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Sample records for residual deltamethrin concentration

  1. 40 CFR 180.435 - Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues.

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    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues. 180.435 Section 180.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.435 Deltamethrin; tolerances for residues. ...

  2. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

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    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  3. FATE OF ENDOSULFAN AND DELTAMETHRIN RESIDUES DURING TOMATO PASTE PRODUCTION

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    CIGDEM UYSAL-PALA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of tomato paste processing steps on pesticides with active ingredient endosulfan and deltamethrin were investigated in Biga/Canakkale. Residue data were obtained by analyzing samples taken during harvesting, taken after washing and chopping, taken after pulping (pulp and pomace and taken from the tomato paste with GC-ECD. In the process of making tomato paste, washing decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 30.62% and 47.58%, respectively. Pre-heating, pulping, evaporation and half-pasteurization increased deltamethrin 2.33% while decreasing endosulfan 66.5% after washing. The whole process decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 76.8% and 46.3%, respectively. The residues were mostly collected in pomace.

  4. Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and its residue on environment

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    Endang Puji Astuti

    2015-01-01

    -tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. In addition, we aimed to measure the infiltration rate ofdeltamethrin insecticides in different types of soil. Methods: An experimental study was conducted on laboratory-reared P. americana in Institut Pertanian Bogor (Agricultural Institute, Bogor. Using five different deltamethrin concentrations 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v in three replications, we assessed deltamethrin residual effect against cockroaches in 24 and 48-hrs. Lethal concentration (LC for cockroaches was determined using Probit analysis. The lethal concentration was50 then tested on C. batrachus and O. niloticus in spraying and soaking method using organophosphate 1 ppm and 10 ppm. Infiltration rate of insecticide on three soil type was measured with lysimeter. Results: The toxic effect (LC of deltamethrin residue against cockroach reached at concentration of 500.2% in 24-hrs. Fifty per cent of nile-tilapia were killed by deltamethrin 0.2% within 24-hrs. Infiltration capacity of the insecticide were higher on sandy soil (5 ml/mins than dominantly-composed by clay soil. Conclusions: Deltamethrin 0.2% had a knockdown effect on P. americana, may infiltrate soil and waterbodies, and had a residual toxic effect on nile-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9Keywords: deltamethrin, residual effect, P. a m e r ic a n a, O. niloticus, soil

  5. Environmental consequences of deltamethrin residues in cattle feces in an African agricultural landscape.

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    Sands, Bryony; Mgidiswa, Neludo; Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Wall, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control ectoparasites of livestock, particularly ticks and biting flies. Their use in African livestock systems is increasing, driven by the need to increase productivity and local food security. However, insecticide residues present in the dung after treatment are toxic to dung-inhabiting insects. In a semiarid agricultural habitat in Botswana, dung beetle adult mortality, brood ball production, and larval survival were compared between untreated cattle dung and cattle dung spiked with deltamethrin, to give concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 ppm. Cattle dung-baited pitfall traps were used to measure repellent effects of deltamethrin in dung on Scarabaeidae. Dung decomposition rate was also examined. There was significantly increased mortality of adult dung beetles colonizing pats that contained deltamethrin compared to insecticide-free pats. Brood ball production was significantly reduced at concentrations of 1 ppm; larval survival was significantly reduced in dung containing 0.1 ppm deltamethrin and above. There was no difference in the number of Scarabaeidae attracted to dung containing any of the deltamethrin concentrations. Dung decomposition was significantly reduced even at the lowest concentration (0.01 ppm) compared to insecticide-free dung. The widespread use of deltamethrin in African agricultural ecosystems is a significant cause for concern; sustained use is likely to damage dung beetle populations and their provision of environmentally and economically important ecosystem services. Contaminated dung buried by paracoprid (tunneling) beetles may retain insecticidal effects, with impacts on developing larvae below ground. Lethal and sublethal effects on entire dung beetle (Scarabaeidae) communities could impair ecosystem function in agricultural landscapes.

  6. The residual effect of lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in Zhombe, Kwekwe district, Zimbabwe

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    N. Lukwa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor residual house spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT was conducted in Zhombe Resettlement area, Zimbabwe. A total of 204/219 (93.1%, 224/260 (86.2% and 257/325 (79.1% rooms were sprayed with lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and DDT wettable powders respectively. Bioassays were conducted on sprayed walls and roofs using 3-5 day old laboratory reared susceptible Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes placed in World Health Organization cones. Bioassays conducted on sprayed walls (1 month, showed that efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin was the same with DDT but different with deltamethrin and this trend continued in the 2nd month. During the 3rd month, lambda-cyhalothrin killed more mosquitoes than deltamethrin (P=1.931x10-14, DDT killed more mosquitoes than deltamethrin (P=0.0001 and lambda-cyhalothrin killed more mosquitoes than DDT (walls. Efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT was the same 4 months post spray (P=0.487, notable differences were seen in lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin (P=2.57x10-6, DDT and deltamethrin (P=2.17-10-8. Efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT was the same 5 months post spray (P=0.244, major differences were found in lambdacyhalothrin and deltamethrin (P=0.000, DDT and deltamethrin (P=5.18x10-5 and this trend continued in the 6th month. One month after spraying roofs, mortality of mosquitoes due to lambdacyhalothrin/ deltamethrin (P=2.56x10-5, lambda-cyhalothrin/DDT (P=1.2x10-7 and deltamethrin/DDT (P=0.013 were significantly different and this continued in the 2nd month. However, 3 months after spraying, mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin/deltamethrin (P=1.46x10-6, lambda-cyhalothrin/DDT (P=0.048, and deltamethrin/DDT (P=0.004 were significantly different and this continued in the 4th month. Five months after spraying roofs, mortality due to lambda-cyhalothrin/ deltamethrin (P=0.000 and deltamethrin/DDT (P=6.6x10-7 were significantly different. Six months

  7. Residual efficacy of deltamethrin and ß-cyfluthrin against Trogoderma variabile and Trogoderma inclusum (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

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    Trogroderma variabile Ballion, warehouse beetle, and Trogoderma inclusum LeConte, larger cabinet beetle, are dermestid pests of stored products. A series of laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate residual toxicity of the pyrethroids ß-cyfluthrin and deltamethrin, applied on a concrete surf...

  8. Response of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt) to different concentration treatments of deltamethrin.

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    Duran, Ragbet Ezgi; Kilic, Semra; Coskun, Yasemin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the deltamethrin pesticide on the biological properties of maize (Zea mays L. saccharata Sturt). Maize seeds were exposed to environmentally relevant dosages (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 ppm) of deltamethrin. On the 7th day of germination, morphological, anatomical and physiological responses were determined. All seedling growth characters were decreased with increasing deltamethrin levels. The most negative effect on the radicle length of maize was observed by the highest deltamethrin concentration with a 61% decrease (P <0.05). Both stomatal density and stomatal dimension reduction were caused by increasing concentrations of deltamethrin. Moreover, the pigments like chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and caretonoids decreased with the increase in deltamethrin concentration. Conversely, anthocyanin and proline content increased in parallel with deltamethrin concentration. As a result, all morphological traits and pigments except for proline and anthocyanin were significantly reduced with an increase in pesticide concentration, compared to control (P <0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decrease of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Residues in Stored Rice with Post-Harvest Treatment

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    Yu, Chuanshan; Li, Yanjie; Zhang, Qian; Zou, Nan; Gu, Kejia; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2014-01-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged (QuEChERS) method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) material was applied to the analysis of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice. Two dustable powder (DP) formulations (2% pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin DP; 5% pirimiphos-methyl DP) were applied in simulated storehouse trials in the lab. The residues and dissipation of the two pesticides in stored rice were investigated. Slow dissipation of both pesticides was observed in stored rice. The half-lives of pirimiphos-methyl were 23.9–28.9 days, and those of deltamethrin were 23.9–24.8 days. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl from application rates of 4.5–6.75 a.i. mg/kg (active ingredient milligram per kilogram) and 10–15 a.i. mg/kg were 1.6–3.8 mg/kg and 3.0–4.5 mg/kg at 60 days Pre-harvest Interval (PHI). Residues of deltamethrin from an application rate of 0.5–0.75 a.i. mg/kg were 0.13–0.14 mg/kg at 60 days PHI. Both pesticides residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Therefore, at the recommended dosages they are safe for use on stored rice. PMID:24840352

  10. Decrease of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Residues in Stored Rice with Post-Harvest Treatment

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    Chuanshan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged (QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE material was applied to the analysis of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice. Two dustable powder (DP formulations (2% pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin DP; 5% pirimiphos-methyl DP were applied in simulated storehouse trials in the lab. The residues and dissipation of the two pesticides in stored rice were investigated. Slow dissipation of both pesticides was observed in stored rice. The half-lives of pirimiphos-methyl were 23.9–28.9 days, and those of deltamethrin were 23.9–24.8 days. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl from application rates of 4.5–6.75 a.i. mg/kg (active ingredient milligram per kilogram and 10–15 a.i. mg/kg were 1.6–3.8 mg/kg and 3.0–4.5 mg/kg at 60 days Pre-harvest Interval (PHI. Residues of deltamethrin from an application rate of 0.5–0.75 a.i. mg/kg were 0.13–0.14 mg/kg at 60 days PHI. Both pesticides residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC. Therefore, at the recommended dosages they are safe for use on stored rice.

  11. Residu Deltamethrin Terlacak pada Hati Ayam Pedaging yang Dipasarkan di Yogyakarta (DETECTION OF DELTAMETHRIN RESIDUE IN BROILER LIVER TRADED IN YOGYAKARTA

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    Gagak Donny Satria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The consumer assurance to get safe, hygienic, whole, and halal food is an important concern. Analysisof chemical residue is one of some ways  to examine food safety. The objective of this research was to detectdeltamethrin residue in broiler liver sold in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The isocratic HPLC method was usedin this research, using Shimadzu 6.1, 80% of Acetonitrile in Aquabides as mobile phase, with 1ml/minutesof flow rate. C-18 was used as column and the wavelength of UV-Vis detector was 270 nm. The result of theresearch was get from HPLC’s analyses. Deltamethrin’s peak area would be presented in retention time 8-12minutes with specific profile of curve. The result of the research showed that deltamethrin was positivelydetected in 13 broiler livers. It’s concluded that broiler livers that sold in Yogyakarta are detected to containdeltamethrin-contaminated.

  12. The impact of indoor residual spraying of deltamethrin on dengue vector populations in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Paredes-Esquivel, Claudia; Lenhart, Audrey; del Río, Ricardo; Leza, M M; Estrugo, M; Chalco, Enrique; Casanova, Wilma; Miranda, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is an important public health problem in the Amazon area of Peru, resulting in significant morbidity each year. As in other areas of the world, ultra-low volume (ULV) application of insecticides is the main strategy to reduce adult populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, despite growing evidence of its limitations as a single control method. This study investigated the efficacy of deltamethrin S.C. applied through indoor residual spraying (IRS) of dwellings in reducing A. aegypti populations. The residual effect of the insecticide was tested by monthly bioassays on the three most common indoor surfaces found in the Amazon area: painted wood, unpainted wood and brick. The results showed that in an area with moderate levels of A. aegypti infestation, IRS dramatically reduced all immature indices the first week after deltamethrin IRS application and the adult index from 18.5 to 3.1, four weeks after intervention (p80% 8 weeks after application on all types of surfaces. The residual effect of the insecticide was greater on brick than on wooden walls (pdengue vector control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Persistence of thiacloprid and deltamethrin residues in tea grown at different locations of North-East India.

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    Sharma, Nitesh; Banerjee, Hemanta; Pal, Srikumar; Sharma, K K

    2018-07-01

    In order to examine the residues of thiacloprid (90 and 180 g a.i./ha) and deltamethrin (10 and 20 g a.i./ha) in fresh tea leaves, made tea and tea infusion, field experiments were conducted at three different locations viz. Kamalpur tea estate, Darjeeling; West Bengal, Teok tea Estate and AAU, Jorhat; Assam in India. Regardless of location and doses, residues of both the insecticides dissipated following first order kinetics. The half-life of Thiacloprid (4.93-5.38 days) was longer than that of deltamethrin (1.78-1.94 days). Processing of green tea leaves reduced the residue level of thiacloprid and deltamethrin in made tea. No residues of both these insecticides could be detected in tea infusion. With respect to the phenolic distribution in tea, a marked increase in total catechin monomers with thiacloprid and greater accumulation of EGCG and ECG (indices of phenol quality) with deltamethrin were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Susceptibility characterization of residual Brazilian populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to deltamethrin pyrethroid

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    Grasielle Caldas D`avila Pessoa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance.

  15. Residual Effects of Deltamethrin WG 25% as a New Formulation on Different Surfaces against Anopheles stephensi, in Southeastern Iran

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    Raeisi, A; Abai, MR; Akbarzadeh, K; Nateghpour, M; Sartipi, M; Hassanzehi, A; Shahbakhsh, N; Faraji, L; Nikpour, F; Mashayekhi, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is functioned as national interventions against malaria in southeastern foci of Iran and deltamethrin WP one of the insecticides have been used since past decade. In this study, the residual activity of the wettable granule (WG) was studied on different surfaces in hut scale trial against Anopheles stephensi in Iranshahr District, southeastern Iran. Methods: Three dosages of 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 of deltamethrin WG 25% formulation were applied on plaster, cement, mud, and wooden surfaces using Hudson® X-pert compression sprayer having 10 litters capacity. Results: The residual effects of deltamethrin WG 25% on different surfaces was assessed based on reduction of mortality An. stepehnsi from 100% to about 70%. At 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 the WG formulation of deltamethrin had a bioefficacy for about 2, 3 and 4 months respectively. Conclusion: There was an expectable fluctuation in mortality of An. stephensi at different sprayed surfaces as well as dosages. The proposed 50 mg/m2 WG is the longest activity for up to 4 months which needs to be applied for two spraying cycles per year at the climatically condition of southwestern Iran. PMID:22808390

  16. Bound sup 14 C residues in stored wheat treated with ( sup 14 C)deltamethrin and their bioavailability in rats

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    Khan, S.U.; Kacew, S. (Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Akhtar, M.H. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    Wheat grains treated with radiolabeled deltamethrin ((S)-{alpha}-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R,3R)-cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate) and stored in the laboratory for 168 days formed bound (nonextractable) {sup 14}C residues. The amount of bound {sup 14}C residues formed was about 11% of the total {sup 14}C in stored grain. Br{sub 2}CA (3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid) and 3-PBacid (3-phenoxybenzoic acid) were present in the form of bound {sup 14}C residues in addition to some radiolabeled product of unknown composition. The stored wheat containing bound {sup 14}C was fed to rats. The {sup 14}C residues were excreted in urine and feces in nearly equal proportion. The {sup 14}C residues identified in urine were Br{sub 2}CA, 3-PBacid, and conjugated compounds of 4{prime}-OH-3-PBacid (3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid). Most of the {sup 14}C residues excreted in feces were extractable with methanol. Trace amounts of {sup 14}C residues were also present in lungs, kidney, and liver. The results suggest that bound residues in stored wheat treated with deltamethrin when fed to rats are highly bioavailable.

  17. Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using Deltamethrin Treated Nets in Comparison to Indoors Residual Spraying in a Rural Area of Iran.

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    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Rassi, Yavar; Chegeni-Sharafi, Ali; Rostami, Reza; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Abdali, Nargess

    2017-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important vector-borne disease in Iran. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Deltamethrin treated nets in comparison to Indoors Residual Spraying (IRS) for the control of leishmaniasis in a new focal area of Iran. The study was carried out in 5 villages in the west of Iran during 2012-2013. One village was selected to the application of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs, 25 mg/m 2 deltamethrin) among residents. Four other villages were considered for IRS using deltamethrin emulsion, 2.5% EG and Aicon 10WP. Spraying was repeated after 3 month. Other control methods e.g. environmental managements, and treatment of positive cases were carried out in all villages. After 1 yr of trial, the cases of disease reduced from 50 to 2 and 128 to 5 for ITNs distributed nets and use of IRS in the villages, respectively. Reduction of CL cases in both methods were significant ( P <0.001).

  18. Synergistic Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Deltamethrin on Lead Acetate Toxicity in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica

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    Fatemeh Hamidipoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis weather the combination of lead acetate and deltamethrin can enhance avian toxic effects produced by lead exposure only. Overall, 48 Japanese quails, Coturnix coturnix Japonica (15 day old were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of 12 birds each and sex ratio of 1:1. Experimental groups consisted of control Japanese quails, birds exposed to a single dose of lead acetate and lead acetate combined with sub-lethal doses of deltamethrin (0.25 and 0.50 mg. kg-1 diet for 21 days. We studied the effects of a single dose of lead acetate, combined with deltamethrin, on survival and blood biochemical parameters of Japanese quails. The results revealed a significant increase in plasma AST and ALT activities, glucose, uric acid and creatinine levels after feeding quails with contaminated diet (P <0.05. There was a significant increase in CPK and LDH activities and triglyceride levels in the blood of quails fed diets contaminated with a combination of lead acetate and deltamethrin (P <0.05. The decrease in AChE and ALP activities, total protein, and globulin was observed in plasma of quails fed contaminated diets. There were no significant changes in albumin levels. Although oral administration of lead acetate combined with 0.25 mg deltamethrin caused a significant increase in cholesterol levels, no significant differences were observed in triglyceride levels in other treatments. The synergic effects of deltamethrin on the alterations in the blood biochemical parameters of quails exposed to lead highly depend on the concentrations of this pesticide in feedstuffs.

  19. Comparative evaluation of persistence and residue of deltamethrin and cyfluthrin on different surfaces at Iranshahr area in Sistan & Baluchistan province in Iran 2004-2005

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    Seyed Mohammad Abtahi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is still one of the health problems in Iran. Resistance of Anopheles stephensi -the principal vector of the disease in the southeast of Iran- to insecticides such as DDT, malathion and dieldrin has been reported in south of the country. The present study was designed to estimate the persistence and residue of deltamethrin and cyfluthrin on different surfaces. Methods: After testing the surface of selected locations for previous insecticides, 4 locations were sprayed with deltamethrin (25 mg/m2 and cyfluthrin (20 mg/m2. A total of 22 conical tubes were installed and fixed on surfaces of walls and ceilings made from plaster, mud and wood. In each conical tube, 10 An. stephensi were released and after half an hour exposure these mosquitoes were transmitted to sterile cups. After 24 hours, the obtained results were recorded according to the survival and mortality rate of mosquitoes. These tests were carried out from 5 days after spraying and repeated every 15 days until the mortality rate decreased to 60-65%. Results: Persistence and residue rate of deltamethrin 5% with the scale of 25 mg/m2 of effective substance was 3 months at most. Afterwards persistence and residue effect of this insecticide decreased on absorbent and nonabsorbent surfaces. Persistence and residue rate of deltamethrin 10% with the scale of 20 mg/m2 on absorbent and nonabsorbent surfaces in Sistan & Baluchistan province climate was estimated 2.5 months. Afterwards, its persistence and residue effect decreased significantly. In the sprayed locations with deltamethrin, there was no correlation between the An. stephensi mortality and absorbent (plaster and muddy and nonabsorbent (wooden surfaces (P>0.05. Also, in locations sprayed with cyfluthrin there was no significant correlation between the two types of surfaces, however, the mortality rate was significantly different between plaster and muddy surfaces (P=0.007. Moreover, from the point of residual efficacy

  20. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

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    Ngufor, Corine; Fongnikin, Augustin; Rowland, Mark; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management. The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood. Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls) largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76%) mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to provide

  1. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

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    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management.The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood.Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76% mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain.IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to

  2. Trypsin-catalyzed deltamethrin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Xiong

    Full Text Available To explore if trypsin could catalyze the degradation of non-protein molecule deltamethrin, we compared in vitro hydrolytic reactions of deltamethrin in the presence and absence of trypsin with ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In addition, acute oral toxicity of the degradation products was determined in Wistar rats. The results show that the absorption peak of deltamethrin is around 264 nm, while the absorption peaks of deltamethrin degradation products are around 250 nm and 296 nm. In our GC setting, the retention time of undegraded deltamethrin was 37.968 min, while those of deltamethrin degradation products were 15.289 min and 18.730 min. The LD50 of deltamethrin in Wistar rats is 55 mg/kg, while that of deltamethrin degradation products is 3358 mg/kg in female rats and 1045 mg/kg in male rates (61-fold and 19-fold reductions in toxicity, suggesting that trypsin could directly degrade deltamethrin, which significantly reduces the toxicity of deltamethrin. These results expand people's understanding of the functions of proteases and point to potential applications of trypsin as an attractive agent to control residual pesticides in the environment and on agricultural products.

  3. First determination of impact and outcome indicators following indoor residual spraying (IRS with deltamethrin in a new focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in Iran

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    Aghaei Afshar Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the impact and outcome indicators following residual spraying with deltamethrin in new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis during 2010-2011. Methods: Deltamethrin WP 5% was applied at 25 mg a.i/m2.in intervention area using Hudson compression sprayer. Sticky trap were used to collect sand flies twice each month from human and animal dwelling in either or intervention and control areas. Results: The incidence of disease was significantly decreased (3.65 versus 8.43. There was a significant difference between treats and control areas on blood fed and gravidity of sand flies. Conclusions: The results of current study clearly indicated that indoor residual spraying caused a significant decline of density, blood fed and gravidity of vectors resulting a sharp reduction of disease incidence.

  4. Deltamethrin in sediment samples of the Okavango Delta, Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of samples for organic matter content showed percentage total organic carbon (% TOC) ranging between 0.19% and 8.21%, with samples collected from the pool having the highest total organic carbon. The concentrations of deltamethrin residues and the % TOC in sediment samples showed a similar trend with ...

  5. Comparative efficacy of deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos in bovine ticks in and around Jabalpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuri, R N; Das, G; Singh, A K; Chalhotra, S K; Nath, S

    2017-09-01

    Efficacy of chlorpyriphos (Classic*20, 20% EC) and deltamethrin (Butox ® , 1.25% EC) was assessed by spraying these drugs on cattle and buffaloes which were naturally infested with ticks at the concentration of 2.5 and 2 ml/l, respectively. Results of the study demonstrated the prolonged effect of chlorpyriphos when compared with deltamethrin. Moreover, residual effect of chlorpyriphos remained even after 14 days of treatment with 28.57% animals showing reinfestation, while in deltamethrin treated animals; the tick number started increasing after 14th day of treatment with 50% animals showing reinfestation on 14th day post-treatment.

  6. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Analysis of Deltamethrin Residue on the Impregnated Bed Nets during a Leishmaniasis Control program in Iran

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    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The control of leishmaniasis, a tropical neglected disease, has been concern of Iranian health authori­ties due to the increasing number of cases during the last two decades. The objective of this study was to determine del­tamethrine residue on the impregnated bed nets using HPTLC technique in a leishmaniasis control program in Iran.Methods: During this experimental study, a total of 130 small pieces of polyester netting were sewn to top, upper, and lower sides of some bed nets and then were impregnated with deltamethrin .The treated bed nets were distributed in Isfahan and Mashhad areas in April 2003. The samples were cut randomly after impregnation intervals. Deltame­thrin was extracted using acetone from samples and the extract was applied for spotting onto plates. The plates were devel­oped with n-hexane: ethyl acetate, 90+10(v/v, as a mobile phase in a Camage chamber. The qualifying of resi­due was observed in UV cabinet with λ=254 nm wavelength. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. and Stata Ver­sion 8. A three way ANOVA was used to compare the means of deltamethrin residue in each area, group and measur­ing time. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the means of residue for each of these factors with the con­trol separately.Results: The retardation factor of deltamethrin was calculated 0.50±0.02. The residues of deltamethrin persisted well on impregnated nets at least for 15 weeks after impregnation. No significant difference could be detected in the loss of residue of insecticide in comparison to measuring times and positions of sampling pieces on the bed nets in these ar­eas.Conclusion:  Based on the results of the present study the use of HPTLC technique is recommended instead of other chro­matographic methods for analysis of insecticide residue on the impregnated bed nets.

  7. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Analysis of Deltamethrin Residue on the Impregnated Bed Nets during a Leishmaniasis Control program in Iran

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    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: The control of leishmaniasis, a tropical neglected disease, has been concern of Iranian health authori­ties due to the increasing number of cases during the last two decades. The objective of this study was to determine del­tamethrine residue on the impregnated bed nets using HPTLC technique in a leishmaniasis control program in Iran."nMethods: During this experimental study, a total of 130 small pieces of polyester netting were sewn to top, upper, and lower sides of some bed nets and then were impregnated with deltamethrin .The treated bed nets were distributed in Isfahan and Mashhad areas in April 2003. The samples were cut randomly after impregnation intervals. Deltame­thrin was extracted using acetone from samples and the extract was applied for spotting onto plates. The plates were devel­oped with n-hexane: ethyl acetate, 90+10(v/v, as a mobile phase in a Camage chamber. The qualifying of resi­due was observed in UV cabinet with λ=254 nm wavelength. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. and Stata Ver­sion 8. A three way ANOVA was used to compare the means of deltamethrin residue in each area, group and measur­ing time. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the means of residue for each of these factors with the con­trol separately."nResults: The retardation factor of deltamethrin was calculated 0.50±0.02. The residues of deltamethrin persisted well on impregnated nets at least for 15 weeks after impregnation. No significant difference could be detected in the loss of residue of insecticide in comparison to measuring times and positions of sampling pieces on the bed nets in these ar­eas."nConclusion:  Based on the results of the present study the use of HPTLC technique is recommended instead of other chro­matographic methods for analysis of insecticide residue on the impregnated bed nets.

  8. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngufor, C; Fongnikin, A; Rowland, M; N'Guessan, R

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insectic...

  9. The Field Practices of Lambdacyhalothrin and Deltamethrin Insecticides Against Adult Mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi as the Main Vector of Malaria: Residual Effects

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    Mousa Khosravani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Various chemical control methods have adopted in anti-malaria interventions. Indoor residual spraying (IRS has been proven as a candidate in elimination program. On the other hand, resistance to multiple insecticides was implicated as a concern issue in these polices. Pesticides should be evaluated to identify probable resistant and make decision to choose a technique against vectors. Methods In this cross-sectional study, Bioassay test applied on lambdacyhalothrin WP 10% (0.05 mg a.i. /m2 and deltamethrin WP 5% (0.05 mg a.i./m2 on two surfaces (cement and plaster against adult mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi according to WHO criteria to measure the residual activity in Saravan county, southern Iran. Overall, 3960 mosquitoes was used in our research. The mortality rates of An.stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae measured between selected surfaces and insecticides in several times. Data analyzed by Mann-Whitney (nonparametric test using SPSS v22 statistic software. Results This paper illustrated that maximal course of residual efficacy was about 3 months. No statistically significant different was exhibited between type of surface within mortality rates of An. Stephensi (P = 0.724 but lambdacyhalothrin has more durability than deltamethrin Conclusions We established that lambdacyhalothrin can be used into control and elimination setting of malaria with two rounds of spray at an interval of 3-4 months in south of Iran.

  10. Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented Classical Least Squares for the Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine, Benzonatate, Guaifenesin and Phenylephrine in their Quaternary Mixture.

  11. CONCENTRATION DEPENDENT ACCUMULATION OF [3H]-DELTAMETHRIN IN SODIUM CHANNEL N AV1.2 EXPRESSING XENOPUS LAEVIS OOCYTES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disruption of neuronal voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs) by pyrethroid insecticides such as deltamethrin (DLT) has been widely studied using Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with VSSC. However, the extent of pyrethroid accumulation in VSSC-expressing oocytes is unknown....

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Residual Efficacy of Actellic 300 CS (Pirimiphos-Methyl and K-Othrine WG 250 (Deltamethrin on Different Indoor Surfaces

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    Kolade T Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature and type of local indoor resting wall surfaces to certain level influences the residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used in indoor residual spraying programs. Knockdown and mortality effects of an organophosphate Actellic 300 CS and pyrethroid K-Othrine WG 250 insecticides on the field-collected Culex quinquefasciatus were assessed bimonthly from July to November 2014, using World Health Organization (WHO cones bioassay test. Knockdown and mortality rates were subjected to statistical analysis using χ 2 and Student t tests. Result of the bioassay test on C quinquefasciatus showed that plywood surfaces had the best residual knockdown activity of Actellic 300 CS with knockdown rate above the WHO-recommended threshold limit of ≥95% for 30 days after treatment. This was followed by mud surface with knockdown rates ≥95% threshold limit 15 days (97% after treatment. The lowest knockdown rates of less than 95% were observed on cement surface throughout the assessment period. However, the knockdown rates of mosquitoes on deltamethrin WG 250–treated cement and plywood surfaces were 100% and ≥95%, respectively, at 30 days after treatment. But the knockdown activity was below the recommended threshold limit on mud surface during the 17 weeks trial. Knockdown activities varied significantly ( p  < .05, and it is a function of exposure periods, different surfaces, and insecticide formulations. The 24-hour mortality rates of Actellic 300 CS and K-Othrine WG 250 at 120 days after treatment were 83.6% and 86.7%, and 80% and 83.3%, on plywood and cement surfaces, respectively. A maximum residual period of 75 and 45 days were recorded for Actellic 300 CS and K-Othrine WG 250, respectively, on mud surface. Both Actellic 300 CS and K-Othrine 250 WG were highly effective against Culex mosquito. The extended residual activity of p -methyl CS compared with deltamethrin WG 250 makes it a suitable alternative insecticide against

  13. Prevalence of mites and their impact on laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) farm facilities in Egypt, with an analysis of deltamethrin residues in eggs and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eladl, Abdelfattah H; Hamed, Hamed R; El-Shafei, Reham A

    2018-04-01

    This study was carried out on six laying hen farms, three mite-infested and three mite-free at Dakahlia and Damietta governorates in Egypt to demonstrate: (i) prevalence of different species of mites on laying hen farms; (ii) effects of mite infestation on chicken health and production; (iii) efficacy of deltamethrin (DMT) on treatment of mite infestation and (iv) residues of DMT in eggs and meat. The results showed that 12 mite species were detected in the mite-infested farms, this is the first record in Egypt, and that Dermanyssus gallinae was the highest identified species from 295 (40.9%) of 720 samples. There was a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) of mites on the mortality %, feed consumption, egg production % and the tested haematological parameters. DMT had no impact on production performance, while transient respiratory signs post-spraying were recorded. The mites induced severe skin lesions. Egg samples showed the highest residue levels of DMT, followed by muscle and skin at P ≤ 0.05. It can be concluded that the mite species, as a first record, had a deleterious impact on the performance of the Egyptian laying hen farm facilities. Moreover, that DMT (Butox ® 50 EC, Intervet Co., France) spraying was ineffective by one-time application, every 1 or 2 months in mite-infested laying hen farms, particularly when heavily infested. Furthermore, DMT residues in laying hen eggs and tissue should be considered to avoid the potential risk for humans.

  14. Secondary Kill Effect of Deltamethrin on Triatoma infestans

    OpenAIRE

    MALONEY, KATHLEEN M.; ANCCA-JUAREZ, JENNY; SALAZAR, RENZO; BORRINI-MAYORI, KATTY; PAMO-TITO, DANITZA; KEATING, JOSEPH A.; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

    2011-01-01

    Control of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, relies on the application of pyrethroid insecticides, especially deltamethrin. We performed laboratory studies to determine whether a T. infestans nymph that comes into contact with a deltamethrin-treated surface horizontally transfers the insecticide to subsequent triatomines. We found that a triatomine that walks on a deltamethrin-treated surface for a short period of time has the ability to transport the insecticide in concentration...

  15. Residual efficacy of deltamethrin as assessed by rapidity of knockdown of Tribolium castaneum on a treated surface: temperature and seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concrete arenas were treated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin at rates of 8, 16, and 24 mg active ingredient [AI]/m2, and held either in a chamber set at 27 °C, inside a non-climate controlled interior building, or inside an empty metal grain bin on the flooring area. Bioassays of the arenas were co...

  16. Trypsin-Catalyzed Deltamethrin Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Chunrong; Fang, Fujin; Chen, Lin; Yang, Qinggui; He, Ji; Zhou, Dan; Shen, Bo; Ma, Lei; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui; Zhu, Changliang

    2014-01-01

    To explore if trypsin could catalyze the degradation of non-protein molecule deltamethrin, we compared in vitro hydrolytic reactions of deltamethrin in the presence and absence of trypsin with ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, acute oral toxicity of the degradation products was determined in Wistar rats. The results show that the absorption peak of deltamethrin is around 264 nm, while the absorption peaks of deltameth...

  17. Evaluation of Deltamethrin in Combination of Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) against Pyrethroid Resistant, Malaria Vector,Anopheles stephensiin IRS Implementation: an Experimental Semi-Filed Trial in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpour, Fatemeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Raeisi, Ahmad; Ranjbar, Mansour; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Mojahedi, Abdol Rasoul; Pourreza, Abolghasem

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of deltamethrin combined with formulated piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist on various surfaces against the wild strain of Anopheles stephensi , the main malaria vector in Southern Iran under semi-field condition. Four concentrations of deltamethrin WG 25% (Tagros) and PBO 800EC-UV (Endura) were prepared and sprayed on the pre-designed surfaces in accordance with WHO alliance line of the IRS Micronair®. The WHO's recommended bioassay kit and method was used during this study. Comparing the mortality rate of mosquitoes, the results showed a significant difference between months after treatment of IRS (Indoor Residual Spraying) (P 0.05).Statistical test revealed a significance difference between mortality rate of mosquitoes in exposing to concentrations of 1 and 4 (P< 0.05) which demonstrated effect of synergizing PBO on mortality rate. This research as the first semi-field trial on deltamethrin added to different concentrations of formulated PBO for IRS, indicates that deltamethrin+10X PBO is more effective than other concentrations. Therefore, using synergists can be suggested as a new tool for prevention of pyrethriod resistance, although more studies are recommended.

  18. Ozone as degradation agent of pesticide residues in stored rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Mariane B R; Faroni, Lêda Rita A; Heleno, Fernanda F; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R; Costa, Luiz P

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to study the kinetics of bifenthrin and deltamethrin residues degradation in rice grains under exposure to ozone and evaluate the effect of ozonization on rice grains marketing standards. The grains sprayed with pesticides were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 3 mg L -1 and continuous flow of 1.0 L min -1 for defined periods of up to 10 h. Residues of pesticides were extracted from grains using solid liquid extraction method with low-temperature partition analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (SLE/LTP-GC/ECD). Data from residual concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin, due to the ozone exposure period, were adjusted to kinetic models of zero order, first order and second order. It was observed that ozone was effective in the degradation bifenthrin and deltamethrin residues, removing 91.9% of bifenthrin and 92.7% of deltamethrin. The kinetic model that best fitted deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues degradation data by ozone, was the one of first order. The marketing standards evaluated were the water content and yield. It was observed the ozone did not alter the rice grains water content and yield.

  19. Residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation of organophosphates and piriproxifen on the mortality of deltamethrin resistant Triatoma infestans populations in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco region

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    Abraham Gemio Alarico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bolivian Chaco is part of the endemic region of Chagas disease and an area where pyrethroid resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae populations has been reported. The World Health Organization identified these resistant populations as an important focus for research. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of a micro-encapsulated formulation containing organophosphate active ingredients and a juvenile hormone analogue (Inesfly 5A IGR on the mortality of T. infestans. Studies took place in rural houses of the Bolivian Chaco that were treated up to 34 months before and evaluated the susceptibility to pyrethroids of the offspring of field collected insects. Thirty houses were randomly selected within three communities to carry out wall bio-assays with T. infestans nymphs. Mortality was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after wall contact. Eggs laid by females collected in the area were used to obtain first-instar nymphs and carry out pyrethroid susceptibility tests. The wall bio-assays showed that the micro-encapsulated insecticide eliminates T. infestans populations and produces detectable mortality of insects exposed to walls treated 34 months prior to the tests. The discriminant dose of deltamethrin (0.01 mg/mL showed 65% nymph survival, whereas at the highest tested dose (1.0 mg/mL 14% of the nymphs survived. These results show that Inesfly 5A IGR is an appropriate tool for the elimination of intradomestic and peridomestic populations of T. infestans resistant to pyrethroids.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Agricultural Residuals-Iron Concentrate Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhulin; Bi, Xuegong; Gao, Zeping; Wang, Yayu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, carbon-containing pellets were prepared by using crop-derived charcoal made from agricultural residuals and iron ore concentrates, and their pelletizing performance and properties were studied. Experimental results showed that the strengths of pellets were related to the particle size of concentrates and the content of moisture, bentonite, and crop-derived charcoal fines in the pelletizing mixture and the temperature of roasting and reduction. That the granularity of raw materi...

  1. Ca2+ movement and apoptosis induced by deltamethrin in Madin–Darby canine kidney canine renal tubular cells

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    Fang-Jin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of deltamethrin, a pesticide, on free Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i, viability, and apoptosis in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK canine renal tubular cells. Deltamethrin at concentrations between 10μM and 40μM evoked [Ca2+]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. The Ca2+ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and SKF96365. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ in a Ca2+-free medium abolished deltamethrin-induced [Ca2+]i rise. Treatment with deltamethrin also abolished BHQ-induced [Ca2+]i rise. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC activity with U73122 abolished deltamethrin-evoked [Ca2+]i rise. Deltamethrin killed cells at 30–60μM in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of deltamethrin was not reversed by prechelating cytosolic Ca2+ with the acetoxymethyl ester of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxyethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining data suggest that 30–50μM deltamethrin induced apoptosis. Together, in MDCK renal tubular cells, deltamethrin induced [Ca2+]i rises that involved Ca2+ entry through protein kinase C-mediated store-operated Ca2+ channels, and PLC-dependent Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Deltamethrin also induced Ca2+-independent cell death that might involve apoptosis.

  2. 5-Aminolevulinic acid improves DNA damage and DNA Methylation changes in deltamethrin-exposed Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taspinar, Mahmut Sinan; Aydin, Murat; Arslan, Esra; Yaprak, Muhammet; Agar, Guleray

    2017-09-01

    Deltamethrin, synthetic type II pyrethroid, is one of the most widely used pesticide in agriculture. Intense use of deltamethrin can cause permanant or temporary damages in nontarget plant species. In this study, we aimed to determine DNA methylation change and DNA damage level in Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings subjected to different concentrations of deltamethrin (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 ppm). Coupled Restriction Enzyme Digestion-Random Amplification (CRED-RA) was performed to analyze the changes of DNA methylation as well as Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used for genotoxic influences estimation and genomic stability. The results showed that deltamethrin caused to increase in RAPD profile changes (DNA damage) and reduce in Genomic Template Stability (GTS). GTS declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of deltamethrin applied. The lowest GTS value (71.4%) observed in 0.5 ppm deltamethrin treatment. Also, DNA hypermethylation was occurred in all treatments. Moreover, alleviative effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20, 40 and 80 mg/l), one of the plant growth regulators, was tested against the 0.5 ppm deltamethrin. Adverse effects of deltamethrin on GTS decreased after ALA treatments, especially 20 mg/l concentration. As a result, we concluded that ALA has a strong anti-genotoxic agent against deltamethrin and it could be an alternative chemical to reduce genetic damage in plants under deltamethrin stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental risk limits for deltamethrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knecht J; van Herwijnen R; SEC

    2008-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft milieurisicogrenzen voor het insecticide deltamethrin in water en sediment. Milieurisicogrenzen zijn de technisch-wetenschappelijke advieswaarden voor de uiteindelijke milieukwaliteitsnormen in Nederland. De milieurisicogrenzen zijn afgeleid volgens de methodiek die is

  4. Deltamethrin toxicity and impaired swimming behavior of two backswimmer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Yeisson; Tomé, Hudson V V; Guedes, Raul N C; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2017-05-01

    Backswimmers (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae) are insect predators in a wide variety of freshwater habitats. These insects are well known through their role as mosquito biocontrol agents, their ability to prey on immature fishes and frogs, and because they are often the first to colonize aquatic habitats. As a consequence, these predators may face intended or unintended insecticide exposures that may lead to death or to impairment of essential behaviors (e.g., swimming and position in the water column). The toxicity of deltamethrin (a type II pyrethroid insecticide stressor) and the swimming activity of the backswimmers Buenoa tarsalis and Martarega bentoi were evaluated. Concentration-mortality and survival bioassays were conducted with the insecticide, which were compared with controls without deltamethrin. Deltamethrin was 26-fold more toxic to B. tarsalis (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 4.0 ng a.i./L) than to M. bentoi (LC50 = 102.5 ng a.i./L). The pattern of occupation of B. tarsalis, but not of M. bentoi, in the water column was also disrupted, and B. tarsalis was forced to stay near the water surface longer with exposure to deltamethrin. Thus, based on the findings, B. tarsalis was less resilient to deltamethrin exposure compared with M. bentoi, and the efficacy of swimming-dependent processes might be negatively affected (e.g., prey catching, partner encounter, and antipredator behaviors) for B. tarsalis under deltamethrin exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1235-1242. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Acute toxicity, behavioral changes, and histopathological effects of deltamethrin on tissues (gills, liver, brain, spleen, kidney, muscle, skin) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M Ziynet; Benli, A Cağlan Karasu; Selvi, Mahmut; Ozkul, Ayhan; Erkoç, Figen; Koçak, Oner

    2006-12-01

    Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid contaminating aquatic ecosystems as a potential toxic pollutant, was investigated in the present study for acute toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LC(50) values of deltamethrin on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings and investigate histopathological responses of fish exposed to deltamethrin. The 48 h LC(50) value for Nile tilapia fingerlings was estimated as 4.85 microg/L using static test system. In addition, behavioral changes at each deltamethrin concentration were observed closely. All fish, exposed to 5 microg/L deltamethrin revealed severe morphological alterations in the gills and liver. In the gills hyperemia, fusion of secondary lamellae and telangiectasis were observed; whereas hydropic degenerations in liver were observed in all examined fish. The results are significant for reporting acute deltamethrin toxicity in terms of behavioral and histopathological changes: Deltamethrin is highly toxic to fingerlings. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Persistence, dissipation and consumer risk assessment of a combination formulation of flubendiamide and deltamethrin on cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Bhushan, V Shashi; Rao, Cherukuri Sreenivasa; Reddy, K Narsimha; Banerjee, Hemanta; Mandal, Swagata; Singh, Balwinder; Battu, R S; Jyot, Gagan; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Lekha, S; Manikrao, Gourishankar; Radhika, B; Tripathy, Vandana; Yadav, Rajbir; Shukla, Poonam; Patel, Amar Nath; Singh, Gitansh; Devi, Suneeta; Pandey, Priya; Gautam, Rahul; Kalra, Shobhita; Gupta, Ruchi; Singh, Geeta; Gopal, Madhuban; Walia, Suresh

    2018-03-01

    Multi-location supervised field trials were conducted in India at four locations of the All India Network Project (AINP) on Pesticide Residues to study the persistence, dissipation and risk assessment of flubendiamide and deltamethrin on cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Residues of flubendiamide and deltamethrin on cucumber resulting from three spray applications of a combination formulation (flubendiamide 90% + deltamethrin 60%, 150 SC) at recommended (22.5 + 15 g a.i./ha) and double the recommended (45 + 30 g a.i./ha) dose were analysed. On the basis of persistence and dissipation studies, the half- life (T 1/2 ) of flubendiamide on cucumber varied from 1.40 to 2.98 (recommended dose) and 1.55 to 2.76 days (double the recommended dose), while that of deltamethrin ranged from 2.5 to 4.9 (recommended dose) and 2.7 to 3.9 days (double the recommended dose) at the four locations. On the basis of supervised field trial data and using OECD calculator, MRLs in the combination product of 3 mg kg -1 for flubendiamide and 1.5 mg kg -1 for deltamethrin has been proposed for consideration by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI). Codex, EU and EPA have fixed MRL of 0.2 mg kg -1 for flubendiamide and deltamethrin.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Agricultural Residuals-Iron Concentrate Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, carbon-containing pellets were prepared by using crop-derived charcoal made from agricultural residuals and iron ore concentrates, and their pelletizing performance and properties were studied. Experimental results showed that the strengths of pellets were related to the particle size of concentrates and the content of moisture, bentonite, and crop-derived charcoal fines in the pelletizing mixture and the temperature of roasting and reduction. That the granularity of raw materials was fine and the bentonite content increased was beneficial to the improvement of pellet strengths. The suitable molar ratio of carbon to oxygen was 1.0 and the proper proportioning ratios of moisture and binder were 8.0% and 6.5%, respectively. The pellet strengths increased accordingly with increasing the reduction temperature, and when the temperature reached 1200°C, accompanied by the fast reduction of iron and the formation of crystal stock, the dropping strength of product pellets was 15 times and the compressive strength was 1650 N; this may be improved by grinding of the concentrate, leading to acceptable strength for the blast furnace.

  8. Environmental risk limits for deltamethrin

    OpenAIRE

    de Knecht J; van Herwijnen R; SEC

    2008-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft milieurisicogrenzen voor het insecticide deltamethrin in water en sediment. Milieurisicogrenzen zijn de technisch-wetenschappelijke advieswaarden voor de uiteindelijke milieukwaliteitsnormen in Nederland. De milieurisicogrenzen zijn afgeleid volgens de methodiek die is voorgeschreven in de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water.

  9. Contact toxicity of deltamethrin against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate deltamethrin-incorporated ZeroFly® Storage Bags for efficacy against stored-product insect pests. We evaluated response to deltamethrin concentrations for adults of three stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzoperth...

  10. Acute toxicity of two pesticides Diazinon and Deltamethrin on Tench (Tinca tinca larvae and fingerling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon and deltamethrin are common useful agricultural pesticides in the world. The present research compared the acute toxicity of diazinon and deltamethrin to tench larvae and fingerling. LC50 of 24 h, 48-h, 72 h and 96 h were determined using a probit. Fish samples (21 fish in each test group were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon and deltamethrin (diazinon: for fingerling between1-20 ppm and larvae 0.25-2 ppm, deltamethrin: for fingerling between 0.01-0.2 ppm and larvae 0.0025-0.02 for 96 h and mortality were recorded. The LC50 96 h of diazinon for fingerlings and larvae were 6.77 and 0.63, respectively. The LC50 96 h of deltamethrin for fingerlings and larvae were 0.07 and 0.005 ppm, respectively. According to the results, larvae are more sensitive than fingerlings, LC50 values indicated that deltamethrin is more toxic than diazinon to Tinca tinca, so we suggest to use diazinon instead of deltamethrin in agriculture.

  11. Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistant and susceptible malarial vectors ( Anopheles gambiae ) breeding in Bichi agricultural and residential sites, Kano state, Nigeria.

  12. Consequences of acute Nav1.1 exposure to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T F; Nenov, Miroslav N; Tapia, Cynthia M; Lecchi, Marzia; Koshy, Shyny; Green, Thomas A; Laezza, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are the most popular class of insecticides in the world, despite their near-ubiquity, their effects of delaying the onset of inactivation of voltage-gated sodium (Na v ) channels have not been well-evaluated in all the mammalian Na v isoforms. Here we compare the well-studied Na v 1.6 isoforms to the less-understood Na v 1.1 in their responses to acute deltamethrin exposure. We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to record sodium currents encoded by either Na v 1.1 or Na v 1.6 channels stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Protocols evaluating both resting and use-dependent modification were employed. We found that exposure of both isoforms to 10μM deltamethrin significantly potentiated persistent and tail current densities without affecting peak transient current densities, and only Na v 1.1 maintained these significant effects at 1μM deltamethrin. Window currents increased for both as well, and while only Na v 1.6 displayed changes in activation slope and V 1/2 of steady-state inactivation for peak currents, V 1/2 of persistent current activation was hyperpolarized of ∼10mV by deltamethrin in Na v 1.1 cells. Evaluating use-dependence, we found that deltamethrin again potentiated persistent and tail current densities in both isoforms, but only Na v 1.6 demonstrated use-dependent enhancement, indicating the primary deltamethrin-induced effects on Na v 1.1 channels are not use-dependent. Collectively, these data provide evidence that Na v 1.1 is indeed vulnerable to deltamethrin modification at lower concentrations than Na v 1.6, and this effect is primarily mediated during the resting state. These findings identify Na v 1.1 as a novel target of pyrethroid exposure, which has major implications for the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders associated with loss of Na v 1.1-expressing inhibitory neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA COSTIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymes inthe gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin. To getthis goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, seven and fourteendays to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 µg/L. Another group was used ascontrol. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase and gluthatione reductasewere significantly decreased, while the glutathione-S-transferase was up-regulated. Allfish, exposed to 2 µg/L deltamethrin revealed gills morphological alterations after 48h ofexposure which were accentuated after 14 days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion ofsecondary lamellae, epithelial layer rupture and chloride cells proliferation wereobserved. These results suggest that an immediate adaptive response to the oxidativestress appeared, demonstrating alterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in thegills of deltamethrin intoxicated fish.

  14. Influence of fenamidone, indoxacarb, pyraclostrobin, and deltamethrin on the population of natural yeast microflora during winemaking of two sardinian grape cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Severino; Caboni, Pierluigi; Orro, Davide; Farris, Giovanni Antonio; Pirisi, Filippo; Angioni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The influence of fenamidone ((S)-1-anilino-4-methyl-2-methylthio-4-phenylimidazolin-5-one), pyraclostrobin (methyl 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)pyrazol-3-yloxymethyl]-N-methoxycarbanilate), indoxacarb (methyl 7-Chloro-2,5-dihydro-2-[[(methoxycarbonyl) [4- (trifluoromethoxy) phenyl] amino] carbonyl] indeno[1,2-e][1,3,4] oxadiazine-4a(3H)-carboxylate), and deltamethrin ([cyano-[3-(phenoxy)phenyl]methyl] 3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylate) on spontaneous fermentation carried out by natural yeast grapes microflora, was studied during the wine-making process. Aliquots of pesticide standard solutions were added to the grapes before crushing, to reach a concentration equal or half the maximum residue limit (MRL). Vinifications were performed, with maceration (R), or without maceration (W). During the wine-making process, samples were taken at the beginning (one hour after grapes crushing), at the middle and at the end of the spontaneous fermentation process. At half the MRL concentration, deltamethrin affected Pichia sp. population with a decrease of almost 50 %, while fenamidone decreased Candida sp., Candida stellata at 83, and 36%, respectively. Metschnikowia pulcherrima population decreased in all samples when compared to the control. Experiments at MRL levels showed a strong reduction for all non-Saccharomyces yeast species, when grapes had been treated with pyraclostrobin, fenamidone, and deltamethrine, except for Candida sp. which was found to have been affected only by fenamidone residues. Growth zone inhibition test showed only an in vitro activity of pyraclostrobin over Kloeckera spp., C. stellata, and M. pulcherrima. Microvinification experiments produced wines with no differences concerning S. cerevisiae population as well as production of ethanol and residual sugars. Experiments showed that at the end of the fermentation process pesticides were adsorbed by the lees and grape skins, and no pesticides residue was detectable in wine.

