WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual distribution schemes

  1. High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct high-order hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for general advection-diffusion problems on arbitrary triangular grids. We demonstrate that the second-order accuracy of the hyperbolic schemes can be greatly improved by requiring the scheme to preserve exact quadratic solutions. We also show that the improved second-order scheme can be easily extended to third-order by further requiring the exactness for cubic solutions. We construct these schemes based on the LDA and the SUPG methodology formulated in the framework of the residual-distribution method. For both second- and third-order-schemes, we construct a fully implicit solver by the exact residual Jacobian of the second-order scheme, and demonstrate rapid convergence of 10-15 iterations to reduce the residuals by 10 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate also that these schemes can be constructed based on a separate treatment of the advective and diffusive terms, which paves the way for the construction of hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results show that these schemes produce exceptionally accurate and smooth solution gradients on highly skewed and anisotropic triangular grids, including curved boundary problems, using linear elements. We also present Fourier analysis performed on the constructed linear system and show that an under-relaxation parameter is needed for stabilization of Gauss-Seidel relaxation.

  2. Password authentication scheme based on the quadratic residue problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Helmi; Ismail, Eddie Shahril

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new password-authentication scheme based on quadratic residue problem with the following advantages: the scheme does not require a verification file, and the scheme can withstand replay attacks and resist from the guessing and impersonation attacks. We next discuss the advantages of our designated scheme over other schemes in terms of security and efficiency.

  3. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme. These sche......With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme....... These schemes utilize directional relays, power flow through feeders, wind and PV measurements to optimally select the feeders to be disconnected during load shedding such that DG disconnection is minimized while disconnecting required amount of consumption. These different UFLS schemes are compared in terms...

  4. A Distributed Quaternary Turbo Coded Cooperative Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALDINI FILHO, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communications achieve MIMO-like diversity gains by introducing a relay that creates an independent faded path between the source and the destination. Coded cooperation integrates cooperation with channel coding in order to increase the bit error rate (BER performance of cooperative communications. Turbo codewords can be built efficiently at the destination using encoded portions of the information sent by the source and the relay. This paper presents a distributed turbo cooperative coding scheme that utilizes convolutional codes defined over the finite ring of integers Z4 that performs better than its equivalent binary counterparts.

  5. Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues were measured in the water, sediment, plankton, benthic invertebrates and fish in various sections of the Lagos Lagoon in 2014 to investigate their bioaccumulation and distribution in the food web. The analysis was done using gas chromatography with an electron capture ...

  6. Automated detection and quantification of residual brain tumor using an interactive computer-aided detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Kevin P.; Aghaei, Faranak; Battiste, James; Zheng, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Detection of residual brain tumor is important to evaluate efficacy of brain cancer surgery, determine optimal strategy of further radiation therapy if needed, and assess ultimate prognosis of the patients. Brain MR is a commonly used imaging modality for this task. In order to distinguish between residual tumor and surgery induced scar tissues, two sets of MRI scans are conducted pre- and post-gadolinium contrast injection. The residual tumors are only enhanced in the post-contrast injection images. However, subjective reading and quantifying this type of brain MR images faces difficulty in detecting real residual tumor regions and measuring total volume of the residual tumor. In order to help solve this clinical difficulty, we developed and tested a new interactive computer-aided detection scheme, which consists of three consecutive image processing steps namely, 1) segmentation of the intracranial region, 2) image registration and subtraction, 3) tumor segmentation and refinement. The scheme also includes a specially designed and implemented graphical user interface (GUI) platform. When using this scheme, two sets of pre- and post-contrast injection images are first automatically processed to detect and quantify residual tumor volume. Then, a user can visually examine segmentation results and conveniently guide the scheme to correct any detection or segmentation errors if needed. The scheme has been repeatedly tested using five cases. Due to the observed high performance and robustness of the testing results, the scheme is currently ready for conducting clinical studies and helping clinicians investigate the association between this quantitative image marker and outcome of patients.

  7. A Simplified Cryogenic Distribution Scheme for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chorowski, M; Lebrun, P; Riddone, G; Serio, L; Tavian, L; Wagner, U; Van Weelderen, R

    1998-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), currently under construction at CERN, will make use of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K. The reference cryogenic distribution scheme was based, in each 3.3 km sector served by a cryogenic plant, on a separate cryogenic distribution line which feeds elementary cooling loops corresponding to the length of a half-cell (53 m). In order to decrease the number of active components, cryogenic modules and jumper connections between distribution line and magnet strings a simplified cryogenic scheme is now implemented, based on cooling loops corresponding to the length of a full-cell (107 m) and compatible with the LHC requirements. Performance and redundancy limitations are discussed with respect to the previous scheme and balanced against potential cost savings.

  8. Distributed public key schemes secure against continual leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akavia, Adi; Goldwasser, Shafi; Hazay, Carmit

    2012-01-01

    In this work we study distributed public key schemes secure against continual memory leakage. The secret key will be shared among two computing devices communicating over a public channel, and the decryption operation will be computed by a simple 2-party protocol between the devices. Similarly...... the value of the respective function on the internal state of the respective device (namely, on its secret share, internal randomness, and results of intermediate computations). We present distributed public key encryption (DPKE) and distributed identity based encryption (DIBE) schemes that are secure......-secure against continual memory leakage. Our DPKE scheme also implies a secure storage system on leaky devices, where a value s can be secretely stored on devices that continually leak information about their internal state to an external attacker. The devices go through a periodic refresh protocol...

  9. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  10. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quadratic residues and non-residues cases using some refinement of van der Warden's the- orem in combinatorial number theory. Therefore, in his proof, the constant p0(N) depends on the van der Warden number, which is very difficult to calculate for all N. For instance, recently, Luca and Thangadurai [8] proved that for all ...

  11. Parton distribution functions in Monte Carlo factorisation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadach, S.; Skrzypek, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Placzek, W. [Jagiellonian University, Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Sapeta, S.; Siodmok, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    A next step in development of the KrkNLO method of including complete NLO QCD corrections to hard processes in a LO parton-shower Monte Carlo is presented. It consists of a generalisation of the method, previously used for the Drell-Yan process, to Higgs-boson production. This extension is accompanied with the complete description of parton distribution functions in a dedicated, Monte Carlo factorisation scheme, applicable to any process of production of one or more colour-neutral particles in hadron-hadron collisions. (orig.)

  12. A Relation Routing Scheme for Distributed Semantic Media Query

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhuhua; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yi, Aiping; Zhang, Guoqing; Liang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Performing complex semantic queries over large-scale distributed media contents is a challenging task for rich media applications. The dynamics and openness of data sources make it uneasy to realize a query scheme that simultaneously achieves precision, scalability, and reliability. In this paper, a novel relation routing scheme (RRS) is proposed by renovating the routing model of Content Centric Network (CCN) for directly querying large-scale semantic media content. By using proper query model and routing mechanism, semantic queries with complex relation constrains from users can be guided towards potential media sources through semantic guider nodes. The scattered and fragmented query results can be integrated on their way back for semantic needs or to avoid duplication. Several new techniques, such as semantic-based naming, incomplete response avoidance, timeout checking, and semantic integration, are developed in this paper to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and practicality of the proposed approach. Both analytical and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is a promising and effective solution for complex semantic queries and integration over large-scale networks. PMID:24319383

  13. Determination of distributed generation poles from agricultural residual biomass in Madre de Dios, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés de Jesús Vargas Soplín; Judith María Ramírez Candia

    2017-01-01

    Context: The region Madre de Dios is located in Peru and is conditioned by the dispersed way in which the people establish settlements. This configuration limits the access these rural settlements have to energy (currently, the rural electrification only reaches 31%). Thus, this investigation focuses on determining distributed energy poles through the use of residual biomass in Madre de Dios region. Method: Through a methodological scheme of four phases, the electric coverage in Madre de ...

  14. Noise Residual Learning for Noise Modeling in Distributed Video Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm which exploits the source statistics at the decoder side to reduce the complexity at the encoder. The noise model is one of the inherently difficult challenges in DVC. This paper considers Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) coding and proposes...... noise residual learning techniques that take residues from previously decoded frames into account to estimate the decoding residue more precisely. Moreover, the techniques calculate a number of candidate noise residual distributions within a frame to adaptively optimize the soft side information during...... decoding. A residual refinement step is also introduced to take advantage of correlation of DCT coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed techniques robustly improve the coding efficiency of TDWZ DVC and for GOP=2 bit-rate savings up to 35% on WZ frames are achieved compared with DISCOVER....

  15. Safe distribution without a disinfectant residual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, G.; Smeets, P.W.M.H.; Van Blokker, E.J.M.; Lieverloo, J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining the microbial quality in distribution systems and connected installations remains a challenge for the water supply companies all over the world, despite many years of research. This book identifies the main concerns and knowledge gaps related to regrowth and stimulate cooperation in

  16. Notes on a Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Hirano, Takuya; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Namiki, Ryo

    2017-09-01

    We develop a physical model to describe the signal transmission for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme and investigate its security against a couple of eavesdropping attacks assuming that the eavesdropper's power is partly restricted owing to today's technological limitations. We consider an eavesdropper performing quantum optical homodyne measurement on the signal obtained by a type of beamsplitting attack. We also consider the case in which the eavesdropper Eve is unable to access a quantum memory and she performs heterodyne measurement on her signal without performing a delayed measurement. Our formulation includes a model in which the receiver's loss and noise are unaccessible by the eavesdropper. This setup enables us to investigate the condition that Eve uses a practical fiber differently from the usual beamsplitting attack where she can deploy a lossless transmission channel. The secret key rates are calculated in both the direct and reverse reconciliation scenarios.

  17. Combustion reaction kinetics of guarana seed residue applying isoconversional methods and consecutive reaction scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fernanda Cristina Rezende; Tannous, Katia; Rueda-Ordóñez, Yesid Javier

    2016-11-01

    This work aims the study of decomposition kinetics of guarana seed residue using thermogravimetric analyzer under synthetic air atmosphere applying heating rates of 5, 10, and 15°C/min, from room temperature to 900°C. Three thermal decomposition stages were identified: dehydration (25.1-160°C), oxidative pyrolysis (240-370°C), and combustion (350-650°C). The activation energies, reaction model, and pre-exponential factor were determined through four isoconversional methods, master plots, and linearization of the conversion rate equation, respectively. A scheme of two-consecutive reactions was applied validating the kinetic parameters of first-order reaction and two-dimensional diffusion models for the oxidative pyrolysis stage (149.57kJ/mol, 6.97×10(10)1/s) and for combustion stage (77.98kJ/mol, 98.611/s), respectively. The comparison between theoretical and experimental conversion and conversion rate showed good agreement with average deviation lower than 2%, indicating that these results could be used for modeling of guarana seed residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Search Schemes for Distributed Cooperative Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Zhang, Xiaolu

    2017-10-01

    Distributed cooperative data centers provide a new data storage and data processing architecture over heterogeneous physical nodes. The major challenge faced by such architecture is to find the right data on some node efficiently. In this paper, we present two alternatives for data indexing based on Chord, a Peer to Peer (P2P) overlay structure, which redefine the routing table structure that underlies the Chord and achieve small search paths. First, we present a regional search algorithm that routes data keys queries by region and super-node information. The search process can be easily implemented via O(log K) hops, while maintaining O(log K) routing information with K regions in the Chord ring at each node. We further propose a Two-hop search based on the regional search scheme which aims to reduce the average search paths to a constant with O(log K) routing states about super-nodes. Results from theoretical analysis and simulations show that our improved routing algorithms can achieve higher search efficiency and the improved membership maintenances can keep routing information sufficiently up-to-date to validate higher search successful rate.

  19. Chlorocholine chloride residue distribution in eggs, breast and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) residue or its metabolites in the meat and eggs of laying hens was studied using the 15N delta value (d15N) and 15N atom % derived from 15N-CCC containing diets. In a completely randomised design, 20 laying hens were divided into four groups allocated four different ...

  20. A scheme for supporting distributed data structures on multicomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranandani, Seema; Saltz, Joel; Berryman, Harry; Mehrotra, Piyush

    1990-01-01

    A data migration mechanism is proposed that allows an explicit and controlled mapping of data to memory. While read or write copies of each data element can be assigned to any processor's memory, longer term storage of each data element is assigned to a specific location in the memory of a particular processor. The proposed integration of a data migration scheme with a compiler is able to eliminate the migration of unneeded data that can occur in multiprocessor paging or caching. The overhead of adjudicating multiple concurrent writes to the same page or cache line is also eliminated. Data is presented that suggests that the scheme may be a pratical method for efficiently supporting data migration.

  1. A Conservation Voltage Reduction Scheme for a Distribution Systems with Intermittent Distributed Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyeong-Ik Hwang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a conservation voltage reduction (CVR scheme is proposed for a distribution system with intermittent distributed generators (DGs, such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. The CVR is a scheme designed to reduce energy consumption by lowering the voltages supplied to customers. Therefore, an unexpected under-voltage violation can occur due to the variation of active power output from the intermittent DGs. In order to prevent the under-voltage violation and improve the CVR effect, a new reactive power controller which complies with the IEEE Std. 1547TM, and a parameter determination method for the controller are proposed. In addition, an optimal power flow (OPF problem to determine references for the resources of CVR is formulated with consideration of the intermittent DGs. The proposed method is validated using a modified IEEE 123-node test feeder. With the proposed method, the voltages of the test system are maintained to be greater than the lower bound, even though the active power outputs of the DGs are varied. Moreover, the CVR effect is improved compared to that used with the conventional reactive power control methods.

  2. Energy efficient distributed cluster head scheduling scheme for two tiered wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kannan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN provides a significant contribution in the emerging fields such as ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing. In WSN, optimization and load balancing of network resources are critical concern to provide the intelligence for long duration. Since clustering the sensor nodes can significantly enhance overall system scalability and energy efficiency this paper presents a distributed cluster head scheduling (DCHS algorithm to achieve the network longevity in WSN. The major novelty of this work is that the network is divided into primary and secondary tiers based on received signal strength indication of sensor nodes from the base station. The proposed DCHS supports for two tier WSN architecture and gives suggestion to elect the cluster head nodes and gateway nodes for both primary and secondary tiers. The DCHS mechanism satisfies an ideal distribution of the cluster head among the sensor nodes and avoids frequent selection of cluster head, based on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI and residual energy level of the sensor nodes. Since the RSSI is the key parameter for this paper, the practical experiment was conducted to measure RSSI value by using MSP430F149 processor and CC2500 transceiver. The measured RSSI values were given input to the event based simulator to test the DCHS mechanism. The real time experimental study validated the proposed scheme for various scenarios.

  3. A fully distributed geo-routing scheme for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    When marrying randomized distributed space-time coding (RDSTC) to beaconless geo-routing, new performance horizons can be created. In order to reach those horizons, however, beaconless geo-routing protocols must evolve to operate in a fully distributed fashion. In this letter, we expose a technique to construct a fully distributed geo-routing scheme in conjunction with RDSTC. We then demonstrate the performance gains of this novel scheme by comparing it to one of the prominent classical schemes. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Design and Simulation of a Distributed Control Scheme for Inter-Destination Media Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagud, M.; Boronat, F.; Stokking, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-Destination Multimedia Synchronization (IDMS) is a key requirement to enable satisfying group shared media experiences. This paper presents the design and simulation of a Distributed Control Scheme (DCS) for IDMS. In this scheme, geographically dispersed receivers exchange (multicast) RTCP

  5. Efficient Integration, Validation and Troubleshooting in Multimodal Distributed Diagnostic Schemes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Qualtech Systems Inc. (QSI) proposes to develop a well defined process for integration of distributed diagnostic schemes. The process includes a set of guidelines to...

  6. CAC DPLB MCN: A Distributed Load Balancing Scheme in Multimedia Mobile Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Abhijit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem of non-uniform traffic demand in different cells of a cellular network may lead to a gross imbalance in the system performance. Thus, the users in hot cells may suffer from low throughput. In this paper, an effective and simple load balancing scheme CAC_DPLB_MCN is proposed that can effectively reduce the overall call blocking. This model considers dealing with multi-media traffic as well as time-varying geographical traffic distribution. The proposed scheme uses the concept of cell-tiering thereby creating fractional frequency reuse environment. A message exchange based distributed scheme instead of centralized one is used which help the proposed scheme be implemented in a multiple hot cell environment also. Furthermore, concept of dynamic pricing is used to serve the best interest of the users as well as for the service providers. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with two other existing schemes in terms of call blocking probability and bandwidth utilization. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the call blocking significantly in highly congested cell with highest bandwidth utilization. Use of dynamic pricing also makes the scheme useful to increase revenue of the service providers in contrast with compared schemes.

  7. Scheme dependence and transverse momentum distribution interpretation of Collins–Soper–Sterman resummation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Prokudin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following an earlier derivation by Catani, de Florian and Grazzini (2000 on the scheme dependence in the Collins–Soper–Sterman (CSS resummation formalism in hard scattering processes, we investigate the scheme dependence of the Transverse Momentum Distributions (TMDs and their applications. By adopting a universal C-coefficient function associated with the integrated parton distributions, the difference between various TMD schemes can be attributed to a perturbative calculable function depending on the hard momentum scale. We further apply several TMD schemes to the Drell–Yan process of lepton pair production in hadronic collisions, and find that the constrained non-perturbative form factors in different schemes are consistent with each other and with that of the standard CSS formalism.

  8. Cooperation Scheme For Distributed Spectrum Sensing In Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is an essential phase in cognitive radio networks (CRNs. It enables secondary users (SUs to access licensed spectrum, which is temporarily not occupied by the primary users (PUs. The widely used scheme of spectrum sensing is cooperative sensing, in which an SU shares its sensing results with other SUs to improve the overall sensing performance, while maximizing its throughput. For a single SU, if its sensing results are shared early, it would have more time for data transmission, which improves the throughput. However, when multiple SUs send their sensing results early, they are more likely to send out their sensing results simultaneously over the same signaling channel. Under these conditions, conflicts would likely happen. Then, both the sensing performance and throughput would be affected. Therefore, it is important to take when-to-share into account. We model the spectrum sensing as an evolutionary game. Different from previous works, the strategy set for each player in our game model contains not only whether to share its sensing results, but also when to share. The payoff for each player is defined based on the throughput, which considers the influence of the time spent both on sensing and sharing. We prove the existence of the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS. In addition, we propose a practical algorithm for each secondary user to converge to the ESS. We conduct experiments on our testbed consisting of 4 USRP N200s. The experimental results verify for our model, including the convergence to the ESS.

  9. Tar mats and residual oil distribution in a giant oil field offshore Abu Dhabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, Bernard [Institut Francais du Petrole and 4 Av. de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Arab, Hani [ZADCO P.O. Box 46808, Abu Dhabi(United Arab Emirates); Pluchery, Eric; Chautru, Jean-Marc [Beicip-Franlab 232, Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, BP 213, 92502 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    be used to better define an optimal production scheme. The effects of the residual heavy oils on the fluid circulation are difficult to evaluate, depending on the distribution of the bitumen in the pore network. (author)

  10. Improving satellite data products for open oceans with a scheme to correct the residual errors in remote sensing reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lee, Zhongping; Hu, Chuanmin; Wei, Jianwei

    2016-06-01

    An approach to semianalytically derive waters' inherent optical properties (IOPs) from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and at the same time to take into account the residual errors in satellite Rrs is developed for open-ocean clear waters where aerosols are likely of marine origin. This approach has two components: (1) a scheme of combining a neural network and an algebraic solution for the derivation of IOPs, and (2) relationships between Rrs residual errors at 670 nm and other spectral bands. This approach is evaluated with both synthetic and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) data, and the results show that it can significantly reduce the effects of residual errors in Rrs on the retrieval of IOPs, and at the same time remove partially the Rrs residual errors for "low-quality" and "high-quality" data defined in this study. Furthermore, more consistent estimation of chlorophyll concentrations between the empirical blue-green ratio and band-difference algorithms can be derived from the corrected "low-quality" and "high-quality" Rrs. These results suggest that it is possible to improve both data quality and quantity of satellite-retrieved Rrs over clear open-ocean waters with a step considering the spectral relationships of the residual errors in Rrs after the default atmospheric correction procedure and without fixing Rrs at 670 nm to one value for clear waters in a small region such as 3 × 3 box.

  11. Channel access delay and buffer distribution of two-user opportunistic scheduling schemes in wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-07-01

    In our earlier works, we proposed rate adaptive hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) and hybrid two-user scheduling (HTS) schemes. The proposed schemes are innovative in the sense that they include a second user in the transmission opportunistically using hierarchical modulations. As such the frequency of information access of the users increases without any degradation of the system spectral efficiency (SSE) compared to the classical opportunistic scheduling scheme. In this paper, we analyze channel access delay of an incoming packet at the base station (BS) buffer when our proposed TBS and HTS schemes are employed at the BS. Specifically, using a queuing analytic model we derive channel access delay as well as buffer distribution of the packets that wait at BS buffer for down-link (DL) transmission. We compare performance of the TBS and HTS schemes with that of the classical single user opportunistic schemes namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based single user scheduling (ASS) and normalized CNR-based single user scheduling (NSS). For an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading environment, our proposed scheme can improve packet\\'s access delay performance compared to the ASS. Selected numerical results in an independent but non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) fading environment show that our proposed HTS achieves overall good channel access delay performance. © 2010 IEEE.

  12. Removal of batch effects using distribution-matching residual networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaham, Uri; Stanton, Kelly P; Zhao, Jun; Li, Huamin; Raddassi, Khadir; Montgomery, Ruth; Kluger, Yuval

    2017-08-15

    Sources of variability in experimentally derived data include measurement error in addition to the physical phenomena of interest. This measurement error is a combination of systematic components, originating from the measuring instrument and random measurement errors. Several novel biological technologies, such as mass cytometry and single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq), are plagued with systematic errors that may severely affect statistical analysis if the data are not properly calibrated. We propose a novel deep learning approach for removing systematic batch effects. Our method is based on a residual neural network, trained to minimize the Maximum Mean Discrepancy between the multivariate distributions of two replicates, measured in different batches. We apply our method to mass cytometry and scRNA-seq datasets, and demonstrate that it effectively attenuates batch effects. our codes and data are publicly available at https://github.com/ushaham/BatchEffectRemoval.git. yuval.kluger@yale.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Distributed Group-Based Mobility Management Scheme in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moneeb Gohar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For group-based mobility management in 6LoWPAN-based wireless body area networks (WBAN, some schemes using the Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIP have been proposed. However, the existing PMIP-based mobility schemes tend to induce large registration delay and handover delay. To overcome such limitations, we propose a new distributed group-based mobility management scheme, in which the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA function is implemented by each Mobile Access Gateway (MAG and the handover operation is performed between two neighboring MAGs without the help of LMA. Besides, each MAG maintains the information of the group of mobile sensors and aggregates the Authentication-Authorization-Accounting (AAA query messages for a group of mobile sensors as a “single” message to decrease the control overhead. By numerical analysis, it is shown that the proposed scheme can reduce the registration and handover delays, compared to the existing PMIP-based mobility schemes.

  14. Adaptive protection coordination scheme for distribution network with distributed generation using ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive protection coordination scheme for optimal coordination of DOCRs in interconnected power networks with the impact of DG, the used coordination technique is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC. The scheme adapts to system changes; new relays settings are obtained as generation-level or system-topology changes. The developed adaptive scheme is applied on the IEEE 30-bus test system for both single- and multi-DG existence where results are shown and discussed.

  15. Adaptive Protection Scheme for a Distribution System Considering Grid-Connected and Islanded Modes of Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Ates; Ali Rifat Boynuegri; Mehmet Uzunoglu; Abdullah Nadar; Recep Yumurtacı; Ozan Erdinc; Paterakis, Nikolaos G.; João P. S. Catalão

    2016-01-01

    The renewable energy-based distributed generation (DG) implementation in power systems has been an active research area during the last few decades due to several environmental, economic and political factors. Although the integration of DG offers many advantages, several concerns, including protection schemes in systems with the possibility of bi-directional power flow, are raised. Thus, new protection schemes are strongly required in power systems with a significant presence of DG. In this ...

  16. A Distributed Network Mobility Management Scheme for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Keita; Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Yamai, Nariyoshi

    Route optimization for network mobility is a key technique for providing a node in a mobile network (Mobile Network Node or MNN) with high quality broadband communications. Many schemes adding route optimization function to Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support protocol, the standardized network mobility management protocol from the IETF nemo working group, have already been proposed in recent years. One such scheme, a scheme using Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) aims to overcome micromobility management issues as well by applying a mechanism based on HMIPv6. The traditional scheme, however, suffers from a significant number of signaling messages as the number of MNNs and/or the number of their Correspondent Nodes (CNs) increase, because many messages notifying the MNNs' Home Agents (HAMNNs) and the CNs of the mobile network's movement are generated simultaneously each time the mobile network moves to the domain of another micromobility management router (Mobility Anchor Point or MAP). This paper proposes a scheme to overcome this problem. Our scheme reduces the number of signaling messages generated at the same time by managing the mobility of MNNs using multiple MAPs distributed within a network for load sharing. The results of simulation experiments show that our scheme works efficiently compared to the traditional scheme when a mobile network has many MNNs and/or these MNNs communicate with many CNs.

  17. Influence of Hardening Model on Weld Residual Stress Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, Jonathan; Gunnars, Jens (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    This study is the third stage of a project sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) to improve the weld residual stress modelling procedures currently used in Sweden. The aim of this study was to determine which material hardening model gave the best agreement with experimentally measured weld residual stress distributions. Two girth weld geometries were considered: 19mm and 65mm thick girth welds with Rin/t ratios of 10.5 and 2.8, respectively. The FE solver ABAQUS Standard v6.5 was used for analysis. As a preliminary step some improvements were made to the welding simulation procedure used in part one of the project. First, monotonic stress strain curves and a mixed isotropic/kinematic hardening model were sourced from the literature for 316 stainless steel. Second, more detailed information was obtained regarding the geometry and welding sequence for the Case 1 weld (compared with phase 1 of this project). Following the preliminary step, welding simulations were conducted using isotropic, kinematic and mixed hardening models. The isotropic hardening model gave the best overall agreement with experimental measurements; it is therefore recommended for future use in welding simulations. The mixed hardening model gave good agreement for predictions of the hoop stress but tended to under estimate the magnitude of the axial stress. It must be noted that two different sources of data were used for the isotropic and mixed models in this study and this may have contributed to the discrepancy in predictions. When defining a mixed hardening model it is difficult to delineate the relative contributions of isotropic and kinematic hardening and for the model used it may be that a greater isotropic hardening component should have been specified. The kinematic hardening model consistently underestimated the magnitude of both the axial and hoop stress and is not recommended for use. Two sensitivity studies were also conducted. In the first the effect of using a

  18. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect distributed generation. Firstly, the incentives of distributed generators and distribution system operators are examined. Frequently there exists a trade......-off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...... generation facilities are covered. The question in which policy segment to incorporate locational signals is at the heart of the debate...

  19. Novel UEP LT Coding Scheme with Feedback Based on Different Degree Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ya-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional unequal error protection (UEP schemes have some limitations and problems, such as the poor UEP performance of high priority data and the seriously sacrifice of low priority data in decoding property. Based on the reasonable applications of different degree distributions in LT codes, this paper puts forward a novel UEP LT coding scheme with a simple feedback to compile these data packets separately. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively protect high priority data, and improve the transmission efficiency of low priority data from 2.9% to 22.3%. Furthermore, it is fairly suitable to apply this novel scheme to multicast and broadcast environments since only a simple feedback introduced.

  20. DISTRIBUTED CERTIFICATE AUTHORITY IN CLUSTER-BASED MANET USING MULTI SECRET SHARING SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Azza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure communications in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET is an important and difficult problem, due to a lack of a key management infrastructure. The authentication is an important security service in (MANETs. To provide a node authentication service we use a fully distributed certificate authorities (FDCA based on the threshold cryptography. In this paper we propose an efficient and verifiable multi secret sharing scheme in cluster-based MANET with a low computation system. Our scheme is based on the overdetermined linear system equation in Galois fields GF(2r. We have analyzed our scheme based on security and performance criteria, and compared with existing approaches. The efficiency of our proposed schemes was verified and evaluated by simulation. Simulation results show that this approach is scalable.

  1. Distribution of gunshot residues--the influence of weapon type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, Hans

    2012-07-10

    Gunshot residue (GSR) analysis is a frequently used forensic method for investigating shooting events. In this process, GSR-particles are detected on pertinent objects, often the hands of a suspect, with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in a scanning electron microscope. The question asked in court is usually the following: "… has or has not a given shot been fired by the suspect (at a certain place and time)?" Unfortunately, this question frequently cannot be answered by the analyst. Only the presence or absence of "characteristic" GSR-particles on the investigated sample can be stated with confidence. All other assumptions are inherently biased by many factors that are usually only known by the culprit or are generally unknown. In order to draw more profound conclusions from GSR analytical results, the dynamics of GSR particles have to be considered, i.e., how these particles reach a suspect. Consequently, the formation of the plume after firing was investigated for eleven different firearms with high speed-video analysis. The results show that a vast scope exists between revolvers - distributing many particles near the shooter - and e.g. shotguns that are quite sealed. These differences between the various weapon types should be considered for interpretation of the results of GSR-analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive protection coordination scheme for distribution network with distributed generation using ABC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ibrahim, A.M; El-Khattam, W; ElMesallamy, M; Talaat, H.A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive protection coordination scheme for optimal coordination of DOCRs in interconnected power networks with the impact of DG, the used coordination technique is the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC...

  3. EPPRD: An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Power Requirement and Distribution Aggregation Scheme for a Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    A Smart Grid (SG) facilitates bidirectional demand-response communication between individual users and power providers with high computation and communication performance but also brings about the risk of leaking users’ private information. Therefore, improving the individual power requirement and distribution efficiency to ensure communication reliability while preserving user privacy is a new challenge for SG. Based on this issue, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving power requirement and distribution aggregation scheme (EPPRD) based on a hierarchical communication architecture. In the proposed scheme, an efficient encryption and authentication mechanism is proposed for better fit to each individual demand-response situation. Through extensive analysis and experiment, we demonstrate how the EPPRD resists various security threats and preserves user privacy while satisfying the individual requirement in a semi-honest model; it involves less communication overhead and computation time than the existing competing schemes. PMID:28783122

  4. Secure Message Distribution Scheme with Configurable Privacy in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yahui; Ma, Jianfeng; Moon, Sangjae

    Security and privacy of wireless sensor networks are key research issues recently. Most existing researches regarding wireless sensor networks security consider homogenous sensor networks. To achieve better security and performance, we adopt a heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) model that consists of physically different types of sensor nodes. This paper presents a secure message distribution scheme with configurable privacy for HWSNs, which takes advantage of powerful high-end sensor nodes. The scheme establishes a message distribution topology in an efficient and secure manner. The sensor node only need generate one signature for all the messages for all the users, which can greatly save the communication and computation cost of the sensor node. On the other hand, the user can only know the messages that let him know based on a pre-set policy, which can meet the requirement of the privacy. We show that the scheme has small bandwidth requirements and it is resilient against the node compromise attack.

  5. EPPRD: An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Power Requirement and Distribution Aggregation Scheme for a Smart Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jing

    2017-08-07

    A Smart Grid (SG) facilitates bidirectional demand-response communication between individual users and power providers with high computation and communication performance but also brings about the risk of leaking users' private information. Therefore, improving the individual power requirement and distribution efficiency to ensure communication reliability while preserving user privacy is a new challenge for SG. Based on this issue, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving power requirement and distribution aggregation scheme (EPPRD) based on a hierarchical communication architecture. In the proposed scheme, an efficient encryption and authentication mechanism is proposed for better fit to each individual demand-response situation. Through extensive analysis and experiment, we demonstrate how the EPPRD resists various security threats and preserves user privacy while satisfying the individual requirement in a semi-honest model; it involves less communication overhead and computation time than the existing competing schemes.

  6. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  7. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... show that organochlorinated pesticides residues ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/kg in these samples. Endosulfan I and ... in Jilin Province. Key words: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry, ginseng, organochlorinated pesticide residues, ..... method for the trace analysis of PCNB in ginseng. According to ...

  8. Entanglement distribution schemes employing coherent photon-to-spin conversion in semiconductor quantum dot circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, Louis; Bogan, Alex; Korkusinski, Marek; Studenikin, Sergei; Austing, D. Guy; Sachrajda, Andrew S.

    2017-09-01

    Long distance entanglement distribution is an important problem for quantum information technologies to solve. Current optical schemes are known to have fundamental limitations. A coherent photon-to-spin interface built with quantum dots (QDs) in a direct bandgap semiconductor can provide a solution for efficient entanglement distribution. QD circuits offer integrated spin processing for full Bell state measurement (BSM) analysis and spin quantum memory. Crucially the photo-generated spins can be heralded by non-destructive charge detection techniques. We review current schemes to transfer a polarization-encoded state or a time-bin-encoded state of a photon to the state of a spin in a QD. The spin may be that of an electron or that of a hole. We describe adaptations of the original schemes to employ heavy holes which have a number of attractive properties including a g-factor that is tunable to zero for QDs in an appropriately oriented external magnetic field. We also introduce simple throughput scaling models to demonstrate the potential performance advantage of full BSM capability in a QD scheme, even when the quantum memory is imperfect, over optical schemes relying on linear optical elements and ensemble quantum memories.

  9. A Multiagent System-Based Protection and Control Scheme for Distribution System With Distributed-Generation Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Su, Chi; Hoidalen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multi agent system (MAS) based protection and control scheme is proposed to deal with diverse operation conditions in distribution system due to distributed generation (DG) integration. Based on cooperation between DG controller and relays, an adaptive protection and control...... of system topology and DG status. The proposed scheme is tested and validated on a test distribution system in a hardware-in-the-loop real time testing platform....... algorithm is designed on converter based wind turbine DG to limit the influence of infeed fault current. With the consideration of DG control modes, an adaptive relay setting strategy is developed to help protective relays adapt suitable settings to different operation conditions caused by the variations...

  10. A New Quantum Key Distribution Scheme based on Frequency and Time Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chang-hua; Pei, Chang-xing; Quan, Dong-xiao; Chen, Nan; Yi, Yun-hui

    2010-01-01

    A new scheme of quantum key distribution (QKD) using frequency and time coding is proposed, in which the security is based on the frequency-time uncertainty relation. In this scheme, the binary information sequence is encoded randomly on either the central frequency or the time delay at the sender. The central frequency of the single photon pulse is set as omega1 for bit "0" and set as omega2 for bit "1" when frequency coding is selected. While, the single photon pulse is not delayed for bit ...

  11. Distributed Multi-Agent-Based Protection Scheme for Transient Stability Enhancement in Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. S.; Mahmud, M. A.; Pota, H. R.; Hossain, M. J.; Orchi, T. F.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new distributed agent-based scheme to enhance the transient stability of power systems by maintaining phase angle cohesiveness of interconnected generators through proper relay coordination with critical clearing time (CCT) information. In this distributed multi-agent infrastructure, intelligent agents represent various physical device models to provide dynamic information and energy flow among different physical processes of power systems. The agents can communicate with each other in a distributed manner with a final aim to control circuit breakers (CBs) with CCT information as this is the key issue for maintaining and enhancing the transient stability of power systems. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on a standard IEEE 39-bus New England benchmark system under different large disturbances such as three-phase short-circuit faults and changes in loads within the systems. From the simulation results, it is found that the proposed scheme significantly enhances the transient stability of power systems as compared to a conventional scheme of static CB operation.

  12. Coordinated Control Scheme of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Distributed Generations (DGs) for Electric Distribution Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a coordinated control scheme of battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generations (DGs) for electric distribution grid operation. The BESS is designed to stabilize frequency and voltages as a primary control after the electric distribution system enters...... into the islanding operation mode, while the centralized joint load frequency control (CJLFC) utilizing DGs handles the secondary frequency regulation. The BESS with the associated controllers has been modelled in Real-time digital simulator (RTDS) in order to identify the improvement of the frequency and voltage...

  13. Persistent RCSMA: A MAC Protocol for a Distributed Cooperative ARQ Scheme in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alonso-Zárate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent relay carrier sensing multiple access (PRCSMA protocol is presented in this paper as a novel medium access control (MAC protocol that allows for the execution of a distributed cooperative automatic retransmission request (ARQ scheme in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. The underlying idea of the PRCSMA protocol is to modify the basic rules of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol to execute a distributed cooperative ARQ scheme in wireless networks in order to enhance their performance and to extend coverage. A closed formulation of the distributed cooperative ARQ average packet transmission delay in a saturated network is derived in the paper. The analytical equations are then used to evaluate the performance of the protocol under different network configurations. Both the accuracy of the analysis and the performance evaluation of the protocol are supported and validated through computer simulations.

  14. Comparison of velocity distribution function errors introduced by particle reweighting schemes in PIC-DSMC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Boerner, Jeremy; Moore, Stan; Cartwright, Keith; Pointon, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    Many PIC simulations span many orders of magnitude in the plasma density and therefore a constant particle weight results in too few particles in regions (or time periods) of low density or too many particles when the density is high. The standard solution is to employ a reweighting scheme in which low-weight particles are merged in order to keep the number of particles per cell roughly constant while conserving mass and momentum. Unfortunately merger schemes distort a general velocity distribution function (VDF) of particles (one can conserve arbitrarily higher moments such as energy flux by merging N to M particles for N > M > 1) and often merge routines act like artificial collisions that thermalize the distribution and lead to simulation error. We will compare the accuracy of the unique reweighting scheme used in our PIC-DSMC code and common reweighting schemes (e.g. redrawing from a constructed VDF or rouletting) through two benchmarks. The first compares the time varying VDF from various merge routines to an analytic solution for relaxation of a bimodal VDF to a Maxwellian through elastic collisions. The second benchmark compares error introduced in the VDF due to merging electrons during a breakdown simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Welding residual stress distributions for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Ju Hee; Bae, Hong Yeol; OH, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyungsoo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae Kwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    In pressurized water nuclear reactors, dissimilar metal welds are susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking. To access this problem, accurate estimation of welding residual stresses is important. This paper provides general welding residual stress profiles in dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds using finite element analysis. By introducing a simplified shape for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds, changes in the welding residual stress distribution can be seen using a geometry variable. Based on the results, a welding residual stress profile for dissimilar metal nozzle butt welds is proposed that modifies the existing welding residual stress profile for austenitic pipe butt welds.

  16. Adaptive Protection Scheme for a Distribution System Considering Grid-Connected and Islanded Modes of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Ates

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy-based distributed generation (DG implementation in power systems has been an active research area during the last few decades due to several environmental, economic and political factors. Although the integration of DG offers many advantages, several concerns, including protection schemes in systems with the possibility of bi-directional power flow, are raised. Thus, new protection schemes are strongly required in power systems with a significant presence of DG. In this study, an adaptive protection strategy for a distribution system with DG integration is proposed. The proposed strategy considers both grid-connected and islanded operating modes, while the adaptive operation of the protection is dynamically realized considering the availability of DG power production (related to faults or meteorological conditions in each time step. Besides, the modular structure and fast response of the proposed strategy is validated via simulations conducted on the IEEE 13-node test system.

  17. Distribution of 19 organochlorinated pesticides residues in ginseng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organochlorinated pesticides widely applied and still remains in soils, has become toxic to ginseng production in Jilin Province. In this study, 19 trace organochlorinated pesticide residues in five types of ginseng products and soil samples from four ginseng production areas were analyzed using a gas ...

  18. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors. which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these. the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  19. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors, which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these, the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  20. A Distributed Taxation Based Rank Adaptation Scheme for 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catania, Davide; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Mahmood, Nurul Huda

    2015-01-01

    approach is to discourage the choice of transmitting with multiple spatial streams in highly interfered scenarios, and to exploit and encourage the usage of multiple spatial transmission streams in low interference scenarios. We show that our proposed algorithm can be adjusted to preserve and guarantee...... a good outage performance, while providing the benefit of higher average throughputs, in both low and highly interfered scenarios, when compared to fixed rank configurations, and distributed selfish schemes....

  1. Head/tail Breaks: A New Classification Scheme for Data with a Heavy-tailed Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new classification scheme - head/tail breaks - in order to find groupings or hierarchy for data with a heavy-tailed distribution. The heavy-tailed distributions are heavily right skewed, with a minority of large values in the head and a majority of small values in the tail, commonly characterized by a power law, a lognormal or an exponential function. For example, a country's population is often distributed in such a heavy-tailed manner, with a minority of people (e.g., 20 percent) in the countryside and the vast majority (e.g., 80 percent) in urban areas. This heavy-tailed distribution is also called scaling, hierarchy or scaling hierarchy. This new classification scheme partitions all of the data values around the mean into two parts and continues the process iteratively for the values (above the mean) in the head until the head part values are no longer heavy-tailed distributed. Thus, the number of classes and the class intervals are both naturally determined. We therefore claim tha...

