WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual charged nickel

  1. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  2. Residual Strain Characteristics of Nickel-coated FBG Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jae; Hwang, A-Reum; Kim, Sang-Woo [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    A metal-coated FBG (fiber Bragg grating) sensor has a memory effect, which can recall the maximum strains experienced by the structure. In this study, a nickel-coated FBG sensor was fabricated through electroless (i.e., chemical plating) and electroplating. A thickness of approximately 43 μm of a nickel layer was achieved. Then, we conducted cyclic loading tests for the fabricated nickel-coated FBG sensors to verify their capability to produce residual strains. The results revealed that the residual strain induced by the nickel coating linearly increased with an increase in the maximum strain experienced by the sensor. Therefore, we verified that a nickel-coated FBG sensor has a memory effect. The fabrication methods and the results of the cycle loading test will provide basic information and guidelines in the design of a nickel-coated FBG sensor when it is applied in the development of structural health monitoring techniques.

  3. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar

  4. Bioadsorption of nickel Mining Company by residual biomass Phyllanthus Orbicularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Díaz-Puig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic parameters for the adsorption of nickel were studied in the waste CalcinationPlant Company Ernesto Che Guevara biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis synthetic and industrial waste Calcination Plant enterprise solutions. The results showed that the major factors influencing the adsorption capacity of the biomass increases with increasing pH and the initial concentration of nickel in the effluent and is reduced by increasing the biomass concentration. Meanwhile, the removal efficiency of residual nickel increases with increasing pH and concentration of biomass and reduced when the initial concentration of nickel in the effluent increases. The adsorption capacity nickel biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis from synthetic solutions and industrial waste Calcination Plant Company Nickel "Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara" was 44,05 and 26,25 mg/g respectively. The adsorption process nickel biomass Phyllanthus orbicularis follows kinetics pseudo-second order and according to the values of free energy of adsorption obtained through model-RadushkevichDubinin was 267,26 kJ/mol, this nature demonstrates that corresponds to a process mediated by chemical adsorption where the formation of stable bonds between the functional groups present in the biomass and the metal ions predominates.

  5. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  6. Study of a nickel-copper filter for the future conditioning of insoluble residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoni, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.massoni@cea.fr

    2016-10-15

    This paper deals with the feasibility of a separate conditioning for insoluble residues coming from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. The two possible conditioning routes considered for insoluble residues were (i) added with cladding hulls with the considered filter (route #1) or (ii) melted with a nickel copper alloy already studied (route #2). Only route #2 was dealt with in this study. In France, the current practice is to store insoluble residues in a water suspension. For the two conditioning routes described here, dry insoluble residues are required for safety with melted metals. A nickel-copper filter was developed that can serve for the two types of conditioning. A filtration test performed with molybdenum particles as insoluble residue surrogates was done. The particle-charged filter was sintered, and Mo particles were kept inside the filter. Thus an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues was demonstrated. - Highlights: • The basics for an integrated flowsheet for the filtration and immobilization of insoluble residues were demonstrated. • The filter can serve as an immobilization matrix or can be added in another metal waste. • A theoretical calculation has shown that the conception of the filter should be done to avoid an excessive heat-up.

  7. Determination of macro nickel, vanadium and iron in crude oil and residues by derivative spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.; Wang, L.; Li, X.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a new method with derivative spectrophotometry and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol as the chromogenic reagent in buffer solution of different pH developed for determining micro amounts of nickel. Vanadium and iron in crude oil and residues is reported. Forth-, Second- and Third-, Fourth-order derivative spectrophotometry were applied to determine nickel, nickel and vanadium, nickel and iron in crude oil and residues, respectively. The derivative maximums chosen for the measurement were at 556 nm for nickel, 540 nm and 643 nm for nickel and vanadium, 524 nm and 604 nm for nickel and iron. Beer's law is valid for the range 1.0 x 10 -6 to 2.5 x 10 -5 M

  8. Charge retention test experiences on Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocki, Dave E.; Driscoll, J. R.; Armantrout, J. D.; Baker, R. C.; Wajsgras, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nickel-hydrogen battery module was designed by Lockheed Missile & Space Co (LMSC) and manufactured by Eagle-Picher Ind. (EPI) for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) for the nickel-cadmium batteries originally selected for this low earth orbit mission. The design features of the HST nickel hydrogen battery are described and the results of an extended charge retention test are summarized.

  9. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find......Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... that the protein shows a surprising resilience toward extremes of pH, demonstrating stability and function (cellulose binding) in the pH range from 2 to 11. To ask whether the four charged residues present were required for these properties of this protein, we altered them to nontitratable ones. Remarkably...

  10. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge management in the absence of active cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.G. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center

    1995-12-31

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. `ne transition from nickel-cadmium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their higher self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, have made this aspect of spacecraft management even more challenging. The NASA AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure adequate state of charge during prelaunch charge, trickle charge, and stand was considered and proved to be expensive and difficult to implement. Alternate approaches were considered. A procedure including optimized charging and low rate (charging, in the absence of active cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. The investigation includes three phases: (1) demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed procedure (2) development of a parametric data base (3) validation in an AXAF-I mission simulation test. Charging, trickle charging, and open circuit stand are considered in each phase. The major conclusion of this work is that nickel-hydrogen batteries can achieve and maintain high states of charge, in the absence of active cooling, using the approach described in this paper.

  11. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find...

  12. A 34 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium minimum trickle charge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The current rates used for trickle charging batteries are critical in maintaining a full charge and in preventing an overcharge condition. The importance of the trickle charge rate comes from the design, maintenance and operational requirements of an electrical power system. The results of minimum trickle charge testing performed on six 34 ampere-hour, nickel-cadmium cells manufactured by General Electric are described. The purpose of the testing was to identify the minimum trickle charge rates at temperatures of 15 C and 30 C.

  13. A Study of Residual Image in Charged-Coupled Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For an image sensor CCD, electrons can be trapped at the front-side Si-SiO_2 surface interface in a case of exceeding the full well by bright source. Residual images can be made by the electrons remaining in the interface. These residual images are seen in the front-side-illuminated CCDs especially. It is not easy to find a quantitative analysis for this phenomenon in the domestic reports, although it is able to contaminate observation data. In this study, we find residual images in dark frames which were obtained from the front-side-illuminated CCD at Mt. Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory (LOAO, and analyze the effect to contaminated observation data by residual charges.

  14. Improved Interaction Potentials for Charged Residues in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2008-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions dominate the structure and free energy of biomolecules. To obtain accurate free energies involving charged groups from molecular simulations, OPLS-AA parameters have been reoptimized using Monte Carlo free energy perturbation. New parameters fit a self-consistent, exper......Electrostatic interactions dominate the structure and free energy of biomolecules. To obtain accurate free energies involving charged groups from molecular simulations, OPLS-AA parameters have been reoptimized using Monte Carlo free energy perturbation. New parameters fit a self......, TIP4P or TIP3P; i.e., each water model requires specific water-charged molecule interaction potentials. New models (models 1 and 3) are thus described for both water models. Uncertainties in relative free energies of charged residues are ~2 kcal/mol with the new parameters, due to variations in system...

  15. Eddy Current Nondestructive Residual Stress Assessment in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, M.P.; Yu, F.; Nagy, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Shot peening and other mechanical surface enhancement methods improve the fatigue resistance and foreign-object damage tolerance of metallic components by introducing beneficial near-surface compressive residual stresses and hardening the surface. However, the fatigue life improvement gained via surface enhancement is not explicitly accounted for in current engine component life prediction models because of the lack of accurate and reliable nondestructive methods that could verify the presence of compressive near-surface residual stresses in shot-peened hardware. In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electrical resistivity. We found that, in contrast with most other materials, surface-treated nickel-base superalloys exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies, i.e., at decreasing penetration depths. Experimental results are presented to illustrate that the excess frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity of shot-peened nickel-base superalloys can be used to estimate the absolute level and penetration depth of the compressive residual stress layer both before and after partial thermal relaxation

  16. Effect of charge state and stoichiometry on the structure and reactivity of nickel oxide clusters with CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Reilly, Nelly M.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The collision induced fragmentation and reactivity of cationic and anionic nickel oxide clusters with carbon monoxide were studied experimentally using guided-ion-beam mass spectrometry. Anionic clusters with a stoichiometry containing one more oxygen atom than nickel atom (NiO2-, Ni2O3-, Ni3O4- and Ni4O5-) were found to exhibit dominant products resulting from the transfer of a single oxygen atom to CO, suggesting the formation of CO2. Of these four species, Ni2O3- and Ni4O5- were observed to be the most reactive having oxygen transfer products accounting for approximately 5% and 10% of the total ion intensity at a maximum pressure of 15 mTorr of CO. Our findings, therefore, indicate that anionic nickel oxide clusters containing an even number of nickel atoms and an odd number of oxygen atoms are more reactive than those with an odd number of nickel atoms and an even number of oxygen atoms. The majority of cationic nickel oxides, in contrast to anionic species, reacted preferentially through the adsorption of CO onto the cluster accompanied by the loss of either molecular O2 or nickel oxide units. The adsorption of CO onto positively charged nickel oxides, therefore, is exothermic enough to break apart the gas-phase clusters. Collision induced dissociation experiments, employing inert xenon gas, were also conducted to gain insight into the structural properties of nickel oxide clusters. The fragmentation products were found to vary considerably with size and stoichiometry as well as ionic charge state. In general, cationic clusters favored the collisional loss of molecular O2 while anionic clusters fragmented through the loss of both atomic oxygen and nickel oxide units. Our results provide insight into the effect of ionic charge state on the structure of nickel oxide clusters. Furthermore, we establish how the size and stoichiometry of nickel oxide clusters influences their ability to oxidize CO, an important reaction for environmental pollution abatement.

  17. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  18. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  19. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance. (author)

  20. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance.

  1. Near-surface residual stresses and microstructural changes after turning of a nickel-based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlauer, Christian

    2003-07-01

    Nickel-based superalloys are precipitation hardened alloys with complex compositions. They are used in aircraft engines and land-based gas turbines in load bearing structural components that are exposed to high temperatures. Failure mechanisms in this environment are high and low cycle fatigue, creep, and corrosion. During manufacturing, residual stresses are often introduced into the material due to inhomogeneous plastic deformations, both intentionally and unintentionally. One such manufacturing process is metal cutting, which introduces residual stresses in the surface layer. The stress state in the near-surface zone of components is of special interest as the surface often experiences peak loads and cracks have their starting point there. In this thesis, near-surface residual stress distributions and microstructural changes are studied in the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 for two different turning operations, face grooving and facing. Process variables are in both cases cutting speed and feed that have been varied between (10 and 1200) m/min and (0.01 and 0.5) mm, respectively. The first turning technique face grooving, which gives cutting conditions similar to orthogonal cutting, showed a clear dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed. The tensile stress at the surface, the maximum compressive stress below the surface, and the thickness of the affected layer increase with increasing cutting speed. The tensile stresses are constrained to a thin surface layer and compressive residual stresses below the surface dominate the depth profile of the residual stresses. Only at low cutting speed, residual stresses were largely avoided. The second turning technique facing confirmed the dependency of the residual stresses on the cutting speed and revealed a similar dependency on the feed. Microstructural investigations of near-surface cross-sections by means of transmission electron microscopy showed a zone where the grains had undergone plastic

  2. Solar photovoltaic charging of high voltage nickel metal hydride batteries using DC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    There are an increasing number of vehicle choices available that utilize batteries and electric motors to reduce tailpipe emissions and increase fuel economy. The eventual production of electricity and hydrogen in a renewable fashion, such as using solar energy, can achieve the long-term vision of having no tailpipe environmental impact, as well as eliminating the dependence of the transportation sector on dwindling supplies of petroleum for its energy. In this report we will demonstrate the solar-powered charging of the high-voltage nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery used in the GM 2-mode hybrid system. In previous studies we have used low-voltage solar modules to produce hydrogen via the electrolysis of water and to directly charge lithium-ion battery modules. Our strategy in the present work was to boost low-voltage PV voltage to over 300 V using DC-DC converters in order to charge the high-voltage NiMH battery, and to regulate the battery charging using software to program the electronic control unit supplied with the battery pack. A protocol for high-voltage battery charging was developed, and the solar to battery charging efficiency was measured under a variety of conditions. We believe this is the first time such high-voltage batteries have been charged using solar energy in order to prove the concept of efficient, solar-powered charging for battery-electric vehicles.