  15. Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the present studies is to characterize mosquito net for its material of construction and qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the mosquito repellent chemical deltamethrin present in it. Further, the assessment of the mode of incorporation of the deltamethrin in the fabric of the mosquito net was done, i.e. whether the deltamethrin was present as a coating on the surface of the mosquito net or it was incorporated in the bulk of the material of construction of the mosquito net. The chromatographic technique has been used for quantitative estimation of deltamethrin extracted by two different solvents from the net. It has been found that the determination of deltamethrin in mosquito nets can vary with the method of extraction used. While extraction with acetone is good enough for estimating the chemical adsorbed on the surface, extraction with xylene provides complete information about the chemical present even in the bulk of the material.

  16. Acute and sublethal intoxication of deltamethrin in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita: Hormonal and enzymological responses

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    Lenin Suvetha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the median lethal concentration (LC50, acute (24 and 96 h and sublethal (35 d effects of deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide on hormonal and enzymological responses in an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. In this study, the LC50 values of deltamethrin for 24 and 96 h were found to be 0.438 and 0.38 mg L—1, respectively. During acute (0.438 mg L−1 and sublethal (1/10th of 24 h LC50 value, 0.0438 mg L−1 studies, plasma cortisol and prolactin levels were significantly increased (p < 0.05. When compared with the control group, a significant (p < 0.05 increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was observed in liver and kidney of fish treated with deltamethrin. However, a significant decrease in the activity of acid phosphatase (ACP was observed in liver and kidney of deltamethrin exposed fish. In addition, cholinesterase (ChE activity was significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in the plasma of fish exposed to both acute and sublethal concentrations of deltamethrin. These results suggest that the tested concentrations of deltamethrin could have significant adverse effects on the hormonal and enzymological parameters of fish L. rohita. The alterations of these parameters can be effectively used to monitor the impact of deltamethrin in aquatic ecosystem.

  17. Investigation of LC50, NOEC and LOEC of Glyphosate, Deltamethrin and Pretilachlor in Guppies (Poecilia Reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41% (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm, deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals. Results: LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm, deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.

  18. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Substrate-dependent bioavailability of Deltamethrin for the epigeal spider Oedothorax apicatus (Blackwall) (Aranaea, Erigonidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Hamers, T.H.M.

    1992-01-01

    Terrestrial arthropods are mainly exposed to pesticides by uptake from the substrate e.g. “residual” uptake, which depends on the bioavailability of the pesticide. The residual uptake of deltamethrin by female Oedothorax apicatus (Blackwall), a linyphiid spider, was studied in relation to dependence

  20. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fate of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in small ponds: a mass balance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Rawn, G.P.; Grift, N.P.

    The fate and distribution of /sup 14/C-radiolabeled deltamethrin (1(R)(la(S),3a)-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl 3-(2,2-dibromoethenyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate) were monitored for 306 days, following a single application at 10 g/ha to two small outdoor ponds (17 m/sup 2/ surface area). Initial concentrations of the insecticide in filtered water ranged from 1.28 to 2.50 ..mu..g/L. Deltamethrin ((/sup 14/C)cyclopropyl acid or benzyl alcohol labeled) rapidly partitioned into suspended solids, plants, sediment, and air, with a half-life of 2-4 h in water. Duckweed (Lemna sp.) and a submerged pondweed (Potamogeton berchtoldi) accumulated deltamethrin concentrations ranging from 253 to 1021 ng/g, respectively, at 24 h posttreatment. Sediments were the major sink for radioactivity at 306 days posttreatment, and intact deltamethrin was present at concentrations ranging from 3 to 5 ng/g. Deltamethrin levels in air above the water ranged from 10-100 ng/m/sup 3/ during a 48-h monitoring period following application. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) accumulated levels of extractable radioactivity 248-907-fold higher than concentrations in water 24 h posttreatment, but no fish mortality was observed.

  2. Multivariate concentration determination using principal component regression with residual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithley, Richard B; Heien, Michael L; Wightman, R Mark

    2009-10-01

    Data analysis is an essential tenet of analytical chemistry, extending the possible information obtained from the measurement of chemical phenomena. Chemometric methods have grown considerably in recent years, but their wide use is hindered because some still consider them too complicated. The purpose of this review is to describe a multivariate chemometric method, principal component regression, in a simple manner from the point of view of an analytical chemist, to demonstrate the need for proper quality-control (QC) measures in multivariate analysis and to advocate the use of residuals as a proper QC method.

  3. Studies on Deltamethrin Treated Mosquito Net

    OpenAIRE

    A. Tyagi; T. Sharma; M. Singh; K. Fatma; V. S. Rawat; M. Aggarwal; R. K. Khandal

    2010-01-01

    The focus of the present studies is to characterize mosquito net for its material of construction and qualitative as well as quantitative determination of the mosquito repellent chemical deltamethrin present in it. Further, the assessment of the mode of incorporation of the deltamethrin in the fabric of the mosquito net was done, i.e. whether the deltamethrin was present as a coating on the surface of the mosquito net or it was incorporated in the bulk of the material of construction of the m...

  4. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to

  5. Lousicidal effect of deltamethrin in domestic pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Sivajothi, S.; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2014-01-01

    Present study reports the effect of deltamethrin against louse infestation in domestic pigeons. In this study, twelve pigeons infested with Columbicola columbae louse were sprayed with deltamethrin (12.5 %) and another twelve pigeons were kept as control group. The lice intensity was reduced 89 %, 98 % and 100 % on 1st, 7th and 14th day of post treatment in treatment group. Out of twelve pigeons, four pigeons showed sneezing and temporary ocular inflammations after spraying.

  6. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Tiffany S.; Richardson, Jason R.; Cooper, Keith R.; White, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25–0.50 μg/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3–72 h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72 hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development. PMID:25912032

  7. The antioxidative response system in Glycine max (L.) Merr. exposed to Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, Fozia [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Mahmooduzzafar [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Siddiqi, T.O. [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India); Iqbal, Muhammad [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062 (India)]. E-mail: iqbalg5@yahoo.co.in

    2007-05-15

    Forty-five-day-old plants of Glycine max (soybean) were exposed to several Deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) concentrations (0.00 %, 0.05 %, 0.10 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 %) through foliar spray in the field conditions. In the treated plants, as observed at the pre-flowering (10 DAT), flowering (45 DAT) and post-flowering (70 DAT) stages, lipid peroxidation, proline content and total glutathione content increased, whereas the total ascorbate content decreased, as compared with the control. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased significantly whereas that of catalase declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of Deltamethrin applied. The changes observed were dose-dependent, showing a strong correlation with the degree of treatment. - The Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress alters the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Glycine max.

  8. The antioxidative response system in Glycine max (L.) Merr. exposed to Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Fozia; Mahmooduzzafar; Siddiqi, T.O.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five-day-old plants of Glycine max (soybean) were exposed to several Deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) concentrations (0.00 %, 0.05 %, 0.10 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 %) through foliar spray in the field conditions. In the treated plants, as observed at the pre-flowering (10 DAT), flowering (45 DAT) and post-flowering (70 DAT) stages, lipid peroxidation, proline content and total glutathione content increased, whereas the total ascorbate content decreased, as compared with the control. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased significantly whereas that of catalase declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of Deltamethrin applied. The changes observed were dose-dependent, showing a strong correlation with the degree of treatment. - The Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress alters the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Glycine max

  9. THE CONTROL OF ANOPHELINE MOSQUITOS BY THE SPRAYING OF DELTAMETHRIN ON RAFFIA CURTAINS USED IN MINERS' HUTS IN AREAS ENDEMIC FOR MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGUEIREDO Regina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual potential of an aqueous solution of Deltamethrin (FW 25 mg i.a./m2 was evaluated on raffia curtains. These are sheets of synthetic material used in the construction of huts to house miners. Experiments were conducted during 420 days and the curtains were always rolled up in the daytime and unrolled in late afternoon. Data analyzed by logarithmic regression indicated that raffia treated with Deltamethrin had higher mortality indices than that covered with DDT. The residual capacity of Deltamethrin on raffia was high. The mortality percentage was above 85% after 360 days and dropped to about 50% at 420 days. The effect of DDT was reduced after 180 days and reached zero by the end of the experiment. Based on the results of these experiments, it is recommended that Deltamethrin be used to spray raffia curtains in mining regions and other areas that are endemic for malaria.

  10. Deltamethrin-induced nuclear erythrocyte alteration and damage to the gills and liver of Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Fernanda Dos Santos; Sousa, Natalino da Costa; Santos, Rudã Fernandes Brandão; Meneses, Juliana Oliveira; do Couto, Márcia Valéria Silva; de Almeida, Fabrício Tavares Cunha; de Sena Filho, José Guedes; Carneiro, Paulo César Falanghe; Maria, Alexandre Nizio; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi

    2018-03-20

    Deltamethrin is one of the most commonly used pyrethroids in the world, and it has a high toxic potential, mainly on aquatic organism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate LC 50 values of deltamethrin on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fingerlings and to investigate genotoxic effects and histopathological responses. Fish were exposed to different concentrations of deltamethrin (0, 6.16 × 10 -3 ; 6.44 × 10 -2 ; 1.34 × 10 -1 , and 1.93 × 10 -1  mg L -1 ) for 96 h. In addition, a genotoxicity analysis was carried out on peripheral blood erythrocytes and histopathological changes were classified by the severity degree of damage and organ functioning. The 96 h LC 50 value for tambaqui was estimated at 5.56 × 10 -2  mg L -1 using a static test system. Nuclear abnormalities in exposed fish included micronuclei, blebbed, notched, 8-shaped, and binucleated nuclei forms. Deltamethrin significantly induced a notched nucleus compared to other abnormalities. A histopathological examination showed hepatic lesions and gill damage. Deltamethrin was found to be highly toxic; it induced genotoxicity and caused liver and gill inflammation in tambaqui.

  11. BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DELTAMETHRIN EXPOSURE ON THE GILLS OF CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO (Pisces Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTIN DIANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the alterations in the activities of several antioxidant enzymesin the gills of the freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio exposed to deltamethrin.To get this goal, groups of 10 individuals were exposed for one, two, three, sevenand fourteen days to sublethal concentration of deltamethrin (2 g/L. Anothergroup was used as control. The activities of catalase, gluthatione peroxidase andgluthatione reductase were significantly decreased, while the glutathione-Stransferasewas up-regulated. All fish, exposed to 2glL deltamethrin revealed gillsmorphological alterations after 48h of exposure which were accentuated after 14days. In the gills hyperemia, fusion of secondary lamellae, epithelial layer ruptureand chloride cells proliferation were observed. These results suggest that animmediate adaptive response to the oxidative stress appeared, demonstratingalterations in the antoxidant defense mechanism in the gills of deltamethrinintoxicated fish.

  12. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  13. Deltamethrin affects the expression of voltage-gated calcium channel α1 subunits and the locomotion, egg-laying, foraging behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rune; Yu, Xing; Tan, Xing; Ye, Shan; Ding, Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Deltamethrin belongs to the class of synthetic pyrethroids, which are being widely used as insecticides in agricultural practices. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the primary targets of these chemicals for toxicity to insects. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) does not have VGSCs but is susceptible to deltamethrin. Recent findings have suggested that pyrethroids can affect voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). However, it remains elusive whether deltamethrin induces toxicity to C. elegans via modulating the activity of VGCCs. To identify the potential target of deltamethrin, we exposed C. elegans to different concentrations of deltamethrin and Ca 2+ channel blockers for different times, characterized the behavioral toxicity of deltamethrin on C. elegans, and determined the expression of egl-19, unc-2, and cca-1, which encode the α1-subunit of the L-, R/N/P/Q-, and T-type VGCC, respectively. We found that deltamethrin inhibited the locomotion, egg-laying and foraging ability of C. elegans in a concentration dependent manner. We also showed that body length of worms on agar plates containing 200mgL -1 deltamethrin for 12h was not significantly different from controls, whereas the cholinesterase inhibitor carbofuran caused hypercontraction which is a characteristic of organophosphates and carbamates, suggesting that deltamethrin's mode of action is distinct from those nematicides. In addition, unc-2 was significantly up-regulated following 0.05mgL -1 deltamethrin exposure for 24h; while egl-19 and cca-1 were significantly up-regulated following 5 and 50mgL -1 deltamethrin exposure for 24h. Further tests of worms' sensitivity and expression of three α1-subunits of VGCC to Ca 2+ channel blockers indicate that deltamethrin may induce toxic behavior C. elegans via modulation of the expression of the α1-subunits of VGCC. This study provides insights into the linkage between deltamethrin-induced toxic behavior and the regulation of α1-subunits of VGCC in C

  14. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B.; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual al...

  15. Occurrence and Distribution of Deltamethrin and Diflubenzuron in Surface Sediments from the Reloncaví Fjord and the Chiloé Inner-Sea (~ 39.5ºS -43ºS), Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia, Juan A; Saavedra, Fernán; Fernández, Javier; Aguirre, Carolina

    2018-03-01

    Surface sediments from Reloncaví Fjord and the Chiloé inner sea in Chilean Patagonia were extracted and analyzed to estimate deltamethrin and diflubenzuron levels. These antiparasitary pesticides have been used for decades in the salmon industry. Relationships were determined between pesticide concentrations and organic carbon percent in sediments. Deltamethrin (0.39-1.05 µg g -1  dw) was found at all sampling sites but diflubenzuron (0.06-0.09 µg g -1  dw) at only five. Diflubenzuron levels were similar for sediments from other fjord areas. However, deltamethrin concentration was 2-3 fold higher than other studies on this area. The organic carbon percent was correlated positively and significantly with diflubenzuron, but not with deltamethrin. Our results suggest that the high deltamethrin concentrations in sediments are due to the increased use of pyrethroids around salmon farming areas. But, the diflubenzuron levels can be explained by degradation processes.

  16. A methodology based on insecticide impregnated filter paper for monitoring resistance to deltamethrin in Triatoma infestans field populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remón, C; Lobbia, P; Zerba, E; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2017-12-01

    The domiciliary presence of Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) after control interventions was reported in recent years. Toxicological studies showed high levels of resistance to pyrethroids suggesting resistance as one of the main causes of deficient control. The aim of the present study was to develop a protocol to test resistance to deltamethrin in T. infestans collected from the field by discriminate concentration. To evaluate field insects, the effect of age (early vs. later) and nutritional state (starved vs. fed) on the deltamethrin susceptibility of each developmental stage was studied. Topical and insecticide impregnated paper bioassays were used. Using the impregnated paper, the susceptibility to deltamethrin was not affected by the age of the stadium and the nutritional states, and varied with the post-exposure time and with the different developmental stages. A discriminant concentration of deltamethrin (0.36% w/v) impregnated in filter paper was established for all developmental stages. Finally, the methodology and the discriminant concentration were evaluated in the laboratory showing high sensitivity in the discrimination of resistance. The present study developed a methodology of exposure to insecticide impregnated papers and proposes a protocol to test T. infestans in field populations with the aim to detect early evolution of resistance to deltamethrin. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. Genotoxic and oxidative stress-inducing effects of deltamethrin in the erythrocytes of a freshwater biomarker fish species, Channa punctata Bloch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rizwan A; Kaur, Manpreet; Ahmad, Firoz; Rahman, Shakilur; Rashid, Hina; Islam, Fakhrul; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2009-10-01

    Deltamethrin, an alpha-cyano class of pyrethroid insecticide is used in insect pest control and antimalaria programs in several countries including India. Although various toxic manifestations of deltamethrin are reported in mammals, its ecotoxicologic dimensions are not adequately researched in ecologically and commercially important fishes. In this study, we report genotoxic effect of deltamethrin in a biomarker fish Channa punctata (Bloch). Adult fish were exposed to three concentrations of technical grade deltamethrin (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 microg/L) for 48 and 72 h. Ethyl methane sulfonate was used as a positive control. Fish were analyzed for induction of micronucleus (MN), nuclear abnormalities (NAs), and oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes. Deltamethrin significantly induced MN and NAs accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation. Activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly decreased but an increase was observed in reduced glutathione level after 72 h of exposure. The NAs in exposed fish included blebbed, lobed and notched nuclei, and binucleated erythrocytes. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress may, in part, be contributing to deltamethrin-induced genotoxic damage to erythrocytes. Although MN induction is a nonspecific biomarker, it may provide an indication of pollution load of deltamethrin in the affected fish population when used as part of suite of other biomarkers.

  18. Determination of residual ractopamine concentrations by enzyme immunoassay in treated pig's tissues on days after withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Vulić, Ana; Milić, Dinka; Vahčić, Nada

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to measure residual ractopamine concentrations in tissues of pigs as experimental animals after treatment with dietary ractopamine for 28 consecutive days. Ractopamine was administered orally to the experimental group (n=9) in a dose of 0.1mg/kg body mass per day, whereas control animals (n=3) were left untreated. Treated pigs (60kg) were sacrificed on days 1, 3 and 8 of treatment discontinuation and residues were determined in kidney, liver, muscle, brain and heart tissues using previously validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a quantitative screening method. Validation showed good mean recoveries (approx. 70-90%) with acceptable inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDractopamine tissue concentrations. The highest ractopamine concentration on day 1 (24h) after the last exposure was recorded in the kidney (12.49±7.96ng/g), followed by the liver (7.21±2.73ng/g), heart (1.26±0.12ng/g) and brain (0.63±0.05ng/g); at this time of withdrawal, residues were not detected in the muscle. Ractopamine was depleted rapidly from all study tissues, with mostly no detectable residues on day 8 of withdrawal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The residual C concentration control for low temperature growth p-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuang-Tao; Zhao De-Gang; Yang Jing; Jiang De-Sheng; Liang Feng; Chen Ping; Zhu Jian-Jun; Liu Zong-Shun; Li Xiang; Liu Wei; Xing Yao; Zhang Li-Qun

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the influence of C concentration to the performance of low temperature growth p-GaN is studied. Through analyses, we have confirmed that the C impurity has a compensation effect to p-GaN. At the same time we have found that several growth and annealing parameters have influences on the residual C concentration: (i) the C concentration decreases with the increase of growth pressure; (ii) we have found there exists a Ga memory effect when changing the Cp 2 Mg flow which will lead the growth rate and C concentration increase along the increase of Cp 2 Mg flow; (iii) annealing outside of metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) could decrease the C concentration while in situ annealing in MOCVD has an immobilization role to C concentration. (paper)

  20. Investigation of Acute Toxicity Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, Deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm, butachlor (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval. Results: The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm, deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm, butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.

  1. Uncertainty of pesticide residue concentration determined from ordinary and weighted linear regression curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolci Omeroglu, Perihan; Ambrus, Árpad; Boyacioglu, Dilek

    2018-03-28

    Determination of pesticide residues is based on calibration curves constructed for each batch of analysis. Calibration standard solutions are prepared from a known amount of reference material at different concentration levels covering the concentration range of the analyte in the analysed samples. In the scope of this study, the applicability of both ordinary linear and weighted linear regression (OLR and WLR) for pesticide residue analysis was investigated. We used 782 multipoint calibration curves obtained for 72 different analytical batches with high-pressure liquid chromatography equipped with an ultraviolet detector, and gas chromatography with electron capture, nitrogen phosphorus or mass spectrophotometer detectors. Quality criteria of the linear curves including regression coefficient, standard deviation of relative residuals and deviation of back calculated concentrations were calculated both for WLR and OLR methods. Moreover, the relative uncertainty of the predicted analyte concentration was estimated for both methods. It was concluded that calibration curve based on WLR complies with all the quality criteria set by international guidelines compared to those calculated with OLR. It means that all the data fit well with WLR for pesticide residue analysis. It was estimated that, regardless of the actual concentration range of the calibration, relative uncertainty at the lowest calibrated level ranged between 0.3% and 113.7% for OLR and between 0.2% and 22.1% for WLR. At or above 1/3 of the calibrated range, uncertainty of calibration curve ranged between 0.1% and 16.3% for OLR and 0% and 12.2% for WLR, and therefore, the two methods gave comparable results.

  2. Deltamethrin-Mediated Toxicity and Cytomorphological Changes in the Midgut and Nervous System of the Mayfly Callibaetis radiatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeisson Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Immature instars of mayflies are important constituents of the food web in aquatic ecosystems (especially in Neotropical regions and they are among the most susceptible arthropods to pyrethroid insecticides. These insecticides have been recognized as important stressors of freshwater ecosystems, but their cellular effects in aquatic insects have been neglected. Here, we assessed the susceptibility to deltamethrin (a typical type II pyrethroid as well as the deltamethrin-mediated cytomorphological changes in the central nervous system and midgut of the mayfly Callibaetis radiatus. While the deltamethrin LC50 for 24 h of exposure was of 0.60 (0.46-0.78 μg of a.i/L, the survival of C. radiatus was significantly reduced in deltamethrin concentrations ≥ 0.25 μg a.i/L at 96 h of exposure. Sub-lethal deltamethrin exposure severely affected the cytomorphology of C. radiatus midgut (e.g., muscle layer retraction, cytoplasm vacuolation, nucleus and striated border disorganization and also induced slight cytomorphological changes in the brain (e.g., presence of pyknotic nuclei and in the thoracic ganglia (e.g., vacuolation of neurons and presence of pyknotic nuclei of these insects. However, DNA damage was absent in all of these organs, suggesting that the sublethal cellular stress induced by deltamethrin might disrupt physiological processes (e.g., metabolism or electrical signal transmission rather than cause cell death (e.g., apoptosis in C. radiatus. Thus, our findings indicated that deltamethrin actions at cellular levels represent a clear indication of sublethal effects on the C. radiatus survival abilities.

  3. Estimation of the residual bromine concentration after disinfection of cooling water by statistical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalopoulos, Fivos A; Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria T

    2015-01-01

    A statistical model based on multiple linear regression is developed, to estimate the bromine residual that can be expected after the bromination of cooling water. Make-up water sampled from a power plant in the Greek territory was used for the creation of the various cooling water matrices under investigation. The amount of bromine fed to the circuit, as well as other important operational parameters such as concentration at the cooling tower, temperature, organic load and contact time are taken as the independent variables. It is found that the highest contribution to the model's predictive ability comes from cooling water's organic load concentration, followed by the amount of bromine fed to the circuit, the water's mean temperature, the duration of the bromination period and finally its conductivity. Comparison of the model results with the experimental data confirms its ability to predict residual bromine given specific bromination conditions.

  4. Deltamethrin resistance in Aedes aegypti results in treatment failure in Merida, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Correa-Morales, Fabian; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Bibiano-Marín, Wilbert; Uc-Puc, Valentín; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Vadillo-Sánchez, José; Palacio-Vargas, Jorge; Ritchie, Scott A; Lenhart, Audrey; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    The operational impact of deltamethrin resistance on the efficacy of indoor insecticide applications to control Aedes aegypti was evaluated in Merida, Mexico. A randomized controlled trial quantified the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS) against adult Ae. aegypti in houses treated with either deltamethrin (to which local Ae. aegypti expressed a high degree of resistance) or bendiocarb (to which local Ae. aegypti were fully susceptible) as compared to untreated control houses. All adult Ae. aegypti infestation indices during 3 months post-spraying were significantly lower in houses treated with bendiocarb compared to untreated houses (odds ratio houses. On average, bendiocarb spraying reduced Ae. aegypti abundance by 60% during a 3-month period. Results demonstrate that vector control efficacy can be significantly compromised when the insecticide resistance status of Ae. aegypti populations is not taken into consideration.

  5. Predicting the concentration of residual methanol in industrial formalin using machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Heidkamp, William

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, a machine learning approach was used to develop a predictive model for residual methanol concentration in industrial formalin produced at the Akzo Nobel factory in Kristinehamn, Sweden. The MATLABTM computational environment supplemented with the Statistics and Machine LearningTM toolbox from the MathWorks were used to test various machine learning algorithms on the formalin production data from Akzo Nobel. As a result, the Gaussian Process Regression algorithm was found to pr...

  6. On measurements of Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of deinked papers using Kubelka-Munk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. Vahey; J.Y. Zhu; C.J. Houtman

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) in recycled papers depends on their opacity. For opacity less than 97.0%, the method is based on application of the Kubelka-Munk theory to diffuse reflection from papers measured once with a black backing and again with a thick backing of the same papers. At opacities above 97.0%, the two reflection values...

  7. Deltamethrin: the cream of the crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulman, David A

    2011-04-13

    Replacement of the pyrethronyl alcohol portion of the natural pyrethrins with the 5-benzyl-3-furylmethyl moiety gave bioresmethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid of high potency and safety but with limited photostability. Introduction of novel substituents at the 3-position of the cyclopropane ring then led to the discovery of insecticidally active compounds with greatly improved potency. Systematic changes of both the alcohol and acid components gave second-generation pyrethroids (permethrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) with improved potency and photostability suitable for agricultural use. Metabolic studies showed that the photostabilized compounds remained biodegradable. Deltamethrin, discovered in 1974, was the cream of the crop and remains 36 years later as one of the most important synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.

  8. Neuropharmacological effects of deltamethrin in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Mandal, T. K.; Dey, S.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of deltamethrin on some of the neuropharmacological paradigms in a rat brain such as the motor co-ordination test using a rotarod, the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion as well as the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) level. Albino Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals. Different neuropharmacological paradigms such as the motor co-ordination by the rotarod, pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time and the P...

  9. Investigation of LC50, NOEC, and LOEC of Oxadiazon, Deltamethrin, and Malathion on Platy Fish (Xiphophorus Maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran due to their huge consumption for agricultural purpose. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. Chemical pesticides with persistent molecules (long half-life periods pose a threat to aquatic life forms and the human population consuming the affected fish. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of oxadiazon 25% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, deltamethrin 2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 ppm, and malathion 57% (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 ppm within a 120 L capacity glass aquaria for 96 h. Their cumulative mortality of platy fish was calculated with a 24-hour interval. Results: LC50-96h was 7.59±0.42, 0.11±0.46, and 12.05±0.75 for oxadiazon, deltamethrin, and malathion, respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for oxadiazon (7.59±0.42 ppm, deltamethrin (0.11±0.46 ppm, and malathion (12.05±0.75 ppm indicates that oxadiazon, deltamethrin and malathion are highly toxic to platy fish. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that deltamethrin and malathion had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the platy fish, respectively.

  10. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  11. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  12. Variability of residue concentrations of ciprofloxacin in honey from treated hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Danny; Macarthur, Roy; Fussell, Richard J; Wilford, Jack; Budge, Giles

    2017-04-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were treated with a model veterinary drug compound (ciprofloxacin) in a 3-year study (2012-14) to investigate the variability of residue concentration in honey. Sucrose solution containing ciprofloxacin was administered to 45 hives (1 g of ciprofloxacin per hive) at the beginning of the honey flow in late May/mid-June 2012, 2013 and 2014. Buckfast honey bees (A. mellifera - hybrid) were used in years 2012 and 2013. Carniolan honey bees (A. mellifera carnica) were used instead of the Buckfast honey bees as a replacement due to unforeseen circumstances in the final year of the study (2014). Honey was collected over nine scheduled time points from May/June till late October each year. Up to five hives were removed and their honey analysed per time point. Honey samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to determine ciprofloxacin concentration. Statistical assessment of the data shows that the inter-hive variation of ciprofloxacin concentrations in 2012/13 is very different compared with that of 2014 with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 138% and 61%, respectively. The average ciprofloxacin concentration for 2014 at the last time point was more than 10 times the concentration compared with samples from 2012/13 at the same time point. The difference between the 2012/13 data compared with the 2014 data is likely due to the different type of honey bees used in this study (2012/13 Buckfast versus 2014 Carniolan). Uncertainty estimates for honey with high ciprofloxacin concentration (upper 95th percentile) across all hives for 55-day withdrawal samples gave residual standard errors (RSEs) of 22%, 20% and 11% for 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively. If the number of hives were to be reduced for future studies, RSEs were estimated to be 52% (2012), 54% (2013) and 26% (2014) for one hive per time point (nine total hives).

  13. Assessment of the efficacy of Deltamethrin 1% pourson (Smash) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... spraying facilities are not available. Pour-on application does not require specialized manpower to perform the operation and pastoralists can easily carry Deltamethrin 1% pour-on (Smash) and can apply while moving with their livestock. Key words: Deltamethrin, efficacy trial, Ixodid ticks, pour-on, synthetic pyrethroids ...

  14. Assessment of the efficacy of Deltamethrin 1% pours- on (Smash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiop. Vet. J., 2014, 18 (1), 17-27. Assessment of the efficacy of Deltamethrin 1% pours- on (Smash) and Deltamethrin 1% SC (Pali) and com- parison of their mode of applications against ticks in. Ethiopia. Sileshi Mekonnen. Current address: Sileshi.Mekonnen@fao.org; FAO Ethiopia, P.O.Box 5536, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  15. Deltamethrin resistance in Aedes aegypti results in treatment failure in Merida, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The operational impact of deltamethrin resistance on the efficacy of indoor insecticide applications to control Aedes aegypti was evaluated in Merida, Mexico. A randomized controlled trial quantified the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS against adult Ae. aegypti in houses treated with either deltamethrin (to which local Ae. aegypti expressed a high degree of resistance or bendiocarb (to which local Ae. aegypti were fully susceptible as compared to untreated control houses. All adult Ae. aegypti infestation indices during 3 months post-spraying were significantly lower in houses treated with bendiocarb compared to untreated houses (odds ratio <0.75; incidence rate ratio < 0.65 whereas no statistically significant difference was detected between the untreated and the deltamethrin-treated houses. On average, bendiocarb spraying reduced Ae. aegypti abundance by 60% during a 3-month period. Results demonstrate that vector control efficacy can be significantly compromised when the insecticide resistance status of Ae. aegypti populations is not taken into consideration.

  16. Effect of six different starter cultures on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Hur, Sun Jin

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of six different starter cultures of enterobacteria on the concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages during in vitro human digestion. Before digestion, the concentration of residual nitrite was dependent on starter culture in fermented sausage and ranged from 25.2 to 33.2mg/kg. Among the six starter cultures of enterobacteria, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Staphylococcus carnosus showed higher nitrite depletion ability than the other three strains in fermented sausages. The concentration of residual nitrite in fermented sausages was significantly (psausages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  18. A new one-platform flow cytometric method for residual cell counting in platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Spengler, Hans-Peter; Lambrecht, Bernd; Hourfar, Michael K; Seifried, Erhard; Tonn, Torsten

    2009-12-01

    According to German regulations and guidelines, residual red blood cells (rRBCs) and residual white blood cells (rWBCs) must number fewer than 3 x 10(9) cells/unit and 1 x 10(6) cells/unit in platelet concentrates (PCs), respectively. Due to low levels of residual cells in final products, there is still a need for fast, reliable, and sensitive methods of automated detection of these cell types. In Part A, 21 PCs were spiked with predetermined numbers of red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). The linearity, precision, and accuracy of the BD Thrombo Count assay (BD Biosciences Europe) were tested and validated according to international guidelines. Finally in Part B, 100 PCs prepared from pooled buffy coats were tested by the BD Thrombo Count assay and compared with other methods, including Nageotte (rWBCs) and Neubauer (rRBCs) counting chambers and the flow cytometric BD LeucoCOUNT (Becton Dickinson) assay (rWBCs). The unspecific background of blank PC samples was fewer than 0.02 cells/microL for WBCs and fewer than 34 cells/microL for RBCs (mean, 21). Linear regression and precision analyses of spiked PC samples were determined for both WBCs (r(2) = 0.992; range, 0.6-6.0 WBCs/microL) and RBCs (r(2) = 0.999; 800-8000 RBCs/microL). No carryover of cells or drift in results was detected in the automated sample acquisition mode. Analysis according to statistical methods of Bland and Altman demonstrated a high correlation between BD Thrombo Count and the Neubauer manual counting chamber. This novel flow cytometric test is a quick and reliable single-tube assay that has been demonstrated as a potential alternative for the existing manual microscopic counting procedures that are both time-consuming and laborious.

  19. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deltamethrin ingestion with suicidal intent: A fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kaul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deltamethrin intoxication is uncommon throughout the globe and more so the oral ingestion. The toxicity of pyrethroids is considered much less than the intoxication caused by other insecticides, especially organophosphates. This report describes a case of a 14-year-old female child who was admitted to the emergency room (ER with dyspnea, cyanosis, tetany, seizures and coma following deltamethrin ingestion in a suicidal attempt. Deltamethrin ingestion should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting to ER with nonspecific neurological symptoms.

  1. Could humic acid relieve the biochemical toxicities and DNA damage caused by nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms (Eisenia foetida)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Chao; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Wang, Mei-Zhen; Wan, Ming-Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether humic acid (HA) prevented gene and biochemical toxic effects in earthworms (Eisenia foetida) exposed to nickel and deltamethrin (at 100 and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively) in soil. Cellular- and molecular-level toxic effects of nickel and deltamethrin in earthworms were evaluated by measuring damage to lipid membranes and DNA and the production of protein carbonyls over 42 days of exposure. Nickel and deltamethrin induced significant levels of oxidative stress in earthworms, increasing the production of peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls) and increasing the comet assay tail DNA% (determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis). DNA damage was the most sensitive of the three indices because it gave a higher sample/control ratio than did the other indices. The presence of HA alleviated (in decreasing order of effectiveness) damage to DNA, proteins, and lipid membranes caused by nickel and deltamethrin. A low HA dose (0.5-1% HA in soil) prevented a great deal of lipid membrane damage, but the highest HA dose (3% HA in soil) prevented still more DNA damage. However, the malondialdehyde concentrations in earthworms were higher at the highest HA dose than at the lower HA doses. The amounts of protein carbonyls produced at different HA doses were not significantly different. The toxic effects to earthworms caused by increased oxidizable nickel concentrations could be relieved by adding HA.

  2. Arsenic Species in Chicken Breast: Temporal Variations of Metabolites, Elimination Kinetics, and Residual Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Zuidhof, Martin J; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris

    2016-08-01

    Chicken meat has the highest per capita consumption among all meat types in North America. The practice of feeding 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, Rox) to chickens lasted for more than 60 years. However, the fate of Rox and arsenic metabolites remaining in chicken are poorly understood. We aimed to determine the elimination of Rox and metabolites from chickens and quantify the remaining arsenic species in chicken meat, providing necessary information for meaningful exposure assessment. We have conducted a 35-day feeding experiment involving 1,600 chickens, of which half were control and the other half were fed a Rox-supplemented diet for the first 28 days and then a Rox-free diet for the final 7 days. We quantified the concentrations of individual arsenic species in the breast meat of 229 chickens. Rox, arsenobetaine, arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and a new arsenic metabolite, were detected in breast meat from chickens fed Rox. The concentrations of arsenic species, except arsenobetaine, were significantly higher in the Rox-fed than in the control chickens. The half-lives of elimination of these arsenic species were 0.4-1 day. Seven days after termination of Rox feeding, the concentrations of arsenite (3.1 μg/kg), Rox (0.4 μg/kg), and a new arsenic metabolite (0.8 μg/kg) were significantly higher in the Rox-fed chickens than in the control. Feeding of Rox to chickens increased the concentrations of five arsenic species in breast meat. Although most arsenic species were excreted rapidly when the feeding of Rox stopped, arsenic species remaining in the Rox-fed chickens were higher than the background levels. Liu Q, Peng H, Lu X, Zuidhof MJ, Li XF, Le XC. 2016. Arsenic species in chicken breast: temporal variations of metabolites, elimination kinetics, and residual concentrations. Environ Health Perspect 124:1174-1181; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510530.

  3. Rapid detection of chlorpyrifos pesticide residue concentration in agro-product using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Zhang, Leilei; Xu, Tianfeng

    2014-05-01

    Different chemicals are sprayed in fruits and vegetables before and after harvest for better yield and longer shelf-life of crops. Cases of pesticide poisoning to human health are regularly reported due to excessive application of such chemicals for greater economic benefit. Different analytical technologies exist to detect trace amount of pesticides in fruits and vegetables, but are expensive, sample destructive, and require longer processing time. This study explores the application of Raman spectroscopy for rapid and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agricultural products. Raman spectroscopy with laser module of 785 nm was used to collect Raman spectral information from the surface of Gala apples contaminated with different concentrations of commercially available organophosphorous (48% chlorpyrifos) pesticide. Apples within 15 days of harvest from same orchard were used in this study. The Raman spectral signal was processed by Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter for noise removal, Multiplicative Scatter Correction (MSC) for drift removal and finally polynomial fitting was used to eliminate the fluorescence background. The Raman spectral peak at 677 cm-1 was recognized as Raman fingerprint of chlorpyrifos. Presence of Raman peak at 677 cm-1 after fluorescence background removal was used to develop classification model (presence and absence of pesticide). The peak intensity was correlated with actual pesticide concentration obtained using Gas Chromatography and MLR prediction model was developed with correlation coefficient of calibration and validation of 0.86 and 0.81 respectively. Result shows that Raman spectroscopy is a promising tool for rapid, real-time and non-destructive detection of pesticide residue in agro-products.

  4. Susceptibility status of Culex pipiens against deltamethrin and DDT, Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Naseri-Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the susceptibility status of Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens against two important and widely used insecticides (deltamethrin and DDT in Urmia County, the main city of West Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran. Methods: The susceptibility tests were carried out using the recommended method by World Health Organization (WHO. The sugar-fed 3-5 days old adult female Cx. pipiens were selected from reared larvae and/or from laid eggs. The female Cx. pipiens were transferred to holding tubes and after completing an hour of rest and removal of dead and damaged samples, the specimens were exposed for 60 min to toxicant tube containing insecticide impregnated papers which were supplied by WHO and specified discriminating concentration. Results: The results of experiments reveals the higher mortality rate against both studied insecticides (deltamethrin and DDT. Considering the WHO criteria, the studied species, Cx. pipiens, is resistant to both deltamethrin and DDT. Conclusions: Considering the notable role of this species in the transmission of several diseases and its wide range distribution across the Iran and neighboring countries and the probability of establishment of these diseases in this region Iran, further studies are needed regarding the study of resistance mechanisms of this species against insecticides using molecular and biochemical methods.

  5. Ocimum basilicum essential oil combined with deltamethrin to improve the management of Spodoptera frugiperda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Macedo Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For an important and expensive crop such as corn, the resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith to various pesticides has led to research throughout the world for a potential insecticide from a natural source. For the management of pest resistance, natural compounds associated with synthetic insecticides can be a promising tool because they can reduce the application of the synthetics molecules while maintaining their effectiveness and promoting the control of the pests. Linalool is a potential insecticide that is easily obtained because it is found in high concentrations in the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of this essential oil and its combination with deltamethrin to control S. frugiperda. Through dose response assays, the acute toxicities (LD50 of the essential oil and deltamethrin were estimated. Additionally, the combination of these materials was also assessed, attaining a reduction of 80% of the LD50 of deltamethrin while obtaining the same result as when the pyrethroid was administered alone. From these results, it is expected that the combination of natural compounds and synthetic insecticides will be a promising practice, helping to manage resistance while reducing the environmental impact of toxic compounds.

  6. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes In Deltamethrin-Resistant Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Wu, Qun; Shi, Qing-Ming; Sun, Ai-Juan; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Guo, Xiao-Xia; Dong, Yan-De; Xing, Dan; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2017-12-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is one of China's major house-dwelling mosquito species and an important vector of filariasis and encephalitis. Chemical treatments represent one of the most successful approaches for comprehensive mosquito prevention and control. However, the widespread use of chemical pesticides has led to the occurrence and development of insecticide resistance. Therefore, in-depth studies of resistance to insecticides are of vital importance. In this study, we performed a gene expression analysis to investigate genes from Cx. quinquefasciatus that may confer pyrethroid resistance. We aimed to understand the mechanisms of Cx. quinquefasciatus resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and provide insights into insect resistance management. Using a resistance bioassay, we determined the deltamethrin LC 50 values (lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population) for Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae in the F 21 , F 23 , F 24 , F 26 , F 27 , and F 30 generations. The 7 tested strains exhibited pesticide resistance that was 25.25 to 87.83 times higher than that of the SanYa strain. Moreover, the expression of the OBPjj7a (odorant-binding protein OBPjj7a), OBP28 (odorant-binding protein OBP28), and E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme) genes was positively correlated with deltamethrin resistance ( R 2 = 0.836, P = 0.011; R 2 = 0.788, P = 0.018; and R 2 = 0.850, P = 0.009, respectively) in Cx. quinquefasciatus. The expression of 4 additional genes, H/ACA, S19, SAR2, and PGRP, was not correlated with deltamethrin resistance. In summary, this study identified 3 Cx. quinquefasciatus genes with potential involvement in deltamethrin resistance, and these results may provide a theoretical basis for the control of mosquito resistance and insights into resistance detection.

  7. Maternal inheritance of deltamethrin resistance in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer is associated with unique mtDNA haplotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections by the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, cause huge economic damage in salmon farming in the northern hemisphere, with combined treatment costs and production losses in 2014 having been estimated at US$ 350 million for Norway (annual production 1.25 million tonnes. The control of L. salmonis relies significantly on medicinal treatments, supplemented by non-pharmacological approaches. However, efficacy losses have been reported for several delousing agents, including the pyrethroid deltamethrin. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic basis of deltamethrin resistance in L. salmonis. Deltamethrin median effective concentrations (EC50 were 0.28 μg L-1 in the drug susceptible L. salmonis strain IoA-00 and 40.1 μg L-1 in the pyrethroid resistant strain IoA-02. IoA-00 and IoA-02 were crossed to produce families spanning one parental and three filial generations (P0, F1-F3. In three families derived from P0 crosses between an IoA-00 sire and an IoA-02 dam, 98.8% of F2 parasites (n = 173 were resistant, i.e. remained unaffected after exposure to 2.0 μg L-1 deltamethrin. F3 parasites from these crosses showed a deltamethrin EC50 of 9.66 μg L-1. In two families of the inverse orientation at P0 (IoA-02 sire x IoA-00 dam, 16.7% of F2 parasites were resistant (n = 84, while the deltamethrin EC50 in F3 animals was 0.26 μg L-1. The results revealed a predominantly maternal inheritance of deltamethrin resistance. The 15,947-nt mitochondrial genome was sequenced and compared among six unrelated L. salmonis strains and parasites sampled from wild salmon in 2010. IoA-02 and three further deltamethrin resistant strains, established from isolates originating from different regions of Scotland, showed almost identical mitochondrial haplotypes. In contrast, the mitochondrial genome was variable among susceptible strains and L. salmonis from wild hosts. Deltamethrin caused toxicity and depletion of whole body ATP

  8. A Nitrogen-concentrated Phase in IA Iron Meteorite Acid Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, K.; Sugiura, N.

    1993-07-01

    portion of nitrogen is released at 500 degrees C and 600 degrees C temperature fractions. Total nitrogen amounts and average delta^l5N values of the two acid residues are described in Table 1. Discussion and Summary: Sample "Can-1bn" is 3-4 times concentrated in nitrogen than "Call-2b," although its delta^15N value is within terrestrial range (0 < delta^15N < +20 per mil). Presently, we cannot deny the possibility that nitrogen in "Can-1bn" is dominated by terrestrial nitrogen, which may have been acquired during the acid treatment. Nevertheless, nitrogen isotope data of "Can-2b" suggests that indigenous nitrogen is indeed concentrated in the acid residue of Canyon Diablo. Bulk nitrogen isotope data of Canyon Diablo is reported to be delta^15N= -61.8 +- 10.4 per mil, N= 38.0 +- 155 ppm [2]. Therefore, delta^15N values of "Can-2b" can be resulted by a mixing of indigenous nitrogen and contaminating nitrogen. However, distinct delta^15N values of these two samples may indicate, in turn, that nitrogen isotopes in inclusions of Canyon Diablo are truly heterogeneous because carbon isotopes of graphite inclusions in IA iron meteorites seem to be heterogeneous [7]. Acknowledgments: We thank Dr. J.-I. Matsuda of Osaka University for providing samples and information on these samples. References: [1] Scott E. R. D. and Wasson J. T. (1975) Rev. Geophys. Space Sci., 13, 527-546. [2] Prombo C. A. and Clayton R. N. (1983) Meteoritics, 18, 377-379. [3] Franchi I. A. et al. (1988) Meteoritics, 22, 379-380. [4] Hashizume K. (1993) Doctor Thesis. [5] Murty S. V. S. et al. (1983) GCA, 47, 1061-1068. [6] Ogata Y. et al. (1990) In Abstract of the 1990 Annual Meeting of the Geochemical Society of Japan, 57. [7] Deines P. and Wickman F. E. (1973) GCA, 37, 1295-1319. Table 1 appears here in the hard copy.

  9. Assessment of hemato-biochemical parameters on exposure to low level of deltamethrin in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Tewari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, sub-acute toxicity of deltamethrin on hematological and biochemical blood parameters of male albino Swiss mice was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Generally, the maximum permissible residue level (MRL of deltamethrin for food products lies between 0.01 to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. So the mice were exposed orally with two doses of pesticide i.e. 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The doses were given on a daily basis for a period of 15 days and 30 days respectively. Ground nut oil was used as control treatment. Samples of blood were collected at the end of the treatment. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by quantitative analysis of the serum enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP, total bilirubin (TBIL and serum urea. Alterations of hematological parameters were analysed by total leukocyte, differential leukocyte count and hemoglobin levels. Results: Significant increase in the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, ALKP were observed for both doses, but no considerable differences were found by histological analysis. The hematological parameters showed significant alterations for 0.5 mg/kg body weight dose which is indicated by leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and neutropenia in long duration study. Conclusions: The results indicated that even very low dose of deltamethrin can promote hematological and hepatic alterations. Thus it is imperative to do further studies on the detrimental effect of the low levels of pyrethroid commonly present in our food, which further necessitate the reduction of maximum permissible levels of residual synthetic pyrethroid levels in foods and feed.

  10. Estimation of human body concentrations of DDT from indoor residual spraying for malaria control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyalpo, Tenzing; Fritsche, Lukas; Bouwman, Henk; Bornman, Riana; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Inhabitants of dwellings treated with DDT for indoor residual spraying show high DDT levels in blood and breast milk. This is of concern since mothers transfer lipid-soluble contaminants such as DDT via breastfeeding to their children. Focusing on DDT use in South Africa, we employ a pharmacokinetic model to estimate DDT levels in human lipid tissue over the lifetime of an individual to determine the amount of DDT transferred to children during breastfeeding, and to identify the dominant DDT uptake routes. In particular, the effects of breastfeeding duration, parity, and mother's age on DDT concentrations of mother and infant are investigated. Model results show that primiparous mothers have greater DDT concentrations than multiparous mothers, which causes higher DDT exposure of first-born children. DDT in the body mainly originates from diet. Generally, our modeled DDT levels reproduce levels found in South African biomonitoring data within a factor of 3. - Highlights: ► Comparison of one-compartment pharmacokinetic model with biomonitoring data. ► Pre- and postnatal exposure of infants depends on breastfeeding duration and parity. ► Dietary exposure of DDT is the dominant uptake route in South Africa. ► Elimination half-lives of DDT and DDE are shorter in children than in adults. - Model predictions of a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model confirm the trends of DDT found in human samples of inhabitants living in DDT-treated dwellings.

  11. Evaluation of droplet digital PCR for quantification of residual leucocytes in red blood cell concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, A; Loges, U; Petershofen, E K; Müller, T H

    2017-11-01

    Enumeration of residual white blood cells in leucoreduced blood components is essential part of quality control. Digital PCR has substantially facilitated quantitative PCR and was thus evaluated for measurements of leucocytes. Target for quantification of leucocytes by digital droplet PCR was the blood group gene RHCE. The SPEF1 gene was added as internal control for the entire assay starting with automated DNA extraction. The sensitivity of the method was determined by serial dilutions of standard samples. Quality control samples were analysed within 24 h, 7 days and 6 months after collection. Routine samples from leucodepleted red blood cell concentrates (n = 150) were evaluated in parallel by flow-cytometry (LeucoCount) and by digital PCR. Digital PCR reliably detected at least 0·4 leucocytes per assay. The mean difference between PCR and flow-cytometric results from 150 units was -0·01 (±1·0). DNA samples were stable for up to at least six months. PCR measurement of leucocytes in samples from plasma and platelet concentrates also provided valid results in a pilot study. Droplet digital PCR to enumerate leucocytes offers an alternative for quality control of leucoreduced blood products. Sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility are comparable to flow-cytometry. The option to collect samples over an extended period of time and the automatization introduce attractive features for routine quality control. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Sebastien; Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Elissa, Nohal

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility...

  13. Organic co-solvent effect on the estimation of the equilibrium aqueous concentrations of oil residuals in Patagonian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, N S; Rios, S M; Katusich, O

    2002-09-01

    Determination of the equilibrium aqueous concentration and the distribution coefficients, K, in soil samples containing oil residuals of different age, was carried out using an organic co-solvent (methanol). It was found that the solvophobic theory could be applied for the interpretation of results. The behavior of the residuals turned out to be dependent on the co-solvent fraction and the age of the oil spill. The values of K vary between 900 (l kg(-1)) and 2,900 (l kg(-1)) showing a general and marked increase for residues of increasing age. The determined parameters are useful for the modeling of environmental impact on polluted soils.