  2. Distribution System Residuals – Is “Detectable” Still Acceptable for Chloramines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, Roberson (2014) noted that one of the distribution system issues currently on the regulatory radar is, “Should disinfectant residual requirements be a specific number as opposed to the current detectable residual?” As our title suggests, we seek to assess what it means...

  3. Transmission Schemes based on Sum Rate Analysis in Distributed Antenna Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Heejin; Lee, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Inkyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study single cell multi-user downlink distributed antenna systems (DAS) where antenna ports are geographically separated in a cell. First, we derive an expression of the ergodic sum rate for the DAS in the presence of pathloss. Then, we propose a transmission selection scheme based on the derived expressions which does not require channel state information at the transmitter. Utilizing the knowledge of distance information from a user to each distributed antenna (DA) port, we consider the optimization of pairings of DA ports and users to maximize the system performance. Based on the ergodic sum rate expressions, the proposed scheme chooses the best mode maximizing the ergodic sum rate among mode candidates. In our proposed scheme, the number of mode candidates are greatly reduced compared to that of ideal mode selection. In addition, we analyze the signal to noise ratio cross-over point for different modes using the sum rate expressions. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we show the accuracy ...

  4. Transmission Selection Schemes using Sum Rate Analysis in Distributed Antenna Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Heejin; Lee, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Inkyu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study single cell multi-user downlink distributed antenna systems (DAS) where the antenna ports are geographically separated in a cell. First, we derive an expression of the ergodic sum rate for DAS in the presence of pathloss. Then, we propose a transmission selection scheme based on the derived expressions to maximize the overall ergodic sum rate. Utilizing the knowledge of distance information from a user to each distributed antenna (DA) port, we consider the pairings of each DA port and its supporting user to optimize the system performance. Then, we compute the ergodic sum rate for various transmission mode candidates and adopt a transmission selection scheme which chooses the best mode maximizing the ergodic sum rate among the mode candidates. In our proposed scheme, the number of mode candidates are greatly reduced compared to that of the ideal mode selection. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we will show the accuracy of our derivation for the ergodic sum rate expression. Moreover, si...

  5. A Fuzzy-Multiagent Service Restoration Scheme for Distribution System With Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmitwally, Akram; Elsaid, Mohammed; Elgamal, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multiagent control system (MACS) for service restoration in distribution systems with integrated distributed generation (DG) units. First, the MACS detects and locates faults, then decides the optimal reconfiguration of the network for restoring de-energized loads...... reduces the possibilities of control system failures for a moderate communication network infrastructure. Full dynamic simulation model for evaluating the MACS is implemented....

  6. The Correlation Between the Percussive Sound and the Residual Stress/Strain Distributions in a Cymbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamura, Kozo; Kuratani, Fumiyasu; Koide, Toshio; Ogawa, Wataru; Taniguchi, Hiroyasu; Monju, Yoshiyuki; Mizuta, Taiji; Shobu, Takahisa

    2016-12-01

    The artistic sound of a cymbal is produced by employing a special copper alloy as well as incorporating complicated and heterogeneous residual stress/strain distributions. In order to establish a modern engineering process that achieves high-quality control for the cymbals, it is necessary to investigate the distribution of the residual stresses/strains in the cymbal and their quantitative relation with the frequency characteristics of the sound generated from the cymbal. In the present study, we have successfully used synchrotron radiation to measure the distribution of residual strain in two kinds of cymbals—after spinforming as well as after hammering. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of the cymbals were measured as well their acoustic response. Based on our experimental data, the inhomogeneous residual stress/strain distributions in the cymbals were deduced in detail and their influence on the frequency characteristics of the sound produced by the cymbals was identified.

  7. Multiplexing scheme for simplified entanglement-based large-alphabet quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Adetunmise C.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a practical quantum cryptographic scheme which combines high information capacity, such as provided by high-dimensional quantum entanglement, with the simplicity of a two-dimensional Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell test for security verification. By applying a state combining entanglement in a two-dimensional degree of freedom, such as photon polarization, with high-dimensional correlations in another degree of freedom, such as photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) or path, the scheme provides a considerably simplified route towards security verification in quantum key distribution (QKD) aimed at exploiting high-dimensional quantum systems for increased secure key rates. It also benefits from security against collective attacks and is feasible using currently available technologies.

  8. Secure, Redundant, and Fully Distributed Key Management Scheme for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Deepti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Security poses a major challenge in ad hoc networks today due to the lack of fixed or organizational infrastructure. This paper proposes a modification to the existing "fully distributed certificate authority" scheme for ad hoc networks. In the proposed modification, redundancy is introduced by allocating more than one share to each node in order to increase the probability of creating the certificate for a node in a highly mobile network. A probabilistic analysis is carried out to analyze the trade-offs between the ease of certificate creation and the security provided by the proposed scheme. The analysis carried out from the intruder's perspective suggests that in the worst-case scenario, the intruder is just "one node" away from a legitimate node in compromising the certificate. The analysis also outlines the parameter selection criteria for a legitimate node to maintain a margin of advantage over an intruder in creating the certificate.

  9. A Secure Scheme for Distributed Consensus Estimation against Data Falsification in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Shichao; Han, Hui; Chen, Cailian; Yan, Jian; Guan, Xinping

    2016-02-19

    Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs) can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs) have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs) with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS) to mitigate the effect of the malicious node. Finally, the convergence property is proven to be guaranteed, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of PACS.

  10. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  11. Intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm for cooperative distributed intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d'Auriol, Brian J; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  12. Effects of Distributed Generation on Overcurrent Relay Coordination and an Adaptive Protection Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilik, Semih C.; Arsoy, Aysen B.

    2017-07-01

    Integration of distributed generation (DG) such as renewable energy sources to electrical network becomes more prevalent in recent years. Grid connection of DG has effects on load flow directions, voltage profile, short circuit power and especially protection selectivity. Applying traditional overcurrent protection scheme is inconvenient when system reliability and sustainability are considered. If a fault happens in DG connected network, short circuit contribution of DG, creates additional branch element feeding the fault current; compels to consider directional overcurrent (OC) protection scheme. Protection coordination might get lost for changing working conditions when DG sources are connected. Directional overcurrent relay parameters are determined for downstream and upstream relays when different combinations of DG connected singular or plural, on radial test system. With the help of proposed flow chart, relay parameters are updated and coordination between relays kept sustained for different working conditions in DigSILENT PowerFactory program.

  13. An improved current control scheme for grid-connected DG unit based distribution system harmonic compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to utilize DG unit interfacing converters to actively compensate distribution system harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach. It seamlessly integrates system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current...... controller has two well decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, phase-locked loops (PLL) and system harmonic component extractions can be avoided during system harmonic compensation. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is also employed to derive...... the fundamental current reference. The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts of steady-state fundamental current tracking errors in the DG units. Thus, an accurate power control is realized even when the harmonic compensation functions are activated. Experimental results from a single...

  14. A Secure Scheme for Distributed Consensus Estimation against Data Falsification in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Mi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (HWSNs can achieve more tasks and prolong the network lifetime. However, they are vulnerable to attacks from the environment or malicious nodes. This paper is concerned with the issues of a consensus secure scheme in HWSNs consisting of two types of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes (SNs have more computation power, while relay nodes (RNs with low power can only transmit information for sensor nodes. To address the security issues of distributed estimation in HWSNs, we apply the heterogeneity of responsibilities between the two types of sensors and then propose a parameter adjusted-based consensus scheme (PACS to mitigate the effect of the malicious node. Finally, the convergence property is proven to be guaranteed, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of PACS.

  15. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-04-28

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme.

  16. An Efficient Scheme for Aggregation and Presentation of Network Performance in Distributed Brokering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Gunduz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is presently being used to support increasingly complex interaction models as a result of more and more applications, services and frameworks becoming network centric. Efficient utilization of network and networkedresources is of paramount importance. Network performance gathering is a precursor to any scheme that seeks to provide adaptive routing capabilities for interactions. In this paper we present a network performance aggregation framework that is extensible and appropriate for distributed messaging systems that span multiple realms, disparate communication protocols and support different applications.

  17. Distributed event-triggered scheme for discrete-time second-order multi-agent systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Quansheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the consistency of multi-agent systems, each agent needs to communicate with its adjacent agents, which will consume energy of sensors embedded on the agents and occupy network bandwidth of multi-agent systems. Both resources are limited. To solve the above problem, a novel distributed event-triggered scheme of discrete-time second-order multi-agent systems are proposed in this article. The characteristics of the scheme have two aspects. Firstly, the event-triggered conditions are considered for the state and the velocity separately. Secondly, when the event is triggered on an agent, the agent only communicates with its local neighbors. Then, the agent and its local neighbors update their controls while the other agents' controllers remain unchanged. So the scheme can maximize reduction of the sensor energy consuming and communication burden in the multi-agent network. Based on the Lyapunov functional method, a sufficient condition is obtained to achieve the stability of the second-order multi-agent systems in terms of linear matrix inequality. Finally, numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed event-triggered consensus control.

  18. Reliability-aware iterative detection scheme (RAID) for distributed IDM space-time codes in relay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkeit, Florian; Wübben, Dirk; Dekorsy, Armin

    2013-12-01

    In this article, distributed interleave-division multiplexing space-time codes (dIDM-STCs) are applied for multi-user two-hop decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks. In case of decoding errors at the relays which propagate to the destination, severe performance degradations can occur as the original detection scheme for common IDM-STCs does not take any reliability information about the first hop into account. Here, a novel reliability-aware iterative detection scheme (RAID) for dIDM-STCs is proposed. This new detection scheme takes the decoding reliability of the relays for each user into account for the detection at the destination. Performance evaluations show that the proposed RAID scheme clearly outperforms the original detection scheme and that in certain scenarios even a better performance than for adaptive relaying schemes can be achieved.

  19. Neutron diffraction analysis of residual strain/stress distribution in the vicinity of high strength welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamák I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses resulting from non homogeneous heat distribution during welding process belong to most significant factor influencing behavior of welded structures. These stresses are responsible for defect occurrence during welding and they are also responsible for crack initiation and propagation at the either static or dynamic load. The significant effect of weld metal chemical composition as well as the effect of fatigue load and local plastic deformation on residual stress distribution and fatigue life have been recognized for high strength steels welds. The changes in residual stress distribution have then positive effect on cold cracking behavior and also on fatigue properties of the welds [1-3]. Several experimental methods, both destructive and non-destructive, such as hole drilling method, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and others, have been used to examine residual stress distribution in all three significant orientations in the vicinity of the welds. The present contribution summarizes the results of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in the vicinity of single-pass high-strength-steel welds having different chemical composition as well as the influence of fatigue load and local plastic deformation. It has been observed that the chemical composition of the weld metal has a significant influence on the stress distribution around the weld. Similarly, by aplying both cyclic load or pre-stress load on the specimens, stress relaxation was observed even in the region of approximately 40 mm far from the weld toe.

  20. MHBase: A Distributed Real-Time Query Scheme for Meteorological Data Based on HBase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinghuai Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological technology has evolved rapidly in recent years to provide enormous, accurate and personalized advantages in the public service. Large volumes of observational data are generated gradually by technologies such as geographical remote sensing, meteorological radar satellite, etc. that makes data analysis in weather forecasting more precise but also poses a threat to the traditional method of data storage. In this paper, we present MHBase, (Meteorological data based on HBase (Hadoop Database, a distributed real-time query scheme for meteorological data based on HBase. The calibrated data obtained from terminal devices will be partitioned into HBase and persisted to HDFS (the Hadoop Distributed File System. We propose two algorithms (the Indexed Store and the Indexed Retrieve Algorithms to implement a secondary index using HBase Coprocessors, which allow MHbase to provide high performance data querying on columns other than rowkey. Experimental results show that the performance of MHBase can satisfy the basic demands of meteorological business services.

  1. Subcarrier multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output quantum key distribution scheme with orthogonal quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hailin; Zhang, Zhongshan

    2017-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) system is presently being developed for providing high-security transmission in future free-space optical communication links. However, current QKD technique restricts quantum secure communication to a low bit rate. To improve the QKD bit rate, we propose a subcarrier multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output quantum key distribution (SCM-MQKD) scheme with orthogonal quantum states. Specifically, we firstly present SCM-MQKD system model and drive symmetrical SCM-MQKD system into decoherence-free subspaces. We then utilize bipartite Werner and isotropic states to construct multiple parallel single photon with orthogonal quantum states that are invariant for unitary operations. Finally, we derive the density matrix and the capacity of SCM-MQKD system, respectively. Theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the capacity of SCM-MQKD system will increase {log _2}(N^2+1) times than that of single-photon QKD system.

  2. A Virtual Synchronous Generator Based Hierarchical Control Scheme of Distributed Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy-based generation systems, such as photovoltaic and wind turbine generation systems, normally adopt inverters to connect to the grid. These power electronic interfaces possess the characteristics of small inertia and small output impedance, which create difficulties to stabilize the voltage and frequency of a distributed power source. To deal with this problem, a Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG-based inverter control method is presented in this paper by introducing virtual inertia and damping coefficient into the control loop to emulate the dynamic behavior of a traditional synchronous generator. Based on this VSG control method, a three-layer hierarchical control scheme is further proposed to increase the control accuracy of the voltage and frequency in a VSG-based distributed generation system with parallel inverters. The principle of the VSG control method, the system stability analysis, the design process of the hierarchical control structure, and the frequency/voltage secondary regulation processes are all specified in this paper. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out and the effectiveness of proposed control scheme is verified by the simulation results analysis.

  3. LPPS: A Distributed Cache Pushing Based K-Anonymity Location Privacy Preserving Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rapid growth of location-based services (LBSs for mobile social network applications. To enable location-based services, mobile users are required to report their location information to the LBS servers and receive answers of location-based queries. Location privacy leak happens when such servers are compromised, which has been a primary concern for information security. To address this issue, we propose the Location Privacy Preservation Scheme (LPPS based on distributed cache pushing. Unlike existing solutions, LPPS deploys distributed cache proxies to cover users mostly visited locations and proactively push cache content to mobile users, which can reduce the risk of leaking users’ location information. The proposed LPPS includes three major process. First, we propose an algorithm to find the optimal deployment of proxies to cover popular locations. Second, we present cache strategies for location-based queries based on the Markov chain model and propose update and replacement strategies for cache content maintenance. Third, we introduce a privacy protection scheme which is proved to achieve k-anonymity guarantee for location-based services. Extensive experiments illustrate that the proposed LPPS achieves decent service coverage ratio and cache hit ratio with lower communication overhead compared to existing solutions.

  4. New classification scheme for ozone monitoring stations based on frequency distribution of hourly data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, O; Escudero, M; Lozano, Á; Anzano, J; Mantilla, E

    2016-02-15

    According to European Union (EU) legislation, ozone (O3) monitoring sites can be classified regarding their location (rural background, rural, suburban, urban) or based on the presence of emission sources (background, traffic, industrial). There have been attempts to improve these classifications aiming to reduce their ambiguity and subjectivity, but although scientifically sound, they lack the simplicity needed for operational purposes. We present a simple methodology for classifying O3 stations based on the characteristics of frequency distribution curves which are indicative of the actual impact of combustion sources emitting NO that consumes O3 via titration. Four classes are identified using 1998-2012 hourly data from 72 stations widely distributed in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. Types 1 and 2 present unimodal bell-shaped distribution with very low amount of data near zero reflecting a limited influence of combustion sources while Type 4 has a primary mode close to zero, showing the impact of combustion sources, and a minor mode for higher concentrations. Type 3 stations present bimodal distributions with the main mode in the higher levels. We propose a quantitative metric based on the Gini index with the objective of reproducing this classification and finding empirical ranges potentially useful for future classifications. The analysis of the correspondence with the EUROAIRNET classes for the 72 stations reveals that the proposed scheme is only dependent on the impact of combustion sources and not on climatic or orographic aspects. It is demonstrated that this classification is robust since in 87% of the occasions the classification obtained for individual years coincide with the global classification obtained for the 1998-2012 period. Finally, case studies showing the applicability of the new classification scheme for assessing the impact on O3 of a station relocation and performing a critical evaluation of an air quality monitoring network are

  5. Exchangeable basic cations and nitrogen distribution in soil as affected by crop residues and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of N fertilization and residues of pearl millet, black oats and oilseed radish on pH and Ca, Mg, K, NO3-, and NH4+ distribution within the profile of a Distroferric Red Latosol. The equivalent of 8 t ha-1 of plant residues were placed on soil surface. Lime was applied on the soil surface and nitrogen was applied over the straw at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mg kg-1, as ammonium nitrate. Corn was grown for 57 days. Calcium contents and pH in the soil profile were decreased by Pearl millet residue, while black oat and oilseed radish increased Ca contents and these effects are not related with Ca contents in residue tissue. However, the presence of plant residues increased nitrate, ammonium, and potassium contents in the deeper layers of the pots.

  6. Distribution of multiple pesticide residues in apple segments after home processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H. C. B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of washing, storing, boiling, peeling, coring and juicing on pesticide residue were investigated for field-sprayed Discovery and Jonagold apples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, iprodione......, kresoxim-methyl, lambda-cyhalothrin, quinalphos, tolylfluanid and vinclozolin in the processed apples were analysed by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis showed that reductions of 18-38% were required to obtain significant effects of processing practices, depending on pesticide and apple variety....... Juicing and peeling the apples significantly reduced all pesticide residues. In the case of detectable pesticide residues, 1-24% were distributed in the juice and in the peeled apple. None of the pesticide residues was significantly reduced when the apples were subject to simple washing or coring. Storing...

  7. Tebuconazole and Azoxystrobin Residue Behaviors and Distribution in Field and Cooked Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fan; Teng, Peipei; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Wenzhuo

    2017-06-07

    Residue behaviors of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin in field condition and the variation of their residue levels during the boiling process were evaluated. The terminal residues of peanut kernels were determined by using a modified QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) by means of the optimization of the novel purification procedure with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4-magnetic nanoparticle (Fe3O4-MNP) in the presence of an external magnetic field, and the terminal residues were all at trace level at harvest time. The residues in shells were detected as well to investigate the distribution in peanuts. Tebuconazole and azoxystrobin residue levels varied before/after boiling in kernels and shells to different degrees due to various factors, such as the modes of action and physicochemical properties of pesticides. The residues have been transferred from peanut into the infusion during boiling with the higher percentage of azoxystrobin as its lower logKow. The processing factors (PFs) for tebuconazole and azoxystrobin after processing were <1, indicating that home cooking in this study could reduce the residue levels in peanut. Risk assessment showed there was no health risk for consumers.

  8. Determination of distributed generation poles from agricultural residual biomass in Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés de Jesús Vargas Soplín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: The region Madre de Dios is located in Peru and is conditioned by the dispersed way in which the people establish settlements. This configuration limits the access these rural settlements have to energy (currently, the rural electrification only reaches 31%. Thus, this investigation focuses on determining distributed energy poles through the use of residual biomass in Madre de Dios region. Method: Through a methodological scheme of four phases, the electric coverage in Madre de Dios was analyzed and the rural settlements with better energization chances were prioritized. Next, the amount of agricultural biomass waste of major crops in Madre de Dios was determined and geographically located; then, the technological options of energetic harnessing were analyzed. Finally, the amount of agricultural biomass waste that can be used for energy was estimated. Results: Five rural settlements were prioritized in Madre de Dios for the possible process of providing energy. The agricultural biomass waste was estimated in 6,645.08 ton/year for rice; 5,191.20 ton/year for yellow corn; and 7,862.37 ton/year for banana. These are the three major crops in the region. For rice husk located in productive areas, the energy was estimated to vary between 838.86 KWh/year and 1,319.23 KWh/year through the use of mobile bed gasifiers; and it varies from 317.99 KWh/year to 897.56 KWh/year for fluidized bed gasifiers, which meets the energetic demand of the prioritized rural settlements (211.9 MWh/year.  Conclusions: The region of Madre de Dios has potential for generating distributed energy, which could meets the demand of five prioritized rural settlements up to 100%. Likewise, using fluidized bed gasifiers, the energy generated in Madre de Dios could meet the demand of 1495 inhabitants, approximately; and by using of mobile bed gasifiers, the coverage could amount to 3945 inhabitants.

  9. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  10. Levels and distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Pesticides (ANCAP). ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to investigate the types, levels and distribution of pesticide residues in. Eastern Lake Tanganyika basin in Tanzania. Water, soil and sediments samples were collected from various sites in Kigoma region. Analyses of cleaned sample extracts were ...

  11. Levels and distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the types, levels and distribution of pesticide residues in Eastern Lake Tanganyika basin in Tanzania. Water, soil and sediments samples were collected from various sites in Kigoma region. Analyses of cleaned sample extracts were performed using gas chromatographyelectron ...

  12. Design of a Control Scheme for Distribution Static Synchronous Compensators with Power-Quality Improvement Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Roncero-Sànchez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric power systems are among the greatest achievements of the last century. Today, important issues, such as an ever-increasing demand, the flexible and reliable integration of distributed generation or a growth in disturbing loads, must be borne in mind. In this context, smart grids play a key role, allowing better efficiency of power systems. Power electronics provides solutions to the aforementioned matters, since it allows various energy sources to be integrated into smart grids. Nevertheless, the design of the various control schemes that are necessary for the correct operation of the power-electronic interface is a very important issue that must always be taken into consideration. This paper deals with the design of the control system of a distribution static synchronous compensator (DSTATCOM based on flying-capacitor multilevel converters. The control system is tailored to compensate for both voltage sags by means of reactive-power injection and voltage imbalances caused by unbalanced loads. The design of the overall control is carried out by using the root-locus and frequency-response techniques, improving both the transient response and the steady-state error of the closed-loop system. Simulation results obtained using PSCADTM/EMTDCTM (Manitoba Hydro International Ltd., Commerce Drive, Winnipeg, MB, Canada show the resultant voltage regulation.

  13. Evaluation of residual stress distribution in shot-peened steel by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Akiniwa, Y; Suzuki, K; Yanase, E; Nishio, K; Kusumi, Y; Okada, H; Arai, K

    2003-01-01

    The in-depth distribution of residual stresses in shot-peened steels was measured by using high energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source. The relation between the 2 theta and sin sup 2 psi was obtained with the side-inclination method (psi diffractometer). The distribution of residual stresses was first evaluated by the nonlinearity of the sin sup 2 psi diagram by a simplex method. The estimated stress agreed with the distribution determined through the sin sup 2 psi method by using Cr-K alpha radiation combined with the conventional surface removal method. A new method was proposed to estimate the stress value of the distributed residual stress. The new method was a combination of the side-inclination method and the iso-inclination method (omega diffractometer) to maintain the penetration depth constant. The sin sup 2 psi diagram could be approximated by the linear relationship. The evaluated stress distribution agreed well with the distribution obtained by the surface removal method. (author)

  14. Risk-based framework for optimizing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Muhammad Nadeem; Farahat, Ashraf; Haider, Husnain; Al-Zahrani, Muhammad A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-07-01

    Managing residual chlorine in large water distribution systems (WDS) to minimize human health risk is a daunting task. In this research, a novel risk-based framework is developed and implemented in a distribution network spanning over 64 km2 for supplying water to the city of Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia) through 473-km-long water mains. The framework integrates the planning of linear assets (i.e., pipes) and placement of booster stations to optimize residual chlorine in the WDS. Failure mode and effect analysis are integrated with the fuzzy set theory to perform risk analysis. A vulnerability regarding the probability of failure of pipes is estimated from historical records of water main breaks. The consequence regarding residual chlorine availability has been associated with the exposed population depending on the land use characteristics (i.e., defined through zoning). EPANET simulations have been conducted to predict residual chlorine at each node of the network. A water quality index is used to assess the effectiveness of chlorine practice. Scenario analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of changing locations and number of booster stations, and rehabilitation and/or replacement of vulnerable water mains. The results revealed that the proposed methodology could facilitate the utility managers to optimize residual chlorine effectively in large WDS.

  15. Simulation of the oxygen distribution in a tumor tissue using residual algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William La Cruz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use of recent residual algorithms for the simulation of the oxygen distribution in a tumor tissue in 2-D is proposed. The oxygen distribution in a tumor is considered a reaction-diffusion problem in steady state, whose mathematical model is a nonlinear partial differential equation, which is numerically solved using the traditional methods for systems of nonlinear equations (Newton's method, Broyden method, inexact Newton methods, etc.. Unlike of these traditional methods that require the use of derivatives and a large memory storage capacity, the proposed residual algorithms are derivative-free methods with low memory storage. The preliminary numerical results indicate that the proposed methods allows efficiently determine the distribution of oxygen in a tumor tissue to synthetic problems.

  16. New magnetic-field-based weighted-residual quasi-static finite element scheme for modeling bulk magnetostriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kidambi S.; Dasgupta, Abhijit

    1998-04-01

    Deformation control of smart structures and damage detection in smart composites by magneto-mechanical tagging are just a few of the increasing number of applications of polydomain, polycrystalline magnetostrictive materials that are currently being researched. Robust computational models of bulk magnetostriction will be of great assistance to designers of smart structures for optimization of performance and development of control strategies. This paper discusses the limitations of existing tools, and reports on the work of the authors in developing a 3D nonlinear continuum finite element scheme for magnetostrictive structures, based on an appropriate Galerkin variational principle and incremental constitutive relations. The unique problems posed by the form of the equations governing magneto-mechanical interactions as well as their impact on the proper choice of variational and finite element discretization schemes are discussed. An adaptation of vectorial edge functions for interpolation of magnetic field in hexahedral elements is outlined. The differences between the proposed finite element scheme and available formations are also discussed in this paper. Computational results obtained from the newly proposed scheme will be presented in a future paper.

  17. Voltage Control Scheme with Distributed Generation and Grid Connected Converter in a DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chan Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct Current (DC microgrids are expected to become larger due to the rapid growth of DC energy sources and power loads. As the scale of the system expends, the importance of voltage control will be increased to operate power systems stably. Many studies have been performed on voltage control methods in a DC microgrid, but most of them focused only on a small scale microgrid, such as a building microgrid. Therefore, a new control method is needed for a middle or large scale DC microgrid. This paper analyzes voltage drop problems in a large DC microgrid and proposes a cooperative voltage control scheme with a distributed generator (DG and a grid connected converter (GCC. For the voltage control with DGs, their location and capacity should be considered for economic operation in the systems. Accordingly, an optimal DG allocation algorithm is proposed to minimize the capacity of a DG for voltage control in DC microgrids. The proposed methods are verified with typical load types by a simulation using MATLAB and PSCAD/EMTDC.

  18. A Model of Surface Residual Stress Distribution of Cold Rolling Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress is an important parameter in the evaluation of the performance of a cold rolling spline surface. However, research on cold rolling spline is rare. To improve the surface property of a spline, an involute spline is selected as the object of this study. The contour method for determining cold roll-beating residual stress involves measuring the force spatial distribution, performing a statistical analysis of the experimental results, establishing the parameters for the tooth profile for different positions (dedendum, pitch, and addendum of residual stress, and determining the effect of pressure on the relationship between stress and the depth of the cold roll-beating. A response surface method is used to establish the spline tooth profile of the dedendum, pitch, and addendum of the residual stress and different depths of the stress layer to obtain the parameters of a multiple regression model and perform a comparative analysis of the experimental and prediction results. Research indicates that the prediction results have high reliability. The establishment of this model has important guiding significance to control the residual stress in the cold roll-beating forming process, optimize the cold roll-beating processing parameters, and improve the surface properties of cold rolling spline.

  19. [Prevalence and distribution of asbestos lung residue in a Spanish urban population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-García, María Isabel; Recuero, Raquel; Cruz, María Jesús; Panades, Rafael; Martí, Gabriel; Ferrer, Jaume

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyse the prevalence and distribution of asbestos lung residue in the Barcelona urban population. Lung autopsy samples were obtained from 35 individuals who had lived in Barcelona. The close family were interviewed in order to rule out asbestos exposure. Samples were obtained from three areas of the right lung during the autopsy: upper lobe apex, lower lobe apex, and lower lobe base. The samples were treated to remove organic material. The inorganic residue was analysed using a light microscope. The results were expressed as asbestos bodies (AB) per gram of dry tissue. Levels greater than 1000AB/g of dry tissue were considered as potentially causing disease. AB were detected in 29(83%) of the subjects, of which 86% had levels less than 300AB/g. Only one individual (3%) had values greater than 1000AB/g dry tissue. The asbestos residue was higher in the lower lung lobe in 17 individuals (48%) than in the rest, although no significant differences were seen as regards AB residue in the three lung areas studied. The results of this study show that the urban population of Barcelona have asbestos levels in the lung that vary between 0 and 300AB/g dry tissue. No differences in the asbestos residues were detected in the lung areas studied in this population. Copyright (c) 2009 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptive mode decision with residual motion compensation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren; Slowack, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm that entails low complexity encoding by exploiting the source statistics at the decoder. To improve the DVC coding efficiency, this paper proposes a novel adaptive technique for mode decision to control and take advantage of skip mode and intra...... mode in DVC. The adaptive mode decision is not only based on quality of key frames but also the rate of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames. To improve noise distribution estimation for a more accurate mode decision, a residual motion compensation is proposed to estimate a current noise residue based on a previously...... decoded frame. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptive mode decision DVC significantly improves the rate distortion performance without increasing the encoding complexity. For a GOP size of 2 on the set of test sequences, the average bitrate saving of the proposed codec is 35.5% on WZ...

  1. Adaptive mode decision with residual motion compensation for distributed video coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Forchhammer, Søren; Slowack, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Distributed video coding (DVC) is a coding paradigm that entails low complexity encoding by exploiting the source statistics at the decoder. To improve the DVC coding efficiency, this paper proposes a novel adaptive technique for mode decision to control and take advantage of skip mode and intra...... mode in DVC. The adaptive mode decision is not only based on quality of key frames but also the rate of Wyner-Ziv (WZ) frames. To improve noise distribution estimation for a more accurate mode decision, a residual motion compensation is proposed to estimate a current noise residue based on a previously...... decoded frame. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptive mode decision DVC significantly improves the rate distortion performance without increasing the encoding complexity. For a GOP size of 2 on the set of test sequences, the average bitrate saving of the proposed codec is 35.5% on WZ...

  2. Distribution of residual stresses in near-surface layer of carbon steel at monotonic tension loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockus, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of our research was to investigate the character of distribution, magnitude and sign of residual stresses in cross-section of a sample in micro-yield, yield and strain hardening stages of monotonic deformation. The analysis of the obtained experimental data shows the peculiarity of micro-plastic flow near a free surface of a solid body and its rather significant influence on the general character and kinetics of macroscopic deformation of metals.

  3. Interleaving Gains for Receive Diversity Schemes of Distributed Turbo Codes in Wireless Half–Duplex Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer H. M. Soliman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the interleaving gain in two different distributed turbo-coding schemes: Distributed Turbo Codes (DTC and Distributed Multiple Turbo Codes (DMTC for half-duplex relay system as an extension of our previous work on turbo coding interleaver design for direct communication channel. For these schemes with half-duplex constraint, the source node transmits its information with the parity bit sequence(s to both the relay and the destination nodes during the first phase. The relay received the data from the source and process it by using decode and forward protocol. For the second transmission period, the decoded systematic data at relay is interleaved and re-encoded by a Recursive Systematic Convolutional (RSC encoder and forwarded to the destination. At destination node, the signals received from the source and relay are processed by using turbo log-MAP iterative decoding for retrieving the original information bits. We demonstrate via simulations that the interleaving gain has a large effect with DTC scheme when we use only one RSC encoder at both the source and relay with best performance when using Modified Matched S-Random (MMSR interleaver. Furthermore, by designing a Chaotic Pseudo Random Interleaver (CPRI as an outer interleaver at the source node instead of classical interleavers, our scheme can add more secure channel conditions.

  4. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Effects on Residual Oil Distribution Utilizing Three-Dimensional Micro Network Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyao Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments on fluid flow at the micro/nano-scale have demonstrated that flow velocity obviously deviates from the classical Poiseuille’s law due to the micro forces between the wall and the fluid. Based on an oil–water two-phase network simulation model, a three-dimensional pore-scale micro network model with solid–liquid interfacial effects was established. The influences of solid–liquid interface effects including van der Waals force and wettability on the residual oil distribution and relative permeability were investigated through microscopic simulation. The effects of pore radius, pore–throat size ratio, shaping factor, and coordination number on the residual oil distribution were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that the oil recovery would be overestimated by about 4% without van der Waals force in a water-wet reservoir. The impact of van der Waals force on water-wet reservoirs was significantly obvious in contrast with oil-wet reservoirs. In addition, the residual oil distribution was significantly influenced by pore radius in water-wet reservoir, comparatively influenced by pore–throat size ratio in oil-wet reservoir. The present study illustrates the successful application of three-dimensional micro network models considering solid–liquid interfacial effects, and provides new insights for oil recovery enhancement.

  5. Channel Aggregation Schemes for Cognitive Radio Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongheon; So, Jaewoo

    This paper proposed three channel aggregation schemes for cognitive radio networks, a constant channel aggregation scheme, a probability distribution-based variable channel aggregation scheme, and a residual channel-based variable channel aggregation scheme. A cognitive radio network can have a wide bandwidth if unused channels in the primary networks are aggregated. Channel aggregation schemes involve either constant channel aggregation or variable channel aggregation. In this paper, a Markov chain is used to develop an analytical model of channel aggregation schemes; and the performance of the model is evaluated in terms of the average sojourn time, the average throughput, the forced termination probability, and the blocking probability. Simulation results show that channel aggregation schemes can reduce the average sojourn time of cognitive users by increasing the channel occupation rate of unused channels in a primary network.

  6. Welding sequence effects on residual stress distribution in offshore wind monopile structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehmanparast

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses are often inevitably introduced into the material during the fabrication processes, such as welding, and are known to have significant effects on the subsequent fatigue crack growth behavior of welded structures. In this paper, the importance of welding sequence on residual stress distribution in engineering components has been reviewed. In addition, the findings available in the literature have been used to provide an accurate interpretation of the fatigue crack growth data on specimens extracted from the welded plates employed in offshore wind monopile structures. The results have been discussed in terms of the role of welding sequence in damage inspection and structural integrity assessment of offshore renewable energy structures.

  7. Distribution of terminal sugar residues in the testis of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguoro, Annamaria; Prisco, Marina; Mennella, Clotilde; Ricchiari, Loredana; Angelini, Francesco; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2004-08-01

    Lectins represent a class of proteins/glycoproteins binding specifically to terminal sugar residues. The present investigation aims to identify lectin-binding sites in testis of Torpedo marmorata. Using a panel of lectins coupled with fluoresceine isothiocyanate, we demonstrated that germ and somatic cells present in Torpedo testis contain glycoconjugates, whose distribution at the level of the surface, the cytoplasm and the nucleus changes during germ cell differentiation. Moreover our observations demonstrate that the germ cells undergoing apoptosis (Prisco et al., 2003a: Mol Reprod Dev 64:341-348) overexpress a residual sugar recognised by WFA lectin that can be considered a specific marker for apoptotic germ cells. Finally, our results indicate that there is a progressive increase in glycosilation during spermatogenesis, especially at the level of the acrosome in the spermatocyte-spermatid step, and that Leydig cells are differently stained in relation to the spermatogenetic cycle. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Temperature Field and Residual Stress Distribution for Laser Cladding Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hua

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model was employed to simulate the cladding process of Ni-Cr-B-Si coatings on 16MnR steel under different parameters of laser power, scanning speed, and spot diameter. The temperature and residual stress distribution, the depth of the heat affected zone (HAZ, and the optimized parameters for laser cladding remanufacturing technology were obtained. The orthogonal experiment and intuitive analysis on the depth of the HAZ were performed to study the influence of different cladding parameters. A new criterion based on the ratio of the maximum tensile residual stress and fracture strength of the substrate was proposed for optimization of the remanufacturing parameters. The result showed well agreement with that of the HAZ analysis.

  9. Conformations of intrinsically disordered proteins are influenced by linear sequence distributions of oppositely charged residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rahul K; Pappu, Rohit V

    2013-08-13

    The functions of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are governed by relationships between information encoded in their amino acid sequences and the ensembles of conformations that they sample as autonomous units. Most IDPs are polyampholytes, with sequences that include both positively and negatively charged residues. Accordingly, we focus here on the sequence-ensemble relationships of polyampholytic IDPs. The fraction of charged residues discriminates between weak and strong polyampholytes. Using atomistic simulations, we show that weak polyampholytes form globules, whereas the conformational preferences of strong polyampholytes are determined by a combination of fraction of charged residues values and the linear sequence distributions of oppositely charged residues. We quantify the latter using a patterning parameter κ that lies between zero and one. The value of κ is low for well-mixed sequences, and in these sequences, intrachain electrostatic repulsions and attractions are counterbalanced, leading to the unmasking of preferences for conformations that resemble either self-avoiding random walks or generic Flory random coils. Segregation of oppositely charged residues within linear sequences leads to high κ-values and preferences for hairpin-like conformations caused by long-range electrostatic attractions induced by conformational fluctuations. We propose a scaling theory to explain the sequence-encoded conformational properties of strong polyampholytes. We show that naturally occurring strong polyampholytes have low κ-values, and this feature implies a selection for random coil ensembles. The design of sequences with different κ-values demonstrably alters the conformational preferences of polyampholytic IDPs, and this ability could become a useful tool for enabling direct inquiries into connections between sequence-ensemble relationships and functions of IDPs.

  10. A Distributed Intrusion Detection Scheme about Communication Optimization in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfa Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We first propose an efficient communication optimization algorithm in smart grid. Based on the optimization algorithm, we propose an intrusion detection algorithm to detect malicious data and possible cyberattacks. In this scheme, each node acts independently when it processes communication flows or cybersecurity threats. And neither special hardware nor nodes cooperation is needed. In order to justify the feasibility and the availability of this scheme, a series of experiments have been done. The results show that it is feasible and efficient to detect malicious data and possible cyberattacks with less computation and communication cost.

  11. Sufficient Condition for Monotonicity in Constructing the Distribution Function With Bernoulli Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedenyapin Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the construction of the distribution function using the Bernoulli scheme, and is also designed to correct some of the mistakes that were made in the article [2]. Namely, a function built in [2] need not be monotonous, and some formulas need to be adjusted. The idea of building as well as in [2], is based on the model of Cox-Ross-Rubinstein "binary market". The essence of the model was to divide time into N steps, and assuming that the price of an asset at each step can move either up to a certain value with probability p, or down also by some certain value with probability q = 1 - p. Prices in step N can take only a finite number of values. "Success" or "failure" was the changing price for some fixed value in the model of Cox-Ross-Rubinstein. Here as a "success" or "failure" at every step we consider the affiliation of changing the index value to the section [r, S] either to the interval [I, r. Further a function P(r was introduced, which at any step gives us the probability of "success". The maximum index value increase for the all period of time [T, 2T] will be equal nS, and the maximum possible reduction will be equal nI. Then let x ∈ [nI, nS]. This segment will reflect every possible total variation that we can get at the end of a period of time [T, 2T]. The further introduced inequality k ≥ (x - nI/(S - I gives us the minimum number of successes that needed for total changing could be in the section [x, nS] if was n - k reductions with the index value to I. Then was introduced the function r(x, kmin which is defined on the interval (nI, nS] and provided us some assurance that the total index changing could be in the section [x, nS] if successful interval is [r(x, kmin, S] and the amount of success is satisfying to our inequality. The probability of k "successes" and n - k "failures" is calculated according to the formula of Bernoulli, where the probability of "success" is determined by the function P(r, and r is determined

  12. Spin distributions and cross sections of evaporation residues in the 28Si+176Yb reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sharma, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.; Gehlot, J.; Madhavan, N.; Nath, S.; Mohanto, G.; Mukul, I.; Jhingan, A.; Mazumdar, I.

    2017-02-01

    Background: Non-compound-nucleus fission in the preactinide region has been an active area of investigation in the recent past. Based on the measurements of fission-fragment mass distributions in the fission of 202Po, populated by reactions with varying entrance channel mass asymmetry, the onset of non-compound-nucleus fission was proposed to be around ZpZt˜1000 [Phys. Rev. C 77, 024606 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.024606], where Zp and Zt are the projectile and target proton numbers, respectively. Purpose: The present paper is aimed at the measurement of cross sections and spin distributions of evaporation residues in the 28Si+176Yb reaction (ZpZt=980 ) to investigate the fusion hindrance which, in turn, would give information about the contribution from non-compound-nucleus fission in this reaction. Method: Evaporation-residue cross sections were measured in the beam energy range of 129-166 MeV using the hybrid recoil mass analyzer (HYRA) operated in the gas-filled mode. Evaporation-residue cross sections were also measured by the recoil catcher technique followed by off-line γ -ray spectrometry at few intermediate energies. γ -ray multiplicities of evaporation residues were measured to infer about their spin distribution. The measurements were carried out using NaI(Tl) detector-based 4π-spin spectrometer from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, coupled to the HYRA. Results: Evaporation-residue cross sections were significantly lower compared to those calculated using the statistical model code pace2 [Phys. Rev. C 21, 230 (1980), 10.1103/PhysRevC.21.230] with the coupled-channel fusion model code ccfus [Comput. Phys. Commun. 46, 187 (1987), 10.1016/0010-4655(87)90045-2] at beam energies close to the entrance channel Coulomb barrier. At higher beam energies, experimental cross sections were close to those predicted by the model. Average γ -ray multiplicities or angular momentum values of evaporation residues were in agreement with the

  13. Partial index replicated and distributed scheme for full-text search on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information indexing is an extremely useful solution for wireless broadcast channels, because of its energy efficiency. Full text search on the wireless broadcast stream is another popular type of information dissemination access. This research paper discusses indexing schemes for full text search information, using two ...