  3. High temperature cathodic charging of hydrogen in zirconium alloys and iron and nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    These investigations lead to the development of a new technique for charging hydrogen into metals and alloys. In this technique a mixture of sulfates and bisulfates of sodium and potassium is kept saturated with water at 250-300degC in an open pyrex glass beaker and electrolysed using platinum anode and the material to be charged as the cathode. Most of the studies were carried out on Zr alloys. It is shown that because of the high hydrogen flux available at the surface and the high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals at these temperatures the materials pick up hydrogen faster and more uniformly than the conventional electrolytic charging at room temperature and high temperature autoclaving in LiOH solutions. Chemical analysis, metallographic examination and XRD studies confirm this. This technique has been used to charge hydrogen into many iron and nickel base austentic alloys, which are very resistant to hydrogen pick up and to H-embrittlement. Since this involved a novel method of electrolysing water, the hydrogen/deuterium isotopic ratio has been studied. At this temperatures the D/H ratio in the evolved hydrogen gas was found to be closer to the value in the liquid water, which means a smaller separation factor. This confirm the earlier observation that separation factor decreases with increase of temperature. (author). 16 refs., 21 fi gs., 6 tabs

  4. Correlation Between the Microstructural Defects and Residual Stress in a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy During Different Creep Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fangjie; Wu, Erdong; Zhang, Changsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhong, Zhengye; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Bo; Hofmann, Michael; Gan, Weimin; Sun, Guangai

    2018-03-01

    The present work attempts to reveal the correlation between the microstructural defects and residual stress in the single crystal nickel-based superalloy, both of which play the significant role on properties and performance. Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the microstructural defects and residual stresses in a single crystal (SC) nickel-based superalloy, which was subjected to creeping under 220 MPa and 1000 °C for different times. The measured superlattice and fundamental lattice reflections confirm that the mismatch and tetragonal distortions with c/a > 1 exist in the SC superalloy. At the initially unstrained state, there exists the angular distortion between γ and γ' phases with small triaxial compressive stresses, ensuring the structural stability of the superalloy. After creeping, the tetragonal distortion for the γ phase is larger than that for the γ' phase. With increasing the creeping time, the mismatch between γ and γ' phases increases to the maximum, then decreases gradually and finally remains unchanged. The macroscopic residual stress shows a similar behavior with the mismatch, indicating the correlation between them. Based on the model of shear and dislocations, the evolution of microstructural defects and residual stress are reasonably explained. The effect of shear is dominant at the primary creep stage, which greatly enlarges the mismatch and the residual stress. The dislocations weaken the effect of shear for the further creep stage, resulting in the decrease of the mismatch and relaxation of the residual stress. Those findings add some helpful understanding into the microstructure-performance relationship in the SC nickel-based superalloy, which might provide the insight to materials design and applications.

  5. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  6. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem; Hussain, Ishtiaq; Tufail, Shahid; Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  7. Preparation of high purity nickel film from industrial effluent by the distribution of charge over microelectrodes using newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sheikh Asrar; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Zafar, Muhammad Nadeem [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)], E-mail: znadeempk@yahoo.com; Hussain, Ishtiaq [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan); Tufail, Shahid [PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Feroz pur Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Rashid, Saima; Shah, Hamid Ali [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54590 (Pakistan)

    2008-09-15

    The present work deals with the development of a newly designed free electrolytic diffusion approach (the distribution of charge over microelectrodes) for the purification of metals and was successfully applied for the purification of nickel from the industrial effluent containing high proportion of nickel. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analyzed the purified nickel deposited on working microelectrodes. The results obtained show that the purity of nickel was enhanced from 95% to 99.9% with traces of copper etc. It was concluded that distribution of charge over the microcathodes at a rate of 50 cycles per second (cps) shows better results for the production of high purity (HP) nickel as compared to 25 cycles per second (cps)

  8. Analysis of shot-peening and residual stress relaxation in the nickel-based superalloy RR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, B.J.; Gray, S.; Hardy, M.C.; Stekovic, S.; McPhail, D.S.; Shollock, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the residual stress relaxation of the nickel-based alloy RR1000 due to thermal exposure and dwell-fatigue loading. A number of different characterization methods, including X-ray residual stress analysis, electron back-scattered diffraction, microhardness testing and focused ion beam secondary electron imaging, contributed to a detailed study of the shot-peened region. Thermal exposure at 700 °C resulted in a large reduction in the residual stresses and work-hardening effects in the alloy, but the subsurface remained in a beneficial compressive state. Oxidizing environments caused recrystallization in the near surface, but did not affect the residual stress-relaxation behaviour. Dwell-fatigue loading caused the residual stresses to return to approximately zero at nearly all depths. This work forms part of an ongoing investigation to determine the effects of shot-peening in this alloy with the motivation to improve the fatigue and oxidation resistance at 700 °C

  9. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  10. Manipulation of charged residues within the two-peptide lantibiotic lacticin 3147

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deegan, Lucy H.; Suda, Srinivas; Lawton, Elaine M.; Draper, Lorraine A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Peschel, Andreas; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides which contain a high percentage of post-translationally modified residues. While most attention has been paid to the role of these critical structural features, evidence continues to emerge that charged amino acids also play a key role in these peptides. Here

  11. Anharmonicity of lattice vibrations induced by charged nickel additions in A sup 2 B sup 6 semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, V I; Shirokov, E A; Kislov, A N

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigations into lattice vibrations induced by nickel impurities charged negatively as to the lattice in ZnSe:Ni, ZnO:Ni, ZnS:Ni, CdS:Ni semiconductors. To investigate into vibrations one applies a sensitive technique of field exciton-oscillation spectroscopy. One observes experimentally oscillating reiterations of the impurity exciton head line including the intensive peaks of combined repetitions up to the 8-th order. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the model estimations of oscillations of a lattice with a charged impurity centre, as well as, on the ground of calculations for oscillations of monoatomic chain with high anharmonicity. Charged impurity centres are shown to induce new oscillations of lattice - impurity anharmonic modes

  12. On the Feasibility of Eddy Current Characterization of the Near-Surface Residual Stress Distribution in Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blodgett, Mark P.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2004-01-01

    In light of its frequency-dependent penetration depth, the measurement of eddy current conductivity has been suggested as a possible means to allow the nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stresses in shot-peened specimens. This technique is based on the so-called electroelastic effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of the electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, the relatively small (∼1%) change in electrical conductivity caused by the presence of compressive residual stresses is often distorted, or even completely overshadowed, by the accompanying conductivity loss caused by cold work and surface roughness effects. Recently, it was observed that, in contrast with most other materials, shot-peened Waspaloy and IN100 specimens exhibit an apparent increase in electrical conductivity at increasing inspection frequencies. This observation by itself indicates that in these materials the measured conductivity change is probably dominated by residual stress effects, since both surface roughness and increased dislocation density are known to decrease rather than increase the conductivity and the presence of crystallographic texture does not affect the electrical conductivity of these materials, which crystallize in cubic symmetry. Our preliminary experiments indicate that probably there exists a unique 'window of opportunity' for eddy current NDE in nickel-base superalloys. We identified five major effects that contribute to this fortunate constellation of material properties, which will be reviewed in this presentation

  13. The Role of Cold Work in Eddy Current Residual Stress Measurements in Shot-Peened Nickel-Base Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.; Nagy, P. B.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that eddy current methods can be adapted to residual stress measurement in shot-peened nickel-base superalloys. However, experimental evidence indicates that the piezoresistivity effect is simply not high enough to account for the observed apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) increase. At the same time, X-ray diffraction data indicates that 'cold work' lingers even when the residual stress is fully relaxed and the excess AECC is completely gone. It is impossible to account for both observations with a single coherent explanation unless we assume that instead of a single 'cold work' effect, there are two varieties of cold work; type-A and type-B. Type-A cold work (e.g., changes in the microscopic homogeneity of the material) is not detected by X-ray diffraction as it does not significantly affect the beam width, but causes substantial conductivity change and exhibits strong thermal relaxation. Type-B cold work (e.g., dislocations) is detected by X-ray, but causes little or no conductivity change and exhibits weak thermal relaxation. Based on the assumption of two separate cold-work variables and that X-ray diffraction results indicate the presence of type-B, but not type-A, all observed phenomena can be explained. If this working hypothesis is proven right, the separation of residual stress and type-A cold work is less critical because they both relax much earlier and much faster than type-B cold work

  14. Residual stresses analysis in ball end milling of nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junteng; Zhang, Dinghua; Wu, Baohai; Luo, Ming [Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University (China)

    2017-11-15

    Inconel 718 is widely used in the aviation, space, automotive and biomedical industries because of its outstanding properties. Near-surface residual stresses that are induced by ball end milling in Inconel 718 can be crucial for the performance and service time of the machined parts. In this paper, the influences of cutting conditions, including the use of cutting parameters, cutting fluid and spindle angles, on the residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718 alloy were investigated experimentally. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that residual stress distributions are highly influenced by cutting parameters, especially the depth of cut and cutting speed. The milling operation with cooling induces more compressive stresses trend and the magnitude of the residual stresses increases in the tensile direction with the increase of spindle angles. These cutting induced effects were further discussed with respect to thermal- mechanical coupling theory and some observations made by optical microscopy. From this investigation, it is suggested that the machining process parameters are not the smaller the better for the control of residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718. (author)

  15. Study of nickel hydrogen battery discharge performance after charge and stand at warm temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donley, S.W.; Verrier, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft batteries are normally installed in the discharged condition. It may be necessary that they be charged and trickle-charged prior to launch in an environment different from that in which they are intended to operate. The purpose of the testing described in this paper was to determine the battery capacity achieved after treatment at prelaunch conditions as a function of charge rate, charge temperature, trickle charge temperature, and time. In this testing the discharge in every case was performed under simulated space thermal conditions

  16. Adsorption of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution by Bicarbonate Modified Coconut Oilcake Residue Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumari, N; Srinivasan, K

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption of Ni (II) on modified coconut oilcake residue carbon (bicarbonate treated coconut oilcake residue carbon-BCORC) was employed for the removal of Ni (II) from water and wastewater. The influence of various factors such as agitation time, pH and carbon dosage on the adsorption capacity has been studied. Adsorption isothermal data could be interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In order to understand the reaction mechanism, kinetic data has been studied using reversible first order rate equation. Similar studies were carried out using commercially available activated carbon--CAC, for comparison purposes. Column studies were conducted to obtain breakthrough capacities of BCORC and CAC. Common anions and cations affecting the removal of Ni (II) on both the carbons were also studied. Experiments were also done with wastewater containing Ni (II), to assess the potential of these carbons.