  14. Optimization of the protein concentration process from residual peanut oil-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayol, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the best process conditions for preparing protein concentrate from residual peanut oil-cake (POC. The study was carried out on POC from industrial peanut oil extraction. Different protein extraction and precipitation conditions were used: water/ flour ratio (10:1, 20:1 and 30:1, pH (8, 9 and 10, NaCl concentration (0 and 0.5 M, extraction time (30, 60 and 120 min, temperature (25, 40 and 60 °C, extraction stages (1, 2 and 3, and precipitation pH (4, 4.5 and 5. The extraction and precipitation conditions which showed the highest protein yield were 10:1 water/flour ratio, extraction at pH 9, no NaCl, 2 extraction stages of 30 min at 40 °C and precipitation at pH 4.5. Under these conditions, the peanut protein concentrate (PC contained 86.22% protein, while the initial POC had 38.04% . POC is an alternative source of protein that can be used for human consumption or animal nutrition. Therefore, it adds value to an industry residue.El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las mejores condiciones para obtener un concentrado de proteínas a partir de la torta residual de maní (POC. El estudio se llevó a cabo en POC provenientes de la extracción industrial de aceite de maní. Se utilizaron distintas condiciones para la extracción y precipitación de proteínas: relación agua / harina (10:1, 20:1 y 30:1, pH de extracción (8, 9 y 10, concentración de NaCl (0 y 0,5 M, tiempo de extracción (30, 60 y 120 min, temperatura (25, 40 y 60 °C, número de etapas de extracción (1, 2 y 3, y el pH de precipitación (4, 4,5 y 5. Las condiciones de extracción y de precipitación que mostraron mayor rendimiento de proteína fueron: relación de 10:1 en agua / harina, pH de extracción de 9, en ausencia de NaCl, 2 etapas de extracción de 30 min cada una a 40 °C y el pH de precipitación de 4,5. En estas condiciones, el concentrado de proteína de maní (PC fue de 86,22%, mientras que el porcentaje de proteínas de

  15. Comparison of insecticidal paint and deltamethrin against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) feeding and mortality in simulated natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kathleen M; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Salazar, Renzo; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Yukich, Joshua O; Naquira, Cesar; Keating, Joseph A; Levy, Michael Z

    2013-06-01

    The vector of Chagas disease, Triatoma infestans, is largely controlled by the household application of pyrethroid insecticides. Because effective, large-scale insecticide application is costly and necessitates numerous trained personnel, alternative control techniques are badly needed. We compared the residual effect of organophosphate-based insecticidal paint (Inesfly 5A IGR™ (I5A)) to standard deltamethrin, and a negative control, against T. infestans in a simulated natural environment. We evaluated mortality, knockdown, and ability to take a blood meal among 5(th) instar nymphs. I5A paint caused significantly greater mortality at time points up to nine months compared to deltamethrin (Fisher's Exact Test, p paint (Fisher's Exact Tests, p paint may provide an easily-applied means of protection against vectors of Chagas disease. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  16. Crucial role of mechanisms and modes of toxic action for understanding tissue residue toxicity and internal effect concentrations of organic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.I.; Ashauer, R.; Dyer, S.; Hermens, J.L.M.; van der Lee, J.H.; Leslie, H.A.; Mayer, P.; Meador, J.P.; Warne, M.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanistic basis of the tissue residue approach for toxicity assessment (TRA). The tissue residue approach implies that whole-body or organ concentrations (residues) are a better dose metric for describing toxicity to aquatic organisms than is the aqueous concentration

  17. Evolution of residual-Zn available concentrations of Zn-EDTA chelate in two different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendros, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Alvarez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Zinc chelates, such as Zn-EDTA have been widely used to correct deficiencies in this micronutrient in different crops. Several authors have suggested applying complexed forms of Zn to soils in order to offer an effective source of Zn to plants. When inorganic Zn sources are added to soils, the availability of Zn to plants tends to decrease with time. This is due to the aging of the metal or the transformation of the Zn that is normally available to plants into various less available forms. Soil properties are believed to influence the fixation and/or precipitation of added Zn. The objective of this study was to determine the changes over time in the concentrations of available residual-Zn in two different soils to which the Zn-EDTA chelate was applied. An experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions in two different soils: an acidic soil [Typic Haploxeralf; field capacity, 6.65 g H2O/100 g soil; pHw (1/2.5, w/v), 6.2; texture USDA, sandy loam, with illite as the predominant clay; oxidizable organic carbon 0.29%; extractable P, 19.9 mg/kg] and a calcareous soil [Typic Calcixerept; field capacity, 20.5 g H2O/100 g soil; pHw (1/2.5, w/v), 8.2; texture USDA, loamy sand, with smectite as the predominant clay; oxidizable organic carbon 0.75%; extractable P, 12.6 mg/kg]. These soils were treated with a synthetic chelate, Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Zn-EDTA), at different rates of application [0 (nil-Zn), 5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1 soil]. The potential available Zn concentrations were estimated at four experimental times (0, 15, 45 and 75 d) by the Mehlich-3 and DTPA-AB extraction methods. The results obtained showed the evolution of available Zn over experimental time, for each treatment. The Zn concentrations in both soils showed significant differences over experimental time. Zn-EDTA applied at both Zn rates (5 and 10 mg Zn kg-1) was associated with high variations in available Zn concentrations. However, in both soils, the decreases in available Zn

  18. Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissa, Nohal

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility to Deltamethrin (0.05%): only two populations were susceptible to Deltamethrin, four populations were tolerant and 26 populations were resistant. KD50 (50% Knock-Down) and KD90 (90% Knock-Down) times were determined, and differed substantially from 9.4 to 592.4 minutes for KD50 and 10.4 min to 854.3 minutes for KD90. Susceptibility was correlated with latitude, but not with longitude, history of insecticide use nor date of sampling. Combined with the number of bubonic plague cases, our results suggest that an immediate switch to an insecticide other than Deltamethrin is required for plague vector control in Madagascar. PMID:25369291

  19. Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Boyer

    Full Text Available The incidence of bubonic plague in Madagascar is high. This study reports the susceptibility of 32 different populations of a vector, the flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae, to the insecticide Deltamethrin. Despite the use of Deltamethrin against fleas, plague epidemics have re-emerged in Madagascar. The majority of the study sites were located in the Malagasy highlands where most plague cases have occurred over the last 10 years. X. cheopis fleas were tested for susceptibility to Deltamethrin (0.05%: only two populations were susceptible to Deltamethrin, four populations were tolerant and 26 populations were resistant. KD50 (50% Knock-Down and KD90 (90% Knock-Down times were determined, and differed substantially from 9.4 to 592.4 minutes for KD50 and 10.4 min to 854.3 minutes for KD90. Susceptibility was correlated with latitude, but not with longitude, history of insecticide use nor date of sampling. Combined with the number of bubonic plague cases, our results suggest that an immediate switch to an insecticide other than Deltamethrin is required for plague vector control in Madagascar.

  20. Poisoning suicide with ingestion of the pyrethroids alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin and the antidepressant mirtazapine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Rallis, Georgios N; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2017-05-01

    This case report describes a death attributed to the intake of the pyrethroid insecticides, alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin, and the antidepressant mirtazapine. The autopsy findings showed absence of external traumatic injuries and internal generalized visceral congestion, edema and cyanosis. The toxicological results revealed the presence of a toxic concentration of mirtazapine (12.5mg/L and 10.7mg/L in blood and urine, respectively) and high concentrations of pyrethroids (2.46mg/L alpha-cypermethrin and 2.40mg/L deltamethrin in blood, and 0.41mg/L alpha-cypermethrin and 0.46mg/L deltamethrin in urine, respectively). Blood ethanol concentration was 0.75g/L. All the evidence - from autopsy, police investigation and toxicology - was consistent with the intentional self-harm of the deceased. The current case was determined and recorded as a poisoning suicide. Cause of death of the deceased was reported as the synergistic toxicity of the ingested pyrethroids and mirtazapine. The presence of a significant blood ethanol concentration was considered a secondary contributory factor to the fatal outcome. The case presented herein is the first death attributed to poisoning from ingestion of pyrethroids in combination with mirtazapine, with the intention of the victim to cause self-harm, with corresponding toxicology results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sublethal effects of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin on oxidative stress parameters in green toad (Bufotes viridis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Tijana B; Nasia, Mohammed; Krizmanić, Imre I; Prokić, Marko D; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2017-10-01

    Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides widely used in agriculture, public health, and veterinary medicine. Deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid insecticide, has attracted particular attention because of its frequent use. The mechanisms of the toxicity of most pesticides (including pyrethroids) in nontarget organisms is linked to the production of free radicals, oxidative stress induction, increased lipid peroxidation, and disruption of the total antioxidant potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute toxicity of 3 different concentrations (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg body wt) of orally applied deltamethrin after 96 h of treatment. Some of the front-line oxidative stress parameters as well as cholinesterase (ChE) activity and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in the liver, muscle, skin, and gastrointestinal tissue of the adult green toad Bufotes viridis were determined. Compared with the control group, the activity of catalase and glutathione reductase was increased in the liver and skin, while the concentration of sulfhydryl groups was reduced. In the liver and muscle, concentrations of thiobarbituric reactive substances were increased, as well as liver CYP1A expression. In the muscle and skin, glutathione-S-transferase activity was higher in treated toads. The oxidative stress parameters examined were affected by different deltamethrin concentrations. We conclude that the assessed parameters represent good biomarkers of pesticide-induced oxidative stress. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2814-2822. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  3. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  4. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

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    Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila Pessoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50 that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  5. Impact of Acute Deltamethrin Poisoning on Rat Adrenal Glands: Biochemical and Pathomorphological Study

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    Eugene A. Chigrinski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin is known all over the world as an effective preparation for the control of insects. In connection with this, its role as a chemical stressor increases. The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning and structure of AG after a single administration of synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin in experimental animals at a dose of 17.4 mg/kg (1/5 LD50. Material and Methods: For the experiment, 88 male Wistar rats with a body weight of 240±10 g were divided into 8 groups of 10–12 animals each. Groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 were control groups, which were administered physiological solution intragastrically. The animals in Groups 2, 4, 6, and 8 received a single dose (17.4mg/kg of deltamethrin, which corresponds to 1/5 LD50. In the serum of rats, the content of ACTH, progesterone, DHEA-sulfate, corticosterone and aldosterone was determined by EIA. Histological preparations of adrenal glands were stained with H&E, picrofuxin according to Van Gieson, and with Bismarck brown according to Shubich. On frozen sections, lipids were detected by Sudan Black B.\tResults: One day after intoxication, we identified an increase in adrenal mass, edema of the parenchyma and blood capillary overflow, and a large number of lipids in corticocytes. In the blood serum, the concentration of ACTH and corticosteroids increased, but their level decreased in the adrenal cortex. After 3 days, the concentration of corticosterone in the blood serum of the experimental animals remained above the control value, but the content of other hormones decreased. At the border of the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands, there were mast cells in a state of degranulation; the amount of lipids decreased with time. In the subsequent terms of the study, a decrease in the weight of AG with a decrease in the concentration of hormones in the blood serum and adrenal tissue was detected. Conclusion: The intoxication of rats with deltamethrin causes

  6. Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

    2013-06-01

    With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs.

  7. Residual antibiofilm effects of various concentrations of double antibiotic paste used during regenerative endodontics after different application times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Daniel B; Ehrlich, Ygal; Spolnik, Kenneth; Gregory, Richard L; Yassen, Ghaeth H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the residual antibiofilm effects of different concentrations of double antibiotic paste (DAP) applied on radicular dentin for 1 or 4 weeks. Dentin samples were prepared (n=120), sterilized and pretreated for 1 or 4 weeks with the clinically used concentration of DAP (500mg/mL), low concentrations of DAP (1, 5 or 50mg/mL) loaded into a methylcellulose system, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), or placebo paste. After the assigned treatment time, treatment pastes were rinsed off and the samples were kept independently in phosphate buffered saline for 3 weeks. Pretreated dentin samples were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and bacterial biofilms were allowed to grow for an additional 3 weeks. Biofilms were then retrieved from dentin using biofilm disruption assays, diluted, spiral plated, and quantified. Fisher's Exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for statistical comparisons (α=0.05). Dentin pretreatment for 4 weeks with 5, 50 or 500mg/mL of DAP demonstrated significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects and complete eradication of E. faecalis biofilms in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with similar concentrations. However, dentin pretreated with 1mg/mL of DAP or Ca(OH) 2 did not provide a substantial residual antibiofilm effect regardless of the application time. Dentin pretreatment with 5mg/mL of DAP or higher for 4 weeks induced significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with the same concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in chicken egg in commercial layer farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodimalar, K; Rajini, R A; Ezhilvalavan, S; Sarathchandra, G

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics as an integral part of poultry and livestock production industry has recently received increasing attention as a contributory factor in the international emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human beings. To gauge the presence of the aforementioned scenario in the Indian context, a preliminary survey was conducted to assess the use of chlortetracycline (CTC) in 12 commercial layer farms and to quantify and confirm its residue in the egg. Samples of feed and eggs were collected at day 0 (prior to CTC addition), 3rd, 5th and 7th day during treatment and on the 9th and 14th day (2nd and 7th day after withdrawal of CTC) from each of the 12 commercial poultry farms studied. Concentration of CTC in feed was significantly (P less than 0.01) high on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day. On the 9th day and 14th day CTC concentration in feed was significantly (P less than 0.01) lower compared to the earlier 3 days studied. A highly significant difference (P less than 0.01) of the antibiotic residue in egg was observed in all the 5 days with high residual levels of CTC in egg. CTC in feed and its residue in egg were detected even on the 9th and 14th day respectively.

  9. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-04

    Apr 4, 2014 ... Food Control 15 99–105. Kan C A and Petz M 2000 Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white. J. Agri. Food Chem. 48 6397–6403. Kennedy DG, McCracken RJ, Hewitt SA and McEvoy JDG 1998. Metabolism of chlortetracycline: drug accumulation and excre-.

  10. EVALUATION OF FERRIC CHLORIDE AND ALUM EFFICIENCIES IN ENHANCED COAGULATION FOR TOC REMOVAL AND RELATED RESIDUAL METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia, M. T. Rafiee, F. Vaezi and A. H. Mahvi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the removal of colloidal particles continues to be an important reason for using coagulation, a newer objective, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs, is growing in importance. Enhanced coagulation is thus introduced to most water utilities treating surface water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of alum and ferric chloride in removing DBPs precursors from eight synthetic water samples, each representing a different element of the USEPA’s 3×3 enhanced coagulation matrix. The effect of enhanced coagulation on the residual metal (aluminum/iron concentration in the treated water was assessed as well. The removal of total organic carbon (TOC was dependent on the coagulant type and was enhanced with increasing coagulant dose, but the latter had no further considerable effect in case of increasing to high levels. For all the treated samples coagulation with ferric chloride proved to be more effective than alum at similar doses and the mean values of treatment efficiencies were 51% and 32% for ferric chloride and alum, respectively. Ferric chloride was therefore considered the better chemical for enhancing the coagulation process. Besides, due to less production of sludge by this coagulant, it would be predicted that treatment plants would be confronted to fewer problems with respect to final sludge disposal. Measurements of residual metal in treated water indicated that iron and aluminum concentrations had been increased as expected but the quality of water concerning the residual metal deteriorated much more in cases of under-dosing. Despite expecting high residual Al and Fe concentrations under enhanced coagulation, metal concentrations were frequently remained low and were not increased appreciably.

  11. Susceptibility Status of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae to DDT and Deltamethrin in a Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Earthquake Strike in Bam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Aghaei Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Results: The LT50 value of DDT 4.0% and deltamethrin 0.05% against P. papatasi was 20.6 and 13.6 minutes re­spectively. The same data for P. sergenti were ranged between 21.8 and 17.7 minutes.  Conclusion: The results of tests will provide a guideline for implementation of vector control using pesticides such as impregnated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and fogging. 

  12. Acute Toxicity of Permethrin, Deltamethrin, and Etofenprox to the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolomini, Alyssa M; Whiten, Shavonn R; Flenniken, Michelle L; O'Neill, Kevin M; Peterson, Robert K D

    2018-02-10

    Current regulatory requirements for insecticide toxicity to nontarget insects focus on the honey bee, Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae), but this species cannot represent all insect pollinator species in terms of response to insecticides. Therefore, we characterized the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides used for adult mosquito management (permethrin, deltamethrin, and etofenprox) on a nontarget insect, the adult alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (F.; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in two separate studies. In the first study, the doses causing 50 and 90% mortality (LD50 and LD90, respectively) were used as endpoints and 2-d-old adult females were exposed to eight concentrations ranging from 0.0075 to 0.076 μg/bee for permethrin and etofenprox, and 0.0013-0.0075 μg/bee for deltamethrin. For the second study, respiration rates of female M. rotundata were also recorded for 2 h after bees were dosed at the LD50 values to give an indication of stress response. Results indicated a relatively similar LD50 for permethrin and etofenprox, 0.057 and 0.051 μg/bee, respectively, and a more toxic response, 0.0016 μg/bee for deltamethrin. Comparatively, female A. mellifera workers have a LD50 value of 0.024 μg/bee for permethrin and 0.015 μg/bee for etofenprox indicating that female M. rotundata are less susceptible to topical doses of these insecticides, except for deltamethrin, where both A. mellifera and M. rotundata have an identical LD50 of 0.0016 μg/bee. Respiration rates comparing each active ingredient to control groups, as well as rates between each active ingredient, were statistically different (P < 0.0001). The addition of these results to existing information on A. mellifera may provide more insights on how other economically beneficial and nontarget bees respond to pyrethroids. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. High variation subarctic topsoil pollutant concentration prediction using neural network residual kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, A. P.; Tarasov, D. A.; Buevich, A. G.; Subbotina, I. E.; Shichkin, A. V.; Sergeeva, M. V.; Lvova, O. A.

    2017-06-01

    The work deals with the application of neural networks residual kriging (NNRK) to the spatial prediction of the abnormally distributed soil pollutant (Cr). It is known that combination of geostatistical interpolation approaches (kriging) and neural networks leads to significantly better prediction accuracy and productivity. Generalized regression neural networks and multilayer perceptrons are classes of neural networks widely used for the continuous function mapping. Each network has its own pros and cons; however both demonstrated fast training and good mapping possibilities. In the work, we examined and compared two combined techniques: generalized regression neural network residual kriging (GRNNRK) and multilayer perceptron residual kriging (MLPRK). The case study is based on the real data sets on surface contamination by chromium at a particular location of the subarctic Novy Urengoy, Russia, obtained during the previously conducted screening. The proposed models have been built, implemented and validated using ArcGIS and MATLAB environments. The networks structures have been chosen during a computer simulation based on the minimization of the RMSE. MLRPK showed the best predictive accuracy comparing to the geostatistical approach (kriging) and even to GRNNRK.

  14. Assessment of the Efficacy of Deltamethrin Impregnated Bed Nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of deltamethrin treated bednets and walls were assessed on school children aged 12-18 years, in a community secondary school in Ono, Nigeria. Children with body weights of 45-60kg were given 2 tablets of fansidar to clear parasites in their system while those with body weights of 60kg and above were given ...

  15. Impact of deltamethrin aerial sprays on adult Cyrtobagous salviniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk and effect of the insecticide deltamethrin, applied aerially in Botswana to control and eradicate tsetse fly, was studied on the non-target weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae, a biocontrol agent of the aquatic weed Salvinia molesta . Environmentally-simulated short-term toxicity bioassay used open iron cages and closed ...

  16. Residuen van permethrin en deltamethrin in gras en veldbeemd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve PA; Hart-de Klein VM ' t

    1987-01-01

    In dit rapport worden de resultaten gegeven van twee nauw verwante veldproeven m.b.t. permethrin en deltamethrin, nl.: een voorjaarstoepassing op gras en een najaarstoepassing op veldbeemd. Bij beide proeven was de vraagstelling, hoe snel genoemde bestrijdingsmiddelen worden afgebroken als

  17. Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through community participatory methods. M Ocaido, C P Otim, N M Okuna, C Ssekitto, D Kakaire, J Erume, R Z O Wafula, J Walubengo, G Musisi, Okello Bwangamoi, S Okure, W Ebiaru, G Monrad ...

  18. Uncertainty assessment of gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration of different brain regions in individual and group using residual bootstrap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Liao, Congyu; Chen, Song; Ding, Qiuping; Zhu, Darong; Liu, Hui; Yan, Xu; Zhong, Jianhui

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify individual and regional differences in the relative concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in human brain with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectral editing Mescher-Garwood point resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence and GABA analysis toolkit (Gannet) were used to detect and quantify GABA in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and occipital cortex (OCC) of healthy volunteers. Residual bootstrap, a model-based statistical analysis technique, was applied to resample the fitting residuals of GABA from the Gaussian fitting model (referred to as GABA + thereafter) in both individual and group data of ACC and OCC. The inter-subject coefficient of variation (CV) of GABA + in OCC (20.66 %) and ACC (12.55 %) with residual bootstrap was lower than that of a standard Gaussian model analysis (21.58 % and 16.73 % for OCC and ACC, respectively). The intra-subject uncertainty and CV of OCC were lower than that of ACC in both analyses. The residual bootstrap analysis thus provides a more robust uncertainty estimation of individual and group GABA + detection in different brain regions, which may be useful in our understanding of GABA biochemistry in brain and its use for the diagnosis of related neuropsychiatric diseases.

  19. Studies on the environmental chemistry and dissipation of 14C-labelled Deltamethrin and Amitraz in model dips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Coelho, P.V.; Luchini, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    The degradation of 14 C-labelled deltamethrin under variable conditions of pH and temperature, leaching of 14 C-labelled amitraz in soil columns and dissipation of these insecticides in model dipping vat was studied. Deltamethrin was stable for 28 d in buffer solutions at pH 4,7 and 8 and at temperature of 14, 28 and 35 deg. C, but degraded in a solution at pH 9. Metabolites identified by TLC corresponded to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol. After 75 days of standing in a model dip, about 60% of the total radioactivity was found in the sediment and corresponded mainly to deltamethrin. When 14 C-Amitraz was applied to soil columns, placed under outdoor conditions, 4 months later all of the radiocarbon was found in the upper 10 cm section and about 90% of the recovered radioactivity corresponded with amitraz. A study of the dissipation of amitraz in a field vat showed that after 20 d of use the concentration of amitraz in a field dip decreased from 210 μg/mL to 155 μg/mL. (author)

  20. Development of physiological resistance and its stage specificity in Culex quinquefasciatus after selection with deltamethrin in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Sarkar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the development and stage specificity of physiological resistance to insecticides in a colony of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae mosquitoes, which are vectors of bancroftian filariasis in India, after selection with deltamethrin. Resistance was selected by exposing the larvae to the concentration of deltamethrin that caused 50% mortality in the tested population (i.e., LC50. Under continuous selection pressure, the LC50 increased steadily in subsequent generations. The estimated LC50 for the F0 generation was 0.409 μg/L; the LC50 first displayed a substantial increase in the F5 generation (5.616 μg/L and reached 121.902 μg/L in the F10 generation. The objective of this study was to establish a deltamethrin-resistant colony to develop a research programme that will study the evolution of physiological resistance patterns and stage-specific resistance responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae and adults under laboratory conditions. An approximately 298-fold increase in resistance was recorded after 10 generations, as evidenced by the resistance ratio (RR50. The progress and effect of the selection pressure in the adult stage was monitored with the World Health Organisation (WHO diagnostic test. The mortality, as observed using the WHO diagnostic test, declined significantly from the F5 generation (85% onwards and the highest rate of survival (65% was observed in the F10 generation.

  1. Effects of abamectin and deltamethrin to the foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica (Hymenoptera: Apidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal Musleh Aljedani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin on the lethal time (LT50 and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin. The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT50. But the samples the histology study of midgut collected after 24 h were conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed the effects of insecticides on the current results show that abamectin has an adverse effect on honeybees, there is a clear impact on the lethal time (LT50 was the abamectin faster in the death of honeybee workers compared to deltamethrin. Where have reached to abamectin (LT50 = 21.026 h, deltamethrin (LT50 = 72.011 h. However, abamectin also effects on cytotoxic midgut cells that may cause digestive disorders in the midgut, epithelial tissue is formed during morphological alterations when digestive cells die. The extends into the internal cavity, and at the top, there is epithelial cell striated border that has many holes and curves, abamectin seems to have crushed the layers of muscle. Through the current results can say abamectin most toxicity on honeybees colony health and vitality, especially foragers honeybee workers.

  2. Concentrations of veterinary drug residues in milk from individual farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 raw milk samples collected at individual small milk-producing facilities and collection tanks of milk routes from five counties of east and north continental Croatia were examined for chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, gentamicin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, flumequine and enrofloxacin from January to March of 2011. Immunoassay methods used for drug determination were validated according to the guidelines laid down by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Data indicated that the methods are appropriate for the detection of antibiotics measured. Measured mean values (μg L-1 of antibiotics were: 0.005 for chloramphenicol, 3.67 for sulfonamides, 2.83 for tetracyclines, 1.10 for gentamicin, 2.64 for streptomycin, 7.67 for dihydrostreptomycin, 10.4 for flumequine and 4.11 for enrofloxacin. None of samples analyzed showed the presence of veterinary drug residues above the maximum residues levels (MRLs established by European Union and Croatian legislation. The calculated estimated daily intakes (EDIs for the average daily milk consumption of 300 mL for an adult in Croatia for examined antibiotics showed levels 20 to 1640 times lower than the values of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs fixed by European Medicines Agency and World Health Organization. This suggested that toxicological risk associated with the consumption of analysed milk could not be considered a public health issue with regards to these veterinary drugs.

  3. Real-time amplification of HLA-DQA1 for counting residual white blood cells in filtered platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Reesink, Henk W; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2004-09-01

    BACKGROUND A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of a conserved region of the HLA-DQA1 locus was developed and validated to assess its suitability in quantitating low levels of white blood cells (WBCs) in filtered platelet (PLT) concentrates (PCs). To determine the detection limit, serial dilutions of nonfiltered PCs with known quantities of WBCs were prepared. The analytical sensitivity and accuracy of the assay was tested with WBC concentrations ranging from 300 to 0.03 per microL with real-time PCR and flow cytometry. In addition, 126 random PCs were investigated to assess the capacity of the PCR method to quantify residual WBCs in clinical specimens. A sensitivity of 0.2 WBC equivalent per micro L (1.5 x 10(4) WBC equivalents/unit) was achieved. The assay was shown to be accurate and the HLA-DQA1 gene was reproducibly and consistently amplified in all tested samples (coefficient of variance of < 5%). Overall, the results of the PCR assay correlated well with those of the flow cytometry. The PCR assay detected a concentration of 3 WBCs per micro L (approximately 1 x 10(6) WBCs/unit) with 100 percent accuracy. Real-time PCR is rapid, sensitive, accurate, and reproducible. Hence this approach may prove suitable in routine monitoring of residual WBCs in PCs.

  4. High hole mobility p-type GaN with low residual hydrogen concentration prepared by pulsed sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yasuaki; Ueno, Kohei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    We have grown Mg-doped GaN films with low residual hydrogen concentration using a low-temperature pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD) process. The growth system is inherently hydrogen-free, allowing us to obtain high-purity Mg-doped GaN films with residual hydrogen concentrations below 5 × 1016 cm-3, which is the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. In the Mg profile, no memory effect or serious dopant diffusion was detected. The as-deposited Mg-doped GaN films showed clear p-type conductivity at room temperature (RT) without thermal activation. The GaN film doped with a low concentration of Mg (7.9 × 1017 cm-3) deposited by PSD showed hole mobilities of 34 and 62 cm2 V-1 s-1 at RT and 175 K, respectively, which are as high as those of films grown by a state-of-the-art metal-organic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. These results indicate that PSD is a powerful tool for the fabrication of GaN-based vertical power devices.

  5. High hole mobility p-type GaN with low residual hydrogen concentration prepared by pulsed sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Arakawa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have grown Mg-doped GaN films with low residual hydrogen concentration using a low-temperature pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD process. The growth system is inherently hydrogen-free, allowing us to obtain high-purity Mg-doped GaN films with residual hydrogen concentrations below 5 × 1016 cm−3, which is the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. In the Mg profile, no memory effect or serious dopant diffusion was detected. The as-deposited Mg-doped GaN films showed clear p-type conductivity at room temperature (RT without thermal activation. The GaN film doped with a low concentration of Mg (7.9 × 1017 cm−3 deposited by PSD showed hole mobilities of 34 and 62 cm2 V−1 s−1 at RT and 175 K, respectively, which are as high as those of films grown by a state-of-the-art metal-organic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. These results indicate that PSD is a powerful tool for the fabrication of GaN-based vertical power devices.

  6. Evaluation of acute toxicity of triazophos and deltamethrin and their inhibitory effect on AChE activity inChanna punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shikha; Tiwari, Rishikesh K; Pandey, Ravi S

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are applied to control the pests indoor and outdoor; however, their remarkable amount reaches to the aquatic system through various routes like run-off, leaching, spray-drift, effluent from factories. These are reported to have negative metabolic impact on different non-target aquatic organisms like fishes. Thus, present study is aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity of two groups of pesticides, organophosphate and pyrethroid, namely triazophos and deltamethrin, respectively. The test was conducted for 96 h period in a freshwater teleost, Channa punctatus . The LC 50 values for triazophos and deltamethrin after 96 h treatment was found to be 0.069 mg/L and 7.33 μg/L. The deltamethrin was found to be about ten times more toxic than triazophos to the fish. In treated fish, alterations in various behavioural patterns were observed with increasing concentrations of both the pesticides as compared to control. Further, tissue specific as well as dose dependent inhibition in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity was found in brain, muscle and gills in Channa punctatus exposed to both the insecticides. However, the effect was more pronounced in triazophos treated fishes than the deltamethrin. A futuristic approach on biochemical and molecular studies may throw light on the mechanism of action of these pesticides.

  7. Similar Comparative Low and High Doses of Deltamethrin and Acetamiprid Differently Impair the Retrieval of the Proboscis Extension Reflex in the Forager Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve H.; Bourdin, Céline M.; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D.; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of low (10 ng/bee) and high (100 ng/bee) doses of acetamiprid and deltamethrin insecticides on multi-trial learning and retrieval were evaluated in the honey bee Apis mellifera. After oral application, acetamiprid and deltamethrin at the concentrations used were not able to impair learning sessions. When the retention tests were performed 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h after learning, we found a significant difference between bees after learning sessions when drugs were applied 24 h before learning. Deltamethrin-treated bees were found to be more sensitive at 10 ng/bee and 100 ng/bee doses compared to acetamiprid-treated bees, only with amounts of 100 ng/bee and at 6 h and 24 h delays. When insecticides were applied during learning sessions, none of the tested insecticides was able to impair learning performance at 10 ng/bee or 100 ng/bee but retention performance was altered 24 h after learning sessions. Acetamiprid was the only one to impair retrieval at 10 ng/bee, whereas at 100 ng/bee an impairment of retrieval was found with both insecticides. The present results therefore suggest that acetamiprid and deltamethrin are able to impair retrieval performance in the honey bee Apis mellifera. PMID:26466901

  8. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Shyma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT and Larval Packet Test (LPT were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5 has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25. Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks.

  9. Carbonic anhydrase II confers resistance to deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenyun; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Na; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhou, Dan; Zhu, Changliang

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metabolic enzymes that regulate the physiological equilibrium in a variety of organisms. In this study, we investigated the function of CA II in Culex pipiens pallens using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double-stranded RNA injection. CA II transcripts were more abundant in the deltamethrin-susceptible strain than the deltamethrin-resistant strain. The activities of metabolic enzymes increased when the CA II expression was silenced. These findings suggest CA II regulates deltamethrin resistance by altering metabolic enzyme activity, and could serve as a potential genetic marker for monitoring deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samples of feed and eggs were collected at day 0 (prior to CTC addition), 3rd, 5th and 7th day during treatment and on the 9th and 14th day (2nd and 7th day after withdrawal of CTC) from each of the 12 commercial poultry farms studied. Concentration of CTC in feed was significantly ( < 0.01) high on the 3rd, 5th and 7th ...

  12. The effect of insecticide Deltamethrin on development of chick embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Naal, R.; Bassal, M. Osman, M.

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cyto and the embryo toxicity of Deltamethrin and its commercial formulation DECIS 50 EC in chick embryo during its critical embryonic development period before and in the organogenesis. The embryos were incubated in well closed plastic caps containing the complete egg composition at 38 o. the Deltamethrin and DECIS were found to cause histological and morphological malformations, specially in the brain, also they reduced the majority of the synthetic activities of the DNA, RNA, and proteins in the embryonic and the vascular areas. The flow cytometric analysis showed alterations in frequency of cells in both embryonic and vascular areas in the treated embryo during the cell cycle phases. Our study also showed that the DECIS had greater cyto and embryo toxicity than the Seltamethrin for analysis (author). 149 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs

  13. Distribution of multiple pesticide residues in apple segments after home processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H. C. B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of washing, storing, boiling, peeling, coring and juicing on pesticide residue were investigated for field-sprayed Discovery and Jonagold apples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, iprodione...... significantly reduced five of the pesticide residues: diazinon, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, kresoxim-methyl and tolylfluanid, by 25-69%. Residues of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate were increased by 34% during storage. Boiling significantly reduced residues of fenitrothion and tolylfluanid by 32 and 81...

  14. Zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism and residue concentrations in physiological specimens of dairy cows exposed long-term to ZEN-contaminated diets differing in concentrate feed proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    A long-term feeding experiment with dairy cows was performed to investigate the effects of feeding a Fusarium toxin contaminated (FUS) and a background-contaminated control (CON) ration with a mean concentrate feed proportion of 50% during the first 11 weeks after parturition (Groups FUS-50, CON-50, Period 1), and with concentrate feed proportions of 30% or 60% during the remaining 17 weeks (Groups CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60, Period 2), on zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in blood serum, milk, urine and bile. ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The ZEN concentrations of the rations fed to Groups CON-50, FUS-50 (Period 1), CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60 (Period 2) amounted to 53.1, 112.7, 35.0, 24.4, 73.8 and 72.5 µg/kg dry matter, respectively. The concentrations of ZEN, α-ZEL, β-ZEL, ZAN, α-ZAL and β-ZAL in serum, urine and milk were lower than 1, 1, 4, 100, 50 and 200 ng/g, respectively, while ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were detected in bile. Their levels changed with oral ZEN exposure in the course of the experiment and in a similar direction with concentrate feed proportion (Period 2 only). Thus the proportions of the individual β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN concentrations of their sum varied only in narrow ranges of 68-76%, 6-13% and 12-20%, respectively. Interestingly, the bile concentrations of β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN of Groups CON-60 and FUS-60 amounted to only approximately 50%, 45% and 62%, respectively, of those of Groups CON-30 and FUS-30 despite a similar or even lower ZEN exposure. The results indicate that conversion of ZEN to its detectable metabolites was not changed by different dietary concentrate feed proportions while their absolute levels were decreased. These findings might suggest concentrate feed proportion-dependent and rumen fermentation-mediated alterations in ZEN/metabolite degradation, and

  15. Evaluation of ground calcite/water heavy media cyclone suspensions for production of residual plastic concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Malcolm; Sierra, Héctor Muñiz; Menéndez, Mario; de Cos Juez, Francisco Javier

    2018-01-01

    Viable recycled residual plastic (RP) product(s) must be of sufficient quality to be reusable as a plastic or source of hydrocarbons or fuel. The varied composition and large volumes of such wastes usually requires a low cost, high through-put recycling method(s) to eliminate contaminants. Cyclone separation of plastics by density is proposed as a potential method of achieving separations of specific types of plastics. Three ground calcite separation medias of different grain size distributions were tested in a cylindrical cyclone to evaluate density separations at 1.09, 1.18 and 1.27 g/cm 3 . The differences in separation recoveries obtained with these medias by density offsets produced due to displacement of separation media solid particles within the cyclone caused by centrifugal settling is evaluated. The separation density at which 50% of the material of that density is recovered was found to increase from 0.010 to 0.026 g/cm 3 as the separation media density increased from 1.09 to 1.27 g/cm 3 . All separation medias were found to have significantly low Ep 95 values of 0.012-0.033 g/cm 3 . It is also demonstrated that the presence of an excess content of 75%) resulted in reduced separation efficiencies. It is shown that the optimum separations were achieved when the media density offset was 0.03-0.04 g/cm 3 . It is shown that effective heavy media cyclone separations of RP denser than 1.0 g/cm 3 can produce three sets of mixed plastics containing: PS and ABS/SAN at densities of >1.0-1.09 g/cm 3 ; PC, PMMA at a density of 1.09-1.18 g/cm 3 ; and PVC and PET at a density of >1.27 g/cm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, on respiratory modulated hypoglossal motoneurons in a brain stem slice from newborn mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Theophilidis, G

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the action of deltamethrin on respiratory modulated hypoglossal motoneurons in a brain stem slice from newborn mice. Deltamethrin depolarized the hypoglossal motoneurons, increased the background synaptic noise and reduced the frequency and amplitude of current elicited action...

  17. Analytical investigation of selected pesticide residues from fruits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticide residues like chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and dichlorvos were monitored by an improved extraction method from apple, peach and potato using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The selected pesticides were extracted from fruits and vegetable samples using smaller volume of ...

  18. Hybrid-renewable processes for biofuels production: concentrated solar pyrolysis of biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Anthe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geier, Manfred [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The viability of thermochemically-derived biofuels can be greatly enhanced by reducing the process parasitic energy loads. Integrating renewable power into biofuels production is one method by which these efficiency drains can be eliminated. There are a variety of such potentially viable "hybrid-renewable" approaches; one is to integrate concentrated solar power (CSP) to power biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL) processes. Barriers to CSP integration into BTL processes are predominantly the lack of fundamental kinetic and mass transport data to enable appropriate systems analysis and reactor design. A novel design for the reactor has been created that can allow biomass particles to be suspended in a flow gas, and be irradiated with a simulated solar flux. Pyrolysis conditions were investigated and a comparison between solar and non-solar biomass pyrolysis was conducted in terms of product distributions and pyrolysis oil quality. A novel method was developed to analyse pyrolysis products, and investigate their stability.

  19. Potential dermal exposure to deltamethrin and risk assessment for manual sprayers: Influence of crop type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Enrique A.; Flores, Andrea P.; Ramos, Laura M.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, B1613GSX Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Richard Glass, C. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York Y041 1LZ (United Kingdom); Montserrat, Javier M. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J. M. Gutierrez 1150, B1613GSX Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar

    2008-02-25

    A comparison of the Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE) of workers to the insecticide deltamethrin was made as a function of crop type, in small agricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were done with two different crops (maize and broccoli, treated area between 600 and 1000 m{sup 2}) with three different operators under typical field conditions using a lever operated knapsack. The methodology is based on the whole body dosimetry technique, presenting separately the data for mixing/loading and application activities. These results indicate a higher concentration of pesticide in lower body sections for broccoli and a wider distribution for maize. The risk inherent in these agricultural procedures is estimated through Margin of Safety (MOS) values and was found to be generally safe. Preliminary results of a mass balance distribution of the pesticide between crop, soil and operator are also presented.

  20. Wet high-intensity magnetic separation for the concentration of Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrans, I.J.; Levin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS) for the concentration of gold and uranium was tested on many Witwatersrand cyanidation residues, and on some ores and flotation tailings. The results varied, but many indicated recoveries of over 60 per cent of the gold and uranium. The main source of loss is the inefficiency of WHIMS for material of smaller particle size than 20μm. The recoveries in the continuous tests were lower than those in the batch tests. The continuous tests indicated an operational difficulty that could be experienced in practice, namely the tendency for wood chips and ferromagnetic particles to block the matrix of the separator. It was decided that a solution to the problem lies in the modification of the separator to allow continuous removal of the matrix for cleaning. A system has been developed for this purpose and is being demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale. Promising results were obtained in tests on a process that combines a coarse grind, gravity concentration, and WHIMS. In the gravity-concentration step, considerable recoveries, generally over 50 per cent, of high-grade pyrite were obtained, together with high recoveries of gold and moderate, but possibly important, recoveries of uranium. A simple model describing the operation of the WHIMS machine in terms of the operating parameters is described. This should reduce the amount of empirical testwork required for the optimization of operating conditions and should provide a basis for scale-up calculations. The economics of the WHIMS process is discussed [af

  1. Residual sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ concentration after Ca2+ release in skeletal myofibers from young adult and old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Tang, Shen; Messi, María Laura; Yang, Jenny J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting information suggests either almost complete depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) or significant residual Ca(2+) concentration after prolonged depolarization of the skeletal muscle fiber. The primary obstacle to resolving this controversy is the lack of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators targeted to the SR that exhibit low-Ca(2+) affinity, a fast biosensor: Ca(2+) off-rate reaction, and can be expressed in myofibers from adult and older adult mammalian species. This work used the recently designed low-affinity Ca(2+) sensor (Kd = 1.66 mM in the myofiber) CatchER (calcium sensor for detecting high concentrations in the ER) targeted to the SR, to investigate whether prolonged skeletal muscle fiber depolarization significantly alters residual SR Ca(2+) with aging. We found CatchER a proper tool to investigate SR Ca(2+) depletion in young adult and older adult mice, consistently tracking SR luminal Ca(2+) release in response to brief and repetitive stimulation. We evoked SR Ca(2+) release in whole-cell voltage-clamped flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from young and old FVB mice and tested the maximal SR Ca(2+) release by directly activating the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) with 4-chloro-m-cresol in the same myofibers. Here, we report for the first time that the Ca(2+) remaining in the SR after prolonged depolarization (2 s) in myofibers from aging (~220 μM) was larger than young (~132 μM) mice. These experiments indicate that SR Ca(2+) is far from fully depleted under physiological conditions throughout life, and support the concept of excitation-contraction uncoupling in functional senescent myofibers.

  2. Venom allergen 5 is Associated With Deltamethrin Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Hong, Shanchao; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens (L.), is an important vector of encephalitis and filariasis in northern China. The control of these mosquitoes occurs primarily via the use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin. The widespread and improper application of pyrethroid has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance amongst many mosquito populations, including Cx. pipiens pallens. Previous studies using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing have identified that the venom allergen 5 gene is differentially expressed between deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that venom allergen 5 was significantly overexpressed in adult females of both deltamethrin-resistant laboratory populations and two field populations. The transcriptional level of venom allergen 5 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Full-length cDNAs of the venom allergen 5 gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens, and contained an open reading frame of 765 bp, encoding a protein with 254 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with the ortholog in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The overexpression of venom allergen 5 decreased the susceptibility of mosquito cells to deltamethrin, while knockdown of this gene by RNAi increased the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. This study provides the first evidence of the association between the venom allergen 5 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. PMID:26335474

  3. Efficacy of granular deltamethrin against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidade) nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W; Taylor, R C; Markowski, D; Chomsky, M S

    2001-03-01

    A single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs. The application also suppressed the population of Amblyomma americanum (L.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. The efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.

  4. Observational assessment of the role of nocturnal residual-layer chemistry in determining daytime surface particulate nitrate concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prabhakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses an analysis of combined airborne and ground observations of particulate nitrate (NO3−(p concentrations made during the wintertime DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality study at one of the most polluted cities in the United States – Fresno, CA – in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV and focuses on developing an understanding of the various processes that impact surface nitrate concentrations during pollution events. The results provide an explicit case-study illustration of how nighttime chemistry can influence daytime surface-level NO3−(p concentrations, complementing previous studies in the SJV. The observations exemplify the critical role that nocturnal chemical production of NO3−(p aloft in the residual layer (RL can play in determining daytime surface-level NO3−(p concentrations. Further, they indicate that nocturnal production of NO3−(p in the RL, along with daytime photochemical production, can contribute substantially to the buildup and sustaining of severe pollution episodes. The exceptionally shallow nocturnal boundary layer (NBL heights characteristic of wintertime pollution events in the SJV intensify the importance of nocturnal production aloft in the residual layer to daytime surface concentrations. The observations also demonstrate that dynamics within the RL can influence the early-morning vertical distribution of NO3−(p, despite low wintertime wind speeds. This overnight reshaping of the vertical distribution above the city plays an important role in determining the net impact of nocturnal chemical production on local and regional surface-level NO3−(p concentrations. Entrainment of clean free-tropospheric (FT air into the boundary layer in the afternoon is identified as an important process that reduces surface-level NO3−(p and limits buildup during pollution episodes. The influence of dry deposition of HNO

  5. Observational assessment of the role of nocturnal residual-layer chemistry in determining daytime surface particulate nitrate concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri; Parworth, Caroline L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kim, Hwajin; Young, Dominique E.; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Nowak, John B.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Faloona, Ian C.; Zhang, Qi; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2017-12-01

    This study discusses an analysis of combined airborne and ground observations of particulate nitrate (NO3-(p)) concentrations made during the wintertime DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from COlumn and VERtically resolved observations relevant to Air Quality) study at one of the most polluted cities in the United States - Fresno, CA - in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and focuses on developing an understanding of the various processes that impact surface nitrate concentrations during pollution events. The results provide an explicit case-study illustration of how nighttime chemistry can influence daytime surface-level NO3-(p) concentrations, complementing previous studies in the SJV. The observations exemplify the critical role that nocturnal chemical production of NO3-(p) aloft in the residual layer (RL) can play in determining daytime surface-level NO3-(p) concentrations. Further, they indicate that nocturnal production of NO3-(p) in the RL, along with daytime photochemical production, can contribute substantially to the buildup and sustaining of severe pollution episodes. The exceptionally shallow nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) heights characteristic of wintertime pollution events in the SJV intensify the importance of nocturnal production aloft in the residual layer to daytime surface concentrations. The observations also demonstrate that dynamics within the RL can influence the early-morning vertical distribution of NO3-(p), despite low wintertime wind speeds. This overnight reshaping of the vertical distribution above the city plays an important role in determining the net impact of nocturnal chemical production on local and regional surface-level NO3-(p) concentrations. Entrainment of clean free-tropospheric (FT) air into the boundary layer in the afternoon is identified as an important process that reduces surface-level NO3-(p) and limits buildup during pollution episodes. The influence of dry deposition of HNO3 gas to the surface on

  6. Investigation of the interaction of deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaman; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yuhao; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The interaction of Deltamethrin (DM) with human serum albumin (HSA) under the condition of simulating human blood pH environment (pH = 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence, UV-Vis absorbance and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. It was shown that DM was a static quencher of HSA. The binding constants (Ka) are 3.598 × 104 L mol-1 (25 °C); the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH = -3.269 × 104 kJ mol-1, ΔS = -22.81 kJ mol-1 k-1, ΔG = -25889.8 kJ mol-1) obtained with the thermodynamic equation. The hydrogen bond and Vander Waals were the main driving force. The effect of DM on the conformation of HSA was observed by three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra, indicating that the interaction between DM and HSA was achieved through the binding of DM with the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of HSA. The study on the interaction of DM and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was researched and compared. Difference exists in the interactions of with each of the serum albumins. We will verify and supplement that DM residue in animals and human metabolism, toxicology and other mechanisms are different.

  7. [Presumptive role of Wolbachia in deltamethrin resistance of Culex pipiens pallens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shan-Chao; Lv, Yuan; Fang, Fu-Jin; Zhu, Chang-Liang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between Wolbachia and deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipiens pallens. PCR was used to detect Wolbachia in Culex pipiens pallens and qRT-PCR was performed to determine and compare the expression of Wolbachia between deltamethrin- resistant and - susceptible strains of Culex pipiens pallens. Wolbachia was detected in Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory. The expression of Wolbachia was 18.42, 3.69, 4.43, 3.96, 6.31, 1.55 and 3.76 folds higher in the deltamethrin-resistant strain than in susceptible strain in the egg, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th stages, and male and female adults, but there was no statistical difference in the pupae stage. The expression of Wolbachia was 2.64 folds higher in deltamethrin-resistant females than in susceptible females which were caught in Jiangxinzhou of Nanjing. Wolbachia is associated with deltamethrin resistance in Culex pipines pallens.

  8. Protective role of Spirulina platensis against acute deltamethrin-induced toxicity in rats.

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    Mohamed M Abdel-Daim

    Full Text Available Deltamethrin is a broad-spectrum synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and acaricide widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes. However, its human and animal exposure leads to hepatonephrotoxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the hepatonephroprotective and antioxidant potential of Spirulina platensis against deltamethrin toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. Deltamethrin treated animals revealed a significant increase in serum biochemical parameters as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation but caused an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. Spirulina normalized the elevated serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Furthermore, it reduced deltamethrin-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose dependent manner. Therefore, it could be concluded that spirulina administration able to minimize the toxic effects of deltamethrin by its free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.

  9. Semiconducting iron silicide thin films on silicon (111) with large Hall mobility and low residual electron concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muret, P.; Ali, I.; Brunel, M.

    1998-10-01

    Unprecedented Hall mobility, electron concentration and photoconductivity are demonstrated in semiconducting 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7 thin films prepared on Si(111) surfaces by co-sputtering of iron and silicon followed by post-anneal. Characterization of the silicide as a function of the initial temperature and post-treatment shows that annealing temperatures above 0268-1242/13/10/020/img8C are needed to obtain single phase 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7. Reactive deposition on substrates heated at 0268-1242/13/10/020/img11C leads to textured films. Majority carriers are electrons in all these unintentionally doped films. Hall concentrations between 0268-1242/13/10/020/img12 and 0268-1242/13/10/020/img13 electrons 0268-1242/13/10/020/img14 and respective Hall mobilities from 290 to 0268-1242/13/10/020/img15 are measured at room temperature, involving two different conduction band minima in these two extreme cases. Only deep centres exist in the samples having the lower carrier concentration. In such a situation, raw data must be corrected for the substrate contribution to extract values which are relevant for the 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7 film alone. Photoconductivity also takes place in these samples: at 80 K, it shows a maximum value at the direct band gap of 0268-1242/13/10/020/img6-0268-1242/13/10/020/img7 while at 296 K a step still appears at the same energy. Such results are a consequence of the important decrease of the residual impurity concentration in comparison to values previously published.

  10. Optimization of a methodology for the simultaneous determination of deltamethrin, permethrin and malathion in stored wheat samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop and HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Rezaei, Mansour; Fattahi, Nazir; Karami, Mohammad; Sharafi, Kiomars; Ghaffari, Hamid R

    2017-09-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate common pesticides in stored wheat at Kermanshah province's silos in Iran. A simple, inexpensive, reliable and environmentally friendly method based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop was developed. The analytical characteristics of the method were determined. Also, various parameters such as the materials of the silos, types of ownerships of the silos, geographic orientation of silo locations and climatic conditions of silo locations on pesticide residues in studied wheat samples were investigated. Among all the studied parameters, the climatic conditions of silo locations showed the highest influence on pesticide residues in wheat samples. Generally, 61.2% of the samples had pesticide levels below the method detection limits and 38.8% of the total samples had at least one of the understudied pesticides. Also, 13.9% of the samples had deltamethrin residues, 16.7% of the samples had permethrin, 22.2% of the samples had malathion, 11.1% of the samples had both permethrin and malathion and 2.8% of the samples had both deltamethrin and malathion. The results revealed that the residues of deltamethrin and malathion were lower than the standard level announced by European Union regulation and only three samples contained permethrin higher than Europe standard level.

  11. Trigonella foenum-graecum protection against deltamethrin-induced toxic effects on haematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk A; Mahmoud, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is enriched with many active ingredients. TFG oil was evaluated for its protective effect against deltamethrin toxicity in rats. Rats of the control group were administered saline. The 2nd group was administered deltamethrin (DLM) orally at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass. The 3rd and 4th groups were administered DLM at a concentration of 15 mg/kg body mass and were fed diets containing 2.5% and 5% TFG oil, respectively. DLM intoxication reduced red blood cell and platelet counts, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit value while it induced leucocytosis. Furthermore, it increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, triglycerides, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, and creatinine; increased hepatic, renal, and brain lipid peroxidation; decreased serum acetylcholine esterase level; and decreased hepatic, renal, and brain antioxidant markers' activities. However, TFG oil kept the studied hematological and biochemical parameters within normal ranges. In addition, it prevented lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by DLM intoxication in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, these results indicated that TFG oil inhibited the toxic effects of DLM on hematological and biochemical parameters as well as oxidative status by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activities, and it appeared to be a promising protective agent against DLM-induced toxicity.

