WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual effect due

  1. Residual stress distribution of wheel tread for freight car due to aging effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Seo, Jung-Won; Kwon, Sung-Tae

    2010-03-01

    Recently, several wheels for freight car in running had experienced the wheel failure due to fatigue crack, overheat braking and other factors. Severe heating of the wheel during tread braking was believed to be a contributing factor of derailment. It is necessary to evaluate the residual stress in wheel tread in order to manage the safety of wheel. In the present paper, the residual stress of wheel regarding to running distance using x-ray diffraction system is investigated. The result shows that the residual stress of wheel is depend on the running distance, wear rate of wheel and thermal gradient during brake application.

  2. Macro-residual strains due to cyclic loading of composites

    CERN Document Server

    Hashin, Z

    1999-01-01

    Macro-residual strains produced by load cycles on elastic-brittle composites are analytically expressed in terms of the effective thermal expansion coefficients of the composite as affected by the damage states developing during the $9 cycling. Limiting values of residual strain are evaluated for unidirectional fiber composites and cross-ply laminates. Frictional losses due to internal sliding are not considered. (17 refs).

  3. Seebeck Changes Due to Residual Cold-Work and Reversible Effects in Type K Bare-Wire Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Type K thermocouples are the most commonly used thermocouple for industrial measurements because of their low cost, wide temperature range, and durability. As with all base-metal thermocouples, Type K is made to match a mathematical temperature-to-emf relationship and not a prescribed alloy formulation. Because different manufacturers use varying alloy formulations and manufacturing techniques, different Type K thermocouples exhibit a range of drift and hysteresis characteristics, largely due to ordering effects in the positive (K+) thermoelement. In this study, these effects are assessed in detail for temperatures below 700°C in the Type K wires from nine manufacturers. A linear gradient furnace and a high-resolution homogeneity scanner combined with the judicious use of annealing processes allow measurements that separately identify the effects of cold-work, ordering, and oxidation to be made. The results show most K+ alloys develop significant errors, but the magnitudes of the contributions of each process vary substantially between the different K+ wires. In practical applications, the measurement uncertainties achievable with Type K therefore depend not only on the wire formulation but also on the temperature, period of exposure, and, most importantly, the thermal treatments prior to use.

  4. Residual Stresses Due to Circumferential Girth Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarak, Farzan

    Welding, as a joining method in fabrication of engineering products and structural elements, has a direct influence on thermo-mechanical behavior of components in numerous structural applications. Since these thermo-mechanical behaviors have a major role in the life of welding components, predicting thermo-mechanical effects of welding is a major factor in designing of welding components. One of the major of these effects is generation of residual stresses due to welding. These residual stresses are not the causes of failure in the components solely, but they will add to external loads and stresses in operating time. Since, experimental methods are time consuming and expensive, computational simulation of welding process is an effective method to calculate these residual stresses. This investigation focuses on the evaluation of residual stresses and distortions due to circumferential girth welding of austenitic stainless steel pipes using the commercial finite element software ESI Visual-Environment and SYSWELDRTM to simulate welding process. Of particular importance is the comparison of results from three different types of mechanics models: 1) Axisymmetric, 2) Shell, and 3) Full 3-D.

  5. Prediction of residual stress distributions due to surface machining and welding and crack growth simulation under residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Katsuyama, JInya; Onizawa, Kunio; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual stress distributions due to welding and machining are evaluated by XRD and FEM. → Residual stress due to machining shows higher tensile stress than welding near the surface. → Crack growth analysis is performed using calculated residual stress. → Crack growth result is affected machining rather than welding. → Machining is an important factor for crack growth. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the weld zone of the core shroud and primary loop recirculation (PLR) pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel Type 316L. The joining process of pipes usually includes surface machining and welding. Both processes induce residual stresses, and residual stresses are thus important factors in the occurrence and propagation of SCC. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) was used to estimate residual stress distributions generated by butt welding and surface machining. The thermoelastic-plastic analysis was performed for the welding simulation, and the thermo-mechanical coupled analysis based on the Johnson-Cook material model was performed for the surface machining simulation. In addition, a crack growth analysis based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) calculation was performed using the calculated residual stress distributions that are generated by welding and surface machining. The surface machining analysis showed that tensile residual stress due to surface machining only exists approximately 0.2 mm from the machined surface, and the surface residual stress increases with cutting speed. The crack growth analysis showed that the crack depth is affected by both surface machining and welding, and the crack length is more affected by surface machining than by welding.

  6. Crop Residue Biomass Effects on Agricultural Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High residue loads associated with conservation tillage and cover cropping may impede water flow in furrow irrigation and thus decrease the efficiency of water delivery and runoff water quality. In this study, the biomass residue effects on infiltration, runoff, and export of total suspended solids (TSS, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, sediment-associated carbon (TSS-C, and other undesirable constituents such as phosphate (soluble P, nitrate (, and ammonium ( in runoff water from a furrow-irrigated field were studied. Furrow irrigation experiments were conducted in 91 and 274 m long fields, in which the amount of residue in the furrows varied among four treatments. The biomass residue in the furrows increased infiltration, and this affected total load of DOC, TSS, and TSS-C. Net storage of DOC took place in the long but not in the short field because most of the applied water ran off in the short field. Increasing field length decreased TSS and TSS-C losses. Total load of , , and soluble P decreased with increasing distance from the inflow due to infiltration. The concentration and load of P increased with increasing residue biomass in furrows, but no particular trend was observed for and . Overall, the constituents in the runoff decreased with increasing surface cover and field length.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  8. Evaluation of stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses for circumferential cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Young-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yong-Beum

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the applicability of existing methods to estimate stress intensity factors due to welding residual stresses, comparisons with finite element (FE) solutions are made for two types of generic welding residual stress profiles, generated by simulating repair welds. It is found that fitting residual stresses over the crack depth using third-order polynomials gives good estimates of stress intensity factors but fitting over the entire thickness can result in inaccurate estimates even with fourth-order polynomials. Noting that welding residual stresses are often determined from FE analyses, linearization of residual stresses to estimate stress intensity factors is proposed. Comparison with FE solutions shows good agreements. -- Highlights: ► Applicability of K estimation methods is investigated for welding residual stresses. ► Two types of generic residual stress profiles with repair welds are considered. ► Fitting residual stresses over the crack depth gives good estimates of K. ► A method to estimate K by linearising residual stress profiles is proposed

  9. Hazards to Effective Due Diligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benoliel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not surprising that many business deals fail to realize their expected future value because some deal makers fail to perform effective due diligence. Successful deal makers, however, know that due diligence is one of the most important tasks in successful deal making. Thus, they avoid the psychological and contextual traps that cause poor due diligence. In this article, I describe the hazards – the psychological biases and contextual factors – that might affect the due diligence task. These hazards include information availability bias; confirmation bias; overconfidence bias; time pressure; self-interested agents; deal fever; narrow focus; and complexity. Following this review, I provide a number of suggestions to help deal makers and organizations overcome these hazards.

  10. Formation of the residual stress due to the thermal treatment in Alloy 690 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Joung Soo

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the steam generator tubes made of Alloy 600 have suffered primary coolant leakage accidents due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The one of main reasons for the susceptibility to SCC is understood to be chromium (Cr) depletion in the grain boundary. Therefore, the precipitation of carbide is controlled by heat treatment in the final manufacturing stage. In order to investigate the formation reason of residual stress in the steam generator tube systematically, the tube specimens were cooled both at inside and at outside tube after heat treatment and the residual stress formed during water quenching was measured by strain gage using sectioning method

  11. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    Residues from crops left on the soil surface have an impact on the microclimate, primarily temperature, within the soil and the atmosphere; but, the impact on the biological system is largely unknown. Residue is assumed to have a positive impact on the biological system in the soil and a negative impact on crop growth. This report investigates the effect of standing residue on the microclimate surrounding a cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in a semi-arid environment and the effect of flat residue on the seasonal soil temperature and soil water regimes in a humid climate with a corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system. A study was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in a semi-arid climate at Lubbock, Texas using standing wheat stubble to shelter cotton from wind. In this study soil water, microclimatic variables, and plant growth were measured within standing stubble and bare soil during the early vegetative growth period. Air temperatures were warmer at night within the standing residue and the air more humid throughout the day. This led to a reduction in the soil water evaporation rate and an increase in the water use efficiency of the cotton plant within the stubble. Studies on corn residue with continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations with no-till, chiselplow, and moldboard plow tillage practices in central Iowa showed that the average soil temperatures in the upper soil profile were not affected by the presence of flat residue after tillage. Diurnal temperature ranges were most affected by the residue throughout the year. The largest effect of the residue on soil temperature was in the fall after harvest when no-till fields cooled more slowly than tilled fields. In the spring, surface residue decreased the soil water evaporation rate and increased the soil water storage within the soil profile covered with residue. In years with below normal rainfall, the additional stored soil water due to the surface residue was used by the

  12. Corrosion failure due to flux residues in an electronic add-on device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Minzari, Daniel; Rathinavelu, Umadevi

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion of components and sub-assemblies on an electronic Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) is a major reliability concern. Both process and user related contamination will influence the corrosion reliability of a PCBA and the electronic device as a whole. An important process related...... contamination is solder flux residues which can act as a corrosion promoter in humid atmosphere due to the presence of ionic substances and a resin component. The presence of ionic substances will increase the conductivity of a condensed water layer and influence corrosion processes, depending on the species...... of the electrochemical behavior metallic materials (alloys) used in the switch and risk of electrochemical migration (ECM) between the switch components in presence of flux residues was also carried out. Investigations included potentiodynamic polarization measurements on the switch electrodes using a micro...

  13. [Residues of tetracycline in poultry meat and eggs due to the use of antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkova, N V

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on broiler chicks and laying hens have indicated that increased drug loads (the prolonged oral use of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in a dose of 50 mg/kg or the single administration of its long-acting formulation--nitox in a dose of 200 mg/kg) lead to the accumulation of residues in the poultry flesh, by-products, and eggs even provided that the poultry exposure schedule before slaughtering is kept. The highest levels of the antibiotic are detectable at the site of injection and in the eggs after injection of nitox, a long-acting formulation of tetracycline. The detection of the residues of the antibiotic in the poultry flesh, by-products, and eggs may be associated with the development of cytotoxic effects and with the reduced functional capacities of the organs that are responsible for the detoxification and excretion of medicinal xenobiotics.

  14. Risk for the development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) due to feeding of calves with milk containing residues of antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, A.; Allende, A.; Bolton, D.; Chemaly, M.; Davies, R.; Fernández Escámez, P.S.; Girones, R.; Koutsoumanis, K.; Lindqvist, R.; Nørrung, B.; Robertson, I.; Ru, G.; Sanaa, M.; Simmons, M.; Skandamis, P.; Snary, E.; Speybroeck, N.; ter Kuile, B.; Threlfall, J.; Wahlström, H.; Bengtsson, B.; Bouchard, D.; Randall, L.; Tenhagen, B.A.; Verdon, E.; Wallace, J.; Brozzi, R.; Guerra, B.; Liebana, E.; Stella, P.; Herman, L.

    2017-01-01

    EFSA was requested to: 1) assess the risk for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to feeding on farm of calves with colostrum potentially containing residues of antibiotics; 2) assess the risk for the development of AMR due to feeding on farm of calves with milk of cows treated

  15. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  16. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area plots. Results show that wounding occurred on 16.4% of the remaining trees, but the severity of wounding varied significantly by species. Forty-six percent of wounding for all species combined was considered as small size. The greatest average amount of damage, to a bole, occurred along the first 1m up from the ground and also within 3m of the skid trail centerline (86.4%. Gouges were present on 79% of all scars. The stratification of the study unit would effectively improve accuracy of stand damage surveys. Selection of the appropriate method for damage reduction to trees adjacent skid trails was crucial. According to the results, skidding damage cannot be completely avoided in practice. We suggest that the education and the entertainment of the foresters and workers in forest would be enhanced and the injuries could be explained before the harvesting to the workers. In such a way the damages would be less in the future.

  17. Residual effect of lambdacyhalothrin on Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Ferro

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal residual effect and triatomine infestation rates in houses of a community fumigated with lambdcyhalothrin (Icon are reported. No mortality was observed in 5th-instar Triatoma infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on three different surfaces, one month after fumigation for a dose of 31.5 mg am/m2. However, during post-exposure observation a mortality of 60% was recorded for those insect exposed on sprayed woodboard. The results observed with mud-containing treated walls, were markedly poorer (0% of mortality. Twelve month after spraying 40% of mortality was observed on first-instar T. infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on woodboard, but lower mortality rates were observed in mud-containing materials. When the effect of deltamethrin (109 mg ai/m2 and lambdcyhalothrin (94 mg ai/m2 was compared, the former did not appear to be superior at similar loads. Both have showed a mortality rate of 30% on 5th-instar T. infestans nymphs three months post-fumigation. The dose utilized in the field fumigation was enough to get a significant (p < 0.0001 control of triatomine domestic infestation, since it was sufficient to keep 95% of the houses uninfested throughout 21 months following treatment, when compared with baseline situation. A remarkable knock-down effect on adult and nymphs forms of the insect and a high in situ mortality were observed as a result of its application, even at very low doses.

  18. Effect of applied stress on the compressive residual stress introduced by laser peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Rie; Tazawa, Toshiyuki; Narazaki, Chihiro; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Peening is the process which is able to be generated compressive residual stress and is known to be effective for preventing SCC initiation and improvement of fatigue strength. Laser peening is used for the nuclear power plant components in order to prevent SCC initiation. Although it is reported that the compressive residual stress decreases due to applied stresses under general operating condition, the change of residual stress might be large under excessive loading such as an earthquake. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relaxation behavior of the compressive residual stress due to laser peening and to confirm the surface residual stress after loading. Therefore laser peened round bar test specimens of SUS316L which is used for the reactor internals of nuclear power plant were loaded at room temperature and elevated temperature and then surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method. In the results of this test, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stress remained after applying uniform stress larger than 0.2% proof stress, and the effect of cyclic loading on the residual stress was small. The effect of applying compressive stress on the residual stress relaxation was confirmed to be less than that of applying tensile stress. Plastic deformation through a whole cross section causes the change in the residual stress distribution. As a result, the surface compressive residual stress is released. It was shown that the effect of specimen size on residual stress relaxation and the residual stress relaxation behavior in the stress concentration region can be explained by assumed stress relaxation mechanism. (author)

  19. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  20. Measurement methodology of vegetable samples from an area affected by residual contamination due to uranium mining sterile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, N.; Suarez, J. A.; Yague, L.; Ortiz Gandia, M. I.; Marijuan, M. J.; Garcia, E.; Ortiz, T.; Alvarez, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology established for radiological characterization of plant material generated during the first stage of the realization of a movement of land in an area of land affected by residual contamination due to the burial of sterile of uranium mining. (Author)

  1. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...... of recommendations. This paper addresses general principles of residual N effects, gives literature-based estimates of them, and reviews to which extent residual N effects are included in ecommendations and regulations in selected countries....

  2. Environmental Impacts to Residual Stand Damage due to Logging Operations in Hyrcanian Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Meghdad JOURGHOLAMI

    2012-01-01

    The development of harvesting systems aims to provide physically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally sound solutions. Residual stand-damage data have been collected from a mixed broadleaved stand in Kheyrud area in Hyrcanian forest in the northern of Iran. After the harvesting operations, for all trees, damage to the bole, roots, extent of the damage, wounding patterns, size and distribution was assessed using stratified systematic sampling with a random start and fixed area pl...

  3. Proper preparation to reduce endoscopic reexamination due to food residue after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Bae, Sue Eun; Jung, Ji Hoon; Choi, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Young; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho; Han, Seungbong

    2013-03-01

    Reducing food residue by proper preparation methods before endoscopy after distal gastrectomy can increase the quality of examination and decrease patient discomfort. We evaluated the risk factors for food residue and proper methods of preparation for endoscopy after distal gastrectomy. Follow-up endoscopy with questionnaires was performed on 1,001 patients who underwent distal gastrectomy at Asan Medical Center between December 2010 and July 2011. Endoscopic examination failed in 94 patients (9.4 %) as a result of large amounts of food residue. Rates of failure were significantly higher in patients who ate a regular diet rather than a soft diet at last dinner before examination (13.9 vs. 6.1 %, p = 0.050), and in those who ate lunch rather than not eating lunch on the day before examination (14.6 vs. 7.7 %, p = 0.020). Multivariate analysis showed that the rate of failed examination was lower in patients who had a history of abdominal surgery (p = 0.011), those who ate a soft (p fasting time (p = 0.009), and those with a longer gastrectomy-to-endoscopy time interval (p fast more than 18 h and ingest a soft or liquid diet on the day before examination.

  4. EFFECTS OF MUCUNA ( MUCUNA UTILIS L.) RESIDUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at two locations: University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB) and Olowo-Papa (OP) in Ogun state both in Forest-savannah transition zone of Nigeria to investigate the response of three upland rice cultivars (O.sativa) to mucuna residue incorporation and Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the ...

  5. Structural transformations in Mn2NiGa due to residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sanjay; Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R.; Ranjan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Powder x-ray diffraction study of Mn 2 NiGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy shows the existence of a 7M monoclinic modulated structure at room temperature (RT). The structure of Mn 2 NiGa is found to be highly dependent on residual stress. For higher stress, the structure is tetragonal at RT, and for intermediate stress it is 7M monoclinic. However, only when the stress is considerably relaxed, the structure is cubic, as is expected at RT since the martensitic transition temperature is 230 K.

  6. Comparative effects of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of Southeast Nigeria to assess the effects of amending soil with plant residues on soil physical and chemical properties. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, ...

  7. Comparative effect of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of southeast Nigeria to access the effect of amending soil with plant residues on maize performance. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, combination of wood ash ...

  8. Model parameter estimations from residual gravity anomalies due to simple-shaped sources using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Göktürkler, Gökhan; Turan, Seçil

    2016-06-01

    An efficient approach to estimate model parameters from residual gravity data based on differential evolution (DE), a stochastic vector-based metaheuristic algorithm, has been presented. We have showed the applicability and effectiveness of this algorithm on both synthetic and field anomalies. According to our knowledge, this is a first attempt of applying DE for the parameter estimations of residual gravity anomalies due to isolated causative sources embedded in the subsurface. The model parameters dealt with here are the amplitude coefficient (A), the depth and exact origin of causative source (zo and xo, respectively) and the shape factors (q and ƞ). The error energy maps generated for some parameter pairs have successfully revealed the nature of the parameter estimation problem under consideration. Noise-free and noisy synthetic single gravity anomalies have been evaluated with success via DE/best/1/bin, which is a widely used strategy in DE. Additionally some complicated gravity anomalies caused by multiple source bodies have been considered, and the results obtained have showed the efficiency of the algorithm. Then using the strategy applied in synthetic examples some field anomalies observed for various mineral explorations such as a chromite deposit (Camaguey district, Cuba), a manganese deposit (Nagpur, India) and a base metal sulphide deposit (Quebec, Canada) have been considered to estimate the model parameters of the ore bodies. Applications have exhibited that the obtained results such as the depths and shapes of the ore bodies are quite consistent with those published in the literature. Uncertainty in the solutions obtained from DE algorithm has been also investigated by Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) sampling algorithm based on simulated annealing without cooling schedule. Based on the resulting histogram reconstructions of both synthetic and field data examples the algorithm has provided reliable parameter estimations being within the sampling limits of

  9. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  10. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of residual stresses on hydrogen permeation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Bercot, P.; Takadoum, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on electrochemical permeation in iron membrane was investigated. Four thermal and mechanical treatments were chosen to obtain different surface states in relation to the residual stresses. Residual stresses were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Macherauch and Mueller method. The results were completed by the microhardness measurements. For all iron membranes, compressive residual stresses were obtained. Electrochemical permeation experiments using a Devanathan and Stachurski cell were employed to determine the hydrogen permeation behaviour of the various iron membranes. The latter was charged with hydrogen by galvanostatic cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH at 25 deg. C. The experimental results revealed that hydrogen permeation rate increases with increasing residual stresses introduced in iron membranes.

  12. A finite element elastic-plastic analysis of residual stresses due to clad welding in reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalet, C.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1972-01-01

    Residual stresses due to weld deposited cladding on the inside of a typical Westinghouse pressurized water reactor vessel are investigated using an axisymmetric finite element elastic-plastic analysis. At the beginning of the analysis, one head of the weld cladding is assumed to lie on the reactor vessel wall at melting temperature (2600degF), but in the solid phase, while the vessel remains at 300degF (preheat temperature). All material properties used in the calculations are taken as temperature-dependent. Temperature profiles are obtained in the cladding and base metal at several discrete time intervals. These temperatures profiles are used to obtain the stress distribution for the same time intervals. Residual hoop tensile stresses of approximately 25 ksi were found to exist in the cladding. Peak tensile stresses in the hoop direction occur in the base metal near the cladding interface and reach a value of 60 ksi at the end of the transient. The tensile stress decreases very rapidly through the thickness of the base metal and becomes insignificant at about two inches from the inside surface. In order to lower residual stresses, a post-weld heat treatment is performed by uniformly heating the vessel to 1100degF, holding at that temperature for a specified period of time and then cooling slowly. The analysis shows that after this treatment, the peak stresses in the base metal decrease from 60 ksi to 32 ksi, while the stress in the cladding does not change significantly. (author)

  13. Arginine residues are more effective than lysine residues in eliciting the cellular uptake of onconase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundlass, Nadia K; Raines, Ronald T

    2011-11-29

    Onconase is an amphibian member of the pancreatic ribonuclease family of enzymes that is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Onconase, which has an abundance of lysine residues, is internalized by cancer cells through endocytosis in a mechanism similar to that of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we compare the effect of lysine versus arginine residues on the biochemical attributes necessary for Onconase to elicit its cytotoxic activity. In the variant R-Onconase, 10 of the 12 lysine residues in Onconase are replaced with arginine, leaving only the two active-site lysines intact. Cytometric assays quantifying internalization showed a 3-fold increase in the internalization of R-Onconase compared with Onconase. R-Onconase also showed greater affinity for heparin and a 2-fold increase in ribonucleolytic activity. Nonetheless, arginine substitution endowed only a slight increase in toxicity toward human cancer cells. Analysis of denaturation induced with guanidine-HCl showed that R-Onconase has less conformational stability than does the wild-type enzyme; moreover, R-Onconase is more susceptible to proteolytic degradation. These data indicate that arginine residues are more effective than lysine in eliciting cellular internalization but can compromise other aspects of protein structure and function.

  14. Erythema Multiforme-like Secondary to Paraphenylenediamine Due to Henna Tattoo Plus Residual Hypopigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levancini, Cristian Fischer; Sancho, Maribel Iglesias; Serrano, Vicente Exposito; Torres, Eulalia Baselga

    2015-01-01

    Temporary henna tattoos or pseudotattoos have become increasingly widespread among children and adolescent. A generalized skin reaction, type erythema multiforme-like reaction is unusual, and rarely reported. We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who reported erythematous papular bull's-eye shaped lesions and consolidated edema primarily in the upper and lower extremities. These lesions were compatibles with erythema multiforme-like reaction. He also showed an erythematous-eczematous lesion on his leg, shaped like a dolphin. In this area, a temporary henna tattoo was painted 1-month earlier. Patch test was positive for paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Skin reactions due to henna are rare. Most of the reactions are due to additives, especially PPD, an aniline derivative, which is added to speed up the process of skin dyeing and to give a darker brown to black color ("black" henna). As henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular, prevention requires the annual provision of information to consumers, especially young people and their parents.

  15. Catalyst deactivation due to deposition of reaction products in macropores during hydroprocessing of petroleum residuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khang, S.J.; Mosby, J.F.

    1986-04-01

    A pore-filling model is proposed to describe deactivation of hydroprocessing catalysts of a wide-pore structure in well-mixed and plug-flow reactors where the catalyst pellets are deactivated due to slow and uniform deposition of reaction products (mostly metal compounds) in their macropores. The model based on no mass-transfer restriction in the main channels of the pores incorporates additional active sites created by metal compounds in the deposited layers and has been shown to have two parameters of the similar type of the Thiele modulus. The model along with lumped reaction kinetics is applied for hydroprocessing reactions in trickle-bed reactors and provides reasonable deactivation curves for desulfurization and demetallation reaction when less than 50% of the original pore volume is filled with metal compounds.

  16. Effect of pasteurization on the residues of tetracyclines in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kellnerová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to determine the effect of high pasteurization of milk (85 °C/3 s on the residues of tetracycline and oxytetracycline. The samples of raw cow’s milk, purchased from a vending machine, were spiked with standard solutions of tetracycline and oxytetracycline. The content of the residues of tetracycline antibiotics was measured before and after heating. Pre-cleaned samples were extracted by a mixed-mode solid phase extraction technique and analysed using high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection. Whereas the residues of tetracycline decreased only by 5.74% and were not significantly different (P > 0.05, the residues of oxytetracycline decreased by 15.3% and this distinction was highly significant (P ≤ 0.01. Based on the results of our study, the tetracycline antibiotics were proved to have differences in the thermostability of particular substances at pasteurisation temperatures.

  17. Residual effects of intranasal methamphetamine on sleep, mood, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Marrone, Gina; Silver, Rae; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Although intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased, there are no published data investigating the residual effects of the drug under controlled conditions. Thus, the current study examined the residual effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine abusers (n = 11) completed this two-week, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. The study consisted of 4 two-day blocks of sessions; each block was separated by at least 24 hrs. At approximately 1000 hrs, on the first day of each block, participants received one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, 50 mg/70 kg). Lights were turned out at 2300 hrs that evening and sleep measures were assessed. On the morning of the second day of each block, methamphetamine plasma levels, cardiovascular measures, mood, subjective reports of the previous evening's sleep, and psychomotor performance were assessed to determine residual drug effects. The larger methamphetamine doses (25 and 50 mg) markedly disrupted subjective measures of that night's sleep and some indices of next-day mood, but only the largest dose (50 mg) dose decreased objective measures of that night's sleep and increased next-day physiological measures. Methamphetamine did not produce any negative residual effects on early next-day performance. Future studies should assess methamphetamine-related residual effects following repeated doses administered over consecutive days. PMID:18078723

  18. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    that no cleaning after the solder process is required. In some cases, however, this statement is not correct. Experiments with ‘No Clean’ wave solder flux have been performed, and the results show, that the solder temperature plays an important role; temperatures below 170°C cause more flux residues than solder......Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... of dust, which can act as a humidity absorber. The experiments have been made on SnPb wave solder flux, later experiments will show if the problems are less for Lead-free reflow and wave soldering, because the solder temperature is about 20°C higher. Furthermore an example of failure after humidity...

  19. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  20. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  1. Evaluation of dose due to the liberation of the radioactive content present in systems of final disposal of radioactive residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, V.; Lopez, F.

    2006-01-01

    The disposal systems of radioactive residuals well-known as repositories near to the surface, are used to dispose residuals that can contain high concentrations of radionuclides of period of short semi disintegration, which they would decay at levels radiologically insignificant in some few decades or in some centuries: and acceptably low concentrations of radionuclides of period of long semi disintegration. The dose that would receive the critic group due to these systems it could be increased by cause of discreet events that affect the foreseen retard time, or by the gradual degradation of the barriers. To this last case it contributes the presence of water, because it implies leaching and dissolution that can give place to radionuclide concentrations in the underground water greater to the prospective ones. The dosimetric evaluation is important because it offers useful objective information to decide if a given repository is adjusted to the purposes of its design and it fulfills the regulatory requirements. In this work a simplified evaluation of the dose that would receive the critic group due to the liberation of contained radionuclides in a hypothetical system of final disposition of radioactive residuals is presented. For it, they are considered representative values of the usually contained activities in this type of systems and they are carried out some approaches of the source term. The study is developed in two stages. In the first one, by means of the Radionuclide pollutant scattering pattern in phreatic aquifers (DRAF) it is considered the scattering of the pollutants in the phreatic aquifer, until the discharge point in the course of the nearest surface water. This model, developed originally in the regulatory branch of the National Commission of Argentine Atomic Energy (CNEA); it solves the transport equation of solutes in porous means in three dimensions, by the finite differences method having in account the soil retention and the radioactive

  2. Effect of catalyst deactivation on vacuum residue hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda S. Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated deactivation tests of the pre-sulfided Mo–W/SiO2–Al2O3 commercial catalyst were performed using heavy vacuum petroleum feedstock. High reaction temperature employed in the accelerated catalyst aging resulted in large amounts of carbonaceous deposition with high aromaticity, which was found to be the principal deactivation cause. The effect of catalyst deactivation on hydrocracking of vacuum residue was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at 60 bar, feed to catalyst ratio 10:1 and temperature 425 °C. The duration time for a cycle-run was 4 h. On increasing the interval duration times from 4 to 20 h (i.e. five cycles, the quality of the hydrocracked products was decreased. In each cycle-run, a fresh feedstock was used with the same sulfide catalyst. The quality of distillate products, such as hydrodesulfurization (HDS was decreased from 61.50% to 39.52%, while asphaltene contents of the total liquid product were increased from 2.7% to 5.2% and their boiling ranges were increased during these duration times due to the successive catalyst deactivation during the 5 cycle-runs, caused by successive adsorption of coke formation.

  3. Barotropic Eulerian residual circulation in the Gulf of California due to the M{sub 2} tide and wind stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote, M. L.; Lavin, M. F.; Amador, A. [Departamento de Oceanografia Fisica, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    A vertically integrated, non-linear numerical model in finite differences is used to analyze two forcing mechanisms of the mean barotropic circulation in the Gulf of California: topographic rectification due to tidal currents (M{sub 2}) and wind stress. Under tidal forcing the nonlinearities of the momentum equations induce unorganized strong tidal induced residual currents (u{sub e} > 5 cm s{sup -}1) in the channels between the islands, and along-isobath anticyclonic circulation in the Northern Gulf, with speeds u{sub 3} < 2.5 cm s{sup -}1 over the edge of Delfin Basin. These numerical results are in agreement with analytical results, which indicate that the tidal-induced currents are mostly due to the advective terms, and that continuity and the Coriolis term (but regulated by bottom friction) are responsible for the along-isobath flow. The quadratic bottom friction plays a role in generating mean currents only in the very shallow area off the Colorado River Delta. The effect of wind stress was modeled by imposing upon the running M{sub 2} model a constant surface stress ( r = 0.016 Pa), from the NW for winter conditions and from the SE for summer conditions. The wind-induced circulation was obtained by averaging over a tidal cycle and then subtracting the tidal residuals. The two wind directions produce almost identical circulation patterns, but with opposite directions. For the NW wind stress, the main features of the predicted circulation are: (a) In the Northern Gulf an anticyclonic circulation pattern, with the strongest currents (up to {approx} 10 cm s-1) following the bathymetry of the rim of Delfin Basin, Wagner Basin and the mainland coast off Bahia Adair and Bahia San Jorge. There is also a southward flow along the peninsula coast, from the Colorado River to Bahia San Luis Gonzaga. (b) In the Southern Gulf, there is a strong flow ({approx} 10 to 15 cm s{sup -}1) to the SE over the continental shelf along the mainland coast. A somewhat less well

  4. Effect of processing conditions on residual stress distributions by bead-on-plate welding after surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Residual stress is important factor for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that has been observed near the welded zone in nuclear power plants. Especially, surface residual stress is significant for SCC initiation. In the joining processes of pipes, butt welding is conducted after surface machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes, and residual stress distribution due to surface machining is varied by the subsequent butt welding. In previous paper, authors reported that residual stress distribution generated by bead on plate welding after surface machining has a local maximum residual stress near the weld metal. The local maximum residual stress shows approximately 900 MPa that exceeds the stress threshold for SCC initiation. Therefore, for the safety improvement of nuclear power plants, a study on the local maximum residual stress is important. In this study, the effect of surface machining and welding conditions on residual stress distribution generated by welding after surface machining was investigated. Surface machining using lathe machine and bead on plate welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc under various conditions were conducted for plate specimens made of SUS316L. Then, residual stress distributions were measured by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). As a result, residual stress distributions have the local maximum residual stress near the weld metal in all specimens. The values of the local maximum residual stresses are almost the same. The location of the local maximum residual stress is varied by welding condition. It could be consider that the local maximum residual stress is generated by same generation mechanism as welding residual stress in surface machined layer that has high yield stress. (author)

  5. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  6. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  7. Direct and residual effects of phosphate fertilizer on maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term field experiments were conducted for 13 cropping seasons on a Typic Paleustult in Ghana to study response of maize (Zea mays L.) to P fertilization, evaluate the relative efficiency of broadcast versus band applications, estimate residual effects of applied P and determine the critical P level for maize. The results ...

  8. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  9. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. ... Placebo drink group (Group P, n = 30) received water in the same protocol as Group C. The Student's t‑test was used to analyze RGV and pH postoperative satisfaction and postoperative nausea and vomiting ...

  10. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  11. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R&D Energy Recovery Linac.

  12. Analytic approximate radiation effects due to Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide analytic approximate expressions that can provide quick estimates of the various effects of the Bremsstrahlung radiation produced relatively low energy electrons, such as the dumping of the beam into the beam stop at the ERL or field emission in superconducting cavities. The purpose of this work is not to replace a dependable calculation or, better yet, a measurement under real conditions, but to provide a quick but approximate estimate for guidance purposes only. These effects include dose to personnel, ozone generation in the air volume exposed to the radiation, hydrogen generation in the beam dump water cooling system and radiation damage to near-by magnets. These expressions can be used for other purposes, but one should note that the electron beam energy range is limited. In these calculations the good range is from about 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. To help in the application of this note, calculations are presented as a worked out example for the beam dump of the R and D Energy Recovery Linac.

  13. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  14. Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, M.; Bakht, J.; Attaullah; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation

  15. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  16. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  17. Universal relationship connecting various two-body effective residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuepfer, W.; Huber, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Starting from a momentum space analysis of the two-body matrix elements, a relation has been established between the size of the model space actually used in a specific calculation and the relevant properties of the effective residual interaction. It turns out that the two-body transition density acts like a filter function on the Fourier transform of the force; it exhibits a distinct structure which clearly reflects the size and the detailed properties of the configuration space actually used. From an investigation of this filter function an equivalence criterion for different effective residual two-body interactions has been established both for closed and open shell nuclei. This result can be used to construct simple although realistic effective forces. As an example, a model for a separable residual interaction is proposed in which the corresponding parameters are being clearly related to the nuclear radius (i.e., the mass number), to the quantum numbers (i.e., the angular momentum) of the state under consideration and to the size of the configuration space used. For a number of examples this force has been applied successfully for the description of low energy properties of both closed and open shell nuclei

  18. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  19. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  20. Residues of sulfadiazine and doxycycline in broiler liver and muscle tissue due to cross-contamination of feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary drugs, such as antimicrobial compounds, are widely used in poultry and may lead to the presence of residues in matrices of animal origin, such as muscle and liver tissue. In this study, broilers received an experimental feed containing sulfadiazine or doxycycline at cross-contamination levels of 2.5, 5 and 10% of the therapeutic dose in feed. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion period and analysed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Concentrations reached a plateau phase 3-5 days after the start of experimental feeding. A rapid depletion of residues was noted after withdrawal of the experimental feed. No significant differences in measured concentrations were observed between the various muscle types. Residue concentrations for some experimental groups; the 10% group of sulfadiazine and the 5 and 10% group of doxycycline, however, exceeded their corresponding maximum residue limits (MRLs).

  1. Measurement methodology of vegetable samples from an area affected by residual contamination due to uranium mining sterile; Metodologia de medida de muestras vegetales procedentes de un terreno afectado por contaminacion residual debida a esteriles de mineria de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, N.; Suarez, J. A.; Yague, L.; Ortiz Gandia, M. I.; Marijuan, M. J.; Garcia, E.; Ortiz, T.; Alvarez, A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the methodology established for radiological characterization of plant material generated during the first stage of the realization of a movement of land in an area of land affected by residual contamination due to the burial of sterile of uranium mining. (Author)

  2. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  3. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical modeling of residual stresses generation due to 316L turning. A new experimental and numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiorgue, F.

    2008-12-01

    The main goal of this thesis proposed by AREVA NP is to predict the residual stresses induced by finishing turning of AISI 316L. The numerical model is simulating the residual stresses generation with a new approach by applying directly equivalent thermo-mechanical loadings onto the finished work piece surface without modeling the chip removal process. Thus, this study is divided in two complementary main subsections. On one hand, an experimental campaign is carried out to record data and to compute thermomechanical loadings. This task is made using the AREVA NP parameters. On the other hand numerical models are set up using previous measured values. They are made to reproduce the residual stresses generation by applying and moving the thermo mechanical loadings. The study leads to interesting results because the shapes of the residual stresses curves agree with previous works concerning this topic and with XRD measured residual stresses. The new approach seems to be pertinent because it is possible to simulate several tool passages like no other numerical model. (author)

  5. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  6. 3-D numerical evaluation of residual stress and deformation due welding process using simplified heat source models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslampanah, Amir Hossein [Islamic Azad University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aalami-aleagha, Mohammad Ebrahim; Feli, Saeid [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaderi, Mohammad Reza [Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Thermal elastic-plastic finite element method has been employed to predict residual stress and deformation in a T-Fillet welded joint. An uncoupled thermal-mechanical three-dimensional (3-D) model has been developed. A nonlinear-transient heat flow analysis was used to obtain the temperature distribution; then by applying thermal results in the three dimensional elastic-plastic model, residual stress and deformation distribution were obtained. Experiments were carried out to find fusion zone dimensions and displacement. Two heat source models with infinite speed are proposed and the mechanical result of the mentioned models and normal moving heat source are compared.

  7. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  8. Crop residue management and fertilization effects on soil organic matter and associated biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Yu, Yueyue; Karlen, Douglas L; Hao, Xiying

    2016-09-01

    Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer. Each CRM received N fertilizer rates at 270, 360, and 450 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). At the end of the experiment, soil NO3-N was reduced by 33 % from the R relative to the R0 treatment, while the Rc treatment resulted in a 21 to 44 % increase in occluded particulate organic C and N, and 80 °C extracted dissolved organic N, 19 to 32 % increase in microbial biomass C and protease activity, and higher monounsaturated phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA):saturated PLFA ratio from stimulating growth of indigenous bacteria when compared with the R treatment. Principal component analysis showed that the Biolog and PLFA profiles in the three CRM treatments were different from each other. Overall, these properties were not influenced by the used N fertilizer rates. Our results indicated that application of 17 % of the total N using manure in a field with crop residues return was effective for improving potential plant N availability and labile soil organic matter, primarily due to a shift in the dominant microorganisms.

  9. Gender effects in gaming research: a case for regression residuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Numerous recent studies have examined the impact of video gaming on various dependent variables, including the players' affective reactions, positive as well as detrimental cognitive effects, and real-world aggression. These target variables are typically analyzed as a function of game characteristics and player attributes-especially gender. However, findings on the uneven distribution of gaming experience between males and females, on the one hand, and the effect of gaming experience on several target variables, on the other hand, point at a possible confound when gaming experiments are analyzed with a standard analysis of variance. This study uses simulated data to exemplify analysis of regression residuals as a potentially beneficial data analysis strategy for such datasets. As the actual impact of gaming experience on each of the various dependent variables differs, the ultimate benefits of analysis of regression residuals entirely depend on the research question, but it offers a powerful statistical approach to video game research whenever gaming experience is a confounding factor.

  10. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  11. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  12. The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A layer of harvest residues from the previous crop can reduce wasteful evaporation from the soil surface and thereby increase the efficiency of use of limited water resources for agricultural production. The practice of harvesting sugarcane green and leaving crop residues in the field, as opposed to burning the residue, has ...

  13. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  14. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... Abstract. In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by Weibel instability with the laser wave field is explicitly showed. The main result obtained in ...

  15. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by Weibel instability with the laser wave field is explicitly showed. The main result obtained in this work is that the inclusion ...

  16. Effect of residual sericin on the structural characteristics and properties of regenerated silk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Song, Dae Woong; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2016-08-01

    Regenerated silk film has been increasingly attracting the research community's attention for biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and excellent cyto-compatibility. However, some limitations regarding its mechanical properties, such as brittleness, have restricted the use of silk films for industrial biomedical applications. In this study, regenerated silk films with different residual sericin content were prepared applying controlled degumming conditions to evaluate the effect of sericin content on the structure and properties of the films generated. When the residual sericin content increased to 0.6%, crystallinity index and breaking strength of silk films were increased. Above this value, these parameters then decreased. A 1.5 fold increase of silk film elongation properties was obtained when incorporating 16% sericin. Regardless of sericin content, all regenerated silk films showed excellent cyto-compatibility, comparable to the one obtained with tissue culture plates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual charges effect on the annealing behavior of Co-60 irradiated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwu, J.G.; Lee, G.S.; Lee, S.C.; Wang, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    It was experimentally observed that the residual charges of a MOS capacitor after C-V testing can exist for a long time. These residual charges induce a nonzero field at the SiO/sub 2//Si interface, and subsequently affect the annealing behavior due to a charge-temperature effect if the MOS capacitor is left floating during annealing. This problem is solved by a flat-band condition annealing method based on a charge-temperature technique. The annealing kinetics of a Co-60 irradiated MOS capacitor are then studied. A power law behavior of the annealing kinetics has been obtained for oxide charges annealed at 300 0 C. Possible explanations are given for this observation

  18. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieters (Marlien); S.A. Barnard (Sunelle A.); D.T. Loots (Du Toit); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDue to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen

  19. Numerical and experimental evaluation of the residual stress relaxation and the influence zone due to application of the crack compliance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval-Pineda, J M; Garcia-Lira, J; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Beltran-Fernandez, J A; RodrIguez-Martinez, R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results concerning an evaluation of the crack compliance method. The research was focused on the relaxation caused by a cut induced to obtain the data required to calculate the residual stress field. The main objective in this research is to establish the optimum place to cut in a specimen that has suffered a failure and how extended is the zone of relaxed stresses. It has been recognized that a crack vanishes the beneficial or detrimental effects of the residual stress fields. This research has been performed in a numerical and experimental way, so results can be compared and FEM on this topic can be assessed.