  17. Removal of Cadmium, Zinc, Lead and Copper by Sorption on Leaching Residue from Nickel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Václavíková

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A leaching resudue from the nickel production (LRNi, was used to study the removal of selected bivalent cations (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn from model aqueous solutions. Batch-type experiments have been performed in solutions with initial concentrations of heavy metals in the range of 20-400 mg.L-1 and the adsorbent dosage 2 g.L-1. All adsorption experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (22+1°C in orbital shaker. The experimental data were modeled with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The relatively high uptake indicated that LRNi can adsorb considerable amounts of cadmium and zinc (maximum uptake capacity for cadmium: 25 mg/g at pH 7.2 and ca. 40 mg/g for zinc at pH 7. A significant uptake was also observed for copper and lead at pH 5.8 and 6 respectively, which was attributed to the precipitation of the respective insoluble hydroxides.

  18. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Fault Clearing at Low State of Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1997-01-01

    Fault clearing currents were achieved and maintained at discharge rates from C/2 to C/3 at high and low states of charge. The fault clearing plateau voltage is strong function of: discharge current, and voltage-prior-to-the-fault-clearing-event and a weak function of state of charge. Voltage performance, for the range of conditions reported, is summarized.

  19. Selective removal of cesium from aqueous solutions with nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue-walnut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dahu; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-04-15

    A novel nickel (II) hexacyanoferrate (III) functionalized agricultural residue-walnut shell (Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS) was developed to selectively remove cesium ion (Cs(+)) from aqueous solutions. This paper showed the first integral study on Cs(+) removal behavior and waste reduction analysis by using biomass adsorption material. The results indicated that the removal process was rapid and reached saturation within 2h. As a special characteristic of Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS, acidic condition was preferred for Cs(+) removal, which was useful for extending the application scope of the prepared biomass material in treating acidic radioactive liquid waste. The newly developed Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS could selectively remove Cs(+) though the coexisting ions (Na(+) and K(+) in this study) exhibited negative effects. In addition, approximately 99.8% (in volume) of the liquid waste was reduced by using Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS and furthermore 91.9% (in volume) of the spent biomass material (Cs-Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS) was reduced after incineration (at 500°C for 2h). Due to its relatively high distribution coefficient and significant volume reduction, Ni(II)HCF(III)-WS is expected to be a promising material for Cs(+) removal in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A study of the influence of charged residues on β-hairpin formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Joanna; Zmudzińska, Wioletta; Uber, Dorota; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2014-12-01

    Chain reversals are often nucleation sites in protein folding. The β-hairpins of FBP28 WW domain and IgG are stable and have been proved to initiate the folding and are, therefore, suitable for studying the influence of charged residues on β-hairpin conformation. In this paper, we carried out NMR examination of the conformations in solution of two fragments from the FPB28 protein (PDB code: 1E0L) (N-terminal part) namely KTADGKT-NH2 (1E0L 12-18, D7) and YKTADGKTY-NH2 (1E0L 11-19, D9), one from the B3 domain of the protein G (PDB code: 1IGD), namely DDATKT-NH2 (1IGD 51-56) (Dag1), and three variants of Dag1 peptide: DVATKT-NH2 (Dag2), OVATKT-NH2 (Dag3) and KVATKT-NH2 (Dag4), respectively, in which the original charged residue were replaced with non-polar residues or modified charged residues. It was found that both the D7 and D9 peptides form a large fraction bent conformations. However, no hydrophobic contacts between the terminal Tyr residues of D9 occur, which suggests that the presence of a pair of like-charged residues stabilizes chain reversal. Conversely, only the Dag1 and Dag2 peptides exhibit some chain reversal; replacing the second aspartic-acid residue with a valine and the first one with a basic residue results in a nearly extended conformation. These results suggest that basic residues farther away in sequence can result in stabilization of chain reversal owing to screening of the non-polar core. Conversely, smaller distance in sequence prohibits this screening, while the presence oppositely-charged residues can stabilize a turn because of salt-bridge formation.

  1. Selective effects of charge on G protein activation by FSH-receptor residues 551-555 and 650-653.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, P; Deziel, M R; Reichert, L E

    1995-01-01

    Two cytosolic regions of the rat testicular FSH receptor (FSHR), residues 533-555 and 645-653, have been identified as G protein-coupling domains. We localized the activity in these domains to their C-terminal sequences, residues 551-555 (KIAKR, net charge +3) and 650-653 (RKSH, net charge +3), and examined the effects of charge on G protein activation by the C-terminal peptides, using synthetic analogs containing additions, through alanine (A) linkages, of arginine (R, +), histidine (H, +) or both. RA-KIAKR (net charge +4) mimicked the effect of FSHR-(551-555) on guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but reduced its ability to inhibit FSH-stimulated estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Further increasing net charge by the addition of H (HARA-KIAKR, net charge +5) increased guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) binding, but eliminated FSHR-(551-555) effects on FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. HA-RKSH (net charge +4) significantly inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but stimulated basal and potentiated FSH-induced estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Addition of two H residues (HAHA-RKSH, net charge +5) restored GTP binding and further potentiated basal and FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. These results suggest that positive charges in G protein-coupling domains of the FSHR play a role in modulating G protein activation and postbinding effects of FSH, such as steroidogenesis.

  2. Phase Fluctuations and the Absence of Topological Defects in Photo-excited Charge Ordered Nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.

    2012-05-15

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La{sub 1.75}Sr{sub 0.25}NiO{sub 4} to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  3. Effect of injection energy on residual dose around the charge exchange foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazami Yamamoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC and the accumulator ring (AR of Spallation Neutron Source (SNS can be used as high-power pulsed neutron sources. In both cases, the injection region becomes one of the highest activation areas in the ring. However, residual dose distributions have revealed that the highest activation points in the J-PARC RCS and the SNS AR are different in detail. The dose of the charge exchange chamber in the SNS is more than 100 times larger than that of the RCS though the ratio of beam power is less than 10. We investigated the reason of this difference by Geant4 and MARS, and the calculation results indicated that the difference was due to the dependence of the neutron and pion production rate on the injection energy.

  4. Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Methods for Measurement of Residual Stresses in Brush-Plated Nickel Hardened Gold and Silver Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri LILLE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hard gold and silver are applied in coating owing to their high hardness, good wear and corrosion resistance for engineering application (e.g. on generators slip rings, sliding contacts and small machine parts and are typically plated on copper (mostly, brass and bronze. The studied nickel-hardened gold and silver coatings were brush plated on open thin-walled copper ring substrates. Residual stresses in the coatings were calculated from the curvature changes of the substrates. Biaxial intrinsic residual stresses were also determined by nanoindentation testing and by the X-ray technique. The values of the residual stresses represented tensile stresses and when determined by the techniques used they were comparable within a maximum limit of measurement uncertainty. These stresses relax; the dependence of relaxation time was approximated by a linear-fractional function.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7439

  5. X-ray diffraction measurement of residual stress in sol-gel grown lead zirconate titanate thick films on nickel-based super alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshyarmanesh, Hamidreza; Nehzat, Naser; Salehi, Mehdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman)

    2015-02-15

    Residual compressive stress of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thick films was investigated using residual strains derived from X-ray diffraction patterns. Sin{sup 2}ψ method was applied for the 5, 10 and 15 μm sol-gel derived thick films annealed at 700 .deg. C for 1 hr as high frequency structural health monitoring square-shape transducers of 10 x10 mm, deposited onto the curved nickel-based super alloy substrates. A triaxial model was proposed based on piezoelectric constitutive equations, and Bragg's law at a large diffraction angle (∼89°) was utilized considering the electromechanical coupling factor as well as elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants. Thickness variations led to a significant change in residual stress magnitudes delineated from more-accurate triaxial model compared to small angle plane-stress results not considering the piezoelectric coupling effects.

  6. Mutation of charged residues to neutral ones accelerates urea denaturation of HP-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haiyan; Yang, Lijiang; Gao, Yi Qin

    2010-09-16

    Following the studies of urea denaturation of β-hairpins using molecular dynamics, in this paper, molecular dynamics simulations of two peptides, a 35 residue three helix bundle villin headpiece protein HP-35 and its doubly norleucine-substituent mutant (Lys24Nle/Lys29Nle) HP-35 NleNle, were undertaken in urea solutions to understand the molecular mechanism of urea denaturation of α-helices. The mutant HP-35 NleNle was found to denature more easily than the wild type. During the expansion of the small hydrophobic core, water penetration occurs first, followed by that of urea molecules. It was also found that the initial hydration of the peptide backbone is achieved through water hydrogen bonding with the backbone CO groups during the denaturation of both polypeptides. The mutation of the two charged lysine residues to apolar norleucine enhances the accumulation of urea near the hydrophobic core and facilitates the denaturation process. Urea also interacts directly with the peptide backbone as well as side chains, thereby stabilizing nonnative conformations. The mechanism revealed here is consistent with the previous study on secondary structure of β-hairpin polypeptide, GB1, PEPTIDE 1, and TRPZIP4, suggesting that there is a general mechanism in the denaturation of protein backbone hydrogen bonds by urea.

  7. Surface mechanical property and residual stress of peened nickel-aluminum bronze determined by in-situ X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengxi; Jiang, Chuanhai; Zhao, Yuantao; Chen, Ming; Ji, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most important surface strengthening method, shot peening is widely used to improve the fatigue and stress corrosion crack resistance of components by introducing the refined microstructure and compressive residual stress in the surface layer. However, the mechanical properties of this thin layer are different from the base metal and are difficult to be characterized by conventional techniques. In this work, a micro uniaxial tensile tester equipped with in-situ X-ray stress analyzer was employed to make it achievable on a nickel-aluminum bronze with shot peening treatment. According to the equivalent stress-strain relationship based on Von Mises stress criterion, the Young's modulus and yield strength of the peened layer were calculated. The results showed that the Young's modulus was the same as the bulk material, and the yield strength corresponding to the permanent plastic strain of 0.2% was increased by 21% after SP. But the fractographic analysis showed that the fracture feature of the surface layer was likely to transform from the dimple to the cleavage, indicating the improved strength might be attained at the expense of ductility. The monotonic and cyclic loading were also performed via the same combined set-up. In addition, the specific relaxation behavior of compressive residual stress was quantified by linear logarithm relationship between residual stress and cycle numbers. It was found that the compressive residual stress mainly relaxed in the first few cycles, and then reached steady state with further cycles. The relaxation rate and the stable value were chiefly depended on the stress amplitude and number of cycles. The retained residual stress kept in compressive under all given applied stress levels, suggesting that the shot peening could introduce a more stable surface layer of compressive residual stress other than the elevated strength of nickel-aluminum bronze alloy.