  12. Comparison of life cycle traits of a Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse (Heteroptera: Miridae population infesting organic and conventional tea plantations, with emphasis on deltamethrin resistance

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    Roy Somnath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse, is an important economic pest of tea in India. The development of resistance in H. theivora populations obtained from a conventional plantation as compared with a strain from an organic plantation was studied in the laboratory for five generations, and associated changes in life cycle traits were assessed. Selection using sublethal concentrations of deltamethrin resulted in a 5.19-fold increase in insecticide resistance ratio from the F1 to the F5 generation in the H. theivora population from the conventional plantation. By the F5 generation, nymphal duration and total developmental duration and adult longevity were higher and fecundity was lower in the deltamethrin-selected strain than in the non-selected strain from a conventional plantation and the susceptible strain from an organic plantation. These findings have practical implications for insecticide resistance management of this important sucking pest of tea.

  13. Deltamethrin as inductor agent of precocious ovarian degeneration in Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Pereira, Natalia Rubio Claret; da Silva Reis, Camila; de Almeida, Cristiane Regina; Dos Santos Mendes, Douglas Rodrigo; de Araújo, Giselle Bezerra; Postali, Lays; Figueroa, Tober; Ferreira, Allan Roberto Fernandes; Santos, Juan Parente; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa

    2017-06-01

    The cosmopolitan species Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. is one of the most widely distributed ticks all over the world. These ectoparasites are vectors of several pathogens and cause significant direct damage to their hosts. The biological success of these ectoparasites has been attributed to their ovaries and salivary glands, organs that ensure their survival in various environmental conditions. The importance of the ovaries in ticks is that, after mating, the individuals are able to lay approximately three thousand eggs. The present study had the objective to demonstrate the effects of deltamethrin obtained from the product Butox P CE 25 ® (MSD Saúde Animal, São Paulo, Brazil) on the ovarian development of R. sanguineus s.l. females. The chemical was tested in the concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm (respectively 80, 40, 20 and 10 times lower than the recommended by the manufacturer). Through the application of histological techniques and HE staining, the results showed that the deltamethrin was potentially able to modify the morphophysiology of the oocytes in all developmental stages, interfering in the vitellogenesis, causing intense vacuolation, cytoplasmic disorganization, and alterations in the chorion secretion. In addition, the chemical affected the germ vesicle of some oocytes, causing damages and hypertrophy, fragmenting the chromatin and forming bodies strongly stained by hematoxylin. Therefore, this study confirmed that the deltamethrin had an important action on the reproductive system of the R. sanguineus s.l. females, causing the precocious structural disorganization of the germ cells, consequently preventing the generation of new individuals.

  14. Sublethal dose of deltamethrin damage the midgut cells of the mayfly Callibaetis radiatus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Helen Pinto; Gutiérrez, Yeisson; Oliveira, Eugênio Eduardo; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    In insects, the midgut performs multiple physiologic functions (e.g., digestion and nutrients absorption) and serves as a physical/chemical barrier against pathogens and chemical stressors such as deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, commonly used in insect control that are agricultural pests and human disease vectors. Here, we described the midgut cell ultrastructure of Callibaetis radiatus nymphs, which are bioindicators of water quality and the ultrastructural alterations in midgut under sublethal exposure to deltamethrin at three different periods (1, 12, 24 h). The digestive cells of deltamethrin-unexposed nymphs had long microvilli, many mitochondria in the apical cytoplasm, a rough endoplasmic reticulum, a basal labyrinth with openings for hemocele, and the midgut peritrophic matrix which is classified as type I. Nymphs exposed to deltamethrin exhibited digestive cells rich in autophagic vacuoles, basal labyrinth loss, and microvilli disorganization since the first hour of contact with deltamethrin. However, these midgut tissues underwent to autophagic cellular recovery along the 24 h of exposure to deltamethrin. Thus, the sublethal exposure to deltamethrin is sufficient to disturb the ultrastructure of C. radiatus midgut, which might reduce the abilities of these insects to survive in aquatic environments contaminated by pyrethroids.

  15. Comparative evaluation of pyrethroid insecticide formulations against Triatoma infestans (Klug: residual efficacy on four substrates

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    Rojas de Arias Antonieta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the residual efficacy of four insecticide formulations used in Chagas disease vector control campaigns: cyfluthrin 12.5% suspension concentrace (SC, lambda-cyhalothrin 10% wettable powder (WP, deltamethrin 2.5% SC, and 2.5% WP on four types of circular blocks of wood, straw with mud, straw with mud painted with lime, and mud containing 5% of cement. Three concentrations of these insecticides were tested: the LC90 (previously determined on filter paper, the double of the LC90, and the recommended operational dose. For each bioassay test, 15 third-stage nymphs of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae were exposed for 120 h to each treatment at 24 h, 30, 60, 90, and 180 days post-spraying. Mortality rates, moulting history and behaviour were recorded at 24, 48, 72, and 120 h of exposure. Mortality rates were highest during the first 30 days post-spraying. Highest mortality rates (above 50% were observed for deltamethrin 2.5% SC and lambda-cyhalothrin 10% WP on wood blocks up to three months post-spraying. Mud was the substrate on which treatments showed lowest persistence, with the other two substrates showing intermediate residual efficacy of all treatments. During the first 30 days WP formulations were not as effective as SC flowable formulations but, overall in the longer term, WP gave grater mortality rates of T. infestans nymphs exposed at up to six months post-spraying. Porous surfaces, especially mud, showed most variability presumably due to absorption of the insecticide. In contrast the less porous surfaces (i.e. wood and lime-coated mud kept mortality rates high for longer post-treatment, irrespective of the insecticide concentration used.

  16. Study on non-linear equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic of deltamethrin removal in aqueous solution using modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Bahareh; Moniri, Elham; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Najafpour, Shaban

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of modification of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is an eco-friendly, emerging and economical method for removing deltamethrin in the aqueous solution and wastewater effluents when compared with other adsorbent methods. Modified magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation and then coupled with 3-hydroxytyraminium chloride. The nano-sorbent was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zero point charge and surface area determination. Batch studies were conducted and adsorption equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic non-linear models were carried out. The resulting equilibrium data were tested with Langmuir and Freundlich non-linear isotherm models, and the results showed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the data well. Kinetic studies were done with different initial deltamethrin concentrations, adsorbent dosage and temperature, and the data were assimilated with pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic equations, and it was found that the studied nano-sorbent processes followed the pseudo-second order kinetic equation. Thermodynamic analysis was also carried out to estimate the changes in free energy (ΔG 0 ), enthalpy (ΔH 0 ), and entropy (ΔS 0 ). The thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption of deltamethrin into the nano-sorbent was spontaneous, feasible and showed an endothermic process.

  17. Effects of abamectin and deltamethrin to the foragers honeybee workers ofApis mellifera jemenatica(Hymenoptera: Apidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljedani, Dalal Musleh

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the toxicity of some insecticides (abamectin and deltamethrin) on the lethal time (LT 50 ) and midgut of foragers honeybee workers of Apis mellifera jemenatica were studied under laboratory conditions. The bees were provided with water, food, natural protein and sugar solution with insecticide (concentration: 2.50 ppm deltamethrin and 0.1 ppm abamectin). The control group was not treated with any kind of insecticides. The mortality was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hour (h) after insecticides treatment and period to calculate the value of lethal time (LT 50 ). But the samples the histology study of midgut collected after 24 h were conducted by Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed the effects of insecticides on the current results show that abamectin has an adverse effect on honeybees, there is a clear impact on the lethal time (LT 50 ) was the abamectin faster in the death of honeybee workers compared to deltamethrin. Where have reached to abamectin (LT 50  = 21.026) h, deltamethrin (LT 50  = 72.011) h. However, abamectin also effects on cytotoxic midgut cells that may cause digestive disorders in the midgut, epithelial tissue is formed during morphological alterations when digestive cells die. The extends into the internal cavity, and at the top, there is epithelial cell striated border that has many holes and curves, abamectin seems to have crushed the layers of muscle. Through the current results can say abamectin most toxicity on honeybees colony health and vitality, especially foragers honeybee workers.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF WASHING PRACTICES ON THE EFFICACY OF DELTAMETHRIN LONG LASTING INSECTICIDE TREATED MOSQUITO NETS (ITNs USING GLASS TUNNEL TEST METHOD

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    Damar Tri Boewono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Suatu penelitian untuk mengetahui aktivitas residu dan respon iritabilitas PermaNet® long lasting-insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs deltamethrin 55 mg/m2 setelah pencucian, dilakukan di BPVRP Salatiga, bulan Oktober-November 2004 dengan metoda uji glass tunnel. Kelambu PermaNet® dicuci dengan sabun padat (0, 6, 9, 12, 18, 21 dan 24 kali sebagai perlakuan. Pencucian kelambu dilakukan tiga kali (secara individual di dalam blue cap bottle (volume 1 liter, diisi air 500 ml dan digoyang pada shaker selama 20 menit, dibilas 2 kali dan dikeringkan di tempat terlindung cahaya matahari, pada posisi datar. Evaluasi dilakukan  terhadap kematian nyamuk uji (Anopheles maculatus serta respon iritabilitas (jumlah nyamuk uji dapat melewati lubang pada kelambu berinsektisida dan jumlah nyamuk uji kenyang darah marmot yang dipasang sebagai umpan. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa penurunan aktivitas residu insektisida deltamethrin sejalan dengan frekuensi pencucian ITNs. Rata-rata kandungan deltamethrin setelah dicuci 24 kali adalah 8,78 mg/m2 (berkurang 84,24% atau 1,93 mg/m2 setiap pencucian dan kematian nyamuk uji 80,0%, dari jumlah 100 ekor. Uji glass tunnel menunjukkan bahwa, kematian An. maculatus pada kelambu (0 dan 6 kali pencucian tidak berbeda secara bermakna, akan tetapi berbeda nyata setelah 12, 18, 21 dan 24 kali pencucian. Kematian nyamuk uji pada kelambu yang telah dicuci 21 dan 24 kali, menurun menjadi 67,97% dan 55,15% (tidak efektif menurut standar WHO 70% dan tidak berbeda nyata dengan kelambu dicuci 18 kali. Respon iritabilitas tidak berbeda nyata berdasarkan jumlah pencucian. Efek repelen PermaNet® tidak cukup besar, nampak dari jumlah nyamuk melewati lubang pada kelambu uji 14,17-30,91% (±1,63% ditemukan kenyang darah.

  19. Pyrethroids cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate have different effects on in vitro maturation of pig oocytes at different stages of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr, J; Chmelíková, E; Zalmanová, T; Tůmová, L; Kheilová, K; Kučerová-Chrpová, V; Jílek, F

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides can significantly harm reproduction in animals and people. Pyrethroids are often used as insecticides, and their toxicity for mammals is considered to be low. However, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate - as potent specific inhibitors of protein phosphatase calcineurin - can influence the meiosis of mammalian oocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of these pyrethroids on the in vitro maturation of pig oocytes at different levels of meiotic competence. Under the tested concentrations, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and fenvalerate neither had a significant effect on the viability of oocytes nor did they induce significant degeneration of oocytes. However, these pyrethroids significantly affected meiotic maturation. The effects depended on the stage of meiotic competence of the oocytes. Maturation of growing pig oocytes with partial meiotic competence was induced. On the other hand, in fully grown pig oocytes with full meiotic competence, maturation in vitro was delayed. The specificity of these effects was further supported by the same effect of non-pyrethroidal inhibitors of calcineurin - cyclosporin A or hymenistatin I - on the maturation of oocytes with different levels of meiotic competence. However, pyrethroids, which do not inhibit calcineurin - allethrin or permethrin - had no effect on pig oocyte maturation. We demonstrated a significant effect of pyrethroids on the maturation of mammalian oocytes under in vitro conditions. This indicates that exposure to these substances could affect the fertility of people or animals.

  20. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  1. Subacute Toxicity Effects of Deltamethrin on Oxidative Stress Markers in Rainbow Trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Giorda, Federica; Pacini, Nicole; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Scanzio, Tommaso; Prearo, Marino

    2017-09-01

    Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid insecticide that is considered extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. We evaluated the effect of subacute doses (0.033, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg) of deltamethrin on micronucleus frequency and oxidative stress markers in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 d after intracoelomic injection. No genotoxic damage was recorded, as no specimen showed a micronucleus number above the physiological range. Deltamethrin exposure elicited a transient reduction in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase and a persistent decrease in glutathione reductase activity. Overall, the lower antioxidant enzyme activity in the deltamethrin-treated fish was mainly dose-dependent. Received May 27, 2016 accepted June 18, 2017.

  2. Virgin olive oil ameliorates deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: A biochemical and immunohistochemical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza khalatbary

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Virgin olive oil exerted protective effects against deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties.

  3. Possibility of irradiation degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yifang; Wan Xiaochun; Hou Ruyan; Zhang Haiwei; Zhao Xiuxia; Wang Xiaohui

    2011-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ irradiation and green tea manufacturing processing on degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea during its manufacturing processing were studied. The two pesticides were sprayed onto the tea bushes and fresh tea leaves were picked at the same day, respectively. Half of the fresh leaves were processed into green tea. The fresh tea leaves and green tea were irradiated at 5 kGy and the Fenpropathrin in fresh tea degraded 7.3% after irradiation, while Deltamethrin degraded 14.7%. In green tea, Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin degraded 2.2% and 12.1% respectively after irradiation. Green tea manufacturing processes could reduce 16.4% of Fenpropathrin, and 4.4% of Deltamethrin. (authors)

  4. Venom allergen 5 is Associated With Deltamethrin Resistance in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Hong, Shanchao; Wang, Weijie; Zhang, Donghui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2015-07-01

    The mosquito, Culex pipiens pallens (L.), is an important vector of encephalitis and filariasis in northern China. The control of these mosquitoes occurs primarily via the use of pyrethroid insecticides, such as deltamethrin. The widespread and improper application of pyrethroid has resulted in the evolution of pyrethroid resistance amongst many mosquito populations, including Cx. pipiens pallens. Previous studies using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing have identified that the venom allergen 5 gene is differentially expressed between deltamethrin-susceptible and deltamethrin-resistant Cx. pipiens pallens. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that venom allergen 5 was significantly overexpressed in adult females of both deltamethrin-resistant laboratory populations and two field populations. The transcriptional level of venom allergen 5 in the laboratory populations was elevated as the levels of deltamethrin resistance increased. Full-length cDNAs of the venom allergen 5 gene were cloned from Cx. pipiens pallens, and contained an open reading frame of 765 bp, encoding a protein with 254 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 100% identity with the ortholog in Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The overexpression of venom allergen 5 decreased the susceptibility of mosquito cells to deltamethrin, while knockdown of this gene by RNAi increased the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. This study provides the first evidence of the association between the venom allergen 5 gene and deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Deltamethrin increases the fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peiyi; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsiu; Yue, Yiren; Sun, Quancai; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2017-03-01

    Research has shown that permethrin, a Type-I pyrethroid, increases triglyceride (fat) accumulation in adipocytes. Little is known, however, about any similar effect of deltamethrin, a Type-II pyrethroid, which produces a distinct syndrome of poisoning in mammals compared with permethrin. This study was therefore aimed to explore the role of deltamethrin on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Caenorhabditis elegans. Deltamethrin (10 μM) significantly increased the fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and wild type C. elegans compared to respective controls. Deltamethrin decreased the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase (pAMPKα) over AMPKα and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) over ACC, while it increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Similarly, deltamethrin potentiated fat accumulation in C. elegans without affecting growth or pharyngeal pumping rate. Moreover, deltamethrin significantly reduced the total progeny number and locomotive activities in C. elegans in a dose-dependent manner. Deltamethrin increased fat accumulation via aak-2 (an ortholog of AMPKα) and nhr-49 (a homolog of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and also downstream target of aak-2) mediated mechanisms. The current work is the first report of the effects of deltamethrin on increased fat storage by 3T3- L1 adipocytes and C. elegans via aak-2 (AMPKα ortholog)-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alteration of mice cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to cypermethrin and deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junnan; Xu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Junshi; An, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Pyrethroids, a group of insecticides with high efficiency, low toxicity and wide spectrum, are used for pest control in agriculture. Here, we administered two representative pyrethroids (cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and an equal volume of vehicle (corn oil) to the pregnant ICR mice. This study investigated the effects of cypermethrin and deltamethrin on cerebral cortex development in mice as well as possible mechanisms in proliferation and differentiation. The results showed that histopathologic change did not occurred in the cerebral cortex using Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, however, the observation of fetuses exposed to cypermethrin and deltamethrin revealed reduction of neuronal proliferation, maturation and differentiation. Moreover, cypermethrin/deltamethrin-induced apoptosis of nerve cell was significantly higher in treated groups than that in control group by using flow cytometry, Western blot and TUNEL. It was worth mentioning that the newborns exposed to cypermethrin and deltamethrin did not showed abnormal neuronal distribution. These findings suggested that prenatal cypermethrin and deltamethrin exposure impaired corticogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro evaluation of acaricidal activity of novel green silver nanoparticles against deltamethrin resistance Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, B; Venu, R; Alpha Raj, M; Srinivasa Rao, K; Srilatha, Ch; Prasad, T N V K V

    2017-04-15

    An investigation was undertaken to study, for the first time, in vitro acaricidal activity of green silver nanoparticles on deltamethrin resistance Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The compounds tested were neem coated silver nanoparticles (N-Ag NPs), deltamethrin neem coated silver nanoparticles (DN-Ag NPs), 2, 3 dehydrosalannol (2,3 DHS), 2, 3 DHS coated silver nanoparticles (2, 3-DHS-Ag NPs), Quercetin dihydrate (QDH) and QDH coated silver nanoparticles (QDH-Ag NPs). Also included in this study, for the purpose of comparison, were neem leaf extract (NLE), silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) and deltamethrin (D). Acaricidal activity on larvae and adults of R. (B.) microplus was tested by larval packet test (LPT) and adult immersion test (AIT) respectively. In the LPT, 100% mortality was obtained at concentrations (ppm) of 360, 6000, 260, 200, 50, 300, 85, 600 and 200 for the compounds, D, NLE, Ag NO 3 , N-Ag NPs, DN-Ag NPs, 2, 3 DHS, 2, 3 DHS-Ag NPs, QDH, QDH-Ag NPs respectively. In AIT, the proportions of mortality and oviposition inhibition were proportionate but the reproductive index was inversely proportional to the concentration of the compounds used. The effect of DN-Ag NPs on mortality was the highest (93.33%) at 50ppm concentration. The mean reproductive index (0.01) and oviposition inhibition (99.16%) values were statistically significant when compared to control group. DN-Ag NPs showed significantly (P<0.05) lower LC 50 (3.87ppm; 21.95ppm) and LC 99 (53.05ppm; 90.06ppm) values against both the larvae and adults of R. (B.) microplus. The oviposition inhibiting ability of various compounds was determined to assess the reproductive performance of adult female ticks. The DN-Ag NPs had potent oviposition inhibitory activity with significantly lower IC 50 and IC 99 values compared to the rest of the treatments at 0.034 and 51.07ppm respectively. These results showed that the DN-Ag NPs had significant acaricidal activity against R. (B.) microplus. Copyright © 2017

  8. Production of the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with deltamethrin increases toxicity towards mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreau, G; Patil, C D; Chandor-Proust, A; Salunke, B K; Patil, S V; Després, L

    2013-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a bioinsecticide used for larval mosquito control and it represents a safe alternative to chemical insecticides. Despite its environmental safety, it is less efficient and persistent than chemical insecticides. To bypass these limitations, we propose to combine the advantages of chemical and biological insecticides by producing Bti in a medium supplemented with a chemical insecticide (DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, propoxur or temephos). Among the investigated insecticides, the addition of deltamethrin in the medium induced a higher toxicity (over 6.72-fold) of the composite deltamethrin-Bti towards mosquito larvae as compared to Bti alone. This was mainly due to the insertion of deltamethrin into the membranes of Bti spores, as evidenced by a quantification of membrane-extracted deltamethrin by HPLC. This composite larvicide is a promising tool to decrease the quantity of chemicals dispersed in the environment, to increase the efficacy of Bti and to facilitate its widespread use as a transition between chemical and biological insecticides. Further experiments are required to characterize the mechanisms that underline the incorporation of deltamethrin into Bti to optimize the production and the toxicity of this composite larvicide. This study is the first report of an increased efficacy of the mosquitocidal bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) when produced with a chemical insecticide. The results clearly demonstrate that deltamethrin is able to synergize the insecticidal activity of Bti through inclusion into spore membranes, reducing off-target and nonspecific toxicity occurring when the chemical is used alone as sprays. This new composite chemical-biological insecticide can become an invaluable tool as an intermediate between single chemical usage and the widespread use of Bti, notably in developing countries with limited financial resources for intensive mosquito control campaigns. © 2013

  9. Deltamethrin-induced testicular apoptosis in rats: the protective effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, M; Awara, W M; Nassar, S; Hawas, S

    1999-01-01

    This study is the first to examine and characterize the testicular apoptosis which might be induced due to exposure of male rats to deltamethrin. Furthermore, the role which might be played by nitric oxide (NO), as well as the other reactive oxygen species (ROS) in controlling this testicular apoptosis was assessed. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA fragmentation detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and cellular morphology on testicular tissue sections. It was found that administration of deltamethrin (1 mg/kg daily for 21 days) to animals resulted in characteristic DNA migration patterns (laddering), thereby providing evidence that apoptosis is the major mechanism of cell death in the testicular tissues. In addition, histopathological examination of testicular tissue sections showed that apoptosis was confined to the basal germ cells, primary and secondary spermatocytes. These changes, in addition to the appearance of Sertoli cell vacuoles in deltamethrin-intoxicated animals, indicates the suppression of spermatogenesis. At the same time, the plasma levels of both NO and lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) were found to be significantly increased in deltamethrin-treated animals. Administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors such as N(G)-nitro monomethyl L-arginine hydrochloride (L-NMMA, 1 mg/kg) to rats 2 h before exposure to deltamethrin was effective in the reduction of the typically testicular apoptotic DNA fragmentation pattern and the associated histopathological changes. These findings may suggest that deltamethrin-induced testicular apoptosis is mediated by NO. Therefore, the pharmacological manipulation of apoptosis by selective NOS inhibitors such as L-NMMA may offer new possibilities for the control of deltamethrin-induced testicular dysfunction and infertility in the future.

  10. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kader, S.M.; Ezz El-Arab, A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 1 0 ''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 1 0t h day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  11. Feeding toxicity and impact of imidacloprid formulation and mixtures with six representative pesticides at residue concentrations on honey bee physiology (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng Zhu

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in agriculture. In this study, we used feeding methods to simulate in-hive exposures of formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL alone and mixtures with six representative pesticides for different classes. Advise, fed at 4.3 mg/L (equal to maximal residue detection of 912 ppb active ingredient [a.i.] in pollen induced 36% mortality and 56% feeding suppression after 2-week feeding. Treatments with individual Bracket (acephate, Karate (λ-cyhalothrin, Vydate (oxamyl, Domark (tetraconazole, and Roundup (glyphosate at residue level had a mortality range of 1.3-13.3%, statistically similar to that of control (P>0.05. The additive/synergistic toxicity was not detected from binary mixtures of Advise with different classes of pesticides at residue levels. The feeding of the mixture of all seven pesticides increased mortality to 53%, significantly higher than Advise only but still without synergism. Enzymatic data showed that activities of invertase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in imidacloprid-treated survivors were mostly similar to those found in control. Esterase activity mostly increased, but was significantly suppressed by Bracket (acephate. The immunity-related phenoloxidase activity in imidacloprid-treated survivors tended to be lower, but most treatments were statistically similar to the control. Increase of cytochrome P450 activity was correlated with Advise concentrations and reached significant difference at 56 mg/L (12 ppm a.i.. Our data demonstrated that residue levels of seven pesticide in pollens/hive may not adversely affect honey bees, but long term exclusive ingestion of the maximal residue levels of imidacloprid (912 ppb and sulfoxaflor (3 ppm a.i. may induce substantial bee mortality. Rotating with other insecticides is a necessary and practical way to reduce the residue level of any given pesticide.

  12. Feeding toxicity and impact of imidacloprid formulation and mixtures with six representative pesticides at residue concentrations on honey bee physiology (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Adamczyk, John; Luttrell, Randall

    2017-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in agriculture. In this study, we used feeding methods to simulate in-hive exposures of formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and mixtures with six representative pesticides for different classes. Advise, fed at 4.3 mg/L (equal to maximal residue detection of 912 ppb active ingredient [a.i.] in pollen) induced 36% mortality and 56% feeding suppression after 2-week feeding. Treatments with individual Bracket (acephate), Karate (λ-cyhalothrin), Vydate (oxamyl), Domark (tetraconazole), and Roundup (glyphosate) at residue level had a mortality range of 1.3-13.3%, statistically similar to that of control (P>0.05). The additive/synergistic toxicity was not detected from binary mixtures of Advise with different classes of pesticides at residue levels. The feeding of the mixture of all seven pesticides increased mortality to 53%, significantly higher than Advise only but still without synergism. Enzymatic data showed that activities of invertase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in imidacloprid-treated survivors were mostly similar to those found in control. Esterase activity mostly increased, but was significantly suppressed by Bracket (acephate). The immunity-related phenoloxidase activity in imidacloprid-treated survivors tended to be lower, but most treatments were statistically similar to the control. Increase of cytochrome P450 activity was correlated with Advise concentrations and reached significant difference at 56 mg/L (12 ppm a.i.). Our data demonstrated that residue levels of seven pesticide in pollens/hive may not adversely affect honey bees, but long term exclusive ingestion of the maximal residue levels of imidacloprid (912 ppb) and sulfoxaflor (3 ppm a.i.) may induce substantial bee mortality. Rotating with other insecticides is a necessary and practical way to reduce the residue level of any given pesticide.

  13. Midgut bacteria in deltamethrin-resistant, deltamethrin-susceptible, and field-caught populations of Plutella xylostella, and phenomics of the predominant midgut bacterium Enterococcus mundtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhong; Jin, Daochao; Shi, Caihua; Li, Fengliang

    2017-05-16

    Gut bacteria play a significant role in host insect. This study evaluated detail difference of midgut bacteria in deltamethrin-resistant, deltamethrin-susceptible and field-caught populations of diamondback moth, and studied phenomics of the predominant midgut bacterium Enterococcus mundtii. Cultivable bacteria revealed that E. mundtii and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum dominated the bacterial populations from deltamethrin-resistant and deltamethrin-susceptible larval midguts, whereas E. mundtii was predominant in field-caught population. Illumina sequencing analysis indicated that 97% of the midgut bacteria were from the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria. Both resistant and susceptible populations had more Enterococcus and Carnobacterium. Enterococcus, Carnobacterium, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas were predominant in the field-caught population. A phenomics analysis revealed that E. mundtii was able to metabolize 25.26% of the tested carbon sources, 100% of the nitrogen sources, 100% of the phosphorus sources and 97.14% of the sulfur sources, had a wide range of osmolytes and pH conditions, and showed active deaminase activity but no decarboxylase activity. This is the first report regarding different populations of DBM midgut bacteria analyzed using both high-throughput DNA sequencing and cultivation methods, and also first report concerning the phenomics of E. mundtii. The phenomics of E. mundtii provide a basis for the future study of gut bacteria functions.

  14. High sensitivity of Gammarus sp. juveniles to deltamethrin: outcomes for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Olivier; Degiorgi, François; Crini, Grégorio; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2010-09-01

    Amphipods from the genus Gammarus are among the most frequently used organisms in ecotoxicological testing and in situ bioindication. Because of their importance in risk assessment, it is necessary to understand the potential roles of life stage, population source and inter-specific differences on the sensitivity of these organisms to contaminants. In the present study, the acute toxicity of deltamethrin, a commonly used pyrethroid insecticide, has been tested for Gammarus fossarum and Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to document the inter- and intra-specific variability at different developmental stages. Adult G. fossarum were about two-fold more sensitive to deltamethrin than adult G. pulex, 96-h LC50 being 33.2 and 68.0 ng L(-1), respectively. However, in the same species, significant differences of sensitivity were observed between individuals from different locations. Furthermore, G. fossarum from certain localities were less sensitive to deltamethrin than certain G. pulex. In addition, juveniles of both species were about 14- to 22-fold more sensitive to deltamethrin than adults: 48-h LC50 in G. fossarum and G. pulex juveniles were 4.0 and 5.7 ng L(-1). Therefore, lethal effects of deltamethrin on Gammarus sp. populations likely depend more on juvenile response rather than on adult response. Since juveniles were also the most abundant population component, the present results show that risk assessment should consider at this developmental stage. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stage-Dependent Expression of Deltamethrin Toxicity and Resistance in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) From Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Mónica D; Picollo, María I

    2018-02-20

    Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is the main vector of Chagas disease in Latin America. This insect has been controlled with pyrethroids since the 1980s, although the emergence of resistance to deltamethrin has decreased control success in some areas of the Gran Chaco ecoregion. The response of T. infestans to deltamethrin was evaluated per developmental stage. In addition, we evaluated the possible stage-dependent expression of deltamethrin resistance. The bioassays were conducted by topical application of the insecticide in acetone. The drop size, age at the time of exposure, and mortality measuring time were standardized per stage. The lethal dose of deltamethrin moderately increased with the developmental stage. The resistance to deltamethrin was expressed in every instar, and was the highest in the fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs. While increasing, weight plays a relevant role in lethal dose stage dependency, a number of contributing factors such as degradative metabolism are probably involved in the variability of insecticide effect and resistance described for different T. infestans developmental stages. Possible explanations for these differences and their implications on resistance management and chemical control are discussed.

  16. Effects of the pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, on respiratory modulated hypoglossal motoneurons in a brain stem slice from newborn mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Theophilidis, G

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the action of deltamethrin on respiratory modulated hypoglossal motoneurons in a brain stem slice from newborn mice. Deltamethrin depolarized the hypoglossal motoneurons, increased the background synaptic noise and reduced the frequency and amplitude of current elicited action pot...

  17. The role of miR-2∼13∼71 cluster in resistance to deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Huang, Yun; Zou, Feifei; Liu, Bingqian; Tian, Mengmeng; Ye, Wenyun; Guo, Juxin; Sun, Xueli; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2017-05-01

    Excessive and continuous application of deltamethrin has resulted in the development of deltamethrin resistance among mosquitoes, which becomes a major obstacle for mosquito control. In a previous study, differentially expressed miRNAs between deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strain and deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain using illumina sequencing in Culex pipiens pallens were identified. In this study, we applied RNAi and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay to investigate the relationship between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster (miR-2, miR-13 and miR-71) and deltamethrin resistance. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure expression levels of miR-2∼13∼71 clusters. MiR-2∼13∼71 cluster was down regulated in adult female mosquitoes from the DR strain and played important roles in deltamethrin resistance through regulating target genes, CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3. Knocking down CYP9J35 and CYP325BG3 resulted in decreased mortality of DR mosquitoes. This study provides the first evidence that miRNA clusters are associated with deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes. Moreover, we investigated the regulatory networks formed between miR-2∼13∼71 cluster and its target genes, which provide a better understanding of the mechanism involved in deltamethrin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in analyzing pharmacokinetics and distribution of deltamethrin in miniature pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pan; Fan, Sai; Zou, Jian Hong; Miao, Hong; Li, Jing Guang; Zhang, Guo Wen; Wu, Yong Ning

    2014-06-01

    To characterize the pharmacokinetics and distribution profiles of deltamethrin in miniature pig tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pharmacokinetics and distribution of deltamethrin in blood and tissues of 30 miniature pigs were studied by GC-MS after oral administration of deltamethrin (5 mg/kg bw). Data were processed by 3P97 software. The serum deltamethrin level was significantly lower in tissues than in blood of miniature pigs. The AUC0-72 h, Cmax, of deltamethrin were 555.330 ± 316.987 ng h/mL and 17.861 ± 11.129 ng/mL, respectively. The Tmax, of deltamethrin was 6.004 ± 3.131 h. The metabolism of deltamethrin in miniature pigs is fit for a one-compartment model with a weighting function of 1/C2. Deltamethrin is rapidly hydrolyzed and accumulated in miniature pig tissues. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  19. Study On The Procedures For Determining Of Pesticide Residues In Green Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tat Mua; Nguyen Tien Dat; Nguyen Van Minh; Nguyen Ngoc Tuan; Le Thi Ngoc Trinh; Ta Thi Tuyet Nhung; Truong Van Tai; Tran Thanh Nha; Nguyen Thi Hong Tham

    2007-01-01

    Researches presented in this work are divided into two main parts. One part embraces the residue analytical methods. The other part comprises applying of these residue analytical methods for analysis of plant material. Part I: Residue analytical methods (Analytical procedures): Determination of Endosulphan in plant material by GC/ECD; Determination of Methamidofos in plant material by GC/FTD; Determination of Deltamethrin, Cyhalothrin, Cyfluthrin in plant material by GC/ECD; Determination of Maneb in plant material by HPLC/UV; Determination of Zineb in plant material by F-AAS; Determination of Organo-Asenic and Mercury in plant material by RNAA; The limits of detection and determination (LOD, LOQ), Recovery, Efficiency, the Calibration curve are validated. Part II: Applying of Residue Analytical Methods for analysis of endosulphan, methamidofos, maneb, zineb, cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, metallo-organic compounds in Spinach, Cabbage, Pimento, Japanese Bean, Japanese Pumpkin, Tomato, Potato, Sweet Potato. The results and conclusion are present in this work. (author)

  20. Susceptibility Status of Phlebotomus Papatasi and P. Sergenti (Diptera: Psychodidae to DDT and Deltamethrin in a Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Earthquake Strike in Bam, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Oshaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has been occurred in Dehbakri County, located 46 km of Bam Dis­trict, Kerman Province since 2004–2005. Phlebotomus papatasi is an important vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmanisis (ZCL as well as sand fly fever and P. sergenti is considered as main vector of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in Iran. There are several measures for vector control with emphasizing on insecticides. The objective of this study was to determine the baseline susceptibility of leishmaniasis vectors to the DDT and del­tamethrin in an endemic focus of CL in southern Iran.Methods: Baseline susceptibility tests were carried out on field collected strains of P. papatasi and P. sergenti and tested with WHO impregnated papers with DDT 4.0% and deltamethrin 0.05% in the focus of disease in Dehbakri County during summer 2010. The values of LT50 and LT90 were determined using probit analysis and regression lines.Results: The LT50 value of DDT 4.0% and deltamethrin 0.05% against P. papatasi was 20.6 and 13.6 minutes re­spectively. The same data for P. sergenti were ranged between 21.8 and 17.7 minutes.Conclusion: The results of tests will provide a guideline for implementation of vector control using pesticides such as impregnated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and fogging.

  1. Efeito de repelência do inseticida deltamethrin sobre insetos de raças resistentes e suscetíveis de Rhyzopertha dominica (F. (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em grãos de trigo armazenado Repellency of deltamethrin against resistant and susceptible insects of strains of Rhyzopertha dominica (F. (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenara Beckel

    2005-12-01

    . The insects were collected in storage units and maintained in laboratory. One hundred insects were released in the bottom of a plastic pot containing untreated wheat grain connected to another pot of same size containing wheat grain treated with LC5, LC25, LC50, separately, for each strain, replicated four times. The pots were kept horizontally in order to let the insects to move freely between the two compartments, at 25±1ºC and 60±5% of temperature and relative humidity, respectively. The assessment of insect distribution in the pots was performed 12 days after the releasing. The insects avoided the treated grain at all concentrations, meaning that the insecticide presents an effect of repellency against the insects. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the number of individuals of the susceptible strains between the treatments and the control. On the other hand, the resistant strains showed higher response to deltamethrin than the susceptible insects, especially at higher concentrations. The study of such behavior is fundamental for decision making in resistance management programs of stored product insects.

  2. Photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin-effect of copper amendment and solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Saadia Rashid; Ahmed, Dildar; Farooq, Amna; Rasheed, Sonia; Mansoor, Mubarkah

    2017-02-01

    The photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin was studied in the presence of Cu salts and two different solvents, methanol and acetonitrile. Results of the study showed that in the absence of any metal salt, the two pesticides degraded more rapidly in acetonitrile than in methanol. After 24 h of UV irradiation, 70% of deltamethrin had degraded in acetonitrile, while only 41% bifenthrin degraded in this solvent. In methanol, bifenthrin degraded at a much enhanced rate than in acetonitrile while the rate of degradation of deltamethrin was comparable to that in acetonitrile. The photodegradation was further enhanced by the addition of copper to the solution of bifenthrin and deltamethrin in acetonitrile. The rate of photodegradation of deltamethrin increased from 2.4 × 10 -2 to 3.5 × 10 -2  h -1 in acetonitrile and 2.5 × 10 -2 to 3.4 × 10 -2  h -1 in methanol after the addition of copper. Similarly, the rate of photodegradation of bifenthrin was increased from 5.0 × 10 -3 to 9.0 × 10 -3  h -1 in acetonitrile and 7.0 × 10 -3 to 9.05 × 10 -3  h -1 in methanol with the addition of copper. Thus, copper has the potential to enhance the photodegradation of bifenthrin and deltamethrin in both the solvents.

  3. Determination of the Residual Anthracene Concentration in Cultures of Haloalkalitolerant Actinomycetes by Excitation Fluorescence, Emission Fluorescence, and Synchronous Fluorescence: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna del Carmen Lara-Severino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are compounds that can be quantified by fluorescence due to their high quantum yield. Haloalkalitolerant bacteria tolerate wide concentration ranges of NaCl and pH. They are potentially useful in the PAHs bioremediation of saline environments. However, it is known that salinity of the sample affects fluorescence signal regardless of the method. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study based on the sensitivity, linearity, and detection limits of the excitation, emission, and synchronous fluorescence methods, during the quantification of the residual anthracene concentration from the following haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes cultures Kocuria rosea, Kocuria palustris, Microbacterium testaceum, and 4 strains of Nocardia farcinica, in order to establish the proper fluorescence method to study the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinobacteria. The study demonstrated statistical differences among the strains and among the fluorescence methods regarding the anthracene residual concentration. The results showed that excitation and emission fluorescence methods performed very similarly but sensitivity in excitation fluorescence is slightly higher. Synchronous fluorescence using Δλ=150 nm is not the most convenient method. Therefore we propose the excitation fluorescence as the fluorescence method to be used in the study of the PAHs biodegrading capacity of haloalkalitolerant actinomycetes.

  4. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  5. Residual radionuclide concentrations and estimated radiation doses at the former French nuclear weapons test sites in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, P R; Moreno, J; Makarewicz, M; Louvat, D

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the level of residual radioactivity and evaluate the radiological conditions at the former French nuclear testing sites of Reggane and Taourirt Tan Afella in the south of Algeria, the International Atomic Energy Agency, at the request of the government of Algeria, conducted a field mission to the sites in 1999. At these locations, France conducted a number of nuclear tests in the early 1960s. At the ground zero locality of the ''Gerboise Blanche'' atmospheric test (Reggane) and in the vicinity of a tunnel where radioactive lava was ejected during a poorly contained explosion (Taourirt Tan Afella), non-negligible levels of radioactive material could still be measured. Using the information collected and using realistic potential exposure scenarios, radiation doses to potential occupants and visitors to the sites were estimated.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos exposed to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Tsung-Cheng; Hsu, Li-Sung; Kao, Chin-Ming; Hsu, Tung-Wei; Liao, Hung-Yu; Wang, Kuan-Yi; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2017-05-01

    Deltamethrin (DTM), a type II pyrethroid, is one of the most commonly used insecticides. The increased use of pyrethroid leads to potential adverse effects, particularly in sensitive populations such as children and pregnant women. None of the related studies was focused on the transcriptome responses in zebrafish embryos after treatment with DTM; therefore, RNA-seq, a high-throughput method, was performed to analyze the global expression of differential expressed genes (DEGs) in zebrafish embryos treated with DTM (40 and 80 μg/L) from fertilization to 48 h postfertilization (hpf) as compared with that in the control group (without DTM treatment). Two cDNA libraries were generated from treated embryos and one cDNA library from nontreated embryos, respectively. Over 92% of reads mapped to the reference in these three libraries. It was observed that many differential genes were expressed in comparison with embryos before and after DTM. The 20 most differentially expressed upregulated or downregulated genes were majorly involved in the signaling transduction. Validation of selected nine genes expression using qRT-PCR confirmed RNA-seq results. The transcriptome sequences were further subjected to gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, showing G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, respectively, were most enriched. The data from this study contributed to a better understanding of the potential consequences of fish exposed to DTM, to an evaluation of the potential threat of DTM to fish populations in aquatic environments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1548-1557, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Differential state-dependent modification of rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Bingjun [College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Soderlund, David M., E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu [Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}1 and {beta}2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent 'late' currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were {approx} 25 mV for tefluthrin and {approx} 20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of {approx} 5-10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Na{sub v}1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by {approx} 2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Na{sub v}1.6 channels

  8. Pesticide residue concentration in soil following conventional and Low-Input Crop Management in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem, in Central Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasali, Helen, E-mail: e.karassali@bpi.gr [Laboratory of Chemical Control of Pesticides, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece); Marousopoulou, Anna [Laboratory of Chemical Control of Pesticides, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece); Machera, Kyriaki, E-mail: k.machera@bpi.gr [Laboratory of Pesticides Toxicology, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece)

    2016-01-15

    The present study was focused on the comparative evaluation of pesticide residues, determined in soil samples from Kopaida region, Greece before and after the implementation of Low-Input Crop Management (LCM) protocols. LCM has been suggested as an environmental friendly plant protection approach to be applied on crops growing in vulnerable to pollution ecosystems, with special focus on the site specific problems. In the case of the specific pilot area, the vulnerability was mainly related to the pollution of water bodies from agrochemicals attributed to diffuse pollution primarily from herbicides and secondarily from insecticides. A total of sixty-six soil samples, were collected and analyzed during a three-year monitoring study and the results of the determined pesticide residues were considered for the impact evaluation of applied plant protection methodology. The LCM was developed and applied in the main crops growing in the pilot area i.e. cotton, maize and industrial tomato. Herbicides active ingredients such as ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, S-metolachlor and fluometuron were detected in most samples at various concentrations. Ethalfluralin, which was the active ingredient present in the majority of the samples ranged from 0.01 μg g{sup −1} to 0.26 μg g{sup −1} soil dry weight. However, the amount of herbicides measured after the implementation of LCM for two cropping periods, was reduced by more than 75% in all cases. The method of analysis was based on the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds by mechanical shaking, followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometric and gas chromatography electron capture (LC–MS/MS and GC–ECD) analysis. - Highlights: • Effect of Low Input Crop Management (LCM) in a vulnerable to pollution ecosystem. • LCM resulted in herbicide residues reduction in the range of 75 and 100% in all cases. • Conventional practices resulted in increased herbicide residues up to 18%. • Anthropogenic

  9. Real-time amplification of HLA-DQA1 for counting residual white blood cells in filtered platelet concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Reesink, Henk W.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of a conserved region of the HLA-DQA1 locus was developed and validated to assess its suitability in quantitating low levels of white blood cells (WBCs) in filtered platelet (PLT) concentrates (PCs). STUDY DESIGN AND

  10. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams - black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR - decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented

  11. Surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Accra Metropolis markets, Ghana, 2010-2012: a case study in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Paul Osei; Donkor, Augustine; Ziwu, Cephas; Dubey, Brajesh; Kingsford-Adaboh, Robert; Asante, Isaac; Nyarko, Stephen; Tawiah, Rose; Nazzah, Noble

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring of pesticide residues in food commodities of plant origin is part of the regular controls on food to safeguard consumer's health. This study reports for the first time in Ghana a 3-year (2010-2012) monitoring of pesticide contamination of fruits and vegetables and their health implications. A total of 3483 samples were purchased in notable markets within Accra Metropolis and analysed for pesticide residues, employing the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe analytical procedure. The results indicated that almost all the fruits and vegetables studied had residues above maximum residue limits (MRLs). The commodities with the greatest concentrations exceeding the European Union (EU) MRLs were long green beans (60.6%) and lettuce (57.1%) with watermelon (10%) and green pepper (8.6%) having the least. The relative occurrence of the pesticides was fenvalerate 11.3%, fenitrothion 5.6%, lambda-cyhalothrin 3.6%, dimethoate 3.2%, permethrin 2.7% and deltamethrin 2.2%. These results will serve as a baseline on which annual or other long-term studies could be compared with, thus emphasizing the need for continuous monitoring programmes to regulate trends of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables to safeguard the consumers' health.

  12. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Canan; Aktaş, Esin; Deniz, Günnur; Ünlüçerçi, Yeşim; Bayraktar, Gülsen

    2011-08-01

    Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r) on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1) at 74ºC for 9 h, (2) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC) for 30 min, (3) at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4) at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzenesulphonic acid) assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05). [MMA]r was significantly (p<0.001) higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01) lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05) for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in the polymerization process for at least 30 min and water

  13. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Bural

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1 at 74ºC for 9 h, (2 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC for 30 min, (3 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4 at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05. RESULTS: [MMA]r was significantly (p<0.001 higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01 lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05 for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. CONCLUSION: Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in

  14. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  15. Deltamethrin induced oxidative stress in kidney and brain of rats: Protective effect of Artemisia campestris essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Mongi; Badraoui, Riadh; Bouhajja, Houda; Ncir, Marwa; Rahmouni, Fatma; Grati, Malek; Jamoussi, Kamel; Feki, Abdelfattah El

    2017-10-01

    Artemisia campestris (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine in Southern Tunisia as a decoction for its antivenom, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, and antimicrobial activities. A. campestris essential oil (ACEO) was obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts, since it has beneficial and therapeutic effects. Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to deltamethrin leads to nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species including birds and fish. The present study was conducted to investigate the potential nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of ACEO against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in male rats. Deltamethrin intoxicated rats revealed a significant increase in serum kidney and brain indicators as well as creatinin, urea and uric acid levels, and AChE activity as compared to control rats. In addition, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were altered significantly in deltamethrin treated rats. These biochemical disturbances were confirmed by histological and histomorphometric changes in brain and kidney tissues. However, ACEO normalized the altered serum levels of creatinin, urea, uric acid, and AChE. Moreover, ACEO reduced deltamethrin-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress profile. Furtheremore, it reduced deltamethrin-induced histopathology and histomorphometric degeneration. It can be concluded that the protective effect of ACEO may be attributed to its antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel action of deltamethrin on membrane resistance in mammalian skeletal muscle and non-myelinated nerve fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, P J; Ray, D E

    1990-01-01

    The pyrethroids, deltamethrin and cismethrin, were assessed for their ability to change membrane conductance directly in skeletal muscle and indirectly in non-myelinated nerve fibre preparations from the rat. In diaphragm muscle fibres of the rat, input resistance was significantly increased (35%) by deltamethrin but not by cismethrin, compared with solvent alone. In perfused vagus nerve from the rat, the amplitude of the post-tetanic hyperpolarization was significantly increased (100%) by deltamethrin both in vitro and ex vivo but not by cismethrin or solvent. In both test systems the actions of deltamethrin were abolished by changing the perfusate to a low chloride solution. The enhancement of amplitude of post-tetanic hyperpolarization by deltamethrin was reversed by ivermectin, a compound known to increase the resting chloride flux in neuronal preparations. Depolarizing afterpotentials, indicative of a prolongation in sodium conductance, did not develop until 0.5-1.0 hr after the enhancement of the amplitude of post-tetanic hyperpolarization by deltamethrin in the vagus preparations. The amplitude of post-tetanic hyperpolarization was not enhanced by exposure of the vagus to veratrine. These observations reinforce the conclusion that the enhancement of post-tetanic hyperpolarization by deltamethrin is not the result of intracellular accumulation of sodium. In addition, the chloride-dependent nature of the effects of deltamethrin, in both muscle and non-myelinated nerve, suggests that they are in both cases due to a reduction in resting membrane chloride conductance. This novel action of deltamethrin would be expected to amplify the effect of prolonged sodium current and thus influence the actions on excitable membranes both directly and indirectly.

  17. Temperature influences the toxicity of deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate to the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer (Acari) and the springtail Folsomia candida (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, O O; Owojori, O J; Römbke, J

    2017-06-01

    In order to assess the influence of temperature on pesticide toxicity to soil fauna, specimens of the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and the springtail Folsomia candida were exposed in artificial soil spiked with different concentrations of three pesticides (dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin) at 20°C vs 28°C for the mites and 20°C vs 26°C for the springtails. All tests were carried out according to OECD guidelines. In the mite tests, the toxic effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on survival was about two orders of magnitude more at 28°C than at 20°C. Mite reproduction decreased in the tests with chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin by about four to five orders of magnitude at 28°C than at 20°C. (EC50 28 ° C =1.42 and 2.52mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =6.18 and 10.09mg/kg) In the collembolan tests, the toxicity of dimethoate on survival was higher at 26°C than at 20°C (LC50 26 ° C =0.17mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =0.36mg/kg), while the opposite was detected for deltamethrin (LC50 26 ° C =11.27mg/kg vs LC50 20 ° C =6.84mg/kg). No difference was found in the test with chlorpyrifos. Effects of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos on reproduction were higher at 26°C than at 20°C (EC50 26 ° C =0.11 and 0.018mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =0.29 and 0.031mg/kg respectively), but in the case of deltamethrin the opposite was observed (EC50 26 ° C =12.85mg/kg vs EC50 20 ° C =2.77mg/kg). A preliminary risk assessment of the three pesticides at the two temperature regimes based on the Toxicity Exposure Ratio (TER) approach of the European Union, shows that in general there are few different outcomes when comparing data gained at different temperatures. However, in the light of the few comparisons made data gained in temperate regions should be used with caution in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reproductive and developmental costs of deltamethrin resistance in the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Mónica Daniela; Inés Picollo, María

    2015-06-01

    Effective chemical control relies on reducing vector population size. However, insecticide selection pressure is often associated with the development of resistant populations that reduce control success. In treated areas, these resistant individuals present an adaptive advantage due to enhanced survival. Resistance can also lead to negative effects when the insecticide pressure ceases. In this study, the biological effects of deltamethrin resistance were assessed in the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans. The length of each developmental stage and complete life cycle, mating rate, and fecundity were evaluated. Susceptible and resistant insects presented similar mating rates. A reproductive cost of resistance was expressed as a lower fecundity in the resistant colony. Developmental costs in the resistant colony were in the form of a shortening of the second and third nymph stage duration and an extension of the fifth stage. A maternal effect of deltamethrin resistance is suggested as these effects were identified in resistant females and their progeny independently of the mated male's deltamethrin response. Our results suggest the presence of pleiotropic effects of deltamethrin resistance. Possible associations of these characters to other traits such as developmental delays and behavioral resistance are discussed. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Demographic effects of deltamethrin resistance in the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, M D; Picollo, M I

    2016-12-01

    Triatoma infestans (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) Klug is the main vector of Chagas disease in Latin America. Resistance to deltamethrin was reported in Argentina and recently associated with reproductive and longevity trade-offs. The objectives of the present study were to describe the demographic consequences of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans and to establish possible target stages for chemical control in susceptible and resistant colonies. A stage-classified matrix model was constructed based on the average stage length for susceptible, resistant and reciprocal matings' progeny. The differences between colonies were analysed by prospective and retrospective analysis. The life table parameters indicated reduced fecundity, fertility and population growth in resistant insects. The retrospective analysis suggested the latter was associated with lower reproductive output and increased fifth-instar nymph stage length. The prospective analysis suggested that the adult stage should be the main target for insecticide control. Although, fifth-instar nymphs should also be targeted when resistance has been detected. The presented results show demographic effects of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans. While the older stages could be the main targets for chemical control, this approach is impeded by their higher tolerance to insecticides. It is concluded that the different mode of action insecticides would be more effective than a dose increase for the control of deltamethrin-resistant T. infestans. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Daibin; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Guo, Qin; Wang, Weijie; Yu, Jing; Lv, Yuan; Lei, Zhentao; Ma, Kai; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-01-01

    Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP) in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM), which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) tool to the genome sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait.

