property of having a shared genome between the sexes and, therefore, is an extreme form of an environment-dependent fitness effect. In this way, many of the predictions from environment-dependent selection can be used to formulate expected patterns of genome evolution under sexual conflict. However, the pleiotropic and transmission constraints inherent to having alleles move across sex-specific backgrounds from generation to generation further modulate the anticipated signatures of selection. We outline methods for detecting candidate sexual conflict loci both across and within populations. Additionally, we consider the ability of genome scans to identify sexually antagonistic loci by modeling allele frequency changes within males and females due to a single generation of selection. In particular, we highlight the need to integrate genotype, phenotype, and functional information to truly distinguish sexual conflict from other forms of sexual differentiation. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Signature geometry and quantum engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samociuk, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    As the operating frequency of electromagnetic based devices increase, physical design geometry is playing an ever more important role. Evidence is considered in support of a relationship between the dimensionality of primitive geometric forms, such as transistors, and corresponding electromagnetic coupling efficiency. The industry of electronics is defined as the construction of devices by the patterning of primitive forms to physical materials. Examples are given to show the evolution of these primitives, down to nano scales, are requiring exacting geometry and three dimensional content. Consideration of microwave monolithic integrated circuits,(MMIC), photonics and metamaterials,(MM), support this trend and also add new requirements of strict geometric periodicity and multiplicity. Signature geometries,(SG), are characterized by distinctive attributes and examples are given. The transcendent form transcode algorithm, (TTA) is introduced as a multi dimensional SG and its use in designing photonic integrated circuits and metamaterials is discussed . A creative commons licensed research database, TRANSFORM, containing TTA geometries in OASIS file formats is described. An experimental methodology for using the database is given. Multidimensional SG and extraction of three dimensional cross sections as primitive forms is discussed as a foundation for quantum engineering and the exploitation of phenomena other than the electromagnetic.

  20. DIGITAL SIGNATURE IN THE WAY OF LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Ruya Samlı

    2013-01-01

    Signature can be defined as a person’s name or special signs that he/she writes when he/she wants to indicate he/she wrote or confirm that writing. A person signs many times in his/her life. A person’s signature that is used for thousands of times for many things from formal documents to exams has importance for that person. Especially, signing in legal operations is an operation that can build important results. If a person’s signature is imitated by another person, he/she can be...

  1. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2009-01-01

    In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum signature scheme using two-particle entangled Bell states similar to the previous scheme using three-particle entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states [G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002)]. The proposed scheme can preserve the merits in the original scheme while providing a higher efficiency in transmission and reducing the complexity of implementation.

  2. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  3. Signature verification with writing posture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Yu, Chih-Chang

    2013-07-01

    A video-based handwritten signature verification framework is proposed in this paper. Using a camera as the sensor has the advantage that the entire writing processes can be captured along with the signatures. The main contribution of this work is that writing postures are analyzed to achieve the verification purpose because the writing postures cannot be easily imitated or forged. The proposed system is able to achieve low false rejection rates while maintaining low false acceptance rates for database containing both unskilled and skilled imitation signatures.

  4. Molecular signatures of thyroid follicular neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, R.; Rossing, M.; Henao, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The molecular pathways leading to thyroid follicular neoplasia are incompletely understood, and the diagnosis of follicular tumors is a clinical challenge. To provide leads to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the tumors, we examined the global transcriptome signatures of follicular thyroid...... a mechanism for cancer progression, which is why we exploited the results in order to generate a molecular classifier that could identify 95% of all carcinomas. Validation employing public domain and cross-platform data demonstrated that the signature was robust and could diagnose follicular nodules...... and robust genetic signature for the diagnosis of FA and FC. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 691-708...

  5. Investigating the Dendritic Growth during Full Cell Cycling of Garnet Electrolyte in Direct Contact with Li Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguesse, Frederic; Manalastas, William; Buannic, Lucienne; Lopez Del Amo, Juan Miguel; Singh, Gurpreet; Llordés, Anna; Kilner, John

    2017-02-01

    All-solid-state batteries including a garnet ceramic as electrolyte are potential candidates to replace the currently used Li-ion technology, as they offer safer operation and higher energy storage performances. However, the development of ceramic electrolyte batteries faces several challenges at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, which need to withstand high current densities to enable competing C-rates. In this work, we investigate the limits of the anode/electrolyte interface in a full cell that includes a Li-metal anode, LiFePO 4 cathode, and garnet ceramic electrolyte. The addition of a liquid interfacial layer between the cathode and the ceramic electrolyte is found to be a prerequisite to achieve low interfacial resistance and to enable full use of the active material contained in the porous electrode. Reproducible and constant discharge capacities are extracted from the cathode active material during the first 20 cycles, revealing high efficiency of the garnet as electrolyte and the interfaces, but prolonged cycling leads to abrupt cell failure. By using a combination of structural and chemical characterization techniques, such as SEM and solid-state NMR, as well as electrochemical and impedance spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that a sudden impedance drop occurs in the cell due to the formation of metallic Li and its propagation within the ceramic electrolyte. This degradation process is originated at the interface between the Li-metal anode and the ceramic electrolyte layer and leads to electromechanical failure and cell short-circuit. Improvement of the performances is observed when cycling the full cell at 55 °C, as the Li-metal softening favors the interfacial contact. Various degradation mechanisms are proposed to explain this behavior.

  6. Sign of inverse spin Hall voltages generated by ferromagnetic resonance and temperature gradients in yttrium iron garnet platinum bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreier, Michael; Lotze, Johannes; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T B; Bauer, Gerrit E W; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Daimon, Shunsuke; Kikkawa, Takashi; Saitoh, Eiji; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I; Lauer, Viktor; Chumak, Andrii V; Serga, Alexander A; Hillebrands, Burkard; Flipse, Joost; Van Wees, Bart J

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a concerted effort to determine the absolute sign of the inverse spin Hall effect voltage generated by spin currents injected into a normal metal. We focus on yttrium iron garnet (YIG)∣platinum bilayers at room temperature, generating spin currents by microwaves and temperature gradients. We find consistent results for different samples and measurement setups that agree with theory. We suggest a right-hand-rule to define a positive spin Hall angle corresponding to the voltage expected for the simple case of scattering of free electrons from repulsive Coulomb charges. (paper)

  7. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF YTTRIUM ALUMINUM GARNET POWDERS Y3AL5O12, SYNTHESIZED BY SOL–GEL METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Baranchikov; V. A. Maslov; S. V. Shcherbakov; V. A. Usachyov; N. E. Kononenko; P. P. Fedorov; K. V. Dukelskiy

    2015-01-01

    Subject of Study. The paper presents results of characterization for neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanopowders - YAG:Nd3+ by the method of scanning electronic microscopy. Method. Synthesis of YAG:Nd3+ was carried out by sol-gel method from nitrate or acetate - nitrate solutions with addition of some organic compounds and ammonia as well. Such substances were used as the source ones: oxides of neodymium and yttrium with the content of the basic substance equal to 99.999 %; organic co...

  8. Accessory priderite and burbankite in multiphase solid inclusions in the orogenic garnet peridotite from the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naemura, K.; Shimizu, I.; Svojtka, Martin; Hirajima, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 1 (2015), s. 20-28 ISSN 1345-6296 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100131203 Program:Program interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : garnet peridotite * Variscan orogeny * multiphase solid inclusion * priderite * burbankite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.648, year: 2015

  9. ΔI = 1 Signature Splitting in Signature Partners of Odd Mass Superdeformed Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf A. M.,

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spins, transition energies, rotational frequencies, kinematic and dynamic moment of inertia of rotational bands of signature partners pairs of odd–A superdeformed bands in A190 region were calculated by proposing a simple model based on collective rotational model. Simulated search program was written to determine the model parameters. The calculated results agree with experimental data for fourteen signature partner pairs in Hg/Tl/Pb/Bi/nuclei. We investigated the ∆I=1 signature splitting by extracted the difference between the average transitions I+2 ! I and I ! I-2 energies in one band and the transition I+1 ! I-1 energies in its signature partner. Most of the signature partners in this region show large amplitude staggering. The signature splitting has the effect of increasing dynamical moment of inertia J 2 for favored band and decreasing J 2 for the unfavored band.

  10. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  11. Breakthrough Listen: Searching for Signatures of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, H. T.; Siemion, A. P. V.

    2017-11-01

    Breakthrough Listen is searching for signals of extra-terrestrial technologies using radio and optical telescopes. Very nearby stars of all types. Stars across the HR diagram and galaxies are all of interest in the search for techno-signatures.

  12. Magnetic signature surveillance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernatowicz, H.; Schoenig, F.C.

    1981-01-01

    Typical nuclear fuel material contains tramp ferromagnetic particles of random size and distribution. Also, selected amounts of paramagnetic or ferromagnetic material can be added at random or at known positions in the fuel material. The fuel material in its non-magnetic container is scanned along its length by magnetic susceptibility detecting apparatus whereby susceptibility changes along its length are obtained and provide a unique signal waveform of the container of fuel material as a signature thereof. The output signature is stored. At subsequent times in its life the container is again scanned and respective signatures obtained which are compared with the initially obtained signature, any differences indicating alteration or tampering with the fuel material. If the fuel material includes a paramagnetic additive by taking two measurements along the container the effects thereof can be cancelled out. (author)

  13. Magnetic Signature of Brushless Electric Motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, David

    2006-01-01

    Brushless electric motors are used in a number of underwater vehicles. When these underwater vehicles are used for mine clearance operations the magnetic signature of the brushless motors is important...

  14. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally

  15. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  16. Signature for the shape of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomero, G.I.; Reboucas, M.J.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2001-03-01

    If the universe has a nontrival shape (topology) the sky may show multiple correlated images of cosmic objects. These correlations can be counched in terms of distance correlations. We propose a statistical quantity which can be used to reveal the topological signature of any Roberston-Walker (RW) spacetime with nontrivial topology. We also show through computer-aided simulations how one can extract the topological signatures of flat elliptic and hyperbolic RW universes with nontrivial topology. (author)

  17. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  18. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  19. Thermal effects from modified endodontic laser tips used in the apical third of root canals with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the temperature changes occurring on the apical third of root surfaces when erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) and erbium, chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser energy was delivered with a tube etched, laterally emitting conical tip and a conventional bare design optical fiber tip. Thermal effects of root canal laser treatments on periodontal ligament cells and alveolar bone are of concern in terms of safety. A total of 64 single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared 1 mm short of the working length using rotary nickel-titanium Pro-Taper files to an apical size corresponding to a F5 Pro-Taper instrument. A thermocouple located 2 mm from the apex was used to record temperature changes arising from delivery of laser energy through laterally emitting conical tips or plain tips, using an Er:YAG or Er,Cr:YSGG laser. For the Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG systems, conical fibers showed greater lateral emissions (452 + 69% and 443 + 64%) and corresponding lower forward emissions (48 + 5% and 49 + 5%) than conventional plain-fiber tips. All four combinations of laser system and fiber design elicited temperature increases less than 2.5 degrees C during lasing. The use of water irrigation attenuated completely the thermal effects of individual lasing cycles. Laterally emitting conical fiber tips can be used safely under defined conditions for intracanal irradiation without harmful thermal effects on the periodontal apparatus.

  20. Minimization of lattice parameter change in Czochralski grown (Gd sub 1-x Y sub x ) sub 3 Ga sub 5 O sub 12 garnet single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hideo; Numazawa, Takenori; Sato, Mitsunori; Maeda, Hiroshi (National Research Inst. for Metals, Ibaraki (Japan)); Sakamoto, Masaru (Nippon Mining Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Single crystals of (Gd{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}){sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} rare-earth garnet solid solutions were grown by using the Czochralski technique and their lattice parameter change along the growth direction was minimized by means of the combination of a solid solution effect and a nonstoichiometry effect for the garnet. The single crystals are promising magnetic refrigerants for magnetic refrigerators to generate a low temperature atmosphere below 1 K. (orig.).

  1. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  2. Monomineral universal clinopyroxene and garnet barometers for peridotitic, eclogitic and basaltic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Ashchepkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New versions of the universal Jd-Di exchange clinopyroxene barometer for peridotites, pyroxenites and eclogites, and also garnet barometer for eclogites and peridotites were developed. They were checked using large experimental data sets for eclogitic (∼530 and peridotitic systems (>650. The precision of the universal Cpx barometer for peridotites based on Jd-Di exchange is close to Cr-Tschermakite method produced by Nimis and Taylor (2000. Cpx barometer was transformed by the substitution of major multiplier for KD by the equations dependent from Al-Na-Fe. Obtained equation in combination with the thermometer of Nimis and Taylor (2000 allow to reconstruct position of the magma feeder systems of the alkali basaltic magma within the mantle diapirs in modern platforms like in Vitim plateau and other Southern Siberia localities and several localities worldwide showing good agreement of pressure ranges for black and green suites. These equations allow construct PTX diagrams for the kimberlite localities in Siberia and worldwide calculating simultaneously the PT parameters for different groups of mantle rocks. They give very good results for the concentrates from kimberlite lamproites and placers with mantle minerals. They are useful for PT estimates for diamond inclusions. The positions of eclogite groups in mantle sections are similar to those determined with new Gar–Cpx barometer produced by C. Beyer et al. (2015. The Fe rich eclogites commonly trace the boundary between the lower upper parts of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM at 3–4 GPa marking pyroxenite eclogites layer. Ca-rich eclogites and especially grospydites in SCLM beneath Precambrian kimberlites occurs near pyroxenite layer but in younger mantle sections they became common in the lower parts. The diamondiferous Mg Cr-less group eclogites referring to the ancient island arc complexes are also common in the middle part of mantle sections and near 5–6 GPa. Commonly

  3. Refractory metal superalloys: Design of yttrium aluminum garnet passivating niobium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, David

    A systems-based approach, integrating computational modeling with experimental techniques to approach engineering problems in a time and cost efficient manner, was employed to design a Nb-based refractory superalloy for use at 1300°C. Ashby-type selection criteria for both thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were employed to identify a suitable protective oxide for Nb alloys. Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was selected as the most promising candidate for its excellent combination of desirable properties. The alloy microstructural concept was based upon the gamma - gamma' nickel-based superalloys in which the multifunctional gamma' phase serves as both a creep strengthening dispersion and a source of reactive elements for oxide passivation. Candidate ternary Pd-Y-Al and Pt-Y-Al compounds were fabricated and characterized by XRD and DTA. Of the intermetallics studied, only PtYAl had a high enough melting point (1580°C) for use in an alloy operating at 1300°C. The alloy matrix design was based upon Wahl's extension of Wagner's criterion for protective oxidation, requiring a reduction of the product N ODO/DAl by 5 orders of magnitude relative to binary Nb-Al. A thermodynamic and kinetic analysis identified elements with large oxygen affinities as the most beneficial for reducing the magnitude of the quantity NOD O. Construction of a combined thermodynamic and mobility database identified increased Al solubility as the best approach for increasing D Al. Utilizing the thermodynamic and mobility databases, obtained from a combination of model alloys, oxidation experiments, and first principles calculations, theoretical designs predicted the large changes in solubility and transport parameters were achievable. Several prototype alloys were then fabricated and evaluated via oxidation tests at both 1300°C and 1100°C. YAG formation was demonstrated as part of multicomponent oxide scales in the alloys that exhibited the greatest reduction in oxidation rates. The oxidation

  4. Late-orogenic mantle garnet pyroxenites evidence mantle refertilization during exhumation of orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, G.; France, L.; Kornprobst, J.; Dallai, L.; Vannucci, R.