  20. The Effect of Weld Residual Stress on Life of Used Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald G. Ballinger; Sara E. Ferry; Bradley P. Black; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    With the elimination of Yucca Mountain as the long-term storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the United States, a number of other storage options are being explored. Currently, used fuel is stored in dry-storage cask systems constructed of steel and concrete. It is likely that used fuel will continue to be stored at existing open-air storage sites for up to 100 years. This raises the possibility that the storage casks will be exposed to a salt-containing environment for the duration of their time in interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels, which are used to construct the canisters, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing environments if a continuous aqueous film can be maintained on the surface and the material is under stress. Because steel sensitization in the canister welds is typically avoided by avoiding post-weld heat treatments, high residual stresses are present in the welds. While the environment history will play a key role in establishing the chemical conditions for cracking, weld residual stresses will have a strong influence on both crack initiation and propagation. It is often assumed for modeling purposes that weld residual stresses are tensile, high and constant through the weld. However, due to the strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress, this assumption may be overly conservative. In particular, the residual stresses become negative (compressive) at certain points in the weld. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a probabilistic model with quantified uncertainties for SCC failure in the dry storage casks. In this paper, the results of a study of the residual stresses, and their postulated effects on SCC behavior, in actual canister welds are presented. Progress on the development of the model is reported.

  1. Effect of crop residue management and cropping system on pearl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retaining crop residues in the field and using legume-based crop rotations have been suggested as ways to simultaneously increase yields per unit area and replenish soil nutrients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cropping systems and three crop residue management practices on grain ...

  2. Direct and residual effects of manure on soil chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastri, A.; Triberti, L.; Giordani, G.; Comellini, F.; Baldoni, G.

    2009-04-01

    The beneficial effects of manure recycling in cropland on soil fertility are well documented. Nowadays it can help sequestrate C in the soil organic matter, advocated to mitigate the atmospheric CO2 increase. Because of the gradual disappearance of conventional livestock farming in Western Europe, the study of the persistence of the positive effects of manuring after its interruption can be interesting. Any research on soil fertility dynamic, however, requires long-term experiments because it is quite slow and greatly influenced by weather. A field trial, started in 1966 and still in progress in the Experimental Farm of Bologna University, compares 5 crop rotations (a 9-year course: corn-wheat-corn-wheat-corn-wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa, corn-wheat and sugarbeet-wheat, continuous corn and continuous wheat), at 3 levels of cattle manure supply combined with 3 inorganic NP fertilizers rates in a split-split plot replicated twice. The soil is an alluvial silty loam, fertile but low in organic matter (13.3 g kg-1). Manure is spread before corn, sugarbeet and alfalfa, at a mean yearly rate of 0 (M0), 20 (M1) and 40 (M2) t ha-1 of fresh material. Since 1984 M2 has been interrupted to evaluate residual effects. Regarding mineral fertilizer rates, for this study we considered only the unfertilized control (N0P0) and N1P1 level, corresponding to a mean yearly application of 220 kg N ha-1 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Each year, since 1972 till now, we have sampled soil in the ploughed layer (0-0.4 m) to assess its pH (in water) and its content of organic carbon (SOC, Lotti method), total nitrogen (TN, Kjeldahl) and available phosphorus (P2O5, Olsen). To reduce the influence of crops and weather, statistical analyses were conducted on the averages of data obtained in the 4-year periods at the end of four 9-year cycles (1972-75, 81-84, 90-93 and 99-02). In 30 years, the continuous M1 supply without any inorganic integration increased SOC, TN and P2O5 by +3.6 t ha-1 (+11%), +1.09 t

  3. Numerical simulation of baseflow modification due to effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulation of baseflow modification due to effects of sediment yield. ... Physically-based mathematical modelling affords the opportunity to look at this kind of interaction, which should be simulated by deterministic responses of both water and fluvial processes. In addition to simulating the streamflow and ...

  4. Residual stress effects in tubular K-joints crack growth

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Claire; Nussbaumer, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Seeking light and transparent bridge designs, engineers and architects have found an efficient and artistic way to fulfill their requirements: steel tubular bridges. Like any other welded structure, the joints of this kind of bridge suffer from high tensile weld residual stresses. Combined with high stress concentrations, tensile residual stress is a relevant factor in fatigue crack development. Therefore, an experimental study has been carried out on tubular joints in order to characterize ...

  5. Effect of increased milking frequency and residual milk removal on milk production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferneborg, Sabine; Kovac, Lucia; Shingfield, Kevin J; Agenäs, Sigrid

    2017-11-01

    It has been well established that milk yield is affected both by milking frequency and due to the removal of residual milk, but the influence of a combination of these factors is unclear. In this study, four mid-lactation cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the effects of more frequent milking and residual milk removal on milk yield and composition are additive and alter milk fatty acid composition. Treatments comprised two or four times daily milking in combination with (or without) residual milk removal over a 96 h interval preceded by a 2 d pretreatment period and followed by a 8 d washout in each 14 d experimental period. Milk was sampled at each milking for the analysis of gross composition and SCC. Samples of available and residual milk collected on the last milking during each treatment period were collected and submitted for fatty acid composition analysis. Increases in milking frequency and residual milk removal alone or in combination had no effect on milk yield or on the secretion of lactose and protein in milk. However, residual milk removal during more frequent milking increased milk fat yield. Milking treatments had no major influence on the fatty acid composition of available milk, but resulted in rather small changes in the relative abundance of specific fatty acids, with no evidence that the additive effects of treatments were due to higher utilisation of preformed fatty acids relative to fatty acid synthesis de novo. For all treatments, fat composition of available and residual milk was rather similar indicating a highly uniform fatty acid composition of milk fat within the mammary gland.

  6. Effect of different formulations on tebuconazole residues in stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Molinari, Gian Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The correlation between pesticide residue levels and formulation of an active substance is often not considered, even if it is reasonable to expect some differences arising from behaviour during dilution and spraying, from adhesion to plant and from degradation. An experimental study to investigate the magnitude of tebuconazole residues as a function of different tebuconazole formulated products was carried out in Italy. The fungicide was applied as wettable powder (WP) and water-dispersible granule (WG) formulations to peach, plum, apricot and nectarine orchards, on four different sites. The fruit samples gained from the field trials were quantitatively analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC/NPD) for tebuconazole residues. Tebuconazole residues in the fruits gained from the plot treated with the WP formulation, 14 days after application, were in the range 0.01-0.07 mg kg(-1), while corresponding residues in the plot treated with the WG formulation were in the range 0.01-0.06 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in the residue levels of tebuconazole could be observed between the trials conducted with the WP and the WG formulation. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects on Machining on Surface Residual Stress of SA 508 and Austenitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Jai Hak

    2011-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking has occurred in dissimilar weld areas in nuclear power plants. Residual stress is a driving force in the crack. Residual stress may be generated by weld or surface machining. Residual stress due to surface machining depends on the machining method, e.g., milling, grinding, or EDM. The stress is usually distributed on or near the surface of the material. We present the measured residual stress for machining on SA 508 and austenitic stainless steels such as TP304 and F316. The residual stress can be tensile or compressive depending on the machining method. The depth and the magnitude of the residual stress depend on the material and the machining method

  8. Effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Asi, M.R.; Tahira, R.; Chudhary, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity and some nitrogen transformations in a loam soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The soil samples containing bound residues arising from 10 mg g-1 of the applied malathion were mixed in equal quantity with fresh soil and compared with solvent extracted control soil without bound residues (extracted in the same way as soil containing bound residues). Another control comprising un extracted fresh soil without bound residues was also kept to study the effect of solvent extraction on the biological activity. Rate of Carbon mineralization (CO/sub 2/ evolution) was decreased in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. Bound residues also affected dehydrogenase activity of soil. Over 40% inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed after 4 days and the inhibition persisted at least for 12 days. Nitrogen mineralization was stimulated in soil containing bound residues of malathion and this stimulatory effect increased with time of incubation. Nitrification was partially inhibited in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. The inhibitory effect of the soil-bound residues on nitrification did not show much variation with time. The soil-bound residues did not affect denitrification rate (N/sub 2/O evolution). Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was partially inhibited in soil amended with bound residues of malathion and the inhibitory effect persisted for at least one week. In general, soil bound residues of malathion inhibited CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, nitrification and nitrogen fixation while mineralization of nitrogen was stimulated. Denitrification was not affected by the applied insecticide. (author)

  9. Effect of prior machining deformation on the development of tensile residual stresses in weld-fabricated nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevey, P.S.; Mason, P.W.; Hornbach, D.J.; Molkenthin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard SCC, depending on their magnitude and sign. A combined x-ray diffraction and mechanical procedure was used to determine the axial and hoop residual stress and yield strength distributions into the inside-diameter surface of a simulated Alloy 600 penetration J-welded into a reactor pressure vessel. The degree of cold working and the resulting yield strength increase caused by prior machining and weld shrinkage were calculated from the line-broadening distributions. Tensile residual stresses on the order of +700 MPa were observed in both the axial and the hoop directions at the inside-diameter surface in a narrow region adjacent to the weld heat-affected zone. Stresses exceeding the bulk yield strength were found to develop due to the combined effects of cold working of the surface layers during initial machining and subsequent weld shrinkage. The residual stress and cold work distributions produced by prior machining were found to influence strongly the final residual stress state developed after welding

  10. Lactate as an insidious metabolite due to the Warburg effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc, Raymond; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    Although oncogenetics remains a critical component of cancer biology and therapeutic research, recent interest has been taken towards the non-genetic features of tumour development and progression, such as cancer metabolism. Specifically, it has been observed that tumour cells are inclined to preferentially undergo glycolysis despite presence of adequate oxygen. First reported by Otto Warburg in the 1920s, and now termed the 'Warburg effect', this aberrant metabolism has become of particular interest due to the prevalence of the fermentation phenotype in a variety of cancers studied. Consequently, this phenotype has proven to play a pivotal role in cancer proliferation. As such Warburg's observations are now being integrated within the modern paradigms of cancer and in this review we explore the role of lactate as an insidious metabolite due to the Warburg effect.

  11. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  12. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual...... neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission, defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio

  13. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation.

  14. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  15. Estimating the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the effect of residual foreground contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantaye, Y.; Leach, S.M.; Baccigalupi, C. [SISSA, Astrophysics Sector, via Bonomea 265, Trieste 34136 (Italy); Stivoli, F. [INRIA, Laboratoire de Recherche en Informatique, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 490, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Grain, J. [CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiments 120-121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Tristram, M. [CNRS, Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Université Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 200, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Stompor, R., E-mail: fantaye@sissa.it, E-mail: stivoli@gmail.com, E-mail: julien.grain@ias.u-psud.fr, E-mail: leach@sissa.it, E-mail: tristram@lal.in2p3.fr, E-mail: bacci@sissa.it, E-mail: radek@apc.univ-paris7.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire Astroparticule and Cosmologie, 10 rue A. Domon et L. Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2011-08-01

    We consider future balloon-borne and ground-based suborbital experiments designed to search for inflationary gravitational waves, and investigate the impact of residual foregrounds that remain in the estimated cosmic microwave background maps. This is achieved by propagating foreground modelling uncertainties from the component separation, under the assumption of a spatially uniform foreground frequency scaling, through to the power spectrum estimates, and up to measurement of the tensor to scalar ratio in the parameter estimation step. We characterize the error covariance due to subtracted foregrounds, and find it to be subdominant compared to instrumental noise and sample variance in our simulated data analysis. We model the unsubtracted residual foreground contribution using a two-parameter power law and show that marginalization over these foreground parameters is effective in accounting for a bias due to excess foreground power at low l. We conclude that, at least in the suborbital experimental setups we have simulated, foreground errors may be modeled and propagated up to parameter estimation with only a slight degradation of the target sensitivity of these experiments derived neglecting the presence of the foregrounds.

  16. Transit timing effects due to an exomoon - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David M.

    2009-07-01

    In our previous paper, we evaluated the transit duration variation (TDV) effect for a co-aligned planet-moon system at an orbital inclination of i = 90°. Here, we will consider the effect for the more general case of i inclined from the planet-star plane by Euler rotation angles α,β and γ. We find that the TDV signal has two major components, one due to the velocity variation effect described in our first paper and one new component due to transit impact parameter variation. By evaluating the dominant terms, we find the two effects are additive for prograde exomoon orbits, and deductive for retrograde orbits. This asymmetry could allow for future determination of the orbital sense of motion. We re-evaluate the ratio of TDV and transit timing variation effects, η, in the more general case of an inclined planetary orbit with a circular orbiting moon and find that it is still possible to directly determine the moon's orbital separation from just the ratio of the two amplitudes, as first proposed in our previous paper.

  17. Effect of household and industrial processing on levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated by two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peels, the most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for ...

  18. Structural Effects of Reinforced Concrete Beam Due to Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Idris, Nur'ain; Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Sarpin, Norliana; Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is one of the main issues among construction stakeholders. The main consequences of steel corrosion include loss of cross section of steel area, generation of expansive pressure which caused cracking of concrete, spalling and delaminating of the concrete cover. Thus, it reduces the bond strength between the steel reinforcing bar and concrete, and deteriorating the strength of the structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the structural effects of corrosion damage on the performance of reinforced concrete beam. A series of corroded reinforced concrete beam with a corrosion rate of 0%, 20% and 40% of rebar corrosion is used in parametric study to assess the influence of different level of corrosion rate to the structural performance. As a result, the used of interface element in the finite element modelling predicted the worst case of corrosion analysis since cracks is induced and generate at this surface. On the other hand, a positive linear relationship was sketched between the increase of expansive pressure and the corrosion rate. Meanwhile, the gradient of the graph is decreased with the increase of steel bar diameter. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of the structure where the higher corrosion rate generates a higher stress concentration at the mid span of the beam. This study could predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete beam under the corrosion using the finite element analysis. The experimental validation is needed on the next stage to investigate the quantitative relation between the corrosion rate and its influence on the mechanical properties.

  19. Structural Effects of Reinforced Concrete Beam Due to Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Noh Hamidun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is one of the main issues among construction stakeholders. The main consequences of steel corrosion include loss of cross section of steel area, generation of expansive pressure which caused cracking of concrete, spalling and delaminating of the concrete cover. Thus, it reduces the bond strength between the steel reinforcing bar and concrete, and deteriorating the strength of the structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the structural effects of corrosion damage on the performance of reinforced concrete beam. A series of corroded reinforced concrete beam with a corrosion rate of 0%, 20% and 40% of rebar corrosion is used in parametric study to assess the influence of different level of corrosion rate to the structural performance. As a result, the used of interface element in the finite element modelling predicted the worst case of corrosion analysis since cracks is induced and generate at this surface. On the other hand, a positive linear relationship was sketched between the increase of expansive pressure and the corrosion rate. Meanwhile, the gradient of the graph is decreased with the increase of steel bar diameter. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of the structure where the higher corrosion rate generates a higher stress concentration at the mid span of the beam. This study could predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete beam under the corrosion using the finite element analysis. The experimental validation is needed on the next stage to investigate the quantitative relation between the corrosion rate and its influence on the mechanical properties.

  20. Effects of hyacinth residues on chemical properties and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that has blocked many navigable water-ways in the tropics. ... amendments more than S2 and showed that maize performance during the first cropping was better on S1 than S2, whereas during the residual cropping the crop performed equally well on both soils.

  1. Residual Effect of Chromium on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These greenhouse and field trials were aimed at determining the residual influence of Cr on some agronomic characters, nutrient content, nutrient uptake and crude protein content of fluted pumpkin in soils previously treated with 0, 50, 100, 200 mg Cr(NO3). .9H2O per 5 kg soil in the greenhouse and 0, 20, 40, 80 kgha-1 Cr ...

  2. Effect of residual stresses on the reliability of components under fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestenberg, I.

    1995-01-01

    The assurance of the reliability of mechanical components relative to a variety of failure mechanisms is of decisive technical, industrial, and economic importance. In this dissertation, the reliability, i.e. the probability that the lifetime does not fall below a given value, is examined with respect to the particularly important failure mechanisms of fracture and fatigue. The general problem of uniaxial fatigue is studied on the basis of both continuum damage mechanics and crack mechanics. In particular, the mechanisms of crack initiation, as characterized by the Coffin-Manson-Neuber local strain-life equations for notched components as well as the mechanism of crack growth, as governed by the Paris-Erdogang relation, are taken into account. The nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation process for components subjected to general, cyclic loading histories is modeled by a multilinear damage law which allows, in principle, to characterize the subsequent activation of different fatigue mechanisms. Explicit equations are developed for quintuple-, quadruple-, and triple-linear damage accumulation. Particularly promising appears the triple-linear damage approach which allows, in principle, the identification of a nucleation, an initiation, and a final growth stage up to rupture of fatigue cracks. The beneficial effect of intentionally induced compressive residual stresses on the lifetime of the component is investigated. To this end, an elasto-plastic contact problem, based on Prandtl-Reuss' constitutive equations, is numerically solved, and the residual stress field, as it is typically produced by the mechanical process of cold rolling, is established. Assessments of the effect of adaptation, i.e. the subsequent reduction of the residual stresses due to cyclic in-service loading as well as of the effect of unavoidable surface roughness, introduced by manufacturing processes like forging, are carried out. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. The earthworm gastrointestinal effect on the release of organic bound residues in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    Earthworm activities promote the release of bound residues and the digestive activities of earthworms contribute to the process. Earthworm digestive effects on bound residues can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Physical effects include gastrointestinal abrasion and mixing. The abrasion of soil and litter residues in earthworm gizzards and intestine can grind the food into fine particles, which increase the contact surface with microbial and promote the desorption of bound residues. Chemical effects are attributed to the secreted surfactant substances and digestive enzymes. The surfactants, especially at levels that lead to micellization, can enhance the desorption process of the organic contaminants that sored in the soil. The enzymes in earthworm digestive tracts can decompose the humus in soil, which may promote the release of organic residues that bind with humus.

  4. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  5. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The uptake of soil-derived N by a test crop (N catch crop) of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) grown in the autumn was higher after pea than after barley. The N uptake in the test crop was reduced by 27% and 34% after pea and barley residue incorporation, respectively, probably due to N immobilization....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  6. Analysis of 3-D Propagation Effects Due to Environmental Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    D Propagation Effects Due to Environmental Variability 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...beamformer applied to the travel time data extracted over a 400m aperture centered at -1km cross-range. These results clearly display horizontal...460Hz at a depth of 50m (left panel), and plane-wave beamformed response from this data over a 400m aperture centered at -1km cross-range (right

  7. INTERVENTIONS TO MANAGE RESIDUAL LIMB ULCERATION DUE TO PROSTHETIC USE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH LOWER EXTREMITY AMPUTATION:A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Andrews, Casey R; Lewis, Katherine L; Bradley, Rachel C; Ward, Jessica M; Orriola, John J; Highsmith, James T

    2016-09-01

    Patients with lower extremity amputation (LEA) experience 65% more dermatologic issues than non-amputees, and skin problems are experienced by ≈75% of LEA patients who use prostheses. Continuously referring LEA patients to a dermatologist for every stump related skin condition may be impractical. Thus, physical rehabilitation professionals should be prepared to recognize and manage common non-emergent skin conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity, quality, and strength of available evidence supporting treatment methods for prosthesis-related residual limb (RL) ulcers. Systematic literature review with evidence grading and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES) was employed. Three EESs were formulated describing ulcer etiology, conditions in which prosthetic continuance is practical, circumstances likely requiring prosthetic discontinuance, and the consideration of additional medical or surgical interventions. Continued prosthetic use is a viable option to manage minor or early-stage ulcerated residual limbs in compliant patients lacking multiple comorbidities. Prosthetic discontinuance is also a viable method of residual limb ulcer healing and may be favored in the presence of severe acute ulcerations, chronic heavy smoking, intractable pain, rapid volume and weight change, history of chronic ulceration, systemic infections, or advanced dysvascular etiology. Surgery or other interventions may also be necessary in such cases to achieve restored prosthetic ambulation. A short bout of prosthetic discontinuance with a staged re-introduction plan is another viable option that may be warranted in patients with ulceration due to poor RL volume management. High-quality prospective research with larger samples is needed to determine the most appropriate course of treatment when a person with LEA develops an RL ulcer that is associated with prosthetic use.

  8. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  9. Stresses and strains in pavement structures due to the effect of temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Mila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At its absolute amount, stresses due to the effect of temperature in the pavement structures, especially those rigid, are often of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from vehicles' load, but it happens that due to such impact many slabs become cracked before the road is handed over into operation. The temperature stresses which occur in pavement structures include stresses due to bending and buckling, stresses due to friction and hidden stresses. Stresses caused by the influence of temperature in the pavement structure during the day are generally below the strength of the component materials so they do not cause the consequences for structure. However, appearance of residual stresses and their accumulation after a sufficiently long period of time may lead to failure in structure, i.e. thermal fatigue. The paper presents the effects of temperature changes on the pavement structures in the physical and mechanical terms, and the manner in which the temperature is taken into account during the design of pavement structures.

  10. Effects on vegetable seeds due to non ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acri, G.; Oliva, A.; Falcone, G. [Universita della Calabria, Dipt. di Fisica, Cosenza (Italy); Acri, G.; Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G. [Universita della Calabria, Dipt. di Ecologia, Cosenza (Italy); Bitonti, M.B.; Chiappetta, A. [Universita di Messina, Dipt. di Protezionistica Ambientale, Sanitaria, Sociale ed Industriale, Messina (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Based on the tightly relationship between light and plants growth and development, the present work aims to obtain some further insight into the effects of non ionizing radiation the photo-autotrophic organisms, due to the relevant implications for both scientific knowledge and economical and social effects. In this context, a set of experiments was conducted to investigate the influence of a long-lasting exposition to both RF at 1850 MHz and polarized light source on roots elongation of corn kernels. The radical apparatus was chosen as a sensible parameter and the elongation of the roots was monitored as a function of time. Mitotic index and length of meta-xylem cells were estimated in root apex as an index of cell proliferation and cell expansion activity, respectively. (N.C.)

  11. Effects on vegetable seeds due to non ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acri, G.; Oliva, A.; Falcone, G.; Acri, G.; Testagrossa, B.; Vermiglio, G.; Tripepi, M.G.; Bitonti, M.B.; Chiappetta, A.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the tightly relationship between light and plants growth and development, the present work aims to obtain some further insight into the effects of non ionizing radiation the photo-autotrophic organisms, due to the relevant implications for both scientific knowledge and economical and social effects. In this context, a set of experiments was conducted to investigate the influence of a long-lasting exposition to both RF at 1850 MHz and polarized light source on roots elongation of corn kernels. The radical apparatus was chosen as a sensible parameter and the elongation of the roots was monitored as a function of time. Mitotic index and length of meta-xylem cells were estimated in root apex as an index of cell proliferation and cell expansion activity, respectively. (N.C.)

  12. Tsunamis effects at coastal sites due to offshore faulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloh, T.; Striem, H.L.

    1976-07-01

    Unusual waves (tsunamis) triggered by submarine tectonic activity such as a fault displacement in the sea bottom may have considerable effect on a coastal site. The possiblity of such phenomena to occur at the southern coast of Israel due to a series of shore-parallel faults, about twenty kilometers offshore, is examined in this paper. The analysis relates the energy or the momentum imparted to the body of water due to a fault displacement of the sea bottom to the energy or the momentum of he water waves thus created. The faults off the Ashdod coast may cause surface waves with amplitudes of about five metres and periods of about one third of an hour. It is also considered that because of the downward movement of the faulted blocks a recession of the sea level rather than a flooding would be the first and the predominant effect at the shore, and this is in agreement with some historical reports. The analysis here presented might be of interest to those designing coastal power plants. (author)

  13. Electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric nanobeams due to the flexoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. D.; Yang, C. P.; Su, Y. X.; Huang, R.; Lin, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The flexoelectric effect is a coupling of polarization and strain gradient, which exists in a wide variety of materials and may lead to strong size-dependent properties at the nanoscale. Based on an extension to the classical beam model, this paper investigates the electromechanical coupling response of piezoelectric nanobeams with different electrical boundary conditions including the effect of flexoelectricity. The electric Gibbs free energy and the variational principle are used to derive the governing equations with three types of electrical boundary conditions. Closed-form solutions are obtained for static bending of cantilever beams. The results show that the normalized effective stiffness increases with decreasing beam thickness in the open circuit electrical boundary conditions with or without surface electrodes. The induced electric potential due to the flexoelectric effect is obtained under the open circuit conditions, which may be important for sensing or energy harvesting applications. An intrinsic thickness depending on the material properties is identified for the maximum induced electric potential. The present results also show that flexoelectricity has a more significant effect on the electroelastic responses than piezoelectricity at the nanoscale. Our analysis in the present study can be useful for understanding of the electromechanical coupling in nanobeams with flexoelectricity.

  14. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  15. How effective are common household preparations on removing pesticide residues from fruit and vegetables? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wc

    2017-12-09

    Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest control in crops, especially for fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases, washing and soaking can only lead to a certain degree of reduction in residue level, while other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aims to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses

  17. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  18. Evaluation of machining effect for the residual stress of SA508 by hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kun; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Song, Ki O; Kim, Young Shin

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses on a surface of the material are welcome or undesirable since it's direction, compression or tensile. But especially for the fatigue, it is not negligible effect on the material strength. These residual stresses developed during the manufacturing processes involving material deformation, heat treatment, machining. The object of this paper is verifying the effect of machining what is mostly used for SA508. For verifying the effect of machining, three different kind of machining have been achieved, milling, grinding, wire cutting. Also to measure the residual stress, hole drill method and indentation method are used.

  19. The Effect of Welding-Pass Grouping on the Prediction Accuracy of Residual Stress in Multipass Butt Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongung Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual stress analysis of a thick welded structure requires a lot of time and computer memory, which are different from those in thin welded structure analysis. This study investigated the effect of residual stress due to welding-pass grouping as a way to reduce the analysis time in multipass thick butt welding joint. For this purpose, the parametric analysis which changes the number of grouping passes was conducted in the multipass butt weld of a structure with a thickness of 25 mm and 70 mm. In addition, the residual stress by thermal elastoplastic FE analysis is compared with the results by the neutron diffraction method for verifying the reliability of the FE analysis. The welding sequence is considered in order to predict the residual stress more accurately when using welding-pass grouping method. The results of the welding-pass grouping model and half model occurred between the results of the left/right of the full model. If the total number of welding-pass grouping is less than half of that of welding pass, a large difference with real residual stress is found. Therefore, the total number of the welding-pass grouping should not be reduced to more than half.

  20. The effect of residual stress on polymer pipe lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Frank, A.; Náhlík, Luboš; Kučera, J.; Pinter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, SI (2013), s. 98-108 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack paths 2012. Gaeta, 19.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual stress * Linear elastic fracture mechanics * Lifetime estimation * Polyethylene pipes * Slow crack growth Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013

  1. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  2. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  3. Effects of Bio-char on Soil Microbes in Herbicide Residual Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gen-lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on soil microbial community were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment, which clarifed the improvement of biochar and its structural properties on soil microenvironment. The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes had the same effect tendency within 0~0.72 mg·kg-1 in clomazone residue which increased the role of stimulation with crop growth process prolonged, especially in high residue treatment, but strong inhibitory effect on bacteria community was occured early which returned to normal until sugar beet growth to fiftieth day. Soil fungi community decreased with bio-char adding, but had no significant difference with the control. When clomazone residue in soil was below 0.24 mg·kg-1, soil actinomycetes community was higher than control without bio-char, bacteria increased first and then reduced after adding carbon as below 0.12 mg·kg-1. Biochar was ‘deep hole’ structure containing C, O, S and other elements. The results showed that a certain concentration clomazone residue in soil would stimulate soil fungi and actinomycetes to grow. After adding the biochar, the inhibition effect of high herbicides residual on bacterial would be alleviated.

  4. The Effect of Creep on the Residual Stresses Generated During Silicon Sheet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. W.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The modeling of stresses generated during the growth of thin silicon sheets at high speeds is an important part of the EFG technique since the experimental measurement of the stresses is difficult and prohibitive. The residual stresses which arise in such a growth process lead to serious problems which make thin Si ribbons unsuitable for fabrication. The constitutive behavior is unrealistic because at high temperature (close to the melting point) Si exhibits considerable creep which significantly relaxes the residual stresses. The effect of creep on the residual stresses generated during the growth of Si sheets at high speeds was addressed and the basic qualitative effect of creep are reported.

  5. Outlet baffles: Effect on liquid residuals from zero-gravity draining of hemispherically ended cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the relative effectiveness of various outlet baffles in reducing liquid residuals resulting from the draining of hemispherically ended cylindrical tanks in a weightless environment. Three different baffles were employed. The relative effectiveness of each baffle was determined by comparing the results obtained, in the form of liquid residuals, with results for an unbaffled tank. Data indicate that all the baffles tested reduced residuals. Reductions betweem 10 and 60 percent were obtained, depending on baffle geometry and outlfow Weber number.

  6. Effects of twin-screw extrusion on soluble dietary fibre and physicochemical properties of soybean residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Chi, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Extrusion cooking technology was applied for soluble dietary fibre extraction from soybean residue. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the effects of extrusion parameters, namely extrusion temperature (90-130°C), feed moisture (25-35%) and screw speed (160-200 rpm) on the content of soluble dietary fibre. According to the regression coefficients significance of the quadratic polynomial model, the optimum extrusion parameters were as follows: extrusion temperature, 115°C; feed moisture, 31%; and screw speed, 180 rpm. Under these conditions, the soluble dietary fibre content of soybean residue could reach to 12.65% which increased 10.60% compared with the unextruded soybean residue. In addition, the dietary fibre in extrude soybean residue had higher water retention capacity, oil retention capacity and swelling capacity than those of dietary fibre in unextruded soybean residue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute effects of high-dose furosemide on residual renal function in CAPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olden, Rudolf W.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Arisz, Lambertus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of furosemide can increase urine volume in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. However, no information is available about effects on urinary solute excretion in relation to residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary furosemide excretion, and peritoneal solute

  8. Characterization of Residual Stress Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; James, Mark A.; Brazill, Richard L.; Schultz, Robert W.; Donald, J. Keith; Blair, Amy

    2015-01-01

    An on-line compliance-based method to account for residual stress effects in stress-intensity factor and fatigue crack growth property determinations has been evaluated. Residual stress intensity factor results determined from specimens containing friction stir weld induced residual stresses are presented, and the on-line method results were found to be in excellent agreement with residual stress-intensity factor data obtained using the cut compliance method. Variable stress-intensity factor tests were designed to demonstrate that a simple superposition model, summing the applied stress-intensity factor with the residual stress-intensity factor, can be used to determine the total crack-tip stress-intensity factor. Finite element, VCCT (virtual crack closure technique), and J-integral analysis methods have been used to characterize weld-induced residual stress using thermal expansion/contraction in the form of an equivalent delta T (change in local temperature during welding) to simulate the welding process. This equivalent delta T was established and applied to analyze different specimen configurations to predict residual stress distributions and associated residual stress-intensity factor values. The predictions were found to agree well with experimental results obtained using the crack- and cut-compliance methods.

  9. Saltwater Intrusion Through Submerged Caves due to the Venturi Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazmutdinova, K.; Nof, D.

    2016-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion into freshwater sources is a concern in coastal areas. In order to reduce the intrusion of seawater the physical mechanisms that allow this to occur must be understood. This study presents an approach to quantify saltwater intrusion in karstic coastal aquifers due to the presence of submerged caves. Many water-filled caves have variable tunnel cross-sections and often have narrow connections between two otherwise large tunnels. Generally, the diameter of these restrictions is 1 - 2 m and the flow speed within them is approximately 1 - 5 m/s. Main cave tunnels can be 10 - 20 times bigger than restrictions, and have flow speeds ranging anywhere between 0.5 cm/s and 20 cm/s. According to Bernoulli's theorem, in order to balance high velocities within a restriction, the pressure has to drop as the water flow passes through a narrow tunnel. This is expected to influence the height to which a deeper saline aquifer can penetrate in conduits connecting the narrow restriction and saltwater. For sufficiently small restrictions, saline water can invade the freshwater tunnel. The intrusion of saltwater from a deeper, saline aquifer into a fresh groundwater system due to the Venturi effect in submerged caves was computed, and an analytical and a qualitative model that captures saltwater intrusion into a fresh aquifer was developed. Using Bernoulli's theorem, we show that depths from which the saline water can be drawn into the freshwater tunnel reach up to 450 m depending on the difference in the density between fresh and saltwater. The velocity of the saline upward flow is estimated to be 1.4 m/s using the parameters for Wakulla Spring, a first order magnitude spring in Florida, with a saltwater interface 180 m below the spring cave system.

  10. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  11. Increased risks of malaria due to limited residual life of insecticide and outdoor biting versus protection by combined use of nets and indoor residual spraying on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, with year-round transmission. In 2004 an intensive malaria control strategy primarily based on indoor residual spraying (IRS was launched. The limited residual life of IRS poses particular challenges in a setting with year-round transmission, such as Bioko. Recent reports of outdoor biting by Anopheles gambiae are an additional cause for concern. In this study, the effect of the short residual life of bendiocarb insecticide and of children spending time outdoors at night, on malaria infection prevalence was examined. Methods Data from the 2011 annual malaria indicator survey and from standard WHO cone bioassays were used to examine the relationship between time since IRS, mosquito mortality and prevalence of infection in children. How often children spend time outside at night and the association of this behaviour with malaria infection were also examined. Results Prevalence of malaria infection in two to 14 year-olds in 2011 was 18.4%, 21.0% and 28.1% in communities with median time since IRS of three, four and five months respectively. After adjusting for confounders, each extra month since IRS corresponded to an odds ratio (OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.15–1.81 for infection prevalence in two to 14 year-olds. Mosquito mortality was 100%, 96%, 81% and 78%, at month 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively after spraying. Only 4.1% of children spent time outside the night before the survey between the hours of 22.00 and 06.00 and those who did were not at a higher risk of infection (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.50–1.54. Sleeping under a mosquito net provided additive protection (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86. Conclusions The results demonstrate the epidemiological impact of reduced mosquito mortality with time since IRS. The study underscores that in settings of year-round transmission there is a compelling need for longer-lasting IRS insecticides, but that in the interim, high coverage of long

  12. Effect of residual stress and hardening on grain boundary sliding in welds of low-carbon stainless steels with surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Katsuyama, Jinya

    2008-01-01

    To clarify the effects of residual stress and hardening on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in welds of low-carbon austenitic stainless steels with surface machining, residual stress and hardness were evaluated by 3-dimentional thermo elastic-plastic analysis and grain boundary sliding behavior was examined using a constant strain rate tensile test. It was revealed that grain boundary sliding occurred in the material at 561K by the tensile test with the numerically simulated tensile residual stress due to multi-pass welding and surface machining. In addition, it was clarified that the grain boundary energy is raised by the grain boundary sliding. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the cause of IGSCC in the welds of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with surface hardening is the increase in grain boundary energy due to grain boundary sliding induced by residual stress of multi pass welding and surface hardening. (author)

  13. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  14. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  15. Effects of the components of coal hydro-liquefaction residue on its rheological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y.; Jin, S.; Xu, Y.; Wei, A.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-07-01

    Four kinds of typical coal liquefaction residue samples, coming from Shenhua coal liquefaction pilot plant, were used to investigate the effects of components of residue, separation time, and temperature on its rheological characteristics. Coal liquefaction residue is a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid whose apparent viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Moreover, the residue has high viscosity at the initial softening temperature, and its viscosity drops greatly with increasing temperature. The oil content in residue has a great effect on the decline of the apparent viscosity of residue. The asphaltene can increase the apparent viscosity at lower temperatures but decrease it at higher temperatures. However, the solid only increases the apparent viscosity as it can be neither softened nor dissolved to become fluid. After simulating the separation condition, it is found that prolonging the separation time and enhancing the separation temperature will increase the apparent viscosity of residue, which is bad for preventing pipes from being blocked. So choosing the right separation time and separation temperature is necessary to actual industrial production.

  16. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  17. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress of repaired weldment in surge nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang Young; Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In the welding process, weldments usually include repair weld during the manufacturing process. Repair welds is supposed to cause strong tensile residual stress. Moreover weldments, usually made by Alloy 82/182, is susceptible to PWSCC. Therefore, mitigation of welding residual stress in weldments is important for reliable operating. PWOL is one of the methods for mitigation and verified for over twenty years. In this paper, residual stress distribution of repaired weldments and the effect of PWOL on mitigation is examined for surge nozzle.

  18. The effect of reuse of unhairing-liming residual floats through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... and yeast), proteolytic and lypolytic fungi in each unhairing-liming residual float reused ten times through regeneration. Enumeration of ... phide is toxic, it is still the prime depilant in the ULP. Due to its high pollution ... to reduce the environmental impacts of the process, and many investigations have been ...

  19. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Correlations between nitrogen uptake by maize plant vs. gain/dry matter yield and dry matter yield vs. grain yield of maize. clover residue treatment. Deguchi et al. (2007) reported similar results and explained that the improvement in the. P nutrition of corn was not due to the biomass P of the white clover but ...

  20. The effect of reuse of unhairing-liming residual floats through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though microorganism load was mostly ignored in the unhairing-liming process due to extremely high pH values, it is a question to answer when unhairing-liming residual floats are reused through regeneration. The objective of this paper was to determine the number of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and of ...

  1. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zer Cindy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL and sulfamethazine (SM2 are low molecular weight ( Results The artificial antigens were spotted on microarray slides. Standard concentrations of the compounds were added to compete with the spotted antigens for binding to the antisera to determine the IC50. Our microarray assay showed the IC50 were 39.6 ng/ml for CL and 48.8 ng/ml for SM2, while the traditional competitive indirect-ELISA (ci-ELISA showed the IC50 were 190.7 ng/ml for CL and 156.7 ng/ml for SM2. We further validated the two methods with CL fortified chicken muscle tissues, and the protein microarray assay showed 90% recovery while the ci-ELISA had 76% recovery rate. When tested with CL-fed chicken muscle tissues, the protein microarray assay had higher sensitivity (0.9 ng/g than the ci-ELISA (0.1 ng/g for detection of CL residues. Conclusions The protein microarrays showed 4.5 and 3.5 times lower IC50 than the ci-ELISA detection for CL and SM2, respectively, suggesting that immunodetection of small molecules with protein microarray is a better approach than the traditional ELISA technique.

  2. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  3. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and envir...

  4. Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao

    2012-01-01

    Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.

  5. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odore, R; De Marco, M; Gasco, L; Rotolo, L; Meucci, V; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Ruggiero, G; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Centenaro, S; Quarantelli, A; Terrazzano, G; Schiavone, A

    2015-08-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  6. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO 3 ) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO 3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm 2 . LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO 3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO 3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO 3 , thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO 3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application

  7. Bark- and wood-boring beetles on Scots pine logging residues from final felling: Effects of felling date, deposition location and diameter of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Foit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the risk of bark- and wood-boring beetle pests, the extensive removal of logging residues is conducted in forests; however, this practice can lead to a loss of saproxylic insect diversity. Thus, finding a better pest management strategy is needed and requires additional information on the actual effects of various, differently treated logging residues for pest multiplication. In the present study, a total of 2,160 fragments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. logging residues generated during final felling in a single stand in the Drahanská Highlands in the Czech Republic were examined for bark- and wood-boring beetles. The felling occurred on four dates in 2006 (in February, May, August and November. The logging residues from each felling were left scattered on the clear-cut area or were gathered into piles. The fauna inhabiting the logging residues were investigated by peeling off the bark during the first six months of the vegetative period following the felling. The logging residues hosted species-rich assemblages of bark- and wood-boring beetles (25 species were identified. Beetle occurrence was significantly affected by felling date, logging residue type (trunk fragment or branch and branch thinner or thicker than 1 cm, diameter and the manner in which the logging residues were deposited (freely scattered, top pile layer, or bottom pile layer. The Scots pine logging residues were a substrate for the significant multiplication of several potentially significant pests (particularly, Pityogenes chalcographus [Linnaeus], Ips acuminatus [Gyllenhal] and Pityophthorus pityographus [Ratzeburg]. The results indicated that the risk of pest reproduction can be minimised by felling the trees in August (and probably also September and October. For I. acuminatus and P. pityographus, the risk can be minimised by gathering the logging residues into piles.