  14. A distributed multicast label switched path setup scheme to solve the multi-destination reservation collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu; Peng, Yunfeng; Long, Keping

    2008-11-01

    Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) appears as a promising candidate to implement the control plane for next-generation optical networks. In GMPLS-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, existing resource reservation protocol (RSVP) may fail to setup a multicast Label Switched Path (LSP) with high probability, since multiple destinations in one multicast session may reserve different wavelengths and result in reservation collision at branch nodes. In this work, we extend the existing GMPLS RSVP signaling protocol and propose an efficient scheme to set up optical multicast LSP and avoid wavelength resources collision, called Last-hop Label Set (LLS) scheme, by introducing a new object called Last-hop Label Set object in Resv message. Once the setup of a multicast LSP fails caused by wavelength reservation collision at a branch node, the branch node can re-reserves a new wavelength according to the Last-hop Label Set object within Resv messages. The numerical results indicate that the proposed LLS scheme offers lower blocking probability compared to the existing GMPLS signaling scheme.

  15. A CHARACTERIZATION OF ERLANG-TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION IN RECORD VALUES AND ITS USE IN MEAN RESIDUAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Erlang-truncated exponential distribution is characterized by the conditional expectation of record values. The utility of our result is demonstrated in mean residual life by using this characterization.

  16. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400{sub Y}15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  17. MALDI-MS Imaging Analysis of Fungicide Residue Distributions on Wheat Leaf Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annangudi, Suresh P; Myung, Kyung; Avila Adame, Cruz; Gilbert, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-05

    Improved retention and distribution of agrochemicals on plant surfaces is an important attribute in the biological activity of pesticide. Although retention of agrochemicals on plants after spray application can be quantified using traditional analytical techniques including LC or GC, the spatial distribution of agrochemicals on the plants surfaces has received little attention. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging technology has been widely used to determine the distribution of proteins, peptides and metabolites in different tissue sections, but its application to environmental research has been limited. Herein, we probed the potential utility of MALDI imaging in characterizing the distribution of three commercial fungicides on wheat leaf surfaces. Using this MALDI imaging method, we were able to detect 500 ng of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin applied in 1 μL drop on the leaf surfaces using MALDI-MS. Subsequent dilutions of pyraclostrobin revealed that the compound can be chemically imaged on the leaf surfaces at levels as low as 60 ng of total applied in the area of 1 μL droplet. After application of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin at a field rate of 100 gai/ha in 200 L water using a track sprayer system, residues of these fungicides on the leaf surfaces were sufficiently visualized. These results suggest that MALDI imaging can be used to monitor spatial distribution of agrochemicals on leaf samples after pesticide application.

  18. EPPRD: An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Power Requirement and Distribution Aggregation Scheme for a Smart Grid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lei Zhang; Jing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    ...’ private information. Therefore, improving the individual power requirement and distribution efficiency to ensure communication reliability while preserving user privacy is a new challenge for SG...

  19. Using mobile distributed pyrolysis facilities to deliver a forest residue resource for bio-fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Duncan

    Distributed mobile conversion facilities using either fast pyrolysis or torrefaction processes can be used to convert forest residues to more energy dense substances (bio-oil, bio-slurry or torrefied wood) that can be transported as feedstock for bio-fuel facilities. All feedstock are suited for gasification, which produces syngas that can be used to synthesise petrol or diesel via Fischer-Tropsch reactions, or produce hydrogen via water gas shift reactions. Alternatively, the bio-oil product of fast pyrolysis may be upgraded to produce petrol and diesel, or can undergo steam reformation to produce hydrogen. Implementing a network of mobile facilities reduces the energy content of forest residues delivered to a bio-fuel facility as mobile facilities use a fraction of the biomass energy content to meet thermal or electrical demands. The total energy delivered by bio-oil, bio-slurry and torrefied wood is 45%, 65% and 87% of the initial forest residue energy content, respectively. However, implementing mobile facilities is economically feasible when large transport distances are required. For an annual harvest of 1.717 million m3 (equivalent to 2000 ODTPD), transport costs are reduced to less than 40% of the total levelised delivered feedstock cost when mobile facilities are implemented; transport costs account for up to 80% of feedstock costs for conventional woodchip delivery. Torrefaction provides the lowest cost pathway of delivering a forest residue resource when using mobile facilities. Cost savings occur against woodchip delivery for annual forest residue harvests above 2.25 million m3 or when transport distances greater than 250 km are required. Important parameters that influence levelised delivered costs of feedstock are transport distances (forest residue spatial density), haul cost factors, thermal and electrical demands of mobile facilities, and initial moisture content of forest residues. Relocating mobile facilities can be optimised for lowest cost

  20. Design of Provider-Provisioned Website Protection Scheme against Malware Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Takeshi; Tanimoto, Naoto; Hariu, Takeo; Itoh, Mitsutaka

    Vulnerabilities in web applications expose computer networks to security threats, and many websites are used by attackers as hopping sites to attack other websites and user terminals. These incidents prevent service providers from constructing secure networking environments. To protect websites from attacks exploiting vulnerabilities in web applications, service providers use web application firewalls (WAFs). WAFs filter accesses from attackers by using signatures, which are generated based on the exploit codes of previous attacks. However, WAFs cannot filter unknown attacks because the signatures cannot reflect new types of attacks. In service provider environments, the number of exploit codes has recently increased rapidly because of the spread of vulnerable web applications that have been developed through cloud computing. Thus, generating signatures for all exploit codes is difficult. To solve these problems, our proposed scheme detects and filters malware downloads that are sent from websites which have already received exploit codes. In addition, to collect information for detecting malware downloads, web honeypots, which automatically extract the communication records of exploit codes, are used. According to the results of experiments using a prototype, our scheme can filter attacks automatically so that service providers can provide secure and cost-effective network environments.

  1. Residual long-lived radioactivity distribution in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Ishikawa, T; Kinno, M; Yamadera, A; Nakamura, T

    1994-12-01

    We measured the depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a cyclotron vault by assaying concrete cores and we estimated the neutron flux distribution in the inner concrete wall by means of activation detectors. Nine long-lived radioactive nuclides (46Sc, 59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 134Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 22Na, and 54Mn) were identified from the gamma-ray spectra measured in the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, gamma) reaction are dominant, and that the induced activity by thermal neutrons is greatest at a depth of 5 to 10 cm rather than at the surface of the concrete and decreases exponentially beyond a depth of about 20 cm. By comparing the radioactivity and neutron flux distributions, we can estimate the induced long-lived radioactivity in concrete after a long period of operation from the short-term activation measurement.

  2. On the distribution of quadratic residues and nonresidues modulo a prime number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Rene

    1992-01-01

    Let P be a prime number and {a_1}, ldots ,{a_t} be distinct integers modulo P. Let x be chosen at random with uniform distribution in {Z_P} , and let {y_i} = x + {a_i} . We prove that the joint distribution of the quadratic characters of the {y_i} 's deviates from the distribution of independent fair coins by no more than t(3 + √ P )/P . That is, the probability of ({y_1}, ldots ,{y_t}) matching any particular quadratic character sequence of length t is in the range {( {1/2 )^t} ± t(3 + √ P )/P . We establish the implications of this bound on the number of occurrences of arbitrary patterns of quadratic residues and nonresidues modulo P. We then explore the randomness complexity of finding these patterns in polynomial time. We give (exponentially low) upper bounds for the probability of failure achievable in polynomial time using, as a source of randomness, no more than one random number modulo P.

  3. Effect of Turning and Ball Burnishing on the Microstructure and Residual Stress Distribution in Stainless Steel Cold Spray Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A.; Courbon, C.; Valiorgue, F.; Rech, J.; Bertrand, Ph.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of influence of machining by turning and ball burnishing on the surface morphology, structure and residual stress distribution of cold spray 17-4 PH stainless steel deposits is provided. It is shown that cold spray deposits could be machined by turning under parameters closed to turning of bulk 17-4 PH stainless steel. Ball burnishing process permits to decrease surface roughness. Cross-sectional observation revealed that the turning and ball burnishing process allowed microstructure changes in the coating near-surface zone. In particular, significant particle deformation and particle boundary fragmentation is observed. Measurements of residual stresses showed that residual stresses in the as-spray deposit are compressive. After machining by turning, tensile residual stresses in the near-surface zone were induced. Further surface finishing of turned coating by ball burnishing allowed the establishment of the compressive residual stresses in the coating.

  4. Effect of Turning and Ball Burnishing on the Microstructure and Residual Stress Distribution in Stainless Steel Cold Spray Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A.; Courbon, C.; Valiorgue, F.; Rech, J.; Bertrand, Ph.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of influence of machining by turning and ball burnishing on the surface morphology, structure and residual stress distribution of cold spray 17-4 PH stainless steel deposits is provided. It is shown that cold spray deposits could be machined by turning under parameters closed to turning of bulk 17-4 PH stainless steel. Ball burnishing process permits to decrease surface roughness. Cross-sectional observation revealed that the turning and ball burnishing process allowed microstructure changes in the coating near-surface zone. In particular, significant particle deformation and particle boundary fragmentation is observed. Measurements of residual stresses showed that residual stresses in the as-spray deposit are compressive. After machining by turning, tensile residual stresses in the near-surface zone were induced. Further surface finishing of turned coating by ball burnishing allowed the establishment of the compressive residual stresses in the coating.

  5. A Control Chart for Gamma Distributed Variables Using Repetitive Sampling Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrullah Khan; Muhammad Aslam; Liaquat Ahmad; Chi-Hyuck Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this manuscript, a control chart is designed when the quality characteristic of interest follows a gamma distribution using repetitive sampling. The Wilson-Hilferty approximation is used to transform the gamma distributed characteristic to a normal random variable. Two pairs of control limits are established and their control constants are determined by considering the specified in-control average run length (ARL). The out-of-control ARL is derived when the process is shifted in terms of t...

  6. Approximate Bayes Estimators of the Logistic Distribution Parameters Based on Progressive Type-II Censoring Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop approximate Bayes estimators of the parameters,reliability, and hazard rate functions of the Logistic distribution by using Lindley’sapproximation, based on progressively type-II censoring samples. Noninformativeprior distributions are used for the parameters. Quadratic, linexand general Entropy loss functions are used. The statistical performances of theBayes estimates relative to quadratic, linex and general entropy loss functionsare compared to those of the maximum likelihood based on simulation study.

  7. Microstructure, Hardness, and Residual Stress Distributions in T-Joint Weld of HSLA S500MC Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Intissar; Montay, Guillaume; Adragna, Pierre-Antoine

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the characterization of the microstructure, hardness, and residual stress distributions of MIG-welded high-strength low-alloy S500MC steel. The T-joint weld for 10-mm-thick plates was joined using a two passes MIG welding technology. The contour method was performed to measure longitudinal welding residual stress. The obtained results highlighted a good correlation between the metallurgical phase constituents and hardness distribution within the weld zones. In fact, the presence of bainite and smaller ferrite grain size in the weld-fusion zone might be the reason for the highest hardness measured in this region. A similar trend of the residual stress and hardness distributions was also obtained.

  8. Hybrid control scheme for distributed energy resource management in a market context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.; Mehmedalic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    flexibility to meet regular demand from the distribution system operator (DSO). By considering both their physical constraints and the economical system operation, this paper proposes a realtime hybrid management system for DER units in a market environment, which considers both the request from the DSO...... and their local conditions. Voltage regulation service is formulated and implemented in the control frame. The performance is evaluated through simulation on an existing Danish MV and LV distribution grid and is compared with a local control method and the passive operation condition.......In modernizing the electricity grid, distributed energy resources (DERs) can play an important role in accommodating intermittent energy sources, assisting system operation and the transition to a smart grid. Proper aggregation and coordination of the available DER units is required to provide...

  9. A Control Chart for Gamma Distributed Variables Using Repetitive Sampling Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Khan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, a control chart is designed when the quality characteristic of interest follows a gamma distribution using repetitive sampling. The Wilson-Hilferty approximation is used to transform the gamma distributed characteristic to a normal random variable. Two pairs of control limits are established and their control constants are determined by considering the specified in-control average run length (ARL. The out-of-control ARL is derived when the process is shifted in terms of the scale parameter of the Gamma distribution. The ARLs are presented for various values of the shape parameter according to process shift parameters. A simulated example is given to illustrate the proposed control chart.

  10. Hosting Capacity of Solar Photovoltaics in Distribution Grids under Different Pricing Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carollo, Riccardo; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Most of the solar photovoltaic (SPV) installations are connected to distribution networks. The majority of these systems are represented by single-phase rooftop SPVs connected to residential low voltage (LV) grids. The large SPV shares lead to grid integration issues such as voltage rise...

  11. On noice in data assimilation schemes for improved flood forecasting using distributed hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, S.J.; Rakovec, O.; Weerts, A.H.; Tachikawa, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of noise specification on the quality of hydrological forecasts via an advanced data assimilation (DA) procedure using a distributed hydrological model driven by numerical weather predictions. The sequential DA procedure is based on (1) a multivariate rainfall ensemble

  12. Leadership through Fellowship: Distributed Leadership in a Professional Recognition Scheme for University Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in the field of teaching and learning in higher education have identified concerns with top-down leadership models. Distributed (or shared) leadership approaches may provide more successful engagement with institutional change agendas, and provide more options to reward and recognise staff leading teaching and learning initiatives.…

  13. Sorption and distribution of aged atrazine residues in the drainage system of an outdoor lysimeter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Schäffer, A.; Burauel, P.

    2009-04-01

    Even though the environmental impact of the herbicide atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] is a matter of controversy, it is still extensively applied for agricultural purposes. Particularly in the US, atrazine has been applied to approximately 70% of all corn acreages in the last 18 years. Atrazine is banned in the EU but its use is increasing in countries like China, Brazil and India. Therefore, the worldwide soil burden of this compound must be enormous. Atrazine has been found to be highly persistent in the environment and it has been suggested that it is moderately mobile in the soil profile. As a result, it is found in most groundwater aquifers and surface waters in agricultural areas in the US. Even in Germany, where it was prohibited in 1991, it is still found in groundwater wells below agriculturally used land where it was formerly applied. For a long-term outdoor lysimeter experiment with a disturbed soil column, a drainage system of fine gravel was originally embedded at the bottom of the lysimeter. In this drainage system, atrazine and its metabolite 2-hydroxy-atrazine were extracted as long as 22 years after the last atrazine application. Due to the radiolabelling, the spatial distribution of the atrazine residues can be evaluated in fractions like fine clay particles attached to the gravel or in the gravel itself. Approximately 2% of the total gravel consisted of carbonaceous, slag-like particles which might retain most of the atrazine and its residues. The latest data will be presented at the session.

  14. Development and Testing of Protection Scheme for Renewable-Rich Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahma, Sukumar [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ranade, Satish [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elkhatib, Mohamed E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As the penetration of renewables increases in the distribution systems, and microgrids are conceived with high penetration of such generation that connects through inverters, fault location and protection of microgrids needs consideration. This report proposes averaged models that help simulate fault scenarios in renewable-rich microgrids, models for locating faults in such microgrids, and comments on the protection models that may be considered for microgrids. Simulation studies are reported to justify the models.

  15. A PEFKS- and CP-ABE-Based Distributed Security Scheme in Interest-Centric Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Wang; YongJun Xu; Lin Wu; Longyijia Li; Dan Liu; Liehuang Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Security is a crucial issue in distributed applications of multihop wireless opportunistic network due to the features of exposed on the fly communication, relaxed end-to-end connectivity, and vague destinations literately. In this paper, we focus on problems of user privacy leakage and end-to-end confidentiality invasion in content-based or interest-centric wireless opportunistic network. And we propose a public-encryption-with-fuzzy-keyword-search- (PEFKS-) and ciphertext-policy-attribute-b...

  16. Mitigating On-Off Attacks in the Internet of Things Using a Distributed Trust Management Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Carolina V. L.; João H. Kleinschmidt

    2015-01-01

    In the Internet of Things (IoT), physical objects are able to provide or require determined services. The purpose of this work is to identify malicious behavior of nodes and prevent possible On-Off attacks to a multiservice IoT. The proposed trust management model uses direct information generated from direct communication with the nodes to evaluate trust between nodes. This distributed approach allows nodes to be completely autonomous in making decisions about the behavior of other nodes. We...

  17. Distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming for municipal solid waste management. Part II: scheme analysis and mechanism revelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Jiapei; Chen, Xiujuan; Li, Kailong

    2017-03-01

    As presented in the first companion paper, distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) was developed for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) under complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions. Beijing was selected as a representative case. This paper focuses on presenting the obtained schemes and the revealed mechanisms of the Beijing MSWM system. The optimal MSWM schemes for Beijing under various solid waste treatment policies and their differences are deliberated. The impacts of facility expansion, hierarchy, and spatial heterogeneities and potential extensions of DMIFHP are also discussed. A few of findings are revealed from the results and a series of comparisons and analyses. For instance, DMIFHP is capable of robustly reflecting these complexities in MSWM systems, especially for Beijing. The optimal MSWM schemes are of fragmented patterns due to the dominant role of the proximity principle in allocating solid waste treatment resources, and they are closely related to regulated ratios of landfilling, incineration, and composting. Communities without significant differences among distances to different types of treatment facilities are more sensitive to these ratios than others. The complexities of hierarchy and heterogeneities pose significant impacts on MSWM practices. Spatial dislocation of MSW generation rates and facility capacities caused by unreasonable planning in the past may result in insufficient utilization of treatment capacities under substantial influences of transportation costs. The problems of unreasonable MSWM planning, e.g., severe imbalance among different technologies and complete vacancy of ten facilities, should be gained deliberation of the public and the municipal or local governments in Beijing. These findings are helpful for gaining insights into MSWM systems under these complexities, mitigating key challenges in the planning of these systems, improving the related management

  18. Beyond motor scheme: a supramodal distributed representation in the action-observation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ricciardi

    Full Text Available The representation of actions within the action-observation network is thought to rely on a distributed functional organization. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that the action-observation network encodes not merely the observed motor act, but rather a representation that is independent from a specific sensory modality or sensory experience. In the present study, we wished to determine to what extent this distributed and 'more abstract' representation of action is truly supramodal, i.e. shares a common coding across sensory modalities. To this aim, a pattern recognition approach was employed to analyze neural responses in sighted and congenitally blind subjects during visual and/or auditory presentation of hand-made actions. Multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifiers discriminated action from non-action stimuli across sensory conditions (visual and auditory and experimental groups (blind and sighted. Moreover, these classifiers labeled as 'action' the pattern of neural responses evoked during actual motor execution. Interestingly, discriminative information for the action/non action classification was located in a bilateral, but left-prevalent, network that strongly overlaps with brain regions known to form the action-observation network and the human mirror system. The ability to identify action features with a multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifier in both sighted and blind individuals and independently from the sensory modality conveying the stimuli clearly supports the hypothesis of a supramodal, distributed functional representation of actions, mainly within the action-observation network.

  19. Assessmet of temporal distribution of pesticide residues in vineyard soils of La Rioja (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pose Juan, Eva; Herrero Hernandez, Eliseo; Soledad Andrades, Maria; Rodriguez Cruz, Maria Sonia; Sanchez Martin, Maria Jesus

    2013-04-01

    The use and application of pesticides in vineyard is a common practice, which is important to prevent pest and diseases and improve the crop health and production, but on the other hand it could involve a potential risk for humans and the environment. For this reason, it is important to develop and validate a simple and fast multiresidue method to determine the presence of these compounds in soils. La Rioja region (Spain) is one of the most important wine-growing regions in Spain, which also entails that could be an important area of pesticide pollution. The objective of this work is to assess the temporal distribution of the possible pesticide pollution in soils from different areas of La Rioja (Spain). The pesticides selected in this study included fungicides (metalaxyl, and its metabolite CGA62826, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, myclobutanil, kresoxim-methyl, triadimenol and flutriafol); herbicides (fluometuron, terbuthylazine and its metabolites desethylterbuthylazine and hydroxyterbuthylazine, lenacil, ethofumesate and acetochlor) and insecticides (methoxyfenozide and pirimicarb). The pesticide residues were evaluated by two analytical techniques, gas chromatography and liquid chromatography (GC-MS and LC-MS). The extraction procedure of pesticides from soils was optimized using two soil samples (blank soils) with different texture and characteristics collected from areas without pesticide application. Recoveries were studied in soil samples fortified with all pesticides at two levels of concentrations (the agronomic dose, 0.1 mg kg-1, and ten times this dose, 1 mg kg-1). Different extraction solvents were tested. The best results were obtained with methanol:acetone (50:50) mixture or methanol:CaCl2 0.01 M (50:50) mixture for hydroxyterbuthylazine and CGA62826. The accuracy (average recovery) and precision (reproducibility and repeatability) of the method were assessed using six replicates and the limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were

  20. Interest of seeing Precision Viticulture through two distributed competences: Determination of resources and schemes allowing some practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreiro Leslie B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to better understand resources needed and constraints to avoid in implementation of Precision Viticulture technologies. In this view, we adapt distributed cognition theory to multilevel model of competence in management sciences. We use a qualitative methodology based on semi-structured interviews in 7 cases study. The main results allow us to distinguish the two aspects of Precision Viticulture, artifacts, providers of resources, and their utilization scheme. Furthermore, Precision Viticulture is decomposed here in two tasks. The first task is characterization of heterogeneity. The second is modulation of technical itineraries. These two tasks are complementary. In addition, we present ours results by highlighting resources used by firm using these technologies and constraints that they face. Finally, with these results, we can do some practical recommendations to designers and users of these technologies.

  1. Influence of pore size distributions on decomposition of maize leaf residue: evidence from X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Kravchenko, Alexandra; Rivers, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Soil's potential to sequester carbon (C) depends not only on quality and quantity of organic inputs to soil but also on the residence time of the applied organic inputs within the soil. Soil pore structure is one of the main factors that influence residence time of soil organic matter by controlling gas exchange, soil moisture and microbial activities, thereby soil C sequestration capacity. Previous attempts to investigate the fate of organic inputs added to soil did not allow examining their decomposition in situ; the drawback that can now be remediated by application of X-ray computed micro-tomography (µ-CT). The non-destructive and non-invasive nature of µ-CT gives an opportunity to investigate the effect of soil pore size distributions on decomposition of plant residues at a new quantitative level. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of pore size distributions on the decomposition of plant residue added to soil. Samples with contrasting pore size distributions were created using aggregate fractions of five different sizes (decomposition observed in all ground samples regardless of the aggregate fraction size. Consistent with µ-CT results, the proportion of decomposed leaf estimated with the conventional mass loss method was 48% and 60% for the decomposition of plant residues added to soil. Moreover, in presence of plant residues, differences in pore size distributions appear to also influence the rates of decomposition of the intrinsic soil organic material.

  2. Continuous monitoring of residual chlorine concentrations in response to controlled microbial intrusions in a laboratory-scale distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, Damian E; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of deploying free chlorine sensors as surrogate monitors for bacterial contamination events in drinking water distribution systems. An on-line sensor integral with a laboratory-scale distribution system (LDS) was shown to respond rapidly to changes in residual free chlorine concentrations induced by injected loads of Escherichia coli suspended in a chlorine demand free buffer. The magnitude of the residual response was proportional to the injected cell concentration, the background free chlorine concentration in the LDS, and the contact time between the chlorine residual and the injected suspension, consistent with previous results in batch reactors. The magnitude of the residual response was predicted when kinetic models developed from reaction kinetics between free chlorine and E. coli determined in batch systems were evaluated at contact times determined from LDS hydraulics. This result highlights the suitability of using batch kinetics when modeling contaminant-induced chlorine decay in the distribution system. Modeling the propagation of chlorine demand signals generated by specific pathogens could aid in the assessment of distribution system vulnerability.

  3. Experimental signature of entrance channel effect in heavy mass region via evaporation residue cross section and spin distribution measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shidling, P. D.; Madhavan, N.; Ramamurthy, V. S.; Nath, S.; Badiger, N. M.; Pal, Santanu; Sinha, A. K.; Jhingan, A.; Muralithar, S.; Sugathan, P.; Kailas, S.; Behera, B. R.; Singh, R.; Varier, K. M.; Radhakrishna, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Evaporation residue (ER) cross sections and gamma multiplicity distributions have been measured for (16)O + (184)W and (19)F + (181)Ta systems in the excitation energy range of 50-90 MeV, leading to the same compound nucleus (200)Pb*. Comparison of experimental results of both the systems shows that

  4. A Distributed Routing Scheme for Energy Management in Solar Powered Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2017-10-11

    Energy management is critical for solar-powered sensor networks. In this article, we consider data routing policies to optimize the energy in solar powered networks. Motivated by multipurpose sensor networks, the objective is to find the best network policy that maximizes the minimal energy among nodes in a sensor network, over a finite time horizon, given uncertain energy input forecasts. First, we derive the optimal policy in certain special cases using forward dynamic programming. We then introduce a greedy policy that is distributed and exhibits significantly lower complexity. When computationally feasible, we compare the performance of the optimal policy with the greedy policy. We also demonstrate the performance and computational complexity of the greedy policy over randomly simulated networks, and show that it yields results that are almost identical to the optimal policy, for greatly reduced worst-case computational costs and memory requirements. Finally, we demonstrate the implementation of the greedy policy on an experimental sensor network.

  5. Integrating a reservoir regulation scheme into a spatially distributed hydrological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Gang; Gao, Huilin; Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Voisin, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    During the past several decades, numerous reservoirs have been built across the world for a variety of purposes such as flood control, irrigation, municipal/industrial water supplies, and hydropower generation. Consequently, natural streamflow timing and magnitude have been altered significantly by reservoir operations. In addition, the hydrological cycle can be modified by land use/land cover and climate changes. To understand the fine scale feedback between hydrological processes and water management decisions, a distributed hydrological model embedded with a reservoir component is of desire. In this study, a multi-purpose reservoir module with predefined complex operational rules was integrated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Conditional operating rules, which are designed to reduce flood risk and enhance water supply reliability, were adopted in this module. The performance of the integrated model was tested over the upper Brazos River Basin in Texas, where two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs, Lake Whitney and Aquilla Lake, are located. The integrated DHSVM model was calibrated and validated using observed reservoir inflow, outflow, and storage data. The error statistics were summarized for both reservoirs on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Using the weekly reservoir storage for Lake Whitney as an example, the coefficients of determination (R2) and the Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) are 0.85 and 0.75, respectively. These results suggest that this reservoir module has promise for use in sub-monthly hydrological simulations. Enabled with the new reservoir component, the DHSVM model provides a platform to support adaptive water resources management under the impacts of evolving anthropogenic activities and substantial environmental changes.

  6. Integrating a reservoir regulation scheme into a spatially distributed hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Gao, Huilin; Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Voisin, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    During the past several decades, numerous reservoirs have been built across the world for a variety of purposes such as flood control, irrigation, municipal/industrial water supplies, and hydropower generation. Consequently, the timing and magnitude of natural streamflow have been altered significantly by reservoir operations. In addition, the hydrological cycle is also modified by land-use/land-cover change and by climate change. To understand the fine-scale feedback between hydrological processes and water management decisions, a distributed hydrological model embedded with a reservoir component is desired. In this study, a multi-purpose reservoir module with predefined complex operational rules was integrated into the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Conditional operating rules, which are designed to reduce flood risk and enhance water supply reliability, were adopted in this module. The performance of the integrated model was tested over the upper Brazos River Basin in Texas, where two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers managed reservoirs, Lake Whitney and Aquilla Lake, are located. The integrated model was calibrated and validated using observed reservoir inflow, outflow, and storage data. The error statistics were summarized for both reservoirs on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis. Using the weekly reservoir storage for Lake Whitney as an example, the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.85 and the Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency (NSE) was 0.75. These results suggest that this reservoir module holds promise for use in sub-monthly hydrological simulations. With the new reservoir component, the DHSVM provides a platform to support adaptive water resources management under the impacts of evolving anthropogenic activities and substantial environmental changes.

  7. RESILIENT SCHEME AGAINST REDUCTION OF QUALITY (ROQ DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Arunmozhi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Defending against denial-of-service attacks (DoS in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET is challenging because of the dynamic network topology. Security primitives must be dynamically adjusted to cope with the network. The Reduction-of-Quality (RoQ Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attack is one which throttles the tcp throughput heavily and reduces the quality-of-service (QoS to end systems gradually rather than refusing the clients from the services completely. Supporting QoS in MANET is a challenging task, particularly in the presence of malicious users. In this paper, we propose a DoS resilient technique that uses a flow table to detect the attackers. The proposed defense mechanism identifies the attackers based on the congestion bit notification and asks the sending node to reduce the sending rate. Once the attackers are identified, all the packets from those nodes will be blocked. The throughput and delay performance of TCP or UDP flows are very sensitive to such RoQ attacks. Through extensive ns2 network simulations, we demonstrate the achievement of high throughput and low delay for a network under the RoQ attack.

  8. Design of a Distributed Personal Information Access Control Scheme for Secure Integrated Payment in NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At the center of core technologies for a future cyber world, such as Internet of Things (IoT or big data, is a context-rich system that offers services by using situational information. The field where context-rich systems were first introduced is near-field communication (NFC-based electronic payments. Near-field Communication (NFC integrated payment services collect the payment information of the credit card and the location information to generate patterns in the user’s consumption or movement through big data technology. Based on such pattern information, tailored services, such as advertisement, are offered to users. However, there is difficulty in controlling access to personal information, as there is a collaborative relationship focused on the trusted service manager (TSM that is close knit to shared personal information. Moreover, in the case of Hadoop, among the many big data analytical technologies, it offers access control functions, but not a way to authorize the processing of personal information, making it impossible to grant authority between service providers to process information. As such, this paper proposes a key generation and distribution method, as well as a secure communication protocol. The analysis has shown that the efficiency was greater for security and performance compared to relation works.

  9. Spin distribution of evaporation residues formed in complete and incomplete fusion in 16O+154Sm system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spin distributions for several evaporation residues populated in the 16O+154Sm system have been measured at projectile energy ≈ 6.2 MeV/A by using the charged particle–γ-coincidence technique. The measured spin distributions of the evaporation residues populated through incomplete fusion associated with ‘fast’ α and 2α-emission channels are found to be entirely different from fusion–evaporation channels. It is observed that the mean input angular momentum for the evaporation residues formed in incomplete fusion channel is relatively higher than that observed for evaporation residues in complete fusion channels. The feeding intensity profile of evaporation residues populated through complete fusion and incomplete fusion have also been studied. The incomplete fusion channels are found to have narrow range feeding only for high spin states, while complete fusion channels are strongly fed over a broad spin range and widely populated. Comparison of present results with earlier data suggests that the mean input angular momentum values are relatively smaller for spherical target than that of deformed target using the same projectile and incident energy highlighting the role of target deformation in incomplete fusion dynamics.

  10. Spin distribution of evaporation residues formed in complete and incomplete fusion in 16O+154Sm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Linda, Sneha B.; Giri, Pankaj K.; Mahato, Amritraj; Tripathi, R.; Kumar, Harish; Afzal Ansari, M.; Sathik, N. P. M.; Ali, Rahbar; Kumar, Rakesh; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-11-01

    Spin distributions for several evaporation residues populated in the 16O+154Sm system have been measured at projectile energy ≈ 6.2 MeV/A by using the charged particle-γ-coincidence technique. The measured spin distributions of the evaporation residues populated through incomplete fusion associated with 'fast' α and 2α-emission channels are found to be entirely different from fusion-evaporation channels. It is observed that the mean input angular momentum for the evaporation residues formed in incomplete fusion channel is relatively higher than that observed for evaporation residues in complete fusion channels. The feeding intensity profile of evaporation residues populated through complete fusion and incomplete fusion have also been studied. The incomplete fusion channels are found to have narrow range feeding only for high spin states, while complete fusion channels are strongly fed over a broad spin range and widely populated. Comparison of present results with earlier data suggests that the mean input angular momentum values are relatively smaller for spherical target than that of deformed target using the same projectile and incident energy highlighting the role of target deformation in incomplete fusion dynamics.

  11. Distribution of pesticide residues in soil due to point source pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study carried out to assess the levels of pesticide residues in soil along the old obsolete pesticides storage site at Old Korogwe. Gas chromatography spectrophotometry equipped with electron capture detector was used in the identification and quantification of the residues. DDT and ...

  12. Measured residual stress distributions for low and high heat input single weld beads deposited on to SA508 steel

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, J. A.; Turski, M.; Withers, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In steel Weld.s, the development of residual stress is often complicated by the solid state phase transformations that occur upon cooling. Here the authors present bulk residual stress distributions, as measured by neutron diffraction, for the configuration of a single pass gas tungsten arc Weld. bead deposited on to a 20 mm thick SA508 steel substrate. Two specimens were manufactured, one with a low heat input (1-2 kJ mm-1) and another with a high heat input (2-4 kJ mm-1). The resulting micr...

  13. Distributed Joint Cluster Formation and Resource Allocation Scheme for Cooperative Data Collection in Virtual MIMO-Based M2M Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient data collection scheme plays an important role for the real-time intelligent monitoring in many machine-to-machine (M2M networks. In this paper, a distributed joint cluster formation and resource allocation scheme for data collection in cluster-based M2M networks is proposed. Specifically, in order to utilize the advantages of cooperation, we first propose a hierarchical transmission model which contains two communication phases. In the first phase, the intracluster information sharing is carried out by all the nodes within the same cluster. Then these nodes transmit the total information to the BS cooperatively with virtual-MIMO (VMIMO protocol in the second phase. To grasp the properties and advantages of this cooperative transmission strategy, the theoretical analysis results are provided. The key issue in this system is to form the clusters and allocate resources efficiently. Since the optimization problem on this issue is an NP-hard problem, a feasible joint scheme for the cluster formation and resource allocation is proposed in this paper, which is carried out via coalition formation game with a distributed algorithm. This scheme can reduce the complexity while keeping an attractive performance. Simulation results show the properties of the proposed scheme and its advantages when comparing with the noncooperative scheme for the data collection in a practical scenario.

  14. Residual stress distribution of wheel tread for freight car due to aging effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Seo, Jung-Won; Kwon, Sung-Tae

    2010-03-01

    Recently, several wheels for freight car in running had experienced the wheel failure due to fatigue crack, overheat braking and other factors. Severe heating of the wheel during tread braking was believed to be a contributing factor of derailment. It is necessary to evaluate the residual stress in wheel tread in order to manage the safety of wheel. In the present paper, the residual stress of wheel regarding to running distance using x-ray diffraction system is investigated. The result shows that the residual stress of wheel is depend on the running distance, wear rate of wheel and thermal gradient during brake application.

  15. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwanul Haque

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring stage of the SPR process curve. This study shows how the residual stress results may be related to the physical occurrences that happened during joining, using the characteristics curve. The study also shows that neutron diffraction technique enabled a crack in the rivet tip to be detected which was not apparent from a cross-section.

  16. The Distribution of Pairs of Quadratic Residues and Nonresidues of a Special Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsuba, A. A.

    1988-04-01

    Nontrivial estimates are obtained for sums of Legendre symbols of a quadratic polynomial over primes in an arithmetic progression. These estimates are used to prove a theorem concerning the number of pairs of the form (p + a, p + b), p \\equiv l (\\operatorname{mod} k), p\\le N, for which p + a is a quadratic residue (nonresidue), p + b is a quadratic residue (nonresidue) modulo the prime q, and N > k^3q^{0.75+\\varepsilon}. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  17. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  18. Influence of friction on the residual morphology, the penetration load and the residual stress distribution of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, friction between the Cube-Corner indenter and the sample surface of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass (BMG was analyzed and discussed by the experimental method, the theoretical method and the finite element simulation. Linear residua are observed on the surface of the indenter for the first time, which gives the direct evidence that strong interaction processes exist between the indenter surface and the sample surface because of strong friction and local high contact press. A simplified model was developed to correct the penetration load with the consideration of friction. Effects of friction on the penetration load-depth curves, plastic flow, surface deformation and residual stress distribution of the sample with different friction coefficients were investigated by the finite element simulation.

  19. Potential error in the measurement of tissue to blood distribution coefficients in physiological pharmacokinetic modeling. Residual tissue blood. 2. Distribution of phencyclidine in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, S.P.; Bozigian, H.; Mayersohn, M. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A model for predicting the magnitude of error (% Err) in measuring tissue concentrations of a compound that have not been corrected for residual blood in the tissue was previously developed. The model was tested using data for phencyclidine tissue distribution in the rat. It is shown that % Err may be expressed as a function of volume fraction of blood in tissue (VF)B and tissue-to-blood distribution coefficient. Correction for residual blood is important when the volume fraction of the blood in the tissue is large and when the compound is not taken up substantially by the tissue. On the other hand, a correction may not be necessary when (VF)B is small and uptake of the compound into the tissue is substantial.

  20. Persistence and distribution of pesticide residues in fresh agricultural food consumed in the province of Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, Stefano; Ferri, Elida N; Errani, Ermanno

    2009-02-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fresh vegetables and fruit have been qualitatively and quantitatively determined at the laboratories of the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), Division of the Province of Bologna. More than 1,700 samples have been tested by routine analyses. The possible risks for consumers have been evaluated by various parameters. The most important ones were: the amount of each residue; the respective ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) limit; the contemporary presence of different residues; an estimation of the daily intake, based on the amount of fruit and vegetables consumed per person. It has been possible to evaluate that the daily intake of pesticide residues in the province of Bologna during the period 2003-06 resulted lower than the ADI limits concerning the vegetables. According to the information on fruit consumption the daily intake of omethoate (O,O-dimethyl S-methylcarbamoylmethyl phosphorothioate) resulted higher than its ADI limit, of dicofol (2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(trichloromethyl)benzenemethanol) very close to the admitted limit, under the respective limits for all the other residues.

  1. Predicting dihedral angle probability distributions for protein coil residues from primary sequence using neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Glennie; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    residue in the input-window. The trained neural network shows a significant improvement (4-68%) in predicting the most probable bin (covering a 30°×30° area of the dihedral angle space) for all amino acids in the data set compared to first order statistics. An accuracy comparable to that of secondary...

  2. Numerical Investigation of the Residual Stress Distribution of Flat-Faced and Convexly Curved Tablets Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Saori; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Miura, Takahiro; Uehara, Naoto; Utsumi, Shunichi; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    The stress distribution of tablets after compression was simulated using a finite element method, where the powder was defined by the Drucker-Prager cap model. The effect of tablet shape, identified by the surface curvature, on the residual stress distribution was investigated. In flat-faced tablets, weak positive shear stress remained from the top and bottom die walls toward the center of the tablet. In the case of the convexly curved tablet, strong positive shear stress remained on the upper side and in the intermediate part between the die wall and the center of the tablet. In the case of x-axial stress, negative values were observed for all tablets, suggesting that the x-axial force always acts from the die wall toward the center of the tablet. In the flat tablet, negative x-axial stress remained from the upper edge to the center bottom. The x-axial stress distribution differed between the flat and convexly curved tablets. Weak stress remained in the y-axial direction of the flat tablet, whereas an upward force remained at the center of the convexly curved tablet. By employing multiple linear regression analysis, the mechanical properties of the tablets were predicted accurately as functions of their residual stress distribution. However, the multiple linear regression prediction of the dissolution parameters of acetaminophen, used here as a model drug, was limited, suggesting that the dissolution of active ingredients is not a simple process; further investigation is needed to enable accurate predictions of dissolution parameters.