    2008-12-01

    The petrological and geochemical study of garnet bearing pyroxenites from four localities (FMC, Morocco, Jordan, Cameroon) demonstrates that these rocks are cumulates crystallised in the lithospheric mantle domain. Metamorphic reactions, exsolutions and trace elements WR analysis demonstrate that their crystallisation pressure ranges between 1 and 2GPa (30 to 60km). The elaboration of the PTt paths for the studied samples attests of important movements in the respective lithospheres. Replaced in the geodynamical contexts, the samples are interpreted to represent the crystallisation of melts formed during exhumation of orogenic domains. Radiogenic isotopes (Sr-Nd) show that in a very same region, the samples are isotopicaly heterogeneous but are similar to the respective regional lithosphere. Initial isotopic ratios lead to propose that the FMC samples have crystallised at the end of the Hercynian orogen and that the samples from the other localities (Morocco, Jordan and Cameroon) have crystallised at the end of the Pan-African orogen. After recalculation at the crystallisation time, the isotopic compositions are in good agreement with the respective regional lithosphere ones and so samples of this study could represent the product of the melting of these lithospheres. The analyses of oxygen stable isotopes allow to precise the model; they show that twelve of the samples come from the melting of a lherzolitic mantle and that the four others come from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle formed of lherzolites and eclogites. The presence of some hydrous minerals such as amphiboles and micas and the trace elements WR analyses show that some of the samples were affected by a late metasomatic event. Results of our study show that thermal relaxation following orogenic events lead to the crystallisation of pyroxenites in the lithosphere. The presence of lage amounts of mantle pyroxenites in old orogenic regions confers physical and chemical particularities to these

  5. Electronic Signatures: They're Legal, Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Martha A.; Gibson, Virginia R.; Tarasewich, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, electronic signatures recently became as legally binding as printed signatures. Reviews the status of electronic signatures in the United States, and compares it to work done by the United Nations. Summarizes the technology that can be used to implement electronic signatures. Discusses problems and open issues surrounding the…

  6. An efficient modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm | Kiros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many digital signatures which are based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography (ECC) have been proposed. Among these digital signatures, the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) is the widely standardized one. However, the verification process of ECDSA is slower than the signature generation process. Hence ...

  7. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  8. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, N. S., E-mail: nsokolov@fl.ioffe.ru; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I. [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Tabuchi, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films.

  9. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in structures with yttrium iron garnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined.

  10. Thin yttrium iron garnet films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Crystal structure, static, and dynamic magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, N. S.; Fedorov, V. V.; Korovin, A. M.; Suturin, S. M.; Baranov, D. A.; Gastev, S. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Bursian, V. E.; Lutsev, L. V.; Maksimova, K. Yu.; Grunin, A. I.; Tabuchi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition has been used to grow thin (10–84 nm) epitaxial layers of Yttrium Iron Garnet Y 3 Fe 5 O 12 (YIG) on (111)–oriented Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates at different growth conditions. Atomic force microscopy showed flat surface morphology both on micrometer and nanometer scales. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films are coherent with the substrate in the interface plane. The interplane distance in the [111] direction was found to be by 1.2% larger than expected for YIG stoichiometric pseudomorphic film indicating presence of rhombohedral distortion in this direction. Polar Kerr effect and ferromagnetic resonance measurements showed existence of additional magnetic anisotropy, which adds to the demagnetizing field to keep magnetization vector in the film plane. The origin of the magnetic anisotropy is related to the strain in YIG films observed by XRD. Magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements revealed important role of magnetization rotation during magnetization reversal. An unusual fine structure of microwave magnetic resonance spectra has been observed in the film grown at reduced (0.5 mTorr) oxygen pressure. Surface spin wave propagation has been demonstrated in the in-plane magnetized films

  11. Nonlinear spin waves in dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtal, R. G.; Medved, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Experimental results on the influence of the intensity of surface magnetostatic spin wave (SMSW) on its propagation in the dynamic magnonic crystals (MCs) created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film on the gallium gadolinium garnet (GGG) substrate are presented. The shift of the resonant frequency of the SMSW reflections (frequency of the magnonic gap) and widening of the resonant reflection curves (increasing the width of the magnonic band gap) from their former meanings (3730 MHz and 5.25 MHz, respectively) were observed at 20 MHz SAW of 20 mW in biasing magnetic field of 640 Oe at input microwave power exceeding the threshold value of  ‑5 dBm. At the input power of 10 dBm, the deviations of the magnonic gap frequency and of the width of the SMSW resonant reflected curves reach the values of 5 MHz and 2 MHz, respectively. At a frequency of 3730 MHz, a decrease in the reflection coefficient of the SMSW was observed at the input powers above the threshold. These results may be useful in investigations of MC and for creating new nonlinear signal processing devices.

  12. Influence of the degree of open-system behaviour on extent of equilibration of garnet-quartz coronas in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R. L.; Ogilvie, P.

    2012-12-01

    The capacity of a rock to attain equilibrium is governed by complex interdependent relationships between evolving composition, grain size, temperature and heating and/or cooling rate. Archaean pelitic granulites (Grt+Bt±Crd±Opx±Sill) in the Vredefort Dome underwent unusually rapid, variable heating, exhumation and cooling associated with a large, 2.02 Ga, meteorite impact event that produced coronas around garnet involving Crd+Opx±Spl±Pl±Ksp±Bt. Rapid cooling of the granulites has preserved textural intricacies of partial equilibrium in the coronas, that are typically obscured in more slowly cooled regional terranes. Coronas commonly display a strongly sectoral development indicative of highly localized compositional domains. This complexity provides a unique opportunity to evaluate controls on extent of corona development and degree of equilibration through the open-system diffusion modelling. This modelling of coronas between garnet and quartz reveals that wider, more equilibrated coronas occur toward the margins of garnet where local compositional domains are richer in components derived externallyfrom the enclosing biotite-rich matrix. In contrast, compositionally-simpler domains sequestered around inclusions and along fractures in garnet cores, where the contribution of matrix components to the compositional domain is limited, are poorly equilibrated. Similarly, garnet-quartz coronas are markedly more equilibrated in samples closer to the centre of the Dome, where post-shock temperatures were over 120 °C higher and, thus, where open-system communication with the matrix was enhanced. Phase equilibria models developed in THERMOCALC suggest that the most equilibrated local corona compositional domains involved higher melt proportions with pronounced solidus depression. Higher melt modes with attendant solidus depression in fertile bulk compositions facilitate enhanced component diffusion and equalization of chemical potential gradients across the corona

  13. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  14. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  15. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Kami, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Miyano, Satoru; Yuji, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78%) of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26%) was smaller than the Forum effect (52%) in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore information hidden in social phenomena.

  16. Does Twitter trigger bursts in signature collections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The quantification of social media impacts on societal and political events is a difficult undertaking. The Japanese Society of Oriental Medicine started a signature-collecting campaign to oppose a medical policy of the Government Revitalization Unit to exclude a traditional Japanese medicine, "Kampo," from the public insurance system. The signature count showed a series of aberrant bursts from November 26 to 29, 2009. In the same interval, the number of messages on Twitter including the keywords "Signature" and "Kampo," increased abruptly. Moreover, the number of messages on an Internet forum that discussed the policy and called for signatures showed a train of spikes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In order to estimate the contributions of social media, we developed a statistical model with state-space modeling framework that distinguishes the contributions of multiple social media in time-series of collected public opinions. We applied the model to the time-series of signature counts of the campaign and quantified contributions of two social media, i.e., Twitter and an Internet forum, by the estimation. We found that a considerable portion (78% of the signatures was affected from either of the social media throughout the campaign and the Twitter effect (26% was smaller than the Forum effect (52% in total, although Twitter probably triggered the initial two bursts of signatures. Comparisons of the estimated profiles of the both effects suggested distinctions between the social media in terms of sustainable impact of messages or tweets. Twitter shows messages on various topics on a time-line; newer messages push out older ones. Twitter may diminish the impact of messages that are tweeted intermittently. CONCLUSIONS: The quantification of social media impacts is beneficial to better understand people's tendency and may promote developing strategies to engage public opinions effectively. Our proposed method is a promising tool to explore

  17. Research on a New Signature Scheme on Blockchain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of Bitcoin, blockchain which is the core technology of Bitcoin has received increasing attention. Privacy preserving and performance on blockchain are two research points in academia and business, but there are still some unresolved issues in both respects. An aggregate signature scheme is a digital signature that supports making signatures on many different messages generated by many different users. Using aggregate signature, the size of the signature could be shortened by compressing multiple signatures into a single signature. In this paper, a new signature scheme for transactions on blockchain based on the aggregate signature was proposed. It was worth noting that elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem and bilinear maps played major roles in our signature scheme. And the security properties of our signature scheme were proved. In our signature scheme, the amount will be hidden especially in the transactions which contain multiple inputs and outputs. Additionally, the size of the signature on transaction is constant regardless of the number of inputs and outputs that the transaction contains, which can improve the performance of signature. Finally, we gave an application scenario for our signature scheme which aims to achieve the transactions of big data on blockchain.

  18. Lattice-Based Revocable Certificateless Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hao Hung

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless signatures (CLS are noticeable because they may resolve the key escrow problem in ID-based signatures and break away the management problem regarding certificate in conventional signatures. However, the security of the mostly previous CLS schemes relies on the difficulty of solving discrete logarithm or large integer factorization problems. These two problems would be solved by quantum computers in the future so that the signature schemes based on them will also become insecure. For post-quantum cryptography, lattice-based cryptography is significant due to its efficiency and security. However, no study on addressing the revocation problem in the existing lattice-based CLS schemes is presented. In this paper, we focus on the revocation issue and present the first revocable CLS (RCLS scheme over lattices. Based on the short integer solution (SIS assumption over lattices, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is shown to be existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attacks. By performance analysis and comparisons, the proposed lattice-based RCLS scheme is better than the previously proposed lattice-based CLS scheme, in terms of private key size, signature length and the revocation mechanism.

  19. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  20. The Pressure–Temperature Path and the Origin of Phlogopite in Spinel–Garnet Peridotites from the Blanský les Massif of the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Naemura, K.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 10 (2009), s. 1795-1827 ISSN 0022-3530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : garnet * metasomatism * peridotite * phlogopite * P–T conditions Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.738, year: 2009

  1. Evidence for diamond-grade ultra-high pressure metamorphism and fluid interaction in the Swartberget Fe-Ti garnet periodotite-websterite body, Western Gneiss Region, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoed, J.C.; Van Roermund, H.L.M.; Davies, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    Based on mineral-chemical evidence we propose that the northernmost Scandian ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic domain within the Western Gneiss Region of Norway can be extended 25 km northeastwards. A newly discovered, well preserved, fine-grained, Fe-Ti type garnet peridotite body at

  2. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism (refertilization) of Variscan lithospheric mantle: Evidence from major elements, trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Os isotopes in a Saxothuringian garnet peridotite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medaris Jr., L. G.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Michels, Z. D.; Erban, V.; Kotková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 226, SI (2015), s. 81-97 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : garnet peridotite * Variscan * Bohemian Massif * Sr-Nd-Os isotopes * depletion cryptic metasomatism and refertilization * P-T conditions Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  3. Two Contrasting Fabric Patterns of Olivine Observed in Garnet and Spinel Peridotite from a Mantle-derived Ultramafic Mass Enclosed in Felsic Granulite, the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamei, A.; Obata, M.; Michibayashi, K.; Hirajima, T.; Svojtka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, 1/2 (2010), s. 101-123 ISSN 0022-3530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : garnet peridotite * spinel peridotite * olivine fabrics * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.842, year: 2010

  4. Aluminum and gallium substitution in yttrium and lutetium aluminum−gallium garnets: investigation by single-crystal NMR and TSL methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laguta, Valentyn; Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Iskalieva, A.; Zagorodniy, Y.; Sidletskiy, O.; Bilski, P.; Twardak, A.; Nikl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 42 (2016), s. 24400-24408 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : garnets * Ga and Al site occupation * nuclear magnetic resonance * thermoluminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  5. Temperature-dependent nonradiative energy transfer from Gd3+ to Ce3+ ions in co-doped LuAG: Ce,Gd garnet scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Onderišinová, Z.; Kucera, M.; Hanus, M.; Nikl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 167, Nov (2015), s. 106-113 ISSN 0022-2313 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * garnet * Gd 3+ * Ce 3+ * energy transfer Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2015

  6. Linking zircon age to metamorphic stage using U-Pb/REE depth-profiling of zircon combined with Lu-Hf garnet geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Sophie; Cottle, John; Smit, Matthijs; Arnush, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    The relatively novel approach of LASS-ICP-MS depth-profiling in zircon has enabled the analysis of sub-micrometer, isotopically/geochemically distinct zircon domains which are too thin to be analyzed by other in situ methods. The depth-profiling approach has proven to be particularly useful in targeting thin and discontinuous metamorphic zircon overgrowths, which are evidently capable of recording multiple short-duration tectonothermal events. Based on our knowledge of rare earth element (REE) partitioning between equilibrium zircon and garnet, it is possible to link LASS depth-profile data to specific metamorphic events, and discern the timing of garnet growth versus garnet breakdown. Here we test the potential of this approach by applying LASS-ICP-MS depth profiling in zircon to samples from the Alpine Schist (New Zealand) that have been dated previously by Lu-Hf garnet geochronology. Our results show that thin (Zealandia microcontinent from East Gondwana during 83 - 52 Ma. These results provide constraints on the P-T-t conditions recorded in the Alpine Schist during this period, with implications for the geodynamic processes involved in microcontinent formation.

  7. Scintillation properties of Pr.sup.3+./sup.-doped lutetium and yttrium aluminum garnets: comparison with Ce.sup.3+./sup.-doped ones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří A.; Nikl, Martin; Beitlerová, Alena; Blažek, K.; Horodysky, P.; Nejezchleb, K.; D´Ambrosio, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2011), s. 424-427 ISSN 0925- 3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : scintillation * Pr 3+ and Ce 3+ -doped garnets * L.Y. yield Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2011

  8. The effect of FR enhancement in reactive ion beam sputtered Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron- garnets: Bi2O3 nanocomposite films

    OpenAIRE

    Berzhansky, V.; Shaposhnikov, A.; Karavainikov, A.; Prokopov, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Lukienko, I.; Kharchenko, Yu.; Miloslavskaya, O.; Kharchenko, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of considerable Faraday rotation (FR) and figure of merit (Q) enhancement in Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron garnets: Bi2O3 nano-composite films produced by separate reactive ion beam sputtered Bi:YIG and Bi2O3 films was found. It reached threefold enhancement of the FR and twofold of the Q one on GGG substrates.