  8. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-03-01

    grain and biological yield resulted from the treated plants with F1 there was no difference among F2 and F1 fertilizer rate for grain yield of wheat. Also cereal straw + legume (GM in CR4 and CR5 treatments in F2 performed better than F1 fertilizer in no residue treatment and Wheat grain yield under F2 × CR5 treatments was 25% greater than under F1 × CR8 treatments. The combined use of NPK fertilizer plays an important role in wheat production. Application of NPK in balanced share at proper time has great impact on wheat yield. In order to achieve higher crop production, balanced and integrated nutrient supply and proper management of soil fertility is essential. Application of crop residues/green manures along with suitable does of major nutrients for efficient growth of crop prevent the decline in organic carbon and also bridge up gap between potential and actual yield of wheat. Further, use of crop residue had favorable effect on physic chemical and biological properties of soil due to supply of macro and micro-nutrients to crop properly. Furthermore the decomposition and mineralization of crop residue is a slow process which could match the nutrient requirement of crop. The protein percentage, which is higher in CR5 and CR4 ,shows in whole crop residue treatments, the lowest valuable in F3 and improves with the increase in fertilization researching the highest value with the rate F1. No significant difference was observed between the rate F2 and F3; this would suggest a lower efficiency of the latter, at least for protein accumulation. Increased wheat yield and component yield due to different crop residue incorporation and NPK rate were reported by Verhulst et al. (2011 and Aulakh et al. (2012. Conclusion Application of (140N- 90P- 80K kg.ha-1 and straw wheat along with mungbean and application straw barley + green manure was more effective than (180N- 120P- 100K kg.ha-1 application in no residue incorporation on grain yield and based on this research findings

  9. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    grain and biological yield resulted from the treated plants with F1 there was no difference among F2 and F1 fertilizer rate for grain yield of wheat. Also cereal straw + legume (GM in CR4 and CR5 treatments in F2 performed better than F1 fertilizer in no residue treatment and Wheat grain yield under F2 × CR5 treatments was 25% greater than under F1 × CR8 treatments. The combined use of NPK fertilizer plays an important role in wheat production. Application of NPK in balanced share at proper time has great impact on wheat yield. In order to achieve higher crop production, balanced and integrated nutrient supply and proper management of soil fertility is essential. Application of crop residues/green manures along with suitable does of major nutrients for efficient growth of crop prevent the decline in organic carbon and also bridge up gap between potential and actual yield of wheat. Further, use of crop residue had favorable effect on physic chemical and biological properties of soil due to supply of macro and micro-nutrients to crop properly. Furthermore the decomposition and mineralization of crop residue is a slow process which could match the nutrient requirement of crop. The protein percentage, which is higher in CR5 and CR4 ,shows in whole crop residue treatments, the lowest valuable in F3 and improves with the increase in fertilization researching the highest value with the rate F1. No significant difference was observed between the rate F2 and F3; this would suggest a lower efficiency of the latter, at least for protein accumulation. Increased wheat yield and component yield due to different crop residue incorporation and NPK rate were reported by Verhulst et al. (2011 and Aulakh et al. (2012. Conclusion Application of (140N- 90P- 80K kg.ha-1 and straw wheat along with mungbean and application straw barley + green manure was more effective than (180N- 120P- 100K kg.ha-1 application in no residue incorporation on grain yield and based on this research findings

  10. Effects of different ratios of pig manure to fungus residue on physicochemical parameters during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangming; Wang, Litong; Wang, Houming; Jiang, Long; Jiang, Xinyou

    2016-05-01

    This study examined physicochemical parameters to assess their effectiveness as stability and maturity indicators during the process of composting pig manure and fungus residue at different ratios. The results showed that composting mixtures with all ratios of pig manure to fungus residue maintained a temperature exceeding 50 °C for more than 10 days during composting and met the requirement for pathogen destruction. The treatment containing mainly pig manure showed higher nitrogen loss and a shorter thermophilic phase and maturity time than the treatment containing mainly fungus residue. The germination index (GI) values indicated that compost maturity was achieved in the final compost with initial ratios of pig manure to fungus residue of 9:1-7:3 (GIs of 101.4%, 91.2%, and 81.3%); the ratio of 6:4 did not reach compost maturity (GI of 63.8%) and had an inhibitory effect on seed germination. The results of this study suggest that a ratio of pig manure to fungus residue of approximately 8:2 can be considered suitable for the efficient and quality composting of pig manure and fungus residue. Co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue with appropriate proportion can effectively reduce the risk of environmental pollution caused by agricultural wastes, as well as achieve a safer and high-quality organic fertilizer, which can be used to improve physical and chemical properties of the soil, increase crop yields, and promote agricultural sustainable development. Therefore, technique of co-composting of pig manure and edible fungi residue has a wide prospect of application in practical production all over the world.

  11. Air pollution effects due to deregulation of the electric industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Khojasteh Riaz

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 introduced the concept of open-access into the electric utility industry which allows privately-owned utilities to transmit power produced by non-utility generators and independent power producers (IPPs). In April 1996, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) laid down the final rules (Orders No. 888 & No. 889), which required utilities to open their transmission lines to any power producer and charge them no more than what they pay for the use of their own lines. These rules set the stage for the retail sale of electricity to industrial, commercial and residential utility customers; non-utility generators (Nugs); and power marketers. These statutory, regulatory and administrative changes create for the electric utility industry two different forces that contradict each other. The first is the concept of competition among utility companies; this places a greater emphasis on electric power generation cost control and affects generation/fuel mix selection and demand side management (DSM) activities. The second force, which is converse to the first, is that utilities are major contributors to the air pollution burden in the United States and environmental concerns are forcing them to reduce emissions of air pollutants by using more environmentally friendly fuels and implementing energy saving programs. This study evaluates the impact of deregulation within the investor owned electric utilities and how this deregulation effects air quality by investigating the trend in demand side management programs and generation/fuel mix. A survey was conducted of investor owned utilities and independent power producers. The results of the survey were analyzed by analysis of variance and regression analysis to determine the impact to Air Pollution. An air Quality Impact model was also developed in this study. This model consists of six modules: (1) demand side management and (2) consumption of coal, (3) gas, (4) renewable, (5) oil and (6

  12. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  13. Probing the disparate effects of arginine and lysine residues on antimicrobial peptide/bilayer association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A; Wereszczynski, J

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of the innate immune response and represent promising templates for the development of broad-spectrum alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Most AMPs are short, cationic peptides that interact more strongly with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes than net neutral eukaryotic ones. Both AMPs and synthetic analogues with arginine-like side chains are more active against bacteria than those with lysine-like amine groups, though the atomistic mechanism for this increase in potency remains unclear. To examine this, we conducted comparative molecular dynamics simulations of a model negatively-charged membrane system interacting with two mutants of the AMP KR-12: one with lysine residues mutated to arginines (R-KR12) and one with arginine residues mutated to lysine (K-KR12). Simulations show that both partition analogously to the bilayer and display similar preferences for hydrogen bonding with the anionic POPGs. However, R-KR12 binds stronger to the bilayer than K-KR12 and forms significantly more hydrogen bonds, leading to considerably longer interaction times. Additional simulations with methylated R-KR12 and charge-modified K-KR12 mutants show that the extensive interaction seen in the R-KR12 system is partly due to arginine's strong atomic charge distribution, rather than being purely an effect of the greater number of hydrogen bond donors. Finally, free energy simulations reveal that both peptides are disordered in solution but form an amphipathic α-helix when inserted into the bilayer headgroup region. Overall, these results highlight the role of charge and hydrogen bond strength in peptide bilayer insertion, and offer potential insights for designing more potent analogues in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictive modeling and multi-objective optimization of machining-induced residual stresses: Investigation of machining parameter effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutan, Durul

    2013-01-01

    In the aerospace industry, titanium and nickel-based alloys are frequently used for critical structural components, especially due to their higher strength at both low and high temperatures, and higher wear and chemical degradation resistance. However, because of their unfavorable thermal properties, deformation and friction-induced microstructural changes prevent the end products from having good surface integrity properties. In addition to surface roughness, microhardness changes, and microstructural alterations, the machining-induced residual stress profiles of titanium and nickel-based alloys contribute in the surface integrity of these products. Therefore, it is essential to create a comprehensive method that predicts the residual stress outcomes of machining processes, and understand how machining parameters (cutting speed, uncut chip thickness, depth of cut, etc.) or tool parameters (tool rake angle, cutting edge radius, tool material/coating, etc.) affect the machining-induced residual stresses. Since experiments involve a certain amount of error in measurements, physics-based simulation experiments should also involve an uncertainty in the predicted values, and a rich set of simulation experiments are utilized to create expected value and variance for predictions. As the first part of this research, a method to determine the friction coefficients during machining from practical experiments was introduced. Using these friction coefficients, finite element-based simulation experiments were utilized to determine flow stress characteristics of materials and then to predict the machining-induced forces and residual stresses, and the results were validated using the experimental findings. A sensitivity analysis on the numerical parameters was conducted to understand the effect of changing physical and numerical parameters, increasing the confidence on the selected parameters, and the effect of machining parameters on machining-induced forces and residual

  15. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  16. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  17. Effective inter-residue contact definitions for accurate protein fold recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective encoding of residue contact information is crucial for protein structure prediction since it has a unique role to capture long-range residue interactions compared to other commonly used scoring terms. The residue contact information can be incorporated in structure prediction in several different ways: It can be incorporated as statistical potentials or it can be also used as constraints in ab initio structure prediction. To seek the most effective definition of residue contacts for template-based protein structure prediction, we evaluated 45 different contact definitions, varying bases of contacts and distance cutoffs, in terms of their ability to identify proteins of the same fold. Results We found that overall the residue contact pattern can distinguish protein folds best when contacts are defined for residue pairs whose Cβ atoms are at 7.0 Å or closer to each other. Lower fold recognition accuracy was observed when inaccurate threading alignments were used to identify common residue contacts between protein pairs. In the case of threading, alignment accuracy strongly influences the fraction of common contacts identified among proteins of the same fold, which eventually affects the fold recognition accuracy. The largest deterioration of the fold recognition was observed for β-class proteins when the threading methods were used because the average alignment accuracy was worst for this fold class. When results of fold recognition were examined for individual proteins, we found that the effective contact definition depends on the fold of the proteins. A larger distance cutoff is often advantageous for capturing spatial arrangement of the secondary structures which are not physically in contact. For capturing contacts between neighboring β strands, considering the distance between Cα atoms is better than the Cβ−based distance because the side-chain of interacting residues on β strands sometimes point to

  18. The differential effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mello, Joana

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments contrast the effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth, after participants learn to associate high levels of fluency with falseness (i.e., a reversal of the fluency-truth link). Experiment 1 shows that the interpretation of fluency as a sign of truth is harder to reverse when learning is promoted with repetition rather than with perceptual fluency. Experiment 2 shows that when color contrast and repetition are manipulated orthogonally, the reversal of the truth effect learned with color contrast does not generalize to repetition. These results suggest specificities in the processing experiences generated by different sources of fluency, and that their influences can be separated in contexts that allow the contrast of their distinctive features. We interpret and discuss these results in light of the research addressing the convergence vs. dissociation of the effects elicited by different fluency sources.

  19. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, unknown-manner changes in charge neutrality point (CNP) positioning were ascribed to humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exactmeans of humidity interacting with hydrophobicgraphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene ...

  20. Effect of Dimethoate Residues on Soil Micro-arthropods Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    its ecotoxicological effects on the soil micro- arthropods population. There are no baseline data available about the soil contamination with pesticides and the soil fauna of the study area . MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study area: The valley of Zendan is located in. Arhab Destrict, Sana'a Governorate. This valley is.

  1. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  2. Effect of orthodontic debonding and residual adhesive removal on 3D enamel microroughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Janiszewska-Olszowska

    2016-10-01

    (skewness of the scale-limited surface. Discussion Confocal laser microscopy allowed 3D surface analysis of enamel surface, avoiding the limitations of contact profilometry. Tungsten carbide burs are the most popular adhesive removing tools, however, the results of the present study indicate, that a one step polisher and finisher as well as Adhesive Residue Remover are less detrimental to the enamel. This is in agreement with a recent study based on direct 3D scanning enamel surface. It proved, that a one-step finisher and polisher as well as Adhesive Residue Remover are characterized by a similar effectiveness in removing residual remnants as tungsten carbide bur, but they remove significantly less enamel. Conclusion Orthodontic debonding and removal of adhesive remnants increases enamel roughness. The smoothest surfaces were achieved using Adhesive Residue Remover, and the roughest using tungsten carbide bur.

  3. How To Test Nontarget Effects of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Residues in Livestock Dung in the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochmann, R.; Blanckenhorn, W.U.; Bussière, L.; Eirkson, C.E.; Jensen, J.; Kryger, U.; Lahr, J.; Lumaret, J.P.; Römbke, J.; Wardhaugh, K.G.; Floate, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    To register veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) as parasiticides on pastured animals, legislation in the European Union requires an environmental risk assessment to test the potential nontarget effects of fecal residues on dung-dwelling organisms. Products with adverse effects in single-species

  4. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element in the environment. Higher levels of As in soils may result from various anthropogenic sources such as use of arsenical pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes, and coal combustion. This is of great environmental and human health concern due to the high toxicity and proven carcinogenicity of several arsenical species. Thus there is a need for developing cost effective technologies capable of lowering bioavailable As concentrations in soils to environmentally acceptable levels. In-situ immobilization of metals using inexpensive amendments such as minerals (apatite, zeolite, or clay minerals) or waste by-products (steel shot, beringite, and iron-rich biosolids) to reduce bioavailability is an inexpensive alternative to the more expensive ex-situ remediation methods. One such emerging in-situ technique is the application of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). WTRs can be classified as a byproduct of drinking water treatment plants and are generally composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. WTRs possess amorphous structure and generally have high positive charge. Because As is chemically similar to phosphorus, the oxyanions As (V) and As (III) may have the potential of being retained by the WTRs. Thus, it is hypothesized that WTRs retain As irreversibly, thereby reducing As biavailability. As mobility of arsenic is controlled by adsorption reactions, knowledge of adsorption of As by WTRs is of primary relevance. Although the overall rate of adsorption is dependent on numerous factors, review of the literature indicates that competing ions in solution play an important role in the overall retention of As; however, little work has been conducted to identify which ions provide the most competition. As arsenic adsorption appears to be influenced by the variable pH-dependent charges developed on the soil particle surfaces, the effect of pH is also of critical importance. Hence, the

  5. Effect of flue gas desulfurization residue on plant establishment and soil and leachate quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punshon, T.; Adriano, D.C.; Weber, J.T. [University of Georgia, Savannah, GA (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2001-06-01

    Effects on soil quality and crop establishment after incorporation of flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) into soil as an amendment was assessed in a mesocosm study. Mesocosm units received applications equivalent to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% FGD residue. Germination, biomass production, and elemental composition of corn, radish and cotton were determined. The quality of leachates and soil were also determined periodically. Flue gas desulfurization residue did not affect germination and all application rates stimulated aboveground biomass. Plants grown in FGD-amended soil contained significantly elevated tissue concentrations of As, B, Se, and Mo. The FGD residue elevated surface soil pH from 5.5 to 8.1. Leachate pH was unaffected by FGD, but salinity rose sharply with increasing application rates of FGD. Leachates contained higher concentrations of B, with small increases in Se and As. Flue gas desulfurization residue application caused an increase in total B, As, Mo, Se and extractable Ca in the soil, but decreased Mn and Zn. Using FGD residues could have beneficial effects on crop establishment without detrimental effects on soil or leachate quality, at an optimum rate of approximately 2.5%. This material could alleviate surface acidity, and B and Mo deficiencies in plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. EXOGENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF OXYTOCIN AND ITS RESIDUAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. IJAZ AND M. ALEEM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a peptide hormone which is synthesized in the hypothalamic neurons and released from the posterior pituitary gland. This hormone has a wide range of applications in human and veterinary medicine. Whether secreted endogenously or administered exogenously, it produces the desired effects within minutes and is metabolized rapidly into inactive products. If at all oxytocin is secreted in the milk and is ingested alongwith milk, it is degraded by the gut enzymes and can not reach blood circulation in biologically active form. Thus, there seems to be no harm in consuming milk from oxytocin-treated dairy animals. However, its use in pregnant animals should be discouraged.

  7. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  8. Fatigue life estimation of welded components considering welding residual stress relaxation and its mean stress effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  9. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    sativum L.), was studied in three field experiments. The effect of catch crop incorporation in the soil on the yield and N accumulation in succeeding crops was also investigated. An aftersown catch crop should be used for pea, since undersown ryegrasses reduced the pea yield. Undersown perennial ryegrass......The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...... or an aftersown catch crop can be used for spring barley. The catch crops had accumulated up to 70 kg N ha-1 at the time of ploughdown in early December. The nitrogen accumulation in catch crops following pea was significantly higher than in the catch crop following barley supplied with 100 kg N ha-1. Barley...

  10. Pulmonary effects due to short-term exposure to oil fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selgrade, M.K.; Hatch, G.E.; Grose, E.C.; Illing, J.W.; Stead, A.G.; Miller, F.J.; Graham, J.A.; Stevens, M.A.; Hardisty, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Rats were exposed to an oil fog generated by flash vaporation and subsequent condensation of lightweight lubricating oil. Exposures were for 3.5 h/d, 4 d/wk, for 4 wk, at concentrations of 1.5, 0.5, or 0.0 mg/l and a particle size of approximately 1 micron. Samples of respiratory tissues were taken for histopathologic analyses, lavage fluid samples were collected, and pulmonary function measurements were made the day after the last exposure. An accumulation of macrophages within the alveolar lumen, an increase in lavage fluid protein content, and an increase in total cell content in lavage fluid due to an influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was noted in rats exposed at the 1.5-mg level. Also, for this exposure group there was an increase in lung wet and dry weight and an increase in end-expiratory volume, and pneumonitis was observed histopathologically in 4 of 10 male rats exposed. Pneumonitis was not observed among six female rats examined. Oil fog had no effect on total lung capacity, residual volume, vital capacity, lung compliance, or the distribution of ventilated air within the lung. Effects following exposure to 0.5 mg/l were limited to slight accumulation of macrophages in the alveolar lumen and an increase in the total cells in lavage fluid, which could not be attributed to an increase in any particular cell type.

  11. Effect on asphalt quality due to nighttime construction : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this project were to identify and analyze the nighttime paving traffic control standards in other states and compare the effects of daytime vs. nighttime paving on quality, safety, costs, and construction time. Surveys of various De...

  12. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  13. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  14. Reactivity effects due to beryllium poisoning of BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, S.; Ponsard, B.; Koonen, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates the impact of the poisoning of the beryllium reflector on reactivity variations of the Belgian MTR BR2 in SCK.CEN. Detailed calculations by MCNP-4C of reactivity effects caused by strong neutron absorbers 3 He and 6 Li during reactor operation history are presented. The importance of beryllium poisoning for the accuracy of reactivity predictions is discussed. (authors)

  15. Assessment of impact to effective dose due to radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Gudelis, A.

    2002-01-01

    Peculiarities of contamination of the Lithuanian territory after the Chernobyl accident were investigated. Evaluation based on measurements of activity concentration of 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu, 241 Am and 90 Sr their activity ratio and physical chemical characteristics of their aerosol carriers indicated that the pollution was caused both by condensed and fuel components with different their contribution to the total atmospheric activity on different phases of the Chernobyl NPP accident. Studies of physical chemical forms of actinides showed that two type of fraction distribution were characteristic of aerosol samples Chernobyl origin. They could be interpreted as presence of fuel particles themselves in aerosol samples and possible transport of highly dispersed fuel component on the graphite particles and their burning products. Later the increase in activity concentration in the atmosphere in Lithuania was conditioned by two main sources of radionuclides. They are forest fires and resuspension products transferred from polluted regions. In order to understand better the influence of forest fires on the radionational situation the special fire experiment was performed in the highly contaminated Briansk region (Russia). Data on activity concentration, size distribution and physical chemical forms of aerosol carriers of radionuclides obtained from this experiment were used to estimate effective doses received from inhalation and ingestion of emitted radioactive particles. The calculations of effective doses received from inhalation of 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu, 238 Pu, 90 Sr and 241 Am during the Chernobyl accident in Vilnius showed that the activity concentrations of insoluble radionuclides contributed considerably into effective dozes received from inhalation. The results of calculation indicated that contribution of activities of water soluble and insoluble cesium and plutonium to the total effective dose differed more than by factor. The calculation of effective

  16. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  17. Annual effective dose due to natural radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savithri, P.; Srivastava, S.K.; Balbudhe, A.Y.; Vishwa Prasad, K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water supply in and round Hyderabad, Secunderabad was determined. The observed gross alpha activity found in water samples vary from 0.027±0.014 Bq/L to 0.042±0.015 Bq/L with average 0.035 Bq/L while beta activity in all the samples are less than 0.076 Bq/l. Contributions of the drinking water samples to total annual effective dose equivalent from 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 26 Ra, 210 Po, 232 Th, 228 Th 210 Pb and 228 Ra are 1.14, 1.24, 5.30, 7.07, 30.3, 5.81, 1.82, 38.3 and 38.3 μSvy -1 for adults. The results indicate that the annual effective doses are below the WHO recommended reference level for α and β in food and drinking samples. (author)

  18. Effective dose equivalents from external radiation due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkin, V.G.; Debedev, O.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Parkhomenko, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Summarized data on measurements of individual dose of external γ-sources in 1987-1990 of population of western areas of Bryansk region were presented. Type of distribution of effective dose equivalent, its significance for various professional and social groups of population depending on the type of the house was discussed. Dependences connecting surface soil activity in the populated locality with average dose of external radiation sources were presented. Tendency of dose variation in 1987-1990 was shown

  19. Pulmonary effects due to subchronic exposure to oil fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selgrade, M.K.; Hatch, G.E.; Grose, E.C.; Stead, A.G.; Miller, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Male rats were exposed to an oil fog generated by flash vaporization and subsequent condensation of lightweight lubricating oil. Exposures were for 3.5 h/d, 4d/wk for 13 wk, at concentrations of 1.5, 0.5, 0.2 or 0.0 mg/l (1500, 500, 200, and 0 mg/cu m) and a particle size of approximately 1 micro m (mass median aerodynamic diameter). A number of biologic endpoints were assessed the day after the last exposure and, in some cases, after a 4 wk recovery period. Effects of 1.5 mg/l on male and female rats were compared. Diffuse accumulation of macrophages in the alveoli was observed in all oil fog exposed groups. The degree of severity was concentration dependent. Histopathologic changes were more prominent in males than in females and represented the most notable gender-related differences. Histologic effects observed one day and 4 wk post exposure were similar. Minimal histopathologic changes and minimal increase in lavage fluid protein were the only effects observed at the 0.2 mg/l exposure level. There was a significant increase in lavage fluid protein, percent lavagable polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lung wet and dry weight following exposure to both 0.5 and 1.5 mg/l.

  20. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  1. Effects of coffee processing residues on anaerobic microorganisms and corresponding digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sossa, Juan Pablo; Murillo-Roos, Mariana; Uribe, Lidieth; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Marsh, Terence; Larsen, Niels; Chen, Rui; Miranda, Alberto; Solís, Kattia; Rodriguez, Werner; Kirk, Dana; Liao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of different coffee processing residues on the anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. The results elucidated that mucilage-rich feed enhanced the accumulation of methanogens, which consequently led to better digestion performance of biogas production. Fifty percent more methane and up to 3 times more net energy (heat and electricity) output were achieved by the digestion of the mucilage-rich feed (M3). The microbial community and statistical analyses further elucidated that different residues in the feed had significant impact on microbial distribution and correspondingly influenced the digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Bio-char on Sugar Beet Growth in Clomazone Residual Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yu-mei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on sugar beet growth were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment. The results showed that the safety threshold of sugar beet growth with clomazone residual was 0.12 mg·kg-1, and beyond this value, sugar beet growth was in inhibition with clomazone residues increased gradually; Early seedling growth under severe phytotoxicity inhibition rate reached 100% when clomazone concentration was greater than 0.48 mg·kg-1; Seedlings subjected to injury sym-ptoms generally reduced to no phytotoxicity after put into a certain amount of bio-car in soil, the plant growth and root shoot ratio increased. Sugar beet root tuber yield and total sugar yield were influenced after applying carbon, sugar content increased 1.10%, which showed significant difference compared with CK. It explained that the bio-char could promote the growth of sugar beet. Applying biochar to soil could reduce the biological hazardous taken by clomazone residues within certain scope.

  3. Effects of chemical modification of lysine residues on the sweetness of lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Ide, Nobuyuki; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2005-03-01

    Lysozyme is a sweet-tasting protein with a sweetness threshold value of around 7 microM. To clarify the effect of basicity at the side chain of lysine residues on the threshold values of sweetness, charge-specific chemical modifications such as guanidination, acetylation and phosphopyridoxylation of lysine residues were performed. Sensory analysis showed that the sweetness threshold value of lysozyme was not changed by guanidination, whereas it was increased markedly by acetylation and phosphopyridoxylation. To confirm the importance of the basicity in the lysine residues in detail, purification of acetylated (Ac-) and phosphopyridoxylated (PLP-) lysozymes using SP-ion exchange column chromatography was performed. The threshold values were not changed by modification with fewer than two residues (approximately 7 microM), whereas the threshold values significantly increased to 15 and 34 microM when tetra-Ac and tri-PLP, respectively. Furthermore, sweetness was not detected at 30 microM (hexa-, penta-Ac and tetra-PLP). It should be noted that removal of the negative charges of the phosphate groups in the tri-PLP lysozyme by acid phosphatase resulted in the recovery of sweetness (6.4 microM), indicating that basicity at the position of the lysine residues is responsible for lysozyme sweetness and that strict charge complementarities might be required for interaction to its putative receptor.

  4. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  5. Effects of the magnesium oxide thin films' microstructures on the residual stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-jun, E-mail: helijun4@126.com [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Li-yan [Electronic Information and Networking Research Institute, Collaborative Innovation Center for Information Communication Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Chen, Wei-Zhong [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Liu, Xing-zhao [The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The MgO thin films are deposited at various inclined angles. The morphology investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the MgO thin films deposited at high inclined angles have columnar grain. The relationships between full width high maximum (FWHM) of ω-scan, residual stresses and the inclined angles are studied. The results show the smallest FWHM of MgO (002) is 4.968°, the residual stress of MgO thin films is compressive stress, and the residual stress of MgO thin films deposited at the inclined angle of 55° is the smallest. So the microstructures of MgO thin films fabricated by the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique effectively control the residual stresses. - Highlights: • MgO thin films are deposited by oblique angle deposition technique. • The FWHMs of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°. • Residual stress of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°.

  6. The effect of residual ventricular septal defects on early clinical outcome: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, H.; Cheema, M.A.; Jalal, A.

    2000-01-01

    Residual ventricular septal defect (VSD)after repair of isolated VSD or Fallot's tetralogy is one of the main causes of morbidity and re-operations. In this paper we have presented the results of out initial experience regarding the management of this problem. The data consists of 71 patients (22 isolated VSD and 29 fallout's tetralogy) operate during January 1991 to July, 1993. The incidence of residual VSD as shown by color doppler study at the time of discharge from hospital and at three month's follow-up was 3 out of 60 patients(73%) and 12 out of to (20%) respectively. Six out of these 12 patients were NYHA class III-IV who underwent cardiac catheterization which revealed patch dehiscence in two patients and residual right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in four patients. The two patients, with patch dehiscence were reported successfully with very good outcome. Simple color doppler mapping tends to over-diagnose residual VSDs since it can pick up small haemodynamically insignificant leaks around stitches and needle holes which seal off in due course. The findings of color doppler should, therefore, be correlated with actual clinical outcome in order to proceed with further investigation and re-operation. (author)

  7. Effect of depth of planting, methods of planting and animal residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in farmers' field, from March to December in 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at the research site of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority, Ejiba, Kogi State of Nigeria to investigate the effect of depth of planting, methods of planting and animal residues application on the growth and ...

  8. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the metal coating, which acts as electrode, increases the stiffness and the effective mass of the composite structure, the residual stress increases or decreases the net stiffness if it is a tensile or compressive type respectively. In this paper, we investigate both these cases by taking two different structures, namely, the ...

  9. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White clover grows naturally all over the Himalayan regions including the hilly areas of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of white clover residues alone or in combination with phosphorus (P) fertilizer on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, nutrient uptake and ...

  10. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency of MEMS resonators. ASHOK KUMAR PANDEY, K P VENKATESH and RUDRA. PRATAP. ∗. CranesSci MEMS Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian. Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 e-mail: pratap@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in.

  11. Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on mungbean (Vigna mungo L.Hepper) local cultivar. An experiment [using randomized complete block design (RCBD) design] with three replications was conducted in 2010. The trial comprised of four treatments such as mulching, incorporation into ...

  12. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  13. Effects of heating durations on normal concrete residual properties: compressive strength and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Shahidan, Shahiron; Khaida Baharuddin, Nur; Beddu, Salmia; Hisyam Abu Bakar, Badorul

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of high temperature with five different heating durations on residual properties of 30 MPa normal concrete. Concrete cubes were being heated up to 600°C for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The temperature will keep constant for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The standard temperature-time curve ISO 834 is referred to. After heating the specimen were left to cool in the furnace and removed. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the residual mass and residual compressive strength were observed. The obtained result shows that, the compressive strength of concrete decrease as the heating duration increases. This heating duration influence, might affects the loss of free water present and decomposition of hydration products in concrete. As the heating duration increases, the amount of water evaporated also increases led to loss in concrete mass. Conclusively, the percentage of mass and compressive strength loss increased as the heating duration increased.

  14. Effect of rice bran processing into oil on 14C-carbofuran residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayaputch, N.; Phaikaew, Y.; Sitayoung, R.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of processing rice bran into refined oil on 14 C-carbofuran residues were studied under field conditions and in fortified oil samples. The results showed that only 0.52% of the field applied 14 C-carbofuran was present in rice bran. Of this amount, crude oil retained 11.6%, compared to 86% in the fortified sample. When crude oils were subjected to degumming and neutralization processes, radioactivity substantially declined to 1% and 14% for aged and fortified residues, respectively. Bleaching and deodorization were ineffective in eliminating residues from spiked samples. Carbofuran, 3-hydroxy carbofuran, 3-keto carbofuran and carbofuran phenol, were identified in the crude and refined oils obtained from the field experiment. It is concluded that the commercially adopted procedures efficiently remove carbofuran and/or its products present in oil. (author). 4 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Effects of material non-linearity on the residual stresses in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sujit K.; Utku, Senol

    1990-01-01

    Thermal stresses developed in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon have been shown to cause plastic deformation and residual stresses in the ribbon. This paper presents an implementation of a numerical model proposed for thermoelastoplastic behavior of a material. The model has been used to study the effects of plasticity of silicon on the residual stresses. The material properties required to implement this model are all assumed, and the response of the material to the variations in these assumed parameters of the constitutive law and in the finite element mesh is investigated. The steady state growth process is observed to be periodic with nonzero residual stresses. Numerical difficulties are also encountered in the computer solution process, resulting in sharp jumps and large oscillations in the stress responses.

  16. Hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ graft procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2011-01-01

    lower limb ischemia were obtained. Direct measurements of proximal and distal blood pressures in the graft were taken and simultaneous determinations of volume blood flow proximally and distally in the graft with ultrasound transit time technique before and after closure of residual fistulae were made......The objective was to study the intraoperative hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ saphenous vein graft procedures. Data on 60 residual arteriovenous fistulae in nine patients (five men) with a median age of 74 years (range 64-83 years) with critical....... Closure of a fistula with blood flow around or below 100 mL/min did not increase distal outflow, whereas closure of fistulae with higher blood flow resulted in unpredictable changes in distal outflow. Only fistulae with a blood flow above approximately 100 mL/min may be of hemodynamic significance....

  17. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400 Y 15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  18. Relativistic effects due to gravimagnetic moment of a rotating body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Walberto Guzmán; Deriglazov, Alexei A.

    2017-12-01

    We compute the exact Hamiltonian (and corresponding Dirac brackets) for a spinning particle with gravimagnetic moment κ in an arbitrary gravitational background. The case κ =0 corresponds to the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Tulczyjew-Dixon (MPTD) equations. κ =1 leads to modified MPTD equations with improved behavior in the ultrarelativistic limit. So we study the modified equations in the leading post-Newtonian approximation. The rotating body with unit gravimagnetic moment has qualitatively different behavior as compared with the MPTD body: (A) If a number of gyroscopes with various rotation axes are freely traveling together, the angles between the axes change with time. (B) For specific binary systems, gravimagnetic moment gives a contribution to the frame-dragging effect with the magnitude that turns out to be comparable with that of Schiff frame dragging.

  19. Norepinephrine transporter function and desipramine: residual drug effects versus short-term regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Gregory A; Jia, Weihong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Mandela, Prashant; Pan, Jun

    2005-04-30

    Previous research has shown that exposure of norepinephrine transporter (NET)-expressing cells to desipramine (DMI) downregulates the norepinephrine transporter, although changes in the several transporter parameters do not demonstrate the same time course. Exposures to desipramine for effects of residual desipramine on norepinephrine transporter binding and uptake were re-evaluated following exposures of PC12 cells to desipramine using different methods to remove residual drug. Using a method that minimizes residual drug, exposure of intact PC12 cells to desipramine for 4h had no effect on uptake capacity or [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter, while exposures for > or =16 h reduced uptake capacity. Desipramine-induced reductions in binding to the transporter required >24 h or greater periods of desipramine exposure. This study confirms that uptake capacity of the norepinephrine transporter is reduced earlier than changes in radioligand binding, but with a different time course than originally shown. Special pre-incubation procedures are required to abolish effects of residual transporter inhibitor when studying inhibitor-induced transporter regulation.

  20. Effect of constraint condition and internal medium on residual stress under overlay welding for dissimilar metal welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In nuclear power plants, residual stress of dissimilar metal weld propagates cracks in the weld metal which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Overlay welding is a process widely used to mitigate residual stress replacing inside tensile stress by compression stress. However, according to the result of this study the effect of overlay welding on residual stress depends on both internal medium and constraint condition. The purpose of this study is to maximize the positive effect of overlay welding by finite element analyses.

  1. Size effects on electromechanical coupling fields of a bending piezoelectric nanoplate due to surface effects and flexoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengrong; Jiang, Liying

    2014-10-01

    Due to large surface to volume ratio and manifest strain gradients typically present in nanostructures, it is essential to incorporate both surface effects and flexoelectricity in studying the size-dependent electromechanical coupling behaviors of piezoelectric materials at the nano-scale. In the current work, a modified Kirchhoff plate model with the consideration of residual surface stress, surface elasticity, surface piezoelectricity, and flexoelectricity is developed to investigate the electroelastic responses and vibrational behaviors of a bending piezoelectric nanoplate (PNP). The governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions accounting for both the surface effects and the flexoelectricity are derived by the variational principle. Ritz approximate solutions of the static bending and the free vibration indicate that these nano-scale features are more prominent for thinner plates with smaller thickness. The simulation results also reveal that the influence of the flexoelectricity and the surface effects upon the bending behaviors of the PNP depends on the applied electrical loading and the plate dimensions. Moreover, it is also observed that the frequency tuning of PNP-based nanoresonators by adjusting applied electrical load can be modified by both the flexoelectricity and the surface effects. The current work is expected to provide increased understanding on the theoretical basis for the design and applications of PNP-based nanodevices.

  2. Transport effects due to particle erosion mechanisms. [in planetary rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisen, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Various processes can erode the surfaces of planetary ring particles. Recent estimates for Saturn's rings suggest that a centimeter-thick surface layer could be eroded from an isolated ring particle in less than 1000 yr by meteoroid impacts alone. The atoms, molecules, and chips ejected from ring particles by erosion will arc across the rings along elliptical orbits. For moderate ring optical depths, ejecta will be absorbed or inelastically scattered upon reintersecting the ring plane. Continuous exchange of ejecta between different ring regions can lead to net radial transport of mass and angular momentum, to changes in particle sizes, and to the buildup of chip regoliths several centimeters deep on the surfaces of ring particles. Because most of the erosional ejecta are not lost but merely exchanged over short distances, the net erosion rate of the surfaces of these ring particles will be much less than that estimated for an isolated particle. Numerical solutions for time-dependent ballistic transport under various assumptions suggest pile-up and spillover effects especially near regions of preexisting high optical depth contrast, such as the inner edges of A and B rings. Global redistribution could be significant over billions of years. Other features in planetary ring systems may be influenced by ballistic transport.

  3. Improvement in accuracy of the measurements of residual stresses due to circumferential welds in thin-walled pipe using Rayleigh wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhshik, Siamak; Moharrami, Rasool

    2009-01-01

    To achieve an acceptable safety in many industrial applications such as nuclear power plants and power generation, it is extremely important to gain an understanding of the magnitudes and distributions of the residual stresses in a pipe formed by joining two sections with a girth butt weld. Most of the methods for high-accuracy measurement of residual stress are destructive. These destructive measurement methods cannot be applied to engineering systems and structures during actual operation. In this paper, we present a method based on the measurement of ultrasonic Rayleigh wave velocity variations versus the stress state for nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in dissimilar pipe welded joint. We show some residual stress profile obtained by this method. These are then compared with other profiles determined using a semi-destructive technique (hole-drilling) that makes it possible to check our results. According to the results, we also present a new method for adjusting the ultrasonic measurements to improve the agreement with the results obtained from other techniques.

  4. Effectiveness of stress release geometries on reducing residual stress in electroforming metal microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang; Du, Liqun; Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Heqing; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Weitai

    2018-04-01

    Micro electroforming, as a mature micromachining technology, is widely used to fabricate metal microdevices in micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). However, large residual stress in the local positions of the micro electroforming layer often leads to non-uniform residual stress distributions, dimension accuracy defects and reliability issues during fabrication of the metal microdevice. To solve this problem, a novel design method of presetting stress release geometries in the topological structure of the metal microstructure is proposed in this paper. First, the effect of stress release geometries (circular shape, annular groove shape and rivet shape) on the residual stress in the metal microstructure was investigated by finite element modeling (FEM) analysis. Two evaluation parameters, stress concentration factor K T and stress non-uniformity factor δ were calculated. The simulation results show that presetting stress release geometries can effectively reduce and homogenize the residual stress in the metal microstructures were measured metal microstructure. By combined use with stress release geometries of annular groove shape and rivet shape, the stress concentration factor K T and the stress non-uniformity factor δ both decreased at a maximum of 49% and 53%, respectively. Meanwhile, the average residual stress σ avg decreased at a maximum of 20% from  -292.4 MPa to  -232.6 MPa. Then, micro electroforming experiments were carried out corresponding to the simulation models. The residual stresses in the metal microstructures were measured by micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) method. The results of the experiment proved that the stress non-uniformity factor δ and the average residual stress σ avg also decreased at a maximum with the combination use of annular groove shape and rivet shape stress release geometries, which is in agreement with the results of FEM analysis. The stress non-uniformity factor δ has a maximum decrease of 49% and the

  5. Residual and cumulative effects of soil application of sewage sludge on corn productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Rosana Faria; Moriconi, Waldemore; Pazianotto, Ricardo Antônio Almeida

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of frequent and periodic applications of sewage sludge to the soil, on corn productivity. The experiment was carried out as part of an experiment that has been underway since 1999, using two types of sludge. One came from the Barueri Sewage Treatment Station (BS, which receives both household and industrial sludge) and the other came from the Franca Sewage Treatment Station (FS, which receives only household sludge). The Barueri sludge was applied from 1999 up to the agricultural year of 2003/2004. With the exception of the agricultural years of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, the Franca sludge was applied up to 2008/2009. All the applications were made in November, with the exception of the first one which was made in April 1999. After harvesting the corn, the soil remained fallow until the next cultivation. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized block design with three replications and the following treatments: control without chemical fertilization or sludge application, mineral fertilization, and dose 1 and dose 2 of sludge (Franca and Barueri). The sludges were applied individually. Dose 1 was calculated by considering the recommended N application for corn. Dose 2 was twice dose 1. It was evident from this work that the successive application of sludge to the soil in doses sufficient to reach the productivity desired with the use of nitrogen fertilizers could cause environmental problems due to N losses to the environment and that the residual and cumulative effects should be considered when calculating the application of sludge to soil.

  6. Effect of pretreatment on biomass residue structure and the application of pyrolysed and composted biomass residues in soilless culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Suo

    Full Text Available The changes in the structural characteristics of biomass residues during pyrolysis and composting were investigated. The biomass residues particles were prepared by pyrolysing at temperatures ranging from 350 to 400. For soilless production of the ornamental plant Anthurium andraeanum, pure sphagnum peat moss (P has traditionally been used as the growing medium. This use of P must be reduced, however, because P is an expensive and nonrenewable resource. The current study investigated the use of biomass residues as substitutes for P in A. andraeanum production. Plants were grown for 15 months in 10 soilless media that contained different proportions of pyrolysed corn cobs (PC, composted corn cobs (C, pyrolysed garden wastes (PG, and P. Although the media altered the plant nutrient content, A. andraeanum growth, development, and yield were similar with media consisting of 50% P+50% PC, 50% P+35% PC+15% PG, and 100% P. This finding indicates that, when pyrolysed, organic wastes, which are otherwise an environmental problem, can be used to reduce the requirement for peat in the soilless culture of A. andraeanum.

  7. Effect of the Leveling Conditions on Residual Stress Evolution of Hot Rolled High Strength Steels for Cold Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keecheol; Oh, Kyungsuk

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of leveling conditions on residual stress evolution during the leveling process of hot rolled high strength steels, the in-plane residual stresses of sheet processed under controlled conditions at skin-pass mill and levelers were measured by cutting method. The residual stress was localized near the edge of sheet. As the thickness of sheet was increased, the residual stress occurred region was expanded. The magnitude of residual stress within the sheet was reduced as increasing the deformation occurred during the leveling process. But the residual stress itself was not removed completely. The magnitude of camber occurred at cut plate was able to be predicted by the residual stress distribution. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysing the effect of leveling conditions on residual stress. It was able to implement the effect of plastic deformation in leveling, tension, work roll bending, and initial state of sheet (residual stress and curl distribution). The validity of simulated results was verified from comparison with the experimentally measured residual stress and curl in a sheet.