  1. Identification of QTLs Conferring Resistance to Deltamethrin in Culex pipiens pallens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Zou

    Full Text Available Culex pipiens pallens is the most abundant Culex mosquito species in northern China and is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis and West Nile virus. Deltamethrin is an insecticide that is widely used for mosquito control, however resistance to this and other insecticides has become a major challenge in the control of vector-borne diseases that appear to be inherited quantitatively. Furthermore, the genetic basis of insecticide resistance remains poorly understood. In this study, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping of resistance to deltamethrin was conducted in F2 intercross segregation populations using bulked segregation analysis (BSA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLP in Culex pipiens pallens. A genetic linkage map covering 381 cM was constructed and a total of seven QTL responsible for resistance to deltamethrin were detected by composite interval mapping (CIM, which explained 95% of the phenotypic variance. The major QTL in linkage group 2 accounted for 62% of the variance and is worthy of further study. 12 AFLP markers in the map were cloned and the genomic locations of these marker sequences were determined by applying the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST tool to the genome sequence of the closely related Culex quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that resistance to deltamethrin is a quantitative trait under the control of a major QTL in Culex pipiens pallens. Cloning of related AFLP markers confirm the potential utility for anchoring the genetic map to the physical map. The results provide insight into the genetic architecture of the trait.

  2. Evaluation of Deltamethrin Kinetics and Dosimetry in the Maturing Rat using a PBPK Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immature rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides like deltamethrin (DLM). A companion kinetics study revealed that blood and brain levels of the neuroactive parent compound were inversely related to age in rats 10, 21, 40 and 90...

  3. Changes in Plasma Corticosterone and Catecholamine Contents Induced by Low Doses of Deltamethrin in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Sietse F. de; Gugten, Jan van der; Slangen, Jef. L.; Hijzen, Theo H.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of low doses of (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (1R)-cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate (Roussel UCLAF, Paris, France), (deltamethrin) upon sympathetic-adrenomedullary and pituitary-adrenocortical activity were investigated in rats by measuring plasma noradrenaline

  4. Impact of deltamethrin-impregnated container covers on Aedes aegypti oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA researchers are studying novel methods to control Aedes aegypti. One approach focuses on prevention of oviposition by female Ae. aegypti. In collaboration with Vestergaard Frandsen Ltd., deltamethrin-treated PermaNet® Container Covers (jar lids) were evaluated with different configurations of...

  5. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, D.B.; Biggins, D.E.; Montenieri, J.A.; Enscore, R.E.; Tanda, D.T.; Gage, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.

  6. Membrane distillation as an online concentration technique: application to the determination of pharmaceutical residues in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethard, Ken; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-04-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is presented for the first time as a real-time, online concentration technique, where the aqueous matrix is removed from the sample to enhance analyte enrichment. Therefore, MD is a universal method for a wide range of compounds and is unlike conventional membrane extractions that rely on the permeation of the solute into an extractant phase. The MD process showed excellent precision with relative standard deviation between 3% and 5%, linear calibration, and the detection limits for pharmaceutical compounds in the range of 0.01 to 20 mg L(-1) by HPLC-UV analysis. The temperature and flow rate of the feed solution were found to be important variables.

  7. Uncovering the local inelastic interactions during manufacture of ductile cast iron: How the substructure of the graphite particles can induce residual stress concentrations in the matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriollo, Tito; Hellström, Kristina; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Thorborg, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels; Hattel, Jesper

    2018-02-01

    Recent X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that plastic deformation and a residual elastic strain field can be present around the graphite particles in ductile cast iron after manufacturing, probably due to some local mismatch in thermal contraction. However, as only one component of the elastic strain tensor could be obtained from the XRD data, the shape and magnitude of the associated residual stress field have remained unknown. To compensate for this and to provide theoretical insight into this unexplored topic, a combined experimental-numerical approach is presented in this paper. First, a material equivalent to the ductile cast iron matrix is manufactured and subjected to dilatometric and high-temperature tensile tests. Subsequently, a two-scale hierarchical top-down model is devised, calibrated on the basis of the collected data and used to simulate the interaction between the graphite particles and the matrix during manufacturing of the industrial part considered in the XRD study. The model indicates that, besides the viscoplastic deformation of the matrix, the effect of the inelastic deformation of the graphite has to be considered to explain the magnitude of the XRD strain. Moreover, the model shows that the large elastic strain perturbations recorded with XRD close to the graphite-matrix interface are not artifacts due to e.g. sharp gradients in chemical composition, but correspond to residual stress concentrations induced by the conical sectors forming the internal structure of the graphite particles. In contrast to common belief, these results thus suggest that ductile cast iron parts cannot be considered, in general, as stress-free at the microstructural scale.

  8. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams--black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR--decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented for an enhanced primary treatment or, in some situations, as a main treatment. Two reactor configurations were extensively studied; accumulation system (AC) and UASB septic tank at 15, 20 and 25 degrees C. Due to long retention times in an AC reactor, far stabilisation of treated medium can be accomplished with methanisation up to 60%. The AC systems are the most suitable to apply when the volume of waste to be treated is minimal and when a direct reuse of a treated medium in agriculture is possible. Digested effluent contains both liquid and solids. In a UASB septic tank, efficient separation of solids and liquid is accomplished. The total COD removal was above 80% at 25 degrees C. The effluent contains COD and nutrients, mainly in a soluble form. The frequency of excess sludge removal is low and sludge is well stabilised due to a long accumulation time.

  9. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2006-05-05

    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  10. Can fractal methods applied to video tracking detect the effects of deltamethrin pesticide or mercury on the locomotion behavior of shrimps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; da Silva Filho, Eurípedes Alves; Neiva, Gentileza Santos Martins; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro; Tenorio, Fernanda das Chagas Angelo Mendes; da Silva, Themis de Jesus; Silva, Emerson Carlos Soares E; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque

    2017-08-01

    Shrimps can accumulate environmental toxicants and suffer behavioral changes. However, methods to quantitatively detect changes in the behavior of these shrimps are still needed. The present study aims to verify whether mathematical and fractal methods applied to video tracking can adequately describe changes in the locomotion behavior of shrimps exposed to low concentrations of toxic chemicals, such as 0.15µgL -1 deltamethrin pesticide or 10µgL -1 mercuric chloride. Results showed no change after 1min, 4, 24, and 48h of treatment. However, after 72 and 96h of treatment, both the linear methods describing the track length, mean speed, mean distance from the current to the previous track point, as well as the non-linear methods of fractal dimension (box counting or information entropy) and multifractal analysis were able to detect changes in the locomotion behavior of shrimps exposed to deltamethrin. Analysis of angular parameters of the track points vectors and lacunarity were not sensitive to those changes. None of the methods showed adverse effects to mercury exposure. These mathematical and fractal methods applicable to software represent low cost useful tools in the toxicological analyses of shrimps for quality of food, water and biomonitoring of ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of bicarbonate in platelet additive solution for apheresis platelet concentrates stored with low residual plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, Katherine; Min, Kyungyoon

    2013-03-01

    Complex platelet additive solutions (PASs) are required to store platelet (PLT) concentrates with plasma levels below 30%. Previously, apheresis PLTs stored with 5% plasma in acetate- and bicarbonate-containing PAS maintained stable pH and bicarbonate levels during 7-day storage. Due to this observation, the necessity of added bicarbonate in PAS was investigated and whether the concurrent increase in PAS pH after bicarbonate addition had any effect on PLT storage. Apheresis PLTs were stored in 5% plasma-95% high- or low-pH PAS, with or without bicarbonate (n=10 per arm). Bicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired and nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired (split from same double-dose collection). PLTs were evaluated for in vitro variables on Days 1 and 7 and up to Day 14 if the Day 7 pH was higher than 6.2. PLT pH was maintained above 7.3 to Day 14 in bicarbonate PAS PLTs while pH failures below 6.2 were observed in 4 of 10 and 2 of 10 units on Day 7 in low- and high-pH nonbicarbonate PAS arms, respectively. Day 7 in vitro variables in nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs with pH values of higher than 6.2 were comparable to Day 7 variables in bicarbonate PAS PLTs. The pH of bicarbonate PAS did have a small effect on pH and bicarbonate levels in PLT units, but did not have an effect on functional variables and metabolism. Bicarbonate was not required to maintain in vitro PLT function in 5% plasma-95% PAS, but was required as a pH buffer and increased PAS pH did not significantly contribute to this effect. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. Brain uptake of deltamethrin in rats as a function of plasma protein binding and blood-brain barrier maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraneni, Manoj; Pang, Jing; Mortuza, Tanzir B; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Cummings, Brian S; White, Catherine A; Vorhees, Charles V; Zastre, Jason; Bruckner, James V

    2017-09-01

    Pyrethroids, including permethrin and deltamethrin (DLM), are very widely used of insecticides. It was hypothesized that lower plasma binding and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of DLM in immature rats contribute to the higher brain concentrations of DLM and more pronounced neurotoxicity reported in this age group. The left brain of anesthetized adult rats was perfused for 2min via a carotid artery with 1μM 14 C-DLM in: 2-5% human serum albumin (HSA); plasma from adult and 15- and 21-d-old rats; and plasma from human donors of: birth-1 week, 1-4 weeks, 4 weeks-1 year, 1-3 years and adults. The fraction of DLM bound and brain uptake of DLM did not vary significantly with the HSA concentration nor with the age of rat or human plasma donors. One, 10 and 50μM 14 C-DLM were perfused into the left-brain of anesthetized adult, 15- and 21-d-old rats. DLM deposition in the brain was linear over this range of concentrations and inversely related to age. The results of this investigation indicate that increased BBB permeability in the youngest rats enhances brain deposition of the insecticide. Plasma protein binding of DLM in immature rats and humans is not sufficiently diminished to impact its brain uptake. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-06-01

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  14. Toxicity of pyrethroids and repellency of diethyltoluamide in two deltamethrin-resistant colonies of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Sfara

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the currrent investigation was to evaluate (a the toxicity of three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin; (b the effect of these insecticides on the locomotor activity; and (c the repellent effect of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET on two deltamethrin-resistant strains of Triatoma infestans from Argentina (El Chorro and La Toma, and one susceptible strain. The resistance ratios (RRs obtained for the La Toma strain were: > 10,769, 50.7, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The RRs for the El Chorro strain were: > 10,769, 85.8, and > 5.2 for deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and tetramethrin respectively. The hyperactivity usually caused by the three pyrethroids was in both the deltamethrin-resistant strains compared to the susceptible reference strain. No differences were observed in the repellent effect of DEET between the three groups. These results indicate that the deltamethrin-resistant insects have a cross resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin and tetramethrin, and are also resistant to the first symptom of pyrethroid poisoning (hyperactivity. However, the sensorial process related to DEET repellency does not appear to be altered.

  15. Toxicity of several contact insecticides to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations after selection with pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Andrić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to detect possible alteration in susceptibility of two field Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations (sampled in a warehouse in Nikinci and a silo in Jakovo to dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin and bifenthrin after previous selection with the LD80 of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Data from the topical application bioassays show that chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic insecticide to T. castaneum adults of the Nikinci population selected with pirimiphosmethyl and deltamethrin, while malathion was the weakest, and both selection procedures changed/reduced significantly only the toxicity of deltamethrin and bifenthrin, increasing their resistance ratios (RR at the LD50 from 1.1 to 1.8 (bifenthrin and from 0.9 to 2.2 (deltamethrin. Deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide for Jakovo adults selected with the LD80 of pirimiphosmethyl, while malathion was again the least toxic. Selection of that population had no effect on insecticide toxicity, except of malathion, which had a rise in RR at the LD50 from 26.0 to 29.8.

  16. Acute effects of deltamethrin on swimming velocity and biomarkers of the common prawn Palaemon serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristiana; Almeida, Joana; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Gravato, Carlos

    2012-11-15

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of deltamethrin on biomarkers and behavior of Palaemon serratus (common prawn), since this attempt to link different levels of biological organization will allow determining which biomarkers might be ecologically relevant and will be useful to complement the information about the effects of pesticides by using behavioral parameters. Therefore, parameters of liver antioxidant status, energy metabolism and neurotransmission were determined in different tissues of the common prawn and used to assess the effects at sub-individual level, whereas swimming velocity was used to assess the effects at the individual level. It was also investigated if the swimming velocity can be used as an endpoint in ecotoxicology bioassays and if it can be as sensitive as biomarker endpoints. Swimming velocity was significantly reduced in prawns exposed to deltamethrin, showing a lowest observed effect (LOEC) of 0.6 ng L(-1). Eye acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly increased in prawns exposed to 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 ng L(-1) deltamethrin, whereas muscle cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly increased in prawns exposed to 19 and 39 ng L(-1). On the other hand, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly increased in muscle of prawns exposed to 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 4.9 ng L(-1) deltamethrin, showing that organisms were requiring additional energy, but probably using it for detoxification processes rather than locomotion, since swimming velocity was inhibited. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly increased in the digestive gland of common prawn exposed to 19 and 39 ng L(-1) deltamethrin. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased in digestive gland of prawn exposed to 19 ng L(-1) deltamethrin. However, CAT activity decreased in digestive gland of prawn exposed to 39 ng L(-1), suggesting an antioxidant defense system failure concomitant with high levels of lipid

  17. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  18. Accounting for Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Residual Genetic Variation in Genomic Selection for Water-Soluble Carbohydrate Concentration in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovenden, Ben; Milgate, Andrew; Wade, Len J; Rebetzke, Greg J; Holland, James B

    2018-04-16

    Abiotic stress tolerance traits are often complex and recalcitrant targets for conventional breeding improvement in many crop species. This study evaluated the potential of genomic selection to predict water-soluble carbohydrate concentration (WSCC), an important drought tolerance trait, in wheat under field conditions. A panel of 358 varieties and breeding lines constrained for maturity was evaluated under rainfed and irrigated treatments across two locations and two years. Whole-genome marker profiles and factor analytic mixed models were used to generate genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for specific environments and environment groups. Additive genetic variance was smaller than residual genetic variance for WSCC, such that genotypic values were dominated by residual genetic effects rather than additive breeding values. As a result, GEBVs were not accurate predictors of genotypic values of the extant lines, but GEBVs should be reliable selection criteria to choose parents for intermating to produce new populations. The accuracy of GEBVs for untested lines was sufficient to increase predicted genetic gain from genomic selection per unit time compared to phenotypic selection if the breeding cycle is reduced by half by the use of GEBVs in off-season generations. Further, genomic prediction accuracy depended on having phenotypic data from environments with strong correlations with target production environments to build prediction models. By combining high-density marker genotypes, stress-managed field evaluations, and mixed models that model simultaneously covariances among genotypes and covariances of complex trait performance between pairs of environments, we were able to train models with good accuracy to facilitate genetic gain from genomic selection. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  19. Pesticide residue concentration in soil following conventional and Low-Input Crop Management in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem, in Central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Marousopoulou, Anna; Machera, Kyriaki

    2016-01-15

    The present study was focused on the comparative evaluation of pesticide residues, determined in soil samples from Kopaida region, Greece before and after the implementation of Low-Input Crop Management (LCM) protocols. LCM has been suggested as an environmental friendly plant protection approach to be applied on crops growing in vulnerable to pollution ecosystems, with special focus on the site specific problems. In the case of the specific pilot area, the vulnerability was mainly related to the pollution of water bodies from agrochemicals attributed to diffuse pollution primarily from herbicides and secondarily from insecticides. A total of sixty-six soil samples, were collected and analyzed during a three-year monitoring study and the results of the determined pesticide residues were considered for the impact evaluation of applied plant protection methodology. The LCM was developed and applied in the main crops growing in the pilot area i.e. cotton, maize and industrial tomato. Herbicides active ingredients such as ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, S-metolachlor and fluometuron were detected in most samples at various concentrations. Ethalfluralin, which was the active ingredient present in the majority of the samples ranged from 0.01 μg g(-1) to 0.26 μg g(-1) soil dry weight. However, the amount of herbicides measured after the implementation of LCM for two cropping periods, was reduced by more than 75% in all cases. The method of analysis was based on the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds by mechanical shaking, followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometric and gas chromatography electron capture (LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tetracycline antibiotics transfer from contaminated milk to dairy products and the effect of the skimming step and pasteurisation process on residue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna; Nowacka-Kozak, Ewelina; Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in raw milk and milk derivatives poses a threat to human health and can negatively affect the dairy industry. Therefore, the main object of this study was to investigate the transfer of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and doxycycline (DC) from raw, experimental milk contaminated with tetracyclines (TCs) to different dairy products: cream, butter, buttermilk, sour milk, whey, curd and cheese. Additionally the effect of the skimming process on TCs concentrations was tested, as well as the influence of low-temperature long-time pasteurisation. The analyses of TCs in milk and dairy products were performed by an LC-MS/MS method. In order to determine TCs residues in dairy products, an analytical method was developed with the same extraction step for all matrices. TCs molecules were inhomogenously distributed between the milk derivative fractions. The highest concentrations were determined in curd and cheese in the ranges 320-482 µg/kg and 280-561 µg/kg, respectively. Low levels of TCs in butter and whey were observed (11.8-41.2 µg/kg). TCs were found in sour milk (66.0-111 µg/kg), cream (85.0-115 µg/kg) and buttermilk (196-221 µg/kg) at much higher levels than in butter and whey, but lower than in curd and cheese. During the skimming process, the highest yield of cream was obtained after the raw milk was held at 2-8°C for 24 h. The differences in concentrations of TCs between whole milk and skimmed milk, expressed as percentages of recovery, were below 19% (recoveries in excess of 81%). The highest content was observed in milk and cream skimmed at 2-8°C. The degradation percentages for TCs during the pasteurisation process (63°C for 30 min) were below 19%.

  1. Deltamethrin Induced Alteration of Biochemical Parameters in Channa punctata, Bloch and its Amelioration by Quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Parmita; Das, Suchismita

    2017-06-01

    We tested the impacts of pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin and its amelioration by a flavonoid, quercetin, using tissue macromolecules (protein, amino acid, carbohydrate and glycogen) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) as biomarkers, on fish, Channa punctata, gill and liver. Our study proved that quercetin supplement alone, in the absence of pesticide, might be detrimental to fish health, in terms of depletion of major tissue macromolecules, but, such supplement may be beneficial to fish with pesticide associated oxidative stress. Multivariate analyses predicted that the antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were closely associated biomarkers; whereas tissue macromolecules formed a different cluster. Hence, oxidative stress biomarkers in fish can be considered a valuable tool in assessment of deltamethrin stress and its amelioration by quercetin. The work can pave the way for further research in establishing quercetin as a probable curative agent.

  2. EXTINCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL TRIATOMA INFESTANS POPULATIONS FOLLOWING CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE TO DOGS WEARING DELTAMETHRIN-TREATED COLLARS

    OpenAIRE

    REITHINGER, RICHARD; CEBALLOS, LEONARDO; STARIOLO, RAÚL; DAVIES, CLIVE R.; GÜRTLER, RICARDO E.

    2006-01-01

    Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars (DTDCs) over time on the population dynamics of Triatoma infestans, a main T. cruzi vector. Forty founder bugs of mixed life stages were allowed to colonize mud-thatched experimental huts and exposed continuously to either uncollared control dogs (N = 3) or dogs wearing DTDCs (N = 7) for a period of up to 196 days. When compared with bugs...

  3. Comparative metabolism of the pyrethroids bifenthrin and deltamethrin in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzo, L.O.; Cohen, E.; Capua, S. (The Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel))

    The fate of {sup 14}C-radiolabeled bifenthrin and deltamethrin was studied in the mite, Rhizoglyphus robini. Administered either by ingestion or by contact, both pyrethroids were efficiently metabolized, but deltamethrin was degraded to a much greater extent. The identified metabolites arise from a combination of ester cleavage, oxidation, and conjugation reactions. With {sup 14}C-acid- and {sup 14}C-alcohol-labeled bifenthrin, the free metabolites detected were the 4{prime}-hydroxy derivative of the ester, the primary ester cleavage products, the acid, and its 4{prime}-hydroxy derivative from the alcohol moiety, as well as several unidentified metabolites. Using {sup 14}C-alcohol-labeled deltamethrin, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and its 4{prime}-hydroxylated product and several unknown metabolites were detected. Conjugates comprised the bulk of total pyrethroid metabolites. In addition to ester cleavage products, the 4{prime}-hydroxylated bifenthrin was also identified. For the first time in invertebrates, a conjugated pyrethroid ester was observed.

  4. Excretion/defecation patterns in Triatoma infestans populations that are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbia, P; Calcagno, J; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2018-02-12

    Pyrethroid resistance has been detected in Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens from different areas of Argentina and Bolivia. Genes conferring resistance can have a pleiotropic effect with epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. This research studied excretion/defecation patterns in deltamethrin-resistant T. infestans in order to elucidate its biological performance, adaptive consequences and role in the transmission of Chagas' disease. One deltamethrin-susceptible strain and two deltamethrin-resistant strains were used. Fifth-instar nymphs were fed ad libitum and their defecations recorded during and after the first or second feeding in the stadium. Resistant insects began to defecate later, defecated less, showed a lower proportion of defecating individuals and lower defecation indices compared with susceptible insects during the first hour after feeding. The number of bloodmeals in the stadium did not affect the main variables determining the pattern of defecation. The present study suggests that alterations in the excretion/defecation pattern in resistant insects entail an adaptive cost and, considering only this pattern, determine a lower capacity for transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) compared with susceptible insects. © 2018 The Royal Entomological Society.

  5. Susceptibility of Triatoma brasiliensis from state of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, to the pyrethroid deltamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vieira Sonoda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After controlling Triatoma infestans in Brazil, other species of triatomine that were considered minor in the transmission of Chagas disease became important. The persistence of Triatoma brasiliensis in Northeastern Brazil, associated with reinfection of domestic environments recently sprayed with pyrethroids, may be a signal of susceptibility alteration of this species to this insecticide. Specimens of T. brasiliensis from the municipality of Tauá, state of Ceará, were captured before and one year after spraying. They were submitted to bioassays using deltamethrin. The LD50 ranged from 0.19-0.33 ng of deltamethrin/nymph. The resistance ratio among samples from Tauá varied from 1.16-1.79 in the samples captured before the spraying and 1.00-1.74 in the samples captured one year after spraying, demonstrating that the two populations were equally susceptible to deltamethrin. The small difference in susceptibility between the two captures suggests that T. brasiliensis obtained in the second capture are from new invasions of the domestic environment and that the insecticide did not select resistant individuals. Therefore, it is suggested that T. brasiliensis control be carried out supplementing the regular use of pyrethroids with complementary measures, such as improvement of the dwellings and health education.

  6. [Construction of suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-hong; Zhao, Tong-yan; Dong, Yan-de

    2006-08-01

    To construct the suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Aedes albopictus. Total RNA was extracted from the deltamethrin-resistant (R-lab) and -sensitive (S-lab) isolates, mRNA was obtained after purification. Double stranded cDNAs were synthesized after reverse transcription. Two subtractions were performed by suppression subtractive hybridization with S-lab as tester and R-lab as driver or S-lab as driver and R-lab as tester. Enriched different expressed cDNA was cloned into pMD18-T vector to construct subtractive libraries. The subtracted cDNA libraries contained 580 and 477 positive clones respectively. The PCR results of 150 clones picked randomly from each library showed that the positive ratio of constructed cDNA libraries was 93%, with a length of cDNA fragments ranged from 150bp to 750bp. The suppression subtracted cDNA library of deltamethrin-resistant Ae. albopictus is constructed.

  7. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Toumi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC and liquid chormatograhphy (LC analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc. and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg measured in the rose samples. It appears from the

  8. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-09-23

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  9. Deltamethrin-resistant German Cockroaches Are Less Sensitive to the Insect Repellents DEET and IR3535 than Non-resistant Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Sofía L; Alzogaray, Raúl A

    2018-02-05

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), is a serious worldwide pest with a considerable economical and sanitary impact. It is mainly controlled by the application of synthetic insecticides, but repeated use of these substances has promoted the appearance of resistance in cockroach populations throughout the world. The aim of this study was to compare the behavior of deltamethrin-susceptible (CIPEIN colony) and deltamethrin-resistant (JUBA and VGBA colonies) first instar nymphs exposed to the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) and ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate (IR3535). Firstly, the behavior of the nymphs was assessed in an experimental arena in the absence of repellents. The parameters Distance Traveled, Velocity, Mobility Time, and Time Spent (in each half of the arena) were quantified using an image analyser, and showed that the behavior elicited by the three colonies was similar. After this, the behavior of the nymphs was quantified in an arena, half of which had been treated with repellent. The repellency of DEET increased as a linear function of log concentration for the three colonies. DEET elicited repellency as from a concentration of 97.49 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN and JUBA colonies and 194.98 µg/cm2 for the VGBA colony. The repellency of IR3535 was weaker and started at a concentration of 389.96 µg/cm2 for the CIPEIN colony, 779.92 μg/cm2 for JUBA, and 1559.84 μg/cm2 for VGBA . Finally, nymphs were exposed to 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 DEET:IR3535 mixtures, and a synergistic effect was observed only in the CIPEIN colony. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Polychlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls in ash and soil from several industrial areas in North Vietnam: residue concentrations, profiles and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Hue; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Hoang Tung

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated benzenes (PCBzs) including penta- and hexachlorobenzene can be unintentionally formed from thermal processes in different industrial activities, and very little information is available on the contamination and emission characteristics of these new persistent organic pollutants from industries in Vietnam. In this study, contamination of PCBzs (including penta- and hexachlorobenzene, named PeCBz and HCB, respectively) and PCBs (including CB-28, 52, 101, 153, 138, 180) in fly ash, bottom ash and soil from combustion processes of waste incineration, metallurgy (steel making and zinc production) and cement production from several provinces in the Northern Vietnam, including Hai Duong, Hanoi, Bac Ninh, Hai Phong and Thai Nguyen, was preliminary investigated. The PCBzs concentrations in fly ash, bottom ash and soil ranged from 2.7 to 100 ng g(-1), from 2.7 to 159 ng g(-1) and from 0.28 to 33.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Relatively high residues of PeCBz in fly ash and bottom ash from municipal waste incinerators in some provinces from the Northern Vietnam were encountered. Total PCBs concentrations ranged from 18.0 to 8260 ng g(-1), from 1.0 to 10600 ng g(-1) and from 14.5 to 130 ng g(-1) for the fly ash, bottom ash and soil, respectively. Daily intakes of PeCBz, HCB and PCBs through soil ingestion and dermal exposure estimated for children ranged 0.33-9.93 (mean 3.14), 0.39-21.1 (mean 4.9) and 6.09-1530 ng/kg bw/day (mean 346), respectively; and these intakes were about 4.7-5.4 times higher than those estimated for adult. The intakes of PeCBz and HCB were relatively low, while those for PCBs exceeded WHO TDI for some samples.

  11. In vitro covalent binding of the pyrethroids cismethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin to rat liver homogenate and microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catinot, R.; Hoellinger, H.; Sonnier, M.; Do-Cao-Thang; Pichon, J.; Nguyen-Hoang-Nam

    1989-05-01

    Phenobarbital-induced rat liver homogenate and microsomes were used to study covalent binding of /sup 14/C-labelled (at the alcohol moiety) cismethrin, /sup 14/C-labelled (at the alcohol and acid moieties) cypermethrin, and /sup 14/C-labelled (at the alcohol and acid moieties) deltamethrin. Covalent binding was dependent on pyrethroid concentration. With liver homogenate, inhibition of esterases by tetraethylpyrophosphate and of mitochondrial respiration by rotenone or potassium cyanide only slightly altered the covalent binding level. With microsomes, inhibition of cytochrome P-450 and mixed function oxidases by carbon monoxide and piperonyl butoxide reduced the covalent binding so far as to be nearly absent. Eighty percent inhibition of epoxide hydrolase decreased the covalent binding by 50%. The comparison of data between alcohol and acid labelling of the same pyrethroid suggested that, in vitro, the whole molecule is bound to proteins and that hydrolysis can occur afterwards. The experiments stress the role of cytochrome P-450-dependent monoxygenases in the covalent binding process. (orig.).

  12. Developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of synthetic organic insecticides in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A comparative study of deltamethrin, acephate, and thiamethoxam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, XingYu; Zhang, QiuPing; Li, ShiBao; Mi, Ping; Chen, DongYan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, XiZeng

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic organic insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, neonicotinoids and other types, have the potential to alter the ecosystems and many are harmful to humans. This study examines the developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of three synthetic organic insecticides, including deltamethrin (DM), acephate (AP), and thiamethoxam (TM), using embryo-larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Results showed that DM exposure led to embryo development delay and a significant increase in embryo mortality at 24 and 48 h post-fertilization (hpf). DM and AP decreased embryo chorion surface tension at 24 hpf, along with the increase in hatching rate at 72 hpf. Moreover, DM caused ntl, shh, and krox20 misexpression in a dose-dependent manner with morphological deformities of shorter body length, smaller eyes, and larger head-body angles at 10 μg/L. TM did not show significant developmental toxicity. Furthermore, results of larval rest/wake assay indicated that DM (>0.1 μg/L) and AP (0.1 mg/L) increased activity behavior with different patterns. Interestingly, as an insect-specific pesticide, TM still could alter locomotor activity in zebrafish larvae at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/L. Our results indicate that different types of synthetic organic insecticides could create different toxicity outcomes in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the effect of selection with deltamethrin on biological parameters and detoxifying enzymes in Aedes aegypti (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gonzalez, Leslie C; Briceño, Arelis; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Villanueva-Segura, O Karina; Davila-Barboza, Jesus A; Lopez-Monroy, Beatriz; Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Selene M; Contreras-Perera, Yamili; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P; Flores, Adriana E

    2017-11-01

    Resistance to insecticides through one or several mechanisms has a cost for an insect in various parameters of its biological cycle. The present study evaluated the effect of deltamethrin on detoxifying enzymes and biological parameters in a population of Aedes aegypti selected for 15 generations. The enzyme activities of alpha- and beta-esterases, mixed-function oxidases and glutathione-S-transferases were determined during selection, along with biological parameters. Overexpression of mixed-function oxidases as a mechanism of metabolic resistance to deltamethrin was found. There were decreases in percentages of eggs hatching, pupation and age-specific survival and in total survival at the end of the selection (F 16 ). Although age-specific fecundity was not affected by selection with deltamethrin, total fertility, together with lower survival, significantly affected gross reproduction rate, gradually decreasing due to deltamethrin selection. Similarly, net reproductive rate and intrinsic growth rate were affected by selection. Alterations in life parameters could be due to the accumulation of noxious effects or deleterious genes related to detoxifying enzymes, specifically those coding for mixed-function oxidases, along with the presence of recessive alleles of the V1016I and F1534C mutations, associating deltamethrin resistance with fitness cost in Ae. aegypti. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Spinosad- and Deltamethrin-Induced Impact on Mating and Reproductive Output of the Maize Weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Mayra; Botina, Lorena L; Turchen, Leonardo M; Barbosa, Wagner F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2018-01-20

    Assessments of acute insecticide toxicity frequently focus on the lethal effects on individual arthropod pest species and populations neglecting the impacts and consequences of sublethal exposure. However, the sublethal effects of insecticides may lead to harmful, neutral, or even beneficial responses that may affect (or not) the behavior and sexual fitness of the exposed insects. Intriguingly, little is known about such effects on stored product insect pests in general and the maize weevil in particular. Thus, we assessed the sublethal effects of spinosad and deltamethrin on female mate-searching, mating behavior, progeny emergence, and grain consumption by maize weevils. Insecticide exposure did not affect the resting time, number of stops, and duration of mate-searching by female weevils, but their walking velocity was compromised. Maize weevil couples sublethally exposed to deltamethrin and spinosad exhibited altered reproductive behavior (walking, interacting, mounting, and copulating), but deltamethrin caused greater impairment. Curiously, higher grain consumption and increased progeny emergence were observed in deltamethrin-exposed insects, suggesting that this pyrethroid insecticide elicits hormesis in maize weevils that may compromise control efficacy by this compound. Although spinosad has less of an impact on weevil reproductive behavior than deltamethrin, this bioinsecticide also benefited weevil progeny emergence, but did not affect grain consumption. Therefore, our findings suggest caution using either compound, and particularly deltamethrin, for controlling the maize weevil, as they may actually favor this species population growth when in sublethal exposure requiring further assessments. The same concern may be valid for other insecticides as well, what deserves future attention. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Deltamethrin is metabolized by CYP6FU1, a cytochrome P450 associated with pyrethroid resistance, in Laodelphax striatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzaki, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla; Miah, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Peng, Yingchuan; Zhang, Haomiao; Jiang, Ling; Wu, Min; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-11-30

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are known to play a major role in metabolizing a wide range compounds. CYP6FU1 has been found to be over-expressed in a deltamethrin-resistant strain of Laodelphax striatellus. This study was conducted to express CYP6FU1 in Sf9 cells as a recombinant protein, to confirm its ability to degrade deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and traditional P450 probing substrates. Carbon monoxide difference spectrum analysis indicated that the intact CYP6FU1 protein was expressed in insect Sf9 cells. Catalytic activity tests with four traditional P450 probing substrates revealed that the expressed CYP6FU1 preferentially metabolized p-nitroanisole and ethoxyresorufin, but not ethoxycoumarin and luciferin-HEGE. The enzyme kinetic parameters were tested using p-nitroanisole. The michaelis constant (K m ) and catalytic constant (K cat ) values were 17.51 ± 4.29 µm and 0.218 ± 0.001 pmol min -1 mg -1 protein, respectively. Furthermore, CYP6FU1 activity for degradation of insecticides was tested by measuring substrate depletion and metabolite formation. The chromatogram analysis showed obvious nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent depletion of deltamethrin, and formation of the unknown metabolite. Mass spectra and the molecular docking model showed that the metabolite was 4-hydroxy-deltamethrin. However, the recombinant CYP6FU1 could not metabolize imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos. These results confirmed that the over-expressed CYP6FU1 contributes to deltamethrin resistance in L. striatellus, and p-nitroanisole might be a potential diagnostic probe for deltamethrin metabolic resistance detection and monitoring. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Susceptibility profile and metabolic mechanisms involved in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus resistant to DDT and deltamethrin in the Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Ngoagouni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main epidemic vectors of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses worldwide. Their control during epidemics relies mainly on control of larvae and adults with insecticides. Unfortunately, loss of susceptibility of both species to several insecticide classes limits the efficacy of interventions. In Africa, where Aedes-borne viruses are of growing concern, few data are available on resistance to insecticides. To fill this gap, we assessed the susceptibility to insecticides of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in the Central African Republic (CAR and studied the mechanisms of resistance. Methods Immature stages were sampled between June and September 2014 in six locations in Bangui (the capital of CAR for larval and adult bioassays according to WHO standard procedures. We also characterized DDT- and pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes molecularly and biochemically, including tests for the activities of nonspecific esterases (α and β, mixed-function oxidases, insensitive acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferases. Results Larval bioassays, carried out to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR95, suggested that both vector species were susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israeliensis and to temephos. Bioassays of adults showed susceptibility to propoxur and fenitrothion, except for one Ae. albopictus population that was suspected to be resistant to fenithrothion. None of the Ae. aegypti populations was fully susceptible to DDT. Ae. albopictus presented a similar profile to Ae. aegypti but with a lower mortality rate (41%. Possible resistance to deltamethrin was observed among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, although some were susceptible. No kdr mutations were detected in either species; however, the activity of detoxifying enzymes was higher in most populations than in the susceptible Ae. aegypti strain, confirming decreased

  17. Safety of the concurrent treatment of dogs with Bravecto (fluralaner) and Scalibor protectorband (deltamethrin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Feli M; Fisara, Petr; Allan, Mark J; Roepke, Rainer K A; Nuernberger, Martin C

    2014-03-19

    Bravecto (fluralaner; MSD Animal Health) is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs providing long-acting flea- and tick-control after a single oral dose. Scalibor Protectorband (deltamethrin; MSD Animal Health) is a collar often used to reduce sandfly feeding for leishmaniasis prevention. This study investigated the safety of the concurrent use of Bravecto and Scalibor Protectorband at the recommended dosage regimens. Throughout the study period of 24 weeks, there were no clinical findings related to the concurrent treatment with Bravecto in dogs fitted with Scalibor Protectorband at the recommended dosage regimen. Concurrent treatment with Bravecto in dogs fitted with Scalibor Protectorband is well tolerated.

  18. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan, E-mail: jan.svensson@ki.se [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergman, Ann-Charlotte [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamson, Ulf [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Blombaeck, Margareta [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallen, Hakan; Joerneskog, Gun [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent - a phenomenon called 'aspirin resistance'. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to 'aspirin resistance' in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5-10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the {alpha}-chain: {alpha}K191, {alpha}K208, {alpha}K224, {alpha}K429, {alpha}K457, {alpha}K539, {alpha}K562, in the {beta}-chain: {beta}K233, and in the {gamma}-chain: {gamma}K170 and {gamma}K273. Glycations were found at {beta}K133 and {gamma}K75, alternatively {gamma}K85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [{sup 14}C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [{sup 14}C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013-0.084 and 0.12-0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9-100 {mu}M aspirin) and physiologically (2-8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of

  19. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Jan; Bergman, Ann-Charlotte; Adamson, Ulf; Blombäck, Margareta; Wallén, Håkan; Jörneskog, Gun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. ► Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. ► The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. ► No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent – a phenomenon called “aspirin resistance”. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to “aspirin resistance” in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5–10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the α-chain: αK191, αK208, αK224, αK429, αK457, αK539, αK562, in the β-chain: βK233, and in the γ-chain: γK170 and γK273. Glycations were found at βK133 and γK75, alternatively γK85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [ 14 C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [ 14 C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013–0.084 and 0.12–0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9–100 μM aspirin) and physiologically (2–8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of fibrinogen. This may mechanistically explain why aspirin facilitates fibrin degradation. We find no support for the idea that glycation of fibrin(ogen) interferes with acetylation of

  20. Determination of pesticide residues in fruits of Nawabshah district, Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, T.; Ahmad, I.; Tahir, S.

    2011-01-01

    Eight fruit samples of apple, guava, orange, grapes, pear, persimmon, banana and pear purchased from the local markets of Nawabshah district, Sindh and residues of pesticide of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid and organochlorine (OC) (i.e., dichlorvos, fenvalerate, dimethoate, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin, mevinphos, chlorpyriphos, profenofos and dicofol) were monitored in fruit samples by Gas Chromatography (GC). All the fruit samples were found contaminated except banana and among these only apple samples were found exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL) of Codex Alimentarius Commission. (author)

  1. Combined effects of deltamethrin, temperature and salinity on oxidative stress biomarkers and acetylcholinesterase activity in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Meulder, Bertrand De; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the interactions of two abiotic factors (temperature and salinity) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid pesticide) exposure on some oxidative stress biomarkers as well as on acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). A combination of three temperatures (24, 29 and 34°C), two salinities (15 and 25 ppt), and the absence or presence of 0.1 μg L(-1) deltamethrin was applied on shrimp during 4 d under laboratory conditions. Lipid peroxidation level (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase activity (GST) were not affected by combined effect of temperature, salinity and deltamethrin in any of the studied tissues. Deltamethrin impaired other tested oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e. total glutathione (tGSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx). tGSH level significantly increased in hepatopancreas due to deltamethrin exposure mainly at 34°C, while pesticide effects on tGSH and CAT activity in gills were influenced by both temperature and salinity. In addition, GPx activity in hepatopancreas decreased after deltamethrin treatment mainly at 24°C. Finally, AChE in muscle was strongly inhibited by deltamethrin at all tested temperatures and salinities. These novel findings demonstrate that interactions between abiotic factors and a commonly used pesticide exposure should be taken into account when analyzing some widespread biomarkers in black tiger shrimp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

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    Diogo Fernandes Bellinato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP and pyrethroids (PY are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP, deltamethrin (PY, and diflubenzuron (IGR of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3. Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities.

  3. Esterase profile of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations collected from Northern India exhibiting varied susceptibility to deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Swaid; Yadav, C L; Vatsya, Stuti

    2012-11-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important ectoparasite of cattle. Chemical acaricides remain the most practical method for control of these pests. During past two decades there have been increasing reports of resistance development against synthetic pyrethroids in tick populations of this species throughout the world. A study was conducted to determine the level of susceptibility of R. (B.) microplus to deltamethrin collected from different geographical locations of northern India. LPT bioassay results revealed LC(50) values of deltamethrin ranging from 0.035 to 0.00037 % A.I. Esterase profile of the tick larval extracts using native PAGE, revealed 5 bands of esterase activity designated EST-5 to EST-1A. Inhibitory tests recognized EST-1, EST-2 and EST-3 as Acetylcholinesterases (AchEs), EST-4 and EST-5 as Carboxylesterases (CaEs). The band intensity varied between tick populations of various locations, being more intense in case of the resistant populations. An extra band of esterase activity (EST-1A) was obtained in larval extracts of ticks from 3 locations. This increased esterase activity may be involved in the resistance development in these tick populations. Acaricide resistance is a multi-factorial phenomenon, thus other causes of increased resistance like sodium channel mutation and reduced drug penetration (e.g. cuticle thickening) and behavioural changes (e.g. avoiding the pesticides) are to be tested in future in order to confirm the basic cause of the resistance development in these acaricide resistant tick populations.

  4. Adaptive response after combined treatment of human lymphocytes with deltamethrin and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Wierzewska, A.; Kaspar, E.; Krzykwa, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents results of combined treatments of human lymphocytes by deltamethrin and X-ray radiation. Cells were stimulated and incubated for twenty-four hours to ensure their growth. To the cultures selected for chemical pretreatment deltamethrin was added. After four hours the medium in all cultures had been replaced and cells were incubated for another 20 hours. Then, selected samples were irradiated with acute (1 Gy) and split (twice 0.5 Gy) doses of radiation. Doses split into two parts had two hour long intervals between irradiations. Results of radiation performed alone showed a very low frequencies of chromosome type aberrations (dicentrics and rings) and elevated frequency of fragments, tri radials and quadriradials instead. The results also showed a higher level of induced chromosome damage after a split dose than after the acute one. The frequencies of aberrations observed after irradiation of chemically pretreated cells were lower than values expected on the base of additive effect from individual treatments. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  5. Resistance of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations to Deltamethrin, Permethrin, and Temephos in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Sébastien; Lopes, Sergio; Prasetyo, Didot; Hustedt, John; Sarady, Ay Sao; Doum, Dyna; Yean, Sony; Peng, Borin; Bunleng, Sam; Leang, Rithea; Fontenille, Didier; Hii, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health concern, including 185,000 annual cases in Cambodia. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for dengue transmission and is targeted with insecticide treatments. This study characterized the insecticide resistance status of Ae aegypti from rural and urban locations. The susceptibility to temephos, permethrin, and deltamethrin of Ae aegypti was evaluated in accordance with World Health Organization instructions. All the field populations showed lower mortality rate to temephos compared with the sensitive strain with resistance ratio 50 (RR 50 ) varying from 3.3 to 33.78 and RR 90 from 4.2 to 47 compared with the sensitive strain, demonstrating a generalized resistance of larvae to the temephos in Cambodia. Ae aegypti adult populations were highly resistant to permethrin regardless of province or rural/urban classification with an average mortality of 0.02%. Seven of the 8 field populations showed resistance to deltamethrin. These results are alarming for dengue vector control, as widespread resistance may compromise the entomological impact of larval control operations. Innovative vector control tools are needed to replace ineffective pesticides in Cambodia.

  6. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Deltamethrin Barrier Sprays for Mosquito Control in Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Volkan, Josh K; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-11-07

    Mosquitoes are a nuisance and potentially transmit pathogens causing numerous diseases worldwide. Homeowners and others may hire private companies to alleviate mosquito-related issues. Here, two pyrethroids (Suspend Polyzone [deltamethrin] and Bifen Insecticide/Termiticide [bifenthrin]) were evaluated on properties in North Carolina for 23 wk from 18 May through 19 October 2015. Properties were treated using backpack mist blowers every 21 d. At 17 fixed sampling locations, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention carbon dioxide-baited traps were deployed overnight once/week for the duration of the experiment. Oviposition traps were deployed weekly at the same locations. Differences were observed in mosquito abundance between neighborhoods, treatments, and weeks and differences varied between species. Mosquito abundance was generally significantly higher in traps placed on control properties (no insecticide) compared to traps placed on treatment properties. Bifenthrin and deltamethrin showed differences from each other in efficacy, but this varied between neighborhoods and species. Future studies could test the efficacy of barrier sprays at different application frequencies and/or in conjunction with weather monitoring. Coupled with regular mosquito surveillance and using integrated pest management principles, barrier sprays can be an effective tool for suppression of mosquito populations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparative efficacy of commercial preparation of deltamethrin and cypermethrin againstOrnithodorosspp. of North Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K P; Parsani, H R

    2017-12-01

    Ticks have massive capacity of acting as vectors of numerous pathogens that affect human, livestock and pets, which owes to their medical and veterinary importance. In animals, tick infestations are much more severe than in humans. Animals can be parasitized by hundreds or even thousands of ticks, which then proliferates the effect on the host. In almost all tropical and subtropical countries like India not only the hard ticks (Ixodidae) but also the soft ticks (Agrasidae) are responsible for economic losses either by direct injuries or disease transmission. Presently used control measure for ticks is only the use of commercially available acaricide compounds which are not much satisfactory and therefore a check on efficacy of these compounds is necessary for effective control. Commercially available preparations of deltamethrin (Butox, 1.25% E.C.) and cypermethrin (Ectomin, 10% E.C.) were compared for the acaricidal activity against soft ticks, Ornithodoros moubata by using Larval Packet Test. Larval mortality was higher with Butox as compared to Ectomin. Butox elicits 70% larval mortality, at the manufacturer's recommended dosage (25 ppm) while for Ectomin, larval mortality was 38.46% at the manufacturer's recommended dosage (200 ppm). This illustrates that deltamethrin (Butox) is more effective then cypermethrin (Ectomin).

  8. Oleuropein Attenuates Deltamethrin-induced Apoptosis in Rat Cerebellar Purkinje Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalatbary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin (DM is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that can elicit neurotoxicity, and lead to apoptosis. There is accumulating evidence that oleuropein (OE has anti-apoptotic effect. This study aimed at determining the DM toxicity and anti-apoptotic effect of OE pretreatment in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Materials and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups as follow: DM treated group (12.5 mg/kg single dose, OE treated group (20 mg/kg per day, DM plus OE treated group, and vehicle group. Sections of cerebellum were taken 24 hours after deltamethrin injection and studied for histopathological and immunohistochemistry assessments. Results: Further characteristics of degeneration in Purkinje neurons were observed in DM group compared with DM plus OE group. Compared with DM group (9.56±1.69, the positive staining for Bax in Purkinje neurones decreased in DM plus OE group (2.99±0.50 but upper than OE (0.72±0.15 and vehicle (0.57±0.03 groups. Compared with DM group (0.50±0.05, the positive staining for Bcl-2 in Purkinje neurons increased in DM plus OE group (3.29±0.18 but lower than OE (4.38±0.80 and vehicle (5.87±1.93 groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DM induces apoptosis in Purkinje cells which is subsided by oleuropein.

  9. Limitations of selective deltamethrin application for triatomine control in central coastal Ecuador

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    Yumiseva César A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This year-long study evaluated the effectiveness of a strategy involving selective deltamethrin spraying and community education for control of Chagas disease vectors in domestic units located in rural communities of coastal Ecuador. Results Surveys for triatomines revealed peridomestic infestation with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Panstrongylus howardi, with infestation indices remaining high during the study (13%, 17%, and 10%, at initial, 6-month, and 12-month visits, respectively, which indicates a limitation of this strategy for triatomine population control. Infestation was found 6 and 12 months after spraying with deltamethrin. In addition, a large number of previously vector-free domestic units also were found infested at the 6- and 12-month surveys, which indicates new infestations by sylvatic triatomines. The predominance of young nymphs and adults suggests new infestation events, likely from sylvatic foci. In addition, infection with Trypanosoma cruzi was found in 65%, 21% and 29% at initial, 6-month and 12-month visits, respectively. All parasites isolated (n = 20 were identified as TcI. Conclusion New vector control strategies need to be devised and evaluated for reduction of T. cruzi transmission in this region.

  10. Excito-repellency effect of deltamethrin on triatomines under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diotaiuti Liléia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates that deltamethrin in low doses produces an excito-repellency effect on triatomines, as already observed for mosquitoes. A wooden box covered with a cloth impregnated with deltamethrin at doses of 2.5 and 5mg ai/m² was utilized for the experiment. The triatomine species studied were Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius neglectus and Triatoma sordida. Adults were released in one of the sides of the box and their position was noted in subsequent periods. The observations were realized on the day the cloth was impregnated and subsequently repeated at 30 and 60 days for T. sordida; on day 120, the remaining species were included. Insect mortality and attempts at flight from the box were also observed. Excito-repellency was evident for all species and doses up to day 120. The only species that attempted to fly was P. megistus. The excito-repellency effect may be considered as an additional advantage to the insecticide power, as it should be able to prevent the installation of new colonies by females that fly into the homes, and at the moment of the spraying, it should promote the flushing out of triatomines from the wall crevices and from other shelters.