  8. Interactions between charged residues in the transmembrane segments of the voltage-sensing domain in the hERG channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Liu, J; Jiang, M; Wu, D-M; Sonawane, K; Guy, H R; Tseng, G-N

    2005-10-01

    Studies on voltage-gated K channels such as Shaker have shown that positive charges in the voltage-sensor (S4) can form salt bridges with negative charges in the surrounding transmembrane segments in a state-dependent manner, and different charge pairings can stabilize the channels in closed or open states. The goal of this study is to identify such charge interactions in the hERG channel. This knowledge can provide constraints on the spatial relationship among transmembrane segments in the channel's voltage-sensing domain, which are necessary for modeling its structure. We first study the effects of reversing S4's positive charges on channel activation. Reversing positive charges at the outer (K525D) and inner (K538D) ends of S4 markedly accelerates hERG activation, whereas reversing the 4 positive charges in between either has no effect or slows activation. We then use the 'mutant cycle analysis' to test whether D456 (outer end of S2) and D411 (inner end of S1) can pair with K525 and K538, respectively. Other positive charges predicted to be able, or unable, to interact with D456 or D411 are also included in the analysis. The results are consistent with predictions based on the distribution of these charged residues, and confirm that there is functional coupling between D456 and K525 and between D411 and K538.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Principal Residual Stress and Fatigue Performance for Turned Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yang; Liu, Zhanqiang

    2018-05-24

    Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Principal Residual Stress and Fatigue Performance for Turned Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hua

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses of turned Inconel 718 surface along its axial and circumferential directions affect the fatigue performance of machined components. However, it has not been clear that the axial and circumferential directions are the principle residual stress direction. The direction of the maximum principal residual stress is crucial for the machined component service life. The present work aims to focuses on determining the direction and magnitude of principal residual stress and investigating its influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718. The turning experimental results show that the principal residual stress magnitude is much higher than surface residual stress. In addition, both the principal residual stress and surface residual stress increase significantly as the feed rate increases. The fatigue test results show that the direction of the maximum principal residual stress increased by 7.4%, while the fatigue life decreased by 39.4%. The maximum principal residual stress magnitude diminished by 17.9%, whereas the fatigue life increased by 83.6%. The maximum principal residual stress has a preponderant influence on fatigue performance as compared to the surface residual stress. The maximum principal residual stress can be considered as a prime indicator for evaluation of the residual stress influence on fatigue performance of turned Inconel 718.

  11. Understanding CO-stripping mechanism from Ni{sub UPD}/Pt(1 1 0) in view of the measured nickel formal partial charge number upon underpotential deposition on platinum surfaces in sulphate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, Marian [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@lepmi.inpg.fr; Soldo-Olivier, Yvonne; Chainet, Eric; Faure, Rene [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2007-12-01

    We recently showed nickel-underpotential deposition (Ni-UPD) occurs on polycrystalline or single crystal platinum electrodes in acidic media. Whereas the decoupling of the nickel and hydrogen adsorption/desorption peaks is difficult for low pH, these processes can be better separated for higher pH values, typically pH > 3. However, even for platinum single crystals, high pH solutions do not enable to sufficiently separate nickel from hydrogen phenomena. As a result, electrochemistry alone cannot yield important information about Ni-UPD, such as the formal partial charge number (valency of electrosorption) and the role of the sulphate or hydrogen sulphate anions. So, we decided to couple cyclic voltammetry to electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM). EQCM measurements enable to decorrelate the simultaneous hydrogen and nickel adsorption/desorption peaks, which we could not attempt solely with electrochemistry. The coupling between gravimetric and electrochemical measurements allows us to detect the contribution of the anions and thus to isolate that of nickel: nickel coverage can then be determined. Nearly 4/5 Ni{sub UPD} monolayer ({theta}{sub Ni} {approx} 0.8) over platinum is reached at nickel equilibrium potential for high pH solutions (5.5). The QCM and electrochemistry coupling further allows the determination of nickel formal partial charge number: {iota}{sub Ni,EQCM} = 1.3 {+-} 0.13. Direct electrochemistry measurements (Swathirajan and Bruckenstein method) yield: {iota}{sub Ni,Pt(poly)} = 1.5 {+-} 0.17. These two values are close, which validates the electrochemical method for the nickel/platinum system. In consequence, we used Swathirajan and Bruckenstein method for Pt(1 1 0)-(1 x 2) crystal and found: {iota}{sub Ni,Pt(110)} {approx} 1.4 {+-} 0.1. Whatever the system (Ni{sub UPD}/Pt(poly) or Ni{sub UPD}/Pt(1 1 0)-(1 x 2)) or the experimental technique, nickel formal partial charge number is lower than nickel cation charge: {iota}{sub Ni} < z

  12. Role of long- and short-range hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues contact network in protein’s structural organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Dhriti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three-dimensional structure of a protein can be described as a graph where nodes represent residues and the strength of non-covalent interactions between them are edges. These protein contact networks can be separated into long and short-range interactions networks depending on the positions of amino acids in primary structure. Long-range interactions play a distinct role in determining the tertiary structure of a protein while short-range interactions could largely contribute to the secondary structure formations. In addition, physico chemical properties and the linear arrangement of amino acids of the primary structure of a protein determines its three dimensional structure. Here, we present an extensive analysis of protein contact subnetworks based on the London van der Waals interactions of amino acids at different length scales. We further subdivided those networks in hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues networks and have tried to correlate their influence in the overall topology and organization of a protein. Results The largest connected component (LCC of long (LRN-, short (SRN- and all-range (ARN networks within proteins exhibit a transition behaviour when plotted against different interaction strengths of edges among amino acid nodes. While short-range networks having chain like structures exhibit highly cooperative transition; long- and all-range networks, which are more similar to each other, have non-chain like structures and show less cooperativity. Further, the hydrophobic residues subnetworks in long- and all-range networks have similar transition behaviours with all residues all-range networks, but the hydrophilic and charged residues networks don’t. While the nature of transitions of LCC’s sizes is same in SRNs for thermophiles and mesophiles, there exists a clear difference in LRNs. The presence of larger size of interconnected long-range interactions in thermophiles than mesophiles, even at

  13. Substantial conformational change mediated by charge-triad residues of the death effector domain in protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Twomey

    Full Text Available Protein conformational changes are commonly associated with the formation of protein complexes. The non-catalytic death effector domains (DEDs mediate protein-protein interactions in a variety of cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and migration, and glucose metabolism. Here, using NMR residual dipolar coupling (RDC data, we report a conformational change in the DED of the phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 kDa (PEA-15 protein in the complex with a mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2, which is essential in regulating ERK2 cellular distribution and function in cell proliferation and migration. The most significant conformational change in PEA-15 happens at helices α2, α3, and α4, which also possess the highest flexibility among the six-helix bundle of the DED. This crucial conformational change is modulated by the D/E-RxDL charge-triad motif, one of the prominent structural features of DEDs, together with a number of other electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions on the protein surface. Charge-triad motif promotes the optimal orientation of key residues and expands the binding interface to accommodate protein-protein interactions. However, the charge-triad residues are not directly involved in the binding interface between PEA-15 and ERK2.

  14. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition ...

  15. A coupled creep plasticity model for residual stress relaxation of a shot-peened nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Dennis J.; John, Reji; Brockman, Robert A.; Rosenberger, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Shot peening is a commonly used surface treatment process that imparts compressive residual stresses into the surface of metal components. Compressive residual stresses retard initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. During component loading history, shot-peened residual stresses may change due to thermal exposure, creep, and cyclic loading. In these instances, taking full credit for compressive residual stresses would result in a nonconservative life prediction. This article describes a methodical approach for characterizing and modeling residual stress relaxation under elevated temperature loading, near and above the monotonic yield strength of INI 00. The model incorporates the dominant creep deformation mechanism, coupling between the creep and plasticity models, and effects of prior plastic strain to simulate surface treatment deformation.

  16. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  17. Influence of digestion methods on the recovery of Iron, Zinc, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead contents in 11 organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are currently many devices and techniques to quantify trace elements (TEs in various matrices, but their efficacy is dependent on the digestion methods (DMs employed in the opening of such matrices which, although "organic", present inorganic components which are difficult to solubilize. This study was carried out to evaluate the recovery of Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb contents in samples of composts and cattle, horse, chicken, quail, and swine manures, as well as in sewage sludges and peat. The DMs employed were acid digestion in microwaves with HNO3 (EPA 3051A; nitric-perchloric digestion with HNO3 + HClO4 in a digestion block (NP; dry ashing in a muffle furnace and solubilization of residual ash in nitric acid (MDA; digestion by using aqua regia solution (HCl:HNO3 in the digestion block (AR; and acid digestion with HCl and HNO3 + H2O2 (EPA 3050. The dry ashing method led to the greatest recovery of Cd in organic residues, but the EPA 3050 protocol can be an alternative method for the same purpose. The dry ashing should not be employed to determine the concentration of Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the residues. Higher Cr and Fe contents are recovered when NP and EPA 3050 are employed in the opening of organic matrices. For most of the residues analyzed, AR is the most effective method for recovering Ni. Microwave-assisted digestion methods (EPA3051 and 3050 led to the highest recovery of Pb. The choice of the DM that provides maximum recovery of Zn depends on the organic residue and trace element analyzed.

  18. Statistical Characterization of the Charge State and Residue Dependence of Low-Energy CID Peptide Dissociation Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yingying; Triscari, Joseph M.; Tseng, George C.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2005-01-01

    Data mining was performed on 28 330 unique peptide tandem mass spectra for which sequences were assigned with high confidence. By dividing the spectra into different sets based on structural features and charge states of the corresponding peptides, chemical interactions involved in promoting specific cleavage patterns in gas-phase peptides were characterized. Pairwise fragmentation maps describing cleavages at all Xxx-Zzz residue combinations for b and y ions reveal that the difference in basicity between Arg and Lys results in different dissociation patterns for singly charged Arg- and Lys-ending tryptic peptides. While one dominant protonation form (proton localized) exists for Arg-ending peptides, a heterogeneous population of different protonated forms or more facile interconversion of protonated forms (proton partially mobile) exists for Lys-ending peptides. Cleavage C-terminal to acidic residues dominates spectra from peptides that have a localized proton and cleavage N-terminal to Pro dominates those that have a mobile or partially mobile proton. When Pro is absent from peptides that have a mobile or partially mobile proton, cleavage at each peptide bond becomes much more prominent. Whether the above patterns can be found in b ions, y ions, or both depends on the location of the proton holder(s). Enhanced cleavages C-terminal to branched aliphatic residues (Ile, Val, Leu) are observed in both b and y ions from peptides that have a mobile proton, as well as in y ions from peptides that have a partially mobile proton; enhanced cleavages N-terminal to these residues are observed in b ions from peptides that have a partially mobile proton. Statistical tools have been designed to visualize the fragmentation maps and measure the similarity between them. The pairwise cleavage patterns observed expand our knowledge of peptide gas-phase fragmentation behaviors and should be useful in algorithm development that employs improved models to predict fragment ion

  19. Water Tree Influence on Space Charge Distribution and on the Residual Electric Field in Polyethylene Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Stancu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A computation method of the electricfield and ionic space charge density in planeinsulations with water trees (using a ComsolMultiphysics software and the thermal step currents(Im(t measured with Thermal Step Method ispresented. A parabolic spatial variation of volumecharge density, an exponential spatial variation ofthe electric permittivity ε and a linear dependency ofε and the temperature coefficient of permittivity αεwith the average water concentration in trees, areconsidered. For a water tree with a known length,different values of charge density are consideredand the electric field and the thermal step currentsIc(t are calculated. The currents Ic(t and Im(t arecompared and the volume of charge density andelectric field for which Ic(t is identical with Im(t arekept.