  8. Can pleiotropic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) impact residual cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John R; True, Wayne S; Le, Viet; Mason, R Preston

    2017-11-01

    Residual cardiovascular (CV) risk persists even in statin-treated patients with optimized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Other pathways beyond cholesterol contribute to CV risk and the key to reducing residual risk may be addressing non-cholesterol risk factors through pleiotropic mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature relating to the potential role of the omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in reducing residual CV risk. The literature shows that EPA can robustly lower plasma triglyceride (TG) levels without raising LDL-C levels and documents EPA to have a broad range of beneficial effects on the atherosclerotic pathway, including those on lipids, lipoproteins, inflammation, oxidation, phospholipid membranes, and the atherosclerotic plaque itself. Clinical imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that EPA decreases plaque vulnerability and prevents plaque progression. The evidence therefore points to a potential role for EPA to reduce residual CV risk. A large randomized study of statin-treated Japanese patients demonstrated that EPA ethyl ester reduced major coronary events by 19% (P = 0.011). However, while there has been significant benefit demonstrated in this and another Japanese CV outcomes study, the question as to whether EPA can play a role in reducing residual CV risk remains to be addressed in broader populations. The large, global, ongoing, randomized, placebo-controlled REDUCE-IT study of high-risk statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia is currently underway to investigate the potential of icosapent ethyl (high-purity prescription EPA ethyl ester) as an add-on therapy to reduce residual CV risk.

  9. Effects of residual stress on fatigue strength of small diameter welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Hattori, Takahiro; Nomoto, Toshiharu; Iida, Kunihiro; Sato, Masanobu

    1996-01-01

    A power plant consists of many welded components, therefore, it is essential in establishing the reliability of the power plant to maintain the reliability of all welded components. The fatigue failure caused by mechanical vibrations of small diameter welded joints, which is represented by socket welded joints, is one of the major causes of trouble for the welded parts of the power plant. Here, bending fatigue tests were conducted to investigate the fatigue strength of small diameter socket welded pipe joints. In the most cases of large diameter socket joints, a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet weld though the stress amplitude at the root was smaller than that at the toe of fillet weld. Additionally, the fatigue strength was affected by the weld bead sequence. The residual stress was considered to be one of the important parameters governing fatigue strength, therefore, its effects were investigated. In several types of pipe joints, the local stress and residual stress distributions were calculated by finite element analysis. The residual stresses were compressive at the toe and tensile at the root of the socket welded joints. Based on these results, the effects of residual stresses on the fatigue strength are discussed for small diameter welded pipe joints in the present work

  10. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  11. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy.

  12. The effect of radiation on the function of the residual pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    For patients with carcinomas of the bile duct and the pancreas, a pancreatoduodenectomy is generally the first choise of treatment. In our institute, the residual pancreas after surgery is transplanted into the abdominal wall in order to prevent diabetes mellites. We irradiated the residual pancreas postoperatively with a dosage of 15 to 43 Gy in order to inhibit the exocrine function. We then removed the drainage catheter from the residual pancreas. In the treatment, the endocrine function can be preserved. With respect to the radiation effect on the exocrine function, the amount of pancreatic secretion showed a transient increase in the first few days after the start of the irradiation, followed by a mild decrease. The serum amylase decreased immediatelly after the start of irradiation and increased sequentially during long-term observations. The amylase in the pancreatic juice showed a remarkable decrease immediatelly after the start of irradiation, and this decrease was maintained during long-term observations (The minimum level was observed from the dosage of 20 to 30 Gy). In order to analyse the radiation effect on the endocrine function, 50 g OGTTs were performed before and after irradiation in thirteen patients. In two of the thirteen patients, the results of the tests showed a new diabetic pattern after irradiation, which required insulin in one patient. It was concluded from our study that irradiation to the residual pancreas with in the dosage of 15 to 43 Gy the catheters in the residual pancreas could be removed in fourteen of fifteen patients without any unfavorable effect. (author)

  13. Residual magnetic stray field in ITER building and field perturbation on the plasma due to ferromagnetic iron components outside the vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Marin, A.; Lucca, F.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present work evaluates, using 3D finite element (FE) electromagnetic (EM) analyses, the poloidal field coil (PFC) stray field reduction inside and outside the main ITER building due to the presence of ferromagnetic content in the concrete and other iron components outside the vessel (mainly the huge iron boxes of the NBI - neutral beam injector - and the iron doors at the end of the port corridors). To perform these analyses a 360 deg. 3D EM model of the ITER building has been developed, named electromagnetic model of the building complex (EMMOBC), which includes the poloidal field coils, the plasma, a coarse model of the two heating and current drive (H and CD) NBIs, the coils of the NBI active magnetic field reduction system, and all the main building components that could include ferromagnetic materials. The plasma scenarios at the start of flat-top (SOF) and at the end of burning (EOB) have been considered. The effect on the stray field on the NBI due to the presence of the active (AMFRS) and passive (PMFRS) magnetic field reduction system of the near NBI and of the others iron component in the building has been evaluated, using EMMOBC that include the coarse model of the two NBIs. The coil currents of the AMFRS in the H and CD NBI have been optimized for the stray field coming from the SOF and EOB plasma scenarios at plasma current of 15 MA. The stray field at SOF and EOB, including the effects of the ferromagnetic iron content (outside the vessel), has been evaluated inside and outside the main ITER building using the EMMOBC. Finally the field perturbation produced on the plasma q = 2 surface has been evaluated.

  14. The effect of various frequencies of ultrasonic cleaner in reducing residual monomer in acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charasseangpaisarn, Taksid; Wiwatwarrapan, Chairat

    2015-12-01

    Monomer remaining in denture base acrylic can be a major problem because it may cause adverse effects on oral tissue and on the properties of the material. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various ultrasonic cleaner frequencies on the amount of residual monomer in acrylic resin after curing. Forty-two specimens each of Meliodent heat-polymerized acrylic resin (M) and Unifast Trad Ivory auto-polymerized acrylic resin (U) were prepared according to their manufacturer's instructions and randomly divided into seven groups: Negative control (NC); Positive control (PC); and five ultrasonic treatment groups: 28 kHz (F1), 40 kHz (F2), 60 kHz (F3) (M=10 min, U=5 min), and 28 kHz followed by 60 kHz (F4: M=5 min per frequency, U=2.5 min per frequency, and F5: M=10 min followed by 5 min per frequency, U=5 min followed by 2.5 min per frequency). Residual monomer was determined by HPLC following ISO 20795-1. The data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD. There was significantly less residual monomer in the auto-polymerized acrylic resin in all ultrasonic treatment groups and the PC group than that of the NC group (pacrylic resin (p>0.05). The amount of residual monomer in heat-polymerized acrylic resin was significantly lower than that of auto-polymerized acrylic resin. In conclusion, ultrasonic treatment at low frequencies is recommended to reduce the residual monomer in auto-polymerized acrylic resin and this method is more practical in a clinical situation than previously recommended methods because of reduced chairside time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on total energy, dry organic matter digestibility and on digestible energy of organic matter for some agricultural residues (maize straw, lentils straw, cottonwood, residues of apple-tree pruning, olive-cake first and second treatment). Sample were irradiated at 0, 50 and 100 KGy. Total energy was estimated by calorimeter. Digestibility was estimated in vitro by the method of Tilly and Terry (1963). Two sheep with rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donating animals. Irradiation resulted in increasing the digestion of organic and dry matter and also the digestible energy of organic matter in all residues used except lentils straw and olive-cake first treatment. The increase in digestible energy values of organic matter (kJ) at dose of 100 KGy were: 155, 105, 71 and 25 for residue of apple-tree pruning, maize straw, cottonwood and olive-cake second treatment, respectively. (author).28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Estimation of average causal effect using the restricted mean residual lifetime as effect measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Although mean residual lifetime is often of interest in biomedical studies, restricted mean residual lifetime must be considered in order to accommodate censoring. Differences in the restricted mean residual lifetime can be used as an appropriate quantity for comparing different treatment groups...... with respect to their survival times. In observational studies where the factor of interest is not randomized, covariate adjustment is needed to take into account imbalances in confounding factors. In this article, we develop an estimator for the average causal treatment difference using the restricted mean...

  17. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shikui, E-mail: shktang@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D{sub 99} (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D{sub 99} was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a

  18. Effect of residual stress and surface roughness on the fatigue behaviour of aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, M; Eifler, D

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation the fatigue properties of specimens manufactured with different turning parameters were investigated in stress-controlled constant amplitude tests at ambient temperature. The change of feed rate and depth of cut lead to a change in the near surface microstructure. Hence the fatigue properties were influenced significantly due to different surface roughness and surface residual stress resulting from the unequal turning processes. The cyclic deformation behaviour of AMC225xe is characterised by pronounced initial cyclic hardening. Continuous load increase tests allow a reliable estimation of the endurance limit of AMC225xe with one single specimen on the basis of cyclic deformation, temperature and electrical resistance data.

  19. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-01-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained. (paper)

  20. Cost effective production of pullulan from agri-industrial residues using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ananya; Prasad, G S; Choudhury, Anirban Roy

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to develop an economically feasible process for the fermentative production of pullulan using agri-industrial residues, jaggery, de-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC) and corn steep liquor (CSL), as sole media components. A second order polynomial model was obtained using central composite design to understand the effects of interactions among these substrates on pullulan biosynthesis. Results indicated that, lower concentrations of CSL and DOJSC and higher concentrations of jaggery favoured pullulan production. The optimal nutrient composition (18% jaggery, 3% DOJSC and 0.97% CSL) as suggested by the model resulted in production of 66.25 g/L pullulan with a productivity of 0.92 g/Lh. Analysis of raw material cost component for pullulan production suggested that sole utilization of agri-residues may lead to development of cost effective process for pullulan production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of water renewal on the residual effect of larvicides in the control of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Soares Pontes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the residual effect of three larvicides under laboratory conditions for 100 days in Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality rate was measured without water renewal or with daily water renewal (80%. With temephos, there was 100% mortality in both groups until the 70th day. In the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-WDG test, there was no difference during the first 20 days. With Bti-G, without water renewal, mortality was sustained above 90% for up to 35 days. The second experiment (with water renewal reduced the mortality to below 90% after the first 20 days. When renewed water was provided, the residual effect was significantly lower for all larvicides.

  2. Effect of Multi-Axial Loading on Residual Strain Tensor for 12L14 Steel Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Jeffrey R.; Penumadu, Dayakar; Lou, Xin; Hubbard, Camden R.

    2014-08-01

    Evaluating the state of residual strain or stress is critically important for structural materials and for reliable design of complex shape components that need to function in extreme environment subjected to large thermo-mechanical loading. When residual stress state is superposed to external loads, it can lead to reduction or increase in failure strength. Past diffraction studies for evaluating the residual strain state involved measuring lattice spacings in three orthogonal directions and do not often correspond to principal directions. To completely resolve the state of strain at a given location, a full strain tensor must be determined. This is especially important when characterizing materials or metallic components exposed to biaxial or complex loading. Neutron diffraction at the second Generation Neutron Residual Stress Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used in this study to measure strain tensors associated with different modes of stress path. Hollow cylinder steel samples with 2 mm wall thickness are subjected to either pure axial extension or pure torsion to simulate multi-axial loading conditions. A virgin sample that is not subjected to any deformation, but subjected to identical manufacturing conditions and machining steps involved to obtain hollow cylinder geometry is used for obtaining reference d-spacing for given hkl planes at target spatial location(s). The two samples which are subjected to either pure tension or torsion are loaded to a deformation state that corresponded to equal amount of octahedral shear strain which is an invariant. This procedure is used so that a basis for comparison between the two samples can be made to isolate the stress path effects. A 2-circle Huber orienteer is used to obtain strain measurements on identical gauge volume at a series of φ and ψ values. The residual state of stress tensor corresponding to ex situ (upon unloading) conditions is presented for three lattice planes (211, 110, 200) for

  3. Effects of Bioreactor Retention Time on Aerobic Microbial Decomposition of CELSS Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.

    1997-01-01

    The focus of resource recovery research at the KSC-CELSS Breadboard Project has been the evaluation of microbiologically mediated biodegradation of crop residues by manipulation of bioreactor process and environmental variables. We will present results from over 3 years of studies that used laboratory- and breadboard-scale (8 and 120 L working volumes, respectively) aerobic, fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) for recovery of carbon and minerals from breadboard grown wheat and white potato residues. The paper will focus on the effects of a key process variable, bioreactor retention time, on response variables indicative of bioreactor performance. The goal is to determine the shortest retention time that is feasible for processing CELSS crop residues, thereby reducing bioreactor volume and weight requirements. Pushing the lower limits of bioreactor retention times will provide useful data for engineers who need to compare biological and physicochemical components. Bioreactor retention times were manipulated to range between 0.25 and 48 days. Results indicate that increases in retention time lead to a 4-fold increase in crop residue biodegradation, as measured by both dry weight losses and CO2 production. A similar overall trend was also observed for crop residue fiber (cellulose and hemicellulose), with a noticeable jump in cellulose degradation between the 5.3 day and 10.7 day retention times. Water-soluble organic compounds (measured as soluble TOC) were appreciably reduced by more than 4-fold at all retention times tested. Results from a study of even shorter retention times (down to 0.25 days), in progress, will also be presented.

  4. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale [CES-D]), and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome and race by gender as the groups. Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (standardized adjusted B = .135, P  .05). Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender.

  5. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Aim Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. Methods We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]) and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome, and race by gender as the groups. Results Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (Standardized Adjusted B=.135, P 0.05). Conclusion Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender. PMID:26823066

  6. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. On measurements of Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of deinked papers using Kubelka-Munk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Vahey; J.Y. Zhu; C.J. Houtman

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) in recycled papers depends on their opacity. For opacity less than 97.0%, the method is based on application of the Kubelka-Munk theory to diffuse reflection from papers measured once with a black backing and again with a thick backing of the same papers. At opacities above 97.0%, the two reflection values...

  8. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  9. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  11. Effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation at 200 C in a welded joint austenitic stainless steel - ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouane, A.I.; Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of heterogeneous welded joints between austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels is evaluated for reactor components and more particularly effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation in a heterogeneous welded joint. Residual stress is measured by the hole method in which a hole is drilled through the center of a strain gage glued the surface of the materials. In the non uniform stress field a transmissibility function is used for residual stress calculation. High compression residual stress in the ferritic metal near the interface ferritic steel/weld slow down fatigue crack propagation. 5 tabs., 15 figs., 19 refs [fr

  12. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR.

  13. Acute and residual interactive effects of repeated administrations of oral methamphetamine and alcohol in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Levin, Frances R.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2011-01-01

    Although methamphetamine and alcohol are commonly used together in a binge-like pattern, there is a dearth of empirical data investigating the repeated effects of this drug combination. The current study examined acute and residual mood, performance, and physiological effects of methamphetamine alone, alcohol alone, and the combination. Nine adult male volunteers completed this 20-day within-participant, residential laboratory study. During four 5-day blocks of sessions, participants were administered oral methamphetamine (0, 10 mg) combined with alcohol (0, 0.375, 0.75 g/kg) three times (day 2: AM, day 2: PM, and day 3: PM). Breath alcohol concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and cognitive/psychomotor performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Subjective and objective sleep measures were also assessed; residual effects were assessed on days 3–5 of each block. Following the first drug administration, the methamphetamine–alcohol combination produced greater elevations of heart rate and ratings of “good drug effect” compared to either drug alone. Methamphetamine attenuated alcohol-related performance decrements and feelings of intoxication, whereas alcohol attenuated methamphetamine-related sleep disruptions. By the third administration, many of these effects were significantly diminished, suggesting that participants developed tolerance. Few residual effects were observed. These data show that methamphetamine combined with alcohol produced a profile of effects that was different from the effects of either drug alone. The largely positive effects of the drug combination (i.e., greater euphoria, and fewer performance and sleep disruptions) might explain why these drugs are often used in combination. PMID:21748253

  14. Human health effects of residual carbon nanotubes and traditional water treatment chemicals in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simate, Geoffrey S; Iyuke, Sunny E; Ndlovu, Sehliselo; Heydenrych, Mike; Walubita, Lubinda F

    2012-02-01

    The volume of industrial and domestic wastewater is increasing significantly year by year with the change in the lifestyle based on mass consumption and mass disposal brought about by the dramatic development of economies and industries. Therefore, effective advanced wastewater treatment is required because wastewater contains a variety of constituents such as particles, organic materials, and emulsion depending on the resource. However, residual chemicals that remain during the treatment of wastewaters form a variety of known and unknown by-products through reactions between the chemicals and some pollutants. Chronic exposure to these by-products or residual chemicals through the ingestion of drinking water, inhalation and dermal contact during regular indoor activities (e.g., showering, bathing, cooking) may pose cancer and non-cancer risks to human health. For example, residual aluminium salts in treated water may cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). As for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), despite their potential impacts on human health and the environment having been receiving more and more attention in the recent past, existing information on the toxicity of CNTs in drinking water is limited with many open questions. Furthermore, though general topics on the human health impacts of traditional water treatment chemicals have been studied, no comparative analysis has been done. Therefore, a qualitative comparison of the human health effects of both residual CNTs and traditional water treatment chemicals is given in this paper. In addition, it is also important to cover and compare the human health effects of CNTs to those of traditional water treatment chemicals together in one review because they are both used for water treatment and purification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  16. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  17. The effects of forest residual debris disposal on perennial grass emergence, growth, and survival in a ponderosa pine ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin J. Law; Peter F. Kolb

    2007-01-01

    Soil surface conditions can have profound effects on plant seedling emergence and subsequent seedling survival. To test the hypothesis that different soil-surface treatments with logging residue affect range grass seedling emergence and survival, 6 alternative forest-residual treatments were established in the summer of 1998 following thinning of mature trees from...

  18. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  19. Research and application of residual stress monitor based on magneto-elastic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Vu Nhut; Luong Thi Hong; Vu Xuan Thanh; Nguyen Viet Hung

    2015-01-01

    Residual stresses can play a significant role in explaining of deformation and crack in weld joints. There are many methods of residual stress measurement. Most commonly methods used in industry and academia are considered: X-ray and neutron diffraction, hole drilling, Barkhausen, eddy current and ultrasonic methods. This paper introduces a new method for stress measurement, which is based on magneto-elastic effect, is a nondestructive method, available to assist evaluate and monitor the stress level, concentration and the gradient which are very important parameters for the evaluation and assessment of predicted life of the components and preventive care. The paper also reports on research which involved diagnostics and assessment of stressed state in butt weld plate before and after heat treatment. (author)

  20. [Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth.

  1. Effect of torrefaction conditions on greenhouse crop residue: Optimization of conditions to upgrade solid characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iáñez-Rodríguez, Irene; Martín-Lara, María Ángeles; Blázquez, Gabriel; Pérez, Antonio; Calero, Mónica

    2017-11-01

    This work investigated the possibility of using a greenhouse crop waste as a fuel, since it is an abundant residue in the Mediterranean area of Spain. The residue is mainly composed by biomass with a little quantity of plastic. The physical and chemical characteristics of the biomass were determined by elemental analysis, proximate analysis, FT-IR, FE-SEM and thermogravimetry. Additionally, a torrefaction process was carried out as a pre-treatment to improve the energy properties of the biomass material. The optimal conditions (time and temperature) of torrefaction were found to be 263°C and 15min using the gain and loss method. Further studies were carried out with the sample prepared with the nearest conditions to the optimal in order to determine the effect of the plastic fraction in the characteristics and torrefaction process of the waste studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fitting correlated residual error structures in nonlinear mixed-effects models using SAS PROC NLMIXED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R; Blozis, Shelley A

    2014-06-01

    Nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models remain popular among practitioners for analyzing continuous repeated measures data taken on each of a number of individuals when interest centers on characterizing individual-specific change. Within this framework, variation and correlation among the repeated measurements may be partitioned into interindividual variation and intraindividual variation components. The covariance structure of the residuals are, in many applications, consigned to be independent with homogeneous variances, [Formula: see text], not because it is believed that intraindividual variation adheres to this structure, but because many software programs that estimate parameters of such models are not well-equipped to handle other, possibly more realistic, patterns. In this article, we describe how the programmatic environment within SAS may be utilized to model residual structures for serial correlation and variance heterogeneity. An empirical example is used to illustrate the capabilities of the module.

  3. Effects on residual stresses of aluminum alloy LC4 by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Lu, Jin-zhong; Kong, De-jun; Yao, Hui-xue; Yang, Chao-jun

    2007-12-01

    The influences of processing parameters on laser-induced shock waves in metal components are discussed and analyzed. The effects of different parameters of laser shock processing (LSP) on residual stress of aerospace aluminum alloy LC4 were investigated. LSP was performed by using an Nd: glass phosphate laser with 23 ns pulse width and up to ~45 J pulse energy at power densities above GW/mm -2. Special attention is paid to the residual stresses from laser shock processing. Modification of microstructure, surface morphology by laser shock processing is also discussed. Results to date indicate that laser shock processing has great potential as a means of improving the mechanical performance of components.

  4. Effects of location, thermal stress and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.L.; Cohen, L.M.; Besuner, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (K 1 ) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions both with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute K 1 values from the uncracked stress distribution. For each type of loading K 1 values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for 6 crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced K 1 values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on K 1 of crack location, thermal stress and residual stress, as compared with pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that K 1 for small crack depths is maximised early in the transient, while K 1 for large cracks is maximised later under steady state conditions. Computation should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum K 1 for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on K 1 of location, thermal stresses and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The utilised combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (author)

  5. Residual effects of successive exposure of soybean Bradyrhizobium strains to aluminium on solid defined medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Rubens José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these studies was to investigate whether residual toxic effects of exposing soybean root nodule bacteria to Al in a solid defined media (SDM alter tolerance to Al, survival, sensitivity to antibiotics, N2 fixation effectiveness and genetic diversity of Bradyrhizobium strains. After being exposed four times to Al, strains showed variation in Al tolerance but there was no evidence of change in their original Al tolerance, sensitivity to the antibiotics or genetic diversity. Exposure of Bradyrhizobium strains to SDM plus Al did not alter biological N2 fixation effectiveness of five strains. Strain SEMIA 587 showed a reduction in its N2 fixation effectiveness but it seems that it was just a superficial toxic effect because one single passage through the plant eliminated this effect. Residual Al did not cause increases in Al tolerance and reductions in the survival and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains USDA 143, SEMIA 586, SEMIA 5019, SEMIA 5039 and SEMIA 5073. It also did not alter the resistance to antibiotics of strains USDA 143, SEMIA 5039 and SEMIA 5073, and the genetic diversity of the strains SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019.

  6. Investigation of passive residual heat removal system for VVERs: Effects of finned type heat exchanger tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayhan, Hüseyin; Sökmen, Cemal Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) of VVER type nuclear power plants is investigated. • Unit heat exchanger of PRHRS is designed to reject 4 MW heat amount from reactor via steam generator. • This study shows that decay heat can be rejected by 16 heat exchangers of PRHRS without any operator actions. - Abstract: After nuclear reactor shutdown, decay heat generation continues in the reactor core and it has the possibility to cause a severe accident. This residual heat has to be removed from the core sufficiently. In Water-Water Energetic Reactors (WWER) or VVERs, passive residual heat removal system is designed to remove decay heat after reactor shutdown. This system does not need any power operation, since ambient air is used as the cooling fluid in heat exchanger. The steam that is generated in the steam generators due to the heat released in the reactor core condenses and rejects its heat to the ambient air within this heat exchanger. The condensed liquid is returned back to the steam generator. The motion of the cooling medium occurs due to natural circulation. In the presented study, the original geometric design of passive residual heat removal system of VVER type nuclear power plants is introduced. The performance of this system is investigated. In the previous study, geometric design parameters for this system was determined for plain tubes of heat exchanger. Heat exchanger tubes were positioned as a helical in the previous study. With the knowledge of enhancing heat transfer using finned surfaces, geometrical design is modified in presented study. Circular type fin structures (having rectangular cross-section) are added to the outer surface of heat exchanger tubes. In the present heat exchanger model, tubes are positioned as a staggered bank. As the fin parameters, fin thickness, fin radius and total fin number are investigated in this study. Results are compared with the one obtained with plane tube (in tube

  7. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the Residual Heat Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) transfer heat from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) to the reactor plant Component Cooling System (CCS) to reduce the temperature of the RCS at a controlled rate during the second part of normal plant cooldown and maintains the desired temperature until the plant is restarted. By the use of an analytic tool, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the RHRS, because of its redundant two train design, is able to accommodate any credible component single failure with the only effect being an extension in the required cooldown time, thus demonstrating the reliability of the RHRS to perform its intended function

  8. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The ulilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (Auth.)

  9. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  10. The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.

  11. Effect of ensiled hop (Humulus lupulus L.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun, Mohammad; Saito, Aya; Sano, Hiroaki

    2011-06-01

    An isotope dilution method using [1-(13)C]sodium acetate was applied to determine the effect of feeding ensiled hop (Humulus lupulus L.) residues on plasma acetate turnover rate in six adult crossbred sheep. The sheep were fed 63 g/kg body weight (BW)(0.75)/day of either mixed hay of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and round bale silage at 3:1 ratio (Hay-diet), or another where round bale silage was replaced by ensiled hop residues (Hop-diet) with a crossover design each of a 3-week period. The isotope dilution method was performed on day 21 of each dietary treatment. Dry matter digestibility was similar between diets, and nitrogen (N) digestibility was lower (P = 0.001) for Hop-diet than Hay-diet. However, N retention did not differ between diets. Plasma acetate concentration was lower (P = 0.04) for Hop-diet than Hay-diet, and the turnover rate of plasma acetate did not differ between diets. Plasma concentration of lactate and non-esterified fatty acids were similar between diets. Hop-diet was found almost comparable to Hay-diet on plasma acetate turnover rate in the present experimental conditions. Therefore, it could be concluded that hop residues partially could be used as an alternative to traditionally used round bale silage for rearing sheep. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effective deleting of residual photoconductivity in high-resistance layers GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaev, B.S.; Kadirova, I.T.; Sharipov, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of residual photoconductivity as the storage of optical memory (OM) represents practical interest in micro and optoelectronics. The finding - out of the nature OM represents undoubtedly and scientific interest. Now residual photoconductivity (RPC) is explained by potential barriers arising because of non-monocharacteristical of distribution components of the semiconductor or carriers of a current in volume. Depending on a nature non-monocharacteristical the time relaxation RPC changes in a wide limit. The special interest represents RPC created by impurity. In the given work the results of research of a nature RPC created photos by ionization of the filled centres of chrome in compensated epitaxilogic layers arsenide galls are resulted. Epitaxilogic layers were brought up by a vertical method ZFE. Highness was reached (achieved) by special indemnification of the residual donors deep acceptors of chrome. Substrates served n-GoAs. Lassitude of i-layers has made 70-80 microns. Specific resistance of layers has made (1/3) 108 om·sm. (T= 300 K). The structures were photosensitive as at low (T = 77 K) and at room temperatures. The photosensitivity of structures in impurity to a strip of absorption chrome (= 1,4 microns) was comparable (compared) with own. The researches show, that the structures have RPC. Size RPC the greatest ambassador impurity of illumination is carrying out photoionization Cr2 + - of the centres. That is established, RPC impurity of a photocurrent is effectively erased only at certain length of a wave of external illumination

  13. Residual nitrogen fertilization effect of common bean production on succeeding corn intercropped with Congo grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Almeida Carmeis Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Crop production in conservation systems involving intercropped cultivations mainly with corn have been proposed as a technology to promote sustainability in the Brazilian Cerrado areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of residual nitrogen fertilization applied in common bean on subsequent corn sole or intercropped with Congo grass (Urochloa ruziziensis in no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks with three replicates in a split-plot design. The treatments were composed by two cropping systems (sole and intercropped with Congo grass, and the sub-plots were five doses of nitrogen (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg of N ha-1, applied in topdressing on common-bean (previous crop. There was no effect of cropping systems and residual amount of nitrogen application in the vegetative and reproductive development of corn. Corn intercropped with Congo grass leaded an adequate formation of crop residue and total land covering target at sustainability of no-tillage system.

  14. Effect of Residual Gas Composition on Epitaxial Growth of Graphene on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, J.; Rejhon, M.; Belas, E.; Dědič, V.; Moravec, P.; Franc, J.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, graphene growth optimization has been one of the key routes towards large-scale, high-quality graphene production. We measure in situ residual gas content during epitaxial-graphene growth on silicon carbide (SiC) to find detrimental factors of epitaxial-graphene growth. The growth conditions in high vacuum, in argon, purified argon, and the flow of argon are compared. The grown epitaxial graphene is studied by Raman-scattering mapping. We determine mechanical strain, number of graphene layers and the graphene quality. The surface topography is measured by atomic force microscopy. Charge density and carrier mobility are studied by Hall-effect measurements in van der Pauw configuration. We identify the major role of the chemical reaction of carbon and residual water. The rate of the reaction is lowered when purified argon is used. We also show that, according to time-varying gas content, it is preferable to grow graphene at higher temperatures and shorter times. Other sources of growth environment contamination are also discussed. The reaction of residual gas and SiC is discussed as one of the factors decreasing the lateral size of SiC atomically flat terraces and leading to their irregular shape. The importance of purified argon and its sufficient flow rate is concluded to be important for high-quality graphene growth as it reduces the rate of undesired chemical reactions and provides a more stable and defined growth ambient.

  15. Efeito residual de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência em diferentes solos Residual effect of herbicides applied in pre-emergence in different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Inoue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar o efeito residual dos herbicidas ametryne, clomazone e diuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, utilizando amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico e de um Latossolo Vermelho, com texturas e composições contrastantes. Para isso, foram conduzidos seis bioensaios em casa de vegetação, com amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico (textura arenosa e de um Latossolo Vermelho (textura argilosa. Foi avaliado o efeito residual de ametryne (0, 1,60 e 2,40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0,90 e 1,10 kg ha-1 e diuron (0, 1,60 e 3,20 kg ha-1, por meio de semeadura de bioindicador previamente selecionado (Cucumis sativus ou Brachiaria decumbens aos 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a aplicação (DAA. Verificou-se que ametryne proporcionou 80% de controle até os 40 DAA, independentemente do solo e da dose. O clomazone apresentou efeito residual satisfatório quando aplicado na dose recomendada em solo argiloso, mantendo o controle acima de 80% até os 71 DAA. Em solo arenoso, o controle não foi satisfatório já aos 25 DAA, mesmo na dose recomendada para solo argiloso. Diuron apresentou alta estabilidade em solo argiloso, observando-se controle superior a 91% até os 100 DAA na dose recomendada e controle acima de 80% até os 54 DAA na dose recomendada para solo arenoso. No entanto, em solo arenoso não houve aumento do efeito residual, mesmo com a aplicação da dose recomendada para solo argiloso.The objective of this work was to monitor the residual effect of the herbicides ametryne, clomazone and diuron, applied in pre-emergence, using Psament and Red Latosol with contrasting texture and composition. Thus, six experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions with samples of Psament (sandy texture and Red Latosol (clay texture. The residual effect of ametryne (0, 1.60 and 2.40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0.90 and 1.10 kg ha-1 and diuron (0, 1.60 and 3.20 kg ha 1 was evaluated by sowing the test plant (Cucumis sativus or

  16. Ecological significance of residual exposures and effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H

    2006-07-01

    An ecological significance framework is used to assess the ecological condition of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, USA, in order to address the current management question: 17 y following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), are there any remaining and continuing ecologically significant exposures or effects on the PWS ecosystem caused by EVOS? We examined the extensive scientific literature funded by the Exxon Valdez Trustees or by ExxonMobil to assess exposures and effects from EVOS. Criteria to assess ecological significance include whether a change in a valued ecosystem component (VEC) is sufficient to affect the structure, function, and/or health of the system and whether such a change exceeds natural variability. The EVOS occurred on 24 March 1989, releasing over 250,000 barrels of crude oil into PWS. Because PWS is highly dynamic, the residual oil was largely eliminated in the first few years, and now only widely dispersed, highly weathered, or isolated small pockets of residual contamination remain. Many other sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in PWS from past or present human activities or natural oil seeps. Multiple-lines-of-evidence analyses indicate that residual PAHs from EVOS no longer represent an ecologically significant exposure risk to PWS. To assess the ecological significance of any residual effects from EVOS, we examined the literature on more than 20 VECs, including primary producers, filter feeders, fish and bird primary consumers, fish and bird top predators, a bird scavenger, mammalian primary consumers and top predators, biotic communities, ecosystem-level properties of trophodynamics and biogeochemical processes, and landscape-level properties of habitat mosaic and wilderness quality. None of these has any ecologically significant effects that are detectable at present, with the exception of 1 pod of orcas and possibly 1 subpopulation of sea otters; however, in both those cases, PWS-wide populations appear to have

  17. Efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha Residual effect of sewage sludge on off-season corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Moraes de Cesare Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Das opções de disposição final do lodo de esgoto, a reciclagem agrícola tem sido uma das mais utilizadas em diversos países desenvolvidos, sendo considerada a forma mais adequada em termos técnicos, econômicos e ambientais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha, após dois anos de aplicação consecutiva desse resíduo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. O experimento foi realizado em campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, e os tratamentos foram os seguintes: testemunha e adubações com lodo de esgoto nas doses de 6, 12, 24 e 36 t ha-1 (peso de matéria seca. Houve efeito residual do uso do lodo de esgoto caleado na produtividade de milho safrinha; a dose de 36 t ha-1 foi estatisticamente superior às doses de 6 e 12 t ha-1.Among the possibilities of final disposal of sewage sludge, agricultural recycling has become one of the most widely used in several developed countries, and is considered the most appropriate in technical, economical and environmental terms. This study aimed at evaluating the sewage sludge residual effect on off-season corn yield on an Eutroferric Red Latossol (Oxisol. The field experiment was in a randomized block design with three replications, with treatments consisting of increasing doses of sewage sludge (0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 t ha-1, on a dry weight basis, applied in the two previous cropping seasons.. The residual effect of the application of lime-stabilized sewage sludge increased the yield of off-season corn; the grain yield under a rate of 36 t ha-1 was statistically higher than those under 6 and 12 t ha-1.

  18. Soluble carbon in oxisol under the effect of organic residue rates

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    Gabriela Lúcia Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic residues to the soil can increase soluble organic carbon (SOC and affect the pH and electrolytic conductivity (EC of the soil. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of residue and the applied dose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing C rates contained in organic residue on the pH, EC, water-extractable total carbon (WETC, water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC, and water-extractable inorganic carbon (WEIC in soil treated with manure (chicken, swine, and quail, sawdust, coffee husk, and sewage sludge. The levels of total C (TC- KH2PO4, organic carbon (OC- KH2PO4, and inorganic C (IC- KH2PO4 extractable by a 0.1 mol L-1 KH2PO4 solution were also quantified in soil under the effect of increasing rates of chicken and quail manures. The following rates of organic residue C were applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol sample: 0, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 mg kg-1. The addition of organic residues to the soil increased pH, except in the case of sewage sludge, which acidified the soil. The acidity correction potential of chicken and quail manure was highest, dependent on the manure rate applied; regardless of the dose used, sawdust barely alters the soil pH. At all tested rates, the EC of the soil treated with swine manure, coffee husk, and sawdust remained below 2.0 dS m-1, which is a critical level for salinity-sensitive crops. However, the application of chicken or quail manure and sewage sludge at certain rates increased the EC to values above this threshold level. Highest levels of WETC, WEOC, and WEIC were obtained when chicken and quail manure and coffee husk were applied to the Oxisol. The quantities of SOC extracted by KH2PO4 were higher than the quantities extracted by water, demonstrating the ability of soil to adsorb C into its colloids.

  19. Efeito residual de sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen em três solos Residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.D Melo

    2010-12-01

    oxyfluorfen, que apresentou controle praticamente constante em todas as épocas avaliadas, e do sulfentrazone, que mostrou elevado efeito residual ao longo do período avaliado. As características inerentes a cada herbicida, bem como as diferenças nos teores de matéria orgânica e de textura entre os solos, influenciam na persistência do sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen no solo. Maior efeito residual de oxyfluorfen foi observado no solo franco-arenoso e de isoxaflutole no solo argiloso com alto teor de matéria orgânica. Já o sulfentrazone apresentou elevado efeito residual nos três solos estudados.The physical and chemical properties of soils, as well as climatic conditions, influence the behavior of herbicides applied in pre-emergence. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils. The trial was conducted in a protected environment in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications. The treatments for each soil were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial, being three herbicides and five sowing periods after herbicide application. Sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen were applied at 0.5 kg ha-1, 0.72 kg ha-1 and 0.113 kg ha-1, respectively, on plastic pots with 250 mL volume, previously filled with the two clay texture soils and the sandy loam texture soil. Subsequently, the bioindicator species Sorghum bicolor was sown at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after application (DAA. A control with no herbicide treatment was sown at different times for each soil and used as a comparison in the evaluations. At 21 days after sowing in each season, intoxication and plant growth were evaluated by means of shoot dry mass. Sorghum plants in the clay soil with 9.0 dag kg-1 of organic matter (O.M., submitted to the application of isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone and oxyfluorfen, produced shoot dry mass over the control to 34, 20 and 40%, respectively, at 60 DAA. In the sandy loam soil, it was observed a high

  20. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

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    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  1. Effect of tillage and crop residue on soil temperature following planting for a Black soil in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; McLaughlin, Neil; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Minggang; Liang, Aizhen

    2018-03-14

    Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops. Tillage had significant effects on soil temperature in 10 of 15 weekly periods. Weekly average NT soil temperature was 0-1.5 °C lower than MP, but the difference was significant (P temperature. Higher residue coverage caused lower soil temperature; the effect was greater for maize than soybean residue. Residue type had significant effect on soil temperature in 9 of 15 weekly periods with 0-1.9 °C lower soil temperature under maize than soybean residue. Both tillage and residue had small but inconsistent effect on soil temperature following planting in Northeast China representative of a cool to temperate zone.

  2. Evaluation of residual effect of partially acidulated phosphate rock on crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munyinda, K; Lungu, O.I.

    2005-01-01

    Many countries in Sub -Saharan Africa are rich in phosphate rock (PR) -the primary raw material for the production of phosphate fertilizers. Because of the low local demand and the global surplus of P fertilisers, these deposits have not been developed. Technical, economic and conducive policy regimes are needed in order to initiate tapping of these resources and providing them at low cost.Direct application of of ground PR would be one way of providing the PR at low cost, but this mode of application has proved not to be effective with Zambian PR. In current field trials, simply processed partially acidulated PR (PAPR) was utilised. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PAPR produced from simply processed phospate rock products in soils of varying soil chemical properties for direct and residual application on field crops. The results of the three year study have demonstrated that PAPR was a good source of P in providing P to plants and improving crop yields.Where soils were acidic and acutely P deficient, PAPR was a better source of P compared to highly soluble fertilizers.The results have also shown that in the third year as in the second year , there was a greater residual effect of PAPR to increase crop yields. A one time application of P was effective for up to three years. (author)

  3. A kinetic approach to evaluate salinity effects on carbon mineralization in a plant residue-amended soil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad R.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of salinity stress and plant residue quality on C mineralization kinetics in soil is not well understood. A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of salinity stress on C mineralization kinetics in a soil amended with alfalfa, wheat and corn residues. A factorial combination of two salinity levels (0.97 and 18.2 dS/m) and four levels of plant residues (control, alfalfa, wheat and corn) with three replications was performed. A first order kinetic model was used to describe the C mineralization and to calculate the potentially mineralizable C. The CO2-C evolved under non-saline condition, ranged from 814.6 to 4842.4 mg CO2-C/kg in control and alfalfa residue-amended soils, respectively. Salinization reduced the rates of CO2 evolution by 18.7%, 6.2% and 5.2% in alfalfa, wheat and corn residue-amended soils, respectively. Potentially mineralizable C (C 0) was reduced significantly in salinized alfalfa residue-treated soils whereas, no significant difference was observed for control treatments as well as wheat and corn residue-treated soils. We concluded that the response pattern of C mineralization to salinity stress depended on the plant residue quality and duration of incubation. PMID:16972320

  4. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780.......Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780....

  5. Effect of injection energy on residual dose around the charge exchange foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazami Yamamoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC and the accumulator ring (AR of Spallation Neutron Source (SNS can be used as high-power pulsed neutron sources. In both cases, the injection region becomes one of the highest activation areas in the ring. However, residual dose distributions have revealed that the highest activation points in the J-PARC RCS and the SNS AR are different in detail. The dose of the charge exchange chamber in the SNS is more than 100 times larger than that of the RCS though the ratio of beam power is less than 10. We investigated the reason of this difference by Geant4 and MARS, and the calculation results indicated that the difference was due to the dependence of the neutron and pion production rate on the injection energy.

  6. Effects of Manure and Biogas Residues Application on N20 Emissions and Soil C Sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Quan Van

    Biogas production from manure has become increasingly widespread worldwide in recent years due to the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the sustainable development of this technology requires the appropriate utilization of an enormous...... volume of its residues, known as digestates, to minimize negative environmental impacts when they are applied on soils. The overall aim of this PhD project was to understand how different feedstock sources or input substrates and the operational conditions for biogas production, e.g. the temperature...... and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the biogas digester, affect emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon (C) sequestration in the soils after the digestate is applied. This PhD thesis is based on the results of four laboratory studies undertaken between November 2013 and February 2017, primarily...