  3. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-06-01

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the potential role of commercial-sector distributed energy resources (DER) with combined heat and power (CHP) in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. Historically, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. In our research, we examine how these medium-sized commercial buildings might implement DER and CHP. The buildings are able to adopt and operate various technologies, e.g., photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, batteries and thermal storage systems. We apply the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs and/or CO2 emissions. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California, existing tariffs of major utilities, and expected performance data of available technologies in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for these buildings. We compare different policy instruments, e.g., a CO2 pricing scheme or a feed-in tariff (FiT), and show their contributions to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goals of additional 4 GW CHP capacities and 6.7 Mt/a GHG reduction in California by 2020. By applying different price levels for CO2, we find that there is competition between fuel cells and PV/solar thermal. It is found that the PV/solar thermal adoption increases rapidly, but shows a saturation at high CO2 prices, partly due to limited space for PV and solar thermal. Additionally, we find that large office buildings are good hosts for CHP in general. However, most interesting is the fact that fossil-based CHP adoption also increases with increasing CO2 prices. We will show service territory specific results since the

  4. Study on stress-wave propagation and residual stress distribution of Ti-17 titanium alloy by laser shock peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yatian; Duan, Chenghong

    2017-11-01

    Laser shock peening has advantages of less restriction, better reinforcement, stronger controllability, and so on, which could greatly improve the fatigue properties of the material compared with traditional processes. In this paper, dual phase titanium alloy Ti-17 has been studied, and numerical simulation has been taken to analyze the stress-wave propagation rules in Ti-17 titanium alloy plates with different thicknesses. In addition, the distribution of residual stress which is obtained by experiments is used to verify the accuracy of the above rules. Furthermore, the variation rules of fatigue characteristics of plates with different thicknesses under the same laser shock peening parameters are analyzed. The results show that due to the reflection of the stress-wave, the final residual stress and fracture toughness of the specimen decrease, resulting in an increase of the crack propagation rate and crack length. Since thinner specimens have a higher frequency of stress-wave reflection, they show greater effects.

  5. Effects of binding materials on microaggregate size distribution in bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Huang, Nan; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Li, Yiwei; Zou, Qi

    2016-12-01

    It is recognized that for successful establishment of a vegetation cover on bauxite residue disposal areas, soil formation and a greater understanding of the processes of soil development are crucial. The stability of microaggregates is a very important physical property that prevents erosion in bauxite residues. Samples were collected from a disposal area in Central China to determine not only the mechanism of aggregation but also clay dispersion. Colloidal stability was assessed by determining organic matter, carbonate, electrolyte, clay mineral, and iron-aluminum oxide forms, as these would contribute to their stability. Organic matter improved microaggregate stability by combining with clay particles and polyvalent cations to form macroaggregates. Polyvalent cations such as calcium had a positive effect on particle flocculation, while organic molecules were more effective at stabilizing microaggregates. Removal of salinity dispersed silt-size aggregates into clay-size aggregates and reduced microaggregate stability. Calcium improved particle aggregation, while sodium had the reverse effect. Quartz powder was added to the residues but did not show any cementing effect, while free and amorphous iron-aluminum oxides were effective binding agents for microaggregate formation. We propose that the presence of organic matter and polyvalent cations, together with incorporation of organic carbon and calcium minerals, may enhance the stability of this material and prove beneficial toward improving its physical condition.

  6. Residual stress distribution of a 6061-T6 aluminum alloy under shear deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ruiz, C.; Figueroa, I.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Braham, C. [Laboratoire Procédés et Ingénierie Mécanique et Matériaux, CNRS UMR 8006, ENSAM-CNAM, 151, Bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, ETSEIB-Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Av Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundació CTM Centre Tecnológic, Pl. de la Ciencia 2, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Zanellato, O.; Baiz, S. [Laboratoire Procédés et Ingénierie Mécanique et Matériaux, CNRS UMR 8006, ENSAM-CNAM, 151, Bd de l’Hôpital, 75013 Paris (France); Gonzalez, G., E-mail: joseggr@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacán C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-07-18

    There is a lack of information with regards to the friction effect in ECAPed aluminum alloys, even though it might substantially modify the deformation at the surface. In this work, the friction effect at the surface and the deformation heterogeneity in the ECAPed aluminum alloy 6061-T6 were characterized. X-Ray diffraction was used to determine residual stresses (RS) on the sample surface. The volumetric sections were characterized by Synchrotron diffraction at ESRF beamline ID15B (Grenoble, France). It was found that the microhardness mapping and residual stress results showed a good agreement with the finite element analysis for the first layer studied. Minor strain variation, Δd/d as a function of (hkl) planes, for the different analyzed sections was found. The study also showed that there was an incomplete symmetry in the residual stress near the surface, even at up to a depth of 400 µm. The regions with higher deformation were found to be at the top and bottom parts of the sample, while the central region showed stress variations of up to 50 MPa.

  7. A distributed model predictive control based load frequency control scheme for multi-area interconnected power system using discrete-time Laguerre functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xu, Yanhe; Zhang, Yuncheng; Qian, Zhongdong

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a distributed model predictive control based load frequency control (MPC-LFC) scheme to improve control performances in the frequency regulation of power system. In order to reduce the computational burden in the rolling optimization with a sufficiently large prediction horizon, the orthonormal Laguerre functions are utilized to approximate the predicted control trajectory. The closed-loop stability of the proposed MPC scheme is achieved by adding a terminal equality constraint to the online quadratic optimization and taking the cost function as the Lyapunov function. Furthermore, the treatments of some typical constraints in load frequency control have been studied based on the specific Laguerre-based formulations. Simulations have been conducted in two different interconnected power systems to validate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed MPC-LFC as well as its superiority over the comparative methods. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation schemes with enhanced switch thermal distribution for single-phase AC-DC-AC reduced-switch converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    though various topologies have been proposed. The motivation of this paper is to study two promising single-phase ac-dc-ac converters using reduced number of switches, and subsequently proposes new modulation schemes for them. The proposed schemes help the converters to achieve a better thermal spread...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances and hence verifying the idea.......ulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a power converter in steady state, and they have been extensively studied, but mostly directed to three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac systems, are less widely pursued, even...

  9. Modulation Schemes With Enhanced Switch Thermal Distribution for Single-Phase AC–DC–AC Reduced-Switch Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    various topologies have since been proposed. The intention of this paper is, thus, to study two promising single-phase ac-dc-ac converters using reduced number of switches, and subsequently proposes modulation schemes for them. The proposed schemes help the converters to achieve better thermal spread...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances, hence verifying the analyses presented in this paper.......Modulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a converter in the steady state. They have, thus, been extensively studied, but directed more at three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac, are less widely pursued, even though...

  10. Prediction of Residual Stress Distributions in Welded Sections of P92 Pipes with Small Diameter and Thick Wall based on 3D Finite Element Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowei; Gong, Jianming; Zhao, Yanping; Wang, Yanfei

    2015-05-01

    This study used ABAQUS finite element (FE) software to investigate the residual stress distributions of P92 welded pipes in both the as-weld and post weld heat treated (PWHT) condition. Sequential coupling quasi-static thermo-mechanical in conjunction with moving double ellipsoidal heat source and an element add/remove technique to simulate deposition of new weld material, are combined in the 3D FE analysis. To validate the simulation results, the residual stresses in axial direction at the surface of pipe were measured by X-ray diffraction technique and compared with the results of FE analysis. Detailed characteristic distributions of the residual stresses are discussed. Results show that the FE model can predict the residual stress distributions satisfactorily. Highest residual stresses on the outer surface are found in the last weld bead to be deposited. And the highest tensile residual stress for the full welded section take place in heat affected zone (HAZ) near the middle thickness. Larger residual sstress can be found around the welding start point along the pipe circumference. Comparison of heat treated specimen and untreated specimen illustrates that PWHT has a strong effect on the residual stress field.

  11. Load distribution on abutment tooth, implant and residual ridge with distal-extension implant-supported removable partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudate, Yoshiki; Yoda, Nobuhiro; Nanba, Masahide; Ogawa, Toru; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant location on load distribution in the abutment tooth, implant and residual ridge with a distal-extension implant-supported removable partial denture (ISRPD). A mandibular unilateral distal-extension edentulous simulation model was used. Implants were inserted at the second premolar (mesial implant) and second molar (distal implant) positions in the edentulous area. An experimental ISRPD was fabricated of acrylic resin with a cobalt-chromium alloy framework. Loads on the implants and abutment tooth were measured with piezoelectric force transducers. The load on the residual ridge was measured with pressure-sensitive film. A vertical load of 100N was applied at the first molar region. Measurements were made under the following three conditions: with conventional removable partial denture (CRPD), with mesial-implant-supported removable partial denture (MISRPD), and with distal-implant-supported removable partial denture (DISRPD). In each condition, the unused implants were made inactive by eliminating contact with the inner surface of the denture. The load on the abutment tooth was greatest with DISRPD, followed by CRPD and MISRPD (Pdenture design on the load distribution is needed for determining the proper implant location of ISRPD. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A study into the distribution of gunshot residue particles in the random population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nick; Brown, Hayley; Cook, Michael; Redman, Kahlee; Condon, Tanith; Wrobel, Harald; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-05-01

    When considering the impact and value of gunshot residues (GSR) as forensic trace evidence, the likelihood of a suspect producing a positive GSR analysis result without having direct exposure to a firearm is a major consideration. Therefore, the random prevalence of GSR and 'GSR-like' residues in the wider population is a highly pertinent question when considering the probative value of such evidence. The random prevalence of GSR in two Australian jurisdictions - Victoria and South Australia - was assessed through the collection and analysis of GSR samples obtained from randomly selected members of the public. Volunteers were asked to declare any firearms use, hobbies or potential firearms exposure before allowing their hands to be sampled using aluminium GSR sample stubs coated in adhesive tape. A total of 289 samples, 120 from Victoria and 169 from South Australia were collected and analysed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS). Across all samples, three 'characteristic' three-component Pb/Ba/Sb particles were detected from a single subject in South Australia, corresponding to an overall prevalence of 0.3%. Two-component 'consistent' particles were more prevalent, with Pb/Sb particles being the most frequently occurring, in 8% of samples, and in South Australia only. A number of samples, approximately 7%, showed populations of single element particles of Pb, Ba and Sb, which has the potential to generate a false positive for GSR if using a bulk analysis technique such as NAA or AAS. The prevalence of GSR or 'GSR like' particles in this study matches closely with similar surveys conducted in other jurisdictions. Such surveys are a useful foundation for the creation of a probabilistic method for the assessment of GSR evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Residual stress distribution and deflection analysis of very thin GaN membrane supported devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, A.; Müller, A.; Konstantinidis, G.; Comanescu, F.; Purica, M.; Stefanescu, A.; Stavrinidis, A.; Dinescu, A.; Moldoveanu, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the deflection analysis and stress distribution in GaN membranes supported devices. The influence of metallization thickness and type on the deflection and stress distribution was analysed on several test structures. The thickness of the supporting GaN membrane was 0.5 µm. Through this analysis, we hope to gain a better understanding of the technological limits for manufacturing very thin and reliable GaN membrane supported devices like film bulk acoustic resonators and backside-illuminated UV photodetectors. The investigations have been performed by optical profilometry using the white light interferometry technique for the deflection and micro Raman spectroscopy for the stress analysis.

  14. Measuring heat balance residual at lake surface using distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Rimmer, A.; Lechinsky, Y.; Wenker, K.J.R.; Nussboim, S.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents a new method to verify the measurements of surface fluxes and the heat balance at a lake surface, by means of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) measurements from 0.5 m above to 1.5 m below the surface. Using a polyvinyl chloride hyperboloid construction, a floating

  15. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Petz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the

  16. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Pasteurized and Raw Milk Distributed in the South of Khorasan-e Razavi Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mortez Mohammadzadeh; Amiri, Mostafa; Riabi, Hamed Ramezani Awal; Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal

    2016-12-01

    The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 251 samples of commercial pasteurized milk packet distributed in schools (code A), raw milk collection centers in Gonabad city (code B), and pasteurized milk production factories (code C) in Gonabad city. The Copan test kit of Denmark Christian Hansen Company was used to monitor antibiotic residues in milk. The data were analysed employing Chi-square test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant differences using SPSS software version 20. The significant level was considered at pmilk samples were collected out of which 143 (57%) were code A, 84 (33.5%) code B and 24 (9.6%) code C. Total number of 189 samples (75.2%) were negative and 62 (24.8%) were positive. From the three types of milk samples, 41 samples (28.7%) of the code A, 18 samples (21.4%) of the code B and 3 samples (12.5%) of the code C were positive. In general, from the milk samples most contaminated with antibiotics, 17 samples were positive in January and regarding code A, 13 samples were positive in the same month. There was not a significant difference among the three types of milk (p>0.05). The highest number of milk samples (n=7) contaminated with antibiotics were related to code B (38.5%). Most positive cases were related to code A in winter. Also, there was no significant difference among the three types of contaminated milk regarding the year and month (p=0.164 and p=0.917, respectively). Pasteurized milk

  17. On the “Cracking” Scheme in the Paper “A Directional Coupler Attack Against the Kish Key Distribution System” by Gunn, Allison and Abbott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hsien-Pu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Gunn, Allison and Abbott (GAA [http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2709v2.pdf] proposed a new scheme to utilize electromagnetic waves for eavesdropping on the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN secure key distribution. We proved in a former paper [Fluct. Noise Lett. 13 (2014 1450016] that GAA’s mathematical model is unphysical. Here we analyze GAA’s cracking scheme and show that, in the case of a loss-free cable, it provides less eavesdropping information than in the earlier (Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv mean-square-based attack [Kish LB, Scheuer J, Phys. Lett. A 374:2140-2142 (2010], while it offers no information in the case of a lossy cable. We also investigate GAA’s claim to be experimentally capable of distinguishing—using statistics over a few correlation times only—the distributions of two Gaussian noises with a relative variance difference of less than 10-8. Normally such distinctions would require hundreds of millions of correlations times to be observable. We identify several potential experimental artifacts as results of poor KLJN design, which can lead to GAA’s assertions: deterministic currents due to spurious harmonic components caused by ground loops, DC offset, aliasing, non-Gaussian features including non-linearities and other non-idealities in generators, and the timederivative nature of GAA’s scheme which tends to enhance all of these artifacts.

  18. SPATIAL SCHEME FOR PROPERTIES DISTRIBUTION IN SCHEME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    geothermal heating and cooling. 3. METHOD OF STUDY. 3. METHOD OF STUDY. The varied water level conditions and unregulated shallow groundwater ..... Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion Systems: Prospects and Challenge in Nigerian Hydrological Setting. Nigerian Journal of Technology Vol. 32., No. 3, 538 –. 549.

  19. Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Nilsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a large proportion of available logging residues intended for extraction will not reach the energy-conversion industry, because some are lost during transportation or left on the clear-felled area. However, there is little understanding of where logging residue losses occur in the supply chain. In this study, the distribution of logging residues for two methods (dried- and fresh-stacked method to extract logging residues were studied in one clear-felled area. In addition, residue fractions were examined in a detailed comparison. Even though the fresh-stacked method left somewhat more logging residues at the clear-felled area, the differences are small between the methods. Approximately 30% of the total amount of logging residues was left behind between the harvester heaps, with an additional 10%–15% under these heaps and approximately 2%–3% beneath the windrows. The final product that was delivered to the energy-conversion industry was very similar, regardless of the extraction method used. The delivered chipped logging residues had moisture contents of 37% and 36% following fresh- and dried-stacked methods respectively, and in both cases the needle content in the processed logging residues was approximately 10%. However, the total amount of fine fractions (needles and fines was slightly higher following dried-stacking.

  20. Fracture Toughness Prediction under Compressive Residual Stress by Using a Stress-Distribution T-Scaling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Meshii

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the fracture toughness Jc of a material in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature region due to compressive residual stress (CRS was considered in this study. A straightforward fracture prediction was performed for a specimen with mechanical CRS by using the T-scaling method, which was originally proposed to scale the fracture stress distributions between different temperatures. The method was validated for a 780-MPa-class high-strength steel and 0.45% carbon steel. The results showed that the scaled stress distributions at fracture loads without and with CRS are the same, and that Jc improvement was caused by the loss in the one-to-one correspondence between J and the crack-tip stress distribution. The proposed method is advantageous in possibly predicting fracture loads for specimens with CRS by using only the stress–strain relationship, and by performing elastic-plastic finite element analysis, i.e., without performing fracture toughness testing on specimens without CRS.

  1. Residues, Distributions, Sources, and Ecological Risks of OCPs in the Water from Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lakes > Eastern Lakes and water area. The sources of the HCHs were mainly from the historical usage of lindane. DDTs were degraded under aerobic conditions, and the main sources were from the use of technical DDTs. The ecological risks of 5 OCPs were assessed by the species sensitivity distribution (SSD method in the order of heptachlor > γ-HCH > p,p′-DDT > aldrin > endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS > JC > ZM > TX, and those of different species were crustaceans > fish > insects and spiders. Overall, the ecological risks of OCP contaminants on aquatic animals were very low.

  2. Radiation safety management of residual long-lived radioactivity distributed in an inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kimura, Ken-ichi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Saito, Kyoko; Otake, Hidenori

    2011-07-01

    The depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room was measured by assaying concrete cores. Seven long-lived radioactive nuclides ((46)Sc, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (134)Cs, (152)Eu, (22)Na and (54)Mn) were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, γ) reaction are dominant, and that the activity induced by thermal neutrons is greater at a depth of 10-30 cm, rather than at the surface of the concrete, and decreased exponentially beyond a depth of ~40 cm. Although the specific activity at the surface was greater than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean specific activities in the walls and floor were less than the clearance level.

  3. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  4. Applying Incremental Sampling Methodology to Soils Containing Heterogeneously Distributed Metallic Residues to Improve Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, J L; Georgian, T; Gardner, K H; Douglas, T A

    2018-01-01

    This study compares conventional grab sampling to incremental sampling methodology (ISM) to characterize metal contamination at a military small-arms-range. Grab sample results had large variances, positively skewed non-normal distributions, extreme outliers, and poor agreement between duplicate samples even when samples were co-located within tens of centimeters of each other. The extreme outliers strongly influenced the grab sample means for the primary contaminants lead (Pb) and antinomy (Sb). In contrast, median and mean metal concentrations were similar for the ISM samples. ISM significantly reduced measurement uncertainty of estimates of the mean, increasing data quality (e.g., for environmental risk assessments) with fewer samples (e.g., decreasing total project costs). Based on Monte Carlo resampling simulations, grab sampling resulted in highly variable means and upper confidence limits of the mean relative to ISM.

  5. D-MSR: A Distributed Network Management Scheme for Real-Time Monitoring and Process Control Applications in Wireless Industrial Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Havinga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead.

  6. D-MSR: a distributed network management scheme for real-time monitoring and process control applications in wireless industrial automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Pouria; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2013-06-27

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures) in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead.

  7. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Deise Riba; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Saint’Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2014-01-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies. PMID:25075781

  8. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Riba Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meglumine antimoniate (MA and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  9. Fluorescent labeling of tRNA dihydrouridine residues: Mechanism and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jaskiran; Raj, Monika; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Dihydrouridine (DHU) positions within tRNAs have long been used as sites to covalently attach fluorophores, by virtue of their unique chemical reactivity toward reduction by NaBH4, their abundance within prokaryotic and eukaryotic tRNAs, and the biochemical functionality of the labeled tRNAs so produced. Interpretation of experiments employing labeled tRNAs can depend on knowing the distribution of dye among the DHU positions present in a labeled tRNA. Here we combine matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI-MS) analysis of oligonucleotide fragments and thin layer chromatography to resolve and quantify sites of DHU labeling by the fluorophores Cy3, Cy5, and proflavin in Escherichia coli tRNAPhe and E. coli tRNAArg. The MALDI-MS results led us to re-examine the precise chemistry of the reactions that result in fluorophore introduction into tRNA. We demonstrate that, in contrast to an earlier suggestion that has long been unchallenged in the literature, such introduction proceeds via a substitution reaction on tetrahydrouridine, the product of NaBH4 reduction of DHU, resulting in formation of substituted tetrahydrocytidines within tRNA. PMID:21628433

  10. Performance analysis of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for WDM-based systems for Gamma-Gamma distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-03-02

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme (TPMBS) for Free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred for practical consideration over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional heterodyne detection (HD) scheme for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherentnon-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability (CDF) of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB), and the average bit error rate (BER). Some selected results shows that we can obtain the higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential increasing of the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection based beam selection scheme without a considerable performance loss.

  11. Experimentally feasible quantum-key-distribution scheme using qubit-like qudits and its comparison with existing qubit- and qudit-based protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, H. F.; Wang, Qinan; Wong, Cardythy

    2017-02-01

    Recently, Chau [Phys. Rev. A 92, 062324 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.062324] introduced an experimentally feasible qudit-based quantum-key-distribution (QKD) scheme. In that scheme, one bit of information is phase encoded in the prepared state in a 2n-dimensional Hilbert space in the form (|i > ±|j >) /√{2 } with n ≥2 . For each qudit prepared and measured in the same two-dimensional Hilbert subspace, one bit of raw secret key is obtained in the absence of transmission error. Here we show that by modifying the basis announcement procedure, the same experimental setup can generate n bits of raw key for each qudit prepared and measured in the same basis in the noiseless situation. The reason is that in addition to the phase information, each qudit also carries information on the Hilbert subspace used. The additional (n -1 ) bits of raw key comes from a clever utilization of this extra piece of information. We prove the unconditional security of this modified protocol and compare its performance with other existing provably secure qubit- and qudit-based protocols on market in the one-way classical communication setting. Interestingly, we find that for the case of n =2 , the secret key rate of this modified protocol using nondegenerate random quantum code to perform one-way entanglement distillation is equal to that of the six-state scheme.

  12. Spatial distribution of triazine residues in a shallow alluvial aquifer linked to groundwater residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassine, Lara; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Khaska, Mahmoud; Verdoux, Patrick; Meffre, Patrick; Benfodda, Zohra; Roig, Benoît

    2017-03-01

    At present, some triazine herbicides occurrence in European groundwater, 13 years after their use ban in the European Union, remains of great concern and raises the question of their persistence in groundwater systems due to several factors such as storage and remobilization from soil and unsaturated zone, limited or absence of degradation, sorption in saturated zones, or to continuing illegal applications. In order to address this problem and to determine triazine distribution in the saturated zone, their occurrence is investigated in the light of the aquifer hydrodynamic on the basis of a geochemical approach using groundwater dating tracers (3H/3He). In this study, atrazine, simazine, terbuthylazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, and deethylterbuthylazine are measured in 66 samples collected between 2011 and 2013 from 21 sampling points, on the Vistrenque shallow alluvial aquifer (southern France), covered by a major agricultural land use. The frequencies of quantification range from 100 to 56 % for simazine and atrazine, respectively (LQ = 1 ng L-1). Total triazine concentrations vary between 15 and 350 ng L-1 and show three different patterns with depth below the water table: (1) low concentrations independent of depth but related to water origin, (2) an increase in concentrations with depth in the aquifer related to groundwater residence time and triazine use prior to their ban, and (3) relatively high concentrations at low depths in the saturated zone more likely related to a slow desorption of these compounds from the soil and unsaturated zone. The triazine attenuation rate varies between 0.3 for waters influenced by surface water infiltration and 4.8 for water showing longer residence times in the aquifer, suggesting an increase in these rates with water residence time in the saturated zone. Increasing triazine concentrations with depth is consistent with a significant decrease in the use of these pesticides for the last 10 years on this

  13. Residual circulation and thermohaline distribution of the Ría de Vigo: A 3-D hydrodynamical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Torres López

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional, non-linear, baroclinic model is described and tested for the first time to study the residual circulation and the thermohaline distribution of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain at short time scales and under different wind stress regimes. Two markedly different realistic scenarios were chosen: northerly upwelling-favourable winds and southerly downwelling-favourable winds. The numerical experiments carried out indicate that the hydrodynamic regime of the Ría de Vigo is mostly a consequence of wind events. As could be expected, moderately strong North winds reinforce the normal (positive Ría circulation, while winds blowing from the South, when sufficiently strong, reverse the typical circulation pattern and reduce the characteristic outgoing velocities and the flushing time inside the Ría. The temperature and salinity fields generated by the model in both situations were compared with observations and found to be in qualitatively good agreement, supporting the 3D velocity field distribution.

  14. A distributed scheme to manage the dynamic coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4-based health-monitoring WBANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deylami, Mohammad N; Jovanov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The overlap of transmission ranges between wireless networks as a result of mobility is referred to as dynamic coexistence. The interference caused by coexistence may significantly affect the performance of wireless body area networks (WBANs) where reliability is particularly critical for health monitoring applications. In this paper, we analytically study the effects of dynamic coexistence on the operation of IEEE 802.15.4-based health monitoring WBANs. The current IEEE 802.15.4 standard lacks mechanisms for effectively managing the coexistence of mobile WBANs. Considering the specific characteristics and requirements of health monitoring WBANs, we propose the dynamic coexistence management (DCM) mechanism to make IEEE 802.15.4-based WBANs able to detect and mitigate the harmful effects of coexistence. We assess the effectiveness of this scheme using extensive OPNET simulations. Our results indicate that DCM improves the successful transmission rates of dynamically coexisting WBANs by 20%-25% for typical medical monitoring applications.

  15. Age related constitutive laws and stress distribution in human main coronary arteries with reference to residual strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Jaroslav; Vitek, Karel; Cihak, Radomir; Konvickova, Svatava; Sochor, Miroslav; Horny, Lukas

    2002-01-01

    An analytical model has been used to simulate the effects of tissue aging on residual strain, constitutive relations and stiffness parameter in the main right and left (ramus circumflexus) human coronary arteries, based on experimental data. The experimental opening angle theta scatters considerably with age. The optimum angle theta(op) approximately equals 70 degrees, which makes the circumferential stress uniform in the arterial wall at a normal blood pressure, is approximately constant throughout aging. Above age of the 15 years the estimated and experimental values of theta are greater than theta(op) and therefore the mechanical load of the inner layers of the media and the intima decreases and the adventitia is overloaded. On the basis of nonlinear regression analysis, age-related constitutive laws of arterial wall circumferential stiffness have been determined. Above the age of 30, arterial wall hardening increases rapidly. The left coronary artery is stiffer than the right artery for groups from 35 to 45 years of age. Hyperelasticity theory has been used to identify age-related multiaxial stress through wall thickness. A theoretical model based on the reduced Green strain provides a very good representation of the coronary artery circumferential mechanical response and predicts its nearly isotropic behavior. Bio-composite material forms non-homogeneous stresses and, in the course of aging, it increases the adventitia loading. In groups aged from 10 to 15 years, whose coronary artery residual strains are low, the circumferential stress distribution has a classic form. Stiffness parameter beta gradually increases with age and this increase is significant above the age of 60. Parameter beta tends to decrease when the opening angle theta increases.

  16. Occurrence, distribution and possible sources of organochlorine pesticide residues in tropical coastal environment of India: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S K; Bhattacharya, B D; Bhattacharya, A; Chatterjee, M; Alam, A; Satpathy, K K; Jonathan, M P

    2008-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are an important potential component of chemical pollutants used extensively for agriculture and sanitation purposes in India as these are comparatively cheap and effective. These persistent organic compounds such as HCH isomers, DDT and its metabolites are the predominant chemical contaminants found along the Indian coast and thus constitute both alluring and grave areas of scientific research. Our objective in the paper is to provide a comprehensive account of the distribution of organochlorine pesticides in biotic and abiotic compartments of the Indian coastal environment, make some comments on their environmental sources, their movement through the food chain and possible ecotoxicological risk of health in biota including humans. The prevalent HCH, DDT and HCB concentrations differ markedly in eastern and western coast of India reflecting differing agricultural and other usage and their ultimate input into the coastal environment by several rivers and the bioturbation activities of macrozoobenthos (bivalve mollusks, polychaetous annelids, etc.). In several cases, the DDT levels exceeded the effects range-low (ER-L) and could thus cause acute biological impairments, in comparison with the sediment quality guidelines. Contributions of DDT metabolites (DDT, DDD and DDE residues) vary in different Indian coastal regions predominated by pp'-DDT and pp'-DDD. Measured concentrations of HCHs were lower than DDTs that might be due to higher water solubility, vapor pressure and biodegradability of the latter. HCH and DDT residues in fish in India were lower than those in the temperate countries indicating a lower accumulation in tropical fish, which might be related to rapid volatilization of this insecticide in the tropical environment. The concentrations of other chlorinated pesticides (aldrin, dieldrin, eldrin, methoxychlor, endosulfan sulphate) were lower and not generally of great concern.

  17. Non-destructive estimation of residual stress distribution of shot-peened steels based on nonlinear analysis of sin sup 2 psi diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, E; Kusumi, Y; Arai, K; Akiniwa, Y; Tanaka, K

    2003-01-01

    A new method of nondestructive estimation of the in-depth distribution of residual stresses is proposed by using monochromatic high-energy X-rays from synchrotron radiation source SPring-8. The X-ray with 72 keV energy was used for stress measurements of shot-peened steel samples, whose compressive zone extended a few hundred micrometers below the surface. The measurements were carried out by using the sin sup 2 psi method in a PSI-diffractometer. The obtained results of sin sup 2 psi diagrams showed nonlinearity due to the in-depth distribution of the residual stress. The stress distribution below the surface was estimated from the analysis to the nonlinearity of sin sup 2 psi diagrams. The estimated stress distribution agreed well with that determined by the conventional sin sup 2 psi method with Cr-Ka radiation corrected by surface removal effect. (author)

  18. Qualitative monitoring of tertiary treated wastewater reuse extensive distribution system: total coliforms number and residual chlorine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, E; Banou, S; Ntigkakis, D; Andreadakis, A; Borboudaki, K; Drakopoulou, S; Manios, T

    2007-04-01

    During a 5-month summer period, samples of tertiary treated wastewater flowing in an extensive distribution system composed of storage tanks and pipes were collected at 2-week intervals, from 21 different sampling points, including the exit from the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP producing this effluent treated one of the most popular European tourist resorts on the north coast of the island of Crete, at the southernmost point of Greece. The average summer equivalent population treated by the plant exceeded 50,000, falling to under 5,000 in the winter. The samples were analyzed for total coliforms number (TC in cfu / 100 mL) and residual chlorine concentration (RCHL in mg/L). In almost 60% of the samples the TC number was so large that it could be safe to suggest that the WWTP and distribution system failed to reach the EPA standards for wastewater reuse for tree irrigation (faecal coliforms < or = 200 cfu/100 mL and RCHL < 1 mg/L) due mainly to inflow and septage handling, above designed limits. The licensing operational and reuse standards were set in TC < or = 500 cfu/100 mL, where 76% of the analyzed samples recorded larger values. It was also estimated that in 14% of the samples the wastewater quality failed to reach even the less strict WHO standards of FC < or = 1.000 cfu/100 mL. When chlorination was properly adjusted the effluent quality was improved (last three sets of samplings for each collection point), helped by the WWTP inflow decrease. As a result the values recorded in all tanks and collectors were also improved. However, even then, the required licensing standards were randomly and barely achieved. This suggests that specific wastewater quality standard at the exit of a WWTP do not guarantee that the wastewater will still retain these characteristics at its final application point.

  19. Distribution and properties of gunshot residue originating from a Luger 9 mm ammunition in the vicinity of the shooting gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2009-01-10

    Examinations of various features of gunshot residue (GSR) collected from targets in a function of the shooting distance as well as from hands and the forearm, front and back parts of the upper clothing of the shooting person were performed with SEM-EDX. GSR samples were obtained using Walther P-99 pistol and Luger 9 mm ammunition of Polish production. The experiments were designed in such a manner that the substrates for collecting GSR reminded the ones usually obtained for examinations within criminal cases. Results of the performed examinations in the form of parameters describing GSR particles: the number of GSR, proportions of their chemical classes as well as their sizes revealed a dependence on the shooting distance both, in the direction of shooting and backwards, i.e. on the shooting person. The analysis of the distribution of particles in the vicinity of the shooting gun may be utilised in description of the general rules of the dispersion of GSR as well as in the reconstruction of a real shooting case.

  20. Evaluation of Spatial Resolution for Heavy Ion CT System Based on the Measurement of Residual Range Distribution With HIMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraishi, H.; Nishimura, K.; Abe, S.; Satoh, H.; Hara, S.; Hara, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Mogaki, T.; Kawai, R.; Yokoyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Tomida, T.; Ohno, Y.; Kanai, T.

    2009-10-01

    We report experimental results from a heavy ion CT system based on the measurement of residual range distribution using an X-ray intensifying screen and a charged coupled device (CCD) camera system. This technique was first investigated by Zygmanski (2000) for proton beams, and they reported that the spatial resolution was significantly degraded by multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) effects in the irradiated medium. Experiments were done on the spatial resolution phantom by using helium and carbon beams accelerated up to 120 MeV/u and 230 MeV/u by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), installed in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan, using a high performance intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. We show that the MCS blurring effect can be significantly reduced in the reconstructed image by using a carbon beam with this technique. Our results suggest that heavier particles such as carbon would be more useful if this technique is envisioned as a clinical tool to obtain data that would aid proton and/or heavy ion treatment planning.

  1. Effect of Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of small intestine in experimental diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Hong; Zhao, Jing-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhou, Shui-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Lin; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan; Gregersen, Hans

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of a Chinese medicine, Kaiyu Qingwei Jianji (KYQWJJ) used for diabetic treatment, on the morphometry and residual strain distribution of the small intestine in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats. Correlation analysis was also performed between the opening angle and residual strain with the blood glucose level. METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats weighing 220-240 g were included in this study. Thirty-two STZ-induced diabetic rats were subdivided into four groups (n = 8 in each group), i.e. diabetic control group (DM); high dose of KYQWJJ (T1, 36g/kg per day); low dose of KYQWJJ (T2, 17 g/kg per day) and Gliclazide (T3, 50 mg/kg per day). Another ten rats were used as non-diabetic control (CON). The medicines were poured directly into stomach lumen by gastric lavage twice daily. The rats of CON and DM groups were only poured the physiological saline. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured. Experimental period was 35 d. At the end of experiment, three 5-cm long segments were harvested from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Three rings of 1-2 mm in length for no-load and zero-stress state tests were cut from the middle of different segments. The morphometric data, such as the circumferential length, the wall thickness and the opening angle were measured from the digitized images of intestinal segments in the no-load state and zero-stress state. The residual strain was computed from the morphometry data. Furthermore, the linear regression analysis was performed between blood glucose level with morphometric and biomechanical data in the different intestinal segments. RESULTS: The blood glucose level of DM group was consistent 4-fold to 5-fold higher than those in CON group during the experiment (16.89 ± 1.11 vs 3.44 ± 0.15 mmol/L, P 0.05) was significantly lower than those in DM group. The plasma insulin levels of DM, T1, T2 and T3 groups were significantly lower than those in CON group (10.98 ± 1.02, 12.52 ± 1

  2. Geographical distribution and dramatic increases in incidences of malaria: consequences of the resettlement scheme in Gambela, SW Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woube, M

    1997-09-01

    The spatial distribution of malaria results from the interaction between vector, parasite, host, physical and human environments. This basic geographical approach provides an illustration of the geographical distribution of malaria in the world, particularly in the tropical regions. Due to the global climate change and population movements, it is predicted that malaria could have a greater impact on the non-immune or unprepared populations in the Northern Hemisphere in the coming decades. Presently, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the most adversely affected region in the world. Like any other SSA country, Ethiopia suffers from both epidemic (unstable) and endemic (stable) malaria in the high and lowland regions, respectively. Gambela is one of the areas with stable malaria in the humid tropical region of the country. This study is based on observations, unpublished data, interviews and discussions with settlers and officials in Gambela. It is found that a degree of diverse malaria prevalence is associated with altitudinal, temperature and rainfall variations. Owing to the settlement and land-use changes, unexpected rainfall patterns, temperature increase, unstable political system and poverty, malaria has gone beyond its geographical limits. As a result, the number of malaria affected people has increased in the last 12 years. It is suggested that proper physical and social planning, understanding the geography, entomology, epidemiology, behaviour and life-cycle of malaria parasite, cooperation between the policy-makers, malaria specialists, neighbouring countries and international communities are urgent, if malaria has to be controlled and eradicated.

  3. A Proposal of an Extended Method of IP Trace-Back for Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Using Dynamic Marking Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Katsuhiro; Okazaki, Naonobu; Watanabe, Akira; Park, Mi Rang

    In recent years, DoS (Denial of Service) attack and more powerful DDoS (Distributed DoS) attack pose security problems on the Internet. As the measure to these attacks, it is important to trace attackers and stop the attacks. However, since information of the attacker is “spoofed”, it is difficult to trace. Therefore, the method of specifying attackers is required. Savage et al. proposed a method to trace flooding attacks by “marked” packets. This method, however, has some problems gathering the attack packets through a lot of hops. In this paper, we propose a method to solve this problem by observing the feature of attack traffic and change the “marking probability” of the routers. We implement algorithms both of our proposed method and extending marking method to estimate the efficiency of them. From the results of some experiments, we will conclude the effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  4. A New Reactive-Power Sharing Scheme for Two Inverter-Based Distributed Generations with Unequal Line Impedances in Islanded Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyuk Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new reactive-power sharing scheme to reduce the circulating current when two inverter-based distributed generations (DGs operate in parallel through unequal line impedances in an islanded microgrid. If the terminal voltages of the two DGs are not equal due to the unequal line impedances, a circulating current due to reactive-power unbalance occurs, which increases system loss. The proposed droop control compensates the terminal voltage difference to reduce the circulating current by considering a feed-forward path of the line voltage drop. The feasibility of the proposed droop control was first verified through computer simulations, and then experiments with a hardware set-up in the lab. The experimental results were compared with the simulation results to confirm the feasibility of the proposed droop control.

  5. Modeling and evaluation of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution: sensitivity to size-resolved and sea-surface temperature dependent emission schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Spada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major sources of uncertainty in model estimates of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution is the emission parameterization. We evaluate a new sea-salt aerosol life cycle module coupled to the online multiscale chemical transport model NMMB/BSC-CTM. We compare 5 yr global simulations using five state-of-the-art sea-salt open-ocean emission schemes with monthly averaged coarse aerosol optical depth (AOD from selected AERONET sun photometers, surface concentration measurements from the University of Miami's Ocean Aerosol Network, and measurements from two NOAA/PMEL cruises (AEROINDOEX and ACE1. Model results are highly sensitive to the introduction of sea-surface-temperature (SST-dependent emissions and to the accounting of spume particles production. Emission ranges from 3888 Tg yr−1 to 8114 Tg yr−1, lifetime varies between 7.3 h and 11.3 h, and the average column mass load is between 5.0 Tg and 7.2 Tg. Coarse AOD is reproduced with an overall correlation of around 0.5 and with normalized biases ranging from +8.8% to +38.8%. Surface concentration is simulated with normalized biases ranging from −9.5% to +28% and the overall correlation is around 0.5. Our results indicate that SST-dependent emission schemes improve the overall model performance in reproducing surface concentrations. On the other hand, they lead to an overestimation of the coarse AOD at tropical latitudes, although it may be affected by uncertainties in the comparison due to the use of all-sky model AOD, the treatment of water uptake, deposition and optical properties in the model and/or an inaccurate size distribution at emission.

  6. Modeling and Evaluation of the Global Sea-Salt Aerosol Distribution: Sensitivity to Emission Schemes and Resolution Effects at Coastal/Orographic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, M.; Jorba, O.; Perez Garcia-Pando, C.; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major sources of uncertainty in model estimates of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution is the emission parameterization. We evaluate a new sea-salt aerosol life cycle module coupled to the online multi-scale chemical transport model NMMB/BSC-CTM. We compare 5 year global simulations using five state-of-the-art sea-salt open-ocean emission schemes with monthly averaged coarse aerosol optical depth (AOD) from selected AERONET sun photometers, surface concentration measurements from the University of Miami's Ocean Aerosol Network, and measurements from two NOAA/PMEL cruises (AEROINDOEX and ACE1). Model results are highly sensitive to the introduction of sea-surface-temperature (SST)-dependent emissions and to the accounting of spume particles production. Emission ranges from 3888 teragrams per year to 8114 teragrams per year, lifetime varies between 7.3 hours and 11.3 hours, and the average column mass load is between 5.0 teragrams and 7.2 teragrams. Coarse AOD is reproduced with an overall correlation of around 0.5 and with normalized biases ranging from +8.8 percent to +38.8 percent. Surface concentration is simulated with normalized biases ranging from minus 9.5 percent to plus 28 percent and the overall correlation is around 0.5. Our results indicate that SST-dependent emission schemes improve the overall model performance in reproducing surface concentrations. On the other hand, they lead to an overestimation of the coarse AOD at tropical latitudes, although it may be affected by uncertainties in the comparison due to the use of all-sky model AOD, the treatment of water uptake, deposition and optical properties in the model and/or an inaccurate size distribution at emission.