  9. Topology and signature changes in braneworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Gary W; Ishibashi, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    It has been believed that topology and signature change of the universe can only happen accompanied by singularities, in classical, or instantons, in quantum, gravity. In this paper, we point out however that in the braneworld context, such an event can be understood as a classical, smooth event. We supply some explicit examples of such cases, starting from the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. Topology change of the brane universe can be realized by allowing self-intersecting branes. Signature change in a braneworld is made possible in an everywhere Lorentzian bulk spacetime. In our examples, the boundary of the signature change is a curvature singularity from the brane point of view, but nevertheless that event can be described in a completely smooth manner from the bulk point of view

  10. Biomarker Gene Signature Discovery Integrating Network Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Fröhlich

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of prognostic and diagnostic biomarker gene signatures for diseases, such as cancer, is seen as a major step towards a better personalized medicine. During the last decade various methods, mainly coming from the machine learning or statistical domain, have been proposed for that purpose. However, one important obstacle for making gene signatures a standard tool in clinical diagnosis is the typical low reproducibility of these signatures combined with the difficulty to achieve a clear biological interpretation. For that purpose in the last years there has been a growing interest in approaches that try to integrate information from molecular interaction networks. Here we review the current state of research in this field by giving an overview about so-far proposed approaches.

  11. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  12. A Methodology for Calculating Radiation Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bathke, Charles G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A rigorous formalism is presented for calculating radiation signatures from both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) as well as radiological sources. The use of MCNP6 in conjunction with CINDER/ORIGEN is described to allow for the determination of both neutron and photon leakages from objects of interest. In addition, a description of the use of MCNP6 to properly model the background neutron and photon sources is also presented. Examinations of the physics issues encountered in the modeling are investigated so as to allow for guidance in the user discerning the relevant physics to incorporate into general radiation signature calculations. Furthermore, examples are provided to assist in delineating the pertinent physics that must be accounted for. Finally, examples of detector modeling utilizing MCNP are provided along with a discussion on the generation of Receiver Operating Curves, which are the suggested means by which to determine detectability radiation signatures emanating from objects.

  13. Molecular Signature in HCV-Positive Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli De Re

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL. Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.

  14. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2011-08-15

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  15. A possible signature of annihilating dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ho

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we report a new signature of dark matter annihilation based on the radio continuum data of NGC 1569 galaxy detected in the past few decades. After eliminating the thermal contribution of the radio signal, an abrupt change in the spectral index is shown in the radio spectrum. Previously, this signature was interpreted as an evidence of convective outflow of cosmic ray. However, we show that the cosmic ray contribution is not enough to account for the observed radio flux. We then discover that if dark matter annihilates via the 4-e channel with the thermal relic cross-section, the electrons and positrons produced would emit a strong radio flux which can provide an excellent agreement with the observed signature. The best-fitting dark matter mass is 25 GeV.

  16. Dynamics of mineral crystallization at inclusion-garnet interface from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in-situ synchrotron x-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. These inclusions are frequently hosted by minerals stable at mantle depths, such as garnet, and show the same textural features as fluid inclusions. The mineral infillings of the solid multiphase inclusions are generally assumed to have crystallized by precipitation from the solute load of dense supercritical fluids equilibrating with the host rock. Notwithstanding the validity of this assumption, the mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ~ 4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometers and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol.%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80- 90 vol.%) occur with constant volume ratios and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by means of Synchrotron Radiation at DLS-Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and their reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Epitaxy drives a first-stage nucleation of spinel under near-to-equilibrium conditions

  17. Tectonothermal and palaeogeographic significance of orthopyroxene-plagioclase bi-phase corona around garnet in the Proterozoic anorthosite complex, Eastern Ghats Province, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    Development of structural elements and subsequent metamorphic reactions are evidences of tectono-thermal events that continuously change the mutual positions of the cratonic blocks in the Earth. In the Proterozoic era, the structural evolution of the crust is governed by the assembly and disintegration of two supercontinent: a) Columbia and b) Rodinia. The assembly and breakup of these two supercontinent is marked by the extremely high heat flow and emplacement of massif type anorthosite. Although, the palaeo-position of the continents in the northern hemisphere is well constrained to explain the anorthosite magmatism, even after five decades of research ambiguity still exists on the origin of anorthosite in the Gondwana supercontinent. Central to the controversy of Gondwana reconstruction is the position of proto-India in the Proterozoic time. In this contribution, the interrelationship between structural elements and the metamorphic reaction is discussed. At Bolangir, Eastern Ghats Province, massif type anorthosite is characterized by a margin parallel foliation defined by recrystallized biotite and magmatic orthopyroxene. The margin parallel foliation is parallel to the parallel alignment of magmatic plagioclase. At the margin of the pluton, 2-3 mm long garnet porphyroblasts are observed. The garnet porphyroblasts are mantled by bi-phase corona of orthopyroxene and plagioclase and overgrow the orthopyroxene- defined margin parallel foliation. In a core to rim traverse, the garnet shows a decrease in the Ca content. In the bi-phase corona, the plagioclase shows a strong zonation of anorthite component that gradually decrease away from the bi-phase corona. The metamorphic orthopyroxene don't show any compositional variation. Classical thermo barometry obtained from the compositions of the garnet-plagioclase-orthopyroxene indicates a decompression path from 750 °C, 10 Kbar to 650 °C, 6.5 kbar for the origin of bi-phase corona. Available radiometric ages and

  18. A new garnet-orthopyroxene thermometer developed: method, results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotos, Spyros-Christos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The Fe-Mg exchange reaction between garnet and orthopyroxene is a robust geothermometer that has extensively been used to retrieve metamorphic temperatures from granulitic and peridotitic/pyroxenitic lithologies with important implications on the thermal state of the continental lithosphere. More than 800 experimental mineral pairs from both simple and complex systems were gleaned from the literature covering the P-T range 0.5-15 GPa / 800-1800°C. Grt was treated as a senary (Py, Alm, Grs, Sps, Kno and Uv), whereas Opx as a septenary (En, Fs, Di, Hd, FeTs, MgTs and MgCrTs) solid solution. For Opx, Al in the M1 site was calculated following Carswell (1991) and Fe/Mg equipartitioning between sites was assumed. A mixing on sites model was employed to calculate mole fractions of components for both minerals. With regard to the excess free energy of solution and activity coefficients the formalism of Mukhopadhyay et al. (1993) was adopted treating both minerals as symmetric regular solutions. Calibration was achieved in multiple steps; in each step ΔS was allowed to vary until the standard deviation of the differences between experimental and calculated temperature for all experiments was minimised. The experiment with the largest absolute relative deviation in temperature was then eliminated and the process was repeated. The new thermometer reproduces the experimental data to within 50°C and is independent of P-T-X variations within the bounds of the calibrant data set. Application of our new calibration to metamorphosed crustal and mantle rocks that occur both as massifs and xenoliths in volcanics suggested the following results. Granulite terranes have recorded differences in temperature between peak and re-equilibration conditions in the range 100-340°C, primarily depending on the mechanism and rate of exhumation. Several provinces retain memory of discrete cooling pulses (e.g. Palni Hills, South Harris, Adirondacks, E. Antarctic Belt, Aldan Shield) whereas

  19. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  20. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  1. Origin of peak and retrograde assemblages during Grenvillian orogeny from garnet-staurolite bearing mica schist of Bhilwara Supergroup, NW India: constraints from pseudosection modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli

    2016-04-01

    Fractionation of components due to formation of garnet porphyroblasts during prograde metamorphism, have been constrained from pseudosection analyses. Such fractionation process leads to changes in the effective bulk composition within the rock, which can be modelled with well-preserved growth zonation patterns in garnet porphyroblasts. On the contrary, textures and mineralogy in metamorphic rocks can be far more complex with different textural domains within a single rock preserving assemblages formed along different segments of the P-T paths or during different metamorphic events. Examples of such textures include pseudomorphs, reaction rims or coronae, symplectites formed by breakdown of both cores and rims of porphyroblasts. Apart from pressure and temperature, availability of fluids during metamorphic reactions plays important roles in defining mineral assemblages and textures. In this study we have constrained formation of garnet porphyroblasts and paragonite-albite-sillimanite-quartz-staurolite bearing domains within the mica schist from the Rajpura-Dariba sequence of the Bhilwara Supergroup in NW India. The mica schist is inter-layered with calc-silicates and quartzite and together the units form a NE-SW trending Grenvillian orogenic belt in southern part of Bhilwara Supergroup sequence. Within the mica schist, three distinct textural domains have been observed: (i) muscovite-biotite-quartz-feldspar bearing matrix foliation, (ii) garnet porphyroblasts within the matrix foliation, (iii) staurolite-paragonite-albite-staurolite-sillimanite-quartz bearing domains. Paragonite, albite and sillimanite occur exclusively in the pseudomorph domains. Garnet porphyroblasts show variation in compositions from cores (Spessartine0.14 Grossular0.10 Pyrope0.12 Almandine0.72) to rims (Spessartine0.09Grossular0.15Pyrope0.12Almandine0.75). The average XMg contents of staurolite and matrix biotite are 0.21 and 0.57 respectively. Pseudosections have been constructed from the

  2. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  3. Doppler Velocity Signatures of Idealized Elliptical Vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chau Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler radar observations have revealed a class of atmospheric vortices (tropical cyclones, tornadoes, dust devils that possess elliptical radar reflectivity signatures. One famous example is Typhoon Herb (1996 that maintained its elliptical reflectivity structure over a 40-hour period. Theoretical work and dual-Doppler analyses of observed tropical cyclones have suggested two physical mechanisms that can explain the formation of two types of elliptical vortices observed in nature, namely, the combination of a circular vortex with either a wavenumber two vortex Rossby wave or a deformation field. The characteristics of these two types of elliptical vortices and their corresponding Doppler velocity signatures have not been previously examined.

  4. Cryptanalysis of the Quantum Group Signature Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Sun, Ying; Song, Ting-Ting; Zuo, Hui-Juan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the researches of quantum group signature (QGS) have attracted a lot of attentions and some typical protocols have been designed for e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. In this paper, we analyze the security of the quantum group signature with the example of two novel protocols. It can be seen that both of them cannot be implemented securely since the arbitrator cannot solve the disputes fairly. In order to show that, some possible attack strategies, which can be used by the malicious participants, are proposed. Moreover, the further discussions of QGS are presented finally, including some insecurity factors and improved ideas.

  5. State of the Art: Signature Biometrics Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourddine Guersi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the performance of three estimation algorithms: Expectation Maximization (EM, Greedy EM Algorithm (GEM and Figueiredo-Jain Algorithm (FJ - based on the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs for signature biometrics verification. The simulation results have shown significant performance achievements. The test performance of EER=5.49 % for "EM", EER=5.04 % for "GEM" and EER=5.00 % for "FJ", shows that the behavioral information scheme of signature biometrics is robust and has a discriminating power, which can be explored for identity authentication.

  6. Dictionary of Large Hadron Collider Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, A; de Roeck, A; Godbole, R M; Mellado, B; Nyffeler, A; Petridou, C; Roy, D P

    2009-01-01

    We report on a plan to establish a "Dictionary of LHC Signatures", an initiative that started at the WHEPPX workshop in January 2008. This study aims towards the strategy on distinguishing of 3 classes of dark matter motivated scenarios such as R-parity conserved supersymmetry, Little Higgs models with T-parity conservation and Universal Extra Dimensions with KK-parity for generic cases of their realization in wide range of the model space. Discriminating signatures are tabulated and will need a further detailed analysis.

  7. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Woon [Emerging Technology R and D Center, SK Telecom, Kyunggi 463-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ku-Young; Hong, Dowon [Cryptography Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with the help of a trusted third party have been developed up to now. In order to guarantee unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption based on Pauli operators. However, in this paper we point out that the previous schemes provide security only against a total break attack and show in fact that there exists an existential forgery attack that can validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover security against the proposed attack.

  8. Synthesis and ionic conductivity of new high Li ion content garnets, LnSr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}Li{sub 7}O{sub 12} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, M.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Clemens, O. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Nanotechnologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Parvathy, A.S. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Nanotechnologie, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Anderson, P.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Slater, P.R., E-mail: p.r.slater@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we report the synthesis and Li ion conductivity of the new high Li content garnet phases LnSr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}Li{sub 7}O{sub 12} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm or Gd). Close inspection of the X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that these systems are mostly composed of the ordered tetragonal garnet phase, along with a small amount of cubic garnet. The presence of a small amount of cubic garnet phase can most likely be correlated with partial Li loss on synthesis as well as some degree of H{sup +}/Li{sup +} exchange. The latter was supported by results from variable temperature X-ray diffraction studies and thermogravimetric analysis. The adoption of the tetragonal garnet structure by these new systems highlights further that in order to accommodate 7 Lithium ions within the garnet structure, then cation ordering must occur to prevent short Li–Li interactions. In line with other tetragonal garnet systems, the Li ion conductivity is shown to be low, as a result of this ordered Li distribution. - Highlights: • The successful synthesis of new LnSr{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}Li{sub 7}O{sub 12} (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd) garnet phases. • The demonstration that these “Li7” garnets all adopt tetragonal symmetry consistent with Li ordering. • The demonstration that these systems are susceptible to moisture from the air, which leads to partial H/Li Exchange.

  9. The solubility and site preference of Fe3+ in Li7−3xFexLa3Zr2O12 garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenwander, D.; Geiger, C.A.; Tribus, M.; Tropper, P.; Wagner, R.; Tippelt, G.; Lottermoser, W.; Amthauer, G.

    2015-01-01

    A series of Fe 3+ -bearing Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 (LLZO) garnets was synthesized using solid-state synthesis methods. The synthetic products were characterized compositionally using electron microprobe analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structurally using X-ray powder diffraction and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. A maximum of about 0.25 Fe 3+ pfu could be incorporated in Li 7−3x Fe x La 3 Zr 2 O 12 garnet solid solutions. At Fe 3+ concentrations lower than about 0.16 pfu, both tetragonal and cubic garnets were obtained in the synthesis experiments. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed only a garnet phase for syntheses with starting materials having intended Fe 3+ contents lower than 0.52 Fe 3+ pfu. Back-scattered electron images made with an electron microprobe also showed no phase other than garnet for these compositions. The lattice parameter, a 0 , for all solid-solution garnets is similar with a value of a 0 ≈12.98 Å regardless of the amount of Fe 3+ . 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate the presence of poorly- or nano-crystalline FeLaO 3 in syntheses with Fe 3+ contents greater than 0.16 Fe 3+ pfu. The composition of different phase pure Li 7−3x Fe x La 3 Zr 2 O 12 garnets, as determined by electron microprobe (Fe, La, Zr) and ICP-OES (Li) measurements, give Li 6.89 Fe 0.03 La 3.05 Zr 2.01 O 12 , Li 6.66 Fe 0.06 La 3.06 Zr 2.01 O 12 , Li 6.54 Fe 0.12 La 3.01 Zr 1.98 O 12 , and Li 6.19 Fe 0.19 La 3.02 Zr 2.04 O 12 . The 57 Fe Mössbauer spectrum of cubic Li 6.54 Fe 0.12 La 3.01 Zr 1.98 O 12 garnet indicates that most Fe 3+ occurs at the special crystallographic 24d position, which is the standard tetrahedrally coordinated site in garnet. Fe 3+ in smaller amounts occurs at a general 96h site, which is only present for certain Li-oxide garnets, and in Li 6.54 Fe 0.12 La 3.01 Zr 1.98 O 12 this Fe 3+ has a distorted 4-fold coordination. - Graphical abstract: Cubic nominally Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O

  10. A group signature scheme based on quantum teleportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Xiaojun; Tian Yuan; Ji Liping; Niu Xiamu, E-mail: wxjun36@gmail.co [Information Countermeasure Technique Research Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we present a group signature scheme using quantum teleportation. Different from classical group signature and current quantum signature schemes, which could only deliver either group signature or unconditional security, our scheme guarantees both by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum teleportation. Security analysis proved that our scheme has the characteristics of group signature, non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. Our quantum group signature scheme has a foreseeable application in the e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc.