  7. Activity and Residual Effect of Two Formulations of Lambdacyhalothrin Sprayed on Palm Leaves to Rhodnius prolixus

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    Mazariego-Arana Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity and residual effect of two formulations of lambdacyhalothrin were evaluated with Rhodnius prolixus;laboratory and field tests were conducted in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. The results indicate that the lethal concentrations of the active ingredient of SC (LC50 = 2.37 and LC90 = 8.5 mg, a.i./m² were 4-8 times than those with the insecticide WP applied on R. prolixus bugs in palm leaves, a common building material for thatched roofs. Other investigators in South America recommended applying 30 mg a.i./m² in porous materials; we obtained that the products WP and SC were 3.5 and 16 times more effective on palm leaves. Regarding the evaluation of the residual effects in field spraying, there was up to 15 months persistence after the application of WP in two doses (8.6 mg a.i./m² and 3.752 mg a.i./m² with SC. We consider R. prolixus highly susceptible to the employed pyrethroids; they could be used to control this vector in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

  8. The potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumura, Fumio; Matsui, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Sado, Masashi; Taniguchi, Masaharu; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kamiyama, Masashi; Suda, Shin; Nakamura, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Yuhiro; Yamori, Akira; Igarashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Jun; Oka, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    It is generally thought that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers commonly found in pressure sensitive adhesive tapes for medical use may cause dermal irritation, but a systematic study has never been carried out. Therefore, we assessed the potential dermal irritating effect of residual (meth)acrylic monomers. We studied seven acrylic monomers, acrylic acid (AA), methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), n-hexyl acrylate (n-HA), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA), as well as three methacrylic monomers, methacrylic acid (MAA), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA). We first examined their cytotoxic effect on a cultured dermis model using the MTT method to determine their EC(50) and then performed a primary irritation test in rabbits using the monomers at three different concentrations (i.e., EC(50) , one-tenth EC(50) and 10 times EC(50)). Marked variations were found in cytotoxic and dermal irritating activities among the (meth)acrylic monomers tested. HEA exhibited the most potent dermal irritation having the lowest erythema dose (the concentration which gives a primary dermal irritation index of 1.00) of 460 ppm. But the other monomers exhibited less potent dermal irritation (lowest erythema doses > or =1000 ppm). For the monomers, significant correlation was found between cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritating activity. Our results show that residual unpolymerized (meth)acrylic monomers in adhesive tapes are unlikely to induce skin irritation except for HEA. This study also suggests that cultured skin models are extremely useful as a screening method for chemical substances that could potentially cause dermal irritating activity.

  9. Differential effects of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention for residual speech errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Mcallister Byun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors. Eleven child/adolescent participants received ten sessions of visual-acoustic biofeedback and ten sessions of traditional treatment, with the order of biofeedback and traditional phases counterbalanced across participants. Probe measures eliciting untreated rhotic words were administered in at least 3 sessions prior to the start of treatment (baseline, between the two treatment phases (midpoint, and after treatment ended (maintenance, as well as before and after each treatment session. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed by outside listeners in a blinded, randomized fashion. Results were analyzed using a combination of visual inspection of treatment trajectories, individual effect sizes, and logistic mixed-effects regression. Effect sizes and visual inspection revealed that participants could be divided into categories of strong responders (n=4, mixed/moderate responders (n=3, and non-responders (n=4. Individual results did not reveal a reliable pattern of stronger performance in biofeedback versus traditional blocks, or vice versa. Moreover, biofeedback versus traditional treatment was not a significant predictor of accuracy in the logistic mixed-effects model examining all within-treatment word probes. However, the interaction between treatment condition and treatment order was significant: biofeedback was more effective than traditional treatment in the first phase of treatment, and traditional treatment was more

  10. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.M

    2009-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15 N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  11. Effects of lysine residues on structural characteristics and stability of tau proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsang; Baek, Inchul; Choi, Hyunsung; Kim, Jae In; Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: nass@korea.ac.kr

    2015-10-23

    Pathological amyloid proteins have been implicated in neuro-degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lewy-body diseases and prion related diseases. In prion related diseases, functional tau proteins can be transformed into pathological agents by environmental factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, Aβ-mediated toxicity and covalent modification. These pathological agents are stable under physiological conditions and are not easily degraded. This un-degradable characteristic of tau proteins enables their utilization as functional materials to capturing the carbon dioxides. For the proper utilization of amyloid proteins as functional materials efficiently, a basic study regarding their structural characteristic is necessary. Here, we investigated the basic tau protein structure of wild-type (WT) and tau proteins with lysine residues mutation at glutamic residue (Q2K) on tau protein at atomistic scale. We also reported the size effect of both the WT and Q2K structures, which allowed us to identify the stability of those amyloid structures. - Highlights: • Lysine mutation effect alters the structure conformation and characteristic of tau. • Over the 15 layers both WT and Q2K models, both tau proteins undergo fractions. • Lysine mutation causes the increment of non-bonded energy and solvent accessible surface area. • Structural instability of Q2K model was proved by the number of hydrogen bonds analysis.

  12. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  13. Effect of six different starter cultures on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Hur, Sun Jin

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of six different starter cultures of enterobacteria on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion. Before digestion, the concentration of residual nitrite was dependent on starter culture in fermented sausage and ranged from 25.2 to 33.2mg/kg. Among the six starter cultures of enterobacteria, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Staphylococcus carnosus showed higher nitrite depletion ability than the other three strains in fermented sausages. The concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages was significantly (psausages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of post-harvest forestry residue management practices on the diversity of epigeal coleopterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ramírez Aliaga

    2017-01-01

    and summer, the treatment with residues left registered significantly greater abundance and species richness. In the residue management, the practices of intact leaving residue should be considered as the least impacting on diversity and abundance of epigeal coleopterans and is recommended for creating refugee areas to promote diversity of beetles in this area of study.

  15. SU-D-16A-06: Modeling Biological Effects of Residual Uncertainties For Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, L; Larson, D; McDermott, M; Sneed, P [UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, A [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Residual uncertainties on the order of 1-2 mm are frequently observed when delivering stereotactic radiosurgery via on-line imaging guidance with a relocatable frame. In this study, a predictive model was developed to evalute potentiral late radiation effects associated with such uncertainties. Methods: A mathematical model was first developed to correlate the peripherial isodose volume with the internal and/or setup margins for a radiosurgical target. Such a model was then integrated with a previoulsy published logistic regression normal tissue complication model for determining the symptomatic radiation necrosis rate at various target sizes and prescription dose levels. The model was tested on a cohort of 15 brain tumor and tumor resection cavity patient cases and model predicted results were compared with the clinical results reported in the literature. Results: A normalized target diameter (D{sub 0}) in term of D{sub 0} = 6V/S, where V is the volume of a radiosurgical target and S is the surface of the target, was found to correlate excellently with the peripheral isodose volume for a radiosurgical delivery (logarithmic regression R{sup 2} > 0.99). The peripheral isodose volumes were found increase rapidly with increasing uncertainties levels. In general, a 1-mm residual uncertainties as calculated to result in approximately 0.5%, 1%, and 3% increases in the symptomatic radiation necrosis rate for D{sub 0} = 1 cm, 2 cm, and 3 cm based on the prescription guideline of RTOG 9005, i.e., 21 Gy to a lesion of 1 cm in diameter, 18 Gy to a lesion 2 cm in diameter, and 15 Gy to a lesion 3 cm in diameter respectively. Conclusion: The results of study suggest more stringent criteria on residual uncertainties are needed when treating a large target such as D{sub 0}≤ 3 cm with stereotactic radiosurgery. Dr. Ma and Dr. Sahgal are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery (ISRS)

  16. Effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application on soil residues of chiral fungicide benalaxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liang, Yiran; Luo, Mai; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge on the dissipation behavior of the fungicide benalaxyl and its primary metabolite benalaxyl acid in soil were studied on an enantiomeric level during a 148-day exposure experiment. Chiral separation and analysis of the two pairs of enantiomers were achieved using HPLC-MS/MS with a chiralpak IC chiral column. Benalaxyl decreased with half-life of 16.1 days in soil under tap water irrigation with preferential residue of S-benalaxyl. Benalaxyl acid was formed with great preference of R-enantiomer before 21 days while enriched in S-enantiomer afterwards. The degradation of benalaxyl was restrained by both wastewater and treated wastewater irrigation, but the enantioselectivity in S-benalaxyl residue was enhanced. Benalaxyl acid was also formed with similar enantioselectivity as in tap water irrigation. Sewage sludge could accelerate benalaxyl degradation with shorter half-life. Surprisingly, the enantioselectivity with preference degradation of S-enantiomer in sewage sludge was opposite to that in soil. More benalaxyl acid was generated with EF values always lower than 0.5 and remained longer in sewage sludge than in soil. A sterilization experiment indicated that the conversion of benalaxyl to benalaxyl acid and the enantioselectivity were determined by the microorganisms in soil or sewage sludge. Farming practices like wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application might not only influence the fate of pesticide, but also the enantioselectivity of chiral pesticide enantiomers and thus the risks of pesticide residues posed to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of intratympanic dexamethasone, memantine and piracetam on cellular apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topdag, M; Iseri, M; Gelenli, E; Yardimoglu, M; Yazir, Y; Ulubil, S A; Topdag, D O; Ustundag, E

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the literature on the prevention and treatment of ototoxicity due to various drugs and chemicals. This study compared the histological effects of intratympanic dexamethasone, memantine and piracetam on cellular apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity, in 36 rats. Dexamethasone and memantine had significant effects on the stria vascularis, organ of Corti and spiral ganglion (p piracetam decreased the apoptosis rate, this effect was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Dexamethasone and memantine were found superior to piracetam in reducing apoptosis due to cisplatin ototoxicity. Further studies of this subject are needed, incorporating electron microscopy and auditory brainstem response testing.

  18. Effects of shot peening on the residual stress of welded SS400 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Hyung; Cheong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of structures is usually determined by welding zone. The tensile residual stress, which is induced by welding, reduces the fatigue life and fatigue strength of welded structures. If we remove the tensile residual stress or induce the compressive residual stress, the fatigue life of welded structures will be improved. The change of hardness and compressive residual stress of welded zone after shot peening was investigated in this paper. The results show that the hardness was increased by shot peening. The residual stress was reduced by shot peening

  19. Effect of ferrous sulfate and nitrohumic acid neutralization on the leaching of metals from a combined bauxite residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiaolian; Li, Fasheng; Du, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Bauxite residue neutralization is intended to open opportunities for revegetation and reuse of the residue. Ferrous sulfate (FS) and nitrohumic acid (NA) were two kinds of materials studied for pH reduction of the residue from 10.6 to 8.3 and 8.1, respectively. The effects of FS and NA on the leaching of metals from a combined bauxite residue were investigated by using sequential and multiple extraction procedures. Neutralization with FS and NA restricted the leaching of Al, V, and Pb from the residue but promoted the leaching of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni, consistent with the changes in the potentially mobile fractions. With the exceptions of Pb and Ni, leaching of metals increased during a 10-day extraction period. However, the maximum leaching of Al, V, Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni from neutralized bauxite residue were 0.46 mg/L, 59.3, 12.9, 167, 95.3, 15.5, and 14.5 μg/L, respectively, which were under the corresponding limits in the National Standard (GB/T 14848-93). Although it is necessary to consider the continued leaching of metals during neutralization, both maximum and accumulation leaching concentrations of metals from a combined bauxite residue were too low to pose a potential environmental risk.

  20. Electron space charge effects in ion sources for residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, M.C.; Allison, W.

    1993-01-01

    An electron impact ionization source suitable for residual gas analysis (RGA) with a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. The electronic space charge is shown to play a role in limiting the extracted current from RGA ion sources and the simulation treats this aspect of the problem self-consistently. Under certain source conditions, the ion extraction efficiency is observed to decrease for electron currents above approximately 1 mA - well below the current at which space charge limiting of the electron emission is expected. The observed effects are well reproduced by the simulation. We show that whereas the electron trajectories are only weakly perturbed by space charge effects, the loss of ionization efficiency can be attributed to drastic changes in the ion trajectories. (author)

  1. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds and pesticides residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fkih, Sana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effects of this process of conservation on the polyphenol rate and the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols of quince, of the cocoa and those of sage, then to study its effects on the pesticides residues in the sage sheets. The irradiation of quince polyphenols, increased the polyphenols rate as well as the antioxidant capacity. In the case of cocoa polyphenols, we don't have ace observed many differences between the irradiated and not irradiated samples, and in the case of sage polyphenols, the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity decreased. Finally, irradiation of parathion caused degradation of this molecule, and the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity pf polyphenols of the sheets of sage soaked with parathion was a less decreased than polyphenols of the sheets not soaked with parathion. (Author). 37 refs

  2. Impacts of both reference population size and inclusion of a residual polygenic effect on the accuracy of genomic prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rensing Stephan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this work was to study the impact of both the size of genomic reference populations and the inclusion of a residual polygenic effect on dairy cattle genetic evaluations enhanced with genomic information. Methods Direct genomic values were estimated for German Holstein cattle with a genomic BLUP model including a residual polygenic effect. A total of 17,429 genotyped Holstein bulls were evaluated using the phenotypes of 44 traits. The Interbull genomic validation test was implemented to investigate how the inclusion of a residual polygenic effect impacted genomic estimated breeding values. Results As the number of reference bulls increased, both the variance of the estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism effects and the reliability of the direct genomic values of selection candidates increased. Fitting a residual polygenic effect in the model resulted in less biased genome-enhanced breeding values and decreased the correlation between direct genomic values and estimated breeding values of sires in the reference population. Conclusions Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle enhanced with genomic information is highly effective in increasing reliability, as well as using large genomic reference populations. We found that fitting a residual polygenic effect reduced the bias in genome-enhanced breeding values, decreased the correlation between direct genomic values and sire's estimated breeding values and made genome-enhanced breeding values more consistent in mean and variance as is the case for pedigree-based estimated breeding values.

  3. Residual Perchloroethylene in Dry-Cleaned Acetate: The Effect of Pressing and Extent of Inter-Dry-Cleaner Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Kevin P; Jang, Christine J; Park, Ju-Hyeong; Serrano, Paulina I; Weker, Robert A; Lee, Kiyoung; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    1999-02-01

    Measurements of residual perchloroethylene (PCE), a dry-cleaning solvent associated with human health effects, were made in dry-cleaned acetate cloth to enable improved characterizations of both occupational and environmental exposure. A limited sample size (25 acetate cloths) was used to explore the extent of inter-dry-cleaner variability in residual PCE and to characterize the effect of the pressing operation on residual PCE. A new method, which uses carbon-disulfide as the direct extracting agent, proved effective in the analysis of residual PCE, with a recovery-efficiency ≈ 75%. Inter-dry-cleaner variability of residual PCE, although marginally statistically significant, was relatively low, showing only a fourfold range compared to a 5-order-of-magnitude range obtained from Kawauchi and Nishiyama 1 . Pairwise comparison of residual PCE in nonpressed versus pressed acetate samples revealed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.008), which amounted to a consistent (among dry-cleaners) pressing-related removal efficiency of 75 ± 4%. A preliminary assessment of the source term associated with the pressing operation (mass PCE liberated per kg cloth dry-cleaned, S PCE ≈ 30 mg/kg) indicates a minor contribution to the average ambient air concentrations within dry-cleaning establishments.

  4. Effects of non-catalytic, distal amino acid residues on activity of E. coli DinB (DNA polymerase IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jason M; Parasuram, Ramya; Rajput, Pradyumna R; Rozners, Eriks; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Beuning, Penny J

    2012-12-01

    DinB is one of two Y family polymerases in E. coli and is involved in copying damaged DNA. DinB is specialized to bypass deoxyguanosine adducts that occur at the N(2) position, with its cognate lesion being the furfuryl adduct. Active site residues have been identified that make contact with the substrate and carry out deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) addition to the growing DNA strand. In DNA polymerases, these include negatively charged aspartate and glutamate residues (D8, D103, and E104 in E. coli DNA polymerase IV DinB). These residues position the essential magnesium ions correctly to facilitate nucleophilic attack by the primer hydroxyl group on the α-phosphate group of the incoming dNTP. To study the contribution of DinB residues to lesion bypass, the computational methods THEMATICS and POOL were employed. These methods correctly predict the known active site residues, as well as other residues known to be important for activity. In addition, these methods predict other residues involved in substrate binding as well as more remote residues. DinB variants with mutations at the predicted positions were constructed and assayed for bypass of the N(2) -furfuryl-dG lesion. We find a wide range of effects of predicted residues, including some mutations that abolish damage bypass. Moreover, most of the DinB variants constructed are unable to carry out the extension step of lesion bypass. The use of computational prediction methods represents another tool that will lead to a more complete understanding of translesion DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of residual stress on the integrity of a branch connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Kirstein, O.; Luzin, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new connection to an existing gas pipeline was made by hot-tapping, welding directly onto a pressurised pipeline. The welds were not post-weld heat treated, causing significant residual stresses. The critical weld had residual stresses determined by neutron diffraction using ANSTO's residual stress diffractometer, Kowari. The maximum measured residual stress (290 MPa) was 60% of the yield strength. The magnitudes of errors from a number of sources were estimated. An integrity assessment of the welded branch connection was performed with the measured residual stress values and with residual stress distributions from the BS 7910 and API 579 analysis codes. Analysis using estimates of residual stress from API 579 overestimated the critical crack size. Highlights: ► Residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction in a thick section, non post-weld heat treated ferritic weld. ► There is little published data on these welds. ► The work compares the measured residual stresses with code-based residual stress distributions.

  6. Effect of processing conditions and methods on residual stress in CeO2 buffer layers and YBCO superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Qin Wenfeng; Cui Xumei; Tao Bowan; Tang Jinlong; Li Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    CeO 2 layers have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on (1 1 0 2) sapphire substrate. Microstructure of CeO 2 layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction as functions of substrate temperature. The effects of the substrate temperature on the residual stress have been studied. The results show that residual stress in CeO 2 film decreased with increasing substrate temperature, not the same development tendency as that of thermal stress. This means that the thermal stress is only a fraction of the residual stress. Moreover, YBCO superconducting films were prepared by direct current (DC) sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The residual stress and thermal stress of both YBCO films were measured. PLD processing apparently generated higher intrinsic compressive stresses in comparison to DC sputtering

  7. Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, M.; Toparli, M.B.; Smyth, N.; Cini, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Irving, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of laser peen intensity on local residual stress fields in 2024 aluminium. ► Peening induces significant changes in surface topography and local hardness. ► Residual stress at peen spot centre in tension, spot overlap in compression. ► Notched fatigue lives increased; crack morphology correlated to residual stress field. ► Large peening power densities can cause fatigue life reduction in notched samples. - Abstract: Laser peening at a range of power densities has been applied to 2 mm-thick sheets of 2024 T351 aluminium. The induced residual stress field was measured using incremental hole drilling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Fatigue samples were subjected to identical laser peening treatments followed by scribing at the peen location to introduce stress concentrations, after which they were fatigue tested. The residual stresses were found to be non-biaxial: orthogonal to the peen line they were tensile at the surface, moving into the desired compression with increased depth. Regions of peen spot overlap were associated with large compression strains; the centre of the peen spot remaining tensile. Fatigue lives showed moderate improvement over the life of unpeened samples for 50 μm deep scribes, and slight improvement for samples with 150 μm scribes. Use of the residual stress intensity K resid approach to calculate fatigue life improvement arising from peening was unsuccessful at predicting the relative effects of the different peening treatments. Possible reasons for this are explored.

  8. Simulated effects of crop rotations and residue management on wind erosion in Wuchuan, west-central Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erda; Harman, Wyatte L; Williams, Jimmy R; Xu, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    For decades, wind erosion has triggered dust and sand storms, buffeting Beijing and areas of northwestern China to the point of being hazardous to human health while rapidly eroding crop and livestock productivity. The EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) field-scale simulation model was used to assess long-term effects of improved crop rotations and crop residue management practices on wind erosion in Wuchuan County in Inner Mongolia. Simulation results indicate that preserving crop stalks until land is prepared by zone tillage for the next year's crop in lieu of using them as a source of heating fuel or livestock fodder significantly reduces wind erosion by 60%. At the same time, grain and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yields were maintained or improved. Significant reductions in erosion, 35 to 46%, also resulted from delaying stalk removal until late January through late April. Yearly wind erosion was concentrated in April and May, the windiest months. Additionally, the use of alternative crop rotations resulted in differences in wind erosion, largely due to a difference in residue stature and quality and differences in biomass produced. As a result, altering current crop rotation systems by expanding corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and millet [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and reducing potato and pea (Pisum sativum L.) production significantly reduced simulated wind erosion, thus diminishing the severity of dust and sand storms in northwestern China. Saving and protecting topsoil over time will sustain land productivity and have long-term implications for improving conditions of rural poverty in the region.

  9. Separation and effect of residual moisture in liquid phase adsorption of xylene on y zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lahot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of p-xylene and m-xylene from C8 aromatic hydrocarbon feed using Y zeolites is investigated. Effect of residual moisture on p-xylene adsorption on BaY was measured in order to optimize the activation temperature of the adsorbent. The results show that with an increase in temperature the moisture on the adsorbent decreases. An optimum loading of moisture is required for adsorption of xylene on the adsorbents. The Everett equation is used to determine the adsorption capacity and selectivity. It has been found that the adsorbents best suited for the separation of p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene and ethyl benzene from the mixture of C8 aromatics are NaY, NaY, BaY and KY, respectively. The XRD results show that the crystallinity of the adsorbent decreases upon exchanging the zeolites to K+ and Ba2+ ions.

  10. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adibe L. Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

  11. Effect of a glycine residue insertion into crustacean hyperglycemic hormone on hormonal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Katayama, Hidekazu; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2004-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) have similar amino acid sequences and therefore comprise a peptide family referred to as the CHH family. All MIHs unexceptionally have an additional glycine residue at position 12, which is lacking in all CHHs. In order to understand the relevance of the absence of the glycine residue for hyperglycemic activity, a mutant CHH having a glycine residue insertion was prepared, and its hyperglycemic activity was assessed. Thi...

  12. Effect of a Glycine Residue Insertion into Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone on Hormonal Activity(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidekazu, Katayama; Hiromichi, Nagasawa; Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo; Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

    2004-01-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) have similar amino acid sequences and therefore comprise a peptide family referred to as the CHH family. All MIHs unexceptionally have an additional glycine residue at position 12, which is lacking in all CHHs. In order to understand the relevance of the absence of the glycine residue for hyperglycemic activity, a mutant CHH having a glycine residue insertion was prepared, and its hyperglycemic activity was assessed. Thi...

  13. The Effect of Drying-Wetting Cycle’s Repetition to the Characteristic of Natural and Stabilization Residual Soils Jawa Timur - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaha, M.

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia, which located in tropical region, continuously undergoes wetting and drying cycles due to the changeable seasons. An important role in activating the clay minerals on tropical residual soils is the main factor that affects the static and dynamic properties, such as: volume change, soil suction and dynamic modulus. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of drying-wetting cycles repetition on volume change, soil suction and mechanical characteristics of natural and stabilization of residual soils from Jawa Timur - Indonesia. The natural undisturbed and stabilized residual soil sample was naturally and gradually dried up with air to 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100 % of the initial water content. The wetting processes were carried out with the gradual increment water content of 25 %(wsat - wi), 50 %(wsat - wi), 75 %(wsat - wi), up to 100 %(wsat - wi). The Direct Shear test is used to measure the mechanic properties, and Whatman filter paper No. 42 is used to measure the soil suction. The drying-wetting processes were carried out for 1, 2, 4, and 6 cycles. The laboratory test results showed that, the void ratio decreased, the unit weight, cohesion and the internal friction angle were increasing due to stabilization. Drying-wetting cycle repetition reduces void ratio, negative pore-water pressure, cohesion and internal friction angle of natural and stabilized soils. Briefly, the decreased of mechanical soil properties was proven from the physical properties change observation.

  14. Effect of temperature on iron leaching from bauxite residue by sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Rong; Zeng, Kai; Zhao, Wei; Li, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Bauxite residue, as solid waste from alumina production, contains mainly hematite [Fe2O3]. Kinetic study of iron leaching of bauxite residue by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. The results have been obtained as following: (i) Temperature play an important role in iron leaching from bauxite residue. Higher temperature is favor of Fe(III) leaching from bauxite residue. (ii) The leaching process is applicable to the intra-particle diffusion model and the apparent activation energy of model of leaching is found to be 17.32 kJ/mol.

  15. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective Dose Equivalent To The Cypriot Population Due To Natural Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, S.

    1994-01-01

    A study was initiated by the Biomedical Research Foundation, two years ago, to estimate the various natural radiation components that contribute to the Effective Dose Equivalent (EDE) to the Cypriot population. The present study has shown that the contribution due to cosmic radiation is estimated to be less than 270 microSiverts per annum, while that due to airborne Rn-222 concentration in Cypriot houses is estimated to be less then 330 microSieverts per annum. The contribution due to terrestrial gamma radiations, which is currently under investigation, is so far estimated to be around 108 microSieverts per annum. Therefore the EDE to the Cypriot population due to natural radiation is likely to be around 700 microSieverts per annum, not taking into account the internal exposure due to other naturally occuring radionuclides. (author)

  17. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  18. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  19. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (<15%). The EDI/ADI ratios found in all cases were well below their ADI values, and the dietary exposure assessed (EDI) in fresh-cut lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  20. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  2. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  3. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving PAGER losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER’s overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability.

  4. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. Methods We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively. Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. Results During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05. During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  5. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The effects of toothpastes on the residual microbial contamination of toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, D P; Goldschmidt, M C; Thompson, M B; Adler-Storthz, K; Keene, H J

    2001-09-01

    Contaminated toothbrushes have been shown to harbor and transmit viruses and bacteria. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the effect of a triclosan-containing toothpaste on the residual anaerobic microbial contamination of toothbrushes. Twenty patients who had Type III or Type IV periodontitis participated in this study. One side of each of their mouths served as a control (no toothpaste). The teeth on the other side were brushed with a regular toothpaste or a triclosan-containing toothpaste. After the toothbrushes were allowed to dry in air for four hours, the authors placed the toothbrush heads in solution, dislodged the microbes from the brushes by vortexing and plated them in culture dishes. The authors anerobically incubated the culture dishes and determined the presence or absence of Prevotella species or Ps; Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Pg; and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, or Aa. The authors detected Aa and Pg on the control toothbrushes more frequently than they did Ps. This variation in isolation frequency was statistically significant by chi 2 analysis (P frequency of the three test organisms between the control and regular-toothpaste groups, between the control and triclosan-containing--toothpaste groups, and between the triclosan-containing--toothpaste and regular-toothpaste groups. They found no significant intergroup differences in the isolation frequencies after using chi 2 analysis. Toothpaste use reduced the residual microbial contamination for two of three test organisms, but the lower isolation frequencies were not statistically significant. Further study in this area is indicated. Dental professionals should advise patients who have systemic, localized or oral inflammatory diseases to disinfect or frequently replace their toothbrushes.

  7. Effect of Restorative Protocol on Cuspal Strain and Residual Stress in Endodontically Treated Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ras; Bicalho, A A; Franco, S D; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A; Soares, C J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the restorative protocol on cuspal strain, fracture resistance, residual stress, and mechanical properties of restorative materials in endodontically treated molars. Forty-five molars received mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) Class II preparations and endodontic treatment followed by direct restorations using three restorative protocols: composite resin (CR) only (Filtek Supreme, 3M-ESPE), resin modified glass ionomer cement in combination with CR (Vitremer, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity), conventional glass ionomer cement in combination with composite resin (CGI-CR) (Ketac Fil, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity). Cuspal strain was measured using strain gauges, and fracture resistance was tested with an occlusal load. Elastic modulus (EM) and Vickers hardness (VH) of the restorative materials were determined at different depths using dynamic microhardness indentation. Curing shrinkage was measured using the strain gauge technique. The restorative protocols were also simulated in finite element analysis (FEA). The shrinkage strain, cuspal strain, EM, VH, and fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance and Tukey test (p=0.05). Residual shrinkage stresses were expressed in modified von Mises equivalent stresses. Shrinkage strain values (in volume %) were Ketac Fil (0.08±0.01) restorative protocol significantly affected the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated molars. Using glass ionomer to fill the pulp chamber is recommended when endodontically treated molars receive direct composite restorations because it reduces cuspal strain and increases fracture resistance.

  8. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  9. Effects of residual hearing on cochlear implant outcomes in children: A systematic-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2017-09-01

    to investigate if preoperative residual hearing in prelingually deafened children can interfere on cochlear implant indication and outcomes. a systematic-review was conducted in five international databases up to November-2016, to locate articles that evaluated cochlear implantation in children with some degree of preoperative residual hearing. Outcomes were auditory, language and cognition performances after cochlear implant. The quality of the studies was assessed and classified according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence table - 2011. Risk of biases were also described. From the 30 articles reviewed, two types of questions were identified: (a) what are the benefits of cochlear implantation in children with residual hearing? (b) is the preoperative residual hearing a predictor of cochlear implant outcome? Studies ranged from 04 to 188 subjects, evaluating populations between 1.8 and 10.3 years old. The definition of residual hearing varied between studies. The majority of articles (n = 22) evaluated speech perception as the outcome and 14 also assessed language and speech production. There is evidence that cochlear implant is beneficial to children with residual hearing. Preoperative residual hearing seems to be valuable to predict speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation, even though the mechanism of how it happens is not clear. More extensive researches must be conducted in order to make recommendations and to set prognosis for cochlear implants based on children preoperative residual hearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  11. Effect of solution chemistry on arsenic sorption by Fe- and Al-based drinking-water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Rachana; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C; Datta, Rupali

    2010-02-01

    Drinking-water treatment residual (WTR) have been proposed as a low-cost alternative sorbent for arsenic (As) - contaminated aquatic and soil systems. However, limited information exists regarding the effect of solution chemistry on As sorption by WTR. A batch incubation study was carried out to investigate the effect of solution pH (3-9) on As(V) sorption by Al- and Fe-based WTR as a function of solid: solution ratio (SSR) and initial As concentration. The effect of competing ligands (phosphate-P(V) and sulfate), and complexing metal (calcium) on As(V) sorption envelopes at the optimum SSR (200gL(-1)) was also evaluated. At 200gL(-1) SSR, maximum As(V) sorption ( approximately 100%) exhibited by the Fe-WTR was limited at the pH range of 3-7, whereas, the Al-WTR demonstrated approximately 100% As(V) sorption in the entire pH range. The negative pH effect on As(V) sorption became more pronounced with increasing initial As concentrations and decreasing SSR. Sorption of As(V) by surfaces of both WTR decreased in the presence of P(V), exhibiting strong pH dependence. Only for the Fe-WTR, increased dissolved iron concentrations at pH>7 supported a Fe-hydroxide reductive dissolution mechanism to account for the enhanced As sorption at alkaline pH. Addition of sulfate did not influence As(V) sorption by both WTR. A cooperative effect of calcium on As(V) sorption was observed at alkaline pH due to the formation of a calcium-arsenate phase. The constant capacitance model provided reasonable fits to the sorption envelope data for both single ion and binary ion (As and P) systems, but it was unable to explain the enhanced As sorption by the Fe-WTR at pH>7.

  12. Effect of residual stress on modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shankar, E-mail: shankardutta77@gmail.com; Panchal, Abha; Kumar, Manoj; Pal, Ramjay; Bhan, R. K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, India 110054 (India)

    2016-04-13

    Deep boron diffusion often induces residual stress in bulk micromachined MEMS structures, which may affect the MEMS devices operation. In this study, we studied the modal patterns of MEMS vibratory gyroscope under the residual stress (100 – 1000 MPa). Modal patterns and modal frequencies of the gyro are found to be dependent on the residual stress values. Without any residual stress, the modal frequencies drive and sense modeswere found to be 20.06 kHz and 20.36 kHz respectively. In presence of 450 MPa residual stress, the modal frequencies of the drive and sense modes were changed to 42.75 kHz and 43.07 kHz respectively.

  13. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery efficiencies in crop production systems of China with and without consideration of the residual effect of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ti, Chaopu; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Vitousek, Peter; Chen, Deli; Leip, Adrian; Cai, Zucong

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest consumer of synthetic nitrogen (N), where very low rates of fertilizer N recovery in crops have been reported, raising discussion around whether fertilizer N use can be significantly reduced without yield penalties. However, using recovery rates as indicator ignores a possible residual effect of fertilizer N—a factor often unknown at large scales. Such residual effect might store N in the soil increasing N availability for subsequent crops. The objectives of the present study were therefore to quantify the residual effect of fertilizer N in China and to obtain more realistic rates of the accumulative fertilizer N recovery efficiency (RE) in crop production systems of China. Long-term spatially-extensive data on crop production, fertilizer N and other N inputs to croplands in China were used to analyze the relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input (or total N input), and to estimate the amount of residual fertilizer N. Measurement results of cropland soil N content in two time periods were obtained to compare the change in the soil N pool. At the provincial scale, it was found that there is a linear relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input or total N input. With the increase in fertilizer N input, annual direct fertilizer N RE decreased and was indeed low (below 30% in recent years), while its residual effect increased continuously, to the point that 40–68% of applied fertilizer was used for crop production sooner or later. The residual effect was evidenced by a buildup of soil N and a large difference between nitrogen use efficiencies of long-term and short-term experiments. (paper)

  15. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment.

  16. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlien Pieters

    Full Text Available Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g, platelet-containing (352 g and platelet-rich plasma (200 g were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly

  17. Effects of pulse-to-pulse residual species on discharges in repetitively pulsed discharges through packed bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for conversion of toxic and waste gases, and CO2 removal. These discharges are repetitively pulsed having varying flow rates and internal geometries, which results in species from the prior pulse still being in the discharge zone at the time the following discharge pulse occurs. A non-negligible residual plasma density remains, which effectively acts as preionization. This residual charge changes the discharge properties of subsequent pulses, and may impact important PBR properties such as chemical selectivity. Similarly, the residual neutral reactive species produced during earlier pulses will impact the reaction rates on subsequent pulses. We report on results of a computational investigation of a 2D PBR using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM. Results will be discussed for air flowing though an array of dielectric rods at atmospheric pressure. The effects of inter-pulse residual species on PBR discharges will be quantified. Means of controlling the presence of residual species in the reactor through gas flow rate, pulse repetition, pulse width and geometry will be described. Comparisons will be made to experiments. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  18. Effects of Sludge Dry Solid Content and Residual Bulking Agents on Volatile Solids Reduction Using Eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Abdoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first stage of this study, the compound effects of sludge dry solid content and residual bulking agent type (paper, saw dust, straw mixed with activated sludge (10, 15, and 20% dry solids on volatile solids (V.S. reduction were investigated using Eisenia foetida in pilot scale experiments with batches of fifty earthworms in each of the 10 experimental treatments over a period of 10 weeks. The maximum V.S. reduction was attained in the mixture of sludge and paper, with a D.S. of 15% (0.42 ± 0.03 % day-1 while the minimum V.S. reduction was achieved in the mixture of sludge and straw, with a D.S. of 10% (0.26 ± 0.01 % day-1. In the second stage, the survival of Eisenia foetida in the anaerobic sewage sludge was investigated. In the unmixed raw anaerobic sludge, all the earthworms died during the first 9 weeks of the study period due to acute toxicity. From week 10, however, their survival rate improved so that by week 12 when toxicity reduced to 25.40%, they completely survived. This is while in the mixture of anaerobic sludge with paper (D.S. 15%, 100% of the earthworms survived from week 8 after the volatile solids reduced to 20.42% and 17.40%.

  19. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU) regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking ani...

  20. Evaluation of dose due to the liberation of the radioactive content present in systems of final disposal of radioactive residues; Evaluacion de la dosis debida a la liberacion del contenido radiactivo presente en sistemas de disposicion final de residuos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, V.; Lopez, F. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (C1429BNP) (Argentina)]. e-mail: vamado@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The disposal systems of radioactive residuals well-known as repositories near to the surface, are used to dispose residuals that can contain high concentrations of radionuclides of period of short semi disintegration, which they would decay at levels radiologically insignificant in some few decades or in some centuries: and acceptably low concentrations of radionuclides of period of long semi disintegration. The dose that would receive the critic group due to these systems it could be increased by cause of discreet events that affect the foreseen retard time, or by the gradual degradation of the barriers. To this last case it contributes the presence of water, because it implies leaching and dissolution that can give place to radionuclide concentrations in the underground water greater to the prospective ones. The dosimetric evaluation is important because it offers useful objective information to decide if a given repository is adjusted to the purposes of its design and it fulfills the regulatory requirements. In this work a simplified evaluation of the dose that would receive the critic group due to the liberation of contained radionuclides in a hypothetical system of final disposition of radioactive residuals is presented. For it, they are considered representative values of the usually contained activities in this type of systems and they are carried out some approaches of the source term. The study is developed in two stages. In the first one, by means of the Radionuclide pollutant scattering pattern in phreatic aquifers (DRAF) it is considered the scattering of the pollutants in the phreatic aquifer, until the discharge point in the course of the nearest surface water. This model, developed originally in the regulatory branch of the National Commission of Argentine Atomic Energy (CNEA); it solves the transport equation of solutes in porous means in three dimensions, by the finite differences method having in account the soil retention and the radioactive

  1. Physiological effects and tissue residues from exposure of leopard frogs to commercial naphthenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Judit E G; Hersikorn, Blair D; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2012-10-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) have been cited as one of the main causes of the toxicity related to oil sands process-affected materials and have recently been measured in biological tissues (fish). However, adverse effects have not been a consistent finding in toxicology studies on vertebrates. This study set out to determine two factors: 1) whether exposure to commercial NAs (Refined Merichem) resulted in detectable tissue residues in native amphibians (northern leopard frogs, Lithobates pipiens), and 2) whether such exposure would produce clinical or subclinical toxicity. Frogs were kept in NA solutions (0, 20, or 40 mg/L) under saline conditions comparable to that on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands for 28 days. These exposures resulted in proportional NA concentrations in muscle tissue of the frogs, estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Detailed studies determined if the increasing concentrations of NAs, and subsequently increased tissue NA levels, caused a proportional compromise in the health of the experimental animals. Physiological investigations included innate immune function, thyroid hormone levels, and hepatic detoxification enzyme induction, none of which differed in response to increased exposures or tissue concentrations of NAs. Body mass did increase in both the salt- and NA-exposed animals, likely related to osmotic pressure and uptake of water through the skin. Our results demonstrate that commercial NAs are absorbed and deposited in muscle tissue, yet they show few negative physiological or toxicological effects on the frogs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Dynamic effects of soil bulk density on denitrification and mineralisation by 15N labelled lettuce residue and paper wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Cheng Qing; Vinten, A.J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Two laboratory incubation experiments aimed to study the denitrification and mineralisation influenced by different additives ( 15 N labelled lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both) and soil bulk densities were carried out by means of acetylene inhibition at the constant 15 degree C for 107 and 90 days, respectively. The results showed that the changes of N 2 O, CO 2 emission rates, inorganic nitrogen (NO 3 - and NH 4 + ), total N and 15 N abundance in the soils which were affected by adding lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both were investigated. Soil denitrification rate increased after lettuce residue was added into soil for 8 days. The maximum rate of N 2 O emission was 15 times higher than that in soil without any additive. However, paper wastes did not increase N 2 O emission in the first 8 days compared with other treatments, mixed residue and paper wastes could promote soil microbial activity, but N 2 O emission was lower than that in the soil with lettuce residue added and higher than that with paper wastes, indicating that mixture of residue and paper wastes was benefit to soil nitrogen immobilisation. CO 2 emission in all the treatments were declined to the same level on the 107 th day. In the treatment added mixed residues and paper wastes, the released CO 2 quantities were higher than those in other treatments every day. Effect of different bulk density on N 2 O and CO 2 emission were response to the change of bulk density, it seems that N 2 O and CO 2 emission increased with bulk density. High bulk density could affect decomposition of paper wastes and NO 3 - , NH 4 + concentration. (30 ref., 10 tabs.)

  3. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  4. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  5. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Padmakar S; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Mandokar, Rashmi B

    2009-01-01

    Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner). A total of 70 specimens (64 Chi 10 Chi 3.3 mm) were polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10). Control group specimens were not subjected to any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W) and time (3, 4, and 5 min) settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min) by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  6. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  7. Auditory, Vestibular and Cognitive Effects due to Repeated Blast Exposure on the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    competitions Prior disorders of hearing and balance including: o Meniere’s disease o Chronic migraine o Multiple sclerosis o Vestibular neuritis o...AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-08-2-0029 TITLE: Auditory, Vestibular and Cognitive...201 – 31 201 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Auditory, Vestibular and Cognitive Effects due to Repeated Blast Exposure on the

  8. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Release Effecting Federal Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan Revision at Mather Airport, Sacramento, CA AGENCY... application for an Airport Layout Plan revision effecting approximately 422 acres of airport property at... will not be conveyed by the Air Force to the County. As a result, the existing Airport Layout Plan will...

  9. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: chenxizhang@wzu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University., Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhou, Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components.