  20. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (=intensive agriculture) and eastern (=extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations=5.21-9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15-4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34-0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71-11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (ruralsoil environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: orlog@poczta.onet.pl [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań (Poland); Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Wuczyński, Andrzej [Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lower-Silesian Field Station, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław (Poland); Polechoński, Ryszard [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Mazgajski, Tomasz D. [Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically.

  2. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz; Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław; Wuczyński, Andrzej; Polechoński, Ryszard; Mazgajski, Tomasz D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically

  3. Nickel extraction from nickel matte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagja, R.

    2018-01-01

    In present work, the results of research activities to make nickel metal from nickel matte are presented. The research activities were covering a) nickel matte characterization using Inductively Couple plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), b) nickel matte dissolution process to dissolve nickel from nickel matte into the spent electrolyte solutions that contains hydrochloric acid, c) purification of nickel chloride leach solution by copper cementation process to remove copper using nickel matte, selective precipitation process to remove iron, solvent extraction using Tri normal octyl amine to separate cobalt from nickel chloride solutions and d) Nickel electro winning process to precipitate nickel into the cathode surface from purified nickel chloride solution by using direct current. The research activities created 99, 72 % pure nickel metal as the final product of the process.

  4. Investigating local degradation and thermal stability of charged nickel-based cathode materials through real-time electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Kim, Seung Min; Bak, Seong-Min; Cho, Byung-Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Lee, Jeong Yong; Chang, Wonyoung; Stach, Eric A

    2014-09-10

    In this work, we take advantage of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate thermally induced decomposition of the surface of Li(x)Ni(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA) cathode materials that have been subjected to different states of charge (SOC). While uncharged NCA is stable up to 400 °C, significant changes occur in charged NCA with increasing temperature. These include the development of surface porosity and changes in the oxygen K-edge electron energy loss spectra, with pre-edge peaks shifting to higher energy losses. These changes are closely related to O2 gas released from the structure, as well as to phase changes of NCA from the layered structure to the disordered spinel structure, and finally to the rock-salt structure. Although the temperatures where these changes initiate depend strongly on the state of charge, there also exist significant variations among particles with the same state of charge. Notably, when NCA is charged to x = 0.33 (the charge state that is the practical upper limit voltage in most applications), the surfaces of some particles undergo morphological and oxygen K-edge changes even at temperatures below 100 °C, a temperature that electronic devices containing lithium ion batteries (LIB) can possibly see during normal operation. Those particles that experience these changes are likely to be extremely unstable and may trigger thermal runaway at much lower temperatures than would be usually expected. These results demonstrate that in situ heating experiments are a unique tool not only to study the general thermal behavior of cathode materials but also to explore particle-to-particle variations, which are sometimes of critical importance in understanding the performance of the overall system.

  5. Phase fluctuations and the absence of topological defects in a photo-excited charge-ordered nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. S.; Chuang, Y. D.; Moore, R. G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D. H.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J. S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S. Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D. A.; Kaindl, R. A.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Doering, D.; Denes, P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Johnson, S. L.; Först, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Kung, Y. F.; Sorini, A. P.; Kemper, A. F.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Lee, D. -H.; Shen, Z. X.; Hussain, Z.

    2012-05-15

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  6. The Distribution of Charged Amino Acid Residues and the Ca2+ Permeability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: A Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fucile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels exhibiting variable Ca2+ permeability depending on their subunit composition. The Ca2+ permeability is a crucial functional parameter to understand the physiological role of nAChRs, in particular considering their ability to modulate Ca2+-dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. The rings of extracellular and intracellular charged amino acid residues adjacent to the pore-lining TM2 transmembrane segment have been shown to play a key role in the cation selectivity of these receptor channels, but to date a quantitative relationship between these structural determinants and the Ca2+ permeability of nAChRs is lacking. In the last years the Ca2+ permeability of several nAChR subtypes has been experimentally evaluated, in terms of fractional Ca2+ current (Pf, i.e., the percentage of the total current carried by Ca2+ ions. In the present study, the available Pf-values of nAChRs are used to build a simplified modular model describing the contribution of the charged residues in defined regions flanking TM2 to the selectivity filter controlling Ca2+ influx. This model allows to predict the currently unknown Pf-values of existing nAChRs, as well as the hypothetical Ca2+ permeability of subunit combinations not able to assemble into functional receptors. In particular, basing on the amino acid sequences, a Pf > 50% would be associated with homomeric nAChRs composed by different α subunits, excluding α7, α9, and α10. Furthermore, according to the model, human α7β2 receptors should have Pf-values ranging from 3.6% (4:1 ratio to 0.1% (1:4 ratio, much lower than the 11.4% of homomeric α7 nAChR. These results help to understand the evolution and the function of the large diversity of the nicotinic receptor family.

  7. Effect of conditioning by PAM polymers with different charges on the structural and characteristic evolutions of water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Wang, Y L; Chen, Y J

    2013-11-01

    Three types of polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculants with different charges (cationic PAM WD4960, nonionic PAM M351, and anionic PAM WDA110) were used for water treatment residuals (WTRs) conditioning, and the physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics of raw and conditioned WTRs were investigated. Rheological methods were employed to analyze the internal structural transition between the raw and conditioned WTRs under a typical dosage of WD4960. Results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymers, the optimum dosage of WD4960 was 4.82 g/kg total suspended solid (TSS) while that of both M351 and WDA110 was 7.24 g/kg TSS. The residual PAM content in the supernatant of the WTR matrix conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was 5.59 mg/L, which is the least among the supernatants obtained with the three types of PAM. Furthermore, the visible fulvic acid (FA) in the supernatant disappeared and the intensity of the ultraviolet FA decreased. The average diameter of irregularly shaped aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 35.73 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing PAM dosage. The size of WTR aggregates conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was much larger than that of aggregates obtained at the optimum M351 or WDA110 dosages. Two-dimensional fractal dimension (D2) values presented an increasing trend with increasing PAM dosage. D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates were 1.87, 1.76, and 1.83 at optimum WD4960, M351, and WDA110 dosages, respectively. The cationic PAM (CPAM) WD4960 thus appears to be a more ideal conditioner for WTRs. Consistent relationships were observed among the capillary suction time (CST), average particle size, and D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates at the optimum WD4960 dosage. Mass fractal dimensions (D(f)) indicated that both the raw and WD4960-conditioned WTRs behave like weak-link flocs/aggregates. D(f) values (log G'-log TSS) of the WTR aggregates before and after

  8. Targeting EphA2-Sam and Its Interactome: Design and Evaluation of Helical Peptides Enriched in Charged Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Flavia A; Marasco, Daniela; Di Natale, Concetta; Pirone, Luciano; Costantini, Susan; Pedone, Emilia M; Leone, Marilisa

    2016-11-17

    The EphA2 receptor controls diverse physiological and pathological conditions and its levels are often upregulated in cancer. Targeting receptor overexpression, through modulation of endocytosis and consequent degradation, appears to be an appealing strategy for attacking tumor malignancy. In this scenario, the Sam domain of EphA2 plays a pivotal role because it is the site where protein regulators of endocytosis and stability are recruited by means of heterotypic Sam-Sam interactions. Because EphA2-Sam heterotypic complexes are largely based on electrostatic contacts, we have investigated the possibility of attacking these interactions with helical peptides enriched in charged residues. Several peptide sequences with high predicted helical propensities were designed, and detailed conformational analyses were conducted by diverse techniques including NMR, CD, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Interaction studies were also performed by NMR, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and microscale thermophoresis (MST) and led to the identification of two peptides capable of binding to the first Sam domain of Odin. These molecules represent early candidates for the generation of efficient Sam domain binders and antagonists of Sam-Sam interactions involving EphA2. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. PMID:29381770

  10. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  11. A charged residue at the subunit interface of PCNA promotes trimer formation by destabilizing alternate subunit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenthal, Bret D.; Gakhar, Lokesh; Ramaswamy, S.; Washington, M. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), an essential accessory factor in DNA replication and repair, is a ring-shaped homotrimer. A novel nontrimeric structure of E113G-mutant PCNA protein is reported, which shows that this protein forms alternate subunit interactions. It is concluded that the charged side chain of Glu113 promotes normal trimer formation by destabilizing these alternate subunit interactions. Eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential replication accessory factor that interacts with a variety of proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. Each monomer of PCNA has an N-terminal domain A and a C-terminal domain B. In the structure of the wild-type PCNA protein, domain A of one monomer interacts with domain B of a neighboring monomer to form a ring-shaped trimer. Glu113 is a conserved residue at the subunit interface in domain A. Two distinct X-ray crystal structures have been determined of a mutant form of PCNA with a substitution at this position (E113G) that has previously been studied because of its effect on translesion synthesis. The first structure was the expected ring-shaped trimer. The second structure was an unanticipated nontrimeric form of the protein. In this nontrimeric form, domain A of one PCNA monomer interacts with domain A of a neighboring monomer, while domain B of this monomer interacts with domain B of a different neighboring monomer. The B–B interface is stabilized by an antiparallel β-sheet and appears to be structurally similar to the A–B interface observed in the trimeric form of PCNA. The A–A interface, in contrast, is primarily stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. Because the E113G substitution is located on this hydrophobic surface, the A–A interface should be less favorable in the case of the wild-type protein. This suggests that the side chain of Glu113 promotes trimer formation by destabilizing these possible alternate subunit interactions

  12. Electrostatic contribution of surface charge residues to the stability of a thermophilic protein: benchmarking experimental and predicted pKa values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Optimization of the surface charges is a promising strategy for increasing thermostability of proteins. Electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability can be estimated from the differences between the pKa values in the folded and unfolded states of a protein. Using this pKa-shift approach, we experimentally measured the electrostatic contribution of all aspartate and glutamate residues to the stability of a thermophilic ribosomal protein L30e from Thermococcus celer. The pKa values in the unfolded state were found to be similar to model compound pKas. The pKa values in both the folded and unfolded states obtained at 298 and 333 K were similar, suggesting that electrostatic contribution of ionizable groups to the protein stability were insensitive to temperature changes. The experimental pKa values for the L30e protein in the folded state were used as a benchmark to test the robustness of pKa prediction by various computational methods such as H++, MCCE, MEAD, pKD, PropKa, and UHBD. Although the predicted pKa values were affected by crystal contacts that may alter the side-chain conformation of surface charged residues, most computational methods performed well, with correlation coefficients between experimental and calculated pKa values ranging from 0.49 to 0.91 (p<0.01. The changes in protein stability derived from the experimental pKa-shift approach correlate well (r = 0.81 with those obtained from stability measurements of charge-to-alanine substituted variants of the L30e protein. Our results demonstrate that the knowledge of the pKa values in the folded state provides sufficient rationale for the redesign of protein surface charges leading to improved protein stability.