  11. COMPUTER-IMPLEMENTED METHOD OF PERFORMING A SEARCH USING SIGNATURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of processing a query vector and a data vector), comprising: generating a set of masks and a first set of multiple signatures and a second set of multiple signatures by applying the set of masks to the query vector and the data vector, respectively, and generating...... candidate pairs, of a first signature and a second signature, by identifying matches of a first signature and a second signature. The set of masks comprises a configuration of the elements that is a Hadamard code; a permutation of a Hadamard code; or a code that deviates from a Hadamard code...

  12. High-pressure optical spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies on synthetic cobalt aluminum silicate garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Taran, Michail; Nestola, Fabrizio; Ohashi, Haruo

    2007-01-01

    The pressure-induced behavior of spin-allowed dd-bands of VIIICo2+ in the absorption spectra of synthetic Co3Al2Si3O12 garnet was studied from 10-4 to 13 GPa. The plots of the peak energy vs. pressure for the three sharpest well resolved bands at ca. 5160, 17 680, and 18 740 cm-1 display small...... but discernible breaks in linear relations between 4 and 5 GPa. Datafromsingle-crystalX-raydiffractionData from single-crystal X-ray diffraction likewise show discontinuities in trends of CoO8 polyhedral volume and distortion, and Co-O and Si-O bond distances over this pressure range. These effects are related...

  13. Reflection and Transmission Coefficient of Yttrium Iron Garnet Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Using Rectangular Waveguide at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer. PMID:22942718

  14. Reflection and Transmission Coefficient of Yttrium Iron Garnet Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Using Rectangular Waveguide at Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG. The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer.

  15. Resection of a plantar calcaneal spur using the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W K; Noriega, J A; Smith, W K

    2001-03-01

    Many procedures have been described for the resection of plantar calcaneal spurs as treatment of heel spur syndrome and chronic plantar fasciitis. Most of these techniques involve a medial incision of between 2 and 6 cm for adequate exposure of the calcaneal spur. This article describes a new technique for resecting a calcaneal spur with a smaller medial incision using the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser. This laser permits adequate resection of a plantar calcaneal spur as well as coagulation of the bone and surrounding tissues. This minimally invasive procedure has been used with good results over the past year by the senior author (W.K.S.) for the resection of calcaneal spurs.

  16. Crystallographic Orientation Relationships (CORs) between rutile inclusions and garnet hosts: towards using COR frequencies as a petrogenetic indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas; Habler, Gerlinde; Schantl, Philip; Abart, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Crystallographic orientation relationships (CORs) between crystalline inclusions and their hosts are commonly used to support particular inclusion origins, but often interpretations are based on a small fraction of all inclusions in a system. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) method allows collection of large COR datasets more quickly than other methods while maintaining high spatial resolution. Large datasets allow analysis of the relative frequencies of different CORs, and identification of 'statistical CORs', where certain limited degrees of freedom exist in the orientation relationship between two neighbour crystals (Griffiths et al. 2016). Statistical CORs exist in addition to completely fixed 'specific' CORs (previously the only type of COR considered). We present a comparison of three EBSD single point datasets (all N > 200 inclusions) of rutile inclusions in garnet hosts, covering three rock systems, each with a different geological history: 1) magmatic garnet in pegmatite from the Koralpe complex, Eastern Alps, formed at temperatures > 600°C and low pressures; 2) granulite facies garnet rims on ultra-high-pressure garnets from the Kimi complex, Rhodope Massif; and 3) a Moldanubian granulite from the southeastern Bohemian Massif, equilibrated at peak conditions of 1050°C and 1.6 GPa. The present study is unique because all datasets have been analysed using the same catalogue of potential CORs, therefore relative frequencies and other COR properties can be meaningfully compared. In every dataset > 94% of the inclusions analysed exhibit one of the CORs tested for. Certain CORs are consistently among the most common in all datasets. However, the relative abundances of these common CORs show large variations between datasets (varying from 8 to 42 % relative abundance in one case). Other CORs are consistently uncommon but nonetheless present in every dataset. Lastly, there are some CORs that are common in one of the datasets and rare in the remainder

  17. Recent progress in advanced optical materials based on gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Guang; Sakka, Yoshio

    2015-02-01

    This review article summarizes the recent achievements in stabilization of the metastable lattice of gadolinium aluminate garnet (Gd3Al5O12, GAG) and the related developments of advanced optical materials, including down-conversion phosphors, up-conversion phosphors, transparent ceramics, and single crystals. Whenever possible, the materials are compared with their better known YAG and LuAG counterparts to demonstrate the merits of the GAG host. It is shown that novel emission features and significantly improved luminescence can be attained for a number of phosphor systems with the more covalent GAG lattice and the efficient energy transfer from Gd3+ to the activator. Ce3+ doped GAG-based single crystals and transparent ceramics are also shown to simultaneously possess the advantages of high theoretical density, fast scintillation decay, and high light yields, and hold great potential as scintillators for a wide range of applications. The unresolved issues are also pointed out.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of a Nanoscale Yttrium Iron Garnet Thin-Film Prepared by the Sol-Gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Young

    2017-08-31

    The thermal conductivity of a nanoscale yttrium iron garnet (Y₃Fe₅O 12 , YIG) thin-film prepared by a sol-gel method was evaluated using the ultrafast pump-probe technique in the present study. The thermoreflectance change on the surface of a 250 nm thick YIG film, induced by the irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses, was measured, and curve fitting of a numerical solution for the transient heat conduction equation to the experimental data was performed using the finite difference method in order to extract the thermal property. Results show that the film's thermal conductivity is 22-83% higher than the properties of bulk YIG materials prepared by different fabrication techniques, reflecting the microstructural characteristics and quality of the film.

  19. Complete Stokes polarimetry of magneto-optical Faraday effect in a terbium gallium garnet crystal at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Shaheen, Amrozia; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2013-10-21

    We report the complete determination of the polarization changes caused in linearly polarized incident light due to propagation in a magneto-optically active terbium gallium garnet (TGG) single crystal, at temperatures ranging from 6.3 to 300 K. A 28-fold increase in the Verdet constant of the TGG crystal is seen as its temperature decreases to 6.3 K. In contrast with polarimetry of light emerging from a Faraday material at room temperature, polarimetry at cryogenic temperatures cannot be carried out using the conventional fixed polarizer-analyzer technique because the assumption that ellipticity is negligible becomes increasingly invalid as temperature is lowered. It is shown that complete determination of light polarization in such a case requires the determination of its Stokes parameters, otherwise inaccurate measurements will result with negative implications for practical devices.

  20. Domain structure and texture in fine grained symplectite from garnet breakdown in peridotite xenoliths (Zinst, Bavaria, Bohemian Massif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habler, G.; Špaček, P.; Abart, R.

    2012-04-01

    Lherzolite xenoliths entrained in Oligocene basanite at the locality of Zinst (Bavaria, western Bohemian Massif) contain rare fine-grained symplectites forming about 5 millimeter sized patches comprising several microstructurally and chemically distinct concentric zones. The symplectites reflect a complex reaction history of lherzolite during decompression and interaction with melt. Here we focus on ultra-fine grained symplectite with an integrated bulk composition expressed in terms of garnet end-member component percentages as Prp(69-71)Alm(11-13)Grs(2.5-5)And(7.5-10)Uvr(4). According to the composition and the microstructural occurrence in lherzolite the ultra-fine grained symplectite is interpreted as a product of isochemical garnet breakdown, although the precursor phase is not preserved. Under cross polarized light patches with similar extinction show a domain microstructure in symplectite. BSE images reveal an intimate intergrowth of orthopyroxene, spinel and plagioclase. All phases have a shape preferred orientation within distinct domains, whereas discontinuous SPO changes occur at microstructural domain boundaries. Three types of symplectite were microstructurally discerned: The most pristine type A occurs in a 10-30 micrometers wide zone along the symplectite margin. Spinel forms several tens of nanometers wide rods or lamellae within Opx, whereas Pl and Opx represent the symplectite matrix. All phases show a strong SPO with the maximum elongation perpendicular to the symplectite boundary. At edges of this interface, the SPO of the symplectite phases changes accordingly. Discontinuities in SPO may coincide with changes in crystallographic orientation. EBSD data showed that symplectite phases have strict crystallographic orientation relations with Opx(100)//Spl(111) and Opx(010)//Spl(110). Whereas the initial lattice orientation is controlled by adjacent phases at the symplectite boundary, the crystallographic orientation within symplectite domains

  1. One-dimensional photonic crystals with highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect in reflection polar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailova, T V; Berzhansky, V N; Karavainikov, A V; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Lyashko, S D

    2016-01-01

    It is represented the results of modelling of magnetooptical properties in reflection polar geometry of one-dimensional photonic crystal, in which highly Bi-substituted iron garnet defect of composition Bi 1.0 Y 0.5 Gd 1.5 Fe 4.2 A l0.8 O 12 / Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 Oi 2 is located between the dielectric Bragg mirrors (SiO 2 / TiO 2 ) m (were m is number of layer pairs) and buffer SiO 2 and gold top layers of different thicknesses is placed on structure. The modification of spectral line- shapes of microcavity and Tamm plasmon-polariton modes depending on m is found. (paper)

  2. Endothelial cell study in a case of Werner′s syndrome undergoing phacoemulsification and Yettrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudha Kemmanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Werner′s syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with multisystem manifestations of premature aging from the second decade of life. Cataract is one of the features of WS. Cataract surgery is complicated with postoperative wound dehiscence and bullous keratopathy when the surgery is done by intracapsular or conventional extracapsular method. We report the short-term result of phacoemulsification and Neodymimum Yettrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser (Nd YAG capsulotomy in a case of WS with bilateral cataracts. Postoperatively and post capsulotomy, there was no change in the endothelial cell morphology. There was an 8.6% decrease in endothelial cell count at the end of 15 months postoperatively and 11 months post YAG capsulotomy. This decrease is within the acceptable range of cell loss after phacoemulsification and YAG capsulotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of YAG laser capsulotomy in WS.

  3. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  4. Radiotherapeutic bandage based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile containing holmium-166 iron garnet nanoparticles for the treatment of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaweera, Imalka; Levesque-Bishop, Daniel; Shi, Yi; Di Pasqua, Anthony J; Balkus, Kenneth J

    2014-12-24

    Radiation therapy is used as a primary treatment for inoperable tumors and in patients that cannot or will not undergo surgery. Radioactive holmium-166 ((166)Ho) is a viable candidate for use against skin cancer. Nonradioactive holmium-165 ((165)Ho) iron garnet nanoparticles have been incorporated into a bandage, which, after neutron-activation to (166)Ho, can be applied to a tumor lesion. The (165)Ho iron garnet nanoparticles ((165)HoIG) were synthesized and introduced into polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer solutions. The polymer solutions were then electrospun to produce flexible nonwoven bandages, which are stable to neutron-activation. The fiber mats were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The bandages are stable after neutron-activation at a thermal neutron-flux of approximately 3.5 × 10(12) neutrons/cm(2)·s for at least 4 h and 100 °C. Different amounts of radioactivity can be produced by changing the amount of the (165)HoIG nanoparticles inside the bandage and the duration of neutron-activation, which is important for different stages of skin cancer. Furthermore, the radioactive bandage can be easily manipulated to irradiate only the tumor site by cutting the bandage into specific shapes and sizes that cover the tumor prior to neutron-activation. Thus, exposure of healthy cells to high energy β-particles can be avoided. Moreover, there is no leakage of radioactive material after neutron activation, which is critical for safe handling by healthcare professionals treating skin cancer patients.

  5. Piezoelectric sensor pen for dynamic signature verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EerNisse, E.P.; Land, C.E.; Snelling, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of using handwriting dynamics for electronic identification is discussed. A piezoelectric sensor pen for obtaining the pen point dynamics during writing is described. Design equations are derived and details of an operating device are presented. Typical output waveforms are shown to demonstrate the operation of the pen and to show the dissimilarities between dynamics of a genuine signature and an attempted forgery.

  6. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C.; Aparicio, Samuel A. J. R.; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V.; Bignell, Graham R.; Bolli, Niccolò; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P.; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R.; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Foekens, John A.; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T. W.; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R.; López-Otín, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A.; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V.; Puente, Xose S.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L.; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N.; Span, Paul N.; Teague, Jon W.; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M.; van 't Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R.; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P. Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M.; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.; Claviez, Alexander; Rosenwald, Andreas; Borkhardt, Arndt; Brors, Benedikt; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Lawerenz, Chris; Lopez, Cristina; Langenberger, David; Karsch, Dennis; Lenze, Dido; Kube, Dieter; Leich, Ellen; Richter, Gesine; Korbel, Jan; Hoell, Jessica; Eils, Jürgen; Hezaveh, Kebriah; Trümper, Lorenz; Rosolowski, Maciej; Weniger, Marc; Rohde, Marius; Kreuz, Markus; Loeffler, Markus; Schilhabel, Markus; Dreyling, Martin; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Hummel, Michael; Szczepanowski, Monika; Ammerpohl, Ole; Stadler, Peter F.; Möller, Peter; Küppers, Ralf; Haas, Siegfried; Eberth, Sonja; Schreiber, Stefan; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Hoffmann, Steve; Radomski, Sylwester; Kostezka, Ulrike; Klapper, Wolfram; Sotiriou, Christos; Larsimont, Denis; Vincent, Delphine; Maetens, Marion; Mariani, Odette; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Martens, John W. M.; Jonasson, Jon G.; Treilleux, Isabelle; Thomas, Emilie; Mac Grogan, Gaëtan; Mannina, Cécile; Arnould, Laurent; Burillier, Laura; Merlin, Jean-Louis; Lefebvre, Magali; Bibeau, Frédéric; Massemin, Blandine; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Lopez, Qian; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Lonning, Per Eystein; Schlooz-Vries, Margrete; Tol, Jolien; van Laarhoven, Hanneke; Sweep, Fred; Bult, Peter

    2013-01-01

    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362

  7. Characteristics of small boat acoustic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Martin L.; Wilson, Gary R.

    2002-11-01

    Small boats are often a dominant noise source in harbors, coastal regions, and lakes. However, detailed information about acoustic characteristics is not generally available. To remedy this deficiency, measurements of underwater acoustic signatures from various small boats have been conducted under controlled conditions. Boats used in the measurements were powered by a variety of gasoline and diesel motors in outboard, inboard-outboard, and inboard drive configurations. Measurements were made using a bottom mounted hydrophone in about 100 feet of water. In many instances, the boats were instrumented with a system that recorded the GPS position and engine RPM permitting accurate determinations of platform operating parameters. Measured small boat signatures contain both narrowband and broadband acoustic components. Narrowband components are generally associated with sources from the engine or drive. Narrowband levels in the observed spectra were found to exhibit significant variations and are believed to originate from fluctuations in the load on the engine and drive. Broadband energy was observed to be a dominant noise source at frequencies above several hundred Hertz and is a characteristic feature in all small boat signatures. Examples of small boat signatures will be presented and representative acoustic characteristics of this type of watercraft will be discussed.