  7. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  8. Charged residues distribution modulates selectivity of the open state of human isoforms of the voltage dependent anion-selective channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Federico Amodeo

    Full Text Available Voltage Dependent Anion-selective Channels (VDACs are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They are responsible for the access of ions and energetic metabolites into the inner membrane transport systems. Three VDAC isoforms exist in mammalian, but their specific role is unknown. In this work we have performed extensive (overall ∼5 µs Molecular Dynamics (MD simulations of the human VDAC isoforms to detect structural and conformational variations among them, possibly related to specific functional roles of these proteins. Secondary structure analysis of the N-terminal domain shows a high similarity among the three human isoforms of VDAC but with a different plasticity. In particular, the N-terminal domain of the hVDAC1 is characterized by a higher plasticity, with a ∼20% occurrence for the 'unstructured' conformation throughout the folded segment, while hVDAC2, containing a peculiar extension of 11 amino acids at the N-terminal end, presents an additional 310-helical folded portion comprising residues 10' to 3, adhering to the barrel wall. The N-terminal sequences of hVDAC isoforms are predicted to have a low flexibility, with possible consequences in the dynamics of the human VDACs. Clear differences were found between hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 against hVDAC2: a significantly modified dynamics with possible important consequence on the voltage-gating mechanism. Charge distribution inside and at the mouth of the pore is responsible for a different preferential localization of ions with opposite charge and provide a valuable rationale for hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 having a Cl-/K+ selectivity ratio of 1.8, whereas hVDAC2 of 1.4. Our conclusion is that hVDAC isoforms, despite sharing a similar scaffold, have modified working features and a biological work is now requested to give evidence to the described dissimilarities.

  9. Charged residues distribution modulates selectivity of the open state of human isoforms of the voltage dependent anion-selective channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Giuseppe Federico; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage Dependent Anion-selective Channels (VDACs) are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They are responsible for the access of ions and energetic metabolites into the inner membrane transport systems. Three VDAC isoforms exist in mammalian, but their specific role is unknown. In this work we have performed extensive (overall ∼5 µs) Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the human VDAC isoforms to detect structural and conformational variations among them, possibly related to specific functional roles of these proteins. Secondary structure analysis of the N-terminal domain shows a high similarity among the three human isoforms of VDAC but with a different plasticity. In particular, the N-terminal domain of the hVDAC1 is characterized by a higher plasticity, with a ∼20% occurrence for the 'unstructured' conformation throughout the folded segment, while hVDAC2, containing a peculiar extension of 11 amino acids at the N-terminal end, presents an additional 310-helical folded portion comprising residues 10' to 3, adhering to the barrel wall. The N-terminal sequences of hVDAC isoforms are predicted to have a low flexibility, with possible consequences in the dynamics of the human VDACs. Clear differences were found between hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 against hVDAC2: a significantly modified dynamics with possible important consequence on the voltage-gating mechanism. Charge distribution inside and at the mouth of the pore is responsible for a different preferential localization of ions with opposite charge and provide a valuable rationale for hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 having a Cl-/K+ selectivity ratio of 1.8, whereas hVDAC2 of 1.4. Our conclusion is that hVDAC isoforms, despite sharing a similar scaffold, have modified working features and a biological work is now requested to give evidence to the described dissimilarities.

  10. Coordinated voltage control scheme for distribution grid with on-load tap-changer and distributed energy resources in a market context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.; Mehmedalic, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary changes in the electricity system are reshaping the system operation and control to achieve a more sustainable environment. In this transition, distributed energy resources (DERs) may introduce some problems, such as intermittent features, but could also play an important role on...... for case study. The necessity of the coordination between DER units and the grid facilities, e.g., on-load tap-changer (OLTC), is addressed....

  11. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  12. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  13. Modeling and evaluation of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution: sensitivity to emission schemes and resolution effects at coastal/orographic sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, M.; Jorba, O.; Perez, C.; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate two of the major sources of uncertainty in the model estimation of the global distribution of sea-salt aerosol, i.e. the sensitivity to the emission parameterization and the influence of model resolution in coastal regions characterized by complex topography and/or steep orographic barriers where some observation sites are located. We evaluate a new sea-salt aerosol lifecycle module implemented within the online chemical transport model NMMB/BSC-CTM. Because of its multiscale core, the model is able to cover a wide range of scales. Global simulations using four state-of-the-art sea-salt emission schemes are evaluated against monthly-averaged aerosol optical depth (AOD) from selected AERONET Sun photometers, surface concentration measurements from the University of Miami's Ocean Aerosol Network and measurements from two NOAA/PMEL cruises (AEROINDOEX and ACE1). The model results are highly sensitive to the introduction of SST-dependent emissions and to the accounting of spume particles production. Depending on emission scheme, annual emissions range from 4312.9 Tg to 8979.7 Tg in the 2006. Sea-salt lifetime varies between 7.7 h and 12.0 h and the annual mean column mass load is between 5.9 Tg and 7.9 Tg. Observed coarse AOD monthly averages are reproduced with an overall correlation around 0.8 (a correlation of 0.6 is produced when applying the SST dependent scheme). Although monthly-averaged surface concentrations are overall in good agreement with the observations, there is a subset of coastal sites surrounded by complex topography where the global model overestimates by a factor of 2 or more. Using regional high-resolution simulations, we show that these large errors are mostly due to the global model's inability to capture local scale effects. In New Zeland, the increase in resolution produces a significant decrease of surface concentrations (up to 40%) - due to changes in the wind circulation and precipitation driven by the orographic barrier

  14. Application of multivariate heavy-tailed distributions to residuals in the estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Pollak, E J; De Donato, M; Hussain, T; Imumorin, I G

    2013-04-01

    Assumptions of normality in most animal breeding applications may make inferences vulnerable to the presence of outliers. Heavy-tail densities are viable alternatives to normal distributions and provide robustness against unusual or outlying observations when used to model the densities of residual effects. Our objective is to compare estimates of genetic parameters by fitting multivariate normal (MN) or heavy-tail distributions [multivariate Student's t (MSt) and multivariate slash (MS)] for residuals in data of body birth weight (BBW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weight traits in beef cattle. A total of 17,019 weight records for BBW, WW, and YW from 1998 through 2010 from a large commercial cow/calf operation in the sand hills of Nebraska were analyzed. Models included fixed effects of contemporary group and sire breed whereas animal and maternal effects were random and the degrees of freedom (v) was treated as unknown for MSt and MS. Model comparisons using deviance information criteria (DIC) favored MSt over MS and MN models, respectively. The posterior means [and 95% posterior probability intervals (PPI)] of v for the MSt and MS models were 5.28 (4.80, 5.85) and 1.88 (1.76, 2.00), respectively. Smaller values of posterior densities of v for MSt and MS models confirm that the assumption of normally distributed residuals is not adequate for the analysis of BBW, WW, and YW datasets. Posterior mean (PM) and posterior median (PD) estimates of direct and maternal genetic variances were the same and posterior densities of these parameters were found to be symmetric. The 95% PPI estimates from MN and MSt models for BBW did not overlap, which indicates significant difference between PM estimates from MN or MSt models. The observed antagonistic relationship between additive direct and additive maternal effects indicated that genetic evaluation and selection strategies will be sensitive to the assumed model for residuals.

  15. Towards a distributed electric generation scheme with non-conventional energies; Hacia un esquema de generacion electrica distribuida con energias no convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Several factors contributed to the existence of large electric systems as we know them today, such as: the increase of the electric demand by the advancement of the industrial development, the appearance of electric equipment, and household devices and by the advancement in the engineering systems, just to mention a few of them. With all this, the third part of the World population still does not have access to the electricity service. The efforts that the small electric enterprises perform to carry the service up to the site where it is required, every day time becomes more expensive and less effective. Exhausted by the weight of a huge economic debt, many electric utilities of the developing countries find each time more difficult to obtain financing to extend the power lines. This situation becomes still more serious with the present privatization scheme of the electric utilities. Although new technologies are being developed to counteract the negative effects caused by the large electricity generation power plants, the society seems to begin to show preferences for more benign to the environment options. The scheme of distributed generation can be given in to modalities: By means of isolated systems in remote sites, where there is not access to the conventional services; and with systems interconnected with the electric network where this is available [Espanol] Varios factores contribuyeron a la aparicion de los grandes sistemas electricos como los conocemos hoy en dia, tales como: el crecimiento de la demanda electrica por el avance del desarrollo industrial, la aparicion de equipos electricos y aparatos electrodomesticos y por avances en la ingenieria de los sistemas, por mencionar algunos. Con todo ello, la tercera parte de la poblacion mundial no tiene aun acceso al servicio electrico. Los esfuerzos que realizan las companias electricas para llevar el servicio hasta donde se requiere, resultan cada vez mas costosos y menos efectivos. Agobiadas por el peso

  16. Influence of alternating soil drying and wetting on the desorption and distribution of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues in soil organic fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, N. D.; Mucha, M.; Thiele, B.; Hofmann, D.; Burauel, P.

    2012-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alternating soil drying and wetting on the release of aged 14C-labeled pesticide residues and their distribution in soil organic fractions (humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin substances). The used soils (gleyic cambisol; Corg 1.2%, pH 7.2) were obtained from the upper soil layer of two individual outdoor lysimeter studies containing either environmentally long-term aged 14C residues of the herbicide ethidimuron (ETD; 0-10 cm depth; time of aging: 9 years) or methabenzthiazuron (MBT; 0-30 cm depth; time of aging: 17 years). Triplicate soil samples (10 g dry soil equivalents) were (A=dry/wet) previously dried (45° C) or (B=wet/wet) directly mixed with pure water (1+2, w:w), shaken (150 rpm, 1 h), and centrifuged (~2000 g). The resulting supernatant was removed, filtered (0.45 μm) and subjected to 14C activity analysis via liquid scintillation counter (LSC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, and LC-MS-MS analysis. This extraction procedure was repeated 15 individual times, for both setups (A) and (B). To determine the distribution of the aged 14C labelled pesticide residues in the soil organic matter fractions, the soil samples were subject to humic and fulvic acids fractionations at cycles 0, 4, 10, and 15. The residual pesticide 14C activity associated with the humic, fulvic, and humin substances (organic fraction remaining in the soil) fractions was determined via LSC. The water-extracted residual 14C activity was significantly higher in the extracts of the dry/wet, compared to the wet/wet soil samples for both pesticides. The total extracted 14C activity in the dry/wet soil extracts accounted for 51.0% (ETD) and 15.4% (MBT) in contrast to 19.0% (ETD) and 4.7% (MBT) in the wet/wet extracts after 15 water extractions. LC-MS-MS analysis revealed the parent compound ETD 27.9 μg kg-1 soil (dry/wet) and 10.7 μg kg-1 soil (wet/wet), accounting for 3.45 and 1.35% of total parent compound

  17. Residual stress distributions in a P91 steel-pipe girth weld before and after post weld heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paddea, S., E-mail: s.paddea@open.ac.uk [Materials Engineering, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Francis, J.A. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Paradowska, A.M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bouchard, P.J. [Materials Engineering, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Shibli, I.A. [European Technology Development Ltd., Leatherhead KT22 7RD, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residual stresses in a pipe girth weld in P91 steel have been measured in both the as-welded and PWHT conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest tensile residual stresses coincided with the HAZ boundary and the microstructural region that is prone to type IV cracking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compressive residual stresses were measured in the weld metal, in a location corresponding to the final weld pass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The location of the peak compressive stresses can be explained by the effect of solid-state phase transformation. - Abstract: In this study the residual stresses in a pipe girth weld in a ferritic-martensitic power plant steel were measured by neutron diffraction and compared with the corresponding metallurgical zones in the weld region. It was found that, in both the as-welded and post-weld heat treated condition, the highest tensile stresses resided near the outer boundary of the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and towards the weld root region. Substantial tensile direct and hydrostatic stresses existed across the HAZ, including the fine-grained and intercritically annealed regions, where premature type IV creep failures manifest in 9-12 Cr steel welds. Compressive stresses were found in the weld metal coinciding with the last weld bead to be deposited. Constrained cooling tests on test coupons illustrated that these compressive stresses can be explained in terms of the influence that solid-state phase transformations have on the accumulation of stress in welds.

  18. Spatial distribution of pollutant emissions from crop residue burning in the Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan: uncertainties and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Hussain, Sabir; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-11-01

    Emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from burning of wheat straw, rice straw, cotton straw, and bagasse were studied for the two agricultural-activity-dominated provinces of Pakistan: the Punjab and Sindh. Emission estimates, inventory, and allocation maps indicated distinct patterns of pollutant emissions in the two provinces. Comparative pollutant emission analysis revealed that the Punjab province produced higher pollutants from agricultural biomass burning than Sindh province. Total emissions from these two provinces were estimated to be 16,084.04 Gg (16.08 Tg) for the year 2006/2007. Wheat straw was found to be the dominant source of CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, and EC emissions in the both provinces. However, for the emissions of CH4, NH3, EC, and OC, the Punjab and Sindh provinces differed markedly for the crop residue share in these pollutant emissions. Rice straw was found to be the largest contributor of CH4 (51%) and NH3 (65%) in Sindh province. When total emissions from biomass burning were considered at provincial level, wheat straw and bagasse were the major crop residues which accounted for 72 and 14% of pollutant emissions, respectively, in the Punjab province, whereas, in Sindh province, the order of crop residue contribution in total emission was as follows: wheat (59%) > bagasse (19%) > rice (14%) > cotton (7%). Emission inventory data of total pollutants per unit area under cultivation (Mg ha(-1)) revealed that Sindh province produced higher emissions per hectare for wheat straw, rice straw, and bagasse than the Punjab province.

  19. Multiuser Switched Diversity Scheduling Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback sys...

  20. Carbon stock estimates for forests in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. A GIS based method for evaluating spatial distribution of residual biomass for bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Maria Victoria; Blanco, Daniel; Carballo, Maria Teresa; Calvo, Luis Fernando [Chemical Engineering, Institute of Natural Resources, University of Leon, Avenida de Portugal, 41, 24071 Leon (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Analysis of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks (as equivalent CO{sub 2}) was performed in the Castilla y Leon region, Spain. Data from the second and third Spanish Forest Inventories (1996 and 2006) were used. Total aboveground biomass was calculated using allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEF), the first method giving higher values. Forests of Castilla y Leon stored 77,051,308 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 8.18 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 1996 and 135,531,737 Mg of biomass, with a mean of 14.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, in 2006. The total equivalent CO{sub 2} in this region's forests increased 9,608,824 Mg year{sup -1} between 1996 and 2006. In relation to the Kyoto Protocol, the Castilla y Leon forests have sequestered 3 million tons of CO{sub 2} per year, which represents 6.4% of the total regional emission of CO{sub 2}. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based method was also used to assess the geographic distribution of residual forest biomass for bio-energy in the region. The forest statistics data on area of each species were used. The fraction of vegetation cover, land slope and protected areas were also considered. The residual forest biomass in Castilla y Leon was 1,464,991 Mg year{sup -1}, or 1.90% of the total aboveground biomass in 1996. The residual forest biomass was concentrated in specific zones of the Castilla y Leon region, suitable for the location of industries that utilize biomass as energy source. The energy potential of the residual forest biomass in the Castilla y Leon region is 7350 million MJ per year. (author)

  1. The relationship between multilevel models and non-parametric multilevel mixture models: Discrete approximation of intraclass correlation, random coefficient distributions, and residual heteroscedasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights, Jason D; Sterba, Sonya K

    2016-11-01

    Multilevel data structures are common in the social sciences. Often, such nested data are analysed with multilevel models (MLMs) in which heterogeneity between clusters is modelled by continuously distributed random intercepts and/or slopes. Alternatively, the non-parametric multilevel regression mixture model (NPMM) can accommodate the same nested data structures through discrete latent class variation. The purpose of this article is to delineate analytic relationships between NPMM and MLM parameters that are useful for understanding the indirect interpretation of the NPMM as a non-parametric approximation of the MLM, with relaxed distributional assumptions. We define how seven standard and non-standard MLM specifications can be indirectly approximated by particular NPMM specifications. We provide formulas showing how the NPMM can serve as an approximation of the MLM in terms of intraclass correlation, random coefficient means and (co)variances, heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 1, and heteroscedasticity of residuals at level 2. Further, we discuss how these relationships can be useful in practice. The specific relationships are illustrated with simulated graphical demonstrations, and direct and indirect interpretations of NPMM classes are contrasted. We provide an R function to aid in implementing and visualizing an indirect interpretation of NPMM classes. An empirical example is presented and future directions are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Laser shock peening without coating induced residual stress distribution, wettability characteristics and enhanced pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, S.; Kulkarni, Aniket; Vasanth, G.; Kalainathan, S.; Shukla, Pratik; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-01-01

    Low energy laser shock peening without coating (LSPwC) was conducted on AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel specimens with varying pulse densities or overlapping. Highest magnitude of compressive residual stress (CRS) was achieved for an optimized pulse density of 2500 pulses/cm2 (75% overlapping). The 2-D and 3-D topographical analysis were indicative of the fact that controlled roughening of the surface was achieved after the LSPwC process. After the LSPwC process, the hydrophilic unpeened surface was converted into the hydrophobic surface, thus decreasing the wettability characteristics of the surface. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results reveal that there is a beginning of the martensite transformation and the rise in the intensity value of the peaks after LSPwC indicates the presence of compressive residual stresses induced in the specimen. The optical microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope results provided evidence of grain refinement and deformation induced refinement features such as multidirectional mechanical twinning, dislocations lines, micro shear cells and stacking faults in the near and sub-surface areas. The average hardness value of the LSPwC specimens was found to be increased by 28% more than the untreated specimen. The potentiodynamic polarization revealed that there was a considerable amount of increase in the pitting corrosion resistance after the LSPwC process, thus, supporting to extend the fatigue life of the specimen. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analysis depicts that the LSPwC process supports the formation of the strong passivation layer in 3.5% NaCl solution.

  3. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  4. Critical analysis of the Bennett-Riedel attack on secure cryptographic key distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-noise scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo B Kish

    Full Text Available Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1 argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

  5. Critical analysis of the Bennett-Riedel attack on secure cryptographic key distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-noise scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B; Abbott, Derek; Granqvist, Claes G

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

  6. A practical tool for estimating subsurface LNAPL distributions and transmissivity using current and historical fluid levels in groundwater wells: Effects of entrapped and residual LNAPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, R. J.; Rayner, J. L.; Davis, G. B.

    2017-10-01

    A model is presented to account for elevation-dependent residual and entrapped LNAPL above and below, respectively, the water-saturated zone when predicting subsurface LNAPL specific volume (fluid volume per unit area) and transmissivity from current and historic fluid levels in wells. Physically-based free, residual, and entrapped LNAPL saturation distributions and LNAPL relative permeabilities are integrated over a vertical slice of the subsurface to yield the LNAPL specific volumes and transmissivity. The model accounts for effects of fluctuating water tables. Hypothetical predictions are given for different porous media (loamy sand and clay loam), fluid levels in wells, and historic water-table fluctuations. It is shown the elevation range from the LNAPL-water interface in a well to the upper elevation where the free LNAPL saturation approaches zero is the same for a given LNAPL thickness in a well regardless of porous media type. Further, the LNAPL transmissivity is largely dependent on current fluid levels in wells and not historic levels. Results from the model can aid developing successful LNAPL remediation strategies and improving the design and operation of remedial activities. Results of the model also can aid in accessing the LNAPL recovery technology endpoint, based on the predicted transmissivity.

  7. Study on Mobility, Distribution and Rapid Ion Mobility Spectrometry Detection of Seven Pesticide Residues in Cucumber, Apple, and Cherry Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Nan; Yuan, Chunhao; Chen, Ronghua; Yang, Juan; Li, Yifan; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2017-01-11

    This research explores the mobility and distribution rules of simazine, acetamiprid, hexazinone, paclobutrazol, amitraz, clofentezine, and boscalid in the pulp and peel of apple, cucumber, and cherry tomato. A laboratory test was carried out by treating the matrices with standard solution for different periods of time. The percentage sorption of pesticides ranged from 0.02 to 89.3% for the three matrices. The pesticides' distribution was also determined, and all pesticides showed ratio values (Q) between pulp and peel concentrations in the three matrices of <0.8, which proved that the highest pesticides' content was found in the peel. In addition, a rapid and simple process combining a surface swab capture method and pulse glow discharge-ion mobility spectrometry (PGD-IMS) detection was established for the detection of pesticides on matrix surfaces. In the swab method, the whole matrix surface was swabbed manually by swab sticks, and swab sticks were agitated in acetonitrile to release the pesticides. The releasing factors of pesticides in the three matrices were calculated. The linearity, LOD, LOQ, and matrix effect were investigated to assess the applicability of the swab-IMS process in practical analysis. The swab-IMS method is rapid, sensitive, and quantitative and can be achieved in the field.

  8. Subtle Change in the Charge Distribution of Surface Residues May Affect the Secondary Functions of Cytochrome c*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Simanta Sarani; Sil, Pallabi; Haldar, Shubhasis; Mitra, Samaresh; Chattopadhyay, Krishnananda

    2015-01-01

    Although the primary function of cytochrome c (cyt c) is electron transfer, the protein caries out an additional secondary function involving its interaction with membrane cardiolipin (CDL), its peroxidase activity, and the initiation of apoptosis. Whereas the primary function of cyt c is essentially conserved, its secondary function varies depending on the source of the protein. We report here a detailed experimental and computational study, which aims to understand, at the molecular level, the difference in the secondary functions of cyt c obtained from horse heart (mammalian) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). The conformational landscape of cyt c has been found to be heterogeneous, consisting of an equilibrium between the compact and extended conformers as well as the oligomeric species. Because the determination of relative populations of these conformers is difficult to obtain by ensemble measurements, we used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a method that offers single-molecule resolution. The population of different species is found to depend on multiple factors, including the protein source, the presence of CDL and urea, and their concentrations. The complex interplay between the conformational distribution and oligomerization plays a crucial role in the variation of the pre-apoptotic regulation of cyt c observed from different sources. Finally, computational studies reveal that the variation in the charge distribution at the surface and the charge reversal sites may be the key determinant of the conformational stability of cyt c. PMID:25873393

  9. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...

  10. A software system used for load distribution at a combined heat and power plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electric power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarch'yan, V. A.; Chernyaev, A. N.; Andryushin, A. V.; Pechenkin, S. P.; Lisitsa, V. I.; Logvinov, E. I.; Molchanov, A. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The authors describe various approaches to construction of an algorithm for the solution of the problem of load distribution at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electrical energy supply on the basis of which the software system has been developed. Methods of obtaining energy characteristics of the equipment used for solving the problem of load distribution were studied. The results of the implementation of the software system for load distribution at the CHP-23 plant belonging to OAO Mosenergo are given. Realization of recommendations on maintaining an operational mode of the equipment with due regard for its optimal loading makes it possible to obtain fuel savings of up to 1%.

  11. Real-time determination of the efficacy of residual disinfection to limit wastewater contamination in a water distribution system using filtration-based luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Deininger, Rolf A

    2010-05-01

    Water distribution systems can be vulnerable to microbial contamination through cross-connections, wastewater backflow, the intrusion of soiled water after a loss of pressure resulting from an electricity blackout, natural disaster, or intentional contamination of the system in a bioterrrorism event. The most urgent matter a water treatment utility would face in this situation is detecting the presence and extent of a contamination event in real-time, so that immediate action can be taken to mitigate the problem. The current approved microbiological detection methods are culture-based plate count methods, which require incubation time (1 to 7 days). This long period of time would not be useful for the protection of public health. This study was designed to simulate wastewater intrusion in a water distribution system. The objectives were 2-fold: (1) real-time detection of water contamination, and (2) investigation of the sustainability of drinking water systems to suppress the contamination with secondary disinfectant residuals (chlorine and chloramine). The events of drinking water contamination resulting from a wastewater addition were determined by filtration-based luminescence assay. The water contamination was detected by luminescence method within 5 minutes. The signal amplification attributed to wastewater contamination was clear-102-fold signal increase. After 1 hour, chlorinated water could inactivate 98.8% of the bacterial contaminant, while chloraminated water reduced 77.2%.

  12. SU-E-T-327: Dosimetric Impact of Beam Energy for Intrabeam Breast IORT with Different Residual Cancer Cell Distributions After Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwid, M; Zhang, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of beam energy to the IORT treatment of residual cancer cells with different cancer cell distributions after breast-conserving surgery. Methods: The three dimensional (3D) radiation doses of IORT using a 4-cm spherical applicator at the energy of 40 keV and 50 keV were separately calculated at different depths of the postsurgical tumor bed. The modified linear quadratic model (MLQ) was used to estimate the radiobiological response of the tumor cells assuming different radio-sensitivities and density distributions. The impact of radiation was evaluated for two types of breast cancer cell lines (α /β=10, and α /β =3.8) at 20 Gy dose prescribed at the applicator surface. Cancer cell distributions in the postsurgical tissue field were assumed to be a Gaussian with the standard deviations of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm respectively, namely the cancer cell infiltrations of 1.5, 3, and 6 mm respectively. The surface cancer cell percentage was assumed to be 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% and 10% separately. The equivalent uniform doses (EUD) for all the scenarios were calculated. Results: The EUDs were found to be dependent on the distributions of cancer cells, but independent of the cancer cell radio-sensitivities and the density at the surface. EUDs of 50 keV are 1% larger than that of 40 keV. For a prescription dose of 20 Gy, EUDs of 50 keV beam are 17.52, 16.21 and 13.14 Gy respectively for 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm of the standard deviation of cancer cell Gaussian distributions. Conclusion: The impact by selected energies of IORT beams is very minimal. When energy is changed from 50 keV to 40 keV, the EUDs are almost the same for the same cancer cell distribution. 40 keV can be safely used as an alternative of 50 keV beam in IORT.

  13. Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, sediment, and combusted residue at an e-waste processing site in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anna O W; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-06-01

    The environmental pollution and health impacts caused by the primitive and crude recycling of e-waste have become urgent global issues. Guiyu, China is a major hotspot of e-waste recycling. In this study, the levels and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil in Guiyu were determined to investigate the effect of e-waste activities on the environment and to identify possible sources of these pollutants. Sediment samples from a local duck pond, water gullies, a river tributary, and combusted residue from e-waste burning sites were also investigated. The general trend found in soil (Σ16 PAHs) was acid leaching site > duck pond > rice field > printer roller dump site > reservoir (control site) and ranged from 95.2 ± 54.2 to 5,210 ± 89.6 ng/g (dry wt). The highest average total PAH concentrations were found in combusted residues of wires, cables, and other computer electrical components located at two e-waste open burning sites (18,600 and 10,800 ± 3,940 ng/g). These were 195- and 113-fold higher than the PAH concentrations of soil at the control site. Sediment PAH concentrations ranged from 37.2 ± 6 to 534 ± 271 ng/g. Results of this study provide further evidence of significant input of PAHs to the environment attributed to crude e-waste recycling.

  14. Knockdown of the 7S globulin subunits shifts distribution of nitrogen sources to the residual protein fraction in transgenic soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Mori, Yoshihiro; Yasue, Kazuho; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Kitamura, Keisuke; Abe, Jun

    2014-12-01

    A platform of gene silencing by amiRNA had been established in fertile transgenic soybean. We demonstrated that knockdown of storage protein shifted the distribution of nitrogen sources in soybean seeds. Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) were designed using the precursor sequence of the endogenous soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) miRNA gma-miR159a and expressed in transgenic soybean plants to suppress the biosynthesis of 7S globulin, which is one of the major storage proteins. Seed-specific expression of these amiRNAs (amiR-7S) resulted in a strong suppression of 7S globulin subunit genes and decreased accumulation of the 7S globulin subunits in seeds. Thus, the results demonstrate that a platform for gene silencing by amiRNA was first developed in fertile transgenic soybean plants. There was no difference in nitrogen, carbon, and lipid contents between amiR-7S and control seeds. Four protein fractions were collected from defatted mature seeds on the basis of solubility at different pH to examine the distribution of nitrogen sources and compensatory effects. In the whey and lipophilic fractions, nitrogen content was similar in amiR-7S and control seeds. Nitrogen content was significantly decreased in the major soluble protein fraction and increased in the residual fraction (okara) of the amiR-7S seeds. Amino acid analysis revealed that increased nitrogen compounds in okara were proteins or peptides rather than free amino acids. Our study indicates that the decrease in 7S globulin subunits shifts the distribution of nitrogen sources to okara in transgenic soybean seeds.

  15. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed...

  16. Radial distribution of power starting from the reactivity using nodal schemes of second and third order; Distribucion radial de potencia a partir de la reactividad usando esquemas nodales de segundo y tercer orden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Alonso V, G. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Ocoyocac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valle G, E. del [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: adl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work two nodal schemes of finite element are presented, one of second and the other of third order of accurate that allow to determine the radial distribution of power starting from the corresponding reactivities.The schemes here developed were obtained taking as starting point the equation developed by Driscoll et al, the one which is based on the diffusion approach of 1-1/2 energy groups. This equation relates the power fraction of an assemble with their reactivity and with the power fractions and reactivities of the assemblies that its surround it. Driscoll and collaborators they solve in form approximate such equation supposing that the reactivity of each assemble it is but a lineal function of the burnt one of the fuel. The spatial approach carries out it with the classic technique of finite differences centered in mesh. Nevertheless that the algebraic system to which its arrive it can be solved without more considerations introduce some additional suppositions and adjustment parameters that it allows them to predict results comparable to those contributed by three dimensions analysis and this way to reduce the one obtained error when its compare their results with those of a production code like CASMO. Also in the two schemes that here are presented the same approaches of Driscoll were used being obtained errors of the one 10% and of 5% for the second schemes and third order respectively for a test case that it was built starting from data of the Cycle 1 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant. These errors its were obtained when comparing with a computer program based on the matrix response method. It is sought to have this way a quick and efficient tool for the multicycle analysis in the fuel management. However, this model presents problems in the appropriate prediction of the average burnt of the nucleus and of the burnt one by lot. (Author)

  17. On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper  is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models.  In addition, the  paper investigates four related issues namely; the  effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and  a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.

  18. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  19. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  1. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetics of coffee industrial residue pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model and components separation of bio-oil by sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the kinetics of coffee industrial residue (CIR) pyrolysis, the effect of pyrolysis factors on yield of bio-oil component and components separation of bio-oil. The kinetics of CIR pyrolysis was analyzed using distributed activation energy model (DAEM), based on the experiments in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and it indicated that the average of activation energy (E) is 187.86kJ·mol-1. The bio-oils were prepared from CIR pyrolysis in vacuum tube furnace, and its components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among pyrolysis factors, pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor on components yield of bio-oil, directly concerned with the volatilization and yield of components (palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid and caffeine). Furthermore, a new method (sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis) was put forward and applied to the components separation of bio-oil. Based on experiments, a solution of components separation of bio-oil was come out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New substrate containing agroindustrial carnauba residue for production of papaya under foliar fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca G. Albano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of organic waste in the composition of substrates for seedlings constitutes an alternative to the recycling of these materials. Thus, an experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings in substrate containing carnauba wax residue, under foliar fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates, with treatments distributed in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five materials used as substrates, in the presence and absence of foliar fertilization. The materials used were: earthworm humus, carnauba residue + fresh rice husk; carnauba residue in powder; carnauba residue semi-decomposed and mixture of carnauba residues: carnauba residue + fresh rice husk + carnauba residue semi-decomposed + carnauba residue in powder, at the proportion 1:1:1. The agroindustrial residue of carnauba wax semi-decomposed can be used as substrates in the production of ‘Formosa’ papaya seedlings. The foliar fertilization increases the quality of papaya seedlings, leading to increment in leaf area, root volume and sulfur content in the leaves, thus becoming a necessary practice.

  4. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface water of a megacity in central China: seasonal-spatial distribution and fate in Wuhan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lili; Wei, Liangfu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Surface water quality closely correlating with human health suffered increasing organochlorine pesticide (OCP) pollution due to the intensive anthropogenic activities in megacities. In the present study, 112 water samples collected from 14 lakes and 11 drinking water source sites in Wuhan were detected for the residues of OCPs in November 2013 and July 2014, respectively. The ΣOCPs ranged from 5.61 to 13.62 ng L-1 in summer with the maximum value in Yezhi Lake and 3.18 to 7.73 ng L-1 in winter with the highest concentration in Yandong Lake. Except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), OCP concentrations in summer were significantly higher than those in winter mostly due to the non-point source pollution including land runoff in summer. Source apportionment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs revealed the historical use of technical HCH and lindane and the new input of DDT, respectively. The spatial distribution of OCPs was not uniform in the surface water of Wuhan because of the significant influence of land development and fishery. The risk assessments showed the heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide in most sampling sites exceeded the threshold set by the European Union, indicating the possible adverse effects for aquatic lives. Negligible non-carcinogenic risks for drinking and bathing as well as carcinogenic risks for bathing were found in the surface water. However, the total carcinogenic risks of all OCPs (∑Rs) caused by drinking in summer were higher than the safe level of 10-7 in all sampling sites. It was implied that the surface water in Wuhan was not safe for directly drinking without effective purification.

  5. Perry's Intellectual Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Patrick G.; Guthrie, Victoria L.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes William Perry's intellectual scheme and places it in the context of the 1990's. Perry's scheme of cognitive development, though more than thirty years old, is still being used by practitioners today to enhance practice in and out of the classroom. It laid a foundation for new research to extend, challenge, and build onto the scheme.…

  6. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  7. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  8. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaba Katureebe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites.Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba, moderate (Kihihi, and high transmission (Nagongera. Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR, expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690; (b cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361; and (c entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR, expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107. The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period, universal LLIN distribution was

  9. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katureebe, Agaba; Zinszer, Kate; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Kilama, Maxwell; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Yeka, Adoke; Mawejje, Henry; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Donnelly, Martin J.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Smith, David L.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites. Methods and Findings Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba), moderate (Kihihi), and high transmission (Nagongera). Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a) enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR), expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690); (b) cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361); and (c) entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR), expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107). The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period

  10. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  11. A dynamic digital signature scheme without third parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Elsas, M.; Van der Lubbe, J.C.A.; Weber, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a digital signature scheme for dynamic coalitions. Particularly, we enable members to join and leave. Our scheme does not need trusted or oblivious third parties (TTPs or OTPs). In this distributed scheme there is a changing secret group key dependent on the members in the group. Each

  12. The Mawala irrigation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    de Bont, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  13. Accounting for Non-Gaussian Sources of Spatial Correlation in Parametric fMRI Paradigms II: A Method to Obtain First Level Analysis Residuals with Uniform and Gaussian Spatial Autocorrelation Function and Independent and Identically Distributed Time-Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K

    2017-11-22

    A recent study (Eklund et al., 2016) has shown that cluster-wise family-wise error (FWE) rate corrected inferences made in parametric statistical methods based fMRI studies over the past couple of decades may have been invalid, particularly for cluster defining thresholds less stringent than p autocorrelation functions (sACF) of fMRI data had been modeled incorrectly to follow a Gaussian form, whereas empirical data suggests otherwise (Eklund et al., 2016). Hence the residuals from general linear model (GLM) based fMRI activation estimates in these studies may not have possessed a homogenously Gaussian sACF (Eklund et al., 2016). Here we propose a method based on the assumption that heterogeneity and non-Gaussianity of the sACF of the first-level GLM analysis residuals, as well as temporal autocorrelations in the first-level voxel residuals time-series, are caused by unmodeled MRI signal from neuronal and physiological processes as well as motion and other artifacts which can be approximated by appropriate decompositions of the first-level residuals with principal component analysis (PCA), and removed. We show that application of this method yields GLM residuals with significantly reduced spatial correlation, nearly Gaussian sACF and uniform spatial smoothness across the brain, thereby allowing valid cluster-based FWE corrected inferences based on assumption of Gaussian spatial noise. We further show that application of this method renders the voxel time-series of first-level GLM residuals independent, and identically distributed across time (which is a necessary condition for appropriate voxel-level GLM inference), without having to fit ad-hoc stochastic colored noise models. Further the detection power of individual subject brain activation analysis is enhanced. This method will be especially useful for case studies, which rely on first-level GLM analysis inferences.

  14. A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.

  15. The data cyclotron query processing scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Goncalves (Romulo); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractDistributed database systems exploit static workload characteristics to steer data fragmentation and data allocation schemes. However, the grand challenge of distributed query processing is to come up with a self-organizing architecture, which exploits all resources to manage the hot

  16. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well...

  17. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  18. Ponzi scheme diffusion in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anding; Fu, Peihua; Zhang, Qinghe; Chen, Zhenyue

    2017-08-01

    Ponzi schemes taking the form of Internet-based financial schemes have been negatively affecting China's economy for the last two years. Because there is currently a lack of modeling research on Ponzi scheme diffusion within social networks yet, we develop a potential-investor-divestor (PID) model to investigate the diffusion dynamics of Ponzi scheme in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks. Our simulation study of artificial and real Facebook social networks shows that the structure of investor networks does indeed affect the characteristics of dynamics. Both the average degree of distribution and the power-law degree of distribution will reduce the spreading critical threshold and will speed up the rate of diffusion. A high speed of diffusion is the key to alleviating the interest burden and improving the financial outcomes for the Ponzi scheme operator. The zero-crossing point of fund flux function we introduce proves to be a feasible index for reflecting the fast-worsening situation of fiscal instability and predicting the forthcoming collapse. The faster the scheme diffuses, the higher a peak it will reach and the sooner it will collapse. We should keep a vigilant eye on the harm of Ponzi scheme diffusion through modern social networks.

  19. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  20. Military Post Office Mail Distribution Scheme (MPOMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    CONSULATE CEBU PHILIPPINES 96346-0002 AMERICAN CONSULATE CHIANG MAI THAILAND 34005-0002 AMERICAN CONSULATE COLON PANAMA 34030-0002 AMERICAN CONSULATE...DODDS, COEVORDEN ES 09751-0005 DODDS, CRAILSHEIM ES 34008-0005 DODDS, CRISTOBAL JHS/HS 09378-0005 DODDS, CROUGHTON ES 09378-0005 DODDS, CROUGHTON MS

  1. Distribution of Flunixin Residues in Muscles of Dairy Cattle Dosed with Lipopolysaccharide or Saline and Treated with Flunixin by Intravenous or Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Schneider, Marilyn J; Smith, David J

    2016-12-28

    Twenty dairy cows received flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg bw, administered once daily by either the intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) route for three consecutive days with either intravenous normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) providing a balanced design with five animals per group. Cows were sacrificed after a 4 day withdrawal period, and 13 muscle types were collected and assayed for flunixin by LC-MS/MS. After elimination of sample outliers, the main effects of route of administration (IV or IM), treatment (NS or LPS), and tissue type significantly (P flunixin residues, with no interaction (P > 0.05). Intramuscular (nonlabel) flunixin administration produced greater (P flunixin residues in muscle than the IV (label) administration, whereas LPS resulted in lower flunixin levels. Differences among the tissue levels indicate it is necessary to specify the tissue to be used for any monitoring of drug levels for consumer protection.

  2. Correlation of Magnetic Properties and Residual Stress Distribution Monitored by X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction in Welded AISI 1008 Steel Sheets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vourna, P.; Hervoches, Charles; Vrána, Miroslav; Ktena, A.; Hristoforou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2015), s. 6200104 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) * neutron diffraction (ND) * residual stress * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015

  3. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  4. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire....... 664 households returned a completed questionnaire. There were five answering categories for each label in the questionnaire: * have not seen the label before. * I have seen the label before but I do not know the precise contents of the labelling scheme. * I have seen the label before, I do not know...

  5. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  6. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  7. A study of gunshot residue distribution for close-range shots with a silenced gun using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2017-03-01

    Detailed physical and chemical analysis of gunshot residue deposited in the nearest vicinity of a submachine gun alone and with a sound suppressor was performed. The studies were inspired by recent shooting cases with the use of a firearm with a silencer and the need to estimate the shooting distance to human body naked and covered with clothing. A series of experiments were performed in the shooting range using a machine pistol and the appropriate ammunition cal. 7.65mm Browning. Targets were placed in the range of 0-30cm from the gun and covered either with white cotton fabric or a porcine skin that mocked people's clothing and the naked skin. Both the organic and inorganic residue were examined by means of optical microscopy, infrared spectrometry as well as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The influence of factors, such as sound suppressor, shooting distance and the substrate type on the mechanism of particles spread and their availability for research was established and discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution and mobility of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and antimony (Sb) from ammunition residues on shooting ranges for small arms located on mires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariussen, Espen; Johnsen, Ida Vaa; Strømseng, Arnljot Einride

    2017-04-01

    An environmental survey was performed on shooting ranges for small arms located on minerotrophic mires. The highest mean concentrations of Pb (13 g/kg), Cu (5.2 g/kg), Zn (1.1 g/kg), and Sb (0.83 g/kg) in the top soil were from a range located on a poor minerotrophic and acidic mire. This range had also the highest concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Sb in discharge water (0.18 mg/L Pb, 0.42 mg/L Cu, 0.63 mg/L Zn, and 65 μg/L Sb) and subsurface soil water (2.5 mg/L Pb, 0.9 mg/L Cu, 1.6 mg/L Zn, and 0.15 mg/L Sb). No clear differences in the discharge of ammunition residues between the mires were observed based on the characteristics of the mires. In surface water with high pH (pH ~7), there was a trend with high concentrations of Sb and lower relative concentrations of Cu and Pb. The relatively low concentrations of ammunition residues both in the soil and soil water, 20 cm below the top soil, indicates limited vertical migration in the soil. Channels in the mires, made by plant roots or soil layer of less decomposed materials, may increase the rate of transport of contaminated surface water into deeper soil layers and ground water. A large portion of both Cu and Sb were associated to the oxidizable components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form inner-sphere complexes with organic matter. The largest portion of Pb and Zn were associated with the exchangeable and pH-sensitive components in the peat, which may imply that these elements form outer-sphere complexes with the peat.