  10. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xizhang; Fang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F.; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components

  11. The effect of initial stress induced during the steel manufacturing process on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-ung Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A residual stress generated in the steel structure is broadly categorized into initial residual stress during manufacturing steel material, welding residual stress caused by welding, and heat treatment residual stress by heat treatment. Initial residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process is combined with welding residual stress or heat treatment residual stress, and remained as a final residual stress. Because such final residual stress affects the safety and strength of the structure, it is of utmost importance to measure or predict the magnitude of residual stress, and to apply this point on the design of the structure. In this study, the initial residual stress of steel structures having thicknesses of 25 mm and 70 mm during manufacturing was measured in order to investigate initial residual stress (hereinafter, referred to as initial stress. In addition, thermal elastic plastic FEM analysis was performed with this initial condition, and the effect of initial stress on the welding residual stress was investigated. Further, the reliability of the FE analysis result, considering the initial stress and welding residual stress for the steel structures having two thicknesses, was validated by comparing it with the measured results. In the vicinity of the weld joint, the initial stress is released and finally controlled by the weld residual stress. On the other hand, the farther away from the weld joint, the greater the influence of the initial stress. The range in which the initial stress affects the weld residual stress was not changed by the initial stress. However, in the region where the initial stress occurs in the compressive stress, the magnitude of the weld residual compressive stress varies with the compression or tension of the initial stress. The effect of initial stress on the maximum compression residual stress was far larger when initial stress was considered in case of a thickness of 25 mm with a value of 180

  12. Effectiveness of a multifactorial handwashing program to reduce school absenteeism due to acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martínez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Martínez-López, Jose Miguel; Garrido-Fernández, Pablo; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Campos-Fernandez, Maria Amparo; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children and an important cause of school absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizers for the prevention of school absenteeism due to AGE. A randomized, controlled and open study of a sample of 1341 children between 4 and 12 years of age, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow up (academic year). The experimental group (EG) washed their hands with soap and water, complementing this with the use of a hand sanitizer, and the control group (CG) followed the usual handwashing procedure. Absenteeism rates due GI were compared between the 2 groups through the multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Percent days absent in both groups were compared with a Z-test. 446 cases of school absenteeism due to AGE were registered. The school children from the EG had a 36% lower risk of absenteeism due to AGE (IRR: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.78) and a decrease in absenteeism of 0.13 episodes/child/academic year (0.27 of EG vs 0.40 CG/episodes/child/academic year, P school days due to AGE and absent days was significantly lower in the EG (EG: 0.31%, 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.35 vs. CG: 0.44%, 95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.48, P school absenteeism cases due to AGE.

  13. Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Meijer, T.; Vinyeta, E.; Klis, van der J.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were

  14. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  15. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) on Residual Stress State and Fatigue Strength of AISI 304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, A.; Pyoun, Y.; Scholtes, B.

    2010-03-01

    The effects of a new mechanical surface treatment method, called ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), on near-surface microstructures and residual stress states as well as on the fatigue behavior of an austenitic steel AISI 304 are investigated and discussed. The results are compared with consequences of other mechanical surface treatment methods such as deep rolling or shot peening.

  16. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico)]. E-mail: crubio@cidesi.mx; Gomez-Rosas, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Universidad de Guadalajara. Lagos de Moreno Jal. (Mexico); Ocana, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Molpeceres, C. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Banderas, A. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarrollo Industrial, Pie de la Cuesta No. 702, Desarrollo San Pablo, Queretaro, Qro. 76130 (Mexico); Porro, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Morales, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada a la Ingenieria Industrial, E.T.S.I.I. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm{sup 2} with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy.

  17. Effect of Harvest Residue Management on Tree Productivity and Carbon Pools during Early Stand Development in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Phillip Dougherty; Daniel McInnis; Pete Anderson; Steve Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Soil incorporation of postharvest forest floor or logging residues during site preparation increased mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration and had a differential effect on early stand growth in a clonal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Incorporating 25 Mg ha

  18. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  19. Effect of metal coating and residual stress on the resonant frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - sive type respectively. In this paper, we investigate both these cases by taking two different structures, namely, the micro cantilever beam with gold layer deposited on its top surface and the MEMS gyroscope with residual stresses. First, we ...

  20. Modelling the Effects of Surface Residual Stresses on Fatigue Behavior of PM Disk Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A finite element based model will be developed and validated to capture the evolution of residual stresses and cold work at machined features of compressor and...

  1. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  2. In-vitro cancer cell cytotoxicity and alpha amylase inhibition effect of seven tropical fruit residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Study suggests that these fruit residues demonstrate promising antidiabetic and anticancer activity that substantiated its ethno medicinal use and may provide new molecules for the treatment of these diseases.

  3. Effects of High Temperature on the Residual Performance of Portland Cement Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Tolentino

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the "residual" performance of Portland cement concretes heat-treated at 600 °C after cooling down to room temperature. Concretes with characteristic compressive strength at 28 days of 45 MPa and of 60 MPa were studied. The heat-treatment was carried out without any imposed load. We measured the residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. The geometry of the structure was described by mercury intrusion porosimetry and nitrogen sorption tests. We observed a decrease of residual compressive strength and modulus of elasticity, with the raise of heat-treatment temperature, as a result of heat-induced material degradation. The results also indicated that the microstructural damage increased steadily with increasing temperature. Based on the results of this experimental work we concluded that residual mechanical properties of concrete are dependent of their original non heat-treated values.

  4. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.; Isitekhale, H.H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  5. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  6. Effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack-growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1974-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5 mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. This report presents the analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions.

  7. The effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1973-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that the shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. The analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions are presented.

  8. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected.

  9. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  10. Effects of various agro-industrial residues on soil fertility and yield and quality of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaci, O L; Seçer, M; Ceylan, S

    2012-07-01

    Nine combinations of production residues of agro-industries, urban wastes and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum var. Marabel) in a field experiment, and the effect of these combinations on soil characteristics, on yield and on various quality parameters of tubers were determined. The applications significantly affected soil pH, CaCO3 and organic matter content. Total N and available P and K levels of soils showed significant differences between the applications. The content of available Zn and Mn in the soil differed significantly between the applications. Sufficient levels of N, P and K were not attained in leaves in any application. Significant differences were observed between the P content of the leaves of the control and of the other applications. Potassium and Na content of the leaves showed significant variations between the applications. Manganese was at a statistically higher level in the leaves of some combinations. The nitrogen, P and Mn contents of tubers differed significantly between the applications. Phosphorus, K, Mg and Cu levels were found to be sufficient, but Fe, Zn and Mn were low in tubers. Tuber yield was statistically highest in the Wastes P + Mineral NK combination. Reduced sugar and protein content of the tubers was affected significantly by the applications. Significant correlations were found between soil, leaf and tubers.

  11. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, Saqib Saleem; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to global food security. Biochar amendment could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crop in the season. However, its long-term residual effect on reducing Na+ uptake in latter crops remains unknown. A pot experiment with wheat was conducted...... in a greenhouse. The soil used was from an earlier experiment on potato where the plants were irrigated with tap water (S0), 25 mM (S1) and 50 mM (S2) NaCl solutions and with 0 and 5% (w/w) biochar amendment. At onset of the experiment, three different EC levels at S0, S1 and S2 were established in the non-biochar...... control (2.3, 7.2 and 10.9 dS m−1) and the biochar amended (2.8, 8.1 and 11.8 dS m−1) soils, respectively. A column leaching experiment was also conducted in the greenhouse to study the adsorption capacity of biochar to Na+. The results indicated that biochar addition reduced plant sodium uptake...

  12. Residual thermal effects in macro fiber composite actuators exposed to persistent temperature cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobeck, J. D.; Owen, R. B.; Inman, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the authors present results of an experimental investigation demonstrating how extreme persistent thermal cycling influences the performance of piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators. More specifically, this research shows how repeated temperature cycling ranging from -60 °C to 90 °C and from -50 °C to 150 °C affects an MFCs ability to actuate while being driven at frequencies of 60 Hz to 90 Hz with a voltage of 20 Vpp. Experimental results show that thermal cycling causes MFC actuation characteristics to drift and eventually stabilize after approximately 20 cycles. In two cases presented here, thermal cycling alone caused a residual increase in actuation amplitude that exceeded the initial amplitude by 70%. This apparent thermal memory effect of MFCs may significantly impact the design and analysis of active structures where MFCs are used for vibration or displacement control in transient extreme temperature environments such as those encountered by aerospace structures, industrial equipment, automobiles, and civil infrastructure.

  13. Calibration of a portable cost-effective chemical residue detection system with adaptive neural net control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Alan C.; Walker, James C.

    2003-07-01

    The Sensory Research Institute at the Florida State University has quantitatively characterized a chemical residue detection system with adaptive neural net data processing. Two separate configurations, "Stormy" and "Gaea", were trained by exposure to decreasing amounts of n-amyl acetate from chemical emitters randomly distributed among a collection of non-emitters. The concentration of chemical in the sampled air stream was controlled precisely. The detection threshold for "Stormy" was 1.14 ppt; that for "Gaea" was 1.9 ppt. Cycle time for sampling and chemical analysis of each sample port was on the order of seconds. Possible effects on the sensors of environmental factors such as ambient humidity, temperature, and air velocity were not considered. Besides processing individual air sample data, the neural nets can sense concentration gradients and track to chemical source. The adaptive neural nets are accessed by a voice recognition system and are capable of point testing or free-ranging search. The service life of the detectors, the neural net processors, and auxiliary packaging is approximately 8 years under normal field use. Maintenance requires a good quality kibble and an occasional romp in the park.

  14. Protein Coexpression Using FMDV 2A: Effect of “Linker” Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Minskaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical applications absolutely require, or are substantially enhanced by, coexpression of multiple proteins from a single vector. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A and “2A-like” sequences (e.g., Thosea asigna virus 2A; T2A are used widely for this purpose since multiple proteins can be coexpressed by linking open reading frames (ORFs to form a single cistron. The activity of F2A “cleavage” may, however, be compromised by both the use of shorter versions of F2A and the sequences (derived from multiple-purpose cloning sites used to link F2A to the upstream protein. To characterise these effects, different lengths of F2A and T2A were inserted between green and cherry fluorescent proteins. Mutations were introduced in the linker region immediately upstream of both F2A- and T2A-based constructs and activities determined using both cell-free translation systems and transfected cells. In shorter versions of F2A, activity may be affected by both the C-terminal sequence of the protein upstream and, equally strikingly, the residues immediately upstream introduced during cloning. Mutations significantly improved activity for shorter versions of F2A but could decrease activity in the case of T2A. These data will aid the design of cloning strategies for the co-expression of multiple proteins in biomedical/biotechnological applications.

  15. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  16. Cover Crop Residue Amount and Quality Effects on Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Ghimire

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decline in soil organic carbon (SOC and the associated impacts on crop production under conventional farming raises concerns on how alternative management practices increase SOC sequestration and improve agricultural sustainability. This study aimed to understand SOC mineralization kinetics with different cover crop (CC residue amendments. Soil samples were collected from a fallow and three CC (pea, oat, and canola plots. Soil samples from the CC plots were manipulated with zero, five, and 10 Mg ha−1 of the respective CC residues. All soil samples were incubated for eight weeks, SOC mineralization was monitored, and the first order kinetic and parabolic equation models were fitted to the observed data for estimating labile SOC (C0, and the decomposition rate constant (k. Subsequent comparisons of fitted model parameters were based on the first order kinetic model. The C0 varied with the residue amount while k varied with CC type. C0 was 591–858% greater with 10 Mg ha−1 and 289–456% greater with five Mg ha−1 residue additions while k was 122–297% greater with 10 Mg ha−1 and 94–240% greater with five Mg ha−1 residue additions when compared to the fallow treatment. The CC residue stimulated cumulative carbon mineralization (Cmin irrespective of CC type, suggesting that cover cropping has potential to improve SOC cycling in agroecosystems.

  17. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  18. Effect of Welding Processes on the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses of Plain 9Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, S.; Vasantharaja, P.; Brahadees, G.; Vasudevan, M.; Mahadevan, S.

    2017-12-01

    9Cr-1Mo steel designated as P9 is widely used in the construction of power plants and high-temperature applications. It is chosen for fabricating hexcan fuel subassembly wrapper components of fast breeder reactors. Arc welding processes are generally used for fabricating 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints. A-TIG welding process is increasingly being adopted by the industries. In the present study, shielded metal arc (SMA), tungsten inert gas (TIG) and A-TIG welding processes are used for fabricating the 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joints of 10 mm thickness. Effect of the above welding processes on the microstructure evolution, mechanical properties and residual stresses of the weld joints has been studied in detail. All the three weld joints exhibited comparable strength and ductility values. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by SMAW process exhibited lower impact toughness values caused by coarser grain size and inclusions. 9Cr-1Mo steel weld joint fabricated by TIG welding exhibited higher toughness due to finer grain size, while the weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process exhibited adequate toughness values. SMA steel weld joint exhibited compressive residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ, while TIG and A-TIG weld joint exhibited tensile residual stresses in the weld metal and HAZ.

  19. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: A study using satellite data and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2016-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning in the tropics is a major source of the global atmospheric aerosols and monitoring their long-range transport is an important element in climate change studies. In this paper, we study the effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India during a smoke event that occurred between 09 and 17 November 2013, with the help of satellite measurements and model simulation data. Satellite data observations on aerosol properties suggested transport of particles from agriculture crop residue burning in Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) over large regions. Additionally, ECMWF winds at 850 hPa have been used to trace the source, path and spatial extent of smoke events. Most of the smoke aerosols, during the study period, travel from a west-to-east pathway from the source-to-sink region. Furthermore, aerosol vertical profiles from CALIPSO show a layer of thick smoke extending from surface to an altitude of about 3 km. Smoke aerosols emitted from biomass burning activity from Punjab have been found to be a major contributor to the deterioration of local air quality over the NE Indian region due to their long range transport.

  20. Effects of prone and supine positioning on gastric residuals in preterm infants: a time series with cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiau-Shr; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Gau, Bih-Shya; Kuo, Pi-Chao; Chen, Jia-Yuh

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of body position on gastric residuals at different time points in feeding preterm infants. Further, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. To describe the changing pattern of gastric residuals over time in the prone and supine position and to examine the effects of position on gastric residuals at different feeding volumes in preterm infants. A randomized, time series with cross-over study. A neonatal intensive care unit affiliated with a medical center in central Taiwan. 35 preterm infants who were asymptomatic for gastroesophageal reflux, other gastrointestinal diseases or other significant morbidities of any kind other than prematurity. Infants were randomly assigned to the following treatments: 3h in a supine position followed by 3h in a prone position, or vice versa. Measurements of gastric residual volume were taken by syringe at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min following feeding when the enteral intake was set at 50 or 100ml/kg/day. The rate of decrease of gastric residuals in the prone and supine positions was fastest during the first half an hour post-feeding according to measurements taken at 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min at feeding volumes of 50 and 100ml/kg/day (pposition at the five measurement points. Placing preterm infants in the prone position for the first half an hour post-feeding and then changing the position according to the behavior cues of the infants is suggested. This result contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between time, position, and gastric residuals; it could also help health care professionals to provide efficient feeding as well as perform the appropriate positioning of preterm infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  2. Effect of spent mushroom substrate applied to vineyard soil on the behaviour of copper-based fungicide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Hernández, E; Andrades, M S; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2011-07-01

    The effect of the addition of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) to the soil as an amendment on the distribution and/or fate of copper from a copper-based fungicide applied to a vineyard soil in La Rioja (N. Spain) was studied. The study was carried out on experimental plots amended or not with SMS at rates of 40 and 100 t ha(-1). The variation in total Cu content in the topsoil (0-10 cm) and in the soil profile (0-50 cm), and the distribution of Cu in different fractions of the topsoil were studied as a function of the dose of Cu added (5 and 10 kg ha(-1)) and of the time elapsed since application (0-12 months). In addition, the changes in the chemical properties (solid organic carbon (OC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH) of the soils were studied. A greater capacity for Cu retention by the amended soils than by the unamended one was observed only when the fungicide was applied at the high dose. No effect of the amendment rate was noted on this retention capacity. The metal content in the topsoil decreased over time in step with the disappearance of the OC in the amended soil due to its oxidation, mineralization and/or leaching. This decrease in total Cu content was possibly due to the formation of soluble Cu complexes with the DOC, which facilitated its transport through the soil. A re-distribution of Cu in the different soil fractions was also observed over time, mainly from the organic to the residual fraction. The results obtained indicate that the increase in OC due to the application of SMS at the rates used does not lead to any significant increase in the persistence of Cu in the soil over time. Of greater interest would be the assessment of the risk for groundwater quality, owing to possible leaching of the fungicide enhanced by the SMS when SMS and Cu-based fungicides are jointly applied to vineyard soils. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaricha, Leyla; Henni, Ahmed Djafar; Lancelot, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand) with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°), and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%).

  4. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaricha Leyla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°, and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%.

  5. Parboiled rice bran in japanese quail diets at growing phase and residual effect at laying period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the second largest cereal crop in the world and the by-products resulting from rice processing for human consumption are potential feedstuffs to compose poultry diets. In this sense, it was evaluated the influence of parboiled rice bran (PRB in diets for Japanese quails in growing phase on the performance and digestibility, besides of residual effects and characteristics of egg quality in laying phase. A total of 324 Japanese quails with 7 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 6 treatments and 6 replicates of 9 birds. The treatments consisted of 6 isonutritives diets, being a control diet without PRB and the others containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. At the end of growing phase the birds were allotted in cages and fed the same diet without PRB at laying phase. At growing phase, the inclusion of PRB up to 5% promoted linear reduction in dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of diet; however a linear increase in metabolizable energy was noted. Feed intake, weight gain and final weight were reduced but not altering feed:gain ratio and body composition. At laying phase, the inclusion of PRB increased the age at first egg production but no influence was verified at age to reach 50% of egg production. No effect was verified at laying percentage, feed intake, weight and egg mass and feed:gain ratio. In economical evaluation, the inclusion of up to 25% of parboiled rice bran provided best economical indexes. The inclusion of PRB Japanese quails diets at growing phase can be recommended in levels up to 25%, without incurring future losses at laying phase.

  6. Evaluation of residue management practices effects on corn productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Jose German

    The removal of crop residues left after harvest is being considered as a potential feedstock source for bioethanol production which can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel use and net greenhouse gas (GHG). The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine how tillage, N fertilization rates, residue removal, and their interactions affect crop productivity, (ii) SOC and soil physical properties, and (iii) GHG emissions, and (iv) calculated a soil C budget to determine how much crop residue can be sustainably be removed in Central and Southwest Iowa. After three years of residue removal under different management practices, the findings of this study suggest that a portion of the corn residue that is left on the soil surface after harvest can be removed, with no negative impacts in the short term continuous corn yield in sites at Central and Southwest Iowa. However, significant decreases in SOC sequestration rates, microbial biomass-C, bulk density, soil penetration resistance, wet aggregate stability, and infiltration rates were observed, but varied with soil type and management practices. Additionally, soil surface CO2 and N2O emissions were responsive to management practices; primarily by altering soil temperature, soil water content, soil mineral N, and crop growth. Results from soil C budget show that in 2010 when corn growth was not water stressed (lack of moisture), approximately 35 and 30% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively. In 2011, drier soil conditions resulted in approximately 2 and 49% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively.

  7. Temperature effects on loss of prestress due to relaxation of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, G.; Yamini Sreevalli, I.; Meher Prasad, A.; Reddy, G.R.; Prabhakar, G.

    2007-01-01

    Prestressed concrete is used in general civil engineering applications and in nuclear power plants for a number of structures such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, missile shield members, reactor cavity walls etc. Loss of prestress in containment structures is a serious concern for the longevity rather than serviceability. Loss of prestress higher than the initially designed values has been reported by various agencies at a number of nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containment structures. At present the codes specify the prestress losses in Nuclear Power Plant Containment (NPPC) structures for 50 years. However there is a continuous effort to improve the life of NPPC particularly for a design life of 100 years. The long-term losses are mainly due to relaxation of prestressing cables, creep and shrinkage of concrete. The loss of prestress due to relaxation of prestressing cables is considered to be severe due to temperature effects. In this paper an effort has been made to understand the loss of prestress due to relaxation of steel at different temperatures namely 20 degC, 25 degC, 30 degC, 35 degC, 40 degC and 45 degC and the results up to 1000 hrs to estimate the losses over longer life of structures. The initial prestress was maintained at 0.70 times guaranteed ultimate tensile strength (GUTS) of cables. The prestressing loss due to relaxation of prestressing cables increases as the temperature increases. (author)

  8. The effect of Berberine preparation on diarrheal symptoms due to Linac irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiasa, Tsuyoshi; Mitao, Satoshi; Tanaka, Motofumi; Matsubayashi, Shigeru; Kato, Koji

    1979-01-01

    Kyoberine, a preparation made from berberine, was administered in 20 cases of malignant tumors (16 cases of cervical carcinoma, 2 cases of corpus uteri carcinoma, and 2 cases of ovarian carcinoma) in which diarrhea was an acute symptom resulting from Linac irradiation. Diarrhea occurred frequently in the patients who received 1600 - 2000 rad. In regard to the characteristics of the feces, this drug was remarkably effective in 25% of the patients and effective in 65% total effectiveness, 90%. In regard to the frequency of diarrhea, it was remarkably effective in 30% of the patients and effective in 60% total effectiveness, 90%. A comprehensive assessment of the effect on the characteristics of the feces and the frequency of diarrhea revealed the drug to be remarkably effective in 7 cases (35%) and effective in 11 (55%). After serial administration of the drug, recurrence of diarrhea was noted only in one case out of 18 in which the drug was effective. Examinations of body weight, peripheral blood, the liver, the kidneys, and electrolytes revealed no side effects. This drug had an excellent effect on diarrhea due to Linac irradiation. Because of its depressant action on peristaltic reflexes and its anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative actions, it is hoped that it can be used to prevent radiation injuries. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Effects of alternate fuels. Report No. 2. Analysis of basic refractories degraded by residual oil combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G. C.; Tennery, V. J.

    1978-02-01

    Industrial conversion in the U.S. to alternate fuels from natural gas is presently under way and will accelerate rapidly as a result of gas curtailments and National policy considerations. Currently the prime alternate fuels are distillate and residual oils and coal. Conversion to residual oils or coal for high-temperature process heat applications is anticipated to result in accelerated refractory and insulation corrosion and degradation due to reactions between fuel impurities and the ceramic linings of high-temperature equipment. Understanding the nature of such reactions and identification of means for preventing or retarding them will be of considerable assistance to both refractory manufacturers and users as well as a significant contribution to energy conservation.

  10. The residual effect of lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in Zhombe, Kwekwe district, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor residual house spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT was conducted in Zhombe Resettlement area, Zimbabwe. A total of 204/219 (93.1%, 224/260 (86.2% and 257/325 (79.1% rooms were sprayed with lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and DDT wettable powders respectively. Bioassays were conducted on sprayed walls and roofs using 3-5 day old laboratory reared susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes placed in World Health Organization cones. Bioassays conducted on sprayed walls (1 month, showed that efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin was the same with DDT but different with deltamethrin and this trend continued in the 2nd month. During the 3rd month, lambda-cyhalothrin killed more mosquitoes than deltamethrin (P=1.931x10-14, DDT killed more mosquitoes than deltamethrin (P=0.0001 and lambda-cyhalothrin killed more mosquitoes than DDT (walls. Efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT was the same 4 months post spray (P=0.487, notable differences were seen in lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin (P=2.57x10-6, DDT and deltamethrin (P=2.17-10-8. Efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT was the same 5 months post spray (P=0.244, major differences were found in lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin (P=0.000, DDT and deltamethrin (P=5.18x10-5 and this trend continued in the 6th month. One month after spraying roofs, mortality of mosquitoes due to lambdacyhalothrin/ deltamethrin (P=2.56x10-5, lambda-cyhalothrin/DDT (P=1.2x10-7 and deltamethrin/DDT (P=0.013 were significantly different and this continued in the 2nd month. However, 3 months after spraying, mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin/deltamethrin (P=1.46x10-6, lambda-cyhalothrin/DDT (P=0.048, and deltamethrin/DDT (P=0.004 were significantly different and this continued in the 4th month. Five months after spraying roofs, mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin/ deltamethrin (P=0.000 and deltamethrin/DDT (P=6.6x10-7 were significantly different. Six months

  11. Effects of tooling on the residual stress distribution in an inertia weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, J.W.L.; Preuss, M.; Withers, P.J.; Baxter, G.J.; Small, C.

    2003-01-01

    Neutron diffraction residual strain measurements have been made on a tubular structure formed by joining two nickel-based superalloy RR1000 parts by inertia welding. Residual strains in the radial, hoop and axial directions of the tube cross-section have been measured. The corresponding residual stress field has been calculated accounting for the stress-free lattice parameter variations in the region close to the weld line. Tensile residual stresses were observed near the inner diameter of the tube with magnitudes of the order of +500, +1100 and +1300 MPa in the radial, axial and hoop directions, respectively. By comparison near the outer diameter (OD) of the weld the corresponding stresses are of the order of -200, -1000 and 150 MPa. The final stress state reflects the influence of the gripping fixture tooling and thermal gradients during inertia welding. Additional X-ray (at the surface) and hole-drilling (at the near surface) measurements show a steep residual stress gradient in the near surface region. Tensile hoop and axial machining stresses at the surface indicate the potential for improving the inertia weld tooling and the machining parameters used when removing the flash

  12. Effects of interface edge configuration on residual stress in the bonded structures for a divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagata, K.; Shibui, M.; Tachikawa, N.; Araki, M.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses in the interface region, that developed at the cool down during the brazing, were evaluated for several bonded structures to assess the mechanical strength of the bonded interface, using thermoelasto-plastic stress analysis. Normal stress components of the residual stresses around the interface edge of graphite-copper (C-Cu) bonded structures were compared for three types of bonded features such as flat-type, monoblock-type and saddle-type. The saddle-type structure was found to be favorable for its relatively low residual stress, easy fabrication accuracy on bonded interface and armor replacement. Residual stresses around the interface edge in three armor materials/copper bonded structures for a divertor plate were also examined for the C-Cu, tungsten-copper (W-Cu) and molybdenum alloy-copper (TZM-Cu), varying the interface wedge angle from 45 to 135 . An optimal bonded configuration for the least value of residual stress was found to have a wedge angle of 45 for the C-Cu, and 135 for both the W-Cu and TZM-Cu bonded ones. (orig.)

  13. Status of persistent organic pesticide residues in water and food and their effects on environment and farmers: a comprehensive review in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norida Mazlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide helps to enhance agricultural production, however, it significantly affect both socio and environmental entities of a country. In Nigeria, pesticide is widely used, thus its traces have been detected in water, soil and air. Several studies have already indicated that most of the environmental ecology (air, water, and soil in Nigeria has been contaminated by persistent organic pesticides like organochlorine and organophosphate. Other reasons of high pesticide residues present in Nigeria environment is due to inappropriate dosage applied of pesticides that leaves behind excess. However, its residues are found above safety levels in the air, water, and soil across the nation. Based on previous analysis, it is indicated that 125,000-130,000 metric ton pesticides are being applied annually in Nigeria. Despite banned of some pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane- and -Hexachlorocyclohexane, they are still being used by farmers in their agricultural production. Many of the Class 1 (high extremely toxic pesticides are still being used in developing countries like Nigeria. Hence, there is need to sensitize and educate the general public especially the end-users (farmers particularly on management practices of pesticides. Considering these entire hazardous situations, in this article the history of pesticide used in Nigeria has been reviewed in detail. The article also discussed the effects of pesticide use in Nigerian waters, soil and on crops. The risk of residual pesticide on agricultural workers, pesticide residue risk preventive measures by the Federal Government of Nigeria, banned and restricted pesticides in Nigeria, Nigerian Government and its efforts to eliminate persistent organic pesticides in use are also reviewed in details.

  14. Investigation on the effects of geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth in the RPV BMI penetration nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Ra, Myoung Soo; Lee, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of various geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth of RPV BMI penetration nozzles. An FE residual stress analysis procedure was developed and validated from the viewpoint of FFS assessment. The validated FE residual stress analysis procedure and the PWSCC growth assessment procedure in the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI were applied to the BMI penetration nozzles with specified ranges of the geometric variables. The total stresses at steady state during normal operation including welding residual stresses increase with increasing inclination angle of the BMI nozzles, and with tilt angle, depth, and root width of the J-groove weld. The lifetime from the assumed initial crack to the acceptance criteria according to the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI also decreases under these conditions. The total stresses decrease and the lifetime increases with increasing nozzle thickness, but outer radius of the BMI nozzles has an insignificant effect on both of these factors.

  15. Chaperone-like activity of β-casein and its effect on residual in vitro activity of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Olsen, Karsten; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    , as similar experiment with bovine serum albumin resulted in residual activity of horseradish peroxidase that was significantly lower than without any addition. The effect of β-casein on HRP disappears when pH is below the isoelectric point of β-casein. It was also proven by light scattering studies that β...... proteins. Incubating HRP (0.1 mg mL-1) for 10 min at 72 °C resulted in residual activity of 59 ± 5%, while addition of 1 mg mL-1 β-casein resulted in increase in residual activity up to 85 ± 1%. Increased residual activity is not merely attributed to an effect of higher total protein concentration......-casein interacts with horseradish peroxidase when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C whereas interactions seem to cease when temperature was lowered back to 25 °C. This study highlights how specific proteins can influence enzyme activity, which is of potential importance for various industries...

  16. Effect of the Basic Residue on the Energetics, Dynamics and Mechanisms of Gas- Phase Fragmentation of Protonated Peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Yang, Zhibo; Song, Tao; Lam, Corey; Chu, Ivan K.

    2010-11-17

    The effect of the basic residue on the energetics, dynamics and mechanisms of backbone fragmentation of protonated peptides was investigated. Time- and collision energy-resolved surface-induced dissociation (SID) of singly protonated peptides with the N-terminal arginine residue and their analogs, in which arginine is replaced with less basic lysine and histidine residues was examined using in a specially configured Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS). SID experiments demonstrated very different kinetics of formation of several primary product ions of peptides with and without arginine residue. The energetics and dynamics of these pathways were determined from the RRKM modeling of the experimental data. Comparison between the kinetics and energetics of fragmentation of arginine-containing peptides and the corresponding methyl ester derivatives provides important information on the effect of dissociation pathways involving salt bridge (SB) intermediates on the observed fragmentation behavior. It is found that because pathways involving SB intermediates are characterized by low threshold energies, they efficiently compete with classical oxazolone pathways of arginine-containing peptides on a long timescale of the FT-ICR instrument. In contrast, fragmentation of histidine- and lysine-containing peptides is largely determined by classical oxazolone pathways. Because SB pathways are characterized by negative activation entropies, fragmentation of arginine-containing peptides is kinetically hindered and observed at higher collision energies as compared to their lysine- and histidine-containing analogs.

  17. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  18. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of...

  19. The Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Treatment in Pain Due to Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    FEZYİOĞLU, Pervin; Özdemir, Ferda; ÖZDEMİR, Ferda; GÜLDİKEN, Sibel; BALCI, Kemal; Süt, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetic polyneuropathy is the most common and disabled complication of diabetes mellitus. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic neuropathy is limited because of the side efects of the drugs, used in the treatment of diabetic neuropthy. Alternative treatments are also used in diabetic neuropathy. Systemic side effects of non-pharmacological treatment modalities are rare. We evaluated the value of pulsed electromagnetic field treatment in patients with pain due to diabetic polyneur...

  20. Acid decomposition and thiourea leaching of silver from hazardous jarosite residues: Effect of some cations on the stability of the thiourea system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calla-Choque, D; Nava-Alonso, F; Fuentes-Aceituno, J C

    2016-11-05

    The recovery of silver from hazardous jarosite residues was studied employing thiourea as leaching agent at acid pH and 90°C. The stability of the thiourea in synthetic solutions was evaluated in the presence of some cations that can be present in this leaching system: cupric and ferric ions as oxidant species, and zinc, lead and iron as divalent ions. Two silver leaching methods were studied: the simultaneous jarosite decomposition-silver leaching, and the jarosite decomposition followed by the silver leaching. The study with synthetic solutions demonstrated that cupric and ferric ions have a negative effect on thiourea stability due to their oxidant properties. The effect of cupric ions is more significant than the effect of ferric ions; other studied cations (Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+)) had no effect on the stability of thiourea. When the decomposition of jarosite and the silver leaching are carried out simultaneously, 70% of the silver can be recovered. When the acid decomposition was performed at pH 0.5 followed by the leaching step at pH 1, total silver recovery increased up to 90%. The zinc is completely dissolved with any of these processes while the lead is practically insoluble with these systems producing a lead-rich residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on Residual Stress and Tensile Properties for 6061 Al Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kijung; Cho, Young-Rae; Ko, Dea Hoon; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2011-01-01

    To develop a 6061 aluminum alloy with low residual stress and high tensile strength, a cryogenic treatment process was investigated. Compared to the conventional heat treatment process for precipitation hardening with artificial aging, the cryogenic treatment process has two additional steps. The first step is cryogenic quenching of the sample into liquid nitrogen, the second step is up-hill quenching of the sample into boiling water. The residual stress for the sample was measured by the sin 2 ψ method with X-ray diffraction. The 6061 aluminum alloy sample showed 67% relief in stress at the cryogenic treatment process with artificial aging at 175°C. From this study, it was found that the optimum cryogenic treatment process for a sample with low residual stress and high tensile strength is relatively low cooling speed in the cryogenic quenching step and a very high heating speed in the up-hill quenching step.

  2. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the residual effect of P fertilizer's on plant P nutrition using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, J.C.; Zapata, F.

    1994-01-01

    The residual effect of P fertilizers previously applied to a soil on plant P nutrition was examined by both the isotopic dilution method (pot experiment) and isotopic exchange method (laboratory test) using 32 p as a tracer. The fraction of P derived from a fertilizer in plant (%Pdff in plant) was compared with the fraction of P derived from fertilizer in soil solution (%Pdff in soil solution) which is a new laboratory index proposed by Morel and Fardeau to predict %Pdff in plant. Four soil samples of a Humic Andosol from long-term experimental plots, which received no fertilizer (A1 soil), a readily soluble fertilizer (A2 soil), the same readily soluble fertilizer (RSF) plus a fused magnesium phosphate (A3 soil), and combination of RSF with Florida phosphate rock (A4 soil), were tested. In the pot experiment, maize (Zea mays) was grown during 38 days and dry shoot weight, P uptake and specific radioactivity were measured. Dry shoot weight, P uptake and L-value were the highest in A3 soil, followed by A4, A2 and A1 soils. %Pdff in plant were 71,9%, 51,9% and 15,4% in A3, A4 and A2 soils respectively. A laboratory study using 32 p isotopic exchange kinetics was carried out to examine three status parameters of soil P, intensity, quantity and capacity factors. Goof agreement was obtained between quantity factor (E 1 -value), and the pot experimental data; i.e. P uptake and L-value. %Pdff in soil solution were similar to those %Pdff in plant except for A4 soil. The enhancement of P uptake by the plant from the phosphate rock obtained in A4 soil could be attributed to specific plant factors and soil moisture conditions. (authors)

  4. The effect of peritoneal dialysis method on residual renal function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Skrzypczyk, Piotr; Jander, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin; Bałasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Drozdz, Dorota; Pietrzyk, Jacek A

    2012-01-01

    We set out to assess the effect of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) on residual renal function (RRF) in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In 101 children (age: 8.84 +/- 5.25 years; 44 on CAPD, 57 on APD) over 36 months, we evaluated RRF [as daily diuresis (DD) in mL/kg/24 h and mL/m2/24 h], glomerular filtration rate [GFR (in mL/min/1.73 m2)], ESRD cause, presence of arterial hypertension (HTN), biochemical parameters, peritoneal equilibration test (PET), adequacy [as total weekly Kt/V (twKt/V) and creatinine clearance (twCCr)], and infectious complications of PD. Initially, the CAPD and APD groups did not differ significantly in DD, but mean GFR was significantly higher in the APD group (p uremic syndrome (HUS) and hereditary nephropathy were at the highest anuria risk. Compared with the 22 children (7 CAPD, 15 APD) who became anuric, the 20 children (10 CAPD, 10 APD) with RRF preserved for 36 months had a higher DD and GFR before dialysis onset; higher hemoglobin and albumin; and lower HTN prevalence, cholesterol, triglycerides, and proteinuria (p dialysis onset, HTN, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and proteinuria. Compared with children on APD, those on CAPD show better preservation of RRF during year 1, although the risk of anuria seems to be the same for both methods. In children with risk factors for rapid diuresis loss, CAPD might be considered the preferred initial dialysis method.

  5. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  6. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Li, Lv-Mu; Li, Bin; Guo, Wen-Jie; Ding, Xiao-Ling; Xu, Fa-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR) of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg) and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups) with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively). Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (presidue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (pfeeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  7. Qualitative models of magnetic field accelerated propagation in a plasma due to the Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Cherepanov, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two qualitatively new models of accelerated magnetic field propagation (relative to normal diffusion) in a plasma due to the Hall effect are developed within the frames of the electron magnetic hydrodynamics. The first model is based on a simple hydrodynamic approach, which, in particular, reproduces the number of known theoretical results. The second one makes it possible to obtain exact analytical description of the basic characteristics of the magnetic field accelerated propagation in a inhomogeneous iso-thermic plasma, namely, the magnetic field front and its effective width [ru

  8. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...

  9. Size-dependent electromechanical properties in piezoelectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric superlattice is a potential component for nanoelectromechanical systems. Due to the strong nonlocal effect such as flexoelectric effect at interfaces, classical piezoelectric theory is unable to accurately describe the electromechanical response of piezoelectric superlattice at nanoscale scale. Based on the previous nonlocal thermodynamics theory with flexoelectric effect Liu et al. (2016, the size-dependent electromechanical properties of piezoelectric superlattices made of BaTiO3 (BTO and PbTiO3 (PTO layers are investigated systematically in the present work. Giant strain gradient is found near the interface between BTO and PTO layers, which leads to the significant enhancement of polarization in the superlattice due to the flexoelectric effect. For the piezoelectric BTO–PTO superlattices with different unit-cell sizes, the thickness of interface with nontrivial strain gradient is almost constant. The influence of strain gradient at the interface becomes significant when the size of superlattice decreases. As a result, a strong size dependence of electromechanical properties is predicted for the piezoelectric BTO–PTO superlattices. In particular, for the superlattices with a specific thickness ratio of BTO and PTO layers, the piezoelectric response can be several times larger than that of bulk structure. The present work demonstrates a practical way to design the piezoelectric superlattices with high piezoelectric coefficient by using the nonlocal effect at nanoscale.

  10. Investigation of biogas production and its residue with fertilization effect from municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Nithiyaa, Manikam; Sin, Lee Tin; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A R

    2013-10-15

    This study was aimed to investigate the production of methane gas from three different types of food waste (vegetables waste, fruit waste and grain waste) using batch type anaerobic digestion method. The digestion process was conducted by using temperature range of 27 to 36 degrees C and pH 6.5 to 7.5 to yield an optimum condition for the digestion process. The digestion was continued for a period of two weeks with the aid of cow dung as the inoculums. It was found that the grain waste yielded the highest methane 2546 mL due to the high content of carbohydrate. At the mean time, the fruit waste produced the second highest methane gas with 2000 mL as well as the vegetable waste generated the lowest methane gas with volume of 1468 mL. The vegetable waste produced the lowest methane gas because the vegetables waste contains high fibres and cellulose walls but low in glucose amount. For the fertilization test, fruit waste demonstrated the best observation for the growth of plant due to high content of potassium and followed by vegetable waste. The least effective fertilizer was grain waste due to less content of nutrients essential for plants growth.

  11. [Effects of Endovascular Treatment on Cranial Nerve Palsy due to Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Masaki; Kuwayama, Naoya; Akioka, Naoki; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of endovascular treatment on cranial nerve palsy due to unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Endovascular coiling was performed in 203 patients with intracranial aneurysms between April 2002 and March 2012 in our hospital. Of these patients, 8(3.9%)presented with cranial nerve palsy due to unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Cranial nerve palsy involved the oculomotor nerve in 8 patients and the optic nerve in 2 patients. Two patients had both optic nerve and oculomotor nerve dysfunction. Patients with incomplete oculomotor nerve palsy at admission were more likely to have full recovery after coiling. Optic nerve dysfunction did not improve after coiling. Incomplete oculomotor nerve palsy, early treatment(≤15 days), and small aneurysms(≤10 mm)were likely to be associated with complete recovery after coiling. This study indicates that endovascular coiling may resolve cranial nerve palsy due to unruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients who have incomplete oculomotor nerve palsy due to small aneurysms and are treated as early as possible after symptom onset.

  12. Giant piezoelectric response in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Huaping; Wang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the linear response of electrical polarization to a strain gradient, which can be used to enhance the piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric material or realize the piezoelectric effect in nonpiezoelectric materials. Here, we demonstrate from thermodynamics theory that a giant piezoelectric effect exists in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect. The apparent piezoelectric coefficient is calculated from the closed-form of analytical expression of the polarization distribution in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice subjected to a normal stress, in which the flexoelectric effect is included. It is found that there exists a strong nonlinear coupling between the flexoelectric and piezoelectric effects, which significantly enhances the apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice. For a specific thickness ratio of the piezoelectric and dielectric layers, the enhanced apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the superlattice is ten times larger than that of its pure piezoelectric counterpart. The present work suggests an effective way to obtain giant apparent piezoelectric effect in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices through flexoelectric effect.

  13. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  14. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final BF tended to be greater (P = 0.06) for high than low RFI yearling ewes (0.63 vs

  15. Residual N effect of long-term applications of cattle slurry using winter wheat as test crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Alfonso; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Rasmussen, Jim

    2018-01-01

    climatic conditions, substantiating that more test years are needed when estimating residual N effects. The residual value of N added previously with NPK was negligible. In the first year, grain yields at N optimum were similar for NPK and SLU, but the amount of fertilizer N needed to reach optimum yield......Prediction of optimum fertilizer N requirements depends on reliable estimates of the residual value of N accumulated in soil from historical inputs of mineral fertilizers and animal manures. Using plots embedded in the Askov long-term experiments and treated since 1973 with different rates of N...... in cattle slurry (50, 100 and 150 kg total-N ha−1 termed ½, 1 and 1½ SLU), we estimated the residual N value over two consecutive growth periods (2014/2015 and 2015/2016). We used winter wheat as test crop and soils with a history of mineral fertilizers only (1 PK (no N)) and 1 NPK (100 kg N ha−1...