  8. Photospheric, Chromospheric and Helioseismic Signatures of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2003-10-26

    Oct 26, 2003 ... since the beginning of routine TSI measurements in 1978 (Woods et al. 2004). We have selected this flare for detailed analysis of its photospheric, chromospheric and helioseismic signatures due to the favourable location of the active region near the. CMP which minimizes the projection effects. 2.

  9. CERN Member States signatures at LEP inauguration

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The signatures of the dignitaries who represented CERN's Member States on the occasion of the Inauguration of LEP on 13 November 1989. The Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was inaugurated in the presence of some 1500 guests, including Heads of State and Ministers from all of CERN's 14 Member States.

  10. The Pedagogic Signature of Special Needs Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Sabine; Kollmannsberger, Markus; Lerche, Thomas; Oubaid, Viktor; Kiel, Ewald

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the following study is to identify a pedagogic signature, according to LS Shulman, for working with students who have special educational needs. Special educational needs are defined as significant limitations in personal development and learning which require particular educational measures beyond regular education. The development of…

  11. Dictionary of Large Hadron Collider signatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report on a plan to establish a `Dictionary of LHC Signatures', an initiative that started at the WHEPP-X workshop in Chennai, January 2008. This study aims at the strategy of distinguishing 3 classes of dark matter motivated scenarios such as -parity conserved supersymmetry, little Higgs models with -parity ...

  12. Practical Certificateless Aggregate Signatures From Bilinear Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Zheng; Long, Yu; Hong, Xuan; Chen, Kefei

    2008-01-01

    In some restrictive environments, such as sensor networks, each sensor submits the newest information to the server, every message must be authenticated to immune forgery and replay attacks. But the regular signatures need to be saved and verified individually, which will heavily add the costs of

  13. Detection of proteolytic signatures for Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordal, Peter Lüttge; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Winge, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate if idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is associated with distinct proteolytic signatures relative to non-neurodegenerative controls (NND) and patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Materials & methods: A subtiligase-based N-terminomics screening method was exploited...

  14. Ankle and Other Signatures in Uhecr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin

    2015-03-01

    The interaction signatures of UHE protons propagating through CMB are discussed. Much attention is given to ankle, which starting from 1963 is usually interpreted as a feature of transition from galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays. We argue here that this interpretation is now excluded. It gives more credit to alternative explanation of the ankle as an intrinsic part of the pair-production dip.

  15. SUSY with ATLAS Leptonic Signatures, Coannihilation Region

    CERN Document Server

    Comune, G

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present an initial study on how leptonic signatures can be used at ATLAS to constrain SUSY particle masses combinations for the first time in the so called "coannihilation region''. The analysis is carried out in the framework of mSUGRA constrained SUSY model using fast detector simulation and reconstruction exploiting an invariant mass endpoint technique.

  16. Comparison of metagenomic samples using sequence signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Bai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence signatures, as defined by the frequencies of k-tuples (or k-mers, k-grams, have been used extensively to compare genomic sequences of individual organisms, to identify cis-regulatory modules, and to study the evolution of regulatory sequences. Recently many next-generation sequencing (NGS read data sets of metagenomic samples from a variety of different environments have been generated. The assembly of these reads can be difficult and analysis methods based on mapping reads to genes or pathways are also restricted by the availability and completeness of existing databases. Sequence-signature-based methods, however, do not need the complete genomes or existing databases and thus, can potentially be very useful for the comparison of metagenomic samples using NGS read data. Still, the applications of sequence signature methods for the comparison of metagenomic samples have not been well studied. Results We studied several dissimilarity measures, including d2, d2* and d2S recently developed from our group, a measure (hereinafter noted as Hao used in CVTree developed from Hao’s group (Qi et al., 2004, measures based on relative di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide frequencies as in Willner et al. (2009, as well as standard lp measures between the frequency vectors, for the comparison of metagenomic samples using sequence signatures. We compared their performance using a series of extensive simulations and three real next-generation sequencing (NGS metagenomic datasets: 39 fecal samples from 33 mammalian host species, 56 marine samples across the world, and 13 fecal samples from human individuals. Results showed that the dissimilarity measure d2S can achieve superior performance when comparing metagenomic samples by clustering them into different groups as well as recovering environmental gradients affecting microbial samples. New insights into the environmental factors affecting microbial compositions in metagenomic samples

  17. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  18. Combined garnet and zircon geochronology and trace elements studies - constraints of the UHP-(U)HT evolution of Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (NE Bohemian Massif).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Szczepański, Jacek; Rubatto, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    The Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (OSD), located on the NE margin of the Bohemian Massif, is predominantly composed of amphibolite-facies orthogneiss that contain bodies of HP and UHP eclogites and granulites. Numerous geochronological studies have been undertaken to constrain the timing of the ultra-high grade metamorphic event. Despite this, the exact timing of UHP-(U)HT conditions remain dubious (e.g. Brueckner et al., 1991; Anczkiewicz et al., 2007; Bröcker et al., 2009 & 2010). We have utilized garnet and zircon geochronology to provide time constraints on the evolution of the UHT-(U)HP rocks of the OSD. We have combined the ages with trace element analyses in garnet and zircon to better understand the significance of the obtained ages in petrological context. Lu-Hf grt-wr dating of peritectic garnet from two felsic granulites constrained the time of its initial growth at 346.9 ± 1.2 and 348.3 ± 2.0 Ma, recording peak conditions of 2.7 GPa and 950°C (e.g. Ferrero et al., 2015). In situ U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon from the same granulite gave a younger age of 342.2 ± 3.4 Ma. HREE partitioning between garnet rim and metamorphic zircon indicate their growth in equilibrium, hence, the U-Pb zircon date constrains the terminal phase of garnet crystallization. Similar ages were obtained from two eclogite bodies from Międzygórze and Nowa Wieś localities; Lu-Hf (grt-cpx-wr) dating provided ages of 346.5 ± 2.4 and 348.1 ± 9.1 Ma for samples from Międzygórze and Nowa Wieś, respectively. The same age (within error) of 346.3 ± 5.2 Ma was reported by Bröcker et al. (2010) for zircon from the Międzygórze eclogite. Comparison of REE concentrations in garnet (this study) and in metamorphic zircon (reported in Bröcker et al., 2010) indicate that garnet and zircon crystallized in equilibrium. Furthermore, M-HREE patterns observed in both garnet and zircon strongly suggest their growth at eclogite facies conditions. Sm-Nd garnet ages obtained for both felsic and mafic

  19. The effects of extrinsic motivation on signature authorship opinions in forensic signature blind trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Tahnee N; Found, Bryan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Rogers, Doug

    2014-03-01

    Expertise studies in forensic handwriting examination involve comparisons of Forensic Handwriting Examiners' (FHEs) opinions with lay-persons on blind tests. All published studies of this type have reported real and demonstrable skill differences between the specialist and lay groups. However, critics have proposed that any difference shown may be indicative of a lack of motivation on the part of lay participants, rather than a real difference in skill. It has been suggested that qualified FHEs would be inherently more motivated to succeed in blinded validation trials, as their professional reputations could be at risk, should they perform poorly on the task provided. Furthermore, critics suggest that lay-persons would be unlikely to be highly motivated to succeed, as they would have no fear of negative consequences should they perform badly. In an effort to investigate this concern, a blind signature trial was designed and administered to forty lay-persons. Participants were required to compare known (exemplar) signatures of an individual to questioned signatures and asked to express an opinion regarding whether the writer of the known signatures wrote each of the questioned signatures. The questioned signatures comprised a mixture of genuine, disguised and simulated signatures. The forty participants were divided into two separate groupings. Group 'A' were requested to complete the trial as directed and were advised that for each correct answer they would be financially rewarded, for each incorrect answer they would be financially penalized, and for each inconclusive opinion they would receive neither penalty nor reward. Group 'B' was requested to complete the trial as directed, with no mention of financial recompense or penalty. The results of this study do not support the proposition that motivation rather than skill difference is the source of the statistical difference in opinions between individuals' results in blinded signature proficiency trials. Crown

  20. Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pettersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument, ground-based measurements provide unique and comprehensive data sets of the atmosphere for a specific location over long periods of time and resulting data compliment past and existing global satellite observations. This paper explores the effect of ice hydrometeors on ground-based, high-frequency passive microwave measurements and attempts to isolate an ice signature for summer seasons at Summit, Greenland, from 2010 to 2013. Data from a combination of passive microwave, cloud radar, radiosonde, and ceilometer were examined to isolate the ice signature at microwave wavelengths. By limiting the study to a cloud liquid water path of 40 g m−2 or less, the cloud radar can identify cases where the precipitation was dominated by ice. These cases were examined using liquid water and gas microwave absorption models, and brightness temperatures were calculated for the high-frequency microwave channels: 90, 150, and 225 GHz. By comparing the measured brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers and the calculated brightness temperature using only gas and liquid contributions, any residual brightness temperature difference is due to emission and scattering of microwave radiation from the ice hydrometeors in the column. The ice signature in the 90, 150, and 225 GHz channels for the Summit Station summer months was isolated. This measured ice signature was then compared to an equivalent brightness temperature difference calculated with a radiative transfer model including microwave single-scattering properties for several ice habits. Initial model results compare well against the 4 years of summer season isolated ice signature in the high-frequency microwave channels.

  1. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  2. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    This report describes work carried out under the Air Force Research Laboratory's basic research task in optical remote-sensing signatures, entitled Optical / Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing...

  3. The ICDAR 2009 Signature Verification Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, V.L.; Heuvel, C.E. van den; Franke, K.Y.; Vuurpijl, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent results of forgery detection by implementing biometric signature verification methods are promising. At present, forensic signature verification in daily casework is performed through visual examination by trained forensic handwriting experts, without reliance on computerassisted methods.

  4. Thermally driven magnon transport in the magnetic insulator Yttrium Iron Garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Milan

    2014-01-01

    The research work presented in this thesis covers the investigation of spin-caloric phenomena in ferromagnetic-normal metal heterostructures. These phenomena explore the interaction of heat with spin systems and mainly deal with the generation and the manipulation of spin currents by means of heat currents (phonons). The significance of spin currents is widely seen in developing new fundamental concepts of physics as well as in the industry of magnetic memories. Analogous to the classical Seebeck effect, the generation of a spin current in a spin system by the application of heat currents is known as the spin Seebeck effect (SSE). This mode of spin current generation has recently attracted much scientific attention due to the existence of the spin Seebeck effect in a wide variety of magnetic materials (spin systems), considering from insulators to metals. The potential applications of this effect, in particular to generate electricity out of waste heat, make the effect even more attractive. Generally, spin systems can be classified into either a system constituting the traveling spins carried by free electrons or into a system of spin waves, collective excitations of magnetic moments in the wavevector space. Having the advantage of being free from free-electronic charges, an electrical-insulating-ferromagnetic system of spin waves overcomes the limitation of short propagation lengths of pure spin currents in metals. The long propagation length of spin currents carried by propagating spin waves is crucial for building-up spin-electronic (spintronic) circuits and spin logics for fast computation. For such purposes, the ferrimagnetic insulator Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) is a promising material candidate due to its lowest known magnetic damping which offers macroscopic propagation lengths of spin currents. In the framework of this thesis, a detailed investigation of the interaction of phonons with magnons, the quanta of spin waves, in single crystalline YIG films are

  5. A Signature Comparing Android Mobile Application Utilizing Feature Extracting Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Grafilon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented one of the application that can be done using smartphones camera. Nowadays forgery is one of the most undetected crimes. With the forensic technology used today it is still difficult for authorities to compare and define what a real signature is and what a forged signature is. A signature is a legal representation of a person. All transactions are based on a signature. Forgers may use a signature to sign illegal contracts and withdraw from bank accounts undetected. A signature can also be forged during election periods for repeated voting. Addressing the issues a signature should always be secure. Signature verification is a reduced problem that still poses a real challenge for researchers. The literature on signature verification is quite extensive and shows two main areas of research off-line and on-line systems. Off-line systems deal with a static image of the signature i.e. the result of the action of signing while on-line systems work on the dynamic process of generating the signature i.e. the action of signing itself. The researchers have found a way to resolve the concerns. A mobile application that integrates the camera to take a picture of a signature analyzes it and compares it to other signatures for verification. It will exist to help citizens to be more cautious and aware with issues regarding the signatures. This might also be relevant to help organizations and institutions such as banks and insurance companies in verifying signatures that may avoid unwanted transactions and identity theft. Furthermore this might help the authorities in the never ending battle against crime especially against forgers and thieves. The project aimed to design and develop a mobile application that integrates the smartphone camera for verifying and comparing signatures for security using the best algorithm possible. As the result of the development the said smartphone camera application is functional and reliable.

  6. Mantle amphibole control on arc and within-plate chemical signatures: Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirkhah, M.; Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Emami, M. H.; McLeod, C.

    2012-04-01

    New analyses of Quaternary lavas from Kurdistan Province in west Iran shed light on the nature of collision zone magmatism. The rocks are from the Turkish-Iranian plateau within the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Compositions are typically basanite, hawaiite and alkali basalt. Sr-Nd isotope values are close to BSE, which is similar to Quaternary alkali basalts of NW Iran, but distinct from a depleted source melting under Mount Ararat. The chemical signatures suggests variable melting of two distinct sources. One inferred source produced melts with La/Nb from~3.5 to~1.2, which we model as the result of depletion of amphibole during ≤1% melting in the garnet stability field. We infer phlogopite in the source of potassic lavas from Takab. Lithosphere delamination or slab break-off mechanisms for triggering melting are problematic, as the lithosphere is~150-200km thick. It is possible that the negative dT/dP section of the amphibole peridotite solidus was crossed as a result of lithospheric thickening in the collision zone. This explanation is conditional upon the mantle source being weakly hydrated and so only containing a small proportion of amphibole, which can be exhausted during small degrees of partial melting. Our model maybe viable for other magmatic areas within orogenic plateaux, e.g. northern Tibet. Depletion of mantle amphibole may also help explain larger scale transitions from arc to within-plate chemistry in orogens, such as the Palaeogene Arabia-Eurasia system.