  13. Evolutionary conservativeness of electric field in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase active site. Evidence for co-ordinated mutation of charged amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, A; Falconi, M; Polticelli, F; Bolognesi, M; Djinovic, K; Rotilio, G

    1992-01-05

    Equipotential lines were calculated, using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, for six Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases with different protein electric charge and various degrees of sequence homology, namely those from ox, pig, sheep, yeast, and the isoenzymes A and B from the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The three-dimensional structures of the porcine and ovine superoxide dismutases were obtained by molecular modelling reconstruction using the structure of the highly homologous bovine enzyme as a template. The three-dimensional structure of the evolutionary distant yeast Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase was recently resolved by us, while computer-modelled structures are available for X. laevis isoenzymes. The six proteins display large differences in the net protein charge and distribution of electrically charged surface residues but the trend of the equipotential lines in the proximity of the active sites was found to be constant in all cases. These results are in line with the very similar catlytic rate constants experimentally measured for the corresponding enzyme activities. This analysis shows that electrostatic guidance for the enzyme-substrate interaction in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases is related to a spatial distribution of charges, arranged so as to maintain, in the area surrounding the active sites, an identical electrostatic potential distribution, which is conserved in the evolution of this protein family.

  14. Adverse Effects of Excess Residual PbI2 on Photovoltaic Performance, Charge Separation, and Trap-State Properties in Mesoporous Structured Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yi; Hao, Ming-Yang; Han, Jun; Yu, Man; Qin, Yujun; Zhang, Pu; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Ai, Xi-Cheng; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2017-03-17

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have rapidly come to prominence in the photovoltaic field. In this context, CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 , as the most widely adopted active layer, has been attracting great attention. Generally, in a CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 layer, unreacted PbI 2 inevitably coexists with the perovskite crystals, especially following a two-step fabrication process. There appears to be a consensus that an appropriate amount of unreacted PbI 2 is beneficial to the overall photovoltaic performance of a device, the only disadvantageous aspect of excess residual PbI 2 being viewed as its insulating nature. However, the further development of such perovskite-based devices requires a deeper understanding of the role of residual PbI 2 . In this work, PbI 2 -enriched and PbI 2 -controlled perovskite films, as two extreme cases, have been prepared by modulating the crystallinity of a pre-deposited PbI 2 film. The effects of excess residual PbI 2 have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and optoelectronic studies. The initial charge separation, the trap-state density, and the trap-state distribution have all been found to be adversely affected in PbI 2 -enriched devices, to the detriment of photovoltaic performance. This leads to a biphasic recombination process and accelerates the charge carrier recombination dynamics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Crystal structure of the gamma-2 herpesvirus LANA DNA binding domain identifies charged surface residues which impact viral latency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Correia

    Full Text Available Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA mediates γ2-herpesvirus genome persistence and regulates transcription. We describe the crystal structure of the murine gammaherpesvirus-68 LANA C-terminal domain at 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals an alpha-beta fold that assembles as a dimer, reminiscent of Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1. A predicted DNA binding surface is present and opposite this interface is a positive electrostatic patch. Targeted DNA recognition substitutions eliminated DNA binding, while certain charged patch mutations reduced bromodomain protein, BRD4, binding. Virus containing LANA abolished for DNA binding was incapable of viable latent infection in mice. Virus with mutations at the charged patch periphery exhibited substantial deficiency in expansion of latent infection, while central region substitutions had little effect. This deficiency was independent of BRD4. These results elucidate the LANA DNA binding domain structure and reveal a unique charged region that exerts a critical role in viral latent infection, likely acting through a host cell protein(s.

  16. Nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, L A; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of nickel allergy varies between different population groups. Exposure regulation has proven effective in decreasing the frequency. Experimental studies with other allergens have shown a significant relation between patch test reactivity and repeated open application test...... in a patch test and a dilution series of three concentrations in a ROAT, with duration of up to 21 days. Eighteen persons with no nickel allergy were included as control group for the ROAT. RESULTS: The predicted dose which will elicit a reaction in 10% of allergic individuals was calculated to be 0......-response; indeed, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: For elicitation of nickel allergy the elicitation threshold for the patch test is higher than the elicitation threshold (per application) for the ROAT, but is approximately the same as the accumulated elicitation threshold...

  17. Extraordinary Diversity of Immune Response Proteins among Sea Urchins: Nickel-Isolated Sp185/333 Proteins Show Broad Variations in Size and Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lauren S.; Schrankel, Catherine S.; Brown, Kristy J.; Smith, L. Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection against pathogens requires the host to produce a wide range of immune effector proteins. The Sp185/333 gene family, which is expressed by the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in response to bacterial infection, encodes a highly diverse repertoire of anti-pathogen proteins. A subset of these proteins can be isolated by affinity to metal ions based on multiple histidines, resulting in one to four bands of unique molecular weight on standard Western blots, which vary depending on the individual sea urchin. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of nickel-isolated protein samples followed by Western blot was employed to detect nickel-isolated Sp185/333 (Ni-Sp185/333) proteins and to evaluate protein diversity in animals before and after immune challenge with marine bacteria. Ni-Sp185/333 proteins of the same molecular weight on standard Western blots appear as a broad complex of variants that differ in pI on 2DE Western blots. The Ni-Sp185/333 protein repertoire is variable among animals, and shows a variety of changes among individual sea urchins in response to immune challenges with both the same and different species of bacteria. The extraordinary diversity of the Ni-Sp185/333 proteins may provide significant anti-pathogen capabilities for sea urchins that survive solely on innate immunity. PMID:26406912

  18. Does airborne nickel exposure induce nickel sensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Eugen; Ranft, Ulrich; Eberwein, Georg; Gladtke, Dieter; Sugiri, Dorothee; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Schäfer, Torsten; Begerow, Jutta; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Krämer, Ursula; Wilhelm, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Nickel is one of the most prevalent causes of contact allergy in the general population. This study focuses on human exposure to airborne nickel and its potential to induce allergic sensitization. The study group consisted of 309 children at school-starter age living in the West of Germany in the vicinity of two industrial sources and in a rural town without nearby point sources of nickel. An exposure assessment of nickel in ambient air was available for children in the Ruhr district using routinely monitored ambient air quality data and dispersion modelling. Internal nickel exposure was assessed by nickel concentrations in morning urine samples of the children. The observed nickel sensitization prevalence rates varied between 12.6% and 30.7%. Statistically significant associations were showed between exposure to nickel in ambient air and urinary nickel concentration as well as between urinary nickel concentration and nickel sensitization. Furthermore, an elevated prevalence of nickel sensitization was associated with exposure to increased nickel concentrations in ambient air. The observed associations support the assumption that inhaled nickel in ambient air might be a risk factor for nickel sensitization; further studies in larger collectives are necessary.

  19. Performance improvement of pasted nickel electrodes with multi-wall carbon nanotubes for rechargeable nickel batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.S.; Aravindaraj, G.K.; Sultana, H.; Chan, S.L.I.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed as a functional additive to improve the electrochemical performance of pasted nickel-foam electrodes for rechargeable nickel-based batteries. The nickel electrodes were prepared with spherical β-Ni(OH) 2 powder as the active material and various amounts of CNTs as additives. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling tests showed that in comparison with the electrode without CNTs, the pasted nickel electrode with added CNTs exhibited better electrochemical properties in the chargeability, specific discharge capacity, active material utilization, discharge voltage, high-rate capability and cycling stability. Meanwhile, the CNT addition also lowered the packing density of Ni(OH) 2 particles in the three-dimensional porous nickel-foam substrate, which could lead to the decrease in the active material loading and discharge capacity of the electrode. Hence, the amount of CNTs added to Ni(OH) 2 should be optimized to obtain a high-performance nickel electrode, and an optimum amount of CNT addition was found to be 3 wt.%. The superior electrochemical performance of the nickel electrode with CNTs could be attributed to lower electrochemical impedance and less γ-NiOOH formed during charge/discharge cycling, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. Thus, it was an effective method to improve the electrochemical properties of pasted nickel electrodes by adding an appropriate amount of CNTs to spherical Ni(OH) 2 as the active material

  20. Biological role of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thauer, R K; Diekert, G; Schoenheit, P

    1980-01-01

    Several enzymes and one cofactor have recently been shown to contain nickel. For example, urease of jack beans has been found to be a nickel protein and factor F/sub 430/ from methanogenic bacteria to be a nickel tetrapyrrole. The biological role of nickel in several organisms is discussed.

  1. Human exposure to nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandjean, P

    1984-01-01

    In order of abundance in the earth's crust, nickel ranks as the 24th element and has been detected in different media in all parts of the biosphere. Thus, humans are constantly exposed to this ubiquitous element, though in variable amounts. Occupational exposures may lead to the retention of 100 micrograms of nickel per day. Environmental nickel levels depend particularly on natural sources, pollution from nickel-manufacturing industries and airborne particles from combustion of fossil fuels. Absorption from atmospheric nickel pollution is of minor concern. Vegetables usually contain more nickel than do other food items. Certain products, such as baking powder and cocoa powder, have been found to contain excessive amounts of nickel, perhaps related to nickel leaching during the manufacturing process. Soft drinking-water and acid beverages may dissolve nickel from pipes and containers. Scattered studies indicate a highly variable dietary intake of nickel, but most averages are about 200-300 micrograms/day. In addition, skin contact to a multitude of metal objects may be of significance to the large number of individuals suffering from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy. Finally, nickel alloys are often used in nails and prostheses for orthopaedic surgery, and various sources may contaminate intravenous fluids. Thus, human nickel exposure originates from a variety of sources and is highly variable. Occupational nickel exposure is of major significance, and leaching of nickel may add to dietary intakes and to cutaneous exposures. 79 references.

  2. Positively charged residues at the five-fold symmetry axis of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus permit novel receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Clark, Stuart; Kakker, Naresh K; Silk, Rhiannon; Seago, Julian; Wadsworth, Jemma; Chamberlain, Kyle; Knowles, Nick J; Jackson, Terry

    2013-08-01

    Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have a restricted cell tropism which is limited by the need for certain RGD-dependent integrin receptors. In contrast, cell culture-adapted viruses use heparan sulfate (HS) or other unidentified molecules as receptors to initiate infection. Here, we report several novel findings resulting from cell culture adaptation of FMDV. In cell culture, a virus with the capsid of the A/Turkey/2/2006 field isolate gained the ability to infect CHO and HS-deficient CHO cells as a result of a single glutamine (Q)-to-lysine (K) substitution at VP1-110 (VP1-(Q)110(K)). Using site-directed mutagenesis, the introduction of lysine at this same site also resulted in an acquired ability to infect CHO cells by type O and Asia-1 FMDV. However, this ability appeared to require a second positively charged residue at VP1-109. CHO cells express two RGD-binding integrins (α5β1 and αvβ5) that, although not used by FMDV, have the potential to be used as receptors; however, viruses with the VP1-(Q)110(K) substitution did not use these integrins. In contrast, the VP1-(Q)110(K) substitution appeared to result in enhanced interactions with αvβ6, which allowed a virus with KGE in place of the normal RGD integrin-binding motif to use αvβ6 as a receptor. Thus, our results confirmed the existence of nonintegrin, non-HS receptors for FMDV on CHO cells and revealed a novel, non-RGD-dependent use of αvβ6 as a receptor. The introduction of lysine at VP1-110 may allow for cell culture adaptation of FMDV by design, which may prove useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves intractable.