  16. Effect of attachment type on load distribution to implant abutments and the residual ridge in mandibular implant-supported overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Nobuhiro; Matsudate, Yoshiki; Abue, Masaru; Hong, Guang; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of attachment type on the load transmitted to implants and the residual ridge in a mandibular two-implant-supported overdenture in a model study. Ball attachments, locator attachments, and round-bar attachments were selected and examined. Static and dynamic vertical loads of 100 N were applied in the right first molar region. The load on the implants was measured by piezoelectric three-dimensional force transducers, and the load on the residual ridge beneath the denture base was measured using a tactile sheet sensor. The load on the implants with ball attachments was significantly higher than that with the other two attachments. The load on the residual ridge with round-bar attachments was significantly higher than that with the other two attachments. Our findings indicate that the three-dimensional load on implants and the residual ridge beneath the denture base is significantly associated with the type of attachment used in implant-supported overdentures.

  17. Suppression of surface effect by using bent-perfect-crystal monochromator in residual strain scanning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Miroslav; Mikula, Pavol

    490/491, - (2005), s. 234-238 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : neutron diffraction * residual strain scanning * bent monochromator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  18. Mutation of tryptophan residues in lipoprotein lipase. Effects on stability, immunoreactivity, and catalytic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookene, A.; Groot, N. B.; Kastelein, J. J.; Olivecrona, G.; Bruin, T.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies had pointed to an important function of a putative exposed loop in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase for activity against emulsified lipid substrates. This loop contains 3 tryptophan residues (Trp390, Trp393, and Trp394). We have expressed and characterized lipase mutants

  19. Effects of stop–start features on residual stresses in a multipass austenitic stainless steel weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turski, M.; Francis, J.A.; Hurrell, P.R.; Bate, S.K.; Hiller, S.; Withers, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe experiments that characterise and quantify the localised perturbations in residual stress associated with both ramped and abrupt stop–start features in a multipass weld. Residual stress distributions in AISI Grade 304L/308L stainless steel groove-welded specimens, containing weld interruptions that were introduced in a controlled manner, have been characterised using both neutron diffraction and the incremental deep hole drilling method. The extent to which the localised stresses associated with the interruptions were annealed by overlayed passes was also assessed. The results suggest that, regardless of the type of interruption, there can be significant localised increases in residual stress if the stop–start feature is left exposed. If further weld passes are deposited, then the localised increases in stress are likely to persist if the interruption was abrupt, whereas for a ramped interruption they may be dissipated. - Highlights: ► In this study the residual stress-field surrounding weld interruptions was measured. ► Localised stresses were found to increase at weld interruptions. ► Both ramped and abrupt weld interruptions were investigated. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses persisted for abrupt interruptions. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses dissipated for ramped interruptions.

  20. The Effect of Kitchen Residue Ash, Poultry Manure and Goat Dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the experiment, plants agronomic parameters and soil chemical properties were measured. The result obtained showed that the application of kitchen residue ash, poultry manure and goat dung significantly (P<0.05) increased soil pH, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, soil carbon, exchangeable calcium, ...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor< 1254) residues in rainbow trout: effects on sensitivity to nine fishery chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Mauck, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of background polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on the susceptibility of the fish to nine chemicals routinely or occasionally used in fishery operations was evaluated. Rainbow trout fry were divided into three groups: one was exposed to 0.01 ppb and another to 0.1 ppb of the PCB Aroclor (R) 1254; the third (control) group was unexposed. After 30 days of exposure, whole body residues were 0.28 and 2.31 ppm for fish exposed to 0.01 and 0.1 ppb, respectively; control fish had residue concentrations of 0.04 ppm. Acute toxicity tests showed that both groups of exposed fish were more sensitive to rotenone and 2,4-D. Exposure did not significantly affect sensitivity to 2-[digeranylamino]-ethanol (GD-174), 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), nifurpirinol (Furanace), tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), or copper sulfate. Fishery managers should be aware that sensitivity of fish to control chemicals may be altered by the presence of contaminants in the water or residues of contaminants in the fish.

  2. Residual Effect of Lead on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ( Telfairia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greenhouse and field trials were carried out at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City to find out the residual influence of Pb on some Telfairia occidentalis agronomic characters and soil chemical properties. The soils used were previously treated with 0, 50, 100, 200 mg per 5 kg soil in the greenhouse ...

  3. Effect of washing and boiling on residues of pirimiphos-methyl in soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistiawaty, M.; Anwar, E.

    1996-01-01

    The residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0-2-diethylamino-6-methyl-pyrimidine-4-il-o-dimethyl phos-phorothioate) in soybean grains were studied using 14 C-labelled-pirimiphos-methyl. Jute sock containing soybean grains were sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl and then stored at room temperature. The results indicated than residues of pirimiphos-methyl in soybeans before washing, after washing, and after washing + boiling at 0 week storage were: 1.0, 0.42, and 0.01%: then increased to 42.01, 30.75, and 10.02%, respectively, after 12 weeks, and finally decreased to 38.33, 27.01, and 6.10%, respectively, after 24 weeks storage. The residues of pirimiphos-methyl in washing water at 0 week storage was 0.41%, then increased to 8.01% after 24 weeks storage. The percentage was calculated based on the amount of residue found compared to the initial pirimiphos-methyl used. (author)

  4. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  5. Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Incidence of Malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the application of a chemical to the internal walls of the structure in order to kill an insect that sits on the wall treated with such a chemical, is one of the methods adopted by World Health Organisation in combating malaria by controlling the vector mosquito. In line with the Zambian ...

  6. Extractability and biological effects of residues of some herbicides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three sets of experimental observations with some relevance to the Co-ordinated Programme are described. In the first experiment, it was shown that the loss of radioactivity from 14 C-paraquat (both ring labelled and methyl labelled) from field samples was less in 1984/85 than in a previous experiment in 1983/84, possibly because the experimental period in 1984 was much drier. However, some evolution of a volatile 14 C compound, presumably 14 CO 2 , was observed, confirming that paraquat can be degraded in the soil. Over a 16-year period, residues of (non-radioactive) paraquat applied to the same plots annually indicated that the half-life of paraquat is of the order of 7 years. The second experiment included studies over two years with eleven herbicides using two indicator plant species. These studies suggest that in many cases the plant response predicted on the basis of the quantity of a herbicide that can be extracted with water may be too high. Water-extractable residues were not well correlated with solvent-extractable residues. In the third experiment, it was shown that no bound residues of 14 C-simazine developed over a 4-month period in field or laboratory studies in soil samples from plots which either had or had not a history of previous simazine application. (author)

  7. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-01-01

    and residue composition at a full-scale incinerator were affected by known additions of specific waste materials to the normal municipal solid waste (MSW) input. Six individual experiments were carried out (% ww of total waste input): NaCl (0.5%), shoes (1.6%), automobile shredder waste (14%), batteries (0...

  8. Accumulation, Persistence, and Effects of Indospicine Residues in Camels Fed Indigofera Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Al Jassim, Rafat; Cawdell-Smith, A Judy; Ossedryver, Selina M; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-08-31

    Indospicine (l-2-amino-6-amidinohexanoic acid) is a natural hepatotoxin found in all parts of some Indigofera plants such as Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera spicata. Several studies have documented a susceptibility to this hepatotoxin in different species of animals, including cattle, sheep, dogs, and rats, which are associated with mild to severe liver disease after prolonged ingestion. However, there is little published data on the effects of this hepatotoxin in camels, even though Indigofera plants are known to be palatable to camels in central Australia. The secondary poisoning of dogs after prolonged dietary exposure to residual indospicine in camel muscle has raised additional food safety concerns. In this study, a feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the in vivo accumulation, excretion, distribution, and histopathological effects of dietary indospicine on camels. Six young camels (2-4 years old), weighing 270-390 kg, were fed daily a roughage diet consisting of Rhodes grass hay and lucerne chaff, supplemented with Indigofera and steam-flaked barley. Indigofera (I. spicata) was offered at 597 mg DM/kg body weight (bw)/day, designed to deliver 337 μg indospicine/kg bw/day, and fed for a period of 32 days. Blood and muscle biopsies were collected over the period of the study. Concentrations of indospicine in the plasma and muscle biopsy samples were quantitated by validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The highest concentrations in plasma (1.01 mg/L) and muscle (2.63 mg/kg fresh weight (fw)) were found at necropsy (day 33). Other tissues were also collected at necropsy, and analysis showed ubiquitous distribution of indospicine, with the highest indospicine accumulation detected in the pancreas (4.86 ± 0.56 mg/kg fw) and liver (3.60 ± 1.34 mg/kg fw), followed by the muscle, heart, and kidney. Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed multiple small foci of predominantly mononuclear

  9. Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass residues: mass spectrometric characterization for ecological effects in the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, Gerald; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Bargmann, Inge; Kücke, Martin; Greef, Jörg-Michael; Knicker, Heike; Leinweber, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hydrochars, technically manufactured by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass residues, are recently tested in high numbers for their suitability as feedstock for bioenergy production, the bioproduct industry, and as long-term carbon storage in soil, but ecological effects in the soil-plant system are not sufficiently known. Therefore, we investigated the influence of different biomass residues and process duration on the molecular composition of hydrochars, and how hydrochar addition to soils affected the germination of spring barley ( L.) seeds. Samples from biomass residues and the corresponding hydrochars were analyzed by pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and gaseous emissions from the germination experiments with different soil-hydrochar mixtures by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The molecular-level characterization of various hydrochars by Py-FIMS clearly showed that the kind of biomass residue influenced the chemical composition of the corresponding hydrochars more strongly than the process duration. In addition to various detected possible toxic substances, two independent mass spectrometric methods (Py-FIMS and GC/MS) indicated long C-chain aliphatic compounds which are typically degraded to the C-unit ethylene that can evoke phytotoxic effects in high concentrations. This showed for the first time possible chemical compounds to explain toxic effects of hydrochars on plant growth. It is concluded that the HTC process did not result in a consistent product with defined chemical composition. Furthermore, possible toxic effects urgently need to be investigated for each individual hydrochar to assess effects on the soil organic matter composition and the soil biota before hydrochar applications as an amendment on agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Risk Reduction Effects Due to the Start Time Extension of EDGs in OPR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho-Gon; Yang, Joon-Eon; Hwang, Mee-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Under the condition that the ECCS rule in Korea will be revised based on the new U.S. 10 CFR 50.46, the risk impact due to the EDG start time extension is analyzed in the present study. This paper is composed of 6 sections. In the section 2, the LOCA break size that cannot be mitigable under the condition of extended EDG start time is obtained from the thermal hydraulic analysis. The section 3 discusses the frequency of the immitigable LOCA and the probability of the LOOP given a LOCA. In the section 4, the effect of the EDG start time extension on its failure probability is discussed with a qualitative manner. Finally, the whole risk change due to the EDG start time extension is calculated in the section 5 with the conclusions given in the section 6

  11. Enhancement of Transistor-to-Transistor Variability Due to Total Dose Effects in 65-nm MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Gerardin, S; Cornale, D; Ding, L; Mattiazzo, S; Paccagnella, A; Faccio, F; Michelis, S

    2015-01-01

    We studied device-to-device variations as a function of total dose in MOSFETs, using specially designed test structures and procedures aimed at maximizing matching between transistors. Degradation in nMOSFETs is less severe than in pMOSFETs and does not show any clear increase in sample-to-sample variability due to the exposure. At doses smaller than 1 Mrad( SiO2) variability in pMOSFETs is also practically unaffected, whereas at very high doses-in excess of tens of Mrad( SiO2)-variability in the on-current is enhanced in a way not correlated to pre-rad variability. The phenomenon is likely due to the impact of random dopant fluctuations on total ionizing dose effects.

  12. Analysis of ringing effects due to magnetic core materials in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu Gaunkar, N., E-mail: neelampg@iastate.edu; Bouda, N. R. Y.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Mina, M.; Jiles, D. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Bulu, I.; Ganesan, K.; Song, Y. Q. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This work presents investigations and detailed analysis of ringing in a non-resonant pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) circuit. Ringing is a commonly observed phenomenon in high power switching circuits. The oscillations described as ringing impede measurements in pulsed NMR systems. It is therefore desirable that those oscillations decay fast. It is often assumed that one of the causes behind ringing is the role of the magnetic core used in the antenna (acting as an inductive load). We will demonstrate that an LRC subcircuit is also set-up due to the inductive load and needs to be considered due to its parasitic effects. It is observed that the parasitics associated with the inductive load become important at certain frequencies. The output response can be related to the response of an under-damped circuit and to the magnetic core material. This research work demonstrates and discusses ways of controlling ringing by considering interrelationships between different contributing factors.

  13. Experimental investigation of zero phase shift effects for Coriolis flowmeters due to pipe imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Neumeyer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    damping and mass, and on ambient temperature changes. Experimental observations confirm the hypothesis that asymmetry in the axial distribution of damping will induce zero shifts similar to the phase shifts due to fluid flow. Axially symmetrically distributed damping was observed to influence phase shift......, the flexural vibrations of two bent, parallel, non-fluid-conveying pipes are studied experimentally, employing an industrial CFM. Special attention has been paid on the phase shift in the case of zero mass flow, i.e. the zero shift, caused by various imperfections to the ‘‘perfect’’ CFM, i.e. non-uniform pipe...... at an order of magnitude smaller than the primary effect of mass flow, while small added mass and ambient temperature changes induced zero shifts two orders of magnitude smaller than the phase shifts due to mass flow. The order of magnitude of the induced zero shifts indicates that non-uniform damping, added...

  14. Residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents methodologies for residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components using linear elastic and nonlinear fracture mechanics principles. The effect of cohesive forces due to aggregate bridging has been represented mathematically by employing tension softening models. Various tension ...

  15. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert J. M. van de Heijning

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control. A 50%–75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  16. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  17. Selective effects of charge on G protein activation by FSH-receptor residues 551-555 and 650-653.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, P; Deziel, M R; Reichert, L E

    1995-01-01

    Two cytosolic regions of the rat testicular FSH receptor (FSHR), residues 533-555 and 645-653, have been identified as G protein-coupling domains. We localized the activity in these domains to their C-terminal sequences, residues 551-555 (KIAKR, net charge +3) and 650-653 (RKSH, net charge +3), and examined the effects of charge on G protein activation by the C-terminal peptides, using synthetic analogs containing additions, through alanine (A) linkages, of arginine (R, +), histidine (H, +) or both. RA-KIAKR (net charge +4) mimicked the effect of FSHR-(551-555) on guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but reduced its ability to inhibit FSH-stimulated estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Further increasing net charge by the addition of H (HARA-KIAKR, net charge +5) increased guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) binding, but eliminated FSHR-(551-555) effects on FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. HA-RKSH (net charge +4) significantly inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but stimulated basal and potentiated FSH-induced estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Addition of two H residues (HAHA-RKSH, net charge +5) restored GTP binding and further potentiated basal and FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. These results suggest that positive charges in G protein-coupling domains of the FSHR play a role in modulating G protein activation and postbinding effects of FSH, such as steroidogenesis.

  18. Design and analysis of clinical trials with clustering effects due to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Chris; Roberts, Stephen A

    2005-01-01

    Where patients receive therapy as a group, there are good theoretical reasons to believe that variation in the outcome will be smaller for patients treated in the same group than for patients treated in different groups. Similarly, where different therapists treat different groups of patients, outcome for patients treated by the same therapist may differ less than outcome for patients treated by different therapists. Clinical trials evaluating such therapies need to consider this potential lack of independence. As with cluster-randomized trials, this has implications for the precision of treatment effects estimates and statistical power. There are nevertheless differences between clustering due to the organization of treatment and that due to randomization. In cluster-randomized trials the distribution of cluster sizes in each treatment arm should be similar as a consequence of randomization unless there is differential loss to follow-up. With clustering due to therapy group or therapist, cluster size may differ systematically between treatment arms, due to size of therapy groups or differing health professional caseload. Intra-cluster correlation may also differ between treatment arms. The implications of differential cluster size and intracluster correlation for design and analysis will be illustrated by data from two trials, the first comparing nurse practitioner care with general practitioner care, and the second comparing a group therapy with individual treatment as usual. The special case where a group therapy or therapist is compared with an unclustered treatment is examined in detail using a simulation study. The implications of differential clustering effects for sample size and power are addressed. It is argued that the design and analysis of this type of trial should take account of possible heterogeneity in cluster size and intracluster correlation.

  19. Residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries: Effects on emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, Schuyler; Williams, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The low price of lead-acid, the most popular battery, is often used in setting cost targets for emerging energy storage technologies. Future cost reductions in lead acid batteries could increase investment and time scales needed for emerging storage technologies to reach cost-parity. In this paper the first documented model of cost reductions for lead-acid batteries is developed. Regression to a standard experience curve using 1989–2012 data yield a poor fit, with R 2 values of 0.17 for small batteries and 0.05 for larger systems. To address this problem, battery costs are separated into material and residual costs, and experience curves developed for residual costs. Depending on the year, residual costs account for 41–86% of total battery cost. Using running-time averages to address volatility in material costs, a 4-year time average experience curve for residual costs yield much higher R 2 , 0.78 for small and 0.74 for large lead-acid batteries. The learning rate for residual costs in lead-acid batteries is 20%, a discovery with policy implications. Neglecting to consider cost reductions in lead-acid batteries could result in failure of energy storage start-ups and public policy programs. Generalizing this result, learning in incumbent technologies must be understood to assess the potential of emerging ones. -- Highlights: •We analyze potential cost reductions in lead-acid batteries. •Modified experience curve for non-material costs gives good empirical fit. •Historical learning rate for non-material costs from 1985–2012 is 19–24%. •Progress in incumbent technology raises barrier to new entrants

  20. Investigation of the Effect of Residual Stress Gradient on the Wear Behavior of PVD Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, B.; Nouveau, C.; Guillemot, G.; Besnard, A.; Barkaoui, A.

    2018-02-01

    The control of residual stresses has been seldom investigated in multilayer coatings dedicated to improvement of wear behavior. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of superposed structures composed of Cr, CrN and CrAlN layers. Nano-multilayers CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) onto Si (100) and AISI4140 steel substrates. The Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were developed with an innovative approach in PVD coatings technologies corresponding to deposition with different residual stresses levels. Composition and wear tracks morphologies of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and 3D-surface analyzer. The mechanical properties (hardness, residual stresses and wear) were investigated by nanoindentation, interferometry and micro-tribometry (fretting-wear tests). Observations suggest that multilayer coatings are composed mostly of nanocrystalline. The residual stresses level in the films has practically affected all the physicochemical and mechanical properties as well as the wear behavior. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the coating containing moderate stresses has a better wear behavior compared to the coating developed with higher residual stresses. The friction contact between coated samples and alumina balls shows also a large variety of wear mechanisms. In particular, the abrasive wear of the coatings was a combination of plastic deformation, fine microcracking and microspallation. The application of these multilayers will be wood machining of green wood.

  1. Investigation of the Effect of Residual Stress Gradient on the Wear Behavior of PVD Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, B.; Nouveau, C.; Guillemot, G.; Besnard, A.; Barkaoui, A.

    2018-01-01

    The control of residual stresses has been seldom investigated in multilayer coatings dedicated to improvement of wear behavior. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of superposed structures composed of Cr, CrN and CrAlN layers. Nano-multilayers CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) onto Si (100) and AISI4140 steel substrates. The Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were developed with an innovative approach in PVD coatings technologies corresponding to deposition with different residual stresses levels. Composition and wear tracks morphologies of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and 3D-surface analyzer. The mechanical properties (hardness, residual stresses and wear) were investigated by nanoindentation, interferometry and micro-tribometry (fretting-wear tests). Observations suggest that multilayer coatings are composed mostly of nanocrystalline. The residual stresses level in the films has practically affected all the physicochemical and mechanical properties as well as the wear behavior. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the coating containing moderate stresses has a better wear behavior compared to the coating developed with higher residual stresses. The friction contact between coated samples and alumina balls shows also a large variety of wear mechanisms. In particular, the abrasive wear of the coatings was a combination of plastic deformation, fine microcracking and microspallation. The application of these multilayers will be wood machining of green wood.

  2. Chaperone-Like Activity of ß-Casein and Its Effect on Residual in Vitro Activity of Food Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria

    . The negative effect of BSA on enzyme was not observed before. The residual activity of horseradish peroxidase was also improved by the reconstituted skim milk: addition of reconstituted skim milk prior to heat treatment resulted in higher residual activity of HRP compared to no addition (58±3% and 30......±1%, respectively) The findings of this study show that β-casein can influence the response of food enzymes to heat treatment. β-Casein is not a universal chaperone and its effect on different targets needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. This study also shows that proteins as e.g. BSA may affect......ABSTRACT Activity of endogenous enzymes may cause browning of fruits and vegetables. These enzymes can be inactivated, for example by heat treatment, but the response of enzymes to heat treatment depends on many factors. Foods are very complex systems and the stability of enzymes...

  3. Effect of Residual Stresses and Prediction of Possible Failure Mechanisms on Thermal Barrier Coating System by Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Far, M.; Absi, J.; Mariaux, G.; Shahidi, S.

    2010-09-01

    This work is focused on the effect of the residual stresses resulting from the coating process and thermal cycling on the failure mechanisms within the thermal barrier coating (TBC) system. To reach this objective, we studied the effect of the substrate preheating and cooling rate on the coating process conditions. A new thermomechanical finite element model (FEM) considering a nonhomogeneous temperature distribution has been developed. In the results, we observed a critical stress corresponding to a low substrate temperature and high cooling rate during spraying of the top-coat material. Moreover, the analysis of the stress distribution after service shows that more critical stresses are obtained in the case where residual stresses are taken into account.

  4. Determination of Effective Criteria for location Selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran by AHP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan alizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the effective criteria for location selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran. For this purpose, after review and studies papers and books, Six criteria" products and materials, regulations, technical and human, economic, infrastructure and environmental and also 30 sub-criteria were identified. The priority rates of these criteria and sub-criteria were evaluated by AHP technique. The results indicated that among 30 effective sub-criteria in location selection of the WPC plants from agricultural residues, amount of wastes supply (0.087, continuity of wastes supply, cost of wastes supply, amount of sales and export, granted facilities and less Hazards for the environment and forest had the highest priorities, which were rated as 0.071, 0.067, 0.065, 0.064 and 0.062 respectively.

  5. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: case study results using bioimpedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; Harrison, Daniel S; Myers, Timothy R; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2011-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure the residual limb fluid volume of seven transtibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and nonelevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30 min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. Numerous variables, including the time of day that data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size and shape differences, and subject health, may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater effect on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in the study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume.

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  7. Clothianidin and Imidacloprid Residues in Poa annua (Poales: Poaceae) and Their Effects on Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavet, Christopher; Requintina, Matthew; Hampton, Emily; Cowles, Richard S; Byrne, Frank J; Alm, Steven R

    2014-12-01

    Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the amounts of the neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid in Poa annua L. clippings from treated golf course fairways. Average clothianidin residues 7 d after application ranged from 674 to 1,550 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 455-2,220 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average clothianidin residues the day of application ranged from 17,100-38,800 ng/g tissue in 2014. Average imidacloprid residues 7 d after treatment ranged from 1,950-3,030 ng/g tissue in 2012 and 7,780-9,230 ng/g tissue in 2013. Average imidacloprid residues the day of application ranged from 31,500-40,400 ng/g tissue in 2014. Neonicotinoid or bifenthrin-neonicotinoid combination products applied in field plots in 2012 did not significantly reduce the numbers of larvae relative to the untreated control. However, in 2013, statistically significant reductions in the numbers of larvae recovered from treated field plots were associated with the presence of bifenthrin alone or when used in combination with neonicotinoid active ingredients. Listronotus maculicollis (Kirby) adults caged on neonicotinoid-, bifenthrin-, and bifenthrin-neonicotinoid-treated P. annua turf plugs fed on P. annua leaves, but mortality was only highly significantly different between treated and untreated foliage when weevils were placed on treated foliage the day after treatment and allowed to feed for 7 d. The modest degree of population suppression with bifenthrin in these experiments may not be adequate to justify the continued use of these products due to the increased risk of insecticide resistance and disruption of biological control. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Solution NMR structure and inhibitory effect against amyloid-β fibrillation of Humanin containing a d-isomerized serine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanousi, Nesreen; Sugiki, Toshihiko; Furuita, Kyoko; So, Masatomo; Lee, Young-Ho; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Kojima, Chojiro

    2016-09-02

    Humanin comprising 24 amino acid residues is a bioactive peptide that has been isolated from the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Humanin reportedly suppressed aging-related death of various cells due to amyloid fibrils and oxidative stress. There are reports that the cytoprotective activity of Humanin was remarkably enhanced by optical isomerization of the Ser14 residue from l to d form, but details of the molecular mechanism remained unclear. Here we demonstrated that Humanin d-Ser14 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against fibrillation of amyloid-β and remarkably higher binding affinity for amyloid-β than that of the Humanin wild-type and S14G mutant. In addition, we determined the solution structure of Humanin d-Ser14 by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and showed that d-isomerization of the Ser14 residue enables drastic conformational rearrangement of Humanin. Furthermore, we identified an amyloid-β-binding site on Humanin d-Ser14 at atomic resolution by NMR. These biophysical and high-resolution structural analyses clearly revealed structure-function relationships of Humanin and explained the driving force of the drastic conformational change and molecular basis of the potent anti-amyloid-β fibrillation activity of Humanin caused by d-isomerization of the Ser14 residue. This is the first study to show correlations between the functional activity, tertiary structure, and partner recognition mode of Humanin and may lead to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of the cytoprotective activity of Humanin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S 0 ) (known to result in increased H 2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S 0 led to increased H 2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L -1 ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L -1 ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L -1 . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effect of Drying Medium on Residual Moisture Content and Viability of Freeze-Dried Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valdez, Graciela F.; de Giori, Graciela S.; de Ruiz Holgado, Aida P.; Oliver, Guillermo

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various substances on the relationship between residual moisture content and the viability of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria has been studied. Compounds such as polymers, which display considerable ability in displacing water, showed no protective action during freeze-drying. Adonitol, on the other hand, produced the smallest change in water content at various times during drying and allowed the highest rate of survival. PMID:16346728

  11. Residual antibiofilm effects of various concentrations of double antibiotic paste used during regenerative endodontics after different application times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Daniel B; Ehrlich, Ygal; Spolnik, Kenneth; Gregory, Richard L; Yassen, Ghaeth H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the residual antibiofilm effects of different concentrations of double antibiotic paste (DAP) applied on radicular dentin for 1 or 4 weeks. Dentin samples were prepared (n=120), sterilized and pretreated for 1 or 4 weeks with the clinically used concentration of DAP (500mg/mL), low concentrations of DAP (1, 5 or 50mg/mL) loaded into a methylcellulose system, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), or placebo paste. After the assigned treatment time, treatment pastes were rinsed off and the samples were kept independently in phosphate buffered saline for 3 weeks. Pretreated dentin samples were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and bacterial biofilms were allowed to grow for an additional 3 weeks. Biofilms were then retrieved from dentin using biofilm disruption assays, diluted, spiral plated, and quantified. Fisher's Exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for statistical comparisons (α=0.05). Dentin pretreatment for 4 weeks with 5, 50 or 500mg/mL of DAP demonstrated significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects and complete eradication of E. faecalis biofilms in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with similar concentrations. However, dentin pretreated with 1mg/mL of DAP or Ca(OH) 2 did not provide a substantial residual antibiofilm effect regardless of the application time. Dentin pretreatment with 5mg/mL of DAP or higher for 4 weeks induced significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with the same concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar Sail Topology Variations Due to On-Orbit Thermal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Jeremy A.; Lively, Peter S.; Taleghani, Barmac K.; Jenkins, Chrostopher H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to predict the influence of non-uniform temperature distribution on solar sail topology and the effect of such topology variations on sail performance (thrust, torque). Specifically considered were the thermal effects due to on orbit attitude control maneuvers. Such maneuvers are expected to advance the sail to a position off-normal to the sun by as much as 35 degrees; a solar sail initially deformed by typical pre-tension and solar pressure loads may suffer significant thermally induced strains due to the non-uniform heating caused by these maneuvers. This on-orbit scenario was investigated through development of an automated analytical shape model that iterates many times between sail shape and sail temperature distribution before converging on a final coupled thermal structural affected sail topology. This model utilizes a validated geometrically non-linear finite element model and a thermal radiation subroutine. It was discovered that temperature gradients were deterministic for the off-normal solar angle cases as were thermally induced strains. Performance effects were found to be moderately significant but not as large as initially suspected. A roll torque was detected, and the sail center of pressure shifted by a distance that may influence on-orbit sail control stability.

  13. Probabilistic analysis of the torsional effects on the tall building resistance due to earthquake even

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králik, Juraj; Králik, Juraj

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the accidental torsional effect of reinforced concrete tall buildings due to earthquake even. The core-column structural system was considered with various configurations in plane. The methodology of the seismic analysis of the building structures in Eurocode 8 and JCSS 2000 is discussed. The possibilities of the utilization the LHS method to analyze the extensive and robust tasks in FEM is presented. The influence of the various input parameters (material, geometry, soil, masses and others) is considered. The deterministic and probability analysis of the seismic resistance of the structure was calculated in the ANSYS program.

  14. Effect of geometric construction on residual stress distribution in designing a nuclear rotor joined by multipass narrow gap welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Long; Zhang, Linjie; Zhang, Jianxun; Zhuang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The internal stress of the pipe is measured using local material removal method. • Bottom protrusion at weld seam can release the stress and mitigate stress evolution. The through-wall axial stress is bending type under the effect of the rotor discs. • The impact of geometric construction on the stress evolution begins after pass 15. - Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of geometric construction on the distribution of residual stresses before and after heat treatment in designing a nuclear welded rotor. The local material removal method was used to measure internal residual stress of the experimental pipe after post weld heat treatment. Three finite element models were employed as follows: a model of experimental pipe, a model with a bottom protrusion existed at the weld region, and a model of two rotor discs butt-welded with a bottom protrusion at the weld region. Investigated results showed that the bottom protrusion existed at the weld region can decrease the residual stress and mitigate the stress evolution significantly on the inner surface. Under the binding effect of the rotor discs, the axial stress of inner surface region is compressive stress; the through-wall axial stress at the weld center line can be deemed to a bending type; both the hoop stress and axial stress at the weld center line on the inner surface are compressive. The impact of geometric construction on the stress evolution at the root bead begins after pass 15 deposited

  15. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  16. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  17. The Effects of Boron Doping on Residual Stress of Hfcvd Diamond Film for Mems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianqi; Wang, Xinchang; Sun, Fanghong

    In this study, the residual stress of boron-doped diamond (BDD) films is investigated as a function of boron doping level using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Boron doping level is controlled from 1000ppm to 9000ppm by dissolving trimethyl borate into acetone. BDD films are deposited on silicon wafers using a bias-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition (BE-HFCVD) system. Residual stress calculated by sin2 ψ method varies linearly from ‑2.4GPa to ‑1.1GPa with increasing boron doping level. On the BDD film of ‑1.75GPa, free standing BDD cantilevers are fabricated by photolithography and ICP-RIE processes, then tested by laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). A cantilever with resonant frequency of 183KHz and Q factor of 261 in the air is fabricated.

  18. Simulation of Spread of African Swine Fever, Including the Effects of Residues from Dead Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette

    2016-01-01

    the subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out......To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during...... in order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals...

  19. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Prays

    Full Text Available Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59-62 dt/ha indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.

  20. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59–62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered. PMID:27116355

  1. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59-62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered.

  2. Effect of residual stress on crack-tip for fatigue crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo

    1995-02-01

    Fatigue tests were performed in cyclic loading at 10Hz and stress ratios, R of 0.1 and 0.2 at room temperature. The type 304 stainless steel specimens are prepared into two different thickness (3mm and 25mm). The fatigue crack growth rate of 25mm thick specimen is faster than that of 3mm thick specimen, and this result is attributed to the difference of plasticity in the crack tip region from the elastic-plastic fracture mechanical analysis. The residual stress fields are induced by the surface hardening treatments by induction heating at temperatures of ∼600 .deg. C, 750 .deg. C and 900 .deg. C, and the induced residual stresses are verified by the X-ray measurements of the induction heating treated specimen at 750 .deg. C. It is observed that the tensile residual stress is formed at heat affected zone and, behind this zone, the compressive residual stress is formed with maximum value of ∼200 MPa. The results of fatigue tests showed the acceleration of the growth rate in tensile region, and the retardation in compressive region. The results of constant stress intensity tests illustrated that the variations of the crack growth rate are related with the change of crack closure level. A simple model for fatigue crack propagation of materials is derived with energy balance approach on the basis of the Dugdale model, and this model is verified through the experiments of two kinds of materials (type 304 stainless steel and Inconel 718). The energy balance model demonstrated that the variations of material's tearing modulus results in the change of fatigue crack propagation

  3. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    SALLAM, Sobhy M. A.; BUENO, Ives C. S.; NASSER, Mohamed E. A.; ABDALLA, Adibe L.

    2010-01-01

    Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh leaves (FL) or residue leaves (RL), after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h in...

  4. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Kazuaki; Higashioto, Yoshifumi; Chaweepack, Tidaporn; Ruangpan, Lila

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  5. Effect of residual stress on cavitation instabilities in constrained metal wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    is on a single void growing very large in the metal wire, in the crack plane, perhaps involving a cavitation instability. Therefore, full finite strain elastic-plastic theory is used for the analyses, and remeshing procedures are applied to avoid unacceptable mesh distortion. Residual stresses induced by thermal...... contraction mismatch during cooling from the processing temperature can have a noticeable influence on the results, and this is quantified by the analyses....

  6. Analytical model for neutron diffraction peak shifts due to the surface effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šaroun, Jan; Kornmeier, J. R.; Hofmann, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 6 (2013), s. 628-638 ISSN 0021-8898 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0654 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : residual-stress * neutron diffraction * Monte Carlo simulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.950, year: 2013

  7. Enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific due to Atlantic capacitor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Jin-Yi; Paek, Houk

    2017-03-20

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the variability in the Pacific subtropical highs (PSHs) have major impacts on social and ecological systems. Here we present an Atlantic capacitor effect mechanism to suggest that the Atlantic is a key pacemaker of the biennial variability in the Pacific including that in ENSO and the PSHs during recent decades. The 'charging' (that is, ENSO imprinting the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA) sea surface temperature (SST) via an atmospheric bridge mechanism) and 'discharging' (that is, the NTA SST triggering the following ENSO via a subtropical teleconnection mechanism) processes alternate, generating the biennial rhythmic changes in the Pacific. Since the early 1990s, a warmer Atlantic due to the positive phase of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and global warming trend has provided more favourable background state for the Atlantic capacitor effect, giving rise to enhanced biennial variability in the Pacific that may increase the occurrence frequency of severe natural hazard events.

  8. Large persistent photochromic effect due to DX centers in AlSb doped with selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becla, P.; Witt, A.G.

    1995-04-01

    A large photochromic effect has been observed in bulk AlSb crystals doped with Se. Illumination with light of energy higher than 1 eV leads to an increase of the absorption coefficient in the spectral range 0.1 to 1.6 eV. The enhanced absorption is persistent at temperatures below about K. The effect is a manifestation of a DX-like bistability of Se donors. The illumination transfers the from the DX center to a metastable hydrogenic level. The increased absorption with peaks around 0.2 eV and 0.5 is due to photoionization from the donor level to X l and X 3 minima of the conduction band

  9. Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuhaire, Aggrey; Kaye, Emmanuel; Mutambuze, Innocent Louis

    2017-01-01

    such tomatoes. Results revealed that mancozeb was the only reported dithiocarbamate, and 47.4% and 14% of farm and market samples, respectively, had dithiocarbamate residues exceeding the Codex alimentarius maximum residue limit of 2 mgCS2/kg. Mixing concentration had a positive significant effect...

  10. The effect of different treatment technologies on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons after the application of residual municipal wastewater solids to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-application of residual wastewater solids is an important environmental source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Treatment technologies exist that can reduce ARG levels in residual solids prior to land-application, but the effect of these technologies on ARG levels in soil following land-a...

  11. Effect of Weld Schedule on the Residual Stress Distribution of Boron Steel Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raath, N. D.; Norman, D.; McGregor, I.; Dashwood, R.; Hughes, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Press-hardened boron steel has been utilized in anti-intrusion systems in automobiles, providing high strength and weight-saving potential through gage reduction. Boron steel spot welds exhibit a soft heat-affected zone which is surrounded by a hard nugget and outlying base material. This soft zone reduces the strength of the weld and makes it susceptible to failure. Additionally, different welding regimes lead to significantly different hardness distributions, making failure prediction difficult. Boron steel sheets, welded with fixed and adaptive schedules, were characterized. These are the first experimentally determined residual stress distributions for boron steel resistance spot welds which have been reported. Residual strains were measured using neutron diffraction, and the hardness distributions were measured on the same welds. Additionally, similar measurements were performed on spot welded DP600 steel as a reference material. A correspondence between residual stress and hardness profiles was observed for all welds. A significant difference in material properties was observed between the fixed schedule and adaptively welded boron steel samples, which could potentially lead to a difference in failure loads between the two boron steel welds.

  12. SCC of 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel—Microstructure, Residual Stress and Surface Grinding Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental.

  13. Noise Model Analysis and Estimation of Effect due to Wind Driven Ambient Noise in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sakthivel Murugan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transmission in ocean using water as a channel is a challenging process due to attenuation, spreading, reverberation, absorption, and so forth, apart from the contribution of acoustic signals due to ambient noises. Ambient noises in sea are of two types: manmade (shipping, aircraft over the sea, motor on boat, etc. and natural (rain, wind, seismic, etc., apart from marine mammals and phytoplanktons. Since wind exists in all places and at all time: its effect plays a major role. Hence, in this paper, we concentrate on estimating the effects of wind. Seven sets of data with various wind speeds ranging from 2.11 m/s to 6.57 m/s were used. The analysis is performed for frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 8 kHz. It is found that a linear relationship between noise spectrum and wind speed exists for the entire frequency range. Further, we developed a noise model for analyzing the noise level. The results of the empirical data are found to fit with results obtained with the aid of noise model.

  14. Giant Faraday effect due to Pauli exclusion principle in 3D topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Hari P; Leuenberger, Michael N

    2014-02-26

    Experiments using ARPES, which is based on the photoelectric effect, show that the surface states in 3D topological insulators (TI) are helical. Here we consider Weyl interface fermions due to band inversion in narrow-bandgap semiconductors, such as Pb1-xSnxTe. The positive and negative energy solutions can be identified by means of opposite helicity in terms of the spin helicity operator in 3D TI as ĥ(TI) = (1/ |p|_ |) β (σ|_ x p|_ ) · z^, where β is a Dirac matrix and z^ points perpendicular to the interface. Using the 3D Dirac equation and bandstructure calculations we show that the transitions between positive and negative energy solutions, giving rise to electron-hole pairs, obey strict optical selection rules. In order to demonstrate the consequences of these selection rules, we consider the Faraday effect due to the Pauli exclusion principle in a pump-probe setup using a 3D TI double interface of a PbTe/Pb₀.₃₁Sn₀.₆₉Te/PbTe heterostructure. For that we calculate the optical conductivity tensor of this heterostructure, which we use to solve Maxwell's equations. The Faraday rotation angle exhibits oscillations as a function of probe wavelength and thickness of the heterostructure. The maxima in the Faraday rotation angle are of the order of mrds.

  15. Naturally occuring radioactivity in residues of drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, C.; Mallick, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the course of a research project about 500 residues of drinking water treatment from approx. 400 water supply companies in Bavaria were investigated on naturally occurring radioactivity. For each residue the effective dose for workers was evaluated for each residue. The results show that increased activities, particularly of Radium-226, can be found in the material. The dose due to the exposure to the residues, which mostly result from the backwashing of filters, is below the reference value of 1 mSv/a, which can be used according to paragraph 97 of the German radiation protection standard. During the project the quantity of residues in Bavaria and the ways of their disposal were evaluated. In addition the relation between the amount of natural radioisotopes in the residues and the geological and hydrochemical conditions of the water catchment area was pointed out. (orig.)