  7. Fingerprinting the Hydrothermal Fluid Characteristics from LA-ICP-MS Trace Element Geochemistry of Garnet in the Yongping Cu Deposit, SE China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The large Yongping Cu deposit is situated in the eastern Qin-Hang Metallogenic Belt, Southeast China and on the southern side of the Yangtze—Cathaysia suture zone, and is characterized by large stratiform orebodies. Garnet represents the main non-metallic mineral at Yongping, and shows variations in color from dark red to green to light brown with distance from the Shizitou porphyritic biotite granite stock. An in situ elemental analysis using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS and fluid inclusions microthermometric measurement on the Yongping garnet were conducted to constrain the hydrothermal and physicochemical mineralization conditions and the ore origin. The Yongping garnet ranges from nearly pure to impure andradite, is characterized by low concentrations of MnO (0.11–0.71 wt % with a wide range of Y/Ho (2.1–494.9 and does not exhibit any melting inclusions or fluid-melt inclusions, indicating that they are likely to be resulted from hydrothermal replacements. The Yongping garnet is rich in LREEs, Cs, Th, U and Pb; relatively depleted in HREEs, Rb, Sr and Ba; but exhibits distinct Eu anomalies (δEu of the dark red, green and light brown garnet range 2.12–20.54, 0.74–1.70 and 0.52–0.85, respectively with the homogenization temperatures and salinities of the fluid inclusions principally ranging from 387–477 °C and 7.8–16.0 wt % NaCl equivalent, respectively. The distinct trace elements and microthermometric characteristics reveal that the garnet was formed in a physicochemical conditions of medium-high temperature, 44–64 MPa pressures, mildly acidic pH levels, and unstable oxygen fugacity, and indicate that they were primarily formed by infiltration metasomatism, quite fitting with the scenario that the preferential entrance of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids derived from the Shizitou stock into the relatively low-pressure fracture zones between the limestone and quartz sandstone in the Yejiawan Formation, and further led to the formation

  8. Direct 40Ar/39Ar age determination of fluid inclusions using in-vacuo¬ stepwise crushing - Example of garnet from the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunk, Bertram; Postma, Onno; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2017-04-01

    Metamorphic minerals and veins commonly trap attending hydrous fluids in fluid inclusions, which yield a wealth of information on the history of the hosting metamorphic system. When these fluids are sufficiently saline, the KCl in the inclusions can be used as a K/Ar geochronologic system, potentially dating inclusion incorporation. Whilst primary fluid inclusions (PFIs) can date fluid incorporation during mineral or vein growth, secondary fluid inclusion trails (SFIs) can provide age constraints on later fluid flow events. At VU Amsterdam, a new in-vacuo crushing apparatus has been designed to extract fluid inclusions from minerals for 40Ar/39Ar analysis. Separates are crushed inside a crusher tube connected to a purification line and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In-vacuo crushing is achieved by lifting and dropping a steel pestle using an externally controlled magnetic field. As the gas can be analyzed between different crushing steps, the setup permits stepwise crushing experiments. Additionally, crushed powder can be heated by inserting the crusher tube in an externally controlled furnace. Dating by 40Ar/39Ar stepwise crushing has the added advantage that, during neutron irradiation to produce 39Ar from 39K, 38Ar and 37Ar are also produced from 38Cl and 40Ca, respectively. Simultaneous analysis of these argon isotopes permits constraining the chemistry of the argon source sampled during the experiment. This allows a distinction between different fluid or crystal lattice sources. Garnet from three samples of the HP metamorphic Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece was stepwise crushed to obtain fluid inclusion ages. Initial steps for all three experiments yield significant components of excess argon, which are interpreted to originate from grain boundary fluids and secondary fluid inclusions trails. During subsequent steps, age results stabilize to a plateau age. One garnet from North Syros yields an unusually old 80 Ma plateau age. However, isochrons

  9. Infrared ship signature prediction, model validation and sky radiance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    The increased interest during the last decade in the infrared signature of (new) ships results in a clear need of validated infrared signature prediction codes. This paper presents the results of comparing an in-house developed signature prediction code with measurements made in the 3-5 μm band in

  10. Signature Pedagogies in Support of Teachers' Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa; Patton, Kevin; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Signature pedagogies [Shulman, L. 2005. "Signature pedagogies in the professions." "Daedalus" 134 (3): 52--59.] are a focus of teacher educators seeking to improve teaching and teacher education. The purpose of this paper is to present a preliminary common language of signature pedagogies for teacher professional development…

  11. Radar micro-doppler signatures processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Victor C; Miceli, William J

    2014-01-01

    Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures: Processing and applications concentrates on the processing and application of radar micro-Doppler signatures in real world situations, providing readers with a good working knowledge on a variety of applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures.

  12. 76 FR 411 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning Electronic Signatures and Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... information regarding FMCSA's acceptance of electronic signature on documents required by the Federal Motor... govern the Agency's implementation of electronic document and signature requirements. The Government... traditional paper or electronic form: (a) Contracts, (b) signatures, and (c) other legally-required documents...

  13. Can specific transcriptional regulators assemble a universal cancer signature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Janine; Isik, Zerrin; Pilarsky, Christian; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Recently, there is a lot of interest in using biomarker signatures derived from gene expression data to predict cancer progression. We assembled signatures of 25 published datasets covering 13 types of cancers. How do these signatures compare with each other? On one hand signatures answering the same biological question should overlap, whereas signatures predicting different cancer types should differ. On the other hand, there could also be a Universal Cancer Signature that is predictive independently of the cancer type. Initially, we generate signatures for all datasets using classical approaches such as t-test and fold change and then, we explore signatures resulting from a network-based method, that applies the random surfer model of Google's PageRank algorithm. We show that the signatures as published by the authors and the signatures generated with classical methods do not overlap - not even for the same cancer type - whereas the network-based signatures strongly overlap. Selecting 10 out of 37 universal cancer genes gives the optimal prediction for all cancers thus taking a first step towards a Universal Cancer Signature. We furthermore analyze and discuss the involved genes in terms of the Hallmarks of cancer and in particular single out SP1, JUN/FOS and NFKB1 and examine their specific role in cancer progression.

  14. The role of trace element partitioning between garnet, zircon and orthopyroxene on the interpretation of zircon U-Pb ages: an example from high-grade basement in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornelli, A.; Langone, A.; Micheletti, F.; Pascazio, A.; Piccarreta, G.

    2014-03-01

    The recognition of the coeval growth of zircon, orthopyroxene and garnet domains formed during the same metamorphic cycle has been attempted with detailed microanalyses coupled with textural analyses. A coronitic garnet-bearing granulite from the lower crust of Calabria has been considered. U-Pb zircon data and zircon, garnet and orthopyroxene chemistries, at different textural sites, on a thin section of the considered granulite have been used to test possible equilibrium and better constrain the geological significance of the U-Pb ages related to zircon separates from other rocks of the same structural level. The garnet is very rich in REE and is characterised by a decrease in HREE from core to outer core and an increase in the margin. Zircons show core-overgrowth structures showing different chemistries, likely reflecting episodic metamorphic new growth. Zircon grains in matrix, corona around garnet and within the inner rim of garnet, are decidedly poorer in HREE up to Ho than garnet interior. Orthopyroxene in matrix and corona is homogeneously poor in REE. Thus, the outer core of garnet and the analysed zircon grains grew or equilibrated in a REE depleted system due to the former growth of garnet core. Zircon ages ranging from 357 to 333 Ma have been determined in the matrix, whereas ages 327-320 Ma and around 300 Ma have been determined, respectively, on cores and overgrowths of zircons from matrix, corona and inner rim of garnet. The calculated DREEzrn/grt and DREEopx/grt are largely different from the equilibrium values of literature due to strong depletion up to Ho in zircon and orthopyroxene with respect to garnet. On the other hand, the literature data show large variability. In the case study, (1) the D zrn/grt values define positive and linear trends from Gd to Lu as many examples from literature do and the values from Er to Lu approach the experimental results at about 900 °C in the combination zircon dated from 339 to 305 Ma with garnet outer core

  15. The Ultrastructural Signature of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jean M; Becker, Klaus A; Stein, Gary S; Nickerson, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    The epigenetics and molecular biology of human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) have received much more attention than their architecture. We present a more complete look at hES cells by electron microscopy, with a special emphasis on the architecture of the nucleus. We propose that there is an ultrastructural signature of pluripotent human cells. hES cell nuclei lack heterochromatin, including the peripheral heterochromatin, that is common in most somatic cell types. The absence of peripheral heterochromatin may be related to the absence of lamins A and C, proteins important for linking chromatin to the nuclear lamina and envelope. Lamins A and C expression and the development of peripheral heterochromatin were early steps in the development of embryoid bodies. While hES cell nuclei had abundant nuclear pores, they also had an abundance of nuclear pores in the cytoplasm in the form of annulate lamellae. These were not a residue of annulate lamellae from germ cells or the early embryos from which hES cells were derived. Subnuclear structures including nucleoli, interchromatin granule clusters, and Cajal bodies were observed in the nuclear interior. The architectural organization of human ES cell nuclei has important implications for cell structure-gene expression relationships and for the maintenance of pluripotency. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 764-774, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Detection of ROS Induced Proteomic Signatures by Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McDonagh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs induced by endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (ROS in regulatory enzymes and proteins plays an essential role in cellular signaling. Almost all cellular processes including metabolism, transcription, translation and degradation have been identified as containing redox regulated proteins. Specific redox modifications of key amino acids generated by ROS offers a dynamic and versatile means to rapidly alter the activity or functional structure of proteins in response to biochemical, environmental, genetic and pathological perturbations. How the proteome responds to these stimuli is of critical importance in oxidant physiology, as it can regulate the cell stress response by reversible and irreversible PTMs, affecting protein activity and protein-protein interactions. Due to the highly labile nature of many ROS species, applying redox proteomics can provide a signature footprint of the ROS species generated. Ideally redox proteomic approaches would allow; (1 the identification of the specific PTM, (2 identification of the amino acid residue that is modified and (3 the percentage of the protein containing the PTM. New developments in MS offer the opportunity of a more sensitive targeted proteomic approach and retrospective data analysis. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis can provide an insight into the biochemical and physiological pathways or cell signaling cascades that are affected by ROS generation. This mini-review will detail current redox proteomic approaches to identify and quantify ROS induced PTMs and the subsequent effects on cellular signaling.

  17. Supernova signatures of neutrino mass ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2018-01-01

    A suite of detectors around the world is poised to measure the flavor-energy-time evolution of the ten-second burst of neutrinos from a core-collapse supernova occurring in the Milky Way or nearby. Next-generation detectors to be built in the next decade will have enhanced flavor sensitivity and statistics. Not only will the observation of this burst allow us to peer inside the dense matter of the extreme event and learn about the collapse processes and the birth of the remnant, but the neutrinos will bring information about neutrino properties themselves. This review surveys some of the physical signatures that the currently-unknown neutrino mass pattern will imprint on the observed neutrino events at Earth, emphasizing the most robust and least model-dependent signatures of mass ordering.

  18. Phenotypic signatures arising from unbalanced bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

    2014-08-01

    Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify "phenotypic signatures" by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains.

  19. Stochastic monotony signature and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Galli Carminati, Giuliana; Carminati, Federico; Rachdi, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a new concept, the stochastic monotony signature of a function, made of the sequence of the signs that indicate if the function is increasing or constant (sign +), or decreasing (sign -). If the function results from the averaging of successive observations with errors, the monotony sign is a random binary variable, whose density is studied under two hypotheses for the distribution of errors: uniform and Gaussian. Then, we describe a simple statistical test allowing the comparison between the monotony signatures of two functions (e.g., one observed and the other as reference) and we apply the test to four biomedical examples, coming from genetics, psychology, gerontology, and morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Chameleon dark energy models with characteristic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannouji, Radouane; Moraes, Bruno; Polarski, David; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    In chameleon dark energy models, local gravity constraints tend to rule out parameters in which observable cosmological signatures can be found. We study viable chameleon potentials consistent with a number of recent observational and experimental bounds. A novel chameleon field potential, motivated by f(R) gravity, is constructed where observable cosmological signatures are present both at the background evolution and in the growth rate of the perturbations. We study the evolution of matter density perturbations on low redshifts for this potential and show that the growth index today γ 0 can have significant dispersion on scales relevant for large scale structures. The values of γ 0 can be even smaller than 0.2 with large variations of γ on very low redshifts for the model parameters constrained by local gravity tests. This gives a possibility to clearly distinguish these chameleon models from the Λ-cold-dark-matter (ΛCDM) model in future high-precision observations.

  1. Animal behavior. Dolphins whistle a signature tune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyack, P L

    2000-08-25

    Dolphins are remarkably intelligent creatures renowned for their ability to imitate manmade sounds and for producing individual signature whistles that enable them to recognize each other. Now, in his Perspective, Tyack discusses new findings showing that vocal imitation is important for communication among bottlenose dolphins in the wild (Janik). Apparently, bottlenose dolphins, when they are separated in the wild, address each other by matching each other's whistles.

  2. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  3. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  4. Topic Signatures in Political Campaign Speeches

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrais , Clément; Cellier , Peggy; Quiniou , René; Termier , Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Highlighting the recurrence of topics usage in candidates speeches is a key feature to identify the main ideas of each candidate during a political campaign. In this paper, we present a method combining standard topic modeling with signature mining for analyzing topic recurrence in speeches of Clinton and Trump during the 2016 American presidential campaign. The results show that the method extracts automatically the main ideas of each candidate and, in addition, provi...

  5. Limits and signatures of relativistic spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever, Ulvi; Wilkinson, Steven

    2018-01-01

    While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave photons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.

  6. Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    by Under authority of R. SMILEY , Head P. A. SOHL Avionics Department RDML, U.S. Navy 26 September 2012 Commander Released for publication by S...Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures (U) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Engine “hot parts,” which usually consist of the aft turbine face , engine center body, and interior nozzle sidewalls. 2. Engine exhaust plumes

  7. Infra-sound Signature of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Badillo, E.; Johnson, J.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed thunder from over 200 lightning flashes to determine which part of thunder comes from the gas dynamic expansion of portions of the rapidly heated lightning channel and which from electrostatic field changes. Thunder signals were recorded by a ~1500 m network of 3 to 4 4-element microphone deployed in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico in the summers of 2011 and 2012. The higher frequency infra-sound and audio-range portion of thunder is thought to come from the gas dynamic expansion, and the electrostatic mechanism gives rise to a signature infra-sound pulse peaked at a few Hz. More than 50 signature infra-sound pulses were observed in different portions of the thunder signal, with no preference towards the beginning or the end of the signal. Detection of the signature pulse occurs sometimes only for one array and sometimes for several arrays, which agrees with the theory that the pulse is highly directional (i.e., the recordings have to be in a specific position with respect to the cloud generating the pulse to be able to detect it). The detection of these pulses under quiet wind conditions by different acoustic arrays corroborates the electrostatic mechanism originally proposed by Wilson [1920], further studied by Dessler [1973] and Few [1985], observed by Bohannon [1983] and Balachandran [1979, 1983], and recently analyzed by Pasko [2009]. Pasko employed a model to explain the electrostatic-to-acoustic energy conversion and the initial compression waves in observed infrasonic pulses, which agrees with the observations we have made. We present thunder samples that exhibit signature infra-sound pulses at different times and acoustic source reconstruction to demonstrate the beaming effect.