  9. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Vassbotten, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the amount of distributed generation(DG) in distribution systems have increased. This poses problems for the traditional protection scheme, with non-directional over-current relays and fuses. When DG is introduced the load flow in distribution systems are often reversed; there is a surplus of power on the radial. Present thesis seeks to determine the most beneficial protection scheme to use in distribution systems with DG. To investigate the impact of different relays and...

  10. LevelScheme: A level scheme drawing and scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    LevelScheme is a scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica. The main emphasis is upon the construction of level schemes, or level energy diagrams, as used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, and hadronic physics. LevelScheme also provides a general infrastructure for the preparation of publication-quality figures, including support for multipanel and inset plotting, customizable tick mark generation, and various drawing and labeling tasks. Coupled with Mathematica's plotting functions and powerful programming language, LevelScheme provides a flexible system for the creation of figures combining diagrams, mathematical plots, and data plots. Program summaryTitle of program:LevelScheme Catalogue identifier:ADVZ Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVZ Operating systems:Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Macintosh OS X, and Linux Programming language used:Mathematica 4 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test and documentation:3 051 807 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem:Creation of level scheme diagrams. Creation of publication-quality multipart figures incorporating diagrams and plots. Method of solution:A set of Mathematica packages has been developed, providing a library of level scheme drawing objects, tools for figure construction and labeling, and control code for producing the graphics.

  11. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  12. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  13. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  14. MIT Scheme Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    their Butterfly Scheme Reference, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this

  15. Global distribution of tropospheric ozone from satellite measurements using the empirically corrected tropospheric ozone residual technique: Identification of the regional aspects of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fishman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Using coincident observations of total ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS and stratospheric ozone profiles from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV instruments, detailed maps of tropospheric ozone have been derived on a daily basis over a time period spanning more than two decades. The resultant climatological seasonal depictions of the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR show much more detail than an earlier analysis that had used coincident TOMS and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE ozone profiles, although there are many similarities between the TOMS/SAGE TOR and the TOMS/SBUV TOR climatologies. In particular, both TOR seasonal depictions show large enhancements in the southern tropics and subtropics in austral spring and at northern temperate latitudes during the summer. The much greater detail in this new data set clearly defines the regional aspect of tropospheric ozone pollution in northeastern India, eastern United States, eastern China, and west and southern Africa. Being able to define monthly climatologies for each year of the data record provides enough temporal resolution to illustrate significant interannual variability in some of these regions.

  16. A repeat-until-success quantum computing scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beige, A [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lim, Y L [DSO National Laboratories, 20 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118230, Singapore (Singapore); Kwek, L C [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542, Singapore (Singapore)

    2007-06-15

    Recently we proposed a hybrid architecture for quantum computing based on stationary and flying qubits: the repeat-until-success (RUS) quantum computing scheme. The scheme is largely implementation independent. Despite the incompleteness theorem for optical Bell-state measurements in any linear optics set-up, it allows for the implementation of a deterministic entangling gate between distant qubits. Here we review this distributed quantum computation scheme, which is ideally suited for integrated quantum computation and communication purposes.

  17. Managing logging residue under the timber sale contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Adams

    1980-01-01

    Management of logging residue is becoming an important part of timber sale planning. This involves controlling the amount of residue remaining on the ground and its distribution by diameter size class. Some residue is beneficial.An interdisciplinary team specified a desired residue level for one clearcutting unit of this trial. For comparison another cutting...

  18. A New Distributed Localization Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks%无线传感器网络中一种新的分布式定位方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡兴红; 邵惠鹤; 冯瑞

    2008-01-01

    Node localization in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is treated as a functional dual of target tracking from a novelperspective in the paper. Different from the traditional tracking problem in WSN, using the static location-waxe node to estimate the moving target, the mobile node is used to help unknown nodes to accurately discover their positions. A new node localization scheme virtual beacons-energy ratios localization (VB-ERL) and its refinements for the WSN axe presented. In the scheme, the mobile node moves in the surveillant field based on the Gauss-Markov mobility model and periodically broadcasts the information packets. Each static unknown node receives the virtual beacons and energy in its sensing range, and estimates its location by finding the intersection of a set of hyper-spheres. Simulation results show the proposed scheme is efficient.

  19. An Elaborate Secure Quantum Voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Lei; Xie, Shu-Cui; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2017-10-01

    An elaborate secure quantum voting scheme is presented in this paper. It is based on quantum proxy blind signature. The eligible voter's voting information can be transmitted to the tallyman Bob with the help of the scrutineer Charlie. Charlie's supervision in the whole voting process can make the protocol satisfy fairness and un-repeatability so as to avoid Bob's dishonest behaviour. Our scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to achieve voting, counting and immediate supervision. In addition, the program also uses quantum key distribution protocol and quantum one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security.

  20. Autonomous droop scheme with reduced generation cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Droop scheme has been widely applied to the control of Distributed Generators (DGs) in microgrids for proportional power sharing based on their ratings. For standalone microgrid, where centralized management system is not viable, the proportional power sharing based droop might not suit well since...... DGs are usually of different types unlike synchronous generators. This paper presents an autonomous droop scheme that takes into consideration the operating cost, efficiency and emission penalty of each DG since all these factors directly or indirectly contributes to the Total Generation Cost (TGC...

  1. Droop Scheme With Consideration of Operating Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    considered even though they are different for different types of DGs. This letter thus proposes an alternative droop scheme, which can better distinguish the different operating characteristics and objectives of the DGs grouped together in a weighted droop expression. The power sharing arrived in the steady......Although many droop schemes have been proposed for distributed generator (DG) control in a microgrid, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power sharing based on the DG kVA ratings. Other factors like generation costs, efficiencies, and emission penalties at different loads have not been...

  2. Foundations of residual-density analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Kathrin; Henn, Julian

    2008-05-01

    New and concise descriptors of the residual density are presented, namely the gross residual electrons, the net residual electrons and the fractal dimension distribution. These descriptors indicate how much residual density is present and in what way it is distributed, i.e. the extent to which the distribution is featureless. The amount of residual density present accounts for noise in the experimental data as well as for modeling inadequacies. Therefore, the minimization of the gross residual electrons during refinement serves as a quality criterion. In the case where only Gaussian noise is present in the residual density, the fractal distribution is parabolic in shape. Deviations from this shape therefore serve as an indicator for systematic errors. The new measures have been applied to simulated and experimental data in order to study the effects of noise, model inadequacies and truncation in the experimental resolution. These measures, although designed and examined with particular regard to applications of space residual density, are very general and can in principle also be applied to space and momentum residual densities in a one-, two-, three- or higher-dimensional Euclidean space.

  3. Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the

  4. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  5. The impact of disease distribution on survival in patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer cytoreduced to microscopic residual: A gynecologic oncology group study ☆,☆☆,★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chad A.; Miller, Austin; Miller, Caela; Krivak, Thomas C.; Farley, John H.; Chernofsky, Mildred R.; Stany, Michael P.; Rose, G. Scott; Markman, Maurie; Ozols, Robert F.; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Maxwell, G. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the survival impact of initial disease distribution on patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cytoreduced to microscopic residual. Methods We reviewed data from 417 stage III EOC patients cytoreduced to microscopic disease and given adjuvant intravenous platinum/paclitaxel on one of three randomized Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) trials. We subdivided patients into three groups based on preoperative disease burden: (1) minimal disease (MD) defined by pelvic tumor and retroperitoneal metastasis (2) abdominal peritoneal disease (APD) with disease limited to the pelvis, retroperitoneum, lower abdomen and omentum; and (3) upper abdominal disease (UAD) with disease affecting the diaphragm, spleen, liver or pancreas. We assessed the survival impact of potential prognostic factors, focusing on initial disease distribution using a proportional hazards model and estimated Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Results The study groups had similar clinicopathologic characteristics. Median overall survival (OS) was not reached in MD patients compared to 80 and 56 months in the APD and UAD groups (P < 0.05). The five-year survival percentages for MD, APD, and UAD were 67%, 63%, and 45%. In multivariate analysis, the UAD group had a significantly worse prognosis than MD and APD both individually and combined (Progression Free Survival (PFS) Hazards Ratio (HR) 1.44; P = 0.008 and OS HR 1.77; P = 0.0004 compared to MD + APD). Conclusion Stage III EOC patients with initial disease in the upper abdomen have a worse prognosis despite cytoreductive surgery to microscopic residual implying that factors beyond cytoreductive effort are important in predicting survival. PMID:21683993

  6. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS OF FIRST ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS. ... Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences ... KEY WORDS: backward differentiation scheme, collocation, initial value problems. Global Jnl ...

  7. Distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides residues in sediments and Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) from along the Mid-Western coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Young; Yang, Dong Beom; Hong, Gi Hoon; Shin, Kyung Hoon

    2014-08-30

    The distribution and bioaccumulation features of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs were investigated in the sediments and Manila clams collected from along the Mid-Western coast of Korea. The measured concentrations of ΣPCBs, ΣDDTs and ΣHCHs were 1.08-3.5, 0.12-0.35 and 0.090-0.30 ng g(-1) dw in sediment, and 33-390, 7.4-46 and 6.3-27 ng g(-1) lipid in Manila clam, respectively. Their levels were found to be relatively lower than those of other contaminated areas and the consumption of Manila clam from these areas seems to be safe for human health according to calculated lifetime cancer risk and hazard indices. The ΣPCBs and ΣDDTs concentrations in sediments showed a significant relationship to those in clams. The significant correlation was observed between BSAF in clams and Kow for each PCB congeners and DDT metabolites. These findings support that the PCBs and DDTs levels, which are highly hydrophobic chemicals, in clam reflect the sediment pollution through bioaccumulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of dietary olaquindox on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the distribution of its residues in fish tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huitao; Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Lu

    2014-10-01

    Olaquindox (OLA), one of quinoxaline-N, N-dioxides, has been put under ban. However it was used as a medicinal feed additive early; it promotes the growth of livestock and prevents them from dysentery and bacterial enteritis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary OLA on the growth of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea R.) and the histological distribution of OLA and its metabolite 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (MQCA) in fish tissues. Four diets containing 0 (control), 42.5, 89.5 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA, respectively, were formulated and tested, 3 cages (1.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.5 m) each diet and 100 juveniles (9.75 ± 0.35 g) each cage. The fish were fed to satiation twice a day at 05:00 am and 17:00 pm for 8 weeks. The survival rate of fish fed the diet containing 42.5 and 89.5 mg kg-1 OLA was significantly higher than that of fish fed the diet containing 0 and 277.2 mg kg-1 OLA ( P muscle (0.24 and 0.06 mg kg-1, respectively). In average, fish fed the diet containing OLA had the highest content of OLA and MQCA in liver which was followed by skin and muscle ( P human health.

  9. Bivariate discrete Linnik distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Antony Mundassery

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Christoph and Schreiber (1998a studied the discrete analogue of positive Linnik distribution and obtained its characterizations using survival function. In this paper, we introduce a bivariate form of the discrete Linnik distribution and study its distributional properties. Characterizations of the bivariate distribution are obtained using compounding schemes. Autoregressive processes are developed with marginals follow the bivariate discrete Linnik distribution.

  10. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  11. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  12. Distributed parallel processing applied to an implicit multigrid Euler/Navier-Stokes algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysinger, T. L.; Caughey, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    An implicit multigrid algorithm for the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations has been implemented within the framework of multiple block-structured grids in which the physical domain is spatially decomposed into several blocks and the solution is advanced in parallel on each block. Utilities have been developed to implement such a scheme in a distributed computing environment. The multi-block algorithm is designed so that the explicit residual calculation is identical to that of single-block scheme, and therefore converged solutions for both schemes must be the same. To accelerate convergence, synchronous and asynchronous multigrid strategies are implemented. Significant speedups have been achieved in a multiple processor environment, while convergence rates similar to those of the single-block scheme are observed.

  13. Automatic Assessment of Pathological Voice Quality Using Higher-Order Statistics in the LPC Residual Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiYeoun Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A preprocessing scheme based on linear prediction coefficient (LPC residual is applied to higher-order statistics (HOSs for automatic assessment of an overall pathological voice quality. The normalized skewness and kurtosis are estimated from the LPC residual and show statistically meaningful distributions to characterize the pathological voice quality. 83 voice samples of the sustained vowel /a/ phonation are used in this study and are independently assessed by a speech and language therapist (SALT according to the grade of the severity of dysphonia of GRBAS scale. These are used to train and test classification and regression tree (CART. The best result is obtained using an optima l decision tree implemented by a combination of the normalized skewness and kurtosis, with an accuracy of 92.9%. It is concluded that the method can be used as an assessment tool, providing a valuable aid to the SALT during clinical evaluation of an overall pathological voice quality.

  14. Transform domain Wyner-Ziv video coding with refinement of noise residue and side information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    are successively updating the estimated noise residue for noise modeling and side information frame quality during decoding. Experimental results show that the proposed decoder can improve the Rate- Distortion (RD) performance of a state-of-the-art Wyner Ziv video codec for the set of test sequences.......Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm which mainly exploits the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of side information at the decoder. This paper considers feedback channel based Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) DVC. The coding efficiency of TDWZ video...... coding does not match that of conventional video coding yet, mainly due to the quality of side information and inaccurate noise estimation. In this context, a novel TDWZ video decoder with noise residue refinement (NRR) and side information refinement (SIR) is proposed. The proposed refinement schemes...

  15. Why sampling scheme matters: the effect of sampling scheme on landscape genetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent trend in genetic studies of wild populations where researchers have changed their sampling schemes from sampling pre-defined populations to sampling individuals uniformly across landscapes. This reflects the fact that many species under study are continuously distributed rather than clumped into obvious "populations". Once individual...

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  17. Caracterização das perdas e distribuição de cobertura vegetal em colheita mecanizada de soja Characterization of losses and crop residue cover distribution in soybean mechanized harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson de Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de controle de qualidade nas operações inserido na agricultura é viabilizado por incidir diretamente nos principais objetivos do processo produtivo: retorno econômico e aumento da produtividade. A colheita mecanizada normalmente é realizada sem que haja controle efetivo para que a variabilidade das perdas fique dentro de padrões aceitáveis. Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de determinar e caracterizar as perdas e a distribuição da cobertura vegetal após a colheita mecanizada da soja, por meio de ferramenta de controle estatístico de processo (cartas de controle. A média da perda de grãos total foi próxima do limite superior aceitável para a cultura da soja, apresentando alta variabilidade entre os pontos, tornando o processo fora de controle. A distribuição de cobertura vegetal manteve-se em processo controlado, com maior variabilidade onde o relevo foi mais inclinado. A utilização das cartas de controle foi eficiente na identificação dos pontos fora de controle e na avaliação da qualidade do processo de colheita.The concept of operation control inserted in agriculture is made possible by making a directly influence in the main objectives of productive process, economic return and increase of productivity. The mechanized harvest normally is carried out without an effective control of the variability of losses so that it maintains acceptable standards. This research aimed to determinate and characterize the losses and crop residue cover distribution after soybean mechanized harvest, using the tool of statistical process control (control charts. The average of total grain losses was near the upper limit specified for losses in soybean, showing high variation between points, and putting the process out of control. The residue crop cover distribution stayed under control process, with greater variability where the terrain was more sloping. The use of control charts was efficient to identify the points out of control

  18. Comparison of Spatial Interpolation Schemes for Rainfall Data and Application in Hydrological Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of precipitation is an important aspect of water-related research. The use of different interpolation schemes in the same catchment may cause large differences and deviations from the actual spatial distribution of rainfall. Our study analyzes different methods of spatial rainfall interpolation at annual, daily, and hourly time scales to provide a comprehensive evaluation. An improved regression-based scheme is proposed using principal component regression with residual correction (PCRR and is compared with inverse distance weighting (IDW and multiple linear regression (MLR interpolation methods. In this study, the meso-scale catchment of the Fuhe River in southeastern China was selected as a typical region. Furthermore, a hydrological model HEC-HMS was used to calculate streamflow and to evaluate the impact of rainfall interpolation methods on the results of the hydrological model. Results show that the PCRR method performed better than the other methods tested in the study and can effectively eliminate the interpolation anomalies caused by terrain differences between observation points and surrounding areas. Simulated streamflow showed different characteristics based on the mean, maximum, minimum, and peak flows. The results simulated by PCRR exhibited the lowest streamflow error and highest correlation with measured values at the daily time scale. The application of the PCRR method is found to be promising because it considers multicollinearity among variables.

  19. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements classificat....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources.......Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements....... While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...

  20. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Jagmohan Tanti1 R Thangadurai2. Central University of Jharkhand, CTI Campus, Ratu-Lohardaga Road, Brambe, Ranchi 835 205, India; 2Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019, India ...

  1. Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of 14C-1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-, bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) residues in a model tropical marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandiga, S O; Ongeri, D M K; Mbuvi, L; Lalah, J O; Jumba, I O

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of ring labelled, 14C-1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) in a model marine aquatic ecosystem consisting of seawater, sediment, oysters (Isognomonon alatus) and Humbug fish (Dascillus aruanus) were studied in the laboratory. 14C-p,p'-DDT distributes rapidly in the ecosystem immediately after application on the water surface with reduction of its concentration in the water phase from 1.18 ng g(-1) to 0.71 ng g(-1) after 2 hours and an increase in its content in the sediment and oysters. The bioconcentration factor reached a maximum of 19 x 10(3) in oysters, and 1657 in Humbug fish after 24 hours. The sediment concentration reached 117 ng g(-1) after 168 hours from start of application. A peak bioconcentration factor of 111 x 10(3) was calculated after 120 hours when 0.24 mg kg(-1) of 14C-p,p'-DDT was maintained through dosing every 24 hours with 0.002 mg kg(-1) of a mixture of labelled and non-labelled pesticide. The rate of depuration of accumulated 14C-p,p'-DDT sediment residues was up to 78.3% after 24 hours while oysters lost only 14.0% during the same period. The loss in Humbug fish was only 22.2% in three days. Volatilisation and sorption losses from seawater alone (without sediment/biota) were found to be very high in the range of 73.8 - 91.5% over 24 h for p,p'-DDT in aerated and nonaerated ecosystem. Gas chromatograph and TLC analysis of water, sediment and oyster samples revealed presence of p,p'-DDT and substantial amounts of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD three days after pesticide dosage.

  2. Two notes about Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Honohan, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    A Ponzi scheme is an arrangement whereby a promoter offers an investment opportunity with attractive dividends, but where the only basis for the dividends is the future receipts from new investors. The first of these two notes explores some of the analytical properties of a Ponzi scheme, addressing in particular the question whether it is possible for a Ponzi scheme to exist if all the participants are rational. The second note briefly examines the collapse of the PMPA insurance company whos...

  3. Quantile based Tsallis entropy in residual lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammar, A. H.; Jahanshahi, S. M. A.

    2018-02-01

    Tsallis entropy is a generalization of type α of the Shannon entropy, that is a nonadditive entropy unlike the Shannon entropy. Shannon entropy may be negative for some distributions, but Tsallis entropy can always be made nonnegative by choosing appropriate value of α. In this paper, we derive the quantile form of this nonadditive's entropy function in the residual lifetime, namely the residual quantile Tsallis entropy (RQTE) and get the bounds for it, depending on the Renyi's residual quantile entropy. Also, we obtain relationship between RQTE and concept of proportional hazards model in the quantile setup. Based on the new measure, we propose a stochastic order and aging classes, and study its properties. Finally, we prove characterizations theorems for some well known lifetime distributions. It is shown that RQTE uniquely determines the parent distribution unlike the residual Tsallis entropy.

  4. Remarks on quantum duopoly schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraçkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss in some detail the two different quantum schemes for duopoly problems. We investigate under what conditions one of the schemes is more reasonable than the other one. Using the Cournot's duopoly example, we show that the current quantum schemes require a slight refinement so that they output the classical game in a particular case. Then, we show how the amendment changes the way of studying the quantum games with respect to Nash equilibria. Finally, we define another scheme for the Cournot's duopoly in terms of quantum computation.

  5. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    times, effectively eliminating the second penalty mentioned. We continue this theoretical study in several ways. First, we dedicate a large part of the thesis to the graph family of trees, for which we provide an overview of labeling schemes supporting several important functions such as ancestry......, routing and especially adjacency. The survey is complemented by novel contributions to this study, among which are the first asymptotically optimal adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees, improved bounds on ancestry labeling schemes, dynamic multifunctional labeling schemes and an experimental...

  6. A simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Songze; Xu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving scheme for the kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulations, and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well known discrete ordinate method (DOM) which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS. Based on the observation that the equilibrium part of the UGKS fluxes can be evaluated analytically, the equilibrium part in the UGKS flux is not necessary to be discretized in velocity space. In the simplified scheme, the numerical flux for the velocity distribution function and the numerical flux for the macroscopic conservative quantities are evaluated separately. The simplification is equivalent to a flux hybridization of the gas kinetic scheme for the Navier-S...

  7. A Security Enhanced Timestamp-Based Password Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, A.-S. K.; Hong, C. S.

    2007-11-01

    With the recent proliferation of distributed systems and networking, remote authentication has become a crucial task in many networking applications. Various schemes have been proposed so far for the two-party remote authentication; however, some of them have been proved to be insecure. In this paper, we propose an efficient timestamp-based password authentication scheme using smart cards. We show various types of forgery attacks against a previously proposed timestamp-based password authentication scheme and improve that scheme to ensure robust security for the remote authentication process, keeping all the advantages that were present in that scheme. Our scheme successfully defends the attacks that could be launched against other related previous schemes. We present a detailed cryptanalysis of previously proposed Shen et. al scheme and an analysis of the improved scheme to show its improvements and efficiency.

  8. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.’s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks. PMID:26866606

  9. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Wang

    Full Text Available With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.'s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks.

  10. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of a Biometric-Based Multi-Server Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengqi; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    With the security requirements of networks, biometrics authenticated schemes which are applied in the multi-server environment come to be more crucial and widely deployed. In this paper, we propose a novel biometric-based multi-server authentication and key agreement scheme which is based on the cryptanalysis of Mishra et al.'s scheme. The informal and formal security analysis of our scheme are given, which demonstrate that our scheme satisfies the desirable security requirements. The presented scheme provides a variety of significant functionalities, in which some features are not considered in the most of existing authentication schemes, such as, user revocation or re-registration and biometric information protection. Compared with several related schemes, our scheme has more secure properties and lower computation cost. It is obviously more appropriate for practical applications in the remote distributed networks.

  11. Uniformidade de distribuição em sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento utilizando água residuária da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro = Distribution uniformity of coffee wastewater application using drip systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando França da Cunha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou se avaliar a uniformidade de distribuição em sistemas de aplicação, por gotejamento do tipo fita, de água residuária bruta e tratada da despolpa dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC. A água residuária tratada foi obtida com a passagem por filtros orgânicos constituídospor pergaminho de grãos de café. A plataforma de testes constou de três unidades de aplicação da ARC, cada uma com quatro linhas laterais. As avaliações da uniformidade de aplicação da ARC foram realizadas a cada 36 horas de funcionamento. A ARC bruta proporcionou mais rápido entupimento dos emissores, porém a filtrada também apresentou elevado potencial de entupimento. O entupimento dos gotejadores afetou drasticamente a uniformidade de aplicação da ARC. No caso da ARC bruta, valores de CUC e CUD foram reduzidos a zeroapós 36 horas de operação do sistema. No caso da ARC filtrada, foram obtidas reduções de 76% e 100%, após 144 horas de funcionamento.This article aims to evaluate the uniformity of distribution in systems of application by drip tape of crude and treated wastewater from coffee fruit pulping. A platform of tests was set up, consisting of three units of drip wastewater application, each one with four lateral lines. The evaluations for uniformity of water application were done every 36h of operation. Crude wastewater caused faster emitter clogging but treated wastewater also presented high potential of dripper clogging. Dripper clogging affected the uniformity of wastewater application drastically. In the case of crude wastewater, the values for CUC and CUD were reduced to zero after 36 hours of system operation and, in the case of filtered wastewater, reductions of 76 and 100% were obtained after 144 hours of system operation.

  12. A real helper data scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The helper data scheme utilizes a secret key to protect biometric templates. The current helper data scheme requires binary feature representations that introduce quantization error and thus reduce the capacity of biometric channels. For spectral-minutiae based fingerprint recognition systems,

  13. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  14. Lossless Compression Schemes for ECG Signals Using Neural Network Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eswaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents lossless compression schemes for ECG signals based on neural network predictors and entropy encoders. Decorrelation is achieved by nonlinear prediction in the first stage and encoding of the residues is done by using lossless entropy encoders in the second stage. Different types of lossless encoders, such as Huffman, arithmetic, and runlength encoders, are used. The performances of the proposed neural network predictor-based compression schemes are evaluated using standard distortion and compression efficiency measures. Selected records from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database are used for performance evaluation. The proposed compression schemes are compared with linear predictor-based compression schemes and it is shown that about 11% improvement in compression efficiency can be achieved for neural network predictor-based schemes with the same quality and similar setup. They are also compared with other known ECG compression methods and the experimental results show that superior performances in terms of the distortion parameters of the reconstructed signals can be achieved with the proposed schemes.

  15. Dynamic downscaling over western Himalayas: Impact of cloud microphysics schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2018-03-01

    Due to lack of observation data in the region of inhomogeneous terrain of the Himalayas, detailed climate of Himalayas is still unknown. Global reanalysis data are too coarse to represent the hydroclimate over the region with sharp orography gradient in the western Himalayas. In the present study, dynamic downscaling of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) dataset over the western Himalayas using high-resolution Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model has been carried out. Sensitivity studies have also been carried out using convection and microphysics parameterization schemes. The WRF model simulations have been compared against ERA-I and available station observations. Analysis of the results suggests that the WRF model has simulated the hydroclimate of the region well. It is found that in the simulations that the impact of convection scheme is more during summer months than in winter. Examination of simulated results using various microphysics schemes reveal that the WRF single-moment class-6 (WSM6) scheme simulates more precipitation on the upwind region of the high mountain than that in the Morrison and Thompson schemes during the winter period. Vertical distribution of various hydrometeors shows that there are large differences in mixing ratios of ice, snow and graupel in the simulations with different microphysics schemes. The ice mixing ratio in Morrison scheme is more than WSM6 above 400 hPa. The Thompson scheme favors formation of more snow than WSM6 or Morrison schemes while the Morrison scheme has more graupel formation than other schemes.

  16. A robust cloud access scheme with mutual authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of network technology, we can access some information through remote servers, and we also can save and access lots of personal data in remote servers. Therefore, to protect these data and resist unauthorized access is an important issue. Some researchers proposed authentication scheme, but there still exist some security weaknesses. This article is based on the concept of HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System, and offers a robust authentication scheme. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication, prevents re-play attack, solves asynchronous issue, and prevents offline password guessing attack.

  17. Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0232 Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity Arash Yavari GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH...01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Geometric Structure-Preserving Discretization Schemes for Nonlinear Elasticity 5a.  CONTRACT...STATEMENT A DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13.  SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT We introduced a smooth complex for nonlinear elasticity

  18. Introduction to powering schemes for the CLIC detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchot, G

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC detector designs together with the CLIC beam properties impose strong constraints in terms of power distribution for the front-end electronics. The definition of periodic active and idle times in the detector operation allows implementing a pulsed powering scheme that will result in a significant reduction of dissipated power. This note provides an introduction to the different power pulsing schemes applicable to the CLIC detectors electronics.

  19. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Stacke, T.; Hagemann, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES) and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observatio...

  20. Convergence of a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Nazarov, Murtazo

    2013-02-01

    We present a residual based artificial viscosity finite element method to solve conservation laws. The Galerkin approximation is stabilized by only residual based artificial viscosity, without any least-squares, SUPG, or streamline diffusion terms. We prove convergence of the method, applied to a scalar conservation law in two space dimensions, toward an unique entropy solution for implicit time stepping schemes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  2. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  3. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  4. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  5. Evaluation of classical spatial-analysis schemes of extreme rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceresetti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainfall is classically estimated using raingauge data at raingauge locations. An important related issue is to assess return levels of extreme rainfall at ungauged sites. Classical methods consist in interpolating extreme-value models. In this paper, such methods are referred to as regionalization schemes. Our goal is to evaluate three classical regionalization schemes. Each scheme consists of an extreme-value model (block maxima, peaks over threshold taken from extreme-value theory plus a method to interpolate the parameters of the statistical model throughout the Cévennes-Vivarais region. From the interpolated parameters, the 100-yr quantile level can be estimated over this whole region. A reference regionalization scheme is made of the couple block maxima/kriging, where kriging is an optimal interpolation method. The two other schemes differ from the reference by replacing either the extreme-value model block maxima by peaks over threshold or kriging by a neural network interpolation procedure. Hyper-parameters are selected by cross-validation and the three regionalization schemes are compared by double cross-validation. Our evaluation criteria are based on the ability to interpolate the 100-yr return level both in terms of precision and spatial distribution. It turns out that the best results are obtained by the regionalization scheme combining the peaks-over-threshold method with kriging.

  6. Verifiable Rational Secret Sharing Scheme in Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of mobile network, lots of people now have access to mobile phones and the mobile networks give users ubiquitous connectivity. However, smart phones and tablets are poor in computational resources such as memory size, processor speed, and disk capacity. So far, all existing rational secret sharing schemes cannot be suitable for mobile networks. In this paper, we propose a verifiable rational secret sharing scheme in mobile networks. The scheme provides a noninteractively verifiable proof for the correctness of participants’ share and handshake protocol is not necessary; there is no need for certificate generation, propagation, and storage in the scheme, which is more suitable for devices with limited size and processing power; in the scheme, every participant uses her encryption on number of each round as the secret share and the dealer does not have to distribute any secret share; every participant cannot gain more by deviating the protocol, so rational participant has an incentive to abide by the protocol; finally, every participant can obtain the secret fairly (means that either everyone receives the secret, or else no one does in mobile networks. The scheme is coalition-resilient and the security of our scheme relies on a computational assumption.

  7. A New Proxy Electronic Voting Scheme Achieved by Six-Particle Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Ding, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Xiu-Li; Li, Peng-Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we use quantum proxy signature to construct a new secret electronic voting scheme. In our scheme, six particles entangled states function as quantum channels. The voter Alice, the Vote Management Center Bob, the scrutineer Charlie only perform two particles measurements on the Bell bases to realize the electronic voting process. So the scheme reduces the technical difficulty and increases operation efficiency. We use quantum key distribution and one-time pad to guarantee its unconditional security. The significant advantage of our scheme is that transmitted information capacity is twice as much as the capacity of other schemes.

  8. Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, M.; Chiodini, P. L.; Snell, J. J.; Moody, A. H.; Ramsay, A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants showed that a wide range of methods was used, some of which were considered inadequate to achieve reliable results. Teaching material was distributed to participants from time to time in an attempt to improve standards. CONCLUSIONS: Since the closure of the IMLS fellowship course in 1972, fewer opportunities for specialised training in parasitology are available: more training is needed. Poor performance in the detection of malarial parasites is mainly attributable to incorrect speciation, misidentification, and lack of equipment such as an eyepiece graticule. PMID:1452791

  9. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The mean residual life measures the expected remaining life of a subject who has survived up to a particular time. When survival time distribution is highly skewed or heavy tailed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose an additive-multiplicative restricted...... mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline...

  10. Distribution of vanadyl porphyrins in a Mexican offshore heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.E.; Manjarrez, A.; Campero, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico). Geosciences Research Division

    1996-03-01

    A study was made of vanadyl porphyrins distribution of Mexican heavy crude oil from Sonda de Campeche offshore field (drilling range 4350-4371 m) in the southeast of Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, according to planning request about future trends of refining schemes the distribution of vanadyl porphyrins was investigated in the total heavy crude oil and their distilled residue, free of the asphaltene fraction. Vanadyl-metaloporphyrins were extracted and separated by means of adsorption chromatographic schemes using adsorbents and solvents of increasing polarities. Vanadyl porphyrins were identified and characterized by ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Results show that vanadyl porphyrins are present in the total crude oil and within the deasphalted residue, namely five homologues series DPEP, ETIO, THBD, BD and B with the ETIO series predominating in deasphalted residue. On the whole, data related to the distribution of vanadyl porphyrins indicates the convenience of using procedures that eliminate asphaltenes in order to remove vanadyl porphyrins and improve the efficiency of catalysts used in different catalytic refining processes. 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Comparing the Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi Relaxation Schemes in the Solution of the EHL Line Contact Problem Using a Multigrid solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janakiraman, Shravan; Klit, Peder

    The solution to the EHL line contact problem has been computed by building a multigrid solver. There are two types of relaxation schemes used in the solver, a Gauss -Seidel scheme and a combination of the Gauss- Seidel scheme and the Distributive Jacobi scheme. The differences in the convergence...

  12. A reduced feedback proportional fair multiuser scheduling scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed and ordered scheduling mechanism. A slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we propose a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-diversity scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the per-user feedback thresholds. We demonstrate by numerical examples that our reduced feedback proportional fair scheduler operates within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the achievable rates by the conventional full feedback proportional fair scheduler in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  14. Generic GPCR residue numbers - aligning topology maps while minding the gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isberg, Vignir; de Graaf, Chris; Bortolato, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Generic residue numbers facilitate comparisons of, for example, mutational effects, ligand interactions, and structural motifs. The numbering scheme by Ballesteros and Weinstein for residues within the class A GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors) has more than 1100 citations, and the recent crysta...

  15. Uncertainty of Microphysics Schemes in CRMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W. K.; van den Heever, S. C.; Wu, D.; Saleeby, S. M.; Lang, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Microphysics is the framework through which to understand the links between interactive aerosol, cloud and precipitation processes. These processes play a critical role in the water and energy cycle. CRMs with advanced microphysics schemes have been used to study the interaction between aerosol, cloud and precipitation processes at high resolution. But, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. This has arisen, in part, from the fact microphysical processes cannot be measured directly; instead, cloud properties, which can be measured, are and have been used to validate model results. The utilization of current and future global high-resolution models is rapidly increasing and are at what has been traditional CRM resolutions and are using microphysics schemes that were developed in traditional CRMs. A potential NASA satellite mission called the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CaPPM) is currently being planned for submission to the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey. This mission could provide the necessary global estimates of cloud and precipitation properties with which to evaluate and improve dynamical and microphysical parameterizations and the feedbacks. In order to facilitate the development of this mission, CRM simulations have been conducted to identify microphysical processes responsible for the greatest uncertainties in CRMs. In this talk, we will present results from numerical simulations conducted using two CRMs (NU-WRF and RAMS) with different dynamics, radiation, land surface and microphysics schemes. Specifically, we will conduct sensitivity tests to examine the uncertainty of the some of the key ice processes (i.e. riming, melting, freezing and shedding) in these two-microphysics schemes. The idea is to quantify how these two different models' respond (surface rainfall and its intensity, strength of cloud drafts, LWP/IWP, convective-stratiform-anvil area distribution) to changes of these key ice

  16. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  17. Modeling of residue stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco-Arjona, A.; Castro, M.D.L. de [Univ. of Cordoba (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Izquierdo, A. [Gemasur, Cordoba (Spain). Dept. of R and D

    1999-04-01

    Because of the variety in anthropogenic toxic residues produced by human activity, the establishment of a general procedure for the destruction of these residues or transformation into less toxic materials is difficult. A study was made on the decrease in toxicity of various contaminated residues when treated with three different stabilizers. General criteria of the requirements for stabilization were also established, which depended on both the toxicity and nature of the toxic substances. The modeling of the stabilization process will allow nonspecialized personnel to carry out the operations and will also standardize the modus operandi of such enterprises.

  18. Properties of Rasch residual fit statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Margaret; Adams, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the residual-based fit statistics commonly used in Rasch measurement. In particular, the paper analytically examines some of the theoretical properties of the residual-based fit statistics with a view to establishing the inferences that can be made using these fit statistics. More specifically, the relationships between the distributional properties of the fit statistics and sample size are discussed; some research that erroneously concludes that residual-based fit statistics are unstable is reviewed; and finally, it is analytically illustrated that, for dichotomous items, residual-based fit statistics provide a measure of the relative slope of empirical item characteristic curves. With a clear understanding of the theoretical properties of the fit statistics, the use and limitations of these statistics can be placed in the right light.

  19. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  20. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  1. Impact of different parameterization schemes on simulation of mesoscale convective system over south-east India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhulatha, A.; Rajeevan, M.

    2018-02-01

    Main objective of the present paper is to examine the role of various parameterization schemes in simulating the evolution of mesoscale convective system (MCS) occurred over south-east India. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, numerical experiments are conducted by considering various planetary boundary layer, microphysics, and cumulus parameterization schemes. Performances of different schemes are evaluated by examining boundary layer, reflectivity, and precipitation features of MCS using ground-based and satellite observations. Among various physical parameterization schemes, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) boundary layer scheme is able to produce deep boundary layer height by simulating warm temperatures necessary for storm initiation; Thompson (THM) microphysics scheme is capable to simulate the reflectivity by reasonable distribution of different hydrometeors during various stages of system; Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) cumulus scheme is able to capture the precipitation by proper representation of convective instability associated with MCS. Present analysis suggests that MYJ, a local turbulent kinetic energy boundary layer scheme, which accounts strong vertical mixing; THM, a six-class hybrid moment microphysics scheme, which considers number concentration along with mixing ratio of rain hydrometeors; and BMJ, a closure cumulus scheme, which adjusts thermodynamic profiles based on climatological profiles might have contributed for better performance of respective model simulations. Numerical simulation carried out using the above combination of schemes is able to capture storm initiation, propagation, surface variations, thermodynamic structure, and precipitation features reasonably well. This study clearly demonstrates that the simulation of MCS characteristics is highly sensitive to the choice of parameterization schemes.

  2. Cost-Prioritized Droop Schemes for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two cost-prioritized droop sche- mes for distributed generators (DGs) in a rural or islanded microgrid. Dispatch prioritization of the schemes allows autonomous identification of the appropriate DGs for generation, in accordance to the overall load conditions of the microgrid....

  3. Performance analysis of a dynamic query processing scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Kersten (Martin); S. Shair-Ali; C.A. van den Berg

    1990-01-01

    textabstractTraditional query optimizers produce a fixed query evaluation plan based on assumptions about data distribution and processor workloads. However, these assumptions may not hold at query execution time. In this paper, we propose a dynamic query processing scheme and we present the

  4. Graphical Evaluation of Hierarchical Clustering Schemes. Technical Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halff, Henry M.

    Graphical methods for evaluating the fit of Johnson's hierarchical clustering schemes are presented together with an example. These evaluation methods examine the extent to which the clustering algorithm can minimize the overlap of the distributions of intracluster and intercluster distances. (Author)

  5. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  6. Identity based Encryption and Biometric Authentication Scheme for Secure Data Access in Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongbing; Rong, Chunming; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing will be a main information infrastructure in the future; it consists of many large datacenters which are usually geographically distributed and heterogeneous. How to design a secure data access for cloud computing platform is a big challenge. In this paper, we propose a secure data...... access scheme based on identity-based encryption and biometric authentication for cloud computing. Firstly, we describe the security concern of cloud computing and then propose an integrated data access scheme for cloud computing, the procedure of the proposed scheme include parameter setup, key...... distribution, feature template creation, cloud data processing and secure data access control. Finally, we compare the proposed scheme with other schemes through comprehensive analysis and simulation. The results show that the proposed data access scheme is feasible and secure for cloud computing....

  7. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  8. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    (log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

  9. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  10. Cost-Based Droop Schemes for Economic Dispatch in Islanded Microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Feixiong; Chen, Minyou; Li, Qiang; Meng, Kaikai; Zheng, Yongwei; Josep M. Guerrero; Abbott, Derek

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, cost based droop schemes are proposed, to minimize the total active power generation cost in an islanded microgrid (MG), while the simplicity and decentralized nature of the droop control are retained. In cost based droop schemes, the incremental costs of distributed generators (DGs) are embedded into the droop schemes, wherethe incremental cost is a derivative of the DG cost function with respect to output power. In the steady state, DGs share a single common frequency, and co...