  16. The PERICLES research program: An integrated approach to characterize the combined effects of mixtures of pesticide residues to which the French population is exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crépet, A.; Héraud, F.; Béchaux, C.; Gouze, M.E.; Pierlot, S.; Fastier, A.; Leblanc, J.Ch.; Le Hégarat, L.; Takakura, N.; Fessard, V.; Tressou, J.; Maximilien, R.; Sousa, G. de; Nawaz, A.; Zucchini-Pascal, N.; Rahmani, R.; Audebert, M.; Graillot, V.; Cravedi, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of pesticide usages, consumers are exposed to mixtures of residues, which may have combined effects on human health. The PERICLES research program aims to test the potential combined effects of pesticide mixtures, which are likely to occur through dietary exposure. The co-exposure of the French general population to 79 pesticide residues present in the diet was first assessed. A Bayesian nonparametric model was then applied to define the main mixtures to which the French general population is simultaneously and most heavily exposed. Seven mixtures made of two to six pesticides were identified from the exposure assessment. An in vitro approach was used for investigating the toxicological effects of these mixtures and their corresponding individual compounds, using a panel of cellular models, i.e. primary rat and human hepatocytes, liver, intestine, kidney, colon and brain human cell lines. A set of cell functions and corresponding end-points were monitored such as cytotoxicity, real-time cell impedance, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis and PXR nuclear receptor transactivation. The mixtures were tested in equimolar concentrations. Among the seven mixtures, two appeared highly cytotoxic, five activated PXR and depending on the assay one or two were genotoxic. In some experiments, the mixture effect was quantitatively different from the effect expected from the addition concept. The PERICLES program shows that, for the most pesticides mixtures to which the French general population is exposed, the toxic effects observed on human cells cannot be easily predicted based on the toxic potential of each compound. Consequently, additional studies should be carried on in order to more accurately define the mixtures of chemicals to which the consumers are exposed, as well as to improve the investigation, prediction and monitoring of their potential human health effects

  17. Residual organic matter and microbial respiration in bottom ash: Effects on metal leaching and eco-toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, A; Persson, K M; Persson, M

    2015-09-01

    A common assumption regarding the residual organic matter, in bottom ash, is that it does not represent a significant pool of organic carbon and, beyond metal-ion complexation process, it is of little consequence to evolution of ash/leachate chemistry. This article evaluates the effect of residual organic matter and associated microbial respiratory processes on leaching of toxic metals (i.e. arsenic, copper, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc), eco-toxicity of ash leachates. Microbial respiration was quantified with help of a respirometric test equipment OXITOP control system. The effect of microbial respiration on metal/residual organic matter leaching and eco-toxicity was quantified with the help of batch leaching tests and an eco-toxicity assay - Daphnia magna. In general, the microbial respiration process decreased the leachate pH and eco-toxicity, indicating modification of bioavailability of metal species. Furthermore, the leaching of critical metals, such as copper and chromium, decreased after the respiration in both ash types (fresh and weathered). It was concluded that microbial respiration, if harnessed properly, could enhance the stability of fresh bottom ash and may promote its reuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Effect of laser surface hardening on the microstructure, hardness and residual stresses of austempered ductile iron grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, C., E-mail: csoriano@tekniker.es [Tekniker-IK4, Manufacturing Processes Department, Avda. Otaola 20, CP-20600, Eibar (Gipuzkoa) (Spain); Leunda, J.; Lambarri, J.; Garcia Navas, V.; Sanz, C. [Tekniker-IK4, Manufacturing Processes Department, Avda. Otaola 20, CP-20600, Eibar (Gipuzkoa) (Spain)

    2011-06-01

    A study of the laser surface hardening process of two austempered ductile iron grades, with different austempering treatments has been carried out. Hardening was performed with an infrared continuous wave Nd:YAG laser in cylindrical specimens. The microstructure of the laser hardened samples was investigated using an optical microscope, microhardness profiles were measured and surface and radial residual stresses were studied by an X-ray diffractometer. Similar results were achieved for both materials. A coarse martensite with retained austenite structure was found in the treated area, resulting in a wear resistant effective layer of 0.6 mm to 1 mm with a microhardness between 650 HV and 800 HV. Compressive residual stresses have been found at the hardened area being in agreement with the microhardness and microstructural variations observed. The achieved results point out that the laser surface hardening is a suitable method for improving the mechanical properties of austempered ductile irons.

  19. Effects of elevated vacuum on in-socket residual limb fluid volume: Case study results using bioimpedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, JE; Harrison, DS; Myers, TR; Allyn, KJ

    2015-01-01

    Bioimpedance analysis was used to measure residual limb fluid volume on seven trans-tibial amputee subjects using elevated vacuum sockets and non-elevated vacuum sockets. Fluid volume changes were assessed during sessions with the subjects sitting, standing, and walking. In general, fluid volume losses during 3 or 5 min walks and losses over the course of the 30-min test session were less for elevated vacuum than for suction. A number of variables including the time of day data were collected, soft tissue consistency, socket-to-limb size differences and shape differences, and subject health may have affected the results and had an equivalent or greater impact on limb fluid volume compared with elevated vacuum. Researchers should well consider these variables in study design of future investigations on the effects of elevated vacuum on residual limb volume. PMID:22234667

  20. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of heat treatment effectiveness in generating compressive residual stress in an automotive crown gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pyzalla, A.; Quadrini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Thermal austenitizing and tempering treatments are being developed in automotive industry to prevent crack initiation and avoid crack propagation, especially in components where stress intensity factors influence the stress field and then the fatigue life of the component itself. This is the case of crown gears, where the teeth root undergoes frequently to cracking when tensile residual stresses are present at the surface, as typical loads are impulsive and very high. The sign reversal of these stresses is the aim of austenitizing and tempering treatments. In this work residual stress measurements carried out at HMI-BENSC are presented, in a UNI55Cr3 steel crown gear submitted to such kind of treatments, performed with a new multi-frequency induction technique whose effectiveness is checked. (author)

  1. The effect of fiber microstructure on evolution of residual stresses in silicon carbide/titanium aluminide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the morphology of the SCS6 silicon carbide fiber on the evolution of residual stresses in SiC/Ti composites. A micromechanics model based on the concentric cylinder concept is presented which is used to calculate residual stresses in a SiC/Ti composite during axisymmetric cooling by a spatially uniform temperature change. The silicon carbide fiber is modeled as a layered material with five distinct transversely isotropic and orthotropic, elastic layers, whereas the titanium matrix is taken to be isotropic, with temperature-dependent elastoplastic properties. The results arc compared with those obtained based on the assumption that the silicon carbide fiber is isotropic and homogeneous.

  2. Effect of low-temperature plasma on the degradation of omethoate residue and quality of apple and spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingmin, SHI; Jinren, LIU; Guimin, XU; Yueming, WU; Lingge, GAO; Xiaoyan, LI; Yang, YANG; Guanjun, ZHANG

    2018-04-01

    Dielectric barrier corona discharge was developed to generate low-temperature plasma (LTP) to treat apple and spinach samples contaminated with omethoate. Experimental results showed that, after 20 min exposure, the degradation rate of omethoate residue in apple and spinach was (94.55 ± 0.01)% and (95.55 ± 0.01)%, respectively. When the treatment time was shorter than 20 min, the contents of moisture, vitamin C and beta-carotene were not affected by LTP. Exploration of related mechanisms suggested that LTP might destroy unsaturated double bonds of omethoate and produce phosphate ion, eventually leading to omethoate destruction. It is concluded that appropriate dosage of LTP can effectively degrade omethoate residue in fruits and vegetables without affecting their quality.

  3. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  4. MINURAR - Uranium mines and their residues: health effects in a Portuguese Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcao, J.M.; Carvalho, F.; Machado Leite, M.; Alarcao, M.; Cordeiro, E.; Ribeiro, J.

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to test if a population of Central Portugal, living within a short distance of abandoned uranium mines and mill tailings has health effects associated with exposure to uranium residues. The 'freguesia' (county) of Canas de Senhorim, where the major uranium mine (Urgeiri ) and mill tailings are located, as well as seven other 'freguesias' for comparison purposes, were investigated for environmental radiation, for contamination with heavy metals, and for the health characteristics of their populations. Concentrations of radio nuclides and heavy metals were measured in environmental samples and compared between 'freguesias'. A random sample of 285 individuals living in Canas de Senhorim (GE: Exposed Group) was compared with a random sample of 312 individuals living in the comparison 'freguesias' (GN: non exposed group). Health data of the population were obtained from a structured questionnaire and blood and hair samples were collected for biological measurements. Analysis of data tested the means, medians or proportions, according to the type of variables. Multi-factorial analysis was used to eliminate confounding effects, i.e., multi-factorial ANOVA for means and unconditional logistic regression for proportions. Levels of radiation and metals were higher near the mining site than in most of the comparison 'freguesias'. In the study of individuals, it was found that concentrations of Pb and Zn in blood serum were significantly higher in GE than in GN. Cu was also higher, although not significantly. This suggests a relevant exposure of GE to heavy metals. Exposure to internal radiation, assessed by concentrations of 210 Po in the hair, was also higher in GE. When compared to GN, and after adjustment for relevant variables, GE showed statistically significant lower levels for: 1. thyroid function (measured by thyroxine (T4) and thyro-stimulating hormone); 2. reproductive function in men (measured by testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and

  5. MINURAR - Uranium mines and their residues: health effects in a Portuguese Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Machado Leite, M. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao, Lab. de S. Mamede de Infesta, Sao Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Alarcao, M. [Coimbra Univ., Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciencias da Educacao (Portugal); Cordeiro, E. [Centro Regional de Saude Publica do Centro, Hospital de S. Teotonio, Viseu (Portugal); Ribeiro, J

    2006-07-01

    The study was designed to test if a population of Central Portugal, living within a short distance of abandoned uranium mines and mill tailings has health effects associated with exposure to uranium residues. The 'freguesia' (county) of Canas de Senhorim, where the major uranium mine (Urgeiri ) and mill tailings are located, as well as seven other 'freguesias' for comparison purposes, were investigated for environmental radiation, for contamination with heavy metals, and for the health characteristics of their populations. Concentrations of radio nuclides and heavy metals were measured in environmental samples and compared between 'freguesias'. A random sample of 285 individuals living in Canas de Senhorim (GE: Exposed Group) was compared with a random sample of 312 individuals living in the comparison 'freguesias' (GN: non exposed group). Health data of the population were obtained from a structured questionnaire and blood and hair samples were collected for biological measurements. Analysis of data tested the means, medians or proportions, according to the type of variables. Multi-factorial analysis was used to eliminate confounding effects, i.e., multi-factorial ANOVA for means and unconditional logistic regression for proportions. Levels of radiation and metals were higher near the mining site than in most of the comparison 'freguesias'. In the study of individuals, it was found that concentrations of Pb and Zn in blood serum were significantly higher in GE than in GN. Cu was also higher, although not significantly. This suggests a relevant exposure of GE to heavy metals. Exposure to internal radiation, assessed by concentrations of {sup 210}Po in the hair, was also higher in GE. When compared to GN, and after adjustment for relevant variables, GE showed statistically significant lower levels for: 1. thyroid function (measured by thyroxine (T4) and thyro-stimulating hormone); 2. reproductive function in men

  6. Prohypertensive effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are mostly due to vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlicević, Ivancica; Glavaski, Milan; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Rumboldt, Zvonko

    2011-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have prohypertensive effects and blunt the effects of many antihypertensives. The mechanism of this interaction is still not understood enough. The objective of this investigation was to determine the level of prohypertensive effects of two NSAIDs (ibuprofen, piroxicam) and paracetamol, co-prescribed with two antihypertensive drugs (lisinopril + hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine), and to improve the understanding of this interaction. A prospective clinical trial, conducted in a Croatian family practice, included 110 already treated hypertensive patients, aged 56-85 years; 50 control patients and 60 patients who were also taking NSAIDs for osteoarthritis treatment. The antihypertensive regimens remained the same during this study, while NSAIDs and paracetamol were crossed-over in three monthly periods. Blood pressure, body weight, serum creatinine, potassium, sodium, diuresis and 24 h urinary sodium excretion were followed-up. In the lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide subgroup, both ibuprofen and piroxicam elevated mean arterial pressure by 8.9-9.5% (p NSAID's prohypertensive effects seem to be mostly due to vasoconstriction and, to a minor degree, to volume expansion, since no marked changes in body weight, urinary output, serum creatinine or serum/urinary electrolyte profile were observed.

  7. Effects on Performance and Work Quality due to Low Frequency Ventilation Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, K.; Rylander, R.; Benton, S.; Leventhall, H. G.

    1997-08-01

    A pilot study was carried out to assess method evaluating effects of low frequency noise on performance. Of special interest was to study objective and subjective effects over time. Two ventilation noises were used, one of a predominantly mid frequency character and the other of a predominantly low frequency character. Both had an NC value of 35. For the study, 50 students were recruited and 30 selected on the basis of subjective reports of pressure on the eardrum after exposure to a low frequency noise. Of these, 14 randomly selected subjects aged 21 and 34 took part. The subjects performed three computerized cognitive tests in the mid frequency or the low frequency noise condition alternatively. Tests I and II were performed together with a secondary task.Questionnaires were used to evaluate subjective symptoms, effects on mood and estimated interference with the test results due to temperature, light and noise. The results showed that the subjective estimations of noise interference with performance were higher for the low frequency noise (psocial orientation (pstudied. The results further indicate that the NC curves do not fully assess the negative effects of low frequency noise on work performance.

  8. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Canan; Aktaş, Esin; Deniz, Günnur; Ünlüçerçi, Yeşim; Bayraktar, Gülsen

    2011-08-01

    Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r) on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1) at 74ºC for 9 h, (2) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC) for 30 min, (3) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4) at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzenesulphonic acid) assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05). [MMA]r was significantly (p<0.001) higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01) lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05) for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in the polymerization process for at least 30 min and water

  9. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Bural

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1 at 74ºC for 9 h, (2 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC for 30 min, (3 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4 at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05. RESULTS: [MMA]r was significantly (p<0.001 higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01 lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05 for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. CONCLUSION: Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in

  10. Soil and vegetation changes after clear-felling coniferous forests: effects of varying removal of logging residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the intensity of logging residue harvesting on soil nutrient status and ground vegetation cover were examined over a 16-year period in two series of field experiments in Sweden. Short-term effects of slash harvesting and stump removal on soil water chemistry were studied after clear-felling a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand in SW Sweden. Soil water concentrations of NH4 + , and NO 3 - and K + were lower shortly after whole-tree harvesting (i.e. stem and slash harvesting) than shortly after conventional stem-only harvesting or complete tree harvesting (i.e. stem, slash and stump removal). However, 5 years later there were no longer differences in nutrient concentrations detected between treatments, and nutrient levels approached those normally found in drainage water from forest land. Similar studies focussed on long-term (16 years) effects were conducted on four coniferous forest sites in Sweden, two in north and the other two in the south. In each region one site was situated in a pure Scots pine stand (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the other in a pure Norway spruce stand. In general, the intensity of slash harvesting had no effect on the total pools of nitrogen or carbon in the soil. Furthermore, this study showed experimentally that the harvesting of logging residues results in long-term soil acidification and depletions of exchangeable base cations, manganese and zinc pools, which lead in turn to a reduction in base saturation levels. A major implication for practical forestry was that guidelines and recommendations concerning the large-scale utilization of logging residues should be based more on the nutritional and soil acidifying consequences of this practice than on its potential effect on soil organic matter storage. It would also be possible to mitigate the detrimental effects that slash harvesting has on site conditions by applying wood-ash or other nutrients in inorganic form. 53 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF INHIBITIVE DISTRACTION TECHNIQUE ON HEADACHES DUE TO CERVICAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Headache (cephalalgia is an extremely common unpleasant symptom. The main factors contributing for cervicogenic and tension type headache is due to myofascial trigger points, muscle tightness and decreased mobility at suboccipital muscles and upper cervical segments and also proposed significant correlation between forward head posture and headache. Neuroanatomical explaination of both headaches is due to increase sensitization of trigeminocervical nucleus through trigeminocervico nucleus caudalis. These sensitizations of trigeminal nucleus caudalis happen due to increase peripheral nociceptive input from myofascial trigger points in suboccipital muscles. Treatment approaches to overcome headache, includes pharmacological, non-pharmacological, anesthetic and surgical intervention. In that spinal manipulation found to be more effective. METHODOLOGY: Prior to intervention the parameters like VAS, NDI, HDI and CROM were measured for both the groups and underwent IDT for 4 weeks at a rate of 3 sessions per week. Outcome measures were taken at 2nd and 4th week. SUBJECTS: 30 subjects both male and female of age groups 25–45 years who has been diagnosed as CH & TTH on the basis of IHS referred by physician KRH Mysore. PROCEDURE: 30 subjects who fulfilling inclusion criteria were included in the study they were randomized into 2 groups. Group A (TTH n=15 & Group B (CH n=15. The duration of treatment was 4 weeks 12 sessions. Outcome measures included the CROM, VAS, NDI and HDI scores. RESULT: Result showed highly significant improvement in all the parameters within the groups at 2nd and 4th wk following intervention (IDT. Result also showed non-significant improvement in all the parameters between the groups. CONCLUSION: Study found significant improvement in all the parameters in both the groups. IDT can be used in therapeutic intervention to relieve symptoms of CH & TTH.

  12. Solid-solid contacts due to surface roughness and their effects on suspension behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H; Zhao, Yu; Galvin, Kevin P; Wilson, Helen J

    2003-05-15

    Solid-solid contacts due to microscopic surface roughness in viscous fluids were examined by observing the translational and rotational behaviours of a suspended sphere falling past a lighter sphere or down an inclined surface. In both cases, a roll-slip behaviour was observed, with the gravitational forces balanced by not only hydrodynamic forces but also normal and tangential solid-solid contact forces. Moreover, the nominal separation between the surfaces due to microscopic surface roughness elements is not constant but instead varies due to multiple roughness scales. By inverting the system, so that the heavy sphere fell away from the lighter sphere or the plane, it was found that the average nominal separation increases with increasing angle of inclination of the plane or the surface of the lighter sphere from horizontal; the larger asperities lift the sphere up from the opposing surface and then gravity at large angles of inclination is too weak to pull the sphere back down to the opposing surface before another large asperity is encountered. The existence of microscopic surface roughness and solid-solid contacts is shown to modify the rheological properties of suspensions. For example, the presence of compressive, but not tensile, contact forces removes the reversibility of sphere-sphere interactions and breaks the symmetry of the particle trajectories. As a result, suspensions of rough spheres exhibit normal stress differences that are absent for smooth spheres. For the conditions studied, surface roughness reduces the effective viscosity of a suspension by limiting the lubrication resistance during near-contact motion, and it also modifies the suspension microstructure and hydrodynamic diffusivity.

  13. Generation and maintenance of low effective pressures due to fluid flow in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagash, D.; Brantut, N.; Schubnel, A.; Bhat, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    The pore fluid pressure is expected to increase with increasing depth in the crust, primarily due to gravity forces. Because direct measurements are impossible beyond a few kilometers depths, the pore pressure gradient is often assumed to be linear (e.g., hydrostatic). However, a number of processes can severely modify the fluid pressure distribution in the crust. Here, we investigate the effect of fluid flow coupled to nonlinear permeability-effective pressure relationship. We performed a set of laboratory fluid flow experiments on thermally cracked Westerly granite at confining pressures up to 200 MPa and pore fluid pressures up to 120 MPa. Fluid flow was generated by imposing very strong pore pressure differences, up to 120 MPa, between the ends of the sample. The vertical fluid pressure distribution inside the sample was inferred by a set of 8 radial strain gauges, and an array of 10 P- and S-wave transducers. When the effective stress is kept near zero at one end of the sample and maintained high at the other end, the steady-state pore pressure profile is nonlinear. The effective stress, as inferred from the strain gauge array, remains close to zero through 2/3 of the sample, and increases sharply near the drained end of the sample. The ultrasonic data are used to build a vertical P- and S-wave velocity structure. The wave velocity profiles are consistent with a nonlinear relationship between wave velocity and effective pressure, as expected in thermally cracked granite. Taken together, our experimental data confirm the theoretical prediction that near zero effective stress can be generated through significant sections of rocks as a response to an imposed fluid flow. This has strong implications for the state of stress of the Earth's crust, especially around major continental transform faults that act as conduits for deep volatiles.

  14. Analytical quality assurance in veterinary drug residue analysis methods: matrix effects determination and monitoring for sulfonamides analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Rübensam, Gabriel; Jank, Louise; Barreto, Fabiano; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Silvia Díaz-Cruz, M; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    In residue analysis of veterinary drugs in foodstuff, matrix effects are one of the most critical points. This work present a discuss considering approaches used to estimate, minimize and monitoring matrix effects in bioanalytical methods. Qualitative and quantitative methods for estimation of matrix effects such as post-column infusion, slopes ratios analysis, calibration curves (mathematical and statistical analysis) and control chart monitoring are discussed using real data. Matrix effects varying in a wide range depending of the analyte and the sample preparation method: pressurized liquid extraction for liver samples show matrix effects from 15.5 to 59.2% while a ultrasound-assisted extraction provide values from 21.7 to 64.3%. The matrix influence was also evaluated: for sulfamethazine analysis, losses of signal were varying from -37 to -96% for fish and eggs, respectively. Advantages and drawbacks are also discussed considering a workflow for matrix effects assessment proposed and applied to real data from sulfonamides residues analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanoparticle separation based on size-dependent aggregation of nanoparticles due to the critical Casimir effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Stan, Gheorghe; Liu, Yun

    2018-02-21

    Nanoparticles typically have an inherent wide size distribution that may affect the performance and reliability of many nanomaterials. Because the synthesis and purification of nanoparticles with desirable sizes are crucial to the applications of nanoparticles in various fields including medicine, biology, health care, and energy, there is a great need to search for more efficient and generic methods for size-selective nanoparticle purification/separation. Here we propose and conclusively demonstrate the effectiveness of a size-selective particle purification/separation method based on the critical Casimir force. The critical Casimir force is a generic interaction between colloidal particles near the solvent critical point and has been extensively studied in the past several decades due to its importance in reversibly controlling the aggregation and stability of colloidal particles. Combining multiple experimental techniques, we found that the critical Casimir force-induced aggregation depends on relative particle sizes in a system with larger ones aggregating first and the smaller ones remaining in solution. Based on this observation, a new size-dependent nanoparticle purification/separation method is proposed and demonstrated to be very efficient in purifying commercial silica nanoparticles in the lutidine/water binary solvent. Due to the ubiquity of the critical Casimir force for many colloidal particles in binary solvents, this method might be applicable to many types of colloidal particles.

  16. Does high pressure have any effect on the structure of alpha amylase and its ability to binding to the oligosaccharides having 3-7 residues? Molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, S Hooman; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad Reza; Morsali, Ali; Beyramabadi, S Ali

    2018-03-01

    Studies have shown that deletion of amino acids from the C-terminus of amylase do not alter its amylolytic activity. Although high pressure is used to modify the structure and function of this enzyme, the effects of high pressures on the structures of the wild-type and truncated amylases have not yet been understood at the molecular level. Using molecular dynamic simulations and docking, we studied the structures of wild-type and truncated Taka-amylases at high pressures (1000-4000 bar). To construct the truncated Taka-amylase, 50 and 100 C-terminal residues were removed in two separate steps. Results of simulation showed that, although the overall shape partly agglomerates with rise in pressure, high pressure fails to modify the structure of the barrel-like region of the β-sheet in the wild-type and truncated enzymes. A comparison of contact graphs revealed that the changes at the N-terminus were less extensive than those at the C-terminus. Further analysis showed that 10 regions of the secondary structures changed due to pressure change in wild-type amylase, of which 6 regions were associated with the loops and 4 with helix, while the structure of β-sheets remained unchanged. The docking of maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, and maltoheptaose with the averaged structures obtained from different simulations was conducted to characterize the influence of pressure on the activities of the wild-type and truncated enzymes. The results showed that maltoheptaose made hydrophobic contacts with residues Tyr238-Asp117-Tyr82-Leu166-Leu232-Tyr155 and hydrogen contacts with residues Asp233-Gly234-Asp206-Arg204-His296-Glu230. Similar results were obtained for other malto-oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Peripheral Dose Heterogeneity Due to the Thread Effect in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yutaka [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Verneris, Michael R. [Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Dusenbery, Kathryn E. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Wilke, Christopher T. [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Storme, Guy; Weisdorf, Daniel J. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Hui, Susanta K., E-mail: huixx019@umn.edu [Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To report potential dose heterogeneity leading to underdosing at different skeletal sites in total marrow irradiation (TMI) with helical tomotherapy due to the thread effect and provide possible solutions to reduce this effect. Methods and Materials: Nine cases were divided into 2 groups based on patient size, defined as maximum left-to-right arm distance (mLRD): small mLRD (≤47 cm) and large mLRD (>47 cm). TMI treatment planning was conducted by varying the pitch and modulation factor while a jaw size (5 cm) was kept fixed. Ripple amplitude, defined as the peak-to-trough dose relative to the average dose due to the thread effect, and the dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters for 9 cases with various mLRD was analyzed in different skeletal regions at off-axis (eg, bones of the arm or femur), at the central axis (eg, vertebrae), and planning target volume (PTV), defined as the entire skeleton plus 1-cm margin. Results: Average ripple amplitude for a pitch of 0.430, known as one of the magic pitches that reduce thread effect, was 9.2% at 20 cm off-axis. No significant differences in DVH parameters of PTV, vertebrae, or femur were observed between small and large mLRD groups for a pitch of ≤0.287. Conversely, in the bones of the arm, average differences in the volume receiving 95% and 107% dose (V95 and V107, respectively) between large and small mLRD groups were 4.2% (P=.016) and 16% (P=.016), respectively. Strong correlations were found between mLRD and ripple amplitude (rs=.965), mLRD and V95 (rs=−.742), and mLRD and V107 (rs=.870) of bones of the arm. Conclusions: Thread effect significantly influences DVH parameters in the bones of the arm for large mLRD patients. By implementing a favorable pitch value and adjusting arm position, peripheral dose heterogeneity could be reduced.

  18. Efeito do conteúdo e da natureza da lignina residual na eficiência e na seletividade do branqueamento com ozônio Effect of residual lignin content and nature on the efficiency and selectivity of ozone bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Pereira Maia

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliados os efeitos do conteúdo e da natureza da lignina residual na eficiência e na seletividade do branqueamento com ozônio de polpa kraft convencional (kraft e pré-deslignificada com oxigênio (kraft-O. Constatou-se que a eficiência do branqueamento com ozônio se eleva com o aumento do conteúdo de lignina residual da polpa. O tratamento com ozônio é mais seletivo para polpas kraft-O, mas para um mesmo tipo de polpa a seletividade de branqueamento com ozônio se eleva com o aumento de lignina residual. A eficiência do branqueamento com ozônio aumenta com o teor de lignina fenólica na polpa, entretanto a seletividade é negativamente afetada pela presença destas estruturas.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of residual lignin content and nature on the efficiency and selectivity of ozone bleaching of conventional (kraft and oxygen delignified (kraft-O pulps. Ozone bleaching efficiency was found to be enhanced by increasing pulp residual lignin content. Ozone treatment is more selective for kraft-O pulps, but for a given type of pulp (kraft or kraft-O, ozone bleaching selectivity increases with increasing pulp lignin content. Ozone bleaching efficiency increases with increasing pulp lignin phenolic hydroxyl content whereas selectivity is negatively affected by these structures.

  19. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  20. Residual Effects of Deltamethrin WG 25% as a New Formulation on Different Surfaces against Anopheles stephensi, in Southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, A; Abai, MR; Akbarzadeh, K; Nateghpour, M; Sartipi, M; Hassanzehi, A; Shahbakhsh, N; Faraji, L; Nikpour, F; Mashayekhi, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is functioned as national interventions against malaria in southeastern foci of Iran and deltamethrin WP one of the insecticides have been used since past decade. In this study, the residual activity of the wettable granule (WG) was studied on different surfaces in hut scale trial against Anopheles stephensi in Iranshahr District, southeastern Iran. Methods: Three dosages of 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 of deltamethrin WG 25% formulation were applied on plaster, cement, mud, and wooden surfaces using Hudson® X-pert compression sprayer having 10 litters capacity. Results: The residual effects of deltamethrin WG 25% on different surfaces was assessed based on reduction of mortality An. stepehnsi from 100% to about 70%. At 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 the WG formulation of deltamethrin had a bioefficacy for about 2, 3 and 4 months respectively. Conclusion: There was an expectable fluctuation in mortality of An. stephensi at different sprayed surfaces as well as dosages. The proposed 50 mg/m2 WG is the longest activity for up to 4 months which needs to be applied for two spraying cycles per year at the climatically condition of southwestern Iran. PMID:22808390

  1. Characterizing Phase Transformations and Their Effects on Ferritic Weld Residual Stresses with X-Rays and Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H.; Francis, J. A.; Stone, H. J.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Withers, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    Weld residual stresses often approach, or exceed, the yield strength of the material, with serious implications for the integrity of engineering structures. It is not always feasible to measure residual stresses, so integrity assessments often rely heavily on numerical models. In ferritic steels, the credibility of such models depends on their ability to account for solid-state phase transformations, which can have a controlling effect on the final residual stress state. Furthermore, a better understanding of weld transformations provides an opportunity to engineer the weld stress state and microstructure for improved life. In this article, the complementary merits of synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction are exploited both to verify and refine weld models and to inspire the development of weld filler metals to control weld stresses. In terms of weld filler metal design, X-ray diffraction is used to characterize phase transformations in real time during realistic weld cooling cycles, for understanding small-scale behavior and identifying features that need to be incorporated into finite-element models. Meanwhile, neutron diffraction is used to elucidate the practical consequences of solid-state phase transformations on the macroscopic scale, thereby providing crucial validatory structural integrity data.

  2. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping: Superconductivity, mass enhancement in Cooper oxides with apical oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadowski, A.; Penc, K.; Zimanyi, G.

    1991-07-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. The superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T c superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T c obtained is about 100K. (author). 22 refs, 9 figs

  3. A patient with a traumatic brain injury due to barrel bomb tertiary blast effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolatkale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparing to manage weapons of mass destruction events challenges emergency services systems neighboring Syria every day. Understanding injury from explosives is essential for all providers of emergency care in both civilian and military settings. In this case, the authors present a 22-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency department with displaced skull fracture, epidural hemorrhage and cerebral contusion due to barrel bomb tertiary blast effect. A 22-year-old man who complained of pain in the right temporal head region after barrel bomb explosion was admitted in the emergency department. The patient could not remember the explosion and found himself on the ground. In his medical history, there was not a record of any diseases, operations or traumas. Examination of the head revealed scalp hematoma and slump in the skull on the right temporal region. Patients computed tomography (CT scan showed a displaced skull fracture, epidural hematoma and cerebral contusion.

  4. Peak effect in the magnetostriction of superconducting NbTi due to elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyder, U.; Linden, P.J.E.M. van der; Meulen, H.P. van der; Gerber, A.; Duyn, V.H.M.; Perenboom, J.A.A.J.; Visser, A. de; Franse, J.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetostriction on polycrystalline superconducting NbTi perpendicular to the field is measured to study lattice deformation effects caused by fluxoids exerting forces on the lattice through pinning centers. A ''dip'' for increasing and a ''peak'' for decreasing fields in its length at 80% of the upper critical field (B c2 =12 T) was observed. Its temperature dependence is well explained by universal B c2 (T) scaling laws for pinning forces and elastic constants. Identical features are observed in the magnetization. In critical current no anomaly is found. An explanation in terms of an anomaly in elastic constants due to a field induced degeneracy of the ground state is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Predicting molecular scale skin-effect in electrochemical impedance due to anomalous subdiffusion mediated adsorption phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushagra, Arindam

    2016-02-01

    Anomalous subdiffusion governs the processes which are not energetically driven, on a molecular scale. This paper proposes a model to predict the response of electrochemical impedance due to such diffusion process. Previous works considered the use of fractional calculus to predict the impedance behaviour in response to the anomalous diffusion. Here, we have developed an expression which predicts the skin-effect, marked by an increase in the impedance with increasing frequency, in this regime. Negative inductances have also been predicted as a consequence of the inertial response of adsorbed species upon application of frequency-mediated perturbations. It might help the researchers in the fields of impedimetric sensors to choose the working frequency and those working in the field of batteries to choose the parameters, likewise. This work would shed some light into the molecular mechanisms governing the impedance when exposed to frequency-based perturbations like electromagnetic waves (microwaves to ionizing radiations) and in charge storage devices like batteries etc.

  6. Climate change in cities due to global warming and urban effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark P.; Best, Martin J.; Betts, Richard A.

    2010-05-01

    Urbanisation is estimated to result in 6 billion urban dwellers by 2050. Cities will be exposed to climate change from greenhouse gas induced radiative forcing, and localised effects from urbanisation such as the urban heat island. An urban land-surface model has been included in the HadAM3 Global Climate Model. It shows that regions of high population growth coincide with regions of high urban heat island potential, most notably in the Middle East, the Indian sub-continent, and East Africa. Climate change has the capacity to modify the climatic potential for urban heat islands, with increases of 30% in some locations, but a global average reduction of 6%. Warming and extreme heat events due to urbanisation and increased energy consumption are simulated to be as large as the impact of doubled CO2 in some regions, and climate change increases the disparity in extreme hot nights between rural and urban areas.

  7. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on silage fermentation of fruit residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsong; Tan, Haisheng; Cai, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, chemical composition, and silage fermentation of fruit residues were studied. Eighty-two strains of LAB were isolated from fruit residues such as banana leaf and stem, pineapple peel, and papaya peel. All strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, and they were divided into 7 groups (A-G) according to morphological and biochemical characters. Strains in groups A to F were rods, and group G was cocci. Group F produced gas from glucose; other groups did not. Groups A to C and F formed dl-lactic acid, whereas groups D, E, and G formed l-lactic acid. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, groups A to G strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (54.9% of the total isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3.6%), Lactobacillus nagelii (8.5%), Lactobacillus perolens (4.9%), Lactobacillus casei (11.0%), Lactobacillus fermentum (9.8%), and Enterococcus gallinarum (7.3%), respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei are the most frequently isolated from fruit residues as a dominant species, and they could grow at a lower pH conditions and produce more lactic acid than other isolates. Pineapple and papaya peels contained higher crude protein (11.5-13.8%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (16.8-22.4%), but lower acid detergent fiber contents (21.2 to 26.4%) than banana stems and leaves (8.2% crude protein, 42.8% acid detergent fiber, and 5.1% water-soluble carbohydrate). Compared with banana stem and leaf silages, the pineapple and papaya peel silages were well preserved with a lower pH and higher lactate content. The study suggests that the fruit residues contain excellent LAB species and abundant feed nutrients, and that they can be preserved as silage to be potential food resources for livestock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Reactivity Effects due to Localized Perturbations in BWR Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geemert, R. van; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Chawla, R.

    2002-01-01

    Optimization criteria for the representability of numerical models for the estimation of relative reactivity changes, due to localized perturbations in boiling water reactor (BWR) lattices, have been theoretically developed and tested. The validity of the derived theoretical expressions has been assessed for the case of a reactivity perturbation corresponding to the removal of an individual fuel pin from a nominal BWR assembly, thus effectively substituting the pin by water. Such reactivity effects are of importance in the context of evaluating advanced fuel element designs, e.g., those employing part-length rods. Two different geometry models have been implemented for the LWR-PROTEUS critical research facility [full core (FC) and a smaller, reduced geometry (RG)], using the light water reactor assembly code BOXER, and calculations have been performed for the nominal cases (all pins present in the central test assembly) and the perturbed cases (individual pins removed). The FC results have been compared with the results of the RG model with two different boundary conditions (reflective and critical albedo). The comparisons have shown that the results of critical albedo calculations feature superior representability. Differences in relative reactivity effects, with respect to results of the FC calculation, are found to be within the range ±1 to ±4%

  9. Long-term effects of early parental loss due to divorce on the HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Miki; Peleg, Ido; Koren, Danny; Aner, Hamotal; Klein, Ehud

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the long-term effects of divorce and early separation from one parent on HPA axis reactivity, in young adults without psychopathology. Participants were 44 young subjects, 22 whose parents divorced before they reached age 10, and 22 controls. Psychiatric symptomatology was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), family perceived stress by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), and bonding by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Assessment of HPA axis function included baseline morning cortisol and ACTH and cortisol response to a CRH stimulation test. No baseline or stimulated group differences were observed for ACTH. Cortisol levels were consistently but insignificantly lower in the divorce group throughout the CRH stimulation reaching statistical significance only at 5 min (pchildhood separation from one parent due to divorce may lead to detectable, albeit mild, long-term alterations in HPA axis activity. Furthermore, they suggest that level of stress at home and parental bonding are important determinants of this effect. It is likely that divorce has significant and sustained effects on children's HPA axis only in the context of a traumatic separation.

  10. The effect of eflornithine 13.9% cream on the bother and discomfort due to hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joseph; Caro, J Jaime; Caro, Graciela; Garfield, Frances; Huber, Ferdinand; Zhou, Wenjiong; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Shander, Douglas; Schrode, Kathy

    2007-09-01

    Although unwanted facial hair often leads to anxiety and avoidance of social situations, evaluation of treatment outcomes in clinical trials has relied largely on measures external to the patient such as the extent of hair growth or an expert physician's assessment, neglecting to include patient reported outcomes (PRO). To assess the level of bother caused by a dermatological condition (hirsutism) and changes brought on by treatment, the instrument ESTEEM was developed by expanding the Bother Assessment in Skin Conditions (BASC) scale to six questions to cover the discomfort felt in four social situations and bother due to removing facial hair. Each question elicits responses on a visual analog scale. Women participating in two randomized clinical trials evaluated a new treatment (eflornithine 13.9% cream). Analyses examined the level of bother at each visit, the changes with treatment, the correlations with the Physician's Global Assessment, and the effect size. Hirsutism bothers patients considerably. The mean for overall bother was 89% and the mean discomfort in social situations exceeded 80% in nearly all cases. Treatment led to significant reductions in bother on all six items with effect sizes ranging from 0.46 to 1.62. Eflornithine is an effective treatment for unwanted facial hair in women, as reported by the patients. ESTEEM addresses the specific concerns of women with hirsutism.

  11. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  12. The Effects of Acupuncture on Chronic Knee Pain Due to Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianfeng; Huang, Kangmao; Zhu, Guiqi; Huang, Zhaobo; Qin, An; Fan, Shunwu

    2016-09-21

    Acupuncture reportedly relieves chronic knee pain and improves physical function in patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis, but the duration of these effects is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal effects of acupuncture on chronic knee pain due to knee osteoarthritis by means of a meta-analysis. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published through March 2015. Ten randomized controlled trials of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture, usual care, or no intervention for chronic knee pain in patients with clinically diagnosed or radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis were included. All of the studies were available in English. Weighted mean differences (WMDs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), publication bias, and heterogeneity were calculated. The acupuncture groups showed superior pain improvement (p 50%) and physical function (p 50%) in the short term (up to 13 weeks). The acupuncture groups showed superior physical function (p = 0.016; WMD = 2.73 [95% CI, 0.51 to 4.94]; I(2) > 50%) but not superior pain improvement (p = 0.199; WMD = -0.55 [95% CI, -1.39 to 0.29]; I(2) > 50%) in the long term (up to 26 weeks). Subgroup analysis revealed that the acupuncture groups tended to have better outcomes compared with the controls. Significant publication bias was not detected (p > 0.05), but the heterogeneity of the studies was substantial. This meta-analysis demonstrates that acupuncture can improve short and long-term physical function, but it appears to provide only short-term pain relief in patients with chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  13. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S; Sahu, Anand P

    2010-02-01

    Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  15. On the Rule of Mixtures for Predicting Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Biological Tissues and Biocompatible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the rule of mixtures to develop an equivalent material model in which the total strain energy density is split into the isotropic part related to the matrix component and the anisotropic energy contribution related to the fiber effects. For the isotropic energy part, we select the amended non-Gaussian strain energy density model, while the energy fiber effects are added by considering the equivalent anisotropic volumetric fraction contribution, as well as the isotropized representation form of the eight-chain energy model that accounts for the material anisotropic effects. Furthermore, our proposed material model uses a phenomenological non-monotonous softening function that predicts stress softening effects and has an energy term, derived from the pseudo-elasticity theory, that accounts for residual strain deformations. The model’s theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data collected from human vaginal tissues, mice skin, poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone (PGC25 3-0 and polypropylene suture materials and tracheal and brain human tissues. In all cases examined here, our equivalent material model closely follows stress-softening and residual strain effects exhibited by experimental data.

  16. Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs will continue to increase and cause climatic change (16. These conditions are also true for Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. The three GHGs associated with agriculture CO2, CH4, and N2O differ in their effectiveness in trapping heat and in their turnover rates in the atmosphere. This environmental change will have serious impacts on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photoassimilates. Farmers are not able to change or manage the climatic conditions, but some factors such as soil, water, seed and agricultural practices can be managed to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change (32. Mitigation and adaptation are two known ways for reducing the negative impacts of climate change. Mitigation strategies are associated with decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through management practices such as reducing chemical fertilizer application, mechanization, increasing carbon storage in agroecosystems, planting biofuel crops and moving towards organic farming (42, etc. Material and Methods: This study was carried out at the experimental field of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011 and was repeated in 2012. The Research Station (36°16´N, 59°36´E is located at about 985 m a.s.l. Average temperature and precipitation rate of the research station in two years are shown in Figure. 1. The three-factor experiment was set up in a strip-split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage and residual management (remaining and leaving of maize residual assigned to main plots

  17. Mid-term and scaling effects of forest residue mulching on post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W; Martins, Martinho António Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2016-12-15

    Mulching is an effective post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatment. Experiments with forest residue mulch have demonstrated that it increased ground cover to 70% and reduced runoff and soil loss at small spatial scales and for short post-fire periods. However, no studies have systematically assessed the joint effects of scale, time since burning, and mulching on runoff, soil loss, and organic matter loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of scale and forest residue mulch using 0.25m 2 micro-plots and 100m 2 slope-scale plots in a burnt eucalypt plantation in central Portugal. We assessed the underlying processes involved in the post-fire hydrologic and erosive responses, particularly the effects of soil moisture and soil water repellency. Runoff amount in the micro-plots was more than ten-fold the runoff in the larger slope-scale plots in the first year and decreased to eight-fold in the third post-fire year. Soil losses in the micro-plots were initially about twice the values in the slope-scale plots and this ratio increased over time. The mulch greatly reduced the cumulative soil loss measured in the untreated slope-scale