  8. Aluminum and gallium nuclei as microscopic probes for pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance diagnostics of electric-field gradient and spin density in garnet ceramics doped with paramagnetic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Yu. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Edinach, E. V.; Asatryan, H. R.; Romanov, N. G.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Khanin, V. M.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C.; Baranov, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    The presence of aluminum and gallium isotopes with large nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments in the nearest environment of impurity ions Mn2+ and Ce3+ in garnets made it possible to use hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with these ions to determine the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron and the gradient of the electric field at the sites of aluminum and gallium in the garnet lattice. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron spin echo detected electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance measurements have been performed. Large difference in the electric field gradient and quadrupole splitting at octahedral and tetrahedral sites allowed identifying the positions of aluminum and gallium ions in the garnet lattice and proving that gallium first fills tetrahedral positions in mixed aluminum-gallium garnets. This should be taken into account in the development of garnet-based scintillators and lasers. It is shown that the electric field gradient at aluminum nuclei near Mn2+ possessing an excess negative charge in the garnet lattice is ca. 2.5 times larger than on aluminum nuclei near Ce3+.

  9. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  10. Signature protein of the PVC superphylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Jehl, Marc-André; Rattei, Thomas; Horn, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The phyla Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae, Lentisphaerae, and "Candidatus Omnitrophica (OP3)" comprise bacteria that share an ancestor but show highly diverse biological and ecological features. Together, they constitute the PVC superphylum. Using large-scale comparative genome sequence analysis, we identified a protein uniquely shared among all of the known members of the PVC superphylum. We provide evidence that this signature protein is expressed by representative members of the PVC superphylum. Its predicted structure, physicochemical characteristics, and overexpression in Escherichia coli and gel retardation assays with purified signature protein suggest a housekeeping function with unspecific DNA/RNA binding activity. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the signature protein is a suitable phylogenetic marker for members of the PVC superphylum, and the screening of published metagenome data indicated the existence of additional PVC members. This study provides further evidence of a common evolutionary history of the PVC superphylum and presents a unique case in which a single protein serves as an evolutionary link among otherwise highly diverse members of major bacterial groups.

  11. Mirage: a visible signature evaluation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.; Meehan, Alaster J.; Shao, Q. T.; Richards, Noel

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the Mirage visible signature evaluation tool, designed to provide a visible signature evaluation capability that will appropriately reflect the effect of scene content on the detectability of targets, providing a capability to assess visible signatures in the context of the environment. Mirage is based on a parametric evaluation of input images, assessing the value of a range of image metrics and combining them using the boosted decision tree machine learning method to produce target detectability estimates. It has been developed using experimental data from photosimulation experiments, where human observers search for vehicle targets in a variety of digital images. The images used for tool development are synthetic (computer generated) images, showing vehicles in many different scenes and exhibiting a wide variation in scene content. A preliminary validation has been performed using k-fold cross validation, where 90% of the image data set was used for training and 10% of the image data set was used for testing. The results of the k-fold validation from 200 independent tests show a prediction accuracy between Mirage predictions of detection probability and observed probability of detection of r(262) = 0:63, p < 0:0001 (Pearson correlation) and a MAE = 0:21 (mean absolute error).

  12. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L) J , as a function of (g – i) versus (i – J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  13. SIGNATURES OF LONG-LIVED SPIRAL PATTERNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A., E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx, E-mail: martinez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacan, C.P. 58089 (Mexico)

    2013-03-10

    Azimuthal age/color gradients across spiral arms are a signature of long-lived spirals. From a sample of 19 normal (or weakly barred) spirals where we have previously found azimuthal age/color gradient candidates, 13 objects were further selected if a two-armed grand-design pattern survived in a surface density stellar mass map. Mass maps were obtained from optical and near-infrared imaging, by comparison with a Monte Carlo library of stellar population synthesis models that allowed us to obtain the mass-to-light ratio in the J band, (M/L){sub J}, as a function of (g - i) versus (i - J) color. The selected spirals were analyzed with Fourier methods in search of other signatures of long-lived modes related to the gradients, such as the gradient divergence toward corotation, and the behavior of the phase angle of the two-armed spiral in different wavebands, as expected from theory. The results show additional signatures of long-lived spirals in at least 50% of the objects.

  14. On psychoanalytic supervision as signature pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C Edward

    2014-04-01

    What is signature pedagogy in psychoanalytic education? This paper examines that question, considering why psychoanalytic supervision best deserves that designation. In focusing on supervision as signature pedagogy, I accentuate its role in building psychoanalytic habits of mind, habits of hand, and habits of heart, and transforming theory and self-knowledge into practical product. Other facets of supervision as signature pedagogy addressed in this paper include its features of engagement, uncertainty, formation, and pervasiveness, as well as levels of surface, deep, and implicit structure. Epistemological, ontological, and axiological in nature, psychoanalytic supervision engages trainees in learning to do, think, and value what psychoanalytic practitioners in the field do, think, and value: It is, most fundamentally, professional preparation for competent, "good work." In this paper, effort is made to shine a light on and celebrate the pivotal role of supervision in "making" or developing budding psychoanalysts and psychoanalytic psychotherapists. Now over a century old, psychoanalytic supervision remains unparalleled in (1) connecting and integrating conceptualization and practice, (2) transforming psychoanalytic theory and self-knowledge into an informed analyzing instrument, and (3) teaching, transmitting, and perpetuating the traditions, practice, and culture of psychoanalytic treatment.

  15. New particles and their experimental signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Gelmini, G.; Kowalski, H.

    1984-08-01

    This report summarizes work done by our theoretical working group on exotic particles before, during and since the Lausanne meeting. We discuss the motivations, rates and experimental signatures for new physics and new particles in the 1 TeV mass range. Section 2 reviews some of the motivations for expecting new physics in this range. Of particular interest is the physics of gauge symmetry breaking. In section 3 we discuss the rates and experimental signatures of new particles predicted by theoretical models of gauge symmetry breaking, notably the Higgs boson supersymmetry and technicolour. Among the signatures we discuss are multiple Wsup(+-) and/or Z 0 events (for the Higgs), missing transverse energy (for supersymmetry) and multiple anti tt events (for the Higgs and technicolour). We provide many examples of final state differential distributions in rapidity and Psub(T), particularly for Higgses and for supersymmetry. We also analyse some physics backgrounds to the new particle production processes which interest us. Examples include W + W - , Z 0 Z 0 , W(anti tt) and (anti tt) production as backgrounds to Higgs production. However, we do not consider in detail non-physics backgrounds such as the jet fluctuation background to missing energy signals for supersymmetry production. Section 4 summarizes our preliminary conclusions on the observability at a high energy hadron collider of the new particles studied in this report. (orig./HSI)

  16. New Ce{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 2}YMgScSi{sub 3}O{sub 12} garnet ceramic phosphor for white LED converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaidukov, N. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Iskaliyeva, A.; Paprocki, K. [Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University Bydgoszcz (Poland); Zhydachevskii, Y.; Suchocki, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Deun, R. van [L3 - Luminescent Lanthanide Lab, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University (Belgium); Batentschuk, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering VI, Institute of Materials for Energy and Electronic Technology (i-IMEET), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The results on crystallization and investigation of the luminescent properties of a new prospective ceramic phosphor based on the Ce{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 2}YMgScSi{sub 3}O{sub 12} silicate garnet are presented for the first time in this work. The luminescent properties of Ca{sub 2}YMgScSi{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Ce were compared with the properties of the reference Ca{sub 3}Sc{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 12}:Ce ceramic sample. Without any doubt, the results of this research can be suitable for the development of a new generation of white converters based on the Ca{sup 2+}-Si{sup 4+} garnet compounds. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. A Digital Signature Scheme Based on MST3 Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As special types of factorization of finite groups, logarithmic signature and cover have been used as the main components of cryptographic keys for secret key cryptosystems such as PGM and public key cryptosystems like MST1, MST2, and MST3. Recently, Svaba et. al proposed a revised MST3 encryption scheme with greater security. Meanwhile, they put forward an idea of constructing signature schemes on the basis of logarithmic signatures and random covers. In this paper, we firstly design a secure digital signature scheme based on logarithmic signatures and random covers. In order to complete the task, we devise a new encryption scheme based on MST3 cryptosystems.

  18. Identity-Based Verifiably Encrypted Signatures without Random Oracles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Qianhong; Qin, Bo

    Fair exchange protocol plays an important role in electronic commerce in the case of exchanging digital contracts. Verifiably encrypted signatures provide an optimistic solution to these scenarios with an off-line trusted third party. In this paper, we propose an identity-based verifiably encrypted signature scheme. The scheme is non-interactive to generate verifiably encrypted signatures and the resulting encrypted signature consists of only four group elements. Based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, our scheme is proven secure without using random oracles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first identity-based verifiably encrypted signature scheme provably secure in the standard model.

  19. A randomized controlled trial of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls and neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bhargava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare surgical peeling and aspiration and neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy for pearl form of posterior capsule opacification (PCO.METHODS:A prospective, randomized, double blind, study was done at Rotary Eye Hospital, Maranda, Palampur, India, Santosh Medical College Hospital, Ghaziabad, India and Laser Eye Clinic, Noida India. Consecutive patients with pearl form of PCO following surgery, phacoemulsification, manual small incision cataract surgery and conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE for age related cataract, were randomized to have peeling and aspiration or neodymium yttrium garnet laser capsulotomy. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, intra-operative and post-operative complications were compared.RESULTS:A total of 634 patients participated in the study, and 314 (49.5% patients were randomized to surgical peeling and aspiration group and 320 (50.5% to the Nd:YAG laser group. The mean pre-procedural logMAR CDVA in peeling and neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG laser group was 0.80±0.25 and 0.86±0.22, respectively. The mean final CDVA in peeling group (0.22±0.23 was comparable to Nd:YAG group (0.24±0.28; t test, P=0.240. There was a significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (P<0.001. A slightly higher percentage of patients in Nd:YAG laser group (283/88.3% than in peeling group (262/83.4% had a CDVA of 0.5 (20/63 or better at 9mo (P<0.001. On the contrary, patients having CDVA worse than 1.00 (20/200 was also significantly higher in Nd:YAG laser group as compared to peeling group (25/7.7% vs 15/4.7%, respectively. On application of ANCOVA, there was less than 0.001% risk that PCO thickness and total laser energy had no effect on rate of complications in Nd:YAG laser group and less than 0.001 % risk that PCO thickness had no effect on complications in peeling group respectively. Sum of square analysis suggests that in the Nd:YAG laser group, thick PCO had a stronger impact

  20. Light yield of (Lu,Y,Gd).sub.3./sub.Al.sub.2./sub.Ga.sub.3./sub.O.sub.12./sub.:Ce garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průša, Petr; Kamada, K.; Nikl, Martin; Yoshikawa, A.; Mareš, Jiří A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, SEP (2013), s. 62-65 ISSN 1350-4487. [International Conference on Luminescent Detectors and Transformers of Ionizing Radiation 2012 /8./, LUMDETR 2012. Halle (Saale), 10.09.2012-14.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0805; GA MŠk LH12150 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * garnet * light yield * hybrid photomultiplier Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2013

  1. U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of zircon in garnet peridotite from the Sulu UHP terrane, China: Implications for mantle metasomatism and subduction-zone UHP metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.Y.; Yang, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Li, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the Zhimafang ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) peridotite from pre-pilot drill hole PP-1 of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China. The peridotite occurs as lens within quartofeldspathic gneiss, and has an assemblage of Ol + Opx + Cpx + Phl + Ti-clinohumite (Ti-Chu) + Grt (or chromite) ?? magnesite (Mgs). Zircons were separated from cores at depths of 152 m (C24, garnet lhezolite), 160 m (C27, strongly retrograded phlogopite-rich peridotite) and 225 m (C50, banded peridotite), and were dated by SHRIMP mass spectrometer. Isometric zircons without inherited cores contain inclusions of olivine (Fo91-92), enstatite (En91-92), Ti-clinohumite, diopside, phlogopite and apatite. The enstatite inclusions have low Al2O3 contents of only 0.04-0.13 wt.%, indicating a UHP metamorphic origin. The weighted mean 206Pb/238U zircon age for garnet lherzolite (C24) is 221 ?? 3 Ma, and a discordia lower intercept age for peridotite (C50) is 220 ?? 2 Ma. These ages are within error and represent the time of subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. A younger lower intercept age of 212 ?? 3 Ma for a foliated wehrlite (C27) was probably caused by Pb loss during retrograde metamorphism. The source of zirconium may be partially attributed to melt/fluid metasomatism within the mantle wedge. Geochronological and geochemical data confirm that the mantle-derived Zhimafang garnet peridotites (probably the most representative type of Sulu garnet peridotites) were tectonically inserted into a subducting crustal slab and subjected to in situ Triassic subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Garnet exsolution in pyroxene from clinopyroxenites in the Moldanubian zone: constraining the early pre-convergence history of ultramafic rocks in the Variscan orogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faryad, S. W.; Dolejš, D.; Machek, Matěj

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 9 (2009), s. 655-671 ISSN 0263-4929 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0688; GA ČR(CZ) GP205/09/P135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * clinopyroxenite * decompression * garnet lamellae Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.157, year: 2009

  3. The compressibility mechanism of Li3Na3In2F12 garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzechnik, Andrzej; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Makovicky, Emil

    2006-01-01

    The high pressure behaviour of Li3Na3In2F12 garnet (Ia¯3d, Z = 8) is studied up to 9.2 GPa at room temperature in diamond anvil cells using xray diffraction. Its equation of state to 9.2 GPa and the pressure dependences of the structural parameters to 4.07 GPa are determined from synchrotron angl...

  4. Magnetic field effect on sublattice contributions into the Faraday effect in Y3Fe5o12 yttrium ferrite-garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashintsova, V.L.; Pisarev, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Field dependencies of the Faraday effect in yttrium ferrite-garnet in the 80-600 K temperature range on the 1.15 μm wavelength are studied. It is shown that the changes observed in the Faraday effect under the influence of the external field can be explained by magnetic susceptibility of the tetrahedric and octahedric sublattices, and also by the field effect on the specific sublattice contributions into the Faraday effect

  5. The electronic identification, signature and security of information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horovèák Pavel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the actual methods and technologies of information and communication systems security. It introduces the overview of electronic identification elements such as static password, dynamic password and single sign-on. Into this category belong also biometric and dynamic characteristics of verified person. Widespread is authentication based on identification elements ownership, such as various cards and authentication calculators. In the next part is specified a definition and characterization of electronic signature, its basic functions and certificate categories. Practical utilization of electronic signature consists of electronic signature acquirement, signature of outgoing email message, receiving of electronic signature and verification of electronic signature. The use of electronic signature is continuously growing and in connection with legislation development it exercises in all resorts.