  11. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J.; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  12. Developmental toxicity of deltamethrin and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in embryo-larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuder, Reshma Shabnam; Gundala, Harold Philip

    2018-03-05

    Synthetic pyrethroids are the major insecticides used widely in agriculture and household pest control. Deltamethrin (DM), a widely used type II pyrethroid insecticide, is a relatively potent neurotoxicant. 3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) is the major metabolite formed due to metabolism of DM. In order to illustrate the toxic response of zebrafish embryos/larvae to DM and PBA the present research was carried out. For this 4hpf embryos were treated with two concentrations of DM (100 and 200 μg/L) for 48 h and PBA (1000 and 2000 μg/L) for 96 h or 99.9% ethanol (solvent control). Early life stage parameters were observed at specified time points. DM-treated embryo/larvae exhibited increased mortality, delay in hatching time, decrease in percentage of hatched embryos, increase of heartbeat rate and decrease in blood flow; lightening of body and eye pigmentation in a dose dependent manner. Pericardial and yolk sac edema along with were also caused by DM. Along with these crooked notochord, tail deformation was noticed in hatched and unhatched embryos. In case of PBA treated embryos and larvae, increased embryos/larvae length and yolk sac size were observed. Other abnormalities like edema (yolk sac and pericardial), decreased eye and body pigmentation were also observed but in some embryos only. These were not as severe as observed in parental compound indicating that DM is more toxic than its metabolite PBA. The data contributes to a better understanding of the potential consequences of fish exposed to DM and PBA.

  13. Toxicokinetics of Deltamethrin: Dosage Dependency, Vehicle Effects, and Low-Dose Age-Equivalent Dosimetry in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortuza, Tanzir; Chen, Chen; White, Catherine A; Cummings, Brian S; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Gullick, Darren; Bruckner, James V

    2018-03-01

    There is increasing concern that infants and children may be at increased risk of neurological effects of pyrethroids, the most widely used class of insecticide. The objectives of this investigation were to (1) characterize the dose-dependent toxicokinetics (TK) of deltamethrin (DLM) for exposures ranging from environmentally relevant to acutely toxic; (2) determine the influence of an aqueous versus oil vehicle on oral absorption and bioavailability; and (3) determine whether DLM exhibits low-dose, age-equivalent internal dosimetry. Serial arterial plasma samples were obtained for 72 h from adult, male Sprague Dawley rats given 0.05-5.0 mg DLM/kg as an oral bolus in corn oil (CO). DLM exhibited linear, absorption rate-limited TK. Increases in maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and AUC∘∞ were directly proportional to the dose. Oral bioavailability was quite limited. The vehicle and its volume had modest effect on the rate and extent of systemic absorption in adult rats. Postnatal day (PND) 15, 21, and 90 (adult) rats received 0.10, 0.25, or 0.50 mg DLM/kg orally in CO and were sacrificed periodically for plasma, brain, and liver collection. Age-dependent differences between PND 15 and 90 plasma Cmax and AUC∘24 values progressively diminished as the dose decreased, but there was a lack of low dose age equivalence in these brain and liver dosimeters. Other maturational factors may account for the lack of the low-dose age equivalence in brain and liver. This investigation provides support for the premise that the relatively low metabolic capacity of immature subjects may be adequate to effectively eliminate trace amounts of DLM and other pyrethroids from the plasma.

  14. Improving yield and composition of protein concentrates from green tea residue in an agri-food supply chain: Effect of pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Krimpen, Van Marinus M.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues,

  15. ONTOGENY OF HEPATIC AND PLASMA METABOLISM OF DELTAMETHRIN IN VITRO: ROLE IN AGE-DEPENDENT ACUTE NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltamethrin is a reltively potent and widely used pyrethroid pesticide that is known to be markedly more toxic to young animals. The data presented in this paper shed light on the mechanisms for this increased sensitivity in the young. Young animals lack the ability to efficient...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR DELTAMETHRIN IN THE ADULT MALE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deltamethrin (DLT) is a Type II pyrethroid insecticide widely used in agriculture and public health. DLT is a potent neurotoxin that is primarily cleared from the body by metabolism. To better understand the dosimetry of DLT in the central nervous system, a physiologically based ...

  17. Absence of Close-Range Excitorepellent Effects in Malaria Mosquitoes Exposed to Deltamethrin-Treated Bed Nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzen, J.; Ponzio, C.A.M.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Pates Jamet, H.V.; Takken, W.

    2014-01-01

    Flight behavior of insecticide-resistant and susceptible malaria mosquitoes approaching deltamethrin-treated nets was examined using a wind tunnel. Behavior was linked to health status (dead or alive) using comparisons between outcomes from free-flight assays and standard World Health Organization

  18. Effect of deltamethrin and fluoride co-exposure on the brain antioxidant status and cholinesterase activity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adil Mehraj; Raina, Rajinder; Dubey, Nitin; Verma, Pawan Kumar

    2018-04-01

    The study evaluated the effect of commercial preparation of deltamethrin, Butox ® , and fluoride (F - ) co-exposure on the brain antioxidant status and cholinesterase activity in rats. Group A was untreated. Group B was gavaged Butox ® , providing deltamethrin at the dose rate of 1.28 mg per kg body weight per day. Group C was administered F - , as NaF, in drinking water providing 20 ppm F - . Group D received both deltamethrin and F - at the same dosages as groups B and C, respectively. Although, glutathione S-transferase activity was induced only in Butox ® alone treated group, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were inhibited in all treatment groups when compared to the control group. Elevated lipid peroxidation was observed in the groups exposed to F - . The activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was inhibited in Butox ® treated groups, whereas brain AChE activity was inhibited in all treatment groups. In conclusion, both deltamethrin (given as Butox ® ) and F - inhibit AChE activity and produce oxidative stress in brain with F - producing more oxidative damage. However, compared to the individual exposures, the co-exposure of these chemicals does not produce any exacerbated alteration in these biochemical parameters.

  19. Integrative Characterization of Toxic Response of Zebra Fish (Danio rerio) to Deltamethrin Based on AChE Activity and Behavior Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qing; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Shangge; Yang, Meiyi; Pan, Hongwei; Xu, Shiguo; Qi, Li; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2016-01-01

    In order to characterize the toxic response of zebra fish (Danio rerio) to Deltamethrin (DM), behavior strength (BS) and muscle AChE activity of zebra fish were investigated. The results showed that the average values of both BS and AChE activity showed a similarly decreased tendency as DM concentration increased, which confirmed the dose-effect relationship, and high and low levels of AChE and BS partly matched low and high levels of exposure concentrations in self-organizing map. These indicated that AChE and BS had slight different aspects of toxicity although overall trend was similar. Behavior activity suggested a possibility of reviving circadian rhythm in test organisms after exposure to the chemical in lower concentration (0.1 TU). This type of rhythm disappeared in higher concentrations (1.0 TU and 2.0 TU). Time series trend analysis of BS and AChE showed an evident time delayed effect of AChE, and a 2 h AChE inhibition delay with higher correlation coefficients (r) in different treatments was observed. It was confirmed that muscle AChE inhibition of zebra fish is a factor for swimming behavior change, though there was a 2 h delay, and other factors should be investigated to illustrate the detailed behavior response mechanism. PMID:27999812

  20. Divergent Actions of the Pyrethroid Insecticides S-Bioallethrin, Tefluthrin and Deltamethrin on Rat Nav1.6 Sodium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Soderlund, David M.

    2010-01-01

    We expressed rat Nav1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat β1 and β2 auxiliary subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, deltamethrin and tefluthrin on expressed sodium currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. S-Bioallethrin, a Type I structure, produced transient modification evident in the induction of rapidly-decaying sodium tail currents, weak resting modification (5.7% modification at 100 μM), and no further enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation by high-frequency trains of depolarizing pulses. By contrast deltamethrin, a Type II structure, produced sodium tail currents that were ~9-fold more persistent than those caused by S-bioallethrin, barely detectable resting modification (2.5% modification at 100 μM), and 3.7-fold enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation. Tefluthrin, a Type I structure with high mammalian toxicity, exhibited properties intermediate between S-bioallethrin and deltamethrin: intermediate tail current decay kinetics, much greater resting modification (14.1% at 100 μM), and 2.8-fold enhancement of resting modification upon repetitive activation. Comparison of concentration–effect data showed that repetitive depolarization increased the potency of tefluthrin ~15-fold and that tefluthrin was ~10-fold more potent than deltamethrin as a use-dependent modifier of Nav1.6 sodium channels. Concentration–effect data from parallel experiments with the rat Nav1.2 sodium channel co-expressed with the rat β1 and β2 subunits in oocytes showed that the Nav1.6 isoform was at least 15-fold more sensitive to tefluthrin and deltamethrin than the Nav1.2 isoform. These results implicate sodium channels containing the Nav1.6 isoform as potential targets for the central neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids. PMID:20624410

  1. Analysing deltamethrin susceptibility and pyrethroid esterase activity variations in sylvatic and domestic Triatoma infestans at the embryonic stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo Luis; Carvajal, Guillermo; Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia Viviana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the deltamethrin susceptibility of eggs from Triatoma infestans populations and the contribution of pyrethroid esterases to deltamethrin degradation. Insects were collected from sylvatic areas, including Veinte de Octubre and Kirus-Mayu (Bolivia) and from domiciliary areas, including El Palmar (Bolivia) and La Pista (Argentina). Deltamethrin susceptibility was determined by dose-response bioassays. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin (0.0005-1 mg/mL) were topically applied to 12-day-old eggs. Samples from El Palmar had the highest lethal dose ratio (LDR) value (44.90) compared to the susceptible reference strain (NFS), whereas the Veinte de Octubre samples had the lowest value (0.50). Pyrethroid esterases were evaluated using 7-coumaryl permethrate (7-CP) on individually homogenised eggs from each population and from NFS. The El Palmar and La Pista samples contained 40.11 and 36.64 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively, and these values were statistically similar to NFS (34.92 pmol/min/mg protein) and different from Kirus-Mayu and Veinte de Octubre (27.49 and 22.69 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively). The toxicological data indicate that the domestic populations were resistant to deltamethrin, but no statistical contribution of 7-CP esterases was observed. The sylvatic populations had similar LDR values to NFS, but lower 7-CP esterase activities. Moreover, this is the first study of the pyrethroid esterases on T. infestans eggs employing a specific substrate (7-CP). PMID:24402155

  2. Analysing deltamethrin susceptibility and pyrethroid esterase activity variations in sylvatic and domestic Triatoma infestans at the embryonic stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Luis Santo-Orihuela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the deltamethrin susceptibility of eggs from Triatoma infestans populations and the contribution of pyrethroid esterases to deltamethrin degradation. Insects were collected from sylvatic areas, including Veinte de Octubre and Kirus-Mayu (Bolivia and from domiciliary areas, including El Palmar (Bolivia and La Pista (Argentina. Deltamethrin susceptibility was determined by dose-response bioassays. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin (0.0005-1 mg/mL were topically applied to 12-day-old eggs. Samples from El Palmar had the highest lethal dose ratio (LDR value (44.90 compared to the susceptible reference strain (NFS, whereas the Veinte de Octubre samples had the lowest value (0.50. Pyrethroid esterases were evaluated using 7-coumaryl permethrate (7-CP on individually homogenised eggs from each population and from NFS. The El Palmar and La Pista samples contained 40.11 and 36.64 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively, and these values were statistically similar to NFS (34.92 pmol/min/mg protein and different from Kirus-Mayu and Veinte de Octubre (27.49 and 22.69 pmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The toxicological data indicate that the domestic populations were resistant to deltamethrin, but no statistical contribution of 7-CP esterases was observed. The sylvatic populations had similar LDR values to NFS, but lower 7-CP esterase activities. Moreover, this is the first study of the pyrethroid esterases on T. infestans eggs employing a specific substrate (7-CP.

  3. Uncovering the local inelastic interactions during manufacture of ductile cast iron: How the substructure of the graphite particles can induce residual stress concentrations in the matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Hellström, Kristina; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard

    2018-01-01

    Recent X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements have revealed that plastic deformation and a residual elastic strain field can be present around the graphite particles in ductile cast iron after manufacturing, probably due to some local mismatch in thermal contraction. However, as only one component...... of the elastic strain tensor could be obtained from the XRD data, the shape and magnitude of the associated residual stress field have remained unknown. To compensate for this and to provide theoretical insight into this unexplored topic, a combined experimental-numerical approach is presented in this paper....... First, a ma terial equivalent to the ductile cast iron matrix is manufactured and subjected to dilato- metric and high-temperature tensile tests. Subsequently, a two-scale hierarchical top-down model is devised, calibrated on the basis of the collected data and used to simulate the interaction between...

  4. In vitro and in vivo studies of Allium sativum extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in rats brain and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Saoudi, Mongi; Sellami, Hanen; Rahmouni, Fatma; Lahyani, Amina; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2017-09-18

    The present study investigated the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant capacities of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in rat's brain and kidney. The in vitro result showed that highest extraction yield was achieved with methanol (20.08%). Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract exhibited the highest total phenolic, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity. The in vivo results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase of the acetylcholinesterase level (AChE) in brain and plasma, the brain and kidney conjugated dienes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels as compared to control group. The antioxidant enzymes results showed that deltamethrin treatment induced a significantly decrease (p < 0.01) in brain and kidney antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) to control group. The co-administration of garlic extract reduced the toxic effects in brain and kidney tissues induced by deltamethrin.

  5. SPECIES DIFFERENCES IN THE IN VITRO METABOLISM OF DELTAMETHRIN AND ESFENVALERATE:DIFFERENTIAL OXIDATIVE AND HYDROLYTIC METABOLISM BY HUMANS AND RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroids are neurotoxic pesticides whose pharmacokinetic behavior plays a role in their potency. This study examined the elimination of esfenvalerate and deltamethrin from rat and human liver microsomes. A parent depletion approach in the presence andabsence of NADPH w...

  6. Control of residual carbon concentration in GaN high electron mobility transistor and realization of high-resistance GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.G. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, D.S.; Liu, Z.S.; Chen, P.; Le, L.C.; Yang, J.; Li, X.J. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, S.M.; Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H.; Yang, H. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2014-08-01

    GaN films were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under various growth conditions. The influences of MOCVD growth parameters, i.e., growth pressure, ammonia (NH{sub 3}) flux, growth temperature, trimethyl-gallium flux and H{sub 2} flux, on residual carbon concentration ([C]) were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that [C] can be effectively modulated by growth conditions. Especially, it can increase by reducing growth pressure up to two orders of magnitude. High-resistance (HR) GaN epilayer with a resistivity over 1.0 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. The mechanism of the formation of HR GaN epilayer is discussed. An Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure with a HR GaN buffer layer and an additional low-carbon GaN channel layer is presented, exhibiting a high two dimensional electron gas mobility of 1815 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • Influence of MOCVD parameters on residual carbon concentration in GaN is studied. • GaN layer with a resistivity over 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. • High electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures were prepared. • Control of residual carbon content results in HEMT with high 2-D electron gas mobility.

  7. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  8. Feeding toxicity and impact of imidacloprid formulation and mixtures with six representative pesticides at residue concentrations on honey bee physiology (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Adamczyk, John; Luttrell, Randall

    2017-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in agriculture. In this study, we used feeding methods to simulate in-hive exposures of formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and mixtures with six representative pesticides for different classes. Advise, fed at 4.3 mg/L (equal to maximal residue detection of 912 ppb active ingredient [a.i.] in pollen) induced 36% mortality and 56% feeding suppression after 2-week feeding. Treatments with individual Bracket (acephate), Karate (λ-cyhalothr...

  9. Weld Residual Stress in Corner Boxing Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi, Matsuoka; Tokuharu, Yoshii; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue damage often occurs in corner boxing welded joints because of stress concentration and residual stress. The hot spot stress approach is applicable to stress concentration. However, the number of suitable methods for estimating residual stress in welded joints is limited. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residual stress in corner boxing joints. The method of estimating residual stresses based on the inherent stress technique is presented. Residual stress measurements are per...

  10. Safety of the concurrent treatment of dogs with Bravecto™ (fluralaner) and Scalibor™ protectorband (deltamethrin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Bravecto™ (fluralaner; MSD Animal Health) is a novel systemic ectoparasiticide for dogs providing long-acting flea- and tick-control after a single oral dose. Scalibor™ Protectorband (deltamethrin; MSD Animal Health) is a collar often used to reduce sandfly feeding for leishmaniasis prevention. This study investigated the safety of the concurrent use of BravectoTM and ScaliborTM Protectorband at the recommended dosage regimens. Findings Throughout the study period of 24 weeks, there were no clinical findings related to the concurrent treatment with Bravecto™ in dogs fitted with Scalibor™ Protectorband at the recommended dosage regimen. Conclusions Concurrent treatment with Bravecto™ in dogs fitted with Scalibor™ Protectorband is well tolerated. PMID:24646450

  11. Toxicity of cypermethrin and deltamethrin insecticides on embryos and larvae of Physalaemus gracilis (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagnan, Natani; Rutkoski, Camila F; Kolcenti, Cassiane; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Macagnan, Luan P; Sturza, Paola F; Hartmann, Paulo A; Hartmann, Marilia T

    2017-09-01

    It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides. The acute toxicity test (96 h) was carried out with embryos of stage 17:18 and larvae of stages 24:25. Embryos were more resistant to both pesticides than larvae. In embryo mobility assays, we found that both pesticides caused spasmodic contractions, suggestive of neurological effects. In acute toxicity assays, we found that P. gracilis is more resistant to these insecticides than other studied species.

  12. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  13. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  14. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C.; Reid, William R.; Kells, Stephen A.; Appel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692) ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724) ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386) ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176) ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134) ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102) ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs. PMID:26463068

  15. Deltamethrin Increases Neurite Outgrowth in Cortical Neurons through Endogenous BDNF/TrkB Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Daisuke; Fukuchi, Mamoru; Katakai, Momoko; Shinoda, Yo; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Furuichi, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru; Tabuchi, Akiko; Tsuda, Masaaki

    2017-10-28

    Deltamethrin (DM), a type II pyrethroid, robustly increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) expression and has a neurotrophic effect in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. In this study, we investigated the effect of DM on neurite morphology in cultured rat cortical neurons. DM significantly increased neurite outgrowth, but this increase was abolished when the BDNF scavenger tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-Fc was added 10 min before the DM treatment. In contrast, the addition of TrkB-Fc 1 h after the treatment did not affect DM-induced neurite outgrowth. Our previous research has indicated that type II, but not type I, pyrethroids have the ability to induce Bdnf mRNA expression, but neither permethrin nor cypermethrin, which are type I and type II pyrethroids, respectively, affected neurite outgrowth in the current study. These results suggest that this effect is not due to increased Bdnf expression, and the effect is unique to DM. We previously demonstrated that calcineurin plays a role in the DM-mediated induction of Bdnf expression. However, the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 did not significantly affect DM-induced neurite outgrowth. DM-induced neurite outgrowth was abolished by U0126 and rapamycin, indicating the involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Taken together, these findings suggest that DM activates endogenous BDNF/TrkB-mediated MAPK and mTOR pathways, thereby increasing neurite outgrowth.Key words: BDNF, Deltamethrin, MAPK, mTOR, Neurite outgrowth.

  16. Glutamine Provides Effective Protection against Deltamethrin-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in Rats But Not Against Nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Ercan; Ülger, Burak Veli; İbiloğlu, İbrahim; Ekinci, Aysun; Dursun, Recep; Zengin, Yılmaz; İçer, Mustafa; Uslukaya, Ömer; Ekinci, Cenap; Güloğlu, Cahfer

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of L-glutamine (GLN) against liver and kidney injury caused by acute toxicity of deltamethrin (DLM). Material/Methods Thirty-two rats were indiscriminately separated into 4 groups with 8 rats each: control group (distilled water; 10 ml/kg, perorally [p.o.]), DLM group (35 mg/kg p.o. one dose.), GLN group (1.5 gr/kg, p.o. single dose.) and DLM (35 mg/kg p.o. one dose.) + GLN group (1.5 gr/kg, p.o. one dose after 4 hours.). Testing for total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) analyses were performed on tissue samples, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, and creatinine were analyzed on serum samples. Liver and kidney samples were histopathologically analyzed. Results The TOS level in liver was significantly higher in the DLM group than in the control group, and the level in DLM+GLN group was considerably lower than in the DLM group. The TAS level in the DLM+GLN group was considerably higher than in the control and DLM groups. The TAS level in kidney tissues was considerably lower in the DLM group than in controls, but was similar to other groups. Histopathological analyses of liver tissues established a significant difference between DLM and DLM+GLN groups in terms of grade 2 hepatic injury. However, no significant difference was found between DLM and DLM+GLN groups in terms of kidney injury. Conclusions Glutamine leads to significant improvement in deltamethrin-induced acute hepatotoxicity in terms of histopathologic results, tissue oxidative stress parameters, and serum liver function marker enzymes. PMID:25890620

  17. Overexpression of multiple detoxification genes in deltamethrin resistant Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in China.

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    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, is one of the major rice pests in Asia and has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is essential to the management of this pest. Biochemical and molecular assays were performed in this study to systematically characterize deltamethrin resistance mechanisms with laboratory-selected resistant and susceptible strains of SBPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Deltamethrin resistant strains of SBPH (JH-del were derived from a field population by continuously selections (up to 30 generations in the laboratory, while a susceptible strain (JHS was obtained from the same population by removing insecticide pressure for 30 generations. The role of detoxification enzymes in the resistance was investigated using synergism and enzyme activity assays with strains of different resistant levels. Furthermore, 71 cytochrome P450, 93 esterases and 12 glutathione-S-transferases cDNAs were cloned based on transcriptome data of a field collected population. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR screening analysis of 176 identified detoxification genes demonstrated that multiple P450 and esterase genes were overexpressed (>2-fold in JH-del strains (G4 and G30 when compared to that in JHS, and the results of quantitative PCR coincided with the semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. Target mutation at IIS3-IIS6 regions encoded by the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was ruled out for conferring the observed resistance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As the first attempt to discover genes potentially involved in SBPH pyrethroid resistance, this study putatively identified several candidate genes of detoxification enzymes that were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain, which matched the synergism and enzyme activity testing. The biochemical and molecular evidences suggest that the high level pyrethroid resistance in L. striatellus could be due to

  18. Inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance under laboratory conditions of Triatoma infestans from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; Pessoa, Grasielle D'Avila Caldas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Echeverria, Jorge Espinoza; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2015-11-16

    Over the last few decades, pyrethroid-resistant in Triatoma infestans populations have been reported, mainly on the border between Argentina and Bolivia. Understanding the genetic basis of inheritance mode and heritability of resistance to insecticides under laboratory conditions is crucial for vector management and monitoring of insecticide resistance. Currently, few studies have been performed to characterize the inheritance mode of resistance to pyrethroids in T. infestans; for this reason, the present study aims to characterize the inheritance and heritability of deltamethrin resistance in T. infestans populations from Bolivia with different toxicological profiles. Experimental crosses were performed between a susceptible (S) colony and resistant (R) and reduced susceptibility (RS) colonies in both directions (♀ x ♂ and ♂ x ♀), and inheritance mode was determined based on degree of dominance (DO) and effective dominance (D(ML)). In addition, realized heritability (h(2)) was estimated based on a resistant colony, and select pressure was performed for two generations based on the diagnostic dose (10 ng. i. a. /nymph). The F1 progeny of the experimental crosses and the selection were tested by a standard insecticide resistance bioassay. The result for DO and D(ML) (Bolivia. The lethal doses (LD50) increase from one generation to another rapidly after selection pressure with deltamethrin. This suggests that resistance is an additive and cumulative factor, mainly in highly structured populations with limited dispersal capacity, such as T. infestans. This phenomenon was demonstrated for the first time for T. infestans in the present study. These results are very important for vector control strategies in problematic areas where high resistance ratios of T. infestans have been reported.

  19. Increase in the carbohydrate content of the microalgae Spirulina in culture by nutrient starvation and the addition of residues of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Salla, Ana Cláudia; Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Seibel, Fábio Ivan; Holz, Luiz Carlos; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Non-renewable sources that will end with time are the largest part of world energy consumption, which emphasizes the necessity to develop renewable sources of energy. This necessity has created opportunities for the use of microalgae as a biofuel. The use of microalgae as a feedstock source for bioethanol production requires high yields of both biomass and carbohydrates. With mixotrophic cultures, wastewater can be used to culture algae. The aim of the study was to increase the carbohydrate content in the microalgae Spirulina with the additions of residues from the ultra and nanofiltration of whey protein. The nutrient deficit in the Zarrouk medium diluted to 20% and the addition of 2.5% of both residue types led to high carbohydrate productivity (60 mg L(-1) d(-1)). With these culture conditions, the increase in carbohydrate production in Spirulina indicated that the conditions were appropriate for use with microalgae as a feedstock in the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to deltamethrin induces oxidative stress and decreases of energy reserve in tissues of the Neotropical fruit-eating bat Artibeus lituratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jerusa Maria; Losano, Nicole Fontes; Condessa, Suellen Silva; de Freitas, Renata Maria Pereira; Cardoso, Silvia Almeida; Freitas, Mariella Bontempo; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi

    2018-02-01

    Deltamethrin (DTM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide highly used by farmers and home users. This pesticide has lipophilic properties that facilitate a high absorption and can cause toxicity in non-target organisms. During foraging, the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus are exposed to pesticides. However, the knowledge of the toxicity of pesticides on the physiology of bats is relatively scarce. This study aimed to check the toxicity of short-term exposure to low concentration of DTM on fruit-eating bat A. lituratus. After seven days of exposure to two doses of DTM (0.02 and 0.04mg/kg of papaya), the fruit bats showed an increase in the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and hyperglycemia. The liver and pectoral muscle presented oxidative stress. In the liver, the hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO) were increased as well as the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) but in a lesser extent. Yet, total lipids were increased while hepatic glycogen content is reduced. The pectoral muscle showed NO, SOD, CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl increased protein levels in both concentrations of DTM. All these results show that low doses of DTM can cause hepatic and muscular toxicity and induce changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Physiological changes caused by exposure to DTM in bats may have direct consequences in flight capacity, reproduction, and metabolism of these animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Susceptibility and resistance to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae: Triatominae in Bolivia: new discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Depickère

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is a high-endemic country for Chagas disease, for which the principal vector is Triatoma infestans (Triatominae. This is a mainly domestic species that is also found in the wild environment. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown the importance of Triatominae resistance to insecticides, especially in Bolivia. Data regarding the susceptibility/resistance of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin are presented. For the first time, domestic populations of the department of Santa Cruz were tested, showing low resistance. Although most of the wild populations were found to be susceptible to deltamethrin, three populations from three departments showed a mortality rate of less than 100%. This result is emphasised here.

  2. Identification of two novel P450 genes and their responses to deltamethrin in the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Fan, Xing; Gao, Yanling; Yang, Jing; Qian, Jin; Fan, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, found in virtually all living organisms, play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, pesticides, and plant toxins. In this study, we identified two novel cytochrome P450 genes from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus. They were named CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 (GenBank Accession Nos.: KX008607 and JQ901385, respectively) by the P450 Nomenclature Committee. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription revealed that CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 were highly expressed in the fat bodies and were differentially expressed at different larval developmental stages. Expression levels of these two cytochrome P450 genes were up-regulated by deltamethrin. Analyses of their detoxification roles using RNA interference followed by a deltamethrin bioassay showed that larvae mortalities increased by 11.4% and 21.6%, respectively, after CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 were partially silenced. These results suggest that inhibition of the novel cytochrome P450 genes CYP4M51 and CYP6AB56 could be used to increase the efficacy of cabbage moth control by deltamethrin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elleuch, Omar, E-mail: mr.omar.elleuch@gmail.com; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2015-01-28

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C–T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C–T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C–V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C–T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor.

  4. Hole traps associated with high-concentration residual carriers in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleuch, Omar; Wang, Li; Lee, Kan-Hua; Demizu, Koshiro; Ikeda, Kazuma; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    The hole traps associated with high background doping in p-type GaAsN grown by chemical beam epitaxy are studied based on the changes of carrier concentration, junction capacitance, and hole traps properties due to the annealing. The carrier concentration was increased dramatically with annealing time, based on capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurement. In addition, the temperature dependence of the junction capacitance (C–T) was increased rapidly two times. Such behavior is explained by the thermal ionization of two acceptor states. These acceptors are the main cause of high background doping in the film, since the estimated carrier concentration from C–T results explains the measured carrier concentration at room temperature using C–V method. The acceptor states became shallower after annealing, and hence their structures are thermally unstable. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) showed that the HC2 hole trap was composed of two signals, labeled HC21 and HC22. These defects correspond to the acceptor levels, as their energy levels obtained from DLTS are similar to those deduced from C–T. The capture cross sections of HC21 and HC22 are larger than those of single acceptors. In addition, their energy levels and capture cross sections change in the same way due to the annealing. This tendency suggests that HC21 and HC22 signals originate from the same defect which acts as a double acceptor

  5. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  6. Pharmacodynamic interaction of Spirulina platensis and deltamethrin in freshwater fish Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: impact on lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Nevien K M; Ghazy, Emad W; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M

    2015-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in human and many animal species, including fish. Recently, it has gained more attention in fish not only for its growth-promoting and immunomodulatory effects but also for its antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective role of two different dietary levels of SP on freshwater Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) intoxication. Spirulina was supplemented at levels of 0.5 and 1 % in the diet along with DLM at a concentration of 1.46 μg/l for 28 days. Serum biochemical parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid and creatinine, were estimated. In addition, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was analysed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analysed as antioxidant biomarkers in liver, kidney and gills. The results revealed that DLM intoxication increased serum AST, ALT, ALP, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine and tissue MDA, while decreased serum total protein and albumin as well as tissue GSH level and GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities. SP supplementation at the two tested levels enhanced all altered serum biochemical parameters as well as tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant biomarkers. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP administration could minimize DLM-induced toxic effects by its free radical scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.

  7. Radionuclide concentration variations in the fuel and residues of oil shale-fired power plants: Estimations of the radiological characteristics over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Loosaar, Jüri; Kiisk, Madis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2017-07-01

    Several multi-day samplings were conducted over a 2-year period from an oil shale-fired power plant operating with pulverized fuel type of boilers that were equipped with either novel integrated desulphurization system and bag filters or with electrostatic precipitators. Oil shale, bottom ash and fly ash samples were collected and radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series as well as 40 K were determined. The work aimed at determining possible variations in the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides within the collected samples and detect the sources of these fluctuations. During the continuous multi-day samplings, various boiler parameters were recorded as well. With couple of exceptions, no statistically significant differences were detected (significance level 0.05) between the measured radionuclide mean values in various ash samples within the same sampling. When comparing the results between multiple years and samplings, no statistically significant variations were observed between 238 U and 226 Ra values. However, there were significant differences between the values in the fly ashes when comparing 210 Pb, 40 K, 228 Ra and 232 Th values between the various samplings. In all cases the radionuclide activity concentrations in the specific fly ash remained under 100 Bq kg -1 , posing no radiological concerns when using this material as an additive in construction or building materials. Correlation analysis between the registered boiler parameters and measured radionuclide activity concentrations showed weak or no correlation. The obtained results suggest that the main sources of variations are due to the characteristics of the used fuel. The changes in the radionuclide activity concentrations between multiple years were in general rather modest. The radionuclide activity concentrations varied dominantly between 4% and 15% from the measured mean within the same sampling. The relative standard deviation was however within the same range as the

  8. Deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars have a potent anti-feeding and insecticidal effect on Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia migonei

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    John R David

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Deltamethrin-impregnated PVC dog collars were tested to assess if they were effective in protecting dogs from sand fly bites of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. migonei. A protective effect against Old World species Phlebotomus perniciosus was demonstrated before. Four dogs wearing deltamethrin collars and three dogs wearing untreated collars (not impregnated with deltamethrin were kept in separate kennels for over eight months in a village on the outskirts of Fortaleza in Ceará, Brazil. Periodically, a dog from each group was sedated, placed in a net cage for 2 h in which 150 female sand flies had been released 10-15 min before. Lu. longipalpis were used 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 27, and 35 weeks after the attachment of the collars. Lu. migonei were used 3, 7, 11, 15, 22, 26, and 36 weeks after attachment. During 35 weeks, only 4.1% (81 of 2,022 Lu. longipalpis recovered from the nets with the deltamethrin collared dogs were engorged, an anti-feeding effect of 96%. Mortality initially was over 90% and at 35 weeks was 35% with half of the sand flies dying in the first 2 h. In contrast, 83% of the 2,094 Lu. longipalpis recovered from the nets containing the untreated collared dogs were engorged and the mortality ranged from zero to 18.8% on one occasion with 1.1% dying in the first 2 h. Similar findings were found with Lu. migonei: of 2,034 sand flies recovered over this period, only 70 were engorged, an anti-feeding effect of 96.5%, and mortality ranged from 91% initially to 46% at 36 weeks. In contrast, engorgement of controls ranged from 91 to71% and a mortality ranged from 3.5 to 29.8%. These studies show that deltamethrin impregnated collars can protect dogs against Brazilian sand flies for up to eight months. Thus, they should be useful in a program to control human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. Inductions of reproduction and population growth in the generalist predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Hemiptera: Miridae) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weiwei; Xu, Qiujing; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Chen; Ge, Linquan; Yang, Guoqing; Liu, Fang

    2017-08-01

    The miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, is a significant predacious enemy of rice planthoppers. The effects of sub-lethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid on fecundity, egg hatchability, expression levels of genes associated with reproduction, and population growth in C. lividipennis were investigated. The fecundities for three pair combinations (♀ c × ♂ t , ♀ t × ♂ c and ♀ t × ♂ t ) treated with sub-lethal concentrations of the insecticides triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC 10 and LC 20 ) showed a significant increase compared to the untreated pairs (♀ c × ♂ c ). However, sub-lethal concentration treatments did not affect the egg hatchability. The ClVg expression levels of female adults exposed to triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid (LC 20 ) increased by 52.6, 48.9 and 91.2%, respectively. The ClSPATA13 expression level of adult males exposed to triazophos, deltamethrim and imidacloprid (LC 20 ) increased by 80.7, 41.3 and 48.3%, respectively. Furthermore, sub-lethal concentrations of insecticides (LC 20 ) caused increased population numbers in C. lividipennis. Sub-lethal concentrations of triazophos, deltamethrin and imidacloprid stimulated reproduction and enhanced population growth of C. lividipennis. The reproductive stimulation might result from the up-regulation of ClVg or ClSPATA13. These findings may be useful in mediating populations of planthoppers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Efficacy of ULV and thermal aerosols of deltamethrin for control of Aedes albopictus in Nice, France

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    Saïd C Boubidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultra-low volume (ULV insecticidal aerosols dispensed from vehicle-mounted cold-foggers are widely considered the method of choice for control of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus during outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya and, more recently, Zika. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been poorly studied, particularly in Europe. Nearly all published studies of ULV efficacy are bio-assays based on the mortality of caged mosquitoes. In our study we preferred to monitor the direct impact of treatments on the wild mosquito populations. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of the two widely used space spraying methods to control Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Methods We determined the susceptibility of local Ae. albopictus to deltamethrin by two methods: topical application and the “WHO Tube Test”. We used ovitraps baited with hay infusion and adult traps (B-G Sentinel baited with a patented attractant to monitor the mosquitoes in four residential areas in Nice, southern France. The impact of deltamethrin applied from vehicle-mounted ULV fogging-machines was assessed by comparing trap results in treated vs untreated areas for 5 days before and 5 days after treatment. Four trials were conducted at the maximum permitted application rate (1 g.ha-1. We also made two small-scale tests of the impact of the same insecticide dispensed from a hand-held thermal fogger. Results Susceptibility to the insecticide was high but there was no discernable change in the oviposition rate or the catch of adult female mosquitoes, nor was there any change in the parous rate. In contrast, hand-held thermal foggers were highly effective, with more than 90% reduction of both laid eggs and females. Conclusions We believe that direct monitoring of the wild mosquito populations gives a realistic assessment of the impact of treatments and suggest that the lack of efficacy is due to lack of interaction between the target mosquitoes and

  11. Protective effects of L-glutamine against toxicity of deltamethrin in the cerebral tissue

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    Varol S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sefer Varol, Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir, Mehmet Uğur Çevik, Yaşar Altun, Ibrahim Ibiloğlu, Aysun Ekinci, Aslıhan Okan Ibiloğlu, Metin Balduz, Demet Arslan, Recep Tekin, Fesih Aktar, Mehmet Ufuk Aluçlu Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey Background: Deltamethrin (DLM is a broad-spectrum synthetic dibromo-pyrethroid pesticide that is widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes. However, human exposure to the pesticide leads to neurotoxicity. Glutamine is one of the principal, free intracellular amino acids and may also be an antioxidant. This study was undertaken in order to examine the neuroprotective and antioxidant potential of L-glutamine against DLM toxicity in female Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: The rats were divided into the following groups (n=10: Group I: control (distilled water; 10 mL/kg, po one dose, Group II: L-glutamine (1.5 g/kg, po one dose, Group III: DLM (35 mg/kg, po one dose, and Group IV: DLM (35 mg/kg, po one dose and L-glutamine (1.5 g/kg, po one dose after 4 hours. Total oxidant status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-6 levels and apoptosis were evaluated in brain tissue. Results: DLM-treated animals had a significant increase in brain biochemical parameters, as well as TOS and TAS. Furthermore, the histopathological examination showed neuronal cell degeneration in the cerebral tissue. L-Glutamine treatment decreased the elevated brain levels of TOS and neuronal cell degeneration. There was no difference in tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels between the groups. Conclusion: L-Glutamine may reduce the toxic effects of DLM in the cerebral tissue through antioxidant properties. Keywords: deltamethrin, L-glutamine, rat

  12. Integrated project: Microbiological and physiological studies on the presence of residual concentrations in mineral-oil-contaminated soils after rehabilitation. Final report. Pt. 2; Mikrobiologische und physiologische Untersuchungen zur Frage der Restkonzentration bei der Sanierung mineraloelkontaminierter Boeden. Abschlussbericht. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miethe, D.; Riis, V.; Stimming, M.

    1996-01-04

    It has been known for a long time that microorganisms are able to utilise mineral oils. Today various methods are practised which exploit autochthonous microorganisms` ability to utilise mineral oils. The main problem of microbial decomposition of hydrocarbons is that mineral oil residues remain. The aim of the present research project was therefore to determine the limits of the metabolisability of the substrate and find out why residues remain. Mineral oils and residual fractions differ markedly in their decomposability. Intermediate distillates are easily decomposed to a degree of 95-97% by well-adapted consorts. For high-boiling mineral oils (bp>400 C) the degree of decomposition is approx. 60%. Extracts from contaminated sites range from 40 to 60% in their degree of decomposability. The incomplete microbial decomposition of mineral oils is mainly due to their structure. There remain chemically and thermally extremely, inert hydrocarbons (mainly aliphatic and aromatic fused-ring systems) which are either hardly metabolisable or not at all. An important factor in soils or at other contaminated sites is that some of the substrate is not available because it is bound to the matrix thus increasing the proportion of residue. The next task after examining and presenting the causes of incomplete decomposition is to minimise residual mineral oil concentrations remaining after microbial decomposition. Here the use of special surfactants or of auxiliary substrates could point a way. Project applications to this end have already been submitted to the Federal Ministry for Education and Research. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dass Mikroorganismen in der Lage sind, Mineraloele zu verwerten, ist seit langem bekannt. Verfahren, die das Potential autochthoner Mikroorganismen zur Verwertung von Mineraloelen nutzen sind Praxis. Hauptproblem beim mikrobiellen Abbau der Kohlenwasserstoffe ist das Verbleiben von Mineraloelresten. Das Ziel des Forschungsvorhabens war die Ermittlung der Grenzen

  13. Combination of diatomaceous earth and powder deltamethrin for insect control in stored corn Combinação de terra de diatomácea e deltametrina em pó para o controle de insetos em milho armazenado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Cristina Ceruti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of diatomaceous earth (DE is a very efficient insect control measure in stored grain IPM due to its low cost, easy application, reduction of active ingredient residues, lower environmental contamination and operator safety. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of different dosages of DE mixed with powder deltamethrin for controlling Sitophilus zeamais in stored corn. Samples of 100 g of clean and dry corn, in three replicates, were submitted to the following treatments: DE (Keepdry®, at the dosages of 500, 750 and 1000 g/t; powder deltamethrin (K-Obiol® at 0,5 g a.i. /t and 1,0 g a.i. /t; and combinations of the lowest and highest DE dosages with the two dosages of deltamethrin. Thirty adults of S. zeamais were placed in each vial with the treated grains and kept in environment chambers at 25ºC. Mortality was evaluated from the 1st to the 28th day. In the treatments mixing DE with deltamethrin or deltamethrin alone, the mortalyti was registered since the first day. In the treatments using only DE, the first dead insects were recorded after the 3rd day, especially in the highest dosages. After the 7th day, however, there was no statistical difference among all treatments, except for the lowest dosage of DE which reached a satisfactory control level only by the 14th day. It was concluded that treatments using DE combined with low dosages of powder deltamethrin represent an efficient control measure against S. zeamais in stored corn because insect mortality is faster than in treatments using DE alone and residues of active ingredients are much lower than using the insecticide in high dosages.O uso de terra de diatomácea (TD representa uma medida de controle importante em programas de MIP de armazenamento devido ao baixo custo, facilidade de aplicação, redução do nível de resíduos de ingrediente ativo e da contaminação ambiental e maior segurança para o operador. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a

  14. Chemical components, antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects of Artemisia campestris essential oil against deltamethrin-induced genotoxicity and oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Mongi; Ncir, Marwa; Ben Ali, Manel; Grati, Malek; Jamoussi, Kamel; Allouche, Noureddine; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of Artemisia campestris essential oil (ACEO) and the possible protective effects against deltamethrin induced hepatic toxic effects. The ACEO showed radical scavenging activity with IC50 = 47.66 ± 2.51 µg/ml, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) potential (EC50 = 5.36 ± 0.77 µg/ml), superoxide scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.175 ± 0.007 µg/ml) and ˙OH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.034 ± 0.007 µg/ml). The obtained results of phenolic profile demonstrated that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of ACEO. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 61 components in which monoterpene hydrocarbons constitute the major fraction (38.85%). In in vivo study, deltamethrin exposure caused an increase of serum AST, ALT and ALP activities, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) (measured as TBARS) and conjugated dienes markers of lipid peroxidation (LPO), while antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx) decreased significantly. Furthermore, it induces DNA damage as indicated by DNA fragmentation accompanied with severe histological changes in the liver tissues. The treatment with vitamin E or ACEO significantly improved the hepatic toxicity induced by deltamethrin. It can be concluded that vitamin E and ACEO are able to improve the hepatic oxidative damage induced by deltamethrin. Therefore, ACEO is an important product in reducing the toxic effects of deltamethrin.

  15. Additive toxic effect of deltamethrin and cadmium on hepatic, hematological, and immunological parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hasibur; Aziz, Al Thbiani; Saggu, Shalini; VanWert, Adam L; Zidan, Nahla; Saggu, Sundeep

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to natural and man-made environmental toxins concurrently can pose a greater threat to multiple organs. In the present work, we investigated interactions between deltamethrin (DM) and cadmium (Cd), whose mechanisms of action in humans are poorly understood. Albino mice were randomly divided into four groups, each containing six mice: saline as control, DM-treated, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-treated, and CdCl 2 plus DM treated. After 2 weeks of treatment biochemical and hematological effects, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, humoral-mediated immune responses, and histopathological studies were conducted. Mice exposed to DM and Cd showed a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Also, DM and Cd administration resulted in suppression of humoral immunity, erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and TLC. Histopathological evidence revealed hepatic damage, supporting the AST and ALT findings. Cd and DM exhibited an additive type of toxicity. It could be concluded that these toxins either target different cellular pathways, or the individual amounts used in this study were not enough to saturate the toxicological target, thus producing additive effects.

  16. The implication of p66shc in oxidative stress induced by deltamethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruqian; Cao, Zongfu; Wang, Yihan; Gao, Xiaobo; Luo, Haiyan; Zhang, Changyong; Ma, Shuangcheng; Ma, Xu; Jin, Hongyu; Lu, Cailing

    2017-12-25

    Deltamethrin (DLT) is effective against a broad spectrum of insects. Exposure to DLT has been demonstrated to cause oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of oxidative stress induced by DLT is little known. Groups of rats were gavaged with DLT once daily for 7 days at six dosages: 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg. The intensity of neurotoxicity and liver dysfunction caused by DLT were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. We found that DLT caused the increase of cytosolic superoxide in tissues. Western blot analysis showed that both the expression of p66shc and Ser36 phosphorylated p66shc, which were involved in ROS generation, were increased in tissues treated with DLT. Further investigation showed that DLT treatment resulted in the increase of intracellular ROS accompanied with elevated p66shc expression in different cell lines. And treatment of cells with DLT induced p66shc phosphorylation at Ser36 and the translocation of p66shc from cytoplasm to mitochondria. Moreover, the overexpression of wildtype p66shc caused the increase of DLT-mediated ROS level in SH-SY5Y cells, but cells overexpressing p66shcSer36Ala mutant plasmid had the opposite effect. And p66shc suppression by siRNA blunted DLT-mediated ROS generation. Taken together, our findings indicated p66shc mediated DLT-induced oxidative stress, which may be partly responsible for toxic effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Synergistic protective effects of ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid against subacute deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf

    2015-03-01

    Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic class II pyrethroid acaricide and insecticide widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. However, its animal and human exposure leads to nephrotoxicity. Our experimental objective was to evaluate protective effects of ceftriaxone and/or ascorbic acid against DLM-induced renal injury in male Wistar albino rats. DLM-treated animals revealed significant alterations in serum biochemical parameters related to renal injury; urea, uric acid and creatinine. There was a significant increase in renal lipid peroxidation and a significant inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. Moreover, DLM significantly reduced serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In addition, It induced serum and kidney tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Both ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid protect against DLM-induced biochemical alterations in serum and renal tissue when used alone or in combination along with DLM-intoxication. Furthermore, both ceftriaxone and ascorbic acid produced synergetic nephroprotective and antioxidant effects. Therefore, it could be concluded that ceftriaxone and/or ascorbic acid administration able to minimize the toxic effects of DLM through their free radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity.

  18. 76 FR 34937 - Amitraz, Bentazon, Bifenthrin, Chlorfenapyr, Cyfluthrin, Deltamethrin, et al

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... commodities including meat of cattle, goats, horses, pigs, and sheep at 0.1 mg/kg, milk of cattle, goats, and... salt of acifluorfen; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  19. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  20. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  1. Characterization and establishment of a reference deltamethrin and cypermethrin resistant tick line (IVRI-IV) of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Gupta, Snehil; Ajith Kumar, K G; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, Rinesh; Paul, Souvik; Fular, Ashutosh; Chigure, Gajanan; Nandi, Abhijit; Manjunathachar, H V; Mohammad, Aquil; Verma, M R; Saravanan, B C; Ray, Debdatta

    2017-05-01

    The problem of ticks and tick borne diseases is a global threat and growing reports of resistance to commonly used insecticides further aggravated the condition and demands for country specific resistance monitoring tools and possible solutions of the problem. Establishment of standard reference is prerequisite for development of monitoring tools. For studying possible role of different mechanisms involved in development of resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus population and to develop newer drug to manage the problem of resistance, a deltamethrin exposed and selected tick colony, referred to as IVRI-IV, was characterized using reference susceptible IVRI-I tick line as control. The RF values of IVRI-IV ticks against deltamethrin, cypermethrin and diazinon were determined as 194.0, 26.6, 2.86, respectively, against adults. The esterase enzyme ratios of 2.60 and 5.83 was observed using α-naphthyl and β-naphthyl acetate while glutathione S-transferase (GST) ratio was 3.77. Comparative analysis of IVRI-I and IVRI-IV carboxylesterase gene sequences revealed 13 synonymous and 5 non synonymous mutations, reported for the first time. The C190A mutation in the domain II S4-5 linker region of sodium channel gene leading to leucine to isoleucine (L64I) amino acid substitution was also detected in the IVRI-IV population. In the present study, monitorable indicators for the maintenance of the reference IVRI-IV colony, the first established deltamethrin and cypermethrin resistant tick line of India, were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation following chronic co-exposure of rats to chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin, and the beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Uchendu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic co-exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF and deltamethrin (DLT on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation and the ameliorative effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on erythrocyte fragility. Thirty-six male Wistar rats divided into six groups of six rats each were used for the study. Groups I (S/oil and II (ALA were given soya oil (2 ml/kg and ALA (60 mg/kg, respectively. Rats in group III (DLT and IV (CPF were exposed to DLT (6.25 mg/kg and CPF (4.75 mg/kg (1/20th of the previously determined LD50 of 125 mg/kg and 95 mg/kg, respectively, over a period of 48 h. Rats in group V (CPF + DLT were co-exposed to CPF (4.75 mg/kg and DLT (6.25 mg/kg, while those in group VI (ALA + CPF + DLT were pretreated with ALA (60 mg/kg and then co-exposed to CPF and DLT, 45 min later. The treatments were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 16 weeks. Blood collected at the end of the experimental period were analyzed for erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration. The study showed that chronic co-exposure to CPF and DLT resulted in an increase in erythrocyte fragility and MDA concentration which were ameliorated by supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid. The study concluded that repeated co-exposure to CPF and DLT elevated erythrocyte fragility probably due to increased lipid peroxidation, and pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid ameliorated these alterations.

  3. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40.

  4. Residual effect of lambdacyhalothrin on Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Ferro

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal residual effect and triatomine infestation rates in houses of a community fumigated with lambdcyhalothrin (Icon are reported. No mortality was observed in 5th-instar Triatoma infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on three different surfaces, one month after fumigation for a dose of 31.5 mg am/m2. However, during post-exposure observation a mortality of 60% was recorded for those insect exposed on sprayed woodboard. The results observed with mud-containing treated walls, were markedly poorer (0% of mortality. Twelve month after spraying 40% of mortality was observed on first-instar T. infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on woodboard, but lower mortality rates were observed in mud-containing materials. When the effect of deltamethrin (109 mg ai/m2 and lambdcyhalothrin (94 mg ai/m2 was compared, the former did not appear to be superior at similar loads. Both have showed a mortality rate of 30% on 5th-instar T. infestans nymphs three months post-fumigation. The dose utilized in the field fumigation was enough to get a significant (p < 0.0001 control of triatomine domestic infestation, since it was sufficient to keep 95% of the houses uninfested throughout 21 months following treatment, when compared with baseline situation. A remarkable knock-down effect on adult and nymphs forms of the insect and a high in situ mortality were observed as a result of its application, even at very low doses.