  11. Measurements of residual stress in fracture mechanics coupons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Michael B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Michael R [U.C. DAVIS; Nav Dalen, John E [HILL ENGINEERING

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of residual stress in coupons used for fracture mechanics testing. The primary objective of the measurements is to quantify the distribution of residual stress acting to open (and/or close) the crack across the crack plane. The slitting method and the contour method are two destructive residual stress measurement methods particularly capable of addressing that objective, and these were applied to measure residual stress in a set of identically prepared compact tension (C(T)) coupons. Comparison of the results of the two measurement methods provides some useful observations. Results from fracture mechanics tests of residual stress bearing coupons and fracture analysis, based on linear superposition of applied and residual stresses, show consistent behavior of coupons having various levels of residual stress.

  12. Unburned carbon in combustion residues from mainly solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem H; Lind B; Lagerkvist A

    2012-02-15

    Unburned carbon in 21 combustion residues from solid biofuels is investigated using several methods of analysis (a.o. LOI and TOC), as well as micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results are used to discuss the distribution of unburned carbon in the residues from the different combustion plants and its nature (organic or elemental). The consequences of the elemental nature of carbon for environmental properties of the residue are noted

  13. Three-dimensional residual strain in midanterior canine left ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Kevin D; MAY-NEWMAN, KAREN; FARR, DYAN; O’Dell, Walter G.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Omens, Jeffrey H.

    1997-01-01

    All previous studies of residual strain in the ventricular wall have been based on one- or two-dimensional measurements. Transmural distributions of three-dimensional (3-D) residual strains were measured by biplane radiography of columns of lead beads implanted in the midanterior free wall of the canine left ventricle (LV). 3-D bead coordinates were reconstructed with the isolated arrested LV in the zero-pressure state and again after local residual stress had been relieved by excising a tran...

  14. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  15. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    Environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides has evoked major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment. The quantitative distribution of chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments from...

  16. Cost-prioritized droop schemes for autonomous microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Droop schemes for parallel source control usually aims for proportional power sharing tuned in accordance to the source ratings. This works fine for sources with close similarity, but not really for an autonomous microgrid where different types of Distributed Generators (DGs) may be present without...... centralized optimal dispatch control. To better adapt to this non-uniformity, an alternative viewpoint based on reducing the Total Generation Cost (TGC including fuel cost, emission penalty and other operational concerns) of the microgrid is discussed, from which two new cost-prioritized droop schemes...

  17. Indian Kisan Credit Card Scheme: An Analytical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Mehta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kisan Credit Card (KCC has now been regarded as the only medium of short-term credit for agriculture. The Kisan Credit Card (KCC scheme was introduced by the Finance Minister in his budget speech in the year 1998-99. From the year 1998-99, the scheme was implemented by public sector commercial banks, RRBs (Regional Rural Banks and cooperative banks in the country. It has emerged as an innovative credit distribution system to meet the production credit requirements of the farmers in a timely and easy manner. The present paper is aimed to study role of Kisan Credit Card in the rural credit facilitation in India.

  18. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  19. Effect of processing on 14C-chlorfenvinphos residues in maize oil and bioavailability of its cake residues on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, F M; El-Maghraby, S I

    2010-05-01

    Maize seeds obtained from 14C-chlorfenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and cake amounted to 10%, 6% and 69%, respectively of original residues inside the seeds. The 14C-activity in the crude oil could be a gradually reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are the most effective steps in these processes. The refined oil contained small amount of the 14C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain the parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailability. After feeding rats for five days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5%), while about 20% excreted in the feces. About 15% of the radioactive residues were distributed among various organs.

  20. The Social Meanings of the C-Card Scheme: The Importance of Friends and Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on findings from an analysis of interviews with young people aged 14-18 years, to explore the peer influences in young people's informal social networks which can affect their access to sexual health services. The research focuses on the social meanings of a C-Card condom distribution scheme in North East England. Such schemes are…

  1. Economic and nutritional conditions at settlement schemes in Coast Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Okello, W.; Veerman, W.

    1991-01-01

    This report is concerned with land distribution and rural development and presents the final results of a survey carried out in 1985-1986 in four settlement schemes: Diani and Ukunda in Kwale District and Roka and Mtwapa in Kilifi District, Coast Province, Kenya. In each scheme 100 households were

  2. Residue analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Willims

    2013-05-12

    May 12, 2013 ... residues were performed by injecting 1 µL of purified extract into the injection port of a gas chromatograph with a 63Ni electron capture .... Identification and determination of OCP residues by gas chromatography. A gas chromatograph with ..... Distribution of chlorine- ted pesticides in shellfishes from Lagos ...

  3. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market‐based operational support. The choice...... an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...

  4. Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

  5. An equilibrium-conserving taxation scheme for income from capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempere, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Under conditions of market equilibrium, the distribution of capital income follows a Pareto power law, with an exponent that characterizes the given equilibrium. Here, a simple taxation scheme is proposed such that the post-tax capital income distribution remains an equilibrium distribution, albeit with a different exponent. This taxation scheme is shown to be progressive, and its parameters can be simply derived from (i) the total amount of tax that will be levied, (ii) the threshold selected above which capital income will be taxed and (iii) the total amount of capital income. The latter can be obtained either by using Piketty's estimates of the capital/labor income ratio or by fitting the initial Pareto exponent. Both ways moreover provide a check on the amount of declared income from capital.

  6. Residual symmetries in the presence of an EM background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrion, H.L.; Rojas, M.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: hleny@cbpf.br; mrojas@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br

    2002-08-01

    The symmetry algebra of a QFT in the presence of an external EM background (named 'residual symmetry') is investigated within a Lie-algebraic, model independent scheme. Some results previously encountered in the literature are here extended. In particular we compute the symmetry algebra for a constant EM background in D = 3 and D = 4 dimensions. In D = 3 dimensions the residual symmetry algebra is isomorphic to u(1) +P{sub c}(2), with P{sub c}(2) the centrally extended 2-dimensional Poincare algebra. In D = 4 dimension the generic residual symmetry algebra is given by a seven-dimensional solvable Lie algebra which is explicitly computed. residual symmetry algebras are also computed for specific non-constant EM backgrounds. (author)

  7. Supporting Argumentation Schemes in Argumentative Dialogue Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Simon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports preliminary work into the exploitation of argumentation schemes within dialogue games. We identify a property of dialogue games that we call “scheme awareness” that captures the relationship between dialogue game systems and argumentation schemes. Scheme awareness is used to examine the ways in which existing dialogue games utilise argumentation schemes and consequently the degree with which a dialogue game can be used to construct argument structures. The aim is to develop a set of guidelines for dialogue game design, which feed into a set of Dialogue Game Description Language (DGDL extensions in turn enabling dialogue games to better exploit argumentation schemes.

  8. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  9. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  10. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  12. A Development of Advanced Rigorous 2 Step System for the High Resolution Residual Dose Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Jea Hyun; Lee, Jae Yong; Shin, Chang Ho [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Hyun [Kyoto University, Sennan (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    In these days, an activation problem such as residual radiation is one of the important issues. The activated devices and structures can emit the residual radiation. Therefore, the activation should be properly analyzed to make a plan for design, operation, and decontamination of nuclear facilities. For activation calculation, Rigorous 2 Step (R2S) method is introduced as following strategy: (1) the particle transport calculation is performed for an object geometry to get particle spectra and total fluxes; (2) inventories of each cell are calculated by using flux information according to irradiation and decay history; (3) the residual gamma distribution was evaluated by transport code, if needed. This scheme is based on cell calculation of used geometry. In this method, the particle spectra and total fluxes are obtained by mesh tally for activation calculation. It is useful to reduce the effects of gradient flux information. Nevertheless, several limitations are known as follows: Firstly, high relative error of spectra, when lots of meshes were used; secondly, different flux information from spectrum of void in mesh-tally. To calculate high resolution residual dose, several method are developed such as R2Smesh and MCR2S unstructured mesh. The R2Smesh method products better efficiency for obtaining neutron spectra by using fine/coarse mesh. Also, the MCR2S unstructured mesh can effectively separate void spectrum. In this study, the AR2S system was developed to combine the features of those mesh based R2S method. To confirm the AR2S system, the simple activation problem was evaluated and compared with R2S method using same division. Those results have good agreement within 0.83 %. Therefore, it is expected that the AR2S system can properly estimate an activation problem.

  13. Performance characteristics, plasma lipids and copper residue in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper proteinate) and inorganic (Copper sulphate) Cu source on growth performance, plasma lipids and copper residue in organs and tissues of cockerel chickens. 240 day-old commercial Black-Harco cockerel chicks were randomly distributed to ...

  14. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalescky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2 in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  15. A Robust H.264/AVC Video Watermarking Scheme with Drift Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.

  16. Video Compression Schemes Using Edge Feature on Wireless Video Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen Huu, Phat; Tran-Quang, Vinh; Miyoshi, Takumi

    2012-01-01

    .... In these schemes, we divide the compression process into several small processing components, which are then distributed to multiple nodes along a path from a source node to a cluster head in a cluster...

  17. A Flexible Distributed Scheduling Scheme for Dynamic ESG Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Feili; Ruan, Sui; Candra, Meirina; Kleinman, David; Pattipati, Krishna R

    2006-01-01

    Based on the holonic C2 organizational control architecture (OCA) that models a C2 organization as an integration of multi-level, de-centralized decision making networks, we present a holonic multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA...

  18. Autonomous Distributed Congestion Control Scheme in WCDMA Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafiz Farooq; Suguri, Hiroki; Choudhary, Muhammad Qaisar; Hassan, Ammar; Liaqat, Ali; Khan, Muhammad Umer

    Wireless technology has become widely popular and an important means of communication. A key issue in delivering wireless services is the problem of congestion which has an adverse impact on the Quality of Service (QoS), especially timeliness. Although a lot of work has been done in the context of RRM (Radio Resource Management), the deliverance of quality service to the end user still remains a challenge. Therefore there is need for a system that provides real-time services to the users through high assurance. We propose an intelligent agent-based approach to guarantee a predefined Service Level Agreement (SLA) with heterogeneous user requirements for appropriate bandwidth allocation in QoS sensitive cellular networks. The proposed system architecture exploits Case Based Reasoning (CBR) technique to handle RRM process of congestion management. The system accomplishes predefined SLA through the use of Retrieval and Adaptation Algorithm based on CBR case library. The proposed intelligent agent architecture gives autonomy to Radio Network Controller (RNC) or Base Station (BS) in accepting, rejecting or buffering a connection request to manage system bandwidth. Instead of simply blocking the connection request as congestion hits the system, different buffering durations are allocated to diverse classes of users based on their SLA. This increases the opportunity of connection establishment and reduces the call blocking rate extensively in changing environment. We carry out simulation of the proposed system that verifies efficient performance for congestion handling. The results also show built-in dynamism of our system to cater for variety of SLA requirements.

  19. Can medical scheme reform lead to fairer distribution of limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-13

    Dec 13, 2004 ... PMB-listed chronic diseases (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis versus rheumatoid arthritis) should have been considered for inclusion. It is unlikely that they pose any significant actuarial risk, there is no sound reason for excluding them compared with similar diseases that have been assigned PMB status, and ...

  20. Algorithms for Optimal Model Distributions in Adaptive Switching Control Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D.; Baldi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Several multiple model adaptive control architectures have been proposed in the literature. Despite many advances in theory, the crucial question of how to synthesize the pairs model/controller in a structurally optimal way is to a large extent not addressed. In particular, it is not clear how to

  1. Can medical scheme reform lead to fairer distribution of limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-12-13

    Dec 13, 2004 ... While many South Africans were celebrating 10 years of ... health care within an SHI system will be purchased, legislation .... (or SHI) package. Mindful of this, it may have been fairer if government had elected to opt for an inclusive set of basic benefits, instead of an exclusive set of comprehensive benefits.

  2. A Flexible Distributed Scheduling Scheme for Dynamic ESG Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    individual solution sk are obtained. 4) Elitism and Nitching : Similar to NSGA− II , the new population is produced in such a way that 40% of it is from...can maintain both the elitism and diversity in the new population. Another way of maintaining diversity is to use nitching , where a crowding distance

  3. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  4. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  5. DIAGNOSTIC TEST FOR GARCH MODELS BASED ON ABSOLUTE RESIDUAL AUTOCORRELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Iqbal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the asymptotic distribution of the absolute residual autocorrelations from generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH models is derived. The correct asymptotic standard errors for the absolute residual autocorrelations are also obtained and based on these results, a diagnostic test for checking the adequacy of GARCH-type models are developed. Our results do not depend on the existence of higher moments and is therefore robust under heavy-tailed distributions.

  6. METAPHORIC MECHANISMS IN IMAGE SCHEME DEVELOPMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pankratova, S.A

    2017-01-01

    .... In the summary the author underscores that both ways of image scheme development are of importance to cognitive science, both heuristic epiphora and image-based diaphora play a significant role in the explication of image scheme development.

  7. A Self-Optimizing Scheme for Energy Balanced Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using SensorAnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyani Ismail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Planning of energy-efficient protocols is critical for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs because of the constraints on the sensor nodes’ energy. The routing protocol should be able to provide uniform power dissipation during transmission to the sink node. In this paper, we present a self-optimization scheme for WSNs which is able to utilize and optimize the sensor nodes’ resources, especially the batteries, to achieve balanced energy consumption across all sensor nodes. This method is based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO metaheuristic which is adopted to enhance the paths with the best quality function. The assessment of this function depends on multi-criteria metrics such as the minimum residual battery power, hop count and average energy of both route and network. This method also distributes the traffic load of sensor nodes throughout the WSN leading to reduced energy usage, extended network life time and reduced packet loss. Simulation results show that our scheme performs much better than the Energy Efficient Ant-Based Routing (EEABR in terms of energy consumption, balancing and efficiency.

  8. A self-optimizing scheme for energy balanced routing in Wireless Sensor Networks using SensorAnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsan Saleh, Ahmed M; Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Ismail, Alyani

    2012-01-01

    Planning of energy-efficient protocols is critical for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) because of the constraints on the sensor nodes' energy. The routing protocol should be able to provide uniform power dissipation during transmission to the sink node. In this paper, we present a self-optimization scheme for WSNs which is able to utilize and optimize the sensor nodes' resources, especially the batteries, to achieve balanced energy consumption across all sensor nodes. This method is based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) metaheuristic which is adopted to enhance the paths with the best quality function. The assessment of this function depends on multi-criteria metrics such as the minimum residual battery power, hop count and average energy of both route and network. This method also distributes the traffic load of sensor nodes throughout the WSN leading to reduced energy usage, extended network life time and reduced packet loss. Simulation results show that our scheme performs much better than the Energy Efficient Ant-Based Routing (EEABR) in terms of energy consumption, balancing and efficiency.

  9. Local ensemble assimilation scheme with global constraints and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alexander; Yan, Yajing; Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-01

    Ensemble assimilation schemes applied in their original, global formulation respect linear conservation properties if the ensemble perturbations are set up accordingly. For realistic ocean systems, only a relatively small number of ensemble members can be calculated. A localization of the ensemble increment is therefore necessary to filter out spurious long-range correlations. The conservation of the global properties will be lost if the assimilation is performed locally, since the conservation requires a coupling between all model grid points which is removed by the localization. The distribution of ocean observations is often highly inhomogeneous. Systematic errors of the observed parts of the ocean state can lead to spurious adjustment of the non-observed parts via data assimilation and thus to a spurious increase or decrease in long-term simulations of global properties which should be conserved. In this paper, we propose a local assimilation scheme (with different variants and assumptions) which can satisfy global conservation properties. The proposed scheme can also be used for non-local observation operators. Different variants of the proposed scheme are tested in an idealized model and compared to the traditional covariance localization with an ad-hoc step enforcing conservation. It is shown that the inclusion of the conservation property reduces the total RMS error and that the presented stochastic and deterministic schemes avoiding error space rotation provide better results than the traditional covariance localization.

  10. The Ubiquity of Smooth Hilbert Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Staal, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the geography of Hilbert schemes that parametrize closed subschemes of projective space with a specified Hilbert polynomial. We classify Hilbert schemes with unique Borel-fixed points via combinatorial expressions for their Hilbert polynomials. We realize the set of all nonempty Hilbert schemes as a probability space and prove that Hilbert schemes are irreducible and nonsingular with probability greater than $0.5$.

  11. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  12. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) management: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, R; Lai, T

    2015-11-01

    On the basis of statistical data, approximately 6.5 million tons of ELVs were produced in Europe in 2011. ELVs are processed according to a treatment scheme comprising three main phases: depollution, dismantling and shredding. The ferrous fraction represents about 70-75% of the total shredded output, while nonferrous metals represent about 5%. The remaining 20-25% is referred to as automotive shredder residue (ASR). ASR is largely landfilled due to its heterogeneous and complex matrix. With a start date of January 1st 2015, the European Directive 2000/53/EC establishes the reuse and recovery of a minimum of 95% ELV total weight. To reach these targets various post-shredder technologies have been developed with the aim of improving recovery of materials and energy from ASR. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of different management options of ELVs, the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been applied taking into account the potential implication of sustainable design of vehicles and treatment of residues after shredding of ELVs. Findings obtained reveal that a combination of recycling and energy recovery is required to achieve European targets, with landfilling being viewed as the least preferred option. The aim of this work is to provide a general overview of the recent development of management of ELVs and treatment of ASR with a view to minimizing the amount of residues disposed of in landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving probabilistic prediction of daily streamflow by identifying Pareto optimal approaches for modelling heteroscedastic residual errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, McInerney; Mark, Thyer; Dmitri, Kavetski; George, Kuczera

    2017-04-01

    This study provides guidance to hydrological researchers which enables them to provide probabilistic predictions of daily streamflow with the best reliability and precision for different catchment types (e.g. high/low degree of ephemerality). Reliable and precise probabilistic prediction of daily catchment-scale streamflow requires statistical characterization of residual errors of hydrological models. It is commonly known that hydrological model residual errors are heteroscedastic, i.e. there is a pattern of larger errors in higher streamflow predictions. Although multiple approaches exist for representing this heteroscedasticity, few studies have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of these approaches. This study fills this research gap by evaluating 8 common residual error schemes, including standard and weighted least squares, the Box-Cox transformation (with fixed and calibrated power parameter, lambda) and the log-sinh transformation. Case studies include 17 perennial and 6 ephemeral catchments in Australia and USA, and two lumped hydrological models. We find the choice of heteroscedastic error modelling approach significantly impacts on predictive performance, though no single scheme simultaneously optimizes all performance metrics. The set of Pareto optimal schemes, reflecting performance trade-offs, comprises Box-Cox schemes with lambda of 0.2 and 0.5, and the log scheme (lambda=0, perennial catchments only). These schemes significantly outperform even the average-performing remaining schemes (e.g., across ephemeral catchments, median precision tightens from 105% to 40% of observed streamflow, and median biases decrease from 25% to 4%). Theoretical interpretations of empirical results highlight the importance of capturing the skew/kurtosis of raw residuals and reproducing zero flows. Recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking robust residual error schemes for practical work are provided.

  14. Residual stress simulation of circumferential welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicher R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses are an important consideration in the component integrity and life assessment of welded structure. The welding process is very complex time dependent physical phenomenon with material nonlinearity. The welding is a thermal process with convection between fluid flow and welding body, between welding bodyand environment. Next type of boundary conditions is radiation and thermo-mechanical contact on the outer surface of gas pipe in the near of weld. The temperature variation so obtained is utilised to find the distribution of the stress field.In this paper, a brief review of weld simulation and residual stress modelling using the finite element method (FEM by commercial software ANSYS is presented. Thermo-elastic-plastic formulations using a von Mises yield criterion with nonlinear kinematics hardening has been employed. Residual axial and hoop stresses obtained from the analysis have been shown. The commercial FEM code ANSYS was used for coupled thermalmechanical analysis.

  15. Power Generation and Distribution via Distributed Coordination Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byeong-Yeon; Oh, Kwang-Kyo; Ahn, Hyo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power coordination, power generation, and power flow control schemes for supply-demand balance in distributed grid networks. Consensus schemes using only local information are employed to generate power coordination, power generation and power flow control signals. For the supply-demand balance, it is required to determine the amount of power needed at each distributed power node. Also due to the different power generation capacities of each power node, coordination of pow...

  16. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    and Wait (SW), Selective Repeat (SR), Stutter. (ST) and Go-Back-N (GBN) (Lin and Costello,. 2003). Combinations of these schemes lead to mixed mode schemes which include the SR-. GBN, SR-ST1 and SR-ST2. In the mixed mode schemes, when a prescribed number of failures occur in the SR mode, the GBN or ST ...

  17. An Energy Efficient Cooperative Hierarchical MIMO Clustering Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Mehwish; Qaisar, Saad; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes. PMID:22368459

  18. An energy efficient cooperative hierarchical MIMO clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Mehwish; Qaisar, Saad; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  19. An Energy Efficient Cooperative Hierarchical MIMO Clustering Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  20. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  1. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  2. The mathematics of Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Artzrouni, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A first order linear differential equation is used to describe the dynamics of an investment fund that promises more than it can deliver, also known as a Ponzi scheme. The model is based on a promised, unrealistic interest rate; on the actual, realized nominal interest rate; on the rate at which new deposits are accumulated and on the withdrawal rate. Conditions on these parameters are given for the fund to be solvent or to collapse. The model is fitted to data available on Charles...

  3. Improving probabilistic prediction of daily streamflow by identifying Pareto optimal approaches for modeling heteroscedastic residual errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, David; Thyer, Mark; Kavetski, Dmitri; Lerat, Julien; Kuczera, George

    2017-03-01

    Reliable and precise probabilistic prediction of daily catchment-scale streamflow requires statistical characterization of residual errors of hydrological models. This study focuses on approaches for representing error heteroscedasticity with respect to simulated streamflow, i.e., the pattern of larger errors in higher streamflow predictions. We evaluate eight common residual error schemes, including standard and weighted least squares, the Box-Cox transformation (with fixed and calibrated power parameter λ) and the log-sinh transformation. Case studies include 17 perennial and 6 ephemeral catchments in Australia and the United States, and two lumped hydrological models. Performance is quantified using predictive reliability, precision, and volumetric bias metrics. We find the choice of heteroscedastic error modeling approach significantly impacts on predictive performance, though no single scheme simultaneously optimizes all performance metrics. The set of Pareto optimal schemes, reflecting performance trade-offs, comprises Box-Cox schemes with λ of 0.2 and 0.5, and the log scheme (λ = 0, perennial catchments only). These schemes significantly outperform even the average-performing remaining schemes (e.g., across ephemeral catchments, median precision tightens from 105% to 40% of observed streamflow, and median biases decrease from 25% to 4%). Theoretical interpretations of empirical results highlight the importance of capturing the skew/kurtosis of raw residuals and reproducing zero flows. Paradoxically, calibration of λ is often counterproductive: in perennial catchments, it tends to overfit low flows at the expense of abysmal precision in high flows. The log-sinh transformation is dominated by the simpler Pareto optimal schemes listed above. Recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking robust residual error schemes for practical work are provided.

  4. Localization of the Gunpowder Residues on the Shooters’ Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Bülent Üner

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available When a firearm is discharged, certain vaporous and particulate material are expelled in the area around the firearm. Gunpowder residue particles can be identified on shooters’ hands. The purpose of this investigation was to study the distribution of the gunshot residues left on firing hands In this study shooters tired the weapon with cloth gloves. Test shots were carried out with various types of weapons and ammunition with each hands holding the weapon. Modified Griess Test was used to detect gunpowder residue particles and their distribution pattern on the cloth gloves Gunshot residues were found, especially, on the web area of the back of the shooters’ hand. Key words: Gunshot residues, Modified Griess Test.

  5. Coupling WRF Double-Moment 6-Class Microphysics Schemes to RRTMG Radiation Scheme in Weather Research Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Ya Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to explicitly calculate the effective radius of hydrometeors in the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF double-moment 6-class (WDM6 microphysics scheme is designed to tackle the physical inconsistency in cloud properties between the microphysics and radiation processes. At each model time step, the calculated effective radii of hydrometeors from the WDM6 scheme are linked to the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG scheme to consider the cloud effects in radiative flux calculation. This coupling effect of cloud properties between the WDM6 and RRTMG algorithms is examined for a heavy rainfall event in Korea during 25–27 July 2011, and it is compared to the results from the control simulation in which the effective radius is prescribed as a constant value. It is found that the derived radii of hydrometeors in the WDM6 scheme are generally larger than the prescribed values in the RRTMG scheme. Consequently, shortwave fluxes reaching the ground (SWDOWN are increased over less cloudy regions, showing a better agreement with a satellite image. The overall distribution of the 24-hour accumulated rainfall is not affected but its amount is changed. A spurious rainfall peak over the Yellow Sea is alleviated, whereas the local maximum in the central part of the peninsula is increased.

  6. Linewidth-tolerant adaptive equalization scheme for OQAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Deng; Tang, Haoyuan; Lu, Jianing; Deng, Lei; Fu, Songnian; Feng, Yonghua; Liu, Deming

    2017-06-01

    A linewidth-tolerant adaptive equalization scheme is proposed for M-ary offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM) signal at the presence of wide laser linewidth. Initially, we present a close-form mathematical expression of OQAM signal at the presence of phase noise and derive the condition to obtain the optimal tap value of adaptive equalizer. Our theoretical investigations proves that phase noise in OQAM signal may result in variation of optimal tap value of adaptive equalizer. Consequently, conventional digital signal processing (DSP) flow that separates adaptive equalization and carrier phase recovery (CPR) into two independent modules cannot apply to OQAM signal anymore. Then, we propose a linewidth-tolerant adaptive equalization scheme that incorporate both adaptive equalizer and CPR for m-ary OQAM signal. Taking the 16-OQAM into account, we comprehensively evaluate its performance to compensate residual chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) at the presence of wide laser linewidth. Simulation shows that our proposed adaptive equalization can effectively compensate residual CD that is below 400 ps/nm without performance penalty at the presence of wide laser linewidth. In particular, a tolerance of linewidth and symbol duration products of 1 ×10-4 is secured under conditions of CD=400 ps/nm and DGD=10 ps, given 1-dB required-OSNR penalty at BER=10-3.

  7. Influence of microphysical schemes on atmospheric water in the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, F.; Hocke, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how different microphysical parameterization schemes influence orographically induced precipitation and the distributions of hydrometeors and water vapour for midlatitude summer conditions in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. A high-resolution two-dimensional idealized simulation is used to assess the differences between the schemes in which a moist air flow is interacting with a bell-shaped 2 km high mountain. Periodic lateral boundary conditions are chosen to recirculate atmospheric water in the domain. It is found that the 13 selected microphysical schemes conserve the water in the model domain. The gain or loss of water is less than 0.81% over a simulation time interval of 61 days. The differences of the microphysical schemes in terms of the distributions of water vapour, hydrometeors and accumulated precipitation are presented and discussed. The Kessler scheme, the only scheme without ice-phase processes, shows final values of cloud liquid water 14 times greater than the other schemes. The differences among the other schemes are not as extreme, but still they differ up to 79% in water vapour, up to 10 times in hydrometeors and up to 64% in accumulated precipitation at the end of the simulation. The microphysical schemes also differ in the surface evaporation rate. The WRF single-moment 3-class scheme has the highest surface evaporation rate compensated by the highest precipitation rate. The different distributions of hydrometeors and water vapour of the microphysical schemes induce differences up to 49 W m-2 in the downwelling shortwave radiation and up to 33 W m-2 in the downwelling longwave radiation.

  8. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  9. Uniformidade de distribuição superficial e subsuperficial de água e de água residuária de suinocultura com irrigação por aspersão em malha Superficial and subsuperficial distribution uniformity of water and wastewater of swine applied by net-sprinkler irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. D. Drumond

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A irrigação por aspersão em malha está sendo bastante utilizada em café, pastagem, cana forrageira e capineiras, por ser sistema de baixo custo, de fácil instalação e manejo e por permitir fertirrigação com água residuária de suinocultura e de bovinocultura. Para determinar a uniformidade de distribuição de água e de água residuária de suinocultura nesse sistema de irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento na Fazenda-Escola da Universidade de Uberaba, empregando-se pluviômetros eqüidistantes, entre quatro aspersores de duas linhas laterais. O coeficiente de uniformidade de Christiansen (CUC e o coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição (CUD foram superiores aos valores mínimos recomendados, mesmo com 200 m³ de água residuária de suinocultura por hectare por ano.The net-sprinkler irrigation is frequently being used in coffee, pasture, sugar cane forage and forages, due low cost system, easy installation and handling, allowing fertigation with wastewater of swine and bovine. Aiming to determine the water and wastewater of swine distribution uniformity with this irrigation system, an experiment was carried out at Uberaba University - Brazil, being used pluviometers among four sprinklers of two lateral lines. The Christiansen´s uniformity coefficient (CUC and the uniformity distribution coefficient (UDC were superior to the minimum recommended values, even with 200 m³ ha-1 year-1 of swine wastewater.

  10. Delivery of a national home safety equipment scheme in England: a survey of local scheme leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, C A; Watson, M C; Hamilton, T; Errington, G

    2013-11-01

    Unintentional home injuries sustained by preschool children are a major cause of morbidity in the UK. Home safety equipment schemes may reduce home injury rates. In 2009, the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents was appointed as central coordinator of a two-year, £18m national home safety equipment scheme in England. This paper reports the findings from a national survey of all scheme leaders responsible for local scheme delivery. A questionnaire mailed to all local scheme leaders sought details of how the schemes were operated locally; barriers and facilitators to scheme implementation; evaluation of the local scheme and its sustainability. A response rate of 73% was achieved. Health visitors and family support workers played a key role in both the identification of eligible families and performing home safety checks. The majority of local scheme leaders (94.6%) reported that they thought their local scheme had been successful in including those families considered 'harder to engage'. Many scheme leaders (72.4%) reported that they had evaluated the provision of safety equipment in their scheme and over half (56.6%) stated that they would not be able to continue the scheme once funding ceased. Local schemes need support to effectively evaluate their scheme and to seek sustainability funding to ensure the future of the scheme. There remains a lack of evidence of whether the provision of home safety equipment reduces injuries in preschool children.

  11. Three-dimensional residual strain in midanterior canine left ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSTA, KEVIN D.; MAY-NEWMAN, KAREN; FARR, DYAN; O’DELL, WALTER G.; McCULLOCH, ANDREW D.; OMENS, JEFFREY H.

    2012-01-01

    All previous studies of residual strain in the ventricular wall have been based on one- or two-dimensional measurements. Transmural distributions of three-dimensional (3-D) residual strains were measured by biplane radiography of columns of lead beads implanted in the midanterior free wall of the canine left ventricle (LV). 3-D bead coordinates were reconstructed with the isolated arrested LV in the zero-pressure state and again after local residual stress had been relieved by excising a transmural block of tissue. Nonhomogeneous 3-D residual strains were computed by finite element analysis. Mean ± SD (n = 8) circumferential residual strain indicated that the intact unloaded myocardium was prestretched at the epicardium (0.07 ± 0.06) and compressed in the subendocardium (−0.04 ± 0.05). Small but significant longitudinal shortening and torsional shear residual strains were also measured. Residual fiber strain was tensile at the epicardium (0.05 ± 0.06) and compressive in the subendocardium (−0.01 ± 0.04), with residual extension and shortening, respectively, along structural axes parallel and perpendicular to the laminar myocardial sheets. Relatively small residual shear strains with respect to the myofiber sheets suggest that prestretching in the plane of the myocardial laminae may be a primary mechanism of residual stress in the LV. PMID:9362268

  12. Distribuição e biodisponibilidade de crômio em solos contaminados por resíduos de couro Distribution and bioavailability of chromium in contaminated soils by tannery residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of soil, water and sediment were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate chromium contamination due to deposition of tannery residues onto soils under different management regimes. The results showed that soils used for sugar cane cultivation were not adversely impacted. However, in the case of mango plantations, variable concentrations of chromium were measured in the soil profile, with 22.2% of values being higher than permitted legal limits, and 38.9% being at levels requiring remediation. Concentrations of bioavailable chromium were lower than the detection limit of the method (0.01 mg of chromium kg-1 of soil, indicating that all of the chromium present in the samples was either complexed or in an insoluble form. Chromium concentrations measured in samples of water and sediments were indicative of low mobility of the metal in soils. The main cause of differences found between soil samples obtained from different cultivations was the type of soil management.

  13. Review and comparison of geometric distortion correction schemes in MR images used in stereotactic radiosurgery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, E. P.; Dellios, D.; Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Georgiou, E.; Karaiskos, P.

    2017-11-01

    In Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), MR-images are widely used for target localization and delineation in order to take advantage of the superior soft tissue contrast they exhibit. However, spatial dose delivery accuracy may be deteriorated due to geometric distortions which are partly attributed to static magnetic field inhomogeneity and patient/object-induced chemical shift and susceptibility related artifacts, known as sequence-dependent distortions. Several post-imaging sequence-dependent distortion correction schemes have been proposed which mainly employ the reversal of read gradient polarity. The scope of this work is to review, evaluate and compare the efficacy of two proposed correction approaches. A specially designed phantom which incorporates 947 control points (CPs) for distortion detection was utilized. The phantom was MR scanned at 1.5T using the head coil and the clinically employed pulse sequence for SRS treatment planning. An additional scan was performed with identical imaging parameters except for reversal of read gradient polarity. In-house MATLAB routines were developed for implementation of the signal integration and average-image distortion correction techniques. The mean CP locations of the two MR scans were regarded as the reference CP distribution. Residual distortion was assessed by comparing the corrected CP locations with corresponding reference positions. Mean absolute distortion on frequency encoding direction was reduced from 0.34mm (original images) to 0.15mm and 0.14mm following application of signal integration and average-image methods, respectively. However, a maximum residual distortion of 0.7mm was still observed for both techniques. The signal integration method relies on the accuracy of edge detection and requires 3-4 hours of post-imaging computational time. The average-image technique is a more efficient (processing time of the order of seconds) and easier to implement method to improve geometric accuracy in such

  14. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    is to approximate the kernel function by a power function near zero and by a step function elsewhere. The resulting approximation of the process is a combination of Wiener integrals of the power function and a Riemann sum, which is why we call this method a hybrid scheme. Our main theoretical result describes...... the asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments......We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme...

  15. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  16. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  17. Two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme for reducing system total overheads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Li

    Full Text Available Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given.

  18. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2009-11-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  19. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  20. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, L.; Erdelyi, B.; Hausmann, M.; Kubo, T.; Nolen, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B.M. (Physics); (MSU); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (RIKEN)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  1. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-07-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  2. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...

  3. Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S

    2011-01-01

    We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...

  4. On Distribution Preserving Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Minyue; Kleijn, W Bastiaan

    2011-01-01

    Upon compressing perceptually relevant signals, conventional quantization generally results in unnatural outcomes at low rates. We propose distribution preserving quantization (DPQ) to solve this problem. DPQ is a new quantization concept that confines the probability space of the reconstruction to be identical to that of the source. A distinctive feature of DPQ is that it facilitates a seamless transition between signal synthesis and quantization. A theoretical analysis of DPQ leads to a distribution preserving rate-distortion function (DP-RDF), which serves as a lower bound on the rate of any DPQ scheme, under a constraint on distortion. In general situations, the DP-RDF approaches the classic rate-distortion function for the same source and distortion measure, in the limit of an increasing rate. A practical DPQ scheme based on a multivariate transformation is also proposed. This scheme asymptotically achieves the DP-RDF for i.i.d. Gaussian sources and the mean squared error.

  5. Design optimization of precision casting for residual stress reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Keste

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Normally all manufacturing and fabrication processes introduce residual stresses in a component. These stresses exist even after all service or external loads have been removed. Residual stresses have been studied elaborately in the past and even in depth research have been done to determine their magnitude and distribution during different manufacturing processes. But very few works have dealt with the study of residual stresses formation during the casting process. Even though these stresses are less in magnitude, they still result in crack formation and subsequent failure in later phases of the component usage. In this work, the residual stresses developed in a shifter during casting process are first determined by finite element analysis using ANSYS® Mechanical APDL, Release 12.0 software. Initially the analysis was done on a simple block to determine the optimum element size and boundary conditions. With these values, the actual shifter component was analyzed. All these simulations are done in an uncoupled thermal and structural environment. The results showed the areas of maximum residual stress. This was followed by the geometrical optimization of the cast part for minimum residual stresses. The resulting shape gave lesser and more evenly distributed residual stresses. Crack compliance method was used to experimentally determine the residual stresses in the modified cast part. The results obtained from the measurements are verified by finite element analysis findings.

  6. Intrinsic charm in a matched general-mass scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D; Bonvini, Marco; Forte, Stefano; Merrild, Patrick Groth; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The FONLL general-mass variable-flavour number scheme provides a framework for the matching of a calculation in which a heavy quark is treated as a massless parton to one in which the mass dependence is retained throughout. We describe how the usual formulation of FONLL can be extended in such a way that the heavy quark parton distribution functions are freely parameterized at some initial scale, rather than being generated entirely perturbatively. We specifically consider the case of deep-inelastic scattering, in view of applications to PDF determination, and the possible impact of a fitted charm quark distribution on $F_2^c$ is assessed.

  7. Photoionization of He in the 3lnl' doubly-excited state energy region: angular distribution of the fluorescence from the residual ion He{sup +}(2p){sup 2}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harries, James R [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0081 (Japan); Sullivan, James P [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Hammond, Peter [School of Physics, CAMSP, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth (Australia); Azuma, Yoshiro [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0081 (Japan)

    2006-12-14

    We present experimental observations of the photoexcitation of 3lnl' doubly-excited states of helium decaying by autoionization into the (2p){sup 2}P excited ion final-state channel. By determining the angular distribution of the fluorescence from the final ion state, the alignment of the ion and hence the partial 2pks and 2pkd cross-sections are determined and compared to recent theoretical calculations.

  8. Residual Stress Test and Finite Element Analysis of Titanium Alloy Surface Obtained by Electron Beam Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiaojia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti60 titanium alloy plates were welded by electron beam,and the welding residual stress was tested and simulated by the residual stress tester and finite element analysis. The comparison of the residual stress values caused in the three kinds of welding processes of pre-heating, slow cooling and both pre-heating and slow cooling was carried out. The residual stress distribution law was also studied. Results show that in the vertical welding section, the longitudinal welding residual stress tested is similar to that simulated as to the change trend; in the parallel welding section, the distributions of the tested and simulated longitudinal welding residual stress are similar. These prove that the finite element analysis is reasonable and reliable. The process of pre-heating has little influence on the welding residual stress, but the slow cooling process can change its distribution.

  9. The Simulation Of Residual Tidal Phenomena In The White Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, R. I.

    2004-12-01

    Residual tidal phenomena (residual tidal circulation and residual tidal level) in the White Sea play a significant role in energy contribution to the formation of the hydrological regime. Non-linear residual tidal currents and sea level due to energy exchanges from the basic harmonics to the high frequency part of the spectrum have been poorly investigated in the White Sea until now. But residual tidal phenomena play an important role in the general circulation, which affects the temperature distribution and the drift of ice, plankton, pollution and other conservative tracers. We carried out numerical experiments with a non-linear hydrodynamic model to estimate the contributions of (shallow, friction and convective) nonlinearities to the residual tidal phenomena of White Sea's, using a `consecutive realisation' technique. The model grid's spatio-temporal resolution is more detailed than before: the Earth's geoid is approximated by the Krasovskiy rotation ellipsoid. A residual tidal level is observed in the low frequency part of spectrum of model results. In the linear approximation, the spectral density has a dominant peak at the frequencies of the basic harmonics in all parts of the sea, and the residual level was absent; overtones were not expressed. The experiments revealed that the residual circulation was defined by the convective non-linearity. The Earth's rotation does not change the current structure: only the circulation intensity decreases. These results will enhance the knowledge of tidal phenomena in the White Sea, and can be used for navigation, ecology and fisheries research.

  10. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysalidis, K; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Naubereit, P; Rothe, S; Seiffert, C; Kron, T; Wendt, K

    2017-01-01

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  11. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  12. SIGNCRYPTION BASED ON DIFFERENT DIGITAL SIGNATURE SCHEMES

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Atanasiu; Laura Savu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two new signcryption schemes. The first one is based on Schnorr digital signature algorithm and the second one is using Proxy Signature scheme introduced by Mambo. Schnorr Signcryption has been implemented in a program and here are provided the steps of the algorithm, the results and some examples. The Mambo’s Proxy Signature is adapted for Shortened Digital Signature Standard, being part of a new Proxy Signcryption scheme.

  13. Optics design for CEPC double ring scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Su, Feng; Bai, Sha; Yu, Chenghui; Gao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    The CEPC is a future Circular Electron and Positron Collider proposed by China to mainly study the Higgs boson. Its baseline design is a double ring scheme and an alternative design is a partial double ring scheme. This paper will present the optics design for the main ring of the double ring scheme. The CEPC will also work as a W and Z factory. Compatible optics designs for a W and a Z modes will be presented as well.