  3. Positively Charged Residues at the Five-Fold Symmetry Axis of Cell Culture-Adapted Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Permit Novel Receptor Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Clark, Stuart; Kakker, Naresh K.; Silk, Rhiannon; Seago, Julian; Wadsworth, Jemma; Chamberlain, Kyle; Knowles, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have a restricted cell tropism which is limited by the need for certain RGD-dependent integrin receptors. In contrast, cell culture-adapted viruses use heparan sulfate (HS) or other unidentified molecules as receptors to initiate infection. Here, we report several novel findings resulting from cell culture adaptation of FMDV. In cell culture, a virus with the capsid of the A/Turkey/2/2006 field isolate gained the ability to infect CHO and HS-deficient CHO cells as a result of a single glutamine (Q)-to-lysine (K) substitution at VP1-110 (VP1-Q110K). Using site-directed mutagenesis, the introduction of lysine at this same site also resulted in an acquired ability to infect CHO cells by type O and Asia-1 FMDV. However, this ability appeared to require a second positively charged residue at VP1-109. CHO cells express two RGD-binding integrins (α5β1 and αvβ5) that, although not used by FMDV, have the potential to be used as receptors; however, viruses with the VP1-Q110K substitution did not use these integrins. In contrast, the VP1-Q110K substitution appeared to result in enhanced interactions with αvβ6, which allowed a virus with KGE in place of the normal RGD integrin-binding motif to use αvβ6 as a receptor. Thus, our results confirmed the existence of nonintegrin, non-HS receptors for FMDV on CHO cells and revealed a novel, non-RGD-dependent use of αvβ6 as a receptor. The introduction of lysine at VP1-110 may allow for cell culture adaptation of FMDV by design, which may prove useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves intractable. PMID:23740982

  4. Differential production cross sections of multiply charged fragments in 800 MeV proton-induced spallation of carbon, aluminum, and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckstead, S.C.

    1978-09-01

    Differential production cross sections for multiply charged fragments from 800-MeV proton-induced spallation of 12 C, 27 Al, and natural Ni were measured at 30 and 90 degrees. The ion fragments were identified by use of time-of-flight, ΔE--E detector telescope capable of complete particle identification for energies as low as .25 MeV/nucleon. The very short ranges of the particles of interest required the construction of very thin detectors with minimal deadlayer material. The time-pick-off detectors and gas ionization chamber developed are unique, and represent the state-of-the-art in fast timing for time-of-flight measurements and in construction of thin detectors. The resolutions achieved allowed the cross sections of 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 7 Be, 9 Be, 10 Be, 10 B, 11 B, 11 C, 12 C, and 13 C to be determined, along with those of nitrogen and oxygen without isotope separation. The cross sections were found to have weak angular dependence. Consequently, pseudo cross sections were calculated from the 90 0 data by integrating the differential cross sections from 0 to 25 MeV for each product and multiplying by 4π. Pseudo theoretical cross sections were similarly calculated from theoretical differential cross sections. These differential cross sections were calculated by use of a Monte Carlo computer code which incorporated the cascade-evaporation model of high-energy nuclear reactions. Implications are drawn for modifications of the model. The results suggest reducing the transparency of the struck nucleus to pions produced in the cascade stage of the reaction model in order that a higher excitation energy be left for the evaporation stage. Also, there is some evidence that evaporations of nuclear aggregates more massive than 4 He occur. Inclusion of such evaporations should improve the model. 82 figures, 1 table

  5. Optical and morphological investigation of aluminium and nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applications of alumina and nickel oxide in various fields specially in solar energy conversion technology encouraged us to .... solution time controller and compressor. .... energy loss of the charge carriers when traversing through the bulk ...

  6. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, Robert W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 - 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  7. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  8. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  9. Preparation of Iron-nickel Alloy Nanostructures via Two Cationic Pyridinium Derivatives as Soft Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, crystalline iron-nickel alloy nanostructures were successfully prepared from two cationic pyridinium derivatives as soft templates in solution. The crystal structure and micrograph of FeNi alloy nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the content was confirmed by energy-dispersive spectrometry. The results indicated that the as-prepared nanostructures showed slightly different diameter ranges with the change of cationic pyridinium derivatives on the surface. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption of cationic pyridinium compounds on the surface of particles reduces the surface charge, leading to an isotropic distribution of the residual surface charges. The magnetic behaviours of as-prepared FeNi alloy nanostructures exhibited disparate behaviours, which could be attributed to their grain sizes and distinctive structures. The present work may give some insight into the synthesis and character of new alloy nanomaterials with special nanostructures using new soft templates.

  10. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  11. Screening of Trichoderma isolates for their potential of biosorption of nickel and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Nabakishor; Roy, Ayon; Bhattacharya, Prateek Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen Trichoderma isolates were evaluated for their tolerance to two heavy metals, nickel and cadmium. Three isolates, MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-I, showed high levels of nickel tolerance, whereas MT-4, UBT-18, and IBT-II showed better tolerance of cadmium than the other isolates. Under nickel stress, biomass production increased up to a Ni concentration of 60ppm in all strains but then decreased as the concentrations of nickel were further increased. Among the nickel-tolerant isolates, UBT-18 produced significantly higher biomass upon exposure to nickel (up to 150ppm); however, the minimum concentration of nickel required to inhibit 50% of growth (MIC50) was highest in IBT-I. Among the cadmium-tolerant isolates, IBT-II showed both maximum biomass production and a maximum MIC50 value in cadmium stress. As the biomass of the Trichoderma isolates increased, a higher percentage of nickel removal was observed up to a concentration of 40ppm, followed by an increase in residual nickel and a decrease in biomass production at higher nickel concentrations in the medium. The increase in cadmium concentrations resulted in a decrease in biomass production and positively correlated with an increase in residual cadmium in the culture broth. Nickel and cadmium stress also influenced the sensitivity of the Trichoderma isolates to soil fungistasis. Isolates IBT-I and UBT-18 were most tolerant to fungistasis under nickel and cadmium stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of nickel-hydrogen battery for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, J. M.; Dupont, D.

    1983-01-01

    Results of electrical space qualification tests of nickel-hydrogen battery type HR 23S are presented. The results obtained for the nickel-cadmium battery type VO 23S are similar except that the voltage level and the charge conservation characteristics vary significantly. The electrical and thermal characteristics permit predictions of the following optimal applications: charge coefficient in the order of 1.3 to 1.4 at 20C; charge current density higher than C/10 at 20C; discharge current density from C/10 to C/3 at 20C; maximum discharge temperature: OC; storage temperature: -20C.

  13. Monodispersed macroporous architecture of nickel-oxide film as an anode material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores was prepared on a stainless-steel substrate by electrophoretic deposition of a polystyrene-sphere monolayer followed by anodic electrodeposition of nickel oxy-hydroxide. The deposited films convert to cubic nickel oxide after annealing at 400 o C for 1 h. Galvanostatic charge and discharge results indicate that the nickel-oxide film with monodispersed open macropores is capable of delivering a higher capacity than the bare nickel-oxide film, especially in high-rate charge and discharge processes. The lithiation capacity of macroporous nickel oxide reaches 1620 mA h g -1 at 1 C current discharge and decreases to 990 mA h g -1 at 15 C current discharge. The presence of monodispersed open macropores in the nickel-oxide film might facilitate the electrolyte penetration, diffusion, and migration. Electrochemical reactions between nickel oxide and lithium ions are therefore markedly improved by this tailored film architecture.

  14. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include 234 Th, 234 Pa, 137 Cs, 239 Pu (trace), 60 Co, U, 99 Tc, and 237 Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs

  15. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  16. The P9 pocket of HLA-DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) has no particular preference for negatively charged anchor residues found in other type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarsten, H; Paulsen, G; Johansen, B H

    1998-01-01

    Susceptibility and resistance to type 1 diabetes are associated with MHC class II alleles that carry non-Asp and Asp at residue 57 of their beta chain respectively. The effect of Asp or non-Aspbeta57 may relate to a differential ability of distinct class II molecules to bind specific immuno......-pathogenic peptides. Recent studies in man and mouse have revealed that some type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 class II molecules (i.e. DQ8, DR4Dw15 and I-Ag7) preferentially bind peptides with a negatively charged anchor residue at P9. It has been suggested that this is a common feature of type 1 diabetes......-predisposing class II molecules. The molecular explanation for such a phenomenon could be that class II beta chains with Aspbeta57 form a salt bridge between Aspbeta57 and a conserved Arg of the a chain, whereas in non-Aspbeta57 molecules the Arg is unopposed and free to interact with negatively charged P9 peptide...

  17. ABC transporter Cdr1p harbors charged residues in the intracellular loop and nucleotide-binding domain critical for protein trafficking and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Banerjee, Atanu; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-08-01

    The ABC transporter Cdr1 protein of Candida albicans, which plays a major role in antifungal resistance, has two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The 12 transmembrane helices of TMDs that are interconnected by extracellular and intracellular loops (ICLs) mainly harbor substrate recognition sites where drugs bind while cytoplasmic NBDs hydrolyze ATP which powers drug efflux. The coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport requires proper communication between NBDs and TMDs typically accomplished by ICLs. This study examines the role of cytoplasmic ICLs of Cdr1p by rationally predicting the critical residues on the basis of their interatomic distances. Among nine pairs that fall within a proximity of trafficking. These results point to a new role for ICL/NBD interacting residues in PDR ABC transporters in protein folding and trafficking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Thermoelectric and Hall-effect studies in hydrogenerated nickel foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, R.; Nigam, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Thermo e.m.f. and Hall constant of hydrogenerated nickel foils have been measured. Termo e.m.f. shows a sign reversal which is not due to the change in sign of the charge carriers, as indicated by the Hall-effect measurements. To account for the sign reversal of thermo e.m.f., it is found necessary to take into account the surface states of chemisorbed hydrogen on nickel

  19. Deactivation of nickel hydroxide-gold modified electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Caram, Bruno; Tucceri, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the charge-transport process of a nickel hydroxide film electrochemically synthesized on a gold substrate is modified when the electrode is stored for a long time. It was found that nickel hydroxide films are deactivated under storage, that is, films became less conductive than films immediately prepared (nondeactivated). This study was carried out in the context of the rotating disc electrode voltammetry when the modified electrode contacts an ele...