  5. Incremental impact upon malaria transmission of supplementing pyrethroid-impregnated long-lasting insecticidal nets with indoor residual spraying using pyrethroids or the organophosphate, pirimiphos methyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamainza, Busiku; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Moonga, Hawela B; Chanda, Javan; Chinula, Dingani; Mwenda, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Bennett, Adam; Seyoum, Aklilu; Killeen, Gerry F

    2016-02-18

    Long-lasting, insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the most widely accepted and applied malaria vector control methods. However, evidence that incremental impact is achieved when they are combined remains limited and inconsistent. Fourteen population clusters of approximately 1000 residents each in Zambia's Luangwa and Nyimba districts, which had high pre-existing usage rates (81.7 %) of pyrethroid-impregnated LLINs were quasi-randomly assigned to receive IRS with either of two pyrethroids, namely deltamethrin [Wetable granules (WG)] and lambdacyhalothrin [capsule suspension (CS)], with an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) or CS formulation of the organophosphate pirimiphos methyl (PM), or with no supplementary vector control measure. Diagnostic positivity of patients tested for malaria by community health workers in these clusters was surveyed longitudinally over pre- and post-treatment periods spanning 29 months, over which the treatments were allocated and re-allocated in advance of three sequential rainy seasons. Supplementation of LLINs with PM CS offered the greatest initial level of protection against malaria in the first 3 months of application (incremental protective efficacy (IPE) [95 % confidence interval (CI)] = 0.63 [CI 0.57, 0.69], P pyrethroid formulation provided protection beyond 3 months after spraying, but the protection provided by both PM formulations persisted undiminished for longer periods: 6 months for CS and 12 months for EC. The CS formulation of PM provided greater protection than the combined pyrethroid IRS formulations throughout its effective life IPE [95 % CI] = 0.79 [0.75, 0.83] over 6 months. The EC formulation of PM provided incremental protection for the first 3 months (IPE [95 % CI] = 0.23 [0.15, 0.31]) that was approximately equivalent to the two pyrethroid formulations (lambdacyhalothrin, IPE [95 % CI] = 0.31 [0.10, 0.47] and deltamethrin, IPE [95 % CI] = 0.19 [-0.01, 0.35]) but the additional

  6. Protective effects of l-glutamine against toxicity of deltamethrin in the cerebral tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Sefer; Özdemir, Hasan Hüseyin; Çevik, Mehmet Uğur; Altun, Yaşar; Ibiloğlu, Ibrahim; Ekinci, Aysun; Ibiloğlu, Aslıhan Okan; Balduz, Metin; Arslan, Demet; Tekin, Recep; Aktar, Fesih; Aluçlu, Mehmet Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Background Deltamethrin (DLM) is a broad-spectrum synthetic dibromo-pyrethroid pesticide that is widely used for agricultural and veterinary purposes. However, human exposure to the pesticide leads to neurotoxicity. Glutamine is one of the principal, free intracellular amino acids and may also be an antioxidant. This study was undertaken in order to examine the neuroprotective and antioxidant potential of l-glutamine against DLM toxicity in female Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods The rats were divided into the following groups (n=10): Group I: control (distilled water; 10 mL/kg, po one dose), Group II: l-glutamine (1.5 g/kg, po one dose), Group III: DLM (35 mg/kg, po one dose), and Group IV: DLM (35 mg/kg, po one dose) and l-glutamine (1.5 g/kg, po one dose after 4 hours). Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels and apoptosis were evaluated in brain tissue. Results DLM-treated animals had a significant increase in brain biochemical parameters, as well as TOS and TAS. Furthermore, the histopathological examination showed neuronal cell degeneration in the cerebral tissue. l-Glutamine treatment decreased the elevated brain levels of TOS and neuronal cell degeneration. There was no difference in tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels between the groups. Conclusion l-Glutamine may reduce the toxic effects of DLM in the cerebral tissue through antioxidant properties. PMID:27143900

  7. Deltamethrin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Virgin Olive Oil Consumption: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ghabaee, Davood Nasiry Zarrin; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Amiri, Fereshteh Talebpour; Lehi, Somaieh Tadayoni

    2017-11-01

    Deltamethrin (DM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which can lead to pathological effects in mammals through oxidative stress. On the other hand, virgin olive oil (VOO) is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effects of VOO against DM-induced hepatotoxicity. Thirty-six mice were randomly separated into 4 groups: vehicle group, VOO group, DM group, and DM plus VOO group. Immunohistochemistry of PARP, COX-2, and caspase-3 with the biochemical analysis of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity levels were performed in the liver samples 5 weeks after gavaging. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. The data were compared between the groups using the Tukey multiple comparison tests and the analysis of the variance. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. The malondialdehyde level in the liver was increased in the DM group (71.18±0.01), whereas it was significantly (P=0.001) decreased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (39.59±2.43). While the total antioxidant capacity level in the liver was decreased in the DM group (3.05±0.05), it was significantly increased (P=0.03) after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (3.95±0.04). A greater expression of caspase-3 (P=0.008), COX-2 (P =0.004), and PARP (P 0.006) could be detected in the DM group, while it was significantly (P=0.009) attenuated in the DM plus VOO group. Also, the degeneration of hepatocytes, which was detected in the DM group, was attenuated after VOO consumption. VOO exerted protective effects against DM-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties.

  8. Deltamethrin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Virgin Olive Oil Consumption: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khalatbary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deltamethrin (DM is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which can lead to pathological effects in mammals through oxidative stress. On the other hand, virgin olive oil (VOO is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effects of VOO against DM-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: Thirty-six mice were randomly separated into 4 groups: vehicle group, VOO group, DM group, and DM plus VOO group. Immunohistochemistry of PARP, COX-2, and caspase-3 with the biochemical analysis of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity levels were performed in the liver samples 5 weeks after gavaging. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. The data were compared between the groups using the Tukey multiple comparison tests and the analysis of the variance. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The malondialdehyde level in the liver was increased in the DM group (71.18±0.01, whereas it was significantly (P=0.001 decreased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (39.59±2.43. While the total antioxidant capacity level in the liver was decreased in the DM group (3.05±0.05, it was significantly increased (P=0.03 after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (3.95±0.04. A greater expression of caspase-3 (P=0.008, COX-2 (P =0.004, and PARP (P 0.006 could be detected in the DM group, while it was significantly (P=0.009 attenuated in the DM plus VOO group. Also, the degeneration of hepatocytes, which was detected in the DM group, was attenuated after VOO consumption. Conclusions: VOO exerted protective effects against DM-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties.

  9. Deltamethrin Resistance Mechanisms in Aedes aegypti Populations from Three French Overseas Territories Worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Dusfour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a cosmopolite mosquito, vector of arboviruses. The worldwide studies of its insecticide resistance have demonstrated a strong loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids, the major class of insecticide used for vector control. French overseas territories such as French Guiana (South America, Guadeloupe islands (Lesser Antilles as well as New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean, have encountered such resistance.We initiated a research program on the pyrethroid resistance in French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Aedes aegypti populations were tested for their deltamethrin resistance level then screened by an improved microarray developed to specifically study metabolic resistance mechanisms. Cytochrome P450 genes were implicated in conferring resistance. CYP6BB2, CYP6M11, CYP6N12, CYP9J9, CYP9J10 and CCE3 genes were upregulated in the resistant populations and were common to other populations at a regional scale. The implication of these genes in resistance phenomenon is therefore strongly suggested. Other genes from detoxification pathways were also differentially regulated. Screening for target site mutations on the voltage-gated sodium channel gene demonstrated the presence of I1016 and C1534.This study highlighted the presence of a common set of differentially up-regulated detoxifying genes, mainly cytochrome P450 genes in all three populations. GUA and GUY populations shared a higher number of those genes compared to CAL. Two kdr mutations well known to be associated to pyrethroid resistance were also detected in those two populations but not in CAL. Different selective pressures and genetic backgrounds can explain such differences. These results are also compared with those obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed in the context of integrative research on vector competence.

  10. Deltamethrin Resistance Mechanisms in Aedes aegypti Populations from Three French Overseas Territories Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusfour, Isabelle; Zorrilla, Pilar; Guidez, Amandine; Issaly, Jean; Girod, Romain; Guillaumot, Laurent; Robello, Carlos; Strode, Clare

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is a cosmopolite mosquito, vector of arboviruses. The worldwide studies of its insecticide resistance have demonstrated a strong loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids, the major class of insecticide used for vector control. French overseas territories such as French Guiana (South America), Guadeloupe islands (Lesser Antilles) as well as New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean), have encountered such resistance. We initiated a research program on the pyrethroid resistance in French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Aedes aegypti populations were tested for their deltamethrin resistance level then screened by an improved microarray developed to specifically study metabolic resistance mechanisms. Cytochrome P450 genes were implicated in conferring resistance. CYP6BB2, CYP6M11, CYP6N12, CYP9J9, CYP9J10 and CCE3 genes were upregulated in the resistant populations and were common to other populations at a regional scale. The implication of these genes in resistance phenomenon is therefore strongly suggested. Other genes from detoxification pathways were also differentially regulated. Screening for target site mutations on the voltage-gated sodium channel gene demonstrated the presence of I1016 and C1534. This study highlighted the presence of a common set of differentially up-regulated detoxifying genes, mainly cytochrome P450 genes in all three populations. GUA and GUY populations shared a higher number of those genes compared to CAL. Two kdr mutations well known to be associated to pyrethroid resistance were also detected in those two populations but not in CAL. Different selective pressures and genetic backgrounds can explain such differences. These results are also compared with those obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed in the context of integrative research on vector competence.

  11. Evaluation of the performance of a castor-oil based formulation in limiting pesticide residues in strawberry crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Galhiane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to evaluate the effect of a castor oil-based detergent on strawberry crops treated with different classes of pesticides, namely deltamethrin, folpet, tebuconazole, abamectin and mancozeb, in a controlled environment. Experimental crops of greenhouse strawberries were cultivated in five different ways with control groups using pesticides and castor oil-based detergent. The results showed that the group 2, which was treated with castor oil-based detergent, presented the lowest amount of pesticide residues and the highest quality of fruit produced.

  12. Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methoxyphenoxy) - 1, 2 - propanediol] is an alpha - adrenergic sympathomimetic agent which stimulates alpha - adrenergic receptors, producing pronounced vasoconstriction [3]. The combination of the four drugs is used for treating bronchial spasm and as antitussive. The UV absorption spectra of the four drugs display.

  13. Deltamethrin Impregnated Bed Nets in a Malaria Control Program in Chabahar, Southeast Baluchistan, I.R. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in the Chabahar District of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran on the efficacy of mosquito nets treated with a suspension formulation of deltamethrin (K-O THRIN® against malaria vectors. Treated nets were used in three villages, and in the two control villages, one used untreated nets and the other used indoor spraying with deltamethrin (WP 10%, without nets. Treatment of polyester mosquito net with a target dose of 25 mg/m2 active ingredi¬ent, carried out in mid-April 2005. Bioassays repeated on domestically used nets over 7 months showed persistence of al¬most 100% mortality of Anopheles. stephensi over this period. Adult mosquitoes were collected by pyrethroid space spray catch of living quarters and stables, cattle bait and pit shelter catches. Overall, An. culicifacies Giles s.l predominated (49.8%, followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l.(36.9%, An. pulcherrimus Theobald (7.3 %, An. dthali Patton (5.7% and An. fluviatilis James (0.3%. Acknowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP study showed that about 97% of respondents in communities agreed that they would like to participate in malaria control activities such as personal protection using im¬pregnation bed net. Therefore, in planning for future large scale trials, comparison of new compounds and formulations such as tablets and long lasting insecticides impregnated bed net is recommended.

  14. Deltamethrin Impregnated Bed Nets in a Malaria Control Program in Chabahar, Southeast Baluchistan, I.R. Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Moosa-Kazemi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out in the Chabahar District of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran on the efficacy of mosquito nets treated with a suspension formulation of deltamethrin (K-O THRIN® against malaria vectors. Treated nets were used in three villages, and in the two control villages, one used untreated nets and the other used indoor spraying with deltamethrin (WP 10%, without nets. Treatment of polyester mosquito net with a target dose of 25 mg/m2 active ingredi¬ent, carried out in mid-April 2005. Bioassays repeated on domestically used nets over 7 months showed persistence of al¬most 100% mortality of Anopheles. stephensi over this period. Adult mosquitoes were collected by pyrethroid space spray catch of living quarters and stables, cattle bait and pit shelter catches. Overall, An. culicifacies Giles s.l predominated (49.8%, followed by An. stephensi Liston s.l.(36.9%, An. pulcherrimus Theobald (7.3 %, An. dthali Patton (5.7% and An. fluviatilis James (0.3%. Acknowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP study showed that about 97% of respondents in communities agreed that they would like to participate in malaria control activities such as personal protection using im¬pregnation bed net. Therefore, in planning for future large scale trials, comparison of new compounds and formulations such as tablets and long lasting insecticides impregnated bed net is recommended.

  15. Comparison of seed yielding performance of deltamethrin unprotected and protected plants of five cowpea cultivars at Foumbot, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parh, LA.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Losses in seed yields due to damage by seed insect pests were studied on unsprayed and sprayed cowpea plants at Foumbot, located in the western highland savanna zone of Cameroon, in 1988 and 1989. Major pests recorded in the study site were Melanagromyza vignalis Spencer (Diptera : Agromyzidae, Marucatestulalis Geyer (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae, Cydia ptychora Meyrick (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae, Heliothis armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera : Aphididae, Apion species (Coleoptera : Curculionidae, Coreid bugs (Heteroptera : Coreidae, and Bruchids (Coleoptera : Bruchidae. Yields of undamaged cowpea seeds from unsprayed and sprayed plants of local cultivars acquired from Badun, Melong, Foumbot and Befang were comparable with those from MA 2/1, an improved cultivar from the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture that has been released in Cameroon by the Institute for Agronomie Research. Melanagromyza, Maruca and Coreid bugs caused 70-80 % of seed damage on unsprayed and sprayed plants. Fortnightly spraying of plants with deltamethrin at 12.5g. a. i./ha, significantly reduced yield loss due to damage by Maruca sp., the overall loss in seed yields/ha and % loss of potential seed yield, in all five cowpea cultivars used in this study. However, deltamethrin appeared ineffective in reducing seed yield loss caused by Melanagromyza and Coreid bugs.

  16. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Effectiveness of dog collars impregnated with 4% deltamethrin in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidade: Phlebotominae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Andrade, Andrey José de; Quint, Bruno Beust; Raffoul, Gabriel Elias Salmen; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2018-03-26

    There is little information on the effect of using deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of 4% deltamethrin-impregnated collars (Scalibor®) in controlling visceral leishmaniasis in Lutzomyia longipalpis by comparing populations in intervention and non-intervention areas. Phlebotomine flies were captured over 30 months in four neighbourhoods with intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in Fortaleza and Montes Claros. We calculated the rates of domicile infestation, relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis, and Lu. longipalpis distribution in each site, capture location (intra- and peridomestic locations) and area (intervention and non-intervention areas). In the control area in Fortaleza, the relative abundance of Lu. longipalpis was 415 specimens at each capture site, whereas in the intervention area it was 159.25; in Montes Claros, the relative abundance was 5,660 specimens per capture site in the control area, whereas in the intervention area it was 2,499.4. The use of dog collars was associated with a reduction in captured insects of 15% (p = 0.004) and 60% (p < 0.001) in Montes Claros and Fortaleza, respectively. We observed a lower vector abundance in the intervention areas, suggesting an effect of the insecticide-impregnated collars.

  18. Acute toxication of deltamethrin results in activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and up-regulation of caspase 3, iNOS gene expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harun; Altun, Serdar; Özdemir, Selçuk

    2017-06-01

    Deltamethrin is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid pesticide that protects agricultural yields, including crops, fruits, and vegetables from insect-pests. It is known that deltamethrin toxication leads to metabolic disorders and has detrimental effects on the brain and liver in different organisms. However, the harmful effects of deltamethrin toxication on aquatic animals remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of deltamethrin toxication by performing a histopathological examination, an immunofluorescence assay, and a qRT-PCR on common carp. We observed that a low-dose (0.04μM) and a high-dose (0.08μM) of deltamethrin exposure caused lamellar cells hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration in the gills, hyperemia, diffuse hydropic degenerations and focal necrosis in the hepatocytes, necrotic changes in the neurons, and also induced activation of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the gills, liver, and brain depending on the exposure time (24h, 48h, 72h and 96h). In addition, deltamethrin toxication caused the up-regulation of caspase-3 and the inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) of the gene expression depending on the dose (0.04μM and 0.08μM) and the exposure time in the brain (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Our results indicated that long-term deltamethrin exposure could lead to inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis on the different organs in common carp. Thus, deltamethrin toxication is dangerous for common carp populations, and the usage of deltamethrin should be controlled and restricted in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  20. Field evaluation of the long-lasting treated storage bag, deltamethrin-incorporated (ZeroFly® Storage Bag) as a barrier to insect pest infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The deltamethrin-incorporated polypropylene (PP) bag, ZeroFly® Storage Bag, is a new technology to reduce postharvest losses caused by stored-product insect pests. ZeroFly bags filled with untreated maize were compared to PP bags filled with maize treated with Betallic Super (80 g pirimiphos-methyl ...

  1. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat was evaluated against 11 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grai...

  2. Synthesis of metabolites of the insecticide Deltamethrine: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl-14C) benzoic acids and 3-phenoxy (hydroxymethyl-14C) benzyl alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-Cao-Thang; Nguyen-Hoang-Nam; Hoellinger, H.; Pichat, L.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are described for the synthesis of the following metabolites of Deltamethrin, the pyrethroid insecticide: 3-phenoxy (carboxyl- 14 C) benzoic acid, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl- 14 C) benzoic acid, 3-(2'-hydroxyphenoxy) (carboxyl- 14 C) benzoic acid and the corresponding 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohols, specific activity = 47-57 mCi/mmol. (author)

  3. Synthesis of the metabolite of the insecticide Deltamethrine: deuterated and tritiated 5-hydroxy-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol and its 5-methoxy derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do-cao-thang; Nguyen-hoang-nam; Nguyen-ngoc-quang; Hoellinger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Partial hydrolysis of LiBH 4 with deuterated, tritiated water in THF solution provided a simple and cheap method for the preparation of deuterated, tritiated alcohols by reduction of esters : (α - 2 H) and (α - 3 H) 5-methoxy-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, 5-hydroxy 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol (metabolite of deltamethrin), the pyrethroid insecticide. (author)

  4. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans of the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; D'Avila, Grasielle Caldas Pessoa; Orellana, Ana Lineth Garcia; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Noireau, François; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2014-11-14

    The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem. Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed. Three wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrin with RR50 of Bolivia are less susceptible.

  5. Rapid determination of residues of pesticides in honey by µGC-ECD and GC-MS/MS: Method validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty according to document No. SANCO/12571/2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoloni, Angela; Alunni, Sabrina; Pelliccia, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A simple and straightforward method for simultaneous determination of residues of 13 pesticides in honey samples (acrinathrin, bifenthrin, bromopropylate, cyhalothrin-lambda, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, deltamethrin, fluvalinate-tau, malathion, permethrin and tetradifon) from different pesticide classes has been developed and validated. The analytical method provides dissolution of honey in water and an extraction of pesticide residues by n-Hexane followed by clean-up on a Florisil SPE column. The extract was evaporated and taken up by a solution of an injection internal standard (I-IS), ethion, and finally analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-µECD). Identification for qualitative purpose was conducted by gas chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS). A matrix-matched calibration curve was performed for quantitative purposes by plotting the area ratio (analyte/I-IS) against concentration using a GC-µECD instrument. According to document No. SANCO/12571/2013, the method was validated by testing the following parameters: linearity, matrix effect, specificity, precision, trueness (bias) and measurement uncertainty. The analytical process was validated analyzing blank honey samples spiked at levels equal to and greater than 0.010 mg/kg (limit of quantification). All parameters were satisfactorily compared with the values established by document No. SANCO/12571/2013. The analytical performance was verified by participating in eight multi-residue proficiency tests organized by BIPEA, obtaining satisfactory z-scores in all 70 determinations. Measurement uncertainty was estimated according to the top-down approaches described in Appendix C of the SANCO document using the within-laboratory reproducibility relative standard deviation combined with laboratory bias using the proficiency test data.

  6. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  7. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of the Kanzawa Spider Mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Pink Tea Rust Mite, Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the Residual Effect of Spraying Petroleum Oil Emulsifiable Concentrate just before the Sprouting of the First Crop of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Teruki; Nakazono, Kentaro; Nitabaru, Yuichi

    Petroleum oil emulsifiable concentrate (POEC) is a commercial acaricide used for the control of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida in the autumn/winter season. Further, the damage of bacterial shoot blight increases if POEC is sprayed at this time of the year. It is thought that the occurrence of bacterial shoot blight doesn't increase if POEC is sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea. However, it is suspected that spraying of POEC at this time results in the formation of an oily film that floats on the surface of tea infusion. In this study, we examined the efficiency of spraying POEC at this time of the year in controlling the growth of T. kanzawai and Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the residual effect. We obtained the following results: (1) spraying POEC before sprouting of the first crop of tea resulted in effective control of the density of T. kanzawai and A. theavagrans for 1 month or longer, and (2) the oily film was not observed on the surface of the tea infusion. These results indicate that POEC can serve as one of the important control agents of mites when sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea.

  9. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, S. K

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  10. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Ahmad, Nisar

    2017-07-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC - MS / MS). Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL) were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  11. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha F. A. Jallow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  12. Effects of Deltamethrin on striatum and hippocampus mitochondrial integrity and the protective role of Quercetin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasmi, Salim; Rouabhi, Rachid; Kebieche, Mohamed; Boussekine, Samira; Salmi, Aya; Toualbia, Nadjiba; Taib, Chahinez; Bouteraa, Zina; Chenikher, Hajer; Henine, Sara; Djabri, Belgacem

    2017-07-01

    The present work is to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by pyrethroid insecticide "Deltamethrin" at 0.32 mg/kg/day in two main regions of the Wistar rat brain (hippocampus and striatum) and the protective effects of Quercetin at 10 mg/kg/day on this toxicity after 90 days of exposure. The assay of brain parameters showed that Deltamethrin caused a significant increase of mitochondrial metabolite level (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) and enzyme activity (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase); a decreased amount of mitochondrial glutathione level and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) acid levels of the two regions. Furthermore, mitochondrial functional testing in the brains of treated rats exhibited a significant increase in permeability followed by a mitochondrial swelling. Instead, a statistically significant decrease in mitochondrial respiration (O 2 consumption) was recorded in the striatum and hippocampus. Our study showed that the pesticide caused a significant increase of the cytochrome c amount correlated with activation of neuronal apoptosis mechanisms by the significant increase of caspase-3 of hippocampus and striatum. In particular, the results of behavioral tests (open field, classic maze tests of sucrose, and Morris water maze) have significant changes, namely bad behavior of the treated rats, affecting the level of anxiety, learning, and memory, and general motor activity has mainly been shown in treated rats. In addition, the histological cuts clearly confirm cerebral necrosis in the hippocampus and the striatum caused by the pesticide. They allow us to consider the necrotic areas, black spots, reduction, and denaturation of these brain regions in the treated rats. On the other hand, we have studied the protective effects against the neurotoxicity of Deltamethrin (DLM). In this context, after the gavage of Quercetin at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day, we have noticed an

  13. Resistance to deltamethrin by domestic and wild Triatoma infestans populations in the municipality of Toro Toro, Potosi, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Jorge Espinoza; Bustamante Gomez, Marinely B; Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D Ávila; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rodriguez, Antonio Nogales; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2018-02-17

    Chemical control with pyrethroid insecticides has been effective in reducing endemic areas of distribution of Triatoma infestans in the Southern Cone, as well as Bolivia; this had considerably reduced the infestation of households in a large part of the territory. Nowadays, areas such as the Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys are regions where the reach of vector control strategies is becoming limited, and infestations of insecticide-treated households are reported more often. The objective of this study was to determine if the persistence of T. infestans stems from changes in the susceptibility of its toxicological profile in four communities in the municipality of Toro Toro, Potosi, Bolivia. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans was evaluated in two stages (16 populations before and 13 populations after spraying) among DUs (structures in the intra- and peridomicile) and wild ecotopes, in four communities. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μl) were applied topically on standardized first-stage nymphs. Dose-response results were analyzed with the software PoloPlus and the relationships between lethal doses (LD) and resistance ratios (RR 50 ) were determined. Different degrees of RR 50 were detected among the populations before and after spraying (25.66-54.70 and 21.91-40.67, respectively), as well as in different ecotopes within a DU (DU JC 3, 28.06-36.13, in mixed structures of corrals and chicken coops; and DU JG 3, 46.27-25.70, in kitchen roofs), or in the wild environment of the community JG Sil (29.21-40.67). The mortality of insects undergoing diagnostic dose (DD) was never higher than 34%. The results obtained in this study showed resistance of T. infestans to deltamethrin in four communities, hence the complexity of this phenomenon is not only limited to the level of communities, but also applies to the microgeographical level, as in different ecotopes present within the DUs. This phenomenon should

  14. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from Kenya by RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bonizzoni

    Full Text Available Malaria causes more than 300 million clinical cases and 665,000 deaths each year, and the majority of the mortality and morbidity occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and wide-spread resistance to antimalarial drugs, mosquito control is the primary method of malaria prevention and control. Currently, malaria vector control relies on the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. The extensive use of insecticides has imposed strong selection pressures for resistance in the mosquito populations. Consequently, resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa, has become a major obstacle for malaria control. A key element of resistance management is the identification of resistance mechanisms and subsequent development of reliable resistance monitoring tools. Field-derived An. gambiae from Western Kenya were phenotyped as deltamethrin-resistant or -susceptible by the standard WHO tube test, and their expression profile compared by RNA-seq. Based on the current annotation of the An. gambiae genome, a total of 1,093 transcripts were detected as significantly differentially accumulated between deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible mosquitoes. These transcripts are distributed over the entire genome, with a large number mapping in QTLs previously linked to pyrethorid resistance, and correspond to heat-shock proteins, metabolic and transport functions, signal transduction activities, cytoskeleton and others. The detected differences in transcript accumulation levels between resistant and susceptible mosquitoes reflect transcripts directly or indirectly correlated with pyrethroid resistance. RNA-seq data also were used to perform a de-novo Cufflinks assembly of the An. gambiae genome.

  16. Deltamethrin pyrethroid susceptibility characterization of Triatoma sordida Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae populations in the Northern Region of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Caldas DÁvila Pessoa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Triatoma sordida is the most captured Triatomine species in the Brazilian artificial environment. In 2008, the discovery of three Triatomine populations with altered susceptibilities to deltamethrin highlighted the importance of investigating the genetic potential for resistance in triatomines. The purpose of this study was to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of peridomestic T. sordida populations in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods A susceptibility reference lineage derived from Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil was used. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 of the susceptibility reference lineage. Results Susceptibility profile characterization of T. sordida populations revealed resistance ratios (RR50s ranging from 0.42 to 3.94. The percentage mortality in response to the diagnostic dose varied from 70% to 100%. A comparison of the results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays demonstrated a lack of correspondence for some populations. Conclusions We demonstrated that only T. sordida populations that present a RR50>1.0 have altered susceptibility, and the execution of simultaneous field and laboratory tests is required to understand the actual effect of vector control. A possible cause of the observed resistance ratios might be the continuous use of pyrethroids in Brazil since the 1980s.

  17. Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transfer of organochlorine residues in the food chain and its distribution in the trophic levels was influenced by habitat, environmental conditions, feeding habit and biochemical composition of individual populations. The total residual concentration of OCPs in shellfish and fish ranged between 0.16 ppm and 0.69 ppm.

  18. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  19. Dosis diagnóstica y umbral de resistencia de Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, a dos insecticidas utilizados en salud pública en Colombia: deltametrina y lambdacihalotrina Diagnostic dose and resistance threshold to Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae for two insecticides used in public health in Colombia: deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterine Henriquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los insecticidas son una herramienta importante para el control de los insectos transmisores de microorganismos patógenos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la dosis diagnóstica de deltametrina y lambdacihalotrina en el flebotomíneo Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, vector de Leishmania infantum en Colombia. Los insectos se recolectaron en la Estación Experimental de Fauna Silvestre de Colosó, Sucre, un área de reserva natural que no ha sido sometida a presión con insecticidas. Los bioensayos se realizaron en botellas de vidrio, siguiendo el método simplificado de determinación de resistencia del CDC. En los experimentos, se usaron hembras silvestres de L. evansi que fueron expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de los insecticidas por espacio de 80 minutos, tiempo de duración de la prueba. Los valores de dosis diagnóstica hallados fueron 0,00035% para lambdacihalotrina y 0,0007% para deltametrina, con un umbral de resistencia de diez minutos para ambos insecticidas, tiempo en el cual se alcanza una mortalidad del 100%. Los datos de tiempo-mortalidad indican que la lambdacihalotrina tiene un efecto letal sobre L. evansi en menor concentración que la deltametrina, mientras que la última fue menos tóxica.Insecticides are an important tool for controlling insect vectors of microorganism pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic dosages of deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin for the sand fly Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, a vector of Leishmania infantum in Colombia. Sand flies were collected in the Estación Experimental de Fauna Silvestre of Colosó, Sucre, a natural reserve that had not been previously treated with insecticides. Glass bottles were used for bioassays, following the simplified method (CDC for detecting insecticide resistance. Wild females of L. evansi were exposed to different concentrations of insecticides during a test period of 80 minutes. The diagnostic dosages of deltamethrin and

  20. Levels of insecticide resistance to deltamethrin, malathion, and temephos, and associated mechanisms in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from the Guadeloupe and Saint Martin islands (French West Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Gelasse, Andric; Ramdini, Cédric; Gaude, Thierry; Faucon, Frédéric; David, Jean-Philippe; Gustave, Joël; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Fouque, Florence

    2017-02-10

    In the Guadeloupe and Saint Martin islands, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only recognized vectors of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. For around 40 years, malathion was used as a mosquito adulticide and temephos as a larvicide. Since the European Union banned the use of these two insecticide molecules in the first decade of the 21st century, deltamethrin and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis are the remaining adulticide and larvicide, respectively, used in Guadeloupe. In order to improve the management of vector control activities in Guadeloupe and Saint Martin, we investigated Ae. aegypti resistance to and mechanisms associated with deltamethrin, malathion, and temephos. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected from six different localities of Guadeloupe and Saint Martin. Larvae were used for malathion and temephos bioassays, and adult mosquitoes for deltamethrin bioassays, following World Health Organization recommendations. Knockdown resistance (Kdr) genotyping for V1016I and F1534C mutations, and expression levels of eight enzymes involved in detoxification mechanisms were examined in comparison with the susceptible reference Bora Bora strain. Resistance ratios (RR 50 ) calculated for Ae. aegypti larvae showed high resistance levels to temephos (from 8.9 to 33.1-fold) and low resistance levels to malathion (from 1.7 to 4.4-fold). Adult females displayed moderate resistance levels to deltamethrin regarding the time necessary to affect 50% of individuals, varying from 8.0 to 28.1-fold. Molecular investigations on adult mosquitoes showed high resistant allele frequencies for V1016I and F1534C (from 85 to 96% and from 90 to 98%, respectively), as well as an overexpression of the glutathione S-transferase gene, GSTe2, the carboxylesterase CCEae3a, and the cytochrome genes 014614, CYP6BB2, CYP6M11, and CYP9J23. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and Saint Martin exhibit multiple resistance to organophosphates (temephos and malathion), and

  1. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  2. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  3. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  4. Studies with pyrethroids (kadethrin and deltamethrin) and lindane in ethanol sensitive (LS) and insensitive (SS) mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, J.; Baker, R.C.; Deitrich, R. (Univ. of Colorado, Denver (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Ethanol (E) sensitive (LS) and insensitive (SS) mouse strains are distinguished by their sleeping time to a given dose of E and the locus for this difference is at the level of the neuron. In attempts to understand the neuropharmacological basis of insecticide action and to further define the differences in these mouse lines, LS and SS mice were dosed with type I (kadethrine, K) and II (deltamethrin, D) pyrethroids and lindane (L). These compounds were selected because their proposed modes of action are on the Na+ channel (K and D) and/or the GABA receptor ionophore (D and L). No consistent differences in the effects of K, D or L in the SS and LS mouse lines were evident. In preliminary studies both SS and LS mice dosed with 50 or 100 {mu}g/brain of L (intracerebroventricularly) but not D slept much longer (2-3X) than when dosed with E alone, an effect opposite of that predicted from L's known excitatory action. These data indicate that as far as can be distinguished by pyrethroids and L, the Na+ channel and GABA receptor/ionophore complex are similar in both the LS and SS mouse lines.

  5. Olive phenolic compounds attenuate deltamethrin-induced liver and kidney toxicity through regulating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Amina; Mahmoudi, Asma; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Fki, Ines; Marrekchi, Rim; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of ethanolic olive fruit extract (OFE) and its phenolic compound, oleuropein (OLE), against hepato-renal toxicity induced by deltamethrin (DEM), a synthetic pyrethroid, in Wistar rats. The kidney and liver tissues were collected after 30 days of treatment for subsequent investigation. Rats that were given DEM had a highly significant elevation in the serum biomarkers as well as hepatic and renal levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA). Additionally, a significant reduction in the total antioxidant capacity (ABTS+), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was noted. This toxic effect was confirmed by histological studies and the expression levels of inflammatory (cox-2) and apoptotic genes (bcl-2 and p53). The findings for the OFE and OLEtreated groups highlighted the efficacy of olive fruit phenolic compounds as hepatic and renal-protectant in DEM-induced hepato-renal toxicity through improving the oxidative status as well as suppressing inflammation and apoptosis. Therefore, they may be used as protective natural compounds against DEM-induced hepato-renal toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deltamethrin-Incorporated Nets as an Integrated Pest Management Tool for the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, T P; Short, B D; Krawczyk, G; Leskey, T C

    2017-04-01

    Long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), which have insecticide incorporated within the fibers, have been widely used for control of malaria and other insect-vectored diseases. Only recently have researchers begun exploring their use for control of agricultural pests. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of a deltamethrin-incorporated LLIN, ZeroFly (Vestergaard-Frandsen, Washington, DC) for control of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). In the lab, exposure to the ZeroFly net for 10 s resulted in >90% mortality of H. halys nymphs and >40% mortality of H. halys adults. Longer exposure to the net resulted in higher mortality. In another experiment, a 15-cm2 sheet of ZeroFly net placed inside of the stink bug trap provided long-lasting kill of H. halys adults equal to or better than standard dichlorvos kill strip. Potential for the use of ZeroFly nets for H. halys IPM is discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mechanism of deltamethrin induced thymic and splenic toxicity in mice and its protection by piperine and curcumin: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anoop; Sasmal, Dinakar; Sharma, Neelima

    2018-01-01

    Deltamethrin (DLM) is a well-known pyrethroid insecticide which is widely used in the agriculture and home pest control due to restriction on the sale of organophosphate. DLM induced apoptosis is well known but its mechanism is still unclear. This study has been designed to find out its mechanism of apoptosis with the help of computational methods along with in vivo methods. The QikProp and ProTox results have shown that DLM has good oral absorption. The docking results reveal that DLM has a strong binding affinity toward the CD4, CD8, CD28 and CD45 receptors. Further, to understand the toxicity of DLM on lymphoid cells, a single dose of DLM (5 mg/kg, oral for seven days) has been administered to male Balb/c mice and cytotoxicity (MTT assay), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, reactive oxygen species) and apoptotic markers (caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation) have been assessed in thymic and splenic single cell suspensions. Lowering of body weight, cellularity and loss in cell viability have been observed in DLM treated mice. The significant increase in ROS and GSH depletion in spleen and thymus, indicate the possible involvement of oxidative stress. The spleen cells appear more susceptible to the adverse effects of DLM than thymus cells. Further, for the amelioration of its effect, two structurally different bioactive herbal extracts, piperine and curcumin have been evaluated and have shown the cytoprotective effect by inhibiting the apoptogenic signaling pathways induced by DLM.

  8. Metabolism of deltamethrin and cis- and trans-permethrin by rat and human liver microsomes, liver cytosol and plasma preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Laura; Brown, Susan; Vardy, Audrey; Doyle, Edward; Yoon, Miyoung; Osimitz, Thomas G; Lake, Brian G

    2018-03-14

    1. The metabolism of deltamethrin (DLM), cis-permethrin (CPM) and trans-permethrin (TPM) was studied in liver microsomes, liver cytosol and plasma from male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 15, 21 and 90 days and from adult humans. 2. DLM and CPM were metabolised by rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and to a lesser extent by microsomal and cytosolic carboxylesterase (CES) enzymes, whereas TPM was metabolised to a greater extent by CES enzymes. 3. In human liver, DLM and TPM were mainly metabolised by CES enzymes, whereas CPM was metabolised by CYP and CES enzymes. 4. The metabolism of pyrethroids by cytosolic CES enzymes contributes to the overall hepatic clearance of these compounds. 5. DLM, CPM and TPM were metabolised by rat, but not human, plasma CES enzymes. 6. This study demonstrates that the ability of male rats to metabolise DLM, CPM and TPM by hepatic CYP and CES enzymes and plasma CES enzymes increases with age. In all instances, apparent intrinsic clearance values were lower in 15 than in 90 day old rats. As pyrethroid-induced neurotoxicity is due to the parent compound, these results suggest that DLM, CPM and TPM may be more neurotoxic to juvenile than to adult rats.

  9. Antagonistic effects of Spirulina platensis against sub-acute deltamethrin toxicity in mice: Biochemical and histopathological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed; El-Bialy, Badr E; Rahman, Haidy G Abdel; Radi, Abeer M; Hefny, Hany A; Hassan, Ahmed M

    2016-02-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP); a microalga with high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, acts as a food supplement in human and as many animal species. Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with broad spectrum activities against acaricides and insects and widely used for veterinary and agricultural purposes. Exposure to DLM leads to hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects for human and many species, including birds and fish. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of SP against sub-acute DLM toxicity in male mice. DLM intoxicated animals revealed a significant increase in serum hepatic and renal injury biomarkers as well as TNF-α level and AChE activity. Moreover, liver, kidney and brain lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress markers were altered due to DLM toxicity. Spirulina normalized the altered serum levels of AST, ALT, APL, LDH, γ-GT, cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinine AChE and TNF-α. Furthermore, it reduced DLM-induced tissue lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, that Spirulina supplementation could overcome DLM-induced hepatotoxicty, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity by abolishing oxidative tissue injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. DELTAMETHRIN AND PERMETHRIN DECREASE SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY IN NEURONAL NETWORKS IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of pyrethroid insecticides on spontaneous electrical activity were investigated in primary cultures of cortical or spinal cord neurons grown on microelectrode arrays. Bicuculline (40 ¿M) was utilized to block fast GABAergic transmission, and concentration-dependent effect...

  11. Ammoniated maize residue for the fattening of lambs | Seed | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ammoniated maize residue as a replacement for maize meal in the diet for fattening lambs, was investigated. Ammoniation of maize residue increased average daily DMI and ADG at the 0 and 20oh concentrate levels. The feed conversions to carcass in lambs fed untreated maize residue with 40,60 or 80% ...

  12. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Identification of three cytochrome P450 genes in the Chagas' disease vector Triatoma infestans: Expression analysis in deltamethrin susceptible and resistant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Carla G; Blariza, María J; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María I; García, Beatriz A

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play a predominant role in the metabolism of insecticides. Many insect P450 genes have frequently been associated with detoxification processes allowing the insect to become tolerant or resistant to insecticides. The increases of expression of P450 genes at transcriptional level are often consider responsible for increasing the metabolism of insecticides and seems to be a common phenomenon in the evolution of resistance development in insects. As pyrethroid resistance has been detected in Triatoma infestans, it was of interest to analyze genes associated with resistance to insecticides such as those encoding for cytochromes P450. With this purpose, the cDNA sequences of three cytochrome P450 genes (CYP4EM7, CYP3085B1, and CYP3092A6) were identified in this species. Primers and specific Taqman probes were designed from these sequences to determine their expression by quantitative PCR. The mRNA levels of the cytochrome P450 genes identified were determined from total RNA extracted from pools of fat body collected from individuals of different resistant and susceptible strains of T. infestans, and at different interval times after the topical application of the lethal doses 50% (LD50) of deltamethrin on the ventral abdomen of insects belonging to the different populations analyzed. It was detected overexpression of the CYP4EM7 gene in the most resistant strain of T. infestans and the expression of the three cytochrome P450 genes isolated was induced by deltamethrin in the susceptible and resistant populations included in this study. These results suggest that these genes would be involved in the detoxification of deltamethrin and support the hypothesis that considers to the cytochrome P450 genes of importance in the development of pyrethroid resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geographical Variation of Deltamethrin Susceptibility of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Argentina With Emphasis on a Resistant Focus in the Gran Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronza, G; Toloza, A C; Picollo, M I; Spillmann, C; Mougabure-Cueto, G A

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important parasitic infections in Latin America. The main vector of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi in America is Triatoma infestans, a blood-sucking triatomine bug who is widely distributed in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. Control programs in endemic countries are focused in the elimination of triatomine vectors with pyrethroid insecticides. However, chemical control has failed in the Gran Chaco over the last two decades because of several factors. Previous studies have reported the evolution of different levels of resistance to deltamethrin in Tri. infestans Recently, very high resistance has been found in the central area of the Argentine Gran Chaco. However, the origin and the extension of this remarkably resistant focus remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the geographical variation of deltamethrin susceptibility of Tri. infestans in different endemic provinces of Argentina, with emphasis in the center of the Argentine Gran Chaco ecoregion where this main vector has not been reduced. Populations of Mendoza, San Juan, Santiago del Estero, and Tucumán provinces were all susceptible. Resistant populations were only detected in the province of Chaco, where a mosaic resistant focus was described at the Güemes Department. It was characterized into three pyrethroid resistance categories: susceptible, low, and highly resistant populations. We found the populations with the highest resistance levels to deltamethrin, with resistant ratios over 1000. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Comparative in vitro evaluation of contact activity of fluralaner, spinosad, phoxim, propoxur, permethrin and deltamethrin against the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Murillo, Amy C; Zoller, Hartmut; Heckeroth, Anja R; Jirjis, Faris; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie

    2017-08-03

    Northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of both feral birds and poultry, particularly chicken layers and breeders. They complete their entire life-cycle on infested birds while feeding on blood. Infestations of O. sylviarum are difficult to control and resistance to some chemical classes of acaricides is a growing concern. The contact susceptibility of O. sylviarum to a new active ingredient, fluralaner, was evaluated, as well as other compounds representative of the main chemical classes commonly used to control poultry mite infestations in Europe and the USA. Six acaricides (fluralaner, spinosad, phoxim, propoxur, permethrin, deltamethrin) were dissolved and serially diluted in butanol:olive oil (1:1) to obtain test solutions used for impregnation of filter paper packets. A carrier-only control was included. Thirty adult northern fowl mites, freshly collected from untreated host chickens, were inserted into each packet for continuous compound exposure. Mite mortality was assessed after incubation of the test packets for 48 h at 75% relative humidity and a temperature of 22 °C. Adult mite LC 50 /LC 99 values were 2.95/8.09 ppm for fluralaner, 1587/3123 ppm for spinosad, 420/750 ppm for phoxim and 86/181 ppm for propoxur. Permethrin and deltamethrin LC values could not be calculated due to lack of mortality observed even at 1000 ppm. Northern fowl mites were highly sensitive to fluralaner after contact exposure. They were moderately sensitive to phoxim and propoxur, and less sensitive to spinosad. Furthermore, the tested mite population appeared to be resistant to the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, despite not being exposed to acaricides for at least 10 years.

  16. Ultrastructural analysis of oocytes of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus during postengorgement period as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of amitraz and deltamethrin on the germinative cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelekha, Kanapadinchareveetil; Chandrasekhar, Leena; Kartha, Harikumar S; Ravindran, Reghu; Juliet, Sanis; Ajithkumar, Karapparambu G; Nair, Suresh N; Ghosh, Srikanta

    2017-11-30

    The present study utilizes the ultrastructural analysis of the fully engorged female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks, as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of deltamethrin and amitraz on the germinative cells. The ultrastructural analysis of the ovary of the normal (untreated) R (B.) annulatus revealed, oocytes in different stages of development, attached to the ovary wall by pedicel cells. The attachment site of oocyte to the pedicel cell was characterized by indentations of the plasma membrane. The oocyte was bound by three cell membranes viz., plasma membrane, chorion and basal lamina. The stages of oocytes were differentiated ultrastructurally based on the features of their outer membrane and the number and size of lipid and yolk droplets. Detailed day wise analysis of ultrastructural changes in the ovary during the post-engorgement period revealed the occurrence of the degenerative changes from day five onwards. These appeared first in the oocytes followed by the germinal epithelium. The ovary of ticks treated with methanol (control), revealed similar topographies as that of a normal ovary except for the presence of very few oocytes with ring shaped nucleoli. Ultrastructurally, treatment with deltamethrin produced more prominent and extensive morphological alterations when compared to amitraz. In the case of ticks treated with amitraz, the oocytes of stage IV and V showed wavy and disrupted outer boundaries along with the loss of integrity of the yolk droplets. Uneven nuclear membranes of stage II oocytes and cristolysis of mitochondria of mature oocytes were the other changes noticed. Ticks treated with deltamethrin revealed prominent modifications such as, detachment of the basal lamina, wrinkled boundary, inconsistent nuclear membrane, ring shaped nucleoli and chromatin clumping in the case of the early stage oocytes (I and II), whereas swelling and cristolysis of mitochondria were seen in mature oocytes. The study further indicated that

  17. Plague in a Colony of Gunnison's Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys gunnisoni) Despite Three Years of Infusions of Burrows with 0.05% Deltamethrin to Kill Fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, John L; Biggins, Dean E; Blackford, Nathaniel; Eads, David A; Long, Dustin; Rodriguez, Mariana Rivera; Ross, Lauren M; Tobey, Sarah; White, Emma M

    2017-12-29

    At Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico, USA, infusing Gunnison's prairie dog ( Cynomys gunnisoni) burrows with an insecticide dust containing 0.05% deltamethrin killed fleas which transmit bubonic plague. The reduction in the number of fleas per prairie dog was significant and dramatic immediately after infusions, with a suggestion that the reduction persisted for as long as 12 mo. Despite the lower flea counts, however, a plague epizootic killed >95% of prairie dogs after 3 yr of infusions (once per year). More research is necessary for a better understanding of the efficacy of insecticide dusts at lowering flea counts and protecting prairie dogs from plague.

  18. Lousicidal efficacy of camphor oil, d-phenothrin, and deltamethrin against the slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanem F. Khater

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The slender pigeon louse, Columbicola columbae, is an annoying ectoparasite of pigeons. The aims of present work were to study the prevalence of lice infestations among pigeons in Gharbia governorate, Egypt, and to compare the lousicidal efficacy of camphor oil (CAM to those of d-phenothrin (DPH and deltamethrin (DMT against C. columbae. Pigeons were classified into four groups (25 pigeons each. Birds were sprayed with 8% CAM and few drops of Tween 80, 9% DPH, 0.005% DMT (50 mg/L or 1 ml/L, and the control group was sprayed with distilled water and few drops of Tween 80. The prevalence of lice infestations was 85% (340 out of 400, 550 ± 50 louse/bird, and the range of infestation was 100–800. All in vitro treated lice with 1% CAM and DPH were died within an hour post treatment and the lethal values were 0.25% and 0.28%, respectively. The lethal time values were 6.50 and 2.30 min post-treatment with 0.004% CAM and DPH, respectively. The in vivo treatments indicated that the louse infestations were almost completely eliminated 7 days post-treatment with CAM and DPH and 14 days PT with DMT. Temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed among birds sprayed with DMT. CAM has a potential for the development of a new and safe product for controlling poultry lice.

  19. Identification of proteasome subunit beta type 6 (PSMB6 associated with deltamethrin resistance in mosquitoes by proteomic and bioassay analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linchun Sun

    Full Text Available Deltamethrin (DM insecticides are currently being promoted worldwide for mosquito control, because of the high efficacy, low mammalian toxicity and less environmental impact. Widespread and improper use of insecticides induced resistance, which has become a major obstacle for the insect-borne disease management. Resistance development is a complex and dynamic process involving many genes. To better understand the possible molecular mechanisms involved in DM resistance, a proteomic approach was employed for screening of differentially expressed proteins in DM-susceptible and -resistant mosquito cells. Twenty-seven differentially expressed proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS. Four members of the ubiquitin-proteasome system were significantly elevated in DM-resistant cells, suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may play an important role in DM resistance. Proteasome subunit beta type 6 (PSMB6 is a member of 20S proteasomal subunit family, which forms the proteolytic core of 26S proteasome. We used pharmaceutical inhibitor and molecular approaches to study the contributions of PSMB6 in DM resistance: the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 and bortezomib were used to suppress the proteasomal activity and siRNA was designed to block the function of PSMB6. The results revealed that both MG-132 and bortezomib increased the susceptibility in DM-resistant cells and resistance larvae. Moreover, PSMB6 knockdown decreased cellular viability under DM treatment. Taken together, our study indicated that PSMB6 is associated with DM resistance in mosquitoes and that proteasome inhibitors such as MG-132 or bortezomib are suitable for use as a DM synergist for vector control.

  20. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  1. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  2. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  3. Disposal of radioactive residuals requires careful planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontius, F.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radionuclides removed from source waters during water treatment become concentrated in residual liquids and sludges. Treatment technologies used to remove these contaminants from source waters may generate wastes that contain substantial radioactivity. Water systems that install one or more of these technologies in order to comply with the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) eventually adopted must dispose of the residuals. Disposal of radionuclide-containing wastes can be especially difficult, depending on the nature and amount of radioactivity present

  4. Ammoniated maJze residue for the fattening of lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of feed cost per kg carcass gain, a balanced diet containing untreated maize residue and 67,6t/a concentrate could be replaced by a balanced diet containing ammoniated maize residue and no energy concentrate. The increased dressing percentage and reduced ruminal digesta mass, pH and water volume owing to ...

  5. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  6. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  7. Multi-country assessment of residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in malaria control on different surface types: results from program monitoring in 17 PMI/USAID-supported IRS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengela, Dereje; Seyoum, Aklilu; Lucas, Bradford; Johns, Benjamin; George, Kristen; Belemvire, Allison; Caranci, Angela; Norris, Laura C; Fornadel, Christen M

    2018-01-30

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the interior walls of household structures that often serve as resting sites for mosquito vectors of malaria. Human exposure to malaria vectors is reduced when IRS involves proper application of pre-determined concentrations of the active ingredient specific to the insecticide formulation of choice. The impact of IRS can be affected by the dosage of insecticide, spray coverage, vector behavior, vector susceptibility to insecticides, and the residual efficacy of the insecticide applied. This report compiles data on the residual efficacy of insecticides used in IRS campaigns implemented by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)/United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 17 African countries and compares observed length of efficacy to ranges proposed in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Additionally, this study provides initial analysis on variation of mosquito mortality depending on the surface material of sprayed structures, country spray program, year of implementation, source of tested mosquitoes, and type of insecticide. Residual efficacy of the insecticides used for PMI/USAID-supported IRS campaigns was measured in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The WHO cone bioassay tests were used to assess the mortality rate of mosquitoes exposed to insecticide-treated mud, wood, cement, and other commonly used housing materials. Baseline tests were performed within weeks of IRS application and follow-up tests were continued until the mortality of exposed mosquitoes dropped below 80% or the program monitoring period ended. Residual efficacy in months was then evaluated with respect to WHO guidelines that provide suggested ranges of residual efficacy for insecticide formulations recommended for use in IRS. Where the data allowed, direct

  8. Reversal of deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in rat neural tissues by turmeric-diet: Fourier transform-infrared and biochemical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiddappa Mallappa Shivanoor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is designed to determine the protective effect of turmeric (TMR against neural oxidative damage caused by deltamethrin (DLM. Here we have employed mainly Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy to understand this event, in addition to biochemical analysis. For this purpose, rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6; control, TMR (1% turmeric-diet, DLM-treated (41 ppm and TMR co-administrated with DLM for 48 days. The FT-IR spectra of brain tissues reflect the significant changes in the area values of macromolecules including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids in DLM-treated rats compared to control. In addition, DLM caused increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA level accompanied by decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GR. However, the TMR co-administered with DLM group, exhibits appreciable restoration in area values and peaks of IR spectra and also the restoration of the mentioned antioxidant enzyme activities. The group merely fed with TMR showed insignificant changes in all investigated parameters. Therefore, the results reveal that, 1% of turmeric has a protective effect against deltamethrin caused neural oxidative damage.