  6. Basanite-nephelinite suite from early Kilauea: Carbonated melts of phlogopite-garnet peridotite at Hawaii's leading magmatic edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, T.W.; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Coombs, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    A basanite-nephelinite glass suite from early submarine Kilauea defines a continuous compositional array marked by increasing concentrations of incompatible components with decreasing SiO2, MgO, and Al2O3. Like peripheral and post-shield strongly alkalic Hawaiian localities (Clague et al. in J Volcanol Geotherm Res 151:279-307, 2006; Dixon et al. in J Pet 38:911-939, 1997), the early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite glasses are interpreted as olivine fractionation products from primary magnesian alkalic liquids. For early Kilauea, these were saturated with a garnet-phlogopite-sulfide peridotite assemblage, with elevated dissolved CO2 contents responsible for the liquids' distinctly low-SiO2 concentrations. Reconstructed primitive liquids for early Kilauea and other Hawaiian strongly alkalic localities are similar to experimental 3 GPa low-degree melts of moderately carbonated garnet lherzolite, and estimated parent magma temperatures of 1,350-1,400??C (olivine-liquid geothermometry) match the ambient upper mantle geotherm shortly beneath the base of the lithosphere. The ???3 GPa source regions were too hot for stable crystalline carbonate and may have consisted of ambient upper mantle peridotite containing interstitial carbonate-silicate or carbonatitic liquid, possibly (Dixon et al. in Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9(9):Q09005, 2008), although not necessarily, from the Hawaiian mantle plume. Carbonate-enriched domains were particularly susceptible to further melting upon modest decompression during upward lithospheric flexure beneath the advancing Hawaiian Arch, or by conductive heating or upward drag by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The early Kilauea basanite-nephelinite suite has a HIMU-influenced isotopic character unlike other Hawaiian magmas (Shimizu et al. in EOS Tran Amer Geophys Union 82(47): abstr V12B-0962, 2001; Shimizu et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(15A):710, 2002) but consistent with oceanic carbonatite involvement (Hoernle et al. in Contrib Mineral Petrol

  7. Thermobarometry and electron-microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating in garnet metapelites from the Capelinha Formation, Aracuai Orogen, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroga, Glaucia Nascimento; Martins, Maximiliano de Souza; Castro, Marco Paulo de; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Silva, Ana Lucia da, E-mail: glauciaqueiroga@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: maximilianomartins@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marco_pcastro@yahoo.com, E-mail: hanna@degeo.ufop.br, E-mail: alucia.silva@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Departamento de Geologia; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: pedrosa@igc.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Departamento de Geologia; Schulz, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schulz@mineral.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie - Institute of Mineralogy, Freiberg - Saxony (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The Capelinha Formation (Macaubas Group) consists of a lower quartzitic unit with metamafic intercalations and an upper metapelitic sequence. It occurs in a complex tectono-metamorphic sector of the Aracuai orogen, where post-collisional collapse-related structures superimposed collisional structures. The garnet-bearing assemblages started crystallization in the collisional deformation stage that formed the main regional foliation around 570 Ma. Garnet porphyroblasts display a well developed growth zonation of Fe-Mg-Ca-Mn and show, from core to rim, increasing almandine and pyrope contents in contrast with decreasing grossular and spessartine contents. Mineral relations and microstructures provide criteria for local equilibria and a structurally controlled application of geothermobarometry based on cation exchange and net transfer reactions. The P-T values calculated from cores to rims of garnets, aligned along clockwise trends, resulted in increasing temperatures (from 500 deg C up to 620 deg C) under decompression conditions (from 8.0 kbar to 4.5 kbar). The Th-UPb dating of homogeneous monazites by electron microprobe revealed a recrystallization period at around 490 - 480 Ma. These ages can be related to the tectono-thermal event associated with the gravitational collapse, constraining the youngest time limit for metamorphic processes in the Aracuai orogen. (author)

  8. An Early Cretaceous garnet-bearing metaluminous A-type granite intrusion in the East Qinling Orogen, central China: Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyang Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Erlangmiao granite intrusion is located in the eastern part of the East Qinling Orogen. The granite contains almost 99 vol.% felsic minerals with accessory garnet, muscovite, biotite, zircon, and Fe-Ti oxide. Garnet is the dominant accessory mineral, shows zoned texture, and is rich in w(FeO (14.13%–16.09% and w(MnO (24.21%–27.44%. The rocks have high SiO2, alkalis, FeOt/MgO, TiO2/MgO and low Al2O3, CaO with w(Na2O/w(K2O> 1. Their Rb, Ga, Ta, Nb, Y, and Yb contents are high and Sr, Ba, Eu, Zr, P, and Ti contents are low. These features indicate that the Erlangmiao granite is a highly evolved metaluminous A-type. Garnet crystallized at the expense of biotite from the MnO-rich evolved melt after fractionation of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, zircon, apatite, and ilmenite. The relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.706–0.708, low and negative εNd (120 Ma values (−6.6 to −9.0, and old Nd model ages (1.5–1.7 Ga suggest that the rocks were probably formed by partial melting of the Paleoproterozoic granitic gneisses from the basement, with participation of depleted mantle in an extensional setting.

  9. Eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites in the Anrakhai complex, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Southern Kazakhstan: P-T evolution, protoliths and some geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilitsyna, Anfisa V.; Tretyakov, Andrey A.; Degtyarev, Kirill E.; Cuthbert, Simon J.; Batanova, Valentina G.; Kovalchuk, Elena V.

    2018-03-01

    The Anrakhai Metamorphic Complex (AMC), located in the SE part of the Chu-Ili Mountains of Southern Kazakhstan in the western part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt, exhibits occurrences of HP metamorphic rocks in the form of eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites with peak metamorphic conditions of 750-850° and 15-19 kbar estimated with both conventional geothermobarometric methods and phase diagram modeling. P-T estimates as well as intimate field relations evidently imply a common metamorphic history for eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites of the AMC. These high-pressure, medium temperature eclogite facies P-T conditions are indicative of a collision or subduction tectonic setting. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that they probably had a common magmatic origin as part of a suite of differentiated tholeiitic intrusions. Furthermore, distinctive mineral and chemical compositions of these eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites correspond to the Fe-Ti type of ultramafic rocks suggesting that they may have been derivatives of intraplate tholeiitic melts, introduced into continental crust before HP metamorphism.

  10. Long-term result of out-patient neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser photocoagulation surgery for patients with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Qiu, R; Wei, C

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of out-patient neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser photocoagulation surgery for patients with epistaxis. A retrospective clinical study was conducted. A total of 217 consecutive patients who presented with acute or recurrent epistaxis received neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser photocoagulation treatment in an out-patient setting. At three years, 94 per cent of acute epistaxis patients versus 88 per cent of recurrent epistaxis patients reported no bleeding. The outcome scores at 12 weeks and 3 years after treatment showed no significant differences between the 2 groups (p = 0.207 and p = 0.186). However, there was a significant difference in outcome scores at four weeks after treatment (p = 0.034). The median (and mean ± standard deviation) pain levels experienced during the laser operation (performed in an office setting) were 4.0 (3.75 ± 2.09) in the acute epistaxis group and 4.0 (3.83 ± 2.01) in the recurrent epistaxis group. Neither group had any complications. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser photocoagulation is desirable in the treatment of both acute and recurrent epistaxis, and has long-lasting efficacy.

  11. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  12. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  13. Implications for health and disease in the genetic signature of the Ashkenazi Jewish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Saurav; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Malhotra, Anil K; Lee, Annette T; Gregersen, Peter K; Kane, John M; Pe'er, Itsik; Darvasi, Ariel; Lencz, Todd

    2012-01-25

    Relatively small, reproductively isolated populations with reduced genetic diversity may have advantages for genomewide association mapping in disease genetics. The Ashkenazi Jewish population represents a unique population for study based on its recent (marriage within the community. We genotyped more than 1,300 Ashkenazi Jewish healthy volunteers from the Hebrew University Genetic Resource with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad platform. Comparison of the genotyping data with that of neighboring European and Asian populations enabled the Ashkenazi Jewish-specific component of the variance to be characterized with respect to disease-relevant alleles and pathways. Using clustering, principal components, and pairwise genetic distance as converging approaches, we identified an Ashkenazi Jewish-specific genetic signature that differentiated these subjects from both European and Middle Eastern samples. Most notably, gene ontology analysis of the Ashkenazi Jewish genetic signature revealed an enrichment of genes functioning in transepithelial chloride transport, such as CFTR, and in equilibrioception, potentially shedding light on cystic fibrosis, Usher syndrome and other diseases over-represented in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Results also impact risk profiles for autoimmune and metabolic disorders in this population. Finally, residual intra-Ashkenazi population structure was minimal, primarily determined by class 1 MHC alleles, and not related to host country of origin. The Ashkenazi Jewish population is of potential utility in disease-mapping studies due to its relative homogeneity and distinct genomic signature. Results suggest that Ashkenazi-associated disease genes may be components of population-specific genomic differences in key functional pathways.

  14. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  15. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  16. Higher Temperature Thermal Barrier Coatings with the Combined Use of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet and the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Maurice; Wang, Jiwen; Kumar, Rishi; Roth, Jeffery; Jiang, Chen; Jordan, Eric H.

    2018-02-01

    Gas-turbine engines are widely used in transportation, energy and defense industries. The increasing demand for more efficient gas turbines requires higher turbine operating temperatures. For more than 40 years, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been the dominant thermal barrier coating (TBC) due to its outstanding material properties. However, the practical use of YSZ-based TBCs is limited to approximately 1200 °C. Developing new, higher temperature TBCs has proven challenging to satisfy the multiple property requirements of a durable TBC. In this study, an advanced TBC has been developed by using the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process that generates unique engineered microstructures with the higher temperature yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) to produce a TBC that can meet and exceed the major performance standards of state-of-the-art air plasma sprayed YSZ, including: phase stability, sintering resistance, CMAS resistance, thermal cycle durability, thermal conductivity and erosion resistance. The temperature improvement for hot section gas turbine materials (superalloys & TBCs) has been at the rate of about 50 °C per decade over the last 50 years. In contrast, SPPS YAG TBCs offer the near-term potential of a > 200 °C improvement in temperature capability.

  17. Strong excitation of surface and bulk spin waves in yttrium iron garnet placed in a split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in a bilayer consisting of a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum (Pt) loaded on a metamaterial split ring resonator (SRR). The system is excited by a microstrip feed line which generates both surface and bulk spin waves in the YIG. The spin waves subsequently undergo spin pumping from the YIG film to an adjacent Pt layer, and is converted into a charge current via the ISHE. It is found that the presence of the SRR causes a significant enhancement of the mangetic field near the resonance frequency of the SRR, resulting in a significant increase in the ISHE signal. Furthermore, the type of spin wave generated in the system can be controlled by changing the external applied magnetic field angle (θH ). When the external applied magnetic field is near parallel to the microstrip line (θH = 0 ), magnetostatic surface spin waves are predominantly excited. On the other hand, when the external applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the microstrip line (θH = π/2 ), backward volume magnetostatic spin waves are predominantly excited. Hence, it can be seen that the SRR structure is a promising method of achieving spin-charge conversion, which has many advantages over a coaxial probe.

  18. The impact of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial-firing tips on endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, U; Barylyak, A; Goharkhay, K; Beer, F; Wernisch, J; Georgopoulos, A; Sperr, W; Moritz, A

    2009-01-01

    Radial-firing tips should allow a more homogeneous laser irradiation of root canal walls. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in conjunction with those newly designed tips. The investigation comprised bacteriology, morphological evaluations and temperature measurements. Root canals were inoculated with two test strains and laser irradiated with power settings of 0.6 W and 0.9 W and a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation. The morphological changes of the canal walls were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To reveal possible thermal side effects, we carried out temperature measurements. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a decisive disinfectant effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed the homogeneous removal of smear layer from the root canal walls. The temperature rise at the root surface during the irradiation was moderate, yielding 1.3 degrees C for the 0.6 W setting and 1.6 degrees C for the 0.9 W setting. The investigations indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, in conjunction with radial-firing tips, is a suitable tool for the elimination of bacteria in root canals and for the removal of smear layer.

  19. Ultrafast laser-induced changes of the magnetic anisotropy in a low-symmetry iron garnet film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelukhin, L. A.; Pavlov, V. V.; Usachev, P. A.; Shamray, P. Yu.; Pisarev, R. V.; Kalashnikova, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    We explore a thermal mechanism of changing the magnetic anisotropy by using femtosecond laser pulses in a low-symmetry dielectric ferrimagnetic garnet (YBiPrLu) 3(FeGa) 5O12 film grown on the (210)-type Gd3Ga5O12 substrate as a model media. Employing spectral magneto-optical pump-probe technique and phenomenological analysis, we demonstrate that the magnetization precession in this film is a result of laser-induced changes of the growth-induced magnetic anisotropy along with the ultrafast inverse Faraday effect. The change of magnetic anisotropy relies on the lattice heating induced by laser pulses of any polarization on a picosecond time scale. We show that the orientation of the external magnetic field with respect to the magnetization easy plane affects the precession noticeably. Importantly, the relative contributions from the ultrafast inverse Faraday effect and the change of different growth-induced anisotropy parameters can be controlled varying the applied magnetic field strength and direction. As a result, the amplitude and the initial phase of the excited magnetization precession can be gradually tuned.

  20. Effects of Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) Laser Irradiation on Bone Metabolism During Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuka, Yuji; Fujita, Tadashi; Shirakura, Maya; Kunimatsu, Ryo; Su, Shao-Ching; Fujii, Eri; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of low-level neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on orthodontic tooth movement and histological examination. Eleven male Wistar rats (aged 10 weeks) were included. To produce experimental tooth movement in rats, 10 g force was applied to maxillary first molars with nickel titanium closed coil springs. Right molars were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21 and 24, while un-irradiated left molars were used as control. Distance between mesial side of second molar and distal side of first molar was measured on μCT image during tooth movement and the rats were sacrificed 4 weeks after the initiation of tooth movement. The amount of tooth movement was significantly greater in the irradiation group (0.20 ± 0.06) than in the control group (0.14 ± 0.03) during the first week (P laser irradiation group, but it was not statistically significant. In immuno-histological examination, expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were higher at the pressure site of the laser irradiation group than the control group, whereas there was no difference in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. The results suggest that low-level Nd:YAG laser may stimulate osteoclast and osteoblast activation and accelerate bone metabolism during tooth movement.