  14. Wavelet Denoising within the Lifting Scheme Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Paskaš

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an example of the lifting scheme and present the results of the simple lifting scheme implementation using lazy transform. The paper is tutorial-oriented. The results are obtained by testing several common test signals for the signal denoising problem and using different threshold values. The lifting scheme represents an effective and flexible tool that can be used for introducing signal dependence into the problem by improving the wavelet properties.

  15. Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Barbarien, Joeri; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

  16. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  17. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (i......) Ghost states are easily avoided without including semicore shells. (ii) The ultrasoft pseudo-charge-augmentation functions can be made softer. (iii) The number of nonlocal operators is reduced. The scheme will be most useful for transition metals, and the feasibility and accuracy of the scheme...

  18. Central schemes for open-channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Guido; Venutelli, Maurizio

    2003-03-01

    The resolution of the Saint-Venant equations for modelling shock phenomena in open-channel flow by using the second-order central schemes of Nessyahu and Tadmor (NT) and Kurganov and Tadmor (KT) is presented. The performances of the two schemes that we have extended to the non-homogeneous case and that of the classical first-order Lax-Friedrichs (LF) scheme in predicting dam-break and hydraulic jumps in rectangular open channels are investigated on the basis of different numerical and physical conditions. The efficiency and robustness of the schemes are tested by comparing model results with analytical or experimental solutions.

  19. Nonlinear inversion schemes for fluorescence optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Manuel; Egger, Herbert; Scharfetter, Hermann

    2010-11-01

    Fluorescence optical tomography is a non-invasive imaging modality that employs the absorption and re-emission of light by fluorescent dyes. The aim is to reconstruct the fluorophore distribution in a body from measurements of light intensities at the boundary. Due to the diffusive nature of light propagation in tissue, fluorescence tomography is a nonlinear and severely ill-posed problem, and some sort of regularization is required for a stable solution. In this paper we investigate reconstruction methods based on Tikhonov regularization with nonlinear penalty terms, namely total-variation regularization and a levelset-type method using a nonlinear parameterization of the unknown function. Moreover, we use the full threedimensional nonlinear forward model, which arises from the governing system of partial differential equations. We discuss the numerical realization of the regularization schemes by Newtontype iterations, present some details of the discretization by finite element methods, and outline the efficient implementation of sensitivity systems via adjoint methods. As we will demonstrate in numerical tests, the proposed nonlinear methods provide better reconstructions than standard methods based on linearized forward models and linear penalty terms. We will additionally illustrate, that the careful discretization of the methods derived on the continuous level allows to obtain reliable, mesh independent reconstruction algorithms.

  20. Comparison of kriging interpolation precision between grid sampling scheme and simple random sampling scheme for precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Houlong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sampling methods are important factors that can potentially limit the accuracy of predictions of spatial distribution patterns. A 10 ha tobacco-planted field was selected to compared the accuracy in predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties by using ordinary kriging and cross validation methods between grid sampling and simple random sampling scheme (SRS. To achieve this objective, we collected soil samples from the topsoil (0-20 cm in March 2012. Sample numbers of grid sampling and SRS were both 115 points each. Accuracies of spatial interpolation using the two sampling schemes were then evaluated based on validation samples (36 points and deviations of the estimates. The results suggested that soil pH and nitrate-N (NO3-N had low variation, whereas all other soil properties exhibited medium variation. Soil pH, organic matter (OM, total nitrogen (TN, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total phosphorus (TP and available phosphorus (AP matched the spherical model, whereas the remaining variables fit an exponential model with both sampling methods. The interpolation error of soil pH, TP, and AP was the lowest in SRS. The errors of interpolation for OM, CEC, TN, available potassium (AK and total potassium (TK were the lowest for grid sampling. The interpolation precisions of the soil NO3-N showed no significant differences between the two sampling schemes. Considering our data on interpolation precision and the importance of minerals for cultivation of flue-cured tobacco, the grid-sampling scheme should be used in tobacco-planted fields to determine the spatial distribution of soil properties. The grid-sampling method can be applied in a practical and cost-effective manner to facilitate soil sampling in tobacco-planted field.

  1. Simulation of coupled flow and mechanical deformation using IMplicit Pressure-Displacement Explicit Saturation (IMPDES) scheme

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The problem of coupled structural deformation with two-phase flow in porous media is solved numerically using cellcentered finite difference (CCFD) method. In order to solve the system of governed partial differential equations, the implicit pressure explicit saturation (IMPES) scheme that governs flow equations is combined with the the implicit displacement scheme. The combined scheme may be called IMplicit Pressure-Displacement Explicit Saturation (IMPDES). The pressure distribution for each cell along the entire domain is given by the implicit difference equation. Also, the deformation equations are discretized implicitly. Using the obtained pressure, velocity is evaluated explicitly, while, using the upwind scheme, the saturation is obtained explicitly. Moreover, the stability analysis of the present scheme has been introduced and the stability condition is determined.

  2. Demand response scheme based on lottery-like rebates

    KAUST Repository

    Schwartz, Galina A.

    2014-08-24

    In this paper, we develop a novel mechanism for reducing volatility of residential demand for electricity. We construct a reward-based (rebate) mechanism that provides consumers with incentives to shift their demand to off-peak time. In contrast to most other mechanisms proposed in the literature, the key feature of our mechanism is its modest requirements on user preferences, i.e., it does not require exact knowledge of user responsiveness to rewards for shifting their demand from the peak to the off-peak time. Specifically, our mechanism utilizes a probabilistic reward structure for users who shift their demand to the off-peak time, and is robust to incomplete information about user demand and/or risk preferences. We approach the problem from the public good perspective, and demonstrate that the mechanism can be implemented via lottery-like schemes. Our mechanism permits to reduce the distribution losses, and thus improve efficiency of electricity distribution. Finally, the mechanism can be readily incorporated into the emerging demand response schemes (e.g., the time-of-day pricing, and critical peak pricing schemes), and has security and privacy-preserving properties.

  3. Fully-distributed randomized cooperation in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-01-07

    When marrying randomized distributed space-time coding (RDSTC) to geographical routing, new performance horizons can be created. In order to reach those horizons however, routing protocols must evolve to operate in a fully distributed fashion. In this letter, we expose a technique to construct a fully distributed geographical routing scheme in conjunction with RDSTC. We then demonstrate the performance gains of this novel scheme by comparing it to one of the prominent classical schemes.

  4. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Stegemann@bam.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  5. The role of different schemes in the QCD analysis and determination of the strong coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vafaee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a Next-to-Leading Order (NLO QCD analysis to study the role and influence of different schemes on simultaneous determination of the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs and strong coupling, αs(MZ2. We perform our analysis based on three different data sets, HERA I and II combined data, H1-ZEUS charm combined data, and H1 and ZEUS beauty production cross sections data, in two different Thorne–Roberts (TR or RT and Thorne–Roberts Optimal (RT OPT schemes. We show in going from RT scheme to RT OPT scheme, in addition of reduction the uncertainty of some PDFs, specially for the gluon distribution, we get ∼0.4% and ∼0.7% improvement in the fit quality and ∼0.9% and ∼1.6% improvement for the strong coupling, αs(MZ2, without and with heavy flavor contributions, respectively.

  6. The role of different schemes in the QCD analysis and determination of the strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaee, A.; Khorramian, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we present a Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) QCD analysis to study the role and influence of different schemes on simultaneous determination of the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and strong coupling, αs (MZ2). We perform our analysis based on three different data sets, HERA I and II combined data, H1-ZEUS charm combined data, and H1 and ZEUS beauty production cross sections data, in two different Thorne-Roberts (TR or RT) and Thorne-Roberts Optimal (RT OPT) schemes. We show in going from RT scheme to RT OPT scheme, in addition of reduction the uncertainty of some PDFs, specially for the gluon distribution, we get ∼ 0.4% and ∼ 0.7% improvement in the fit quality and ∼ 0.9% and ∼ 1.6% improvement for the strong coupling, αs (MZ2), without and with heavy flavor contributions, respectively.

  7. Nonstandard finite difference schemes for differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh Khalsaraei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the reorganization of the denominator of the discrete derivative and nonlocal approximation of nonlinear terms are used in the design of nonstandard finite difference schemes (NSFDs. Numerical examples confirming then efficiency of schemes, for some differential equations are provided. In order to illustrate the accuracy of the new NSFDs, the numerical results are compared with standard methods.

  8. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  9. Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debba, P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.First, the optimized

  10. Consolidation of the health insurance scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).

  11. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  12. Mobile Machine for E-payment Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar J Aboud

    2010-01-01

    In this article e-payment scheme by mobile machine is considered. The requirements for a mobile machine in e-payment are presented, particularly when merchant employing accounts for payments and when using advertising. In the proposed scheme we will use the public key infrastructure and certificate for authenticate purchaser and merchant and to secure the communication between them.

  13. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    formation transmitted in digital communication systems. Such schemes ... Department of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering,. University of Dar es ...... (2): 165-176. Kundaeli, H. N. (2013). Throughput-Delay. Analysis of the SR-ST-GBN ARQ Scheme. Mediterranean Journal of Electronics and. Communication.

  14. Multiobjective hyper heuristic scheme for system design and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Amer Farhan

    2012-11-01

    As system design is becoming more and more multifaceted, integrated, and complex, the traditional single objective optimization trends of optimal design are becoming less and less efficient and effective. Single objective optimization methods present a unique optimal solution whereas multiobjective methods present pareto front. The foremost intent is to predict a reasonable distributed pareto-optimal solution set independent of the problem instance through multiobjective scheme. Other objective of application of intended approach is to improve the worthiness of outputs of the complex engineering system design process at the conceptual design phase. The process is automated in order to provide the system designer with the leverage of the possibility of studying and analyzing a large multiple of possible solutions in a short time. This article presents Multiobjective Hyper Heuristic Optimization Scheme based on low level meta-heuristics developed for the application in engineering system design. Herein, we present a stochastic function to manage meta-heuristics (low-level) to augment surety of global optimum solution. Generic Algorithm, Simulated Annealing and Swarm Intelligence are used as low-level meta-heuristics in this study. Performance of the proposed scheme is investigated through a comprehensive empirical analysis yielding acceptable results. One of the primary motives for performing multiobjective optimization is that the current engineering systems require simultaneous optimization of conflicting and multiple. Random decision making makes the implementation of this scheme attractive and easy. Injecting feasible solutions significantly alters the search direction and also adds diversity of population resulting in accomplishment of pre-defined goals set in the proposed scheme.

  15. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Material Utilization of Organic Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Jan Christoph; Pleissner, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Each year, 1.3 billion tons of food waste is generated globally. This waste traces back to industrial and agricultural producers, bakeries, restaurants, and households. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials, including grass clippings, leaves, bushes, shrubs, and woods, appear in large amounts. Depending on the region, organic waste is either composted, burned directly, or converted into biogas. All of the options set aside the fact that organic residues are valuable resources containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and phosphorus. Firstly, it is clear that avoidance of organic residues is imperative. However, the residues that accumulate nonetheless should be utilized by material means before energy production is targeted. This review presents different processes for the microbial utilization of organic residues towards compounds that are of great importance for the bioeconomy. The focus thereby is on the challenges coming along with downstream processing when the utilization of organic residues is carried out decentralized. Furthermore, a future process for producing lactic acid from organic residues is sketched.

  17. Pricing schemes for new drugs: a welfare analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, Rosella

    2014-02-01

    Drug price regulation is acquiring increasing significance in the investment choices of the pharmaceutical sector. The overall objective is to determine an optimal trade-off between the incentives for innovation, consumer protection, and value for money. However, price regulation is itself a source of distortion. In this study, we examine the welfare properties of listing through a bargaining process and value-based pricing schemes. The latter are superior instruments to uncertain listing processes for maximising total welfare, but the distribution of the benefits between consumers and the industry depends on rate of rebate chosen by the regulator. However, through an appropriate choice, it is always possible to define a value-based pricing scheme with risk sharing, which both consumers and the industry prefer to an uncertain bargaining process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Simple Secure Hash Function Scheme Using Multiple Chaotic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Musheer; Khurana, Shruti; Singh, Sushmita; AlSharari, Hamed D.

    2017-06-01

    The chaotic maps posses high parameter sensitivity, random-like behavior and one-way computations, which favor the construction of cryptographic hash functions. In this paper, we propose to present a novel hash function scheme which uses multiple chaotic maps to generate efficient variable-sized hash functions. The message is divided into four parts, each part is processed by a different 1D chaotic map unit yielding intermediate hash code. The four codes are concatenated to two blocks, then each block is processed through 2D chaotic map unit separately. The final hash value is generated by combining the two partial hash codes. The simulation analyses such as distribution of hashes, statistical properties of confusion and diffusion, message and key sensitivity, collision resistance and flexibility are performed. The results reveal that the proposed anticipated hash scheme is simple, efficient and holds comparable capabilities when compared with some recent chaos-based hash algorithms.

  19. Plasma simulation with the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    A computer code based on the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme has been developed for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for a one-dimensional plasma with immobile ions. The scheme advects the distribution function and its first derivatives in the phase space for one time step by using a numerical integration method for ordinary differential equations, and reconstructs the profile in phase space by using a cubic polynomial within a grid cell. The method gives stable and accurate results, and is efficient. It is successfully applied to a number of equations; the Vlasov equation, the Boltzmann equation with the Fokker-Planck or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision term and the relativistic Vlasov equation. The method can be generalized in a straightforward way to treat cases such as problems with nonperiodic boundary conditions and higher dimensional problems. (author)

  20. High-performance CAM-based Prolog execution scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Yahia, Tahar; Dana, Michel

    1991-03-01

    In this paper, we present an execution scheme allowing a direct and a pipeline evaluation of a Prolog Program. The execution scheme enhances Prolog performances in interpreted mode, by means of associative processing tools embodied in Content Addressable Memories and potential parallelism existing between clauses selection, unification, and access to clause arguments. The interpretation algorithm is distributed on several processing units, which are Content Addressable Memories (CAMs). These latter are generic and reconfigurable dealing with much more Artificial Intelligence applications, through improved target languages like Prolog, Lisp, and Object oriented languages. The model has been evaluated with a functional simulator written in Le-lisp. The results show the CAMs feasibility in improving Prolog execution at performances greater than 160 KLIPS, in interpreted mode.

  1. A Hybrid Data Compression Scheme for Improved VNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozheng (Jane Zhang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Network Computing (VNC has emerged as a promising technology in distributed computing environment since its invention in the late nineties. Successful application of VNC requires rapid data transfer from one machine to another over a TCP/IP network connection. However transfer of screen data consumes much network bandwidth and current data encoding schemes for VNC are far from being ideal. This paper seeks to improve screen data compression techniques to enable VNC over slow connections and present a reasonable speed and image quality. In this paper, a hybrid technique is proposed for improving coding efficiency. The algorithm first divides a screen image into pre-defined regions and applies encoding schemes to each area according to the region characteristics. Second, correlation of screen data in consecutive frames is exploited where multiple occurrences of similar image contents are detected. The improved results are demonstrated in a dynamic environment with various screen image types and desktop manipulation.

  2. Synchronization and Desynchronizing Control Schemes for Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth; Thybo, Claus Thybo; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2007-01-01

    A supermarket refrigeration system is a hybrid system with switched nonlinear dynamics and discrete-valued input variables such as opening/closing of valves and start/stop of compressors. Practical and simulation studies have shown that the use of distributed hysteresis controllers to operate...... the valves leads to synchronization, meaning that the opening and closing actions of the valves coincide. Consequently, the compressor periodically has to work hard resulting in low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. In this paper we propose two control schemes of low...... complexity for desynchronizing the valve operations while improving performance. Simulation results indicate the potential increase in efficiency and reduction in wear comparing with traditional control schemes....

  3. Novel Directional Protection Scheme for the FREEDM Smart Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitish

    This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

  4. Why and how to compensate living organ donors: ethical implications of the new Australian scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto

    2015-05-01

    The Australian Federal Government has announced a two-year trial scheme to compensate living organ donors. The compensation will be the equivalent of six weeks paid leave at the rate of the national minimum wage. In this article I analyse the ethics of compensating living organ donors taking the Australian scheme as a reference point. Considering the long waiting lists for organ transplantations and the related costs on the healthcare system of treating patients waiting for an organ, the 1.3 million AUD the Australian Government has committed might represent a very worthwhile investment. I argue that a scheme like the Australian one is sufficiently well designed to avoid all the ethical problems traditionally associated with attaching a monetary value to the human body or to parts of it, namely commodification, inducement, exploitation, and equality issues. Therefore, I suggest that the Australian scheme, if cost-effective, should represent a model for other countries to follow. Nonetheless, although I endorse this scheme, I will also argue that this kind of scheme raises issues of justice in regard to the distribution of organs. Thus, I propose that other policies would be needed to supplement the scheme in order to guarantee not only a higher number of organs available, but also a fair distribution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. An Enhanced Multihoming Support Scheme with Proxy Mobile IPv6 for Convergent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Kum, Dong-Won; Kang, Ju-Eun; Cho, You-Ze

    This paper analyzes the limitations of the multihoming support in the Proxy Mobile IPv6 protocol, then proposes an enhanced multihoming support scheme based on a per-interface address configuration method. The proposed scheme can provide a more flexible multihoming support and also maintain application session continuity during a handoff between two interfaces by using IPv6 extension headers. Plus, flow distribution with filters is also used to realize the advantages of multihoming. Simulation results with the OPNET validate the proposed multihoming support scheme for convergent networks.

  6. A Suboptimal Scheme for Multi-User Scheduling in Gaussian Broadcast Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-05-28

    This work proposes a suboptimal multi-user scheduling scheme for Gaussian broadcast channels which improves upon the classical single user selection, while considerably reducing complexity as compared to the optimal superposition coding with successful interference cancellation. The proposed scheme combines the two users with the maximum weighted instantaneous rate using superposition coding. The instantaneous rate and power allocation are derived in closed-form, while the long term rate of each user is derived in integral form for all channel distributions. Numerical results are then provided to characterize the prospected gains of the proposed scheme.

  7. Cost-Based Droop Schemes for Economic Dispatch in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Feixiong; Chen, Minyou; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, cost based droop schemes are proposed, to minimize the total active power generation cost in an islanded microgrid (MG), while the simplicity and decentralized nature of the droop control are retained. In cost based droop schemes, the incremental costs of distributed generators (DG......, in terms of the equal incremental cost principle. Finally, simulation results in an islanded MG with high penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources are presented, to demonstrate the eectiveness, as well as plug and play capability of the cost based droop schemes....

  8. A quantum proxy group signature scheme based on an entangled five-qubit state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiling; Ma, Wenping; Wang, Lili; Yin, Xunru

    2015-09-01

    A quantum proxy group signature (QPGS) scheme based on controlled teleportation is presented, by using the entangled five-qubit quantum state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement delegation, signature and verification. The security of the scheme is guaranteed by the entanglement correlations of the entangled five-qubit state, the secret keys based on the quantum key distribution (QKD) and the one-time pad algorithm, all of which have been proven to be unconditionally secure and the signature anonymity.

  9. Constructing an Urban Population Model for Medical Insurance Scheme Using Microsimulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linping Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China launched a pilot project of medical insurance reform in 79 cities in 2007 to cover urban nonworking residents. An urban population model was created in this paper for China’s medical insurance scheme using microsimulation model techniques. The model made it clear for the policy makers the population distributions of different groups of people, the potential urban residents entering the medical insurance scheme. The income trends of units of individuals and families were also obtained. These factors are essential in making the challenging policy decisions when considering to balance the long-term financial sustainability of the medical insurance scheme.

  10. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based......The geomagnetic field varies on a variety of time- and length scales, which are only rudimentary considered in most present field models. The part of the observed field that can not be explained by a given model, the model residuals, is often considered as an estimate of the data uncertainty (which....... Once these are known, they can be used in the modelling process to improve the model, estimate its uncertainty and eventually determine the optimal sampling rate in time and space. The uncertainty estimate on the field model can be used to estimate the uncertainty on quantities deduced from the field...

  11. Increasing stability and accuracy of the lattice Boltzmann scheme: recursivity and regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Malaspinas, Orestis

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper a lattice Boltzmann scheme is presented which exhibits an increased stability and accuracy with respect to standard single- or multi-relaxation-time (MRT) approaches. The scheme is based on a single-relaxation-time model where a special regularization procedure is applied. This regularization is based on the fact that, for a-thermal flows, there exists a recursive way to express the velocity distribution function at any order (in the Hermite series sense) in terms of the ...

  12. Novel scheme for efficient and cost-effective forwarding of packets in optical networks without header modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessing, Henrik; Fjelde, Tina; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for addressing the outputs in optical packet switches and demonstrate its good scalability. The scheme requires neither header modification nor distribution of routing information to the packet switches, thus reducing optical component count while simplifying network...

  13. Enhancing of a Password-Based Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsook; Won, Dongho

    A password based remote user authentication scheme is a two-party protocol whereby an authentication server in a distributed system confirms the identity of a remote individual logging on to the server over an untrusted, open network. This paper discusses the security of Chen et al.'s remote user authentication scheme making use of smart cards. They have recently presented an improved version of Lin, Shen, and Hwang's scheme. But, unlike their claims, in Chen et al.'s scheme, if an attacker gains access to some user's smart card and extracts the information stored in the smart card, he/she can easily find out the user's password. We show this by mounting a dictionary attack on the scheme. In addition, Chen et al.'s scheme does not support its main security goal of authenticating between a remote individual and the server. This is shown via a sever impersonation attack on the scheme. Motivated by these security flaws, we propose a more secure remote user authentication scheme that achieves both two-factor security and mutual authentication.

  14. Multidimensional Vlasov–Poisson Simulations with High-order Monotonicity- and Positivity-preserving Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Minoshima, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    We develop new numerical schemes for Vlasov–Poisson equations with high-order accuracy. Our methods are based on a spatially monotonicity-preserving (MP) scheme and are modified suitably so that the positivity of the distribution function is also preserved. We adopt an efficient semi-Lagrangian time integration scheme that is more accurate and computationally less expensive than the three-stage TVD Runge–Kutta integration. We apply our spatially fifth- and seventh-order schemes to a suite of simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems and electrostatic plasma simulations, including linear and nonlinear Landau damping in one dimension and Vlasov–Poisson simulations in a six-dimensional phase space. The high-order schemes achieve a significantly improved accuracy in comparison with the third-order positive-flux-conserved scheme adopted in our previous study. With the semi-Lagrangian time integration, the computational cost of our high-order schemes does not significantly increase, but remains roughly the same as that of the third-order scheme. Vlasov–Poisson simulations on {128}3× {128}3 mesh grids have been successfully performed on a massively parallel computer.

  15. Evaluation of field triage decision scheme educational resources: audience research with emergency medical service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Kelly; Eckstein, Daniel; Zambon, Allison

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to encourage appropriate field triage procedures, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the American College of Surgeons-Committee on Trauma, convened the National Expert Panel on Field Triage to update the Field Triage Decision Scheme: The National Trauma Triage Protocol (Decision Scheme). In support of the Decision Scheme, CDC developed educational resources for emergency medical service (EMS) professionals, one of CDC's first efforts to develop and broadly disseminate educational information for the EMS community. CDC wanted to systematically collect information from the EMS community on what worked and what did not with respect to these educational materials and which materials were of most use. An evaluation was conducted to obtain feedback from EMS professionals about the Decision Scheme and use of Decision Scheme educational materials. The evaluation included a survey and a series of focus groups. Findings indicate that a segment of the Decision Scheme's intended audience is using the materials and learning from them, and they have had a positive influence on their triage practices. However, many of the individuals who participated in this research are not using the Decision Scheme and indicated that the materials have not affected their triage practices. Findings presented in this article can be used to inform development and distribution of additional Decision Scheme educational resources to ensure they reach a greater proportion of EMS professionals and to inform other education and dissemination efforts with the EMS community.

  16. A numerical scheme for modelling reacting flow with detailed chemistry and transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knio, Omar M. (The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Najm, Habib N.; Paul, Phillip H. (Eksigent Technologies LLC, Livermore, CA)

    2003-09-01

    An efficient projection scheme is developed for the simulation of reacting flow with detailed kinetics and transport. The scheme is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the compressible conservation equations for an ideal gas mixture. It is a modified version of the stiff operator-split scheme developed by Knio, Najm & Wyckoff (1999, J. Comput. Phys. 154, 428). Similar to its predecessor, the new scheme relies on Strang splitting of the discrete evolution equations, where diffusion is integrated in two half steps that are symmetrically distributed around a single stiff step for the reaction source terms. The diffusive half-step is integrated using an explicit single-step, multistage, Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev (RKC) method, which replaces the explicit, multi-step, fractional sub-step approach used in the previous formulation. This modification maintains the overall second-order convergence properties of the scheme and enhances the efficiency of the computations by taking advantage of the extended real-stability region of the RKC scheme. Two additional efficiency-enhancements are also explored, based on an extrapolation procedure for the transport coefficients and on the use of approximate Jacobian data evaluated on a coarse mesh. By including these enhancement schemes, performance tests using 2D computations with a detailed C{sub 1}C{sub 2} methane-air mechanism and a detailed mixture-averaged transport model indicate that speedup factors of about 15 are achieved over the previous split-stiff scheme.

  17. Self-centering seismic retrofit scheme for reinforced concrete frame structures: SDOF system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study of self-centering seismic retrofit schemes for reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. The self-centering retrofit system features flag-shaped hysteresis and minimal residual deformation. For comparison purpose, an alternate seismic retrofit scheme that uses a bilinear-hysteresis retrofit system such as buckling-restrained braces (BRB) is also considered in this paper. The parametric study was carried out in a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system framework since a multi-story building structure may be idealized as an equivalent SDOF system and investigation of the performance of this equivalent SDOF system can provide insight into the seismic response of the multi-story building. A peak-oriented hysteresis model which can consider the strength and stiffness degradation is used to describe the hysteretic behavior of RC structures. The parametric study involves two key parameters — the strength ratio and elastic stiffness ratio between the seismic retrofit system and the original RC frame. An ensemble of 172 earthquake ground motion records scaled to the design basis earthquake in California with a probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years was constructed for the simulation-based parametric study. The effectiveness of the two seismic retrofit schemes considered in this study is evaluated in terms of peak displacement ratio, peak acceleration ratio, energy dissipation demand ratio and residual displacement ratio between the SDOF systems with and without retrofit. It is found from this parametric study that RC structures retrofitted with the self-centering retrofit scheme (SCRS) can achieve a seismic performance level comparable to the bilinear-hysteresis retrofit scheme (BHRS) in terms of peak displacement and energy dissipation demand ratio while having negligible residual displacement after earthquake.

  18. Protection for DC Distribution System with Distributed Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DC distribution system has advantages of high power quality, large transmission capacity, high reliability, simple structure, economy and low energy consumption, and so forth. It has been a key part of smart grid nowadays. However, the development of DC distribution system is constrained by the lack of operational experience in DC system, the small interrupting capacity of DC circuit breaker (CB, and the lack of protection schemes for system itself. In this paper, protection for DC distribution system with distributed generator (DG is fully investigated and verified. Firstly, the electromagnetic transient model of DC distribution system with DG is presented. Simulation based on the electromagnetic transient model is carried out. Both the step response and the steady-state performance verify the accuracy of the model. Then the fault characteristic mechanism is analyzed, and the protection principles and scheme are investigated in detail, including voltage mutation principle as protection starting component, differential current protection principle for DC bus, and two-section current protection for distribution lines. Finally, transient responses with protection scheme are analyzed during faults. The results present that the protection principles and scheme are feasible for DC distribution system with DG.

  19. Developing breeding schemes to assist mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, E; Simm, G; Moran, D

    2010-03-01

    Genetic improvement of livestock is a particularly effective technology, producing permanent and cumulative changes in performance. This paper highlights some of the options for including mitigation in livestock breeding schemes, focusing on ruminant species, and details three routes through which genetic improvement can help to reduce emissions per kg product via: (i) improving productivity and efficiency, (ii) reducing wastage in the farming system and (iii) directly selecting on emissions, if or when these are measurable. Selecting on traits that improve the efficiency of the system (e.g. residual feed intake, longevity) will have a favourable effect on the overall emissions from the system. Specific examples of how genetic selection will have a favourable effect on emissions for UK dairy systems are described. The development of breeding schemes that incorporate environmental concerns is both desirable and possible. An example of how economic valuation of public good outcomes can be incorporated into UK dairy selection indices is given. This paper focuses on genetic selection tools using, on the whole, currently available traits and tools. However, new direct and indirect measurement techniques for emissions will improve the potential to reduce emissions by genetic selection. The complexities of global forces on defining selection objectives are also highlighted.

  20. Investigation of Diesel’s Residual Noise on Predictive Vehicles Noise Cancelling using LMS Adaptive Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arttini Dwi Prasetyowati, Sri; Susanto, Adhi; Widihastuti, Ida

    2017-04-01

    Every noise problems require different solution. In this research, the noise that must be cancelled comes from roadway. Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive is one of the algorithm that can be used to cancel that noise. Residual noise always appears and could not be erased completely. This research aims to know the characteristic of residual noise from vehicle’s noise and analysis so that it is no longer appearing as a problem. LMS algorithm was used to predict the vehicle’s noise and minimize the error. The distribution of the residual noise could be observed to determine the specificity of the residual noise. The statistic of the residual noise close to normal distribution with = 0,0435, = 1,13 and the autocorrelation of the residual noise forming impulse. As a conclusion the residual noise is insignificant.

  1. Measurement and correlation of conditions for entrapment and mobilization of residual oil. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, N.R.

    1982-09-01

    Substantial progress has been made in four major task areas. The first task is to establish the limits of reliability of laboratory waterflooding as an evaluation tool. Wettability is identified as a key variable. Work is being extended to wetting properties of crude oils and core flooding. The second task concerns the effects of high capillary number flows on trapping phenomena and residual oil saturation. Correlations of capillary number and relative permeability behavior at reduced residual saturations have been developed for displacement in sandstones. The third task deals with mechanisms of mobilization and entrapment of residual oil. Detailed accounts have recently been presented of work on relative permeability at reduced residual oil saturations and for factors which affect the magnitude and distribution of residual oil. Work on the fourth task concerns the detailed structure of residual oil. The size distribution of residual oil blobs, obtained under various displacement conditions, is being measured by various size-analysis methods.

  2. Pore size distribution in soils irrigated with sodic water and wastewater Distribuição de poros em solos irrigados com água salina e com água residuária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Alessandra Bruschi Gonçalves

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil porosity, especially pore size distribution, is an important controlling factor for soil infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention. This study aimed to verify the effect of secondary-treated domestic wastewater (STW on the porosity of a sandy loam Oxisol in the city of Lins, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The two-year experiment was divided into three plots: soil cultivated with corn and sunflower and irrigated with STW, soil cultivated and irrigated with sodic groundwater, and non-irrigated and non-cultivated soil (control. At the end of the experiment, undisturbed core samples were sampled from 0 to 2.0 m (8 depths. The water retention curves were obtained by tension plates and Richard's pressure plate apparatus, and the pore size distribution inferred from the retention curves. It was found that irrigation with treated wastewater and treated groundwater led to a decrease in microporosity (V MI, defined as the pore class ranging from 0.2 to 50 μm diameter. On the other hand, a significant increase in cryptoporosity (V CRI (A porosidade do solo, principalmente a distribuição dos poros, é um fator importante que controla a infiltração de água, condutividade hidráulica e retenção da água no solo. Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos do efluente de estação de tratamento de esgoto (TSE na porosidade de um Latossolo de textura média. A área experimental foi dividida em três parcelas: solo cultivado com milho e girassol e irrigado com TSE (STW; solo cultivado e irrigado com água subterrânea sódica (W; e solo não cultivado e não irrigado (C-controle. No final de dois anos de experimento, amostras não deformadas de solo foram coletadas de 0 a 2,0 m (oito amostras. As curvas de retenção de água no solo foram obtidas com mesas de tensão e câmara de Richards, e a distribuição de poros no solo foi calculada a partir da derivação dessas curvas. Foi observado decréscimo da microporosidade V MI

  3. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  4. Towards an "All Speed" Unstructured Upwind Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C.E.

    2009-01-01

    In the authors previous studies [1], a time-accurate, upwind finite volume method (ETAU scheme) for computing compressible flows on unstructured grids was proposed. The scheme is second order accurate in space and time and yields high resolution in the presence of discontinuities. The scheme features a multidimensional limiter and multidimensional numerical dissipation. These help to stabilize the numerical process and to overcome the annoying pathological behaviors of upwind schemes. In the present paper, it will be further shown that such multidimensional treatments also lead to a nearly all-speed or Mach number insensitive upwind scheme. For flows at very high Mach number, e.g., 10, local numerical instabilities or the pathological behaviors are suppressed, while for flows at very low Mach number, e.g., 0.02, computation can be directly carried out without invoking preconditioning. For flows in different Mach number regimes, i.e., low, medium, and high Mach numbers, one only needs to adjust one or two parameters in the scheme. Several examples with low and high Mach numbers are demonstrated in this paper. Thus, the ETAU scheme is applicable to a broad spectrum of flow regimes ranging from high supersonic to low subsonic, appropriate for both CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and CAA (computational aeroacoustics).

  5. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  6. A new approach for the influence of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Jia, Min-Ping

    Many manufacturing processes can induce residual stresses in produced components. These residual stresses influence the mean stress during cyclic loading. The initial residual stresses induced during manufacturing change during fatigue damage. This paper presents a research on the change of residual stress distribution during fatigue crack propagation; the research predicts crack propagation by considering residual stress. An analysis approach for the change in residual stress distribution is established according to the diffusion theory of cavity, which is also used to investigate cracks with different orientations. Experiments are conducted to verify the prediction results of residual stress. A probability density function based on Weibull distribution is established to evaluate the accuracy of predicted residual stress. The influence of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation is considered the effective stress intensity factor range, which is calculated under the combined stress field of applied stress and residual stress. An analysis model of crack propagation is established. Furthermore, the model of crack propagation is used to estimate the velocity of crack propagation for the cases, same as the cases of residual stress prediction. The case studies show that the results are basically identical with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed approach is acceptable.

  7. Deitmar schemes, graphs and zeta functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-Angulo, Manuel; Thas, Koen

    2017-07-01

    In Thas (2014) it was explained how one can naturally associate a Deitmar scheme (which is a scheme defined over the field with one element, F1) to a so-called ;loose graph; (which is a generalization of a graph). Several properties of the Deitmar scheme can be proven easily from the combinatorics of the (loose) graph, and known realizations of objects over F1 such as combinatorial F1-projective and F1-affine spaces exactly depict the loose graph which corresponds to the associated Deitmar scheme. In this paper, we first modify the construction of loc. cit., and show that Deitmar schemes which are defined by finite trees (with possible end points) are ;defined over F1; in Kurokawa's sense; we then derive a precise formula for the Kurokawa zeta function for such schemes (and so also for the counting polynomial of all associated Fq-schemes). As a corollary, we find a zeta function for all such trees which contains information such as the number of inner points and the spectrum of degrees, and which is thus very different than Ihara's zeta function (which is trivial in this case). Using a process called ;surgery,; we show that one can determine the zeta function of a general loose graph and its associated {Deitmar, Grothendieck}-schemes in a number of steps, eventually reducing the calculation essentially to trees. We study a number of classes of examples of loose graphs, and introduce the Grothendieck ring ofF1-schemes along the way in order to perform the calculations. Finally, we include a computer program for performing more tedious calculations, and compare the new zeta function to Ihara's zeta function for graphs in a number of examples.

  8. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  9. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    CAPPELLETTI, MARINELLA; Price, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia ? a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts ? is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  10. Gasification of shredder residue (AUTOGAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Suomalainen, M.; Maekinen, T. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Jalkanen, H.; Huitu, K. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    The disposal of shredder residue is presently based worldwide on landfilling. However, the current trend in the legislation of European Union is to emphasise, at a first priority, material recycling and, in addition, to prefer energy recovery to landfilling. Gasification is a potential option to utilise shredder residue in energy production in environmentally acceptable way. In addition some metals in shredder residue may be recovered from gasification ash leading to increase in material recycling. An air blown fluidised bed gasification process for thermal treatment of shredder residue will be developed in the project. The process will produce fuel gas, which will be clean enough to be used as replacement of other fuels in coal fired boilers, industrial kilns or other applications. Attention is also paid on the economic feasibility of the process concept. Three authentic shredder residue samples delivered by shredders were characterised by chemical analysis and then used as a feedstock in bench- scale and PDU-scale fluidised bed gasification test trials. The results indicated that the process concept is a potential application for treating shredder residue. Based on the gasification test results, a preliminary evaluation of technological and economic feasibility of the process concept was carried out. The overall conclusion after the preliminary evaluation was that air-blown gasification of shredder residue is a very interesting and economically competitive alternative for treating shredder residue. However, there are still needs for further development of process details. (orig.)

  11. Use of Residues in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Olivieri de Nobile

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a revision of the abstracts of The XX Brazilian Meeting of Fertility of the Soil and Nutrition of Plants, realizado in Piracicaba-São Paulo. The agronomic use of residues pressuposes a diverse number of applications such as their use in: animal feeding, substrate for fermentations, organic or organo-mineral fertilizer manufacture, soil coverages in different creations and substitutes of raw material for the agroindustrial or similar activities. However, the objective of this presentation is restricted to the aspects of the use of residues in the soil, understanding the aspects related to the characterization of these residues, the benefits or inconveniences of the application to the soil and the parameters that must be observed when the intention is to give this destination to the residues. In this way, this subject can be divided in two basic aspects: the residues and the soils. Concerning the residues, the main factors that affect their application to the soil are: chemical composition, physical characteristics, sanitary aspects, generated amount and regimen of release. In relation to soil, we must consider all those characteristics which are responsible for the capacity of the soil in deactivating and stabilizing the residues, through physical chemical and biological mechanisms. It is in this general framework that we intend to approach some specific aspects which are considered more important for the use of residues in soil.

  12. Vector domain decomposition schemes for parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabishchevich, P. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new class of domain decomposition schemes for finding approximate solutions of timedependent problems for partial differential equations is proposed and studied. A boundary value problem for a second-order parabolic equation is used as a model problem. The general approach to the construction of domain decomposition schemes is based on partition of unity. Specifically, a vector problem is set up for solving problems in individual subdomains. Stability conditions for vector regionally additive schemes of first- and second-order accuracy are obtained.

  13. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    and geometry over the field with one element. It also permits the construction of important Arakelov theoretical objects, such as the completion \\Spec Z of Spec Z. In this thesis, we prove a projective bundle theorem for the eld with one element and compute the Chow rings of the generalized schemes Sp\\ec ZN......Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry......, appearing in the construction of \\Spec Z....

  14. Galilean invariant resummation schemes of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Many of the methods proposed so far to go beyond Standard Perturbation Theory break invariance under time-dependent boosts (denoted here as extended Galilean Invariance, or GI). This gives rise to spurious large scale effects which spoil the small scale predictions of these approximation schemes. By using consistency relations we derive fully non-perturbative constraints that GI imposes on correlation functions. We then introduce a method to quantify the amount of GI breaking of a given scheme, and to correct it by properly tailored counterterms. Finally, we formulate resummation schemes which are manifestly GI, discuss their general features, and implement them in the so called Time-Flow, or TRG, equations.

  15. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  16. Graph state-based quantum authentication scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Longxia; Peng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the special properties of the graph state, a quantum authentication scheme is proposed in this paper, which is implemented with the utilization of the graph state. Two entities, a reliable party, Trent, as a verifier and Alice as prover are included. Trent is responsible for registering Alice in the beginning and confirming Alice in the end. The proposed scheme is simple in structure and convenient to realize in the realistic physical system due to the use of the graph state in a one-way quantum channel. In addition, the security of the scheme is extensively analyzed and accordingly can resist the general individual attack strategies.

  17. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    . This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC......) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more...

  18. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  19. Residue number systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P V Ananda

    2016-01-01

    This new and expanded monograph improves upon Mohan's earlier book, Residue Number Systems (Springer, 2002) with a state of the art treatment of the subject. Replete with detailed illustrations and helpful examples, this book covers a host of cutting edge topics such as the core function, the quotient function, new Chinese Remainder theorems, and large integer operations. It also features many significant applications to practical communication systems and cryptography such as FIR filters and elliptic curve cryptography. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the basics and leading up to current research trends that are not yet widely distributed in other publications, this book will be of interest to both researchers and students alike.

  20. A survey of Strong Convergent Schemes for the Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We considered strong convergent stochastic schemes for the simulation of stochastic differential equations. The stochastic Taylor's expansion, which is the main tool used for the derivation of strong convergent schemes; the Euler Maruyama, Milstein scheme, stochastic multistep schemes, Implicit and Explicit schemes were ...