  9. Evidence of carbamate resistance in urban populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes resistant to DDT and deltamethrin insecticides in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Resistance monitoring is essential in ensuring the success of insecticide based vector control programmes. This study was carried out to assess the susceptibility status of urban populations of Anopheles gambiae to carbamate insecticide being considered for vector control in mosquito populations previously reported to be resistant to DDT and permethrin. Methods Two – three day old adult female Anopheles mosquitoes reared from larval collections in 11 study sites from Local Government Areas of Lagos were exposed to test papers impregnated with DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% and propoxur 0.1% insecticides. Additional tests were carried out to determine the susceptibility status of the Anopheles gambiae population to bendiocarb insecticide. Members of the A. gambiae complex, the molecular forms, were identified by PCR assays. The involvement of metabolic enzymes in carbamate resistance was assessed using Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist assays. The presence of kdr-w/e and ace-1R point mutations responsible for DDT-pyrethroid and carbamate resistance mechanisms was also investigated by PCR. Results Propoxur resistance was found in 10 out of the 11 study sites. Resistance to three classes of insecticides was observed in five urban localities. Mortality rates in mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin and propoxur did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05) but was significantly higher (P insecticide resistance management strategies to combat the multiple resistance identified. PMID:22686575

  10. Comportamento de adultos de diferentes raças de Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em superfície tratada com deltamethrin Adult insect behaviour of different Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae strains on treated surface of deltamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenara Beckel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A principal praga de trigo armazenado, no Brasil, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, foi testada na Embrapa Trigo, em Passo Fundo-RS, em papel filtro impregnado com deltametrina nas concentrações letais CL5, CL25 e CL50 para verificar alterações no comportamento de deslocamento do inseto, as quais podem contribuir para o manejo da resistência de pragas em grãos armazenados. Foram testados insetos de quatro raças, duas resistentes, BR6 e BR12, e duas suscetíveis, BR4 e UK1, que foram coletadas em unidades armazenadoras no Rio Grande do Sul e criadas em laboratório. Espécimes da raça UK1 foram obtidos do laboratório do Imperial College of Science and Technology, Reino Unido. Os resultados mostraram diferenças no comportamento ambulatorial das raças durante o período de 24 horas. Os espécimes das raças resistentes reduziram sua locomoção sobre a superfície contaminada na tentativa de evitar o contato com o inseticida.The most important pest of stored wheat in Brazil, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792, was tested at Embrapa Trigo, in Passo Fundo-RS, on filter paper impregnated with LC5, LC25, and LC50 of deltamethrin to verify alterations in its walking behaviour that may contribute for pest resistance management in grain storage. Insects of four strains were used, two resistant, BR6 and BR12, and two susceptible, BR4 and UK1, which were collected in storage facilities in Rio Grande do Sul and reared in the laboratory. Insects of the UK1 strain were brought from the laboratory of the Imperial College of Science and Technology, United Kingdom. The results showed differences in the walking behaviour between individuals of strains during the 24 h of the assessment period. Insects of the resistant strains reduced their walking activities on contaminated surface, in an attempt to avoid the insecticide .

  11. Variation in susceptibility of laboratory and field strains of three stored-grain insect species to beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to concrete surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to clean, concrete floors of empty bins prior to grain storage against field strains of stored-grain insects is unknown. We exposed adults of 16 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); 8 strains ...

  12. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  13. Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Next to the beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction. Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition ofthe stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.

  14. Transcriptional response of rat frontal cortex following acute In Vivo exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and deltamethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornero-Velez Rogelio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroids are neurotoxic pesticides that interact with membrane bound ion channels in neurons and disrupt nerve function. The purpose of this study was to characterize and explore changes in gene expression that occur in the rat frontal cortex, an area of CNS affected by pyrethroids, following an acute low-dose exposure. Results Rats were acutely exposed to either deltamethrin (0.3 – 3 mg/kg or permethrin (1 – 100 mg/kg followed by collection of cortical tissue at 6 hours. The doses used range from those that cause minimal signs of intoxication at the behavioral level to doses well below apparent no effect levels in the whole animal. A statistical framework based on parallel linear (SAM and isotonic regression (PIR methods identified 95 and 53 probe sets as dose-responsive. The PIR analysis was most sensitive for detecting transcripts with changes in expression at the NOAEL dose. A sub-set of genes (Camk1g, Ddc, Gpd3, c-fos and Egr1 was then confirmed by qRT-PCR and examined in a time course study. Changes in mRNA levels were typically less than 3-fold in magnitude across all components of the study. The responses observed are consistent with pyrethroids producing increased neuronal excitation in the cortex following a low-dose in vivo exposure. In addition, Significance Analysis of Function and Expression (SAFE identified significantly enriched gene categories common for both pyrethroids, including some relating to branching morphogenesis. Exposure of primary cortical cell cultures to both compounds resulted in an increase (~25% in the number of neurite branch points, supporting the results of the SAFE analysis. Conclusion In the present study, pyrethroids induced changes in gene expression in the frontal cortex near the threshold for decreases in ambulatory motor activity in vivo. The penalized regression methods performed similarly in detecting dose-dependent changes in gene transcription. Finally, SAFE analysis of

  15. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  16. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  17. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  18. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  19. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  20. Comparative study of esterases in deltamethrin and diazinon resistant Rhipicephalus microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks collected from the Trans-Gangetic plains of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Ghosh, Mayukh; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-09-01

    A comparative analysis of esterases in susceptible and resistant ticks revealed six types of esterases (EST-1b, EST-2b, EST-3b, EST-4b, EST-5b and EST-6b) in Rhipicephalus microplus and four types (EST-1h, EST-2h, EST-3h, EST-4h) in Hyalomma anatolicum using α-naphthyl acetate substrate. Inhibition studies with eserine sulfate, p-chloromercuribenzoate, copper sulphate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride revealed a marked variation in band intensity between susceptible and resistant ticks, with the latter being more intense. Qualitative expression of EST-4b along with an extra band of EST-5b and EST-6b were indicative of deltamethrin and diazinon resistance in R. microplus, whereas qualitative expression of EST-4h was probably responsible for diazinon resistance in H. anatolicum. The data suggest that increased esterase activity may represent a detoxification strategy leading to the development of resistance in these tick populations.

  1. Evidence of carbamate resistance in urban populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes resistant to DDT and deltamethrin insecticides in Lagos, South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduola Adedayo O

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance monitoring is essential in ensuring the success of insecticide based vector control programmes. This study was carried out to assess the susceptibility status of urban populations of Anopheles gambiae to carbamate insecticide being considered for vector control in mosquito populations previously reported to be resistant to DDT and permethrin. Methods Two – three day old adult female Anopheles mosquitoes reared from larval collections in 11 study sites from Local Government Areas of Lagos were exposed to test papers impregnated with DDT 4%, deltamethrin 0.05% and propoxur 0.1% insecticides. Additional tests were carried out to determine the susceptibility status of the Anopheles gambiae population to bendiocarb insecticide. Members of the A. gambiae complex, the molecular forms, were identified by PCR assays. The involvement of metabolic enzymes in carbamate resistance was assessed using Piperonyl butoxide (PBO synergist assays. The presence of kdr-w/e and ace-1R point mutations responsible for DDT-pyrethroid and carbamate resistance mechanisms was also investigated by PCR. Results Propoxur resistance was found in 10 out of the 11 study sites. Resistance to three classes of insecticides was observed in five urban localities. Mortality rates in mosquitoes exposed to deltamethrin and propoxur did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05 but was significantly higher (P A. gambiae s.s (M form. The kdr -w point mutation at allelic frequencies between 45%-77% was identified as one of the resistant mechanisms responsible for DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Ace-1R point mutation was absent in the carbamate resistant population. However, the possible involvement of metabolic resistance was confirmed by synergistic assays conducted. Conclusion Evidence of carbamate resistance in A. gambiae populations already harbouring resistance to DDT and permethrin is a clear indication that calls for the implementation of

  2. Effects of deltamethrin, dimethoate, and chlorpyrifos on survival and reproduction of the collembolan Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer in two African and two European soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaabiri Kamoun, Ikram; Jegede, Olukayode O; Owojori, Olugbenga J; Bouzid, Jalel; Gargouri, Radhia; Römbke, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides is rampant in most parts of Africa, but only scanty ecotoxicological data exist for the protection of soil organisms-and these data were usually obtained under temperate conditions, including the use of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard test protocols. In order to assess the effects of 3 commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos) on soil fauna in Africa, noncontaminated natural soils were collected from Nigeria and Tunisia. In addition, 2 common test soils, OECD artificial soil and European (Landwirtschaftliche Untersichungs- und Forschungsanstalt [LUFA]) 2.3 soil, were used in OECD standard reproduction tests. Two microarthropod species, the springtail Folsomia candida and the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer, were exposed in these 4 soils spiked individually with the 3 insecticides. Results show that the collembolan F. candida was more sensitive than the mite H. aculeifer for all 3 insecticides. The toxicity of each insecticide in the 4 soils differed, with few exceptions, by less than an order of magnitude. However, the pattern of toxicity was not consistent, that is, the lowest toxicity was often but not always found in OECD artificial soil. Soil- and pesticide-specific patterns of toxicity to F. candida and H. aculeifer might be related to the physicochemical properties of the soils and thus the availability of the 3 pesticides. Following the rules laid down in the European Union for the registration of pesticides and using standard European exposure scenarios, neither an acute nor a chronic risk of dimethoate and chlorpyrifos can be excluded (with few exceptions) in all 4 soils. Lower risks were identified for deltamethrin. For pesticide used in Africa, an environmental risk assessment based on data gained in tests with at least 1 additional natural field soil, preferably of African origin, should be performed using the same risk assessment principles as in the

  3. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  4. Dietary exposure to tetracycline residues through milk consumption in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Aalipour, Fathollah; Mirlohi, Maryam; Jalali, Mohammad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background The abundant use of tetracycline antibiotics in veterinary medicine may result in the presence of their residues in milk at unsafe concentrations that can adversely affect public health. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risk of tetracycline residue (TET) intake via milk consumption amongst different age groups of human consumers in Iran. Methods To quantify the drug residues, HPLC analysis was performed under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 355?nm. Milk c...

  5. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  6. Deltamethrin Petition and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    FIFRA exclusive use provisions for minor use registrations provide incentives to pesticide companies to register minor uses of pesticides. View petitions for exclusive use periods or extensions and EPA responses.

  7. Atividade in vitro de permetrina, cipermetrina e deltametrina sobre larvas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari, Ixodidae In vitro activity of permethrin, cipermethrin and deltamethrin on larvae of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806 (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F. Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se os efeitos toxicológicos in vitro de três piretróides em diferentes concentrações, formulados para uso pecuário, domiciliar e em cães, sobre larvas de R. sanguineus, objetivando monitorar sua suscetibilidade e fomentar seu controle. Utilizaram-se 1.604 larvas em jejum, com 15 a 21 dias, obtidas por infestação artificial em cão, imersas nas soluções testadas, contidas em dispositivos constituídos por placa de Petri descartável, papel filtro e parafina, mantidas em incubadoras do tipo BOD e observadas ao estereoscópio por 24h. Observaram-se excitabilidade, movimentação repetitiva, diminuição da locomoção, desprendimento, paralisia, "knock-down" e proliferação cuticular de gases e líquidos. A mortalidade na 24ª hora foi de 86,9%, 100,0%, 80,3%, 86,0%, 68,2% e 78,0%, respectivamente, para permetrina 1250ppm e 2500ppm, cipermetrina 150ppm e 300ppm, e deltametrina 25ppm e 50ppm. Não houve mortalidade no grupo controle.Aiming at monitoring the susceptibility, increasing the control and evaluating the toxicological effects, of different concentrations of three pyrethroids were investigated in vitro against Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae using concentrations formulated for cattle, dogs and household use. A total of 1,604 15-21 day-old fasting larvae, obtained by artificial infestation in dogs, was immersed in the solutions. Larvae were then maintained in BOD incubators inside experimental devices, constituted by disposable Petridishes, filter paper and paraffin, and observed on the stereomicroscope during a 24-hour period. The larvae have shown excitability, repetitive movements, decrease of locomotion, detachment, paralysis, knock-down and production of gases and liquid in the cuticle. Mortality after 24 hours was 86.9% (1250ppm and 100.0% (2500ppm for permethrin; 80.3% (150ppm and 86.0% (300ppm for cipermethrin; and for deltamethrin 68.2% (25ppm and 78.0% (50ppm. Mortality was not observed in the control group.

  8. Residues Of Streptomycin Antibiotic In Commercial Layers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the muscle samples recorded residue concentration levels higher than the W.H.O recommended maximum residue level for streptomycin antibiotic in muscle tissue of food animals. In view of the importance of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial diseases in both human and animals, it is advocated that the use of ...

  9. Nitrogen mineralization from organic residues: research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M L; Kissel, D E; Vigil, M F

    2005-01-01

    Research on nitrogen (N) mineralization from organic residues is important to understand N cycling in soils. Here we review research on factors controlling net N mineralization as well as research on laboratory and field modeling efforts, with the objective of highlighting areas with opportunities for additional research. Among the factors controlling net N mineralization are organic composition of the residue, soil temperature and water content, drying and rewetting events, and soil characteristics. Because C to N ratio of the residue cannot explain all the variability observed in N mineralization among residues, considerable effort has been dedicated to the identification of specific compounds that play critical roles in N mineralization. Spectroscopic techniques are promising tools to further identify these compounds. Many studies have evaluated the effect of temperature and soil water content on N mineralization, but most have concentrated on mineralization from soil organic matter, not from organic residues. Additional work should be conducted with different organic residues, paying particular attention to the interaction between soil temperature and water content. One- and two-pool exponential models have been used to model N mineralization under laboratory conditions, but some drawbacks make it difficult to identify definite pools of mineralizable N. Fixing rate constants has been used as a way to eliminate some of these drawbacks when modeling N mineralization from soil organic matter, and may be useful for modeling N mineralization from organic residues. Additional work with more complex simulation models is needed to simulate both gross N mineralization and immobilization to better estimate net N mineralized from organic residues.

  10. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  11. Rhenium concentration during petroleum deasphalting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshkina, I.D.; Bel'kova, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    Rhenium distribution and concentration during fractional distillation of certain types of petroleum and natural bitumens from Tatarstan are studied. Rhenium concentration in the process of oil deasphalting is examined for petroleum produced by different techniques, as well as for heavy residues from petroleum distillation. Optimum conditions for the process are revealed fractions of resinous-asphaltene substances concentrating rhenium compounds are found. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  13. Toxicity and residual control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and insecticides Toxicidade e controle residual de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae com Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner e inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pedroso de Moraes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella L. is the most important worldwide pest of cruciferous plants and indiscriminate use of insecticides has led to the resistance of the species to different groups. This research was conducted to compare the toxicity and persistence of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis to P. xylostella larvae. Concentrations between 125 and 500g 100L-1 of water of the commercial products were evaluated and compared to the insect growth inhibitor diflubenzuron and to the neurotoxic pyrethroid deltamethrin. The efficacy of the insecticides was compared between treated plants kept indoor greenhouse and outdoor. Third instar larvae were more susceptible to B. thuringiensis than first instar ones. Agree and Dipel showed similar control rates of third instars until 10 days after treatment, but on the 15th day, Agree was significantly more efficient than Dipel. Both B. thuringiensis formulations showed a reduction in mortality after 10 days when the treated plants were exposed to natural weather conditions in comparison to the same treatments kept inside greenhouse. Dimilin (100g 100L-1 of water and deltamethrin (30ml of commercial product 100L-1 of water were not efficient to control third instar larvae of P. xylostella. This inefficiency cannot be attributed to a resistant population of P. xylostella since the larval population used in the experiments was not subjected to insecticide pressure, once the crop was organically cultivated all year round. The results showed that both formulations of B. thuringiensis are sound alternatives for the control of the diamondback moth in organically conducted cruciferous crops, considering the high residual control provided under subtropical weather conditions.Larvas de Plutella xylostella L. são as principais pragas de crucíferas cultivadas e o uso excessivo e indiscriminado de inseticidas tem levado a resistência da espécie para diferentes grupos de inseticidas. Este trabalho foi conduzido para

  14. Lindane residues in fish inhabiting Nigerian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okereke, G.U.; Dje, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis for residues of lindane in fish collected from various rivers close to rice agroecosystems showed that the concentrations of lindane ranged from none detectable to 3.4 mg kg -1 . Fish from rivers where strict regulations prohibits its use had no detectable lindane residues while appreciable amounts of lindane were found in fish were such restriction was not enforced with the variation attributed to the extent of use of lindane in the area of contamination. The investigation confirms that the use of lindane in rice production in Nigeria can cause the contamination of fish in nearby rivers. (author). 16 refs, 2 tab

  15. [Discriminating concentrations for three insecticides used in public health in a Lutzomyia longipalpis experimental strain from Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceló, Catalina; Cabrera, Olga Lucía; Santamaría, Erika

    2014-01-01

    In Colombia, periurban populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis , vector of the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the upper and middle valley of the Magdalena River, may be exposed to insecticide applications with different purposes. Thus, it is important to begin a susceptibility surveillance of this species to insecticides. To determine indicators of susceptibility to three insecticides habitually used in public health, such as malathion, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in an experimental strain of L. longipalpis . We used the method proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Groups of 10 to 15 unfed females were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticides using 250 ml glass bottles as test chambers. Mortality was registered every five minutes for an hour. Diagnostic concentrations and lethal times for each insecticide were calculated. In the evaluated L. longipalpis strain, the diagnostic concentrations and times were 75 µg/ml and 25 minutes for malathion, 10 µg/ml and 35 minutes for deltamethrin, and 15 µg/ml during 30 minutes for lambda-cyhalothrin. Baseline data over mortality response to three insecticides were established in a susceptibility strain of L. longipalpis vector. These indicators will allow establishing comparisons with populations of L. longipalpis exposed regularly or sporadically to chemical control measures to detect changes in their resistance to these insecticides.

  16. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  17. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  18. DDT residues in sediments from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    in the sediments from the Bay of Bengal. Peterson grab and hydrographic winch was used to collect the sediment samples. Each sample was extracted and cleaned. Residues were detected by electron capture gas chromatography. A range variation in the concentration...

  19. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  20. ESTUDO DA EFICÁCIA “IN VITRO” DO AMITRAZ E DA DELTAMETRINA COMO CARRAPATICIDA NO CONTROLE DE Boophilus microplus (CANESTRINI, 1887 NA BACIA LEITEIRA DA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF AMITRAZ AND DELTAMETHRIN AS ACARACIDES AGAINST Boophilus microplus (CAMESTRINI, 1887 IN THE DAIRY AREA OF GOIÂNIA - GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Fontgalland Coelho Linhares

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Para avaliar a eficácia antiixodídica do amitraz e da deltametrina sobre o Boophilus microplus na bacia leiteira da microrregião de Goiânia - Goiás, foram realizados testes in vitro por imersão de teleóginas, colhidas diretamente de bovinos da região. Os princípios ativos foram ensaiados na concentração de 250 ppm, através da avaliação da percentagem de inibição da reprodução (%INR. Entre eles o amitraz apresentou a melhor eficácia, com valor de 97,11%, estando acima do valor mínimo exigido pelo Ministério da Agricultura para produtos carrapaticidas. A deltametrina apresentou o valor de 70,86%, revelando uma eficácia insatisfatória.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Boophilus microplus; carrapaticida; amidinas; piretróides; bovinos.

    The efficacy of amitraz and deltamethrin as acaricides against Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 was evaluated through an in vitro immersion test using engorged female ticks collected in the dairy area of the microrregion of Goiânia, State of Goiás. The effectiveness of the experimental compounds, on concentrations of 250 ppm, was determined by the effect as measured in percentages of inhibited reproduction (%INR after treatments of the ticks with liquid formulations. The results were: amitraz showed the best efficacy with a percentage of inhibited reproduction (%ITR of 97.11%; for deltamethrin such value was 70.86%, which was considered very low to be used as an acaricide.

    KEY-WORDS: Boophilus microplus; acaricides; amidines; pyrethroids; cattle.

  1. Variations of insecticide residual bio-efficacy on different types of walls: results from a community-based trial in south Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of residual activity of insecticides is essential information for the selection of appropriate indoor spraying operation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the residual effect of three candidate insecticide formulations on different indoor surfaces in order to guide future interventions, in the context of Cameroon and other African countries. Methods The study was conducted in the Ntougou neighbourhood in Yaoundé (capital city of Cameroon. Bendiocarb WP, lambda-cyhalothrin CS and deltamethrin WG were sprayed on the indoor wall surfaces of local cement, wood and mud houses. Their effects on the knockdown and mortality of the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s were assessed each month from March to September 2009, using the WHO plastic cones test. Knockdown and mortality rates were compared between different surfaces using Chi-square test. A Kaplan-Meir model was used to estimate the time of treatment failure. Results With bendiocarb WP, the knockdown rates were frequently above 98% during 13 weeks after spraying, except on mud walls where it significantly decreased at the 13th week (P th (83% and the 20th (88% weeks respectively (P 98%; while it varied between 60 and 100% on wood or mud surfaces. The survival estimates of bendiocarb WP treatments remaining effective in killing An. gambiae s.s. (mortality rate ≥ 80% was > 13 weeks on cement and wood surfaces and 13 weeks on mud surfaces. Those of lambda-cyhalothrin CS were > 26 weeks on wood surfaces, and 20 weeks on concrete and mud surfaces. By contrast, those of deltamethrin WG were 26 weeks on concrete, 20 weeks on mud surfaces and 15 weeks on wood surfaces. Conclusion Current data suggest variable durations of spray cycles for each product, according to the type of wall surfaces, highlighting the importance of testing candidate products in local context before using them in large scale.

  2. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  3. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  4. Crop Residue Biomass Effects on Agricultural Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High residue loads associated with conservation tillage and cover cropping may impede water flow in furrow irrigation and thus decrease the efficiency of water delivery and runoff water quality. In this study, the biomass residue effects on infiltration, runoff, and export of total suspended solids (TSS, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, sediment-associated carbon (TSS-C, and other undesirable constituents such as phosphate (soluble P, nitrate (, and ammonium ( in runoff water from a furrow-irrigated field were studied. Furrow irrigation experiments were conducted in 91 and 274 m long fields, in which the amount of residue in the furrows varied among four treatments. The biomass residue in the furrows increased infiltration, and this affected total load of DOC, TSS, and TSS-C. Net storage of DOC took place in the long but not in the short field because most of the applied water ran off in the short field. Increasing field length decreased TSS and TSS-C losses. Total load of , , and soluble P decreased with increasing distance from the inflow due to infiltration. The concentration and load of P increased with increasing residue biomass in furrows, but no particular trend was observed for and . Overall, the constituents in the runoff decreased with increasing surface cover and field length.

  5. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  6. Recovery of silver residues from dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva; Iano, Flávia Godoy; da Silva, Thelma Lopes; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; de Menezes, Manoel Lima; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2010-01-01

    Dental amalgam residues are probably the most important chemical residues generated from clinical dental practice because of the presence of heavy metals among its constituents, mainly mercury and silver. The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative method for the recovery of silver residues from dental amalgam. The residue generated after vacuum distillation of dental amalgam for the separation of mercury was initially diluted with 32.5% HNO3, followed by precipitation with 20% NaCl. Sequentially, under constant heating and agitation with NaOH and sucrose, the sample was reduced to metallic silver. However, the processing time was too long, which turned this procedure not viable. In another sequence of experiments, the dilution was accomplished with concentrated HNO3 at 90 degrees C, followed by precipitation with 20% NaCl. After washing, the pellet was diluted with concentrated NH4OH, water and more NaCl in order to facilitate the reaction with the reducer. Ascorbic acid was efficiently used as reducer, allowing a fast reduction, thus making the procedure viable. The proposed methodology is of easy application and does not require sophisticated equipment or expensive reagents.

  7. Recovery of silver residues from dental amalgam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Aparecida Barbosa da Silva Pereira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental amalgam residues are probably the most important chemical residues generated from clinical dental practice because of the presence of heavy metals among its constituents, mainly mercury and silver. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative method for the recovery of silver residues from dental amalgam. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The residue generated after vacuum distillation of dental amalgam for the separation of mercury was initially diluted with 32.5% HNO3, followed by precipitation with 20% NaCl. Sequentially, under constant heating and agitation with NaOH and sucrose, the sample was reduced to metallic silver. However, the processing time was too long, which turned this procedure not viable. In another sequence of experiments, the dilution was accomplished with concentrated HNO3 at 90ºC, followed by precipitation with 20% NaCl. After washing, the pellet was diluted with concentrated NH4OH, water and more NaCl in order to facilitate the reaction with the reducer. RESULTS: Ascorbic acid was efficiently used as reducer, allowing a fast reduction, thus making the procedure viable. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed methodology is of easy application and does not require sophisticated equipment or expensive reagents.

  8. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  9. Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malima Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active. Results Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed, but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0. After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0 but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0. Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0. For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing. Conclusion Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid

  10. Evaluation of PermaNet 3.0 a deltamethrin-PBO combination net against Anopheles gambiae and pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes: an experimental hut trial in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Combination mosquito nets incorporating two unrelated insecticides or insecticide plus synergist are designed to control insecticide resistant mosquitoes. PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net incorporating deltamethrin on the side panels and a mixture of deltamethrin and synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the top panel. PBO is an inhibitor of mixed function oxidases implicated in pyrethroid resistance. Method An experimental hut trial comparing PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.0 and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net was conducted in NE Tanzania using standard WHOPES procedures. The PermaNet arms included unwashed nets and nets washed 20 times. PermaNet 2.0 is a long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating deltamethrin as a single active. Results Against pyrethroid susceptible Anopheles gambiae the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to unwashed PermaNet 2.0 in terms of mortality (95% killed), but showed differences in blood-feeding rate (3% blood-fed with PermaNet 3.0 versus 10% with PermaNet 2.0). After 20 washes the two products showed no difference in feeding rate (10% with 3.0 and 9% with 2.0) but showed small differences in mortality (95% with 3.0 and 87% with 2.0). Against pyrethroid resistant Culex quinquefasciatus, mediated by elevated oxidase and kdr mechanisms, the unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed 48% and PermaNet 2.0 killed 32% but after 20 washes there was no significant difference in mortality between the two products (32% killed by 3.0 and 30% by 2.0). For protecting against Culex PermaNet 3.0 showed no difference to PermaNet 2.0 when either unwashed or after 20 washes; both products were highly protective against biting. Laboratory tunnel bioassays confirmed the loss of biological activity of the PBO/deltamethrin-treated panel after washing. Conclusion Both PermaNet products were highly effective against susceptible Anopheles gambiae. As a long-lasting net to control or protect against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes Perma

  11. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  12. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    exposure to an organochlorine pesticide, the concentrations of residues in the different tissues are ordinarily directly correlated with each other. When the dosage is at lethal levels, or when stored residues are mobilised to lethal levels, the balanced relationship is disrupted. The concentrations of residues in the brain provide the most rigorous criteria for diagnosis of death due to these chemicals, and levels are generally similar across a wide range of species of birds and mammals. Residues in liver are closely correlated with recent dose, either from direct intake or from mobilisation from storage, and so reflect hazardous exposure. Residues in the whole carcass show the storage reserve, and so indicate the potential for adverse effects from lethal mobilisation or from the continuous slow mobilisation that occurs during the normal processes of metabolism and excretion. A synchronous, rapid, and widespread decline in weight and thickness of shells of eggs laid by many species of wild birds occurred in the late 1940's and has persisted. Birds of prey were primarily affected; exceptions apparently are the result of lesser exposure because of different food habits. Many species of fish-eating birds are also affected. Others, however, appear to be more resistant and to accumulate much higher residues before shell-thinning occurs. Seed-eating birds do not appear to have been generally affected; their exposure is ordinarily lower, but physiological factors also seem to be involved. A relationship between shell-thinning and population decline has been established for many species. In exceptional cases, such as the herring gull, persistent re-nesting and other population reactions have overcome adverse effects at the population level. The discovery of shell-thinning among natural populations, and the hypothesis that this thinning was related to the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides, stimulated experimental studies to determine wheth

  13. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: Effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeborn, Danielle L., E-mail: Freeborn.danielle@epa.gov; McDaniel, Katherine L., E-mail: McDaniel.kathy@epa.gov; Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov; Herr, David W., E-mail: Herr.david@epa.gov

    2015-01-15

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long–Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED{sub 30} or an ED{sub 50}–ED{sub 80} change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. - Highlights: • Pesticides with different modes of action have different effects on in vivo rodent EEG. • The EEG was also changed differently after single vs. repeated treatment with fipronil. • The data suggest that EEG may be used as an apical measure for detecting chemical effects on the central nervous system.

  14. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  15. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  16. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  17. Carbon Concentration of Austenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ławrynowicz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to examine the influence of temperature and times of austempering process on the maximum extend towhich the bainite reaction can proceed and the carbon content in retained austenite. It should be noted that a small percentage change in theaustenite carbon content can have a significant effect on the subsequent austempering reaction changing the volume fraction of the phasespresent and hence, the resulting mechanical properties. Specimens were prepared from an unalloyed ductile cast iron, austenitised at 950oCfor 60 minutes and austempered by the conventional single-step austempering process at four temperatures between BS and MS, eg., 250,300, 350 and 400oC. The samples were austempered at these temperatures for 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes and finally quenched toambient temperature. Volume fractions of retained austenite and carbon concentration in the residual austenite have been observed byusing X-ray diffraction. Additionally, carbon concentration in the residual austenite was calculated using volume fraction data of austeniteand a model developed by Bhadeshia based on the McLellan and Dunn quasi-chemical thermodynamic model. The comparison ofexperimental data with the T0, T0' and Ae3' phase boundaries suggests the likely mechanism of bainite reaction in cast iron is displacive rather than diffusional. The carbon concentration in retained austenite demonstrates that at the end of bainite reaction the microstructure must consist of not only ausferrite but additionally precipitated carbides.

  18. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  19. The Role of AChE in Swimming Behavior of Daphnia magna: Correlation Analysis of Both Parameters Affected by Deltamethrin and Methomyl Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unpredictable toxicity of insecticides may cause behavior disorder of biological organisms. In order to assess the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in swimming behavior of Daphnia magna, a correlation analysis of both parameters in 24 h exposure of deltamethrin (DM and methomyl (MT was investigated. The behavior responses of D. magna in DM (13.36 μg/L and 33.40 μg/L and MT (19.66 μg/L and 49.15 μg/L suggested that recovery behavior in the adjustment phase was crucial, and behavior homeostasis provided them with an optimal way to achieve a wider tolerance against environmental stress. During the experiment, positive effects on AChE activity occurred in the beginning of the exposure. Even though the de novo synthesis of AChE in D. magna might help it recover, the AChE inhibition in different treatments could be observed. Some induction effects on AChE activity at the beginning of exposure occurred, and a 50% decrease may cause toxic effects on behavior. In most treatments, the results showed that both behavior strength and AChE activity stayed in the same field within a correlation circle. These results illustrated that the environmental stress caused by both DM and MT could inhibit AChE activity and subsequently induce a stepwise behavior response, though both pesticides affect it as direct and indirect inhibitors, respectively.

  20. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Boltaña

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  1. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  2. Resíduos de azevém na superfície de um Planossolo alagado e seus efeitos na concentração de nutrientes na solução do solo e em plantas de arroz Ryegrass residues on soil surface of a flooded Albaqualf soil and their effects on nutrients concentration in soil solution and rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábiana Schmidt

    2009-10-01

    with a higher growing and nutrient absorptions. The objectives of this research are to quantify the nutrient absorptions, the rice crop growing, and to determine the concentration of nutrients in the soil solution on a flooding Albaqualf soil. For this, increasing doses of ryegrass residues were applied in the soil surface. A greenhouse experiment was carried out using a randomized complete block design with six doses of ryegrass residues (0.0; 1.25; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0Mg ha-1 applied to the soil surface. Cultivar 'BRS 7 Taim' pre-germinated seeds were sown in plastic pots. The soil in the pots was flooded 15 days after this procedure and plants were hept in this condition for an additional 45 days. In the rice plants were evaluated the dry matter weight of the shoots and the following nutrients: N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. In the soil solution were evaluated the redox potential (Eh, pH, and the concentration of Mn, Fe, K, Ca, Mg. Results show that the addition of increasing doses of ryegrass residues in the flooded soil surface until 10Mg ha-1 strengthened the soil redox reaction process increasing the concentration of Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg and K in the soil solution. It also increased the K and Fe contents in the aerial part of rice plants as well increased their dry matter weight.

  3. Hanford tank residual waste - Contaminant source terms and release models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael L.; Jeffery Serne, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Residual waste from five Hanford spent fuel process storage tanks was evaluated. → Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations. → Non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P ± H phases are common in the U-rich residual. → Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples. → Uranium release is highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions. - Abstract: Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. In the long term, the residual wastes may represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt.%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt.%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2-29.1 wt.%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low ( 2 -saturated solution, or a CaCO 3 -saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO 3 -saturated solution than with the Ca(OH) 2 -saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH) 2 -saturated solution than by the CaCO 3 -saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable (<10 wt.% of the

  4. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  5. Residues of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Soil from Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents the concentrations of five pesticide residues, lindane, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, p, p'-DDE and p, p'-DDD in soil samples collected from tomato fields in Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania. Endosulfan sulphate was detected in 100 % of the sample analysed with mean concentration of 0.2407 mg/kg dw. Chlorpyrifos ...

  6. Estudo da variação da concentração de metano no biogás produzido a partir das águas residuárias do café A study on the variation of methane concentration in biogas produced from coffee wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Calil Prado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A água residuária do café (ARC, originada no processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro, produz quantidade considerável de biogás que pode e deve ser utilizado como fonte de energia alternativa e complementar. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a variação da concentração de metano do biogás produzido a partir das ARC, por tratamento anaeróbio, em reator UASB, em escala laboratorial. As amostras foram coletadas durante 86 dias. As análises da concentração de metano foram realizadas por cromatografia gás-sólido (CGS. A produção de biogás e de metano, foi de 0,545 a 0,602 m³ kg-1DQO removida e de 0,382 a 0,421 m³ kg-1 DQO removida, respectivamente. Os resultados da concentração de metano no biogás variaram de 48,60 a 68,14 %, influenciados pela variação dos parâmetros temperatura, pH, acidez e compostos fenólicos presentes nas ARC. Como havia sido previsto, as maiores concentrações de metano foram verificadas nos períodos em que o pH estava mais próximo da neutralidade.The wastewater produced from wet coffee processing (WCP, originated from the coffee fruits, can produce great quantities of biogas, which, in turn, can be also used as an alternative or complementary energy source. In this research, we studied the variation of methane concentration produced by WCP in a laboratory-scale UASB reactor with anaerobic treatment. The samples were collected during a period of 86 days. The methane concentration was measured through gas solid chromatography (GSC. The production of biogas and methane ranged from 0.545 to 0.602 m³ kg-1DQO removed and from 0.382 a 0.421 m³ kg-1 DQO removed, respectively. Methane presence in the biogas ranged from 48.60% to 68.14 %. This variation was influenced by the following parameters: temperature, pH, acidity, and phenol compounds present in the WCP. As expected, greater concentrations of methane gas were verified during the periods when the pH close to neutral.

  7. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken

  8. Regulatory framework for NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.; Poffijn, A.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC), Rue Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC) has published in March 2013 a decree regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by nonradioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation is based on the concept of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' in the sense of article 40 of the 96/29/EURATOM directive. The disposal or processing facilities which accept NORM residues with an activity concentration above a generic exemption level will be considered as 'work activities' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria for the different types of processing/ disposal of the residues (disposal on landfill, recycling into building materials, etc.) are imposed. FANC has drafted guidelines for these acceptance criteria. A methodological guide for the operators of the concerned facilities was also published. Moreover, sites where significant quantities of NORM residues are or have been disposed, are subjected to an environmental monitoring in the framework of the national program of radiological surveillance of FANC. FANC also introduced in its regulations the concept of anthropogenic radon-prone areas: e.g. former phosphogypsum stacks have been defined as anthropogenic radon-prone areas, which allows some form of regulatory control of these sites. (authors)

  9. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.; Kniess, C.T.; Aguiar, B.M. de; Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K.

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  10. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  12. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic propertie...

  13. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  14. A residue in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain I in insect and mammalian sodium channels regulate differential sensitivities to pyrethroid insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eugênio E.; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system. Pyrethroid insecticides exert their toxic action by modifying the gating of sodium channels. A valine to methionine mutation in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain I (IS6) of sodium channels from tobacco budworms (Heliothis virescens) has been shown to alter channel gating and reduce insect sodium channel sensitivity to pyrethroids. A valine to leucine substitution was subsequently reported in pyrethroid-resistant bedbug populations. Intriguingly, pyrethroid-resistant mammalian sodium channels possess an isoleucine at the corresponding position. To determine whether different substitutions at this position alter channel gating and confer pyrethroid resistance, we made valine to methionine, isoleucine or leucine substitutions at the corresponding position, V409, in a cockroach sodium channel and examined the gating properties and pyrethroid sensitivity of the three mutants in Xenopus oocytes. All three mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to three pyrethroids (permethrin, cismethrin and deltamethrin). V409M, but not V409I or V409L, caused 6-7 mV depolarizing shifts in the voltage dependences of both activation and inactivation. V409M and V409L slowed channel activation kinetics and accelerated open-state deactivation kinetics, but V409I did not. Furthermore, the substitution of isoleucine with valine, but not with methionine nor leucine, at the corresponding position in a rat skeletal muscle sodium channel, rNav1.4, enhanced channel sensitivity to deltamethrin. Collectively, our study highlights an important role of residues at 409 in regulating not only sodium channel gating, but also the differential sensitivities of insect and mammalian sodium channels to pyrethroids. PMID:23764339

  15. An important role of a pyrethroid-sensing residue F1519 in the action of the N-alkylamide insecticide BTG 502 on the cockroach sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuzhe; Khambay, Bhupinder; Dong, Ke

    2011-07-01

    Deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and BTG 502, an alkylamide insecticide, target voltage-gated sodium channels. Deltamethrin binds to a unique receptor site and causes prolonged opening of sodium channels by inhibiting deactivation and inactivation. Previous (22)Na(+) influx and receptor binding assays using mouse brain synaptoneurosomes showed that BTG 502 antagonized the binding and action of batrachotoxin (BTX), a site 2 sodium channel neurotoxin. However, the effect of BTG 502 has not been examined directly on sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of BTG 502 on wild-type and mutant cockroach sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Toxin competition experiments confirmed that BTG 502 antagonizes the action of BTX and possibly shares a common receptor site with BTX. However, unlike BTX which causes persistent activation of sodium channels, BTG 502 reduces the amplitude of peak sodium current. A previous study showed that BTG 502 was more toxic to pyrethroid-resistant house flies possessing a super-kdr (knockdown resistance) mechanism than to pyrethroid-susceptible house flies. However, we found that the cockroach sodium channels carrying the equivalent super-kdr mutations (M918T and L1014F) were not more sensitive to BTG 502 than the wild-type channel. Instead, a kdr mutation, F1519I, which reduces pyrethroid binding, abolished the action of BTG 502. These results provide evidence the actions of alkylamide and pyrethroid insecticides require a common sodium channel residue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  17. Functional residual capacity measurement by heptafluoropropane in ventilated newborn lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Kusztrich, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Heptafluoropropane is an inert gas commercially used as propellant for inhalers. Since heptafluoropropane can be detected in low concentrations, it could also be used as a tracer gas to measure functional residual capacity. The aim of the present study was to validate functional residual capacity measurements by heptafluoropropane wash-in/wash-out (0.8%) during mechanical ventilation in small, surfactant-depleted lungs using a newborn piglet model. Design: Prospective laborato...

  18. Residual stress effects in tubular K-joints crack growth

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Claire; Nussbaumer, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Seeking light and transparent bridge designs, engineers and architects have found an efficient and artistic way to fulfill their requirements: steel tubular bridges. Like any other welded structure, the joints of this kind of bridge suffer from high tensile weld residual stresses. Combined with high stress concentrations, tensile residual stress is a relevant factor in fatigue crack development. Therefore, an experimental study has been carried out on tubular joints in order to characterize ...

  19. Effect of household and industrial processing on levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated by two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peels, the most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for ...

  20. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  1. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III; Argonne National Lab., IL; Dames and Moore, West Valley, NY; Argonne National Lab., IL; USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs

  2. Radioactivity of combustion residues from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vom Berg, W.; Puch, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Each year in Germany, about 18 mill. t of combustion residues are produced from the combustion of bituminous coal and lignite. They are utilized to a great extent in the construction industry and in mining. During the combustion of coal, the radio-nuclides remain predominantly in the ash. The radionuclide concentration in lignite ash is within the range of that in natural soil. The combustion residues of bituminous coal contain radio-nuclides of a similar order of magnitude as also can occur in natural rock. The utilization of combustion residues in construction materials makes a negligible contribution to radiation exposure through retention in buildings. (orig.) [de

  3. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  4. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: vc@cdtn.b, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  5. Susceptibilidad de Aedes aegypti a DDT, deltametrina y lambdacialotrina en Colombia Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to DDT, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santacoloma Varón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el estado de susceptibilidad a insecticidas piretroides deltametrina y lambdacialotrina y al organoclorado DDT, e identificar los mecanismos bioquímicos asociados con resistencia en 13 poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti recolectadas en localidades de Colombia donde el dengue es un grave problema de salud pública. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron y criaron en condiciones controladas formas inmaduras de diferentes criaderos naturales del vector para cada localidad. Con la generación F2 se realizaron bioensayos utilizando las metodologías OMS 1981 (papeles impregnados y CDC 1998 (botellas impregnadas. En las poblaciones con mortalidades compatibles con disminución de la susceptibilidad, se midieron los niveles de esterasas no específicas (ENE, oxidasas de función mixta (OFM y acetilcolinesterasa modificada (ACEM mediante pruebas colorimétricas. RESULTADOS: Todas las poblaciones del mosquito evaluadas evidenciaron resistencia al organoclorado DDT. En cuanto a los piretroides, se encontró resistencia generalizada a lambdacialotrina pero no a deltametrina. Los mecanismos bioquímicos de resistencia evaluados permitieron encontrar 7 de 11 poblaciones con ENE elevadas y una población con OFM incrementadas. CONCLUSIONES: Se descarta la resistencia cruzada de tipo fisiológico entre el DDT y lambdacialotrina en las poblaciones de A. aegypti evaluadas. La resistencia fisiológica a lambdacialotrina parece asociarse con el incremento de las ENE. El comportamiento diferencial en los niveles de susceptibilidad y los valores enzimáticos entre poblaciones se asociaron con la variabilidad genética y presión de selección química a nivel local.OBJECTIVES: To assess the susceptibility status of 13 natural populations of Aedes aegypti (collected from sites in Colombia where dengue is a serious public health problem to the pyrethroids, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and to the organochlorine, DDT, and to identify any biochemical

  6. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  7. Graphic Three-Axes Presentation of Residual Gas Analyser Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Levi, Alejandro G.

    1996-01-01

    Residual gas analyzers (RGA) are commonly used to measure the composition of residual gases in thermal-vacuum test chambers. Measurements from RGAs are often used to identify and quantify outgassing contaminants from a test article during thermal-vacuum testing. RGA data is typically displayed as snapshots in time, showing instantaneous concentrations of ions from ionized residual gas molecules at different atomic masses. A method was devised by the authors to present RGA data in a three-axis format, plotting atomic mass unit (AMU), ion concentration as a function of AMU, and time, to provide a clear graphic visualization ot trends in gas concentration changes and to initiate a valuable analytical tool to interpret test article outgassing rates during thermal-vacuum testing.

  8. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  9. Dicofol residues in eggs and carcasses of captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R.; Spann, J.W.; Belisle, A.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3, 10, and 30 ?g/g (wet wt) of Kelthane?. Residues of dicofol and its metabolites were then analyzed in the eggs and carcasses of females. Significant differences occurred among treatments for residues of both p,p'-dicofol and p,p'-dechlorodicofol (DCD) in both eggs and carcasses and for p,p'-dicholorbenzophenone (DCBP) in eggs. Residue concentrations increased with increasing treatment exposure. Residues of p,p'-dicofol, p,p'-DCD, and p,p'-DCBP in eggs were significantly correlated with eggshell quality parameters. Significant correlations also occurred among contaminants in eggs and for individual contaminants between eggs and carcasses. The lowest-observed-dietary-effect concentration for eggshell thinning was 3 ?g/g, whereas 1 ?g/g may be considered to be near a no-observable-adverse-effect concentration. Concentrations of dicofol in potential prey items and eggs of wild birds generally have been lower than dietary-effect concentrations or concentrations in tissues or eggs associated with eggshell thinning and reduced reproductive success.

  10. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  11. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Methods Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life® and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts. Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS or wire balls (nets only. Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr genes. Results IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1–3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. Conclusions In bioassays where sufficient contact with

  12. Monitoring of Benomyl Residue in Mushroom Marketed in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pesticide residues in environment and food have a negative impact on the health of living organisms. Therefore, this study was carried out for evaluation of benomyl residues in mushroom marketed in Hamadan city in 2014 using spectrophotometry. Materials & Methods: 10 specimens of mushroom were collected from greenhouses and market basket of Hamadan city. After preparation and processing the samples in the laboratory, be-nomyl residues in samples were determined using a spectrophotometric method in 3 replica-tions. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The mean concentration of benomyl residues in samples were 5.90±0.75, 2.10± 0.487, 40.04±1.346, 0.32±0.044, 14.0±0.785, 1.54±0.304, 40.0±0.45, 0.87±0.055, 0.66± 0.032 and 49.60±0.303 µg kg-1 and more than the maximum residue limit (MRL provided by the World Health Organization (10 ppb. The results of the comparison of the mean concentration of pesticide residues among samples revealed significant differences in most of the samples (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that mean concentrations of benomyl residues in mushroom samples were exceeding that of the MRL. Therefore, it is essential to impart proper education to the farming community about hazards involved in the overuse of toxic pesticides. Also, codification of laws and their enforcement and implementation of programs for the regular periodic monitoring of pesticide residues in foodstuffs especially in vegetables cultivated un-der greenhouse conditions at the national level to protect consumers’ health are recom-mended.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 137-143

  13. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  14. Kinetics of acid hydrolysis of olive felling residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, L.; Ferrer, J.L. (Universidad de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica)

    1992-04-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of olive tree felling residues with 1-4% HCl at temperatures between 110 and 140{degree}C have been studied. The experimental results obtained were consistent with two successive first-order reactions by which cellulose residues are transformed into sugars, which in turn are converted into decomposition products. The kinetic constants of the process (per hour) were found to be related to the acid concentration used (C, in weight percent) and to the absolute temperature. According to the above-mentioned kinetic model, the experimental sugar concentrations obtained by hydrolysis were reproduced with errors less than 10-20%. 16 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Are pesticide residues in honey related to oilseed rape treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karise, Reet; Raimets, Risto; Bartkevics, Vadims; Pugajeva, Iveta; Pihlik, Priit; Keres, Indrek; Williams, Ingrid H; Viinalass, Haldja; Mänd, Marika

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops. Honey samples (N = 33) were collected from beehives of Estonia during 2013 and 2014, and analysed for residues of 47 currently used agricultural pesticides using the multiresidue method with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS and a single residue method for glyphosate, aminopyralid and clopyralid. Residues of eight different active ingredients with representatives from all three basic pesticide classes were determined. Although no correlation was detected between the cumulative amount of pesticide residues and percent of oilseed crops in the foraging territory, most of the residues are those allowed for oilseed rape treatments. Among all pesticides, herbicide residues prevailed in 2013 but not in 2014. Despite the relatively small agricultural impact of Estonia, the detected levels of pesticide residues sometimes exceeded maximum residue level; however, these concentrations do not pose a health risk to consumers, also acute toxicity to honey bees would be very unlikely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  17. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  18. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  19. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.; Silva, L.M.; Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm 2 . For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm 2 . The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer

  20. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, L.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Forensic Institute of Porto Alegre, Av. Princesa Isabel 1056, CEP 90230-010 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amaral, L. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm{sup 2}. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm{sup 2}. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  2. Development of a novel deltamethrin sensor based on molecularly imprinted silica nanospheres embedded CdTe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Lu, Juanjuan; Ge, Lei; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua

    2011-09-01

    A novel procedure for the determination of deltmethrin (DM) is reported. The water-soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and highly fluorescent silica molecularly imprinted nanospheres embedded CdTe QDs (CdTe-SiO 2-MIPs) were prepared and characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM and IR. The fluorescence nanosensor based CdTe-SiO 2-MIPs is developed. The possible quenching mechanism is discussed by DM. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of CdTe-SiO 2-MIPs decreased with increasing DM by a Stern-Volmer type equation in the concentration range of 0.5-35.0 μg mL -1, the corresponding detection limit is 0.16 μg mL -1. The developed sensor based on CdTe-SiO 2-MIPs was applied to determine DM in fruit and vegetable samples.

  3. Simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in human breast milk from a malaria endemic area in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwman, H. [School for Environmental Sciences and Development, North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus), Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)]. E-mail: drkhb@puk.ac.za; Sereda, B. [Agricultural Research Council, Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X134 Queenswood, Pretoria 0121 (South Africa); Meinhardt, H.M. [South African Bureau of Standards, Testing and Conformity Services (Pty) Ltd, Private Bag X191, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2006-12-15

    DDT and pyrethroids were determined in 152 breast-milk samples from three towns in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, one of which had no need for DDT for malaria control. All compounds were found present in breast milk. Primiparae from one town had the highe