  20. Integrative Approach with Electrophysiological and Theoretical Methods Reveals a New Role of S4 Positively Charged Residues in PKD2L1 Channel Voltage-Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomohiro; Tsumoto, Kunichika; Yamada, Kazunori; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Hirose, Shinichi; Nomura, Hideki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Yasuo

    2017-08-29

    Numerical model-based simulations provide important insights into ion channel gating when experimental limitations exist. Here, a novel strategy combining numerical simulations with patch clamp experiments was used to investigate the net positive charges in the putative transmembrane segment 4 (S4) of the atypical, positively-shifted voltage-dependence of polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1) channel. Charge-neutralising mutations (K452Q, K455Q and K461Q) in S4 reduced gating charges, positively shifted the Boltzmann-type activation curve [i.e., open probability (P open )-V curve] and altered the time-courses of activation/deactivation of PKD2L1, indicating that this region constitutes part of a voltage sensor. Numerical reconstruction of wild-type (WT) and mutant PKD2L1-mediated currents necessitated, besides their voltage-dependent gating parameters, a scaling factor that describes the voltage-dependence of maximal conductance, G max . Subsequent single-channel conductance (γ) measurements revealed that voltage-dependence of G max in WT can be explained by the inward-rectifying property of γ, which is greatly changed in PKD2L1 mutants. Homology modelling based on PKD2 and Na V Ab structures suggest that such voltage dependence of P open and γ in PKD2L1 could both reflect the charged state of the S4 domain. The present conjunctive experimental and theoretical approaches provide a framework to explore the undetermined mechanism(s) regulating TRP channels that possess non-classical voltage-dependent properties.

  1. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M

    2015-06-30

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to investigate the detailed adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition mechanism of two surfactants on a nickel surface under acidic conditions. Both the corrosion of the nickel surface and the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer could be monitored in situ by the use of different solvent contrasts. Layer thicknesses and roughnesses were evaluated over a range of pH values, showing distinctly the superior corrosion inhibition of one negatively charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) compared to a positively charged example (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide) due to its stronger binding interaction with the surface. It was found that adequate corrosion inhibition occurs at significantly less than full surface coverage.

  2. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  3. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  4. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  5. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  6. Effect of nickel on growth and 14 CO2 fixation in Chlorella (Chlorella pyrenoidosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, A.D.; Rathore, V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Influence of nickel on growth, 14 C fixation and allocation of carbon among different biochemical fractions was investigated in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Nickel significantly reduced the fresh and dry weights of chlorella cells. 14 C fixation was significantly reduced by increasing nickel concentration in growth media. 14 C allocation into different biochemical fractions was also markedly altered by nickel. Reduction in 14 CO 2 assimilation and carbon allocation into pigment-lipid fraction and residue fraction resulted in decreased chlorophyll content and dry weight. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs

  7. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  8. Life Modeling for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries in Geosynchronous Satellite Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, A. H; Ang, V. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The model has been used to predict how properly designed and operated nickel-hydrogen battery lifetimes should depend on the operating environments and charge control methods typically used in GEO operation...

  9. Nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets: Synthesis, morphology and electrochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderová, Barbora; Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Bohuslav, Jan; Tarábková, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Lang, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical performance of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets. The hydroxide nanosheets of approximately 0.7nm thickness were prepared by delamination of layered nickel-cobalt hydroxide lactate in water and formed transparent colloids that were stable for months. The nanosheets were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by spin coating, and their electrochemical behavior was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Our method of electrode preparation allows for studying the electrochemistry of nanosheets where the majority of the active centers can participate in the charge transfer reaction. The observed electrochemical response was ascribed to mutual compensation of the cobalt and nickel response via electron sharing between these metals in the hydroxide nanosheets, a process that differentiates the behavior of nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets from single nickel hydroxide or cobalt hydroxide nanosheets or their physical mixture. The presence of cobalt in the nickel-cobalt hydroxide nanosheets apparently decreases the time of electrochemical activation of the nanosheet layer, which for the nickel hydroxide nanosheets alone requires more potential sweeps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The morphology of the composites was observed by SEM. The electrochemical performances of composite electrodes used in electrochemical capacitors were studied in addition to the properties of electrode consisting of separate active carbon and nickel oxide only. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The composites were tested in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte using two- and three-electrode Swagelok systems. The results showed that adding only a few percent of nickel oxide to active carbon provided the highest value of capacity. It is the confirmation of the fact that such an amount of nickel oxide is optimal to take advantage of both components of the composite, which additionally can be a good solution as a negative electrode in asymmetric configuration of electrode materials in an electrochemical capacitor.

  11. Electron transfer behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes electro-decorated with nickel and nickel oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekunle, Abolanle S.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2008-08-01

    The electron transfer behaviour of nickel film-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-Ni) at edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes (EPPGEs) was investigated. The impact of SWCNTs on the redox properties of the nickel film was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From EIS data, obtained using ferrocyanide/ferricyanide as a redox probe, we show that the electrodes based on nickel and nickel oxide films follow electrical equivalent circuit models typical of partial charge transfer or adsorption-controlled kinetics, resembling the 'electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor sensors (EIS)'. From the models, we prove that EPPGE-SWCNT-Ni exhibits the least resistance to charge transport compared to other electrodes (approximately 30 times faster than the EPPGE-SWCNT-NiO, 25 times faster than EPPGE-SWCNT, and over 300 times faster than the bare EPPGE) suggesting the ability of the SWCNTs to act as efficient conducting species that facilitate electron transport of the integrated nickel and nickel oxide particles. (author)

  12. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  13. short communication binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of ... their toxicity, accumulative behaviour and effects on human health, heavy metal pollution has become ... The determination of the total surface charge was made .... These values suggest high efficiency of the activated carbon,.

  14. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  15. Determination of nickel-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.

    1988-01-01

    The research of activation products in the environment is often centered on cobalt-60 or other gamma emitters, since pure beta emitters require time consuming separations to be counted. However, some beta emitters must be checked because they have a build up in the environment, leading to potential hazards. Among these nuclides, there is nickel-63 which is a pure, soft beta emitter (67 keV) with a long half-life (100 years). A chemical separation, providing good results, was developed. Such a separation is based upon nickel carrier addition in the sample than DMG complex formation and isolation; after elimination of solvent. DMG complex is destroyed. Chemical yield is determined by flame atomic absorption measurement and nickel-63 counted by liquid scintillation. The described procedure allows the determination of low-level activities in different samples (soils, effluents, etc.). Detection limits are close to 0.1 Bq per sample

  16. Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, U.O.; Santos, D.C.; Silvestrini, D.R.; Trama, B.; Carmo, D.R. do

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate (NHNi) were prepared in three medium (aqueous, formamide and aqueous/formamide). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electronica spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) region and also by cyclic voltammetry (CV). By spectroscopic analysis of X-ray diffraction was possible to estimate the size of the particles obtained by the Scherrer equation. The graphite paste electrodes containing nanoparticles of nickel hexacyanoferrate means formamide was sensitive to different concentrations of Dipyrone. (author)

  17. Nickel silicide formation in silicon implanted nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Z.; Williams, J. S.; Pogany, A. P.; Sood, D. K.; Collins, G. A.

    1995-04-01

    Nickel silicide formation during the annealing of very high dose (≥4.5×1017 ions/cm2) Si implanted Ni has been investigated, using ion beam analytical techniques, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analysis. An initial amorphous Si-Ni alloy, formed as a result of high dose ion implantation, first crystallized to Ni2Si upon annealing in the temperature region of 200-300 °C. This was followed by the formation of Ni5Si2 in the temperature region of 300-400 °C and then by Ni3Si at 400-600 °C. The Ni3Si layer was found to have an epitaxial relationship with the substrate Ni, which was determined as Ni3Si∥Ni and Ni3Si∥Ni for Ni(100) samples. The minimum channeling yield in the 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectra of this epitaxial layer improved with higher annealing temperatures up to 600 °C, and reached a best value measured at about 8%. However, the epitaxial Ni3Si dissolved after long time annealing at 600 °C or annealing at higher temperatures to liberate soluble Si into the Ni substrate. The epitaxy is attributed to the excellent lattice match between the Ni3Si and the Ni. The annealing behavior follows the predictions of the Ni-Si phase diagram for this nickel-rich binary system.

  18. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    %), followed by aluminium-bronze (62, 17%). In total, 239 denominations released nickel (28%). Coins from Bolivia, Brazil and Costa Rica did not release nickel. Fewer than one-third of the denominations or issues from China, India, the euro area and Indonesia released nickel. In the United States, the Russian...... Federation, Japan, and Mexico, one-third or more of the denominations released nickel. Conclusions. This worldwide selection of circulating coins covered countries with 75% of the world population, and shows that the majority of the world population lives in countries where coins release nickel. Pertinently...

  19. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  20. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    OpenAIRE

    Vladmila Bojanic; Vladimir Ilic; Biljana Jovic

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to signif...

  2. Surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles for high capacitance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandhini, S.; Muralidharan, G.

    2018-04-01

    The surfactant free nickel sulphide nanoparticles were synthesized via facile hydrothermal method towards supercapacitor applications. The formation of crystalline spherical nanoparticles was confirmed through structural and morphological studies. Electrochemical behaviour of the electrode was analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge studies (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The CV studies imply that specific capacitance of the electrode arises from a combination of surface adsorption and Faradic reaction. The NiS electrode delivered a specific capacitance of about 529 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 (GCD measurements). A profitable charge transfer resistance of 0.5 Ω was obtained from EIS. The 100 % of capacity retention even after 2000 repeated charge-discharge cycles could be observed in 2 M KOH electrolyte at a much larger rate of 30 A g-1. The experimental results suggest that nickel sulphide is a potential candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  3. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjizadeh, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghgoo, S. [Center of Quality Control of Drug, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-31

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode.

  4. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjizadeh, M.; Jabbari, A.; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Haghgoo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode

  5. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  6. Carbon deposition on nickel ferrites and nickel-magnetite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C.; Jutson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    Carbon deposition on Commercial Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (CAGR) fuel cladding and heat exchanger surfaces lowers heat transfer efficiency and increases fuel pin temperatures. Several types of deposit have been identified including both thin dense layers and also low density columnar deposits with filamentary or convoluted laminar structure. The low-density types are often associated with particles containing iron, nickel or manganese. To identify the role of nickel in the deposition process surfaces composed of nickel-iron spinels or metallic nickel/magnetite mixtures have been exposed to γ radiation in a gas environment simulating that in the reactor. Examination of these surfaces by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have shown that while metallic nickel (Ni(O)) catalyses the formation of filamentary low density carbon deposits, the presence of divalent nickel (Ni(II)) sites in spinel type oxides is associated only with dense deposits. (author)

  7. Nickel hydrogen/nickel cadmium battery trade studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen cell and battery technology has matured to the point where a real choice exists between Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium batteries for each new spacecraft application. During the past few years, a number of spacecraft programs have been evaluated at Hughes with respect to this choice, with the results being split about fifty-fifty. The following paragraphs contain criteria which were used in making the battery selection.

  8. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.C.; Korenko, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel based alloy, the characteristic of which is that it mainly includes in percentages by weight: 57-63 Ni, 7-18 Cr, 10-20 Fe, 4-6 Mo, 1-2 Nb, 0.2-0.8 Si, 0.01-0.05 Zr, 1.0-2.5 Ti, 1.0-2.5 Al, 0.02-0.06 C and 0.002-0.015 B. The aim is to create new nickel-chromium alloys, hardened in a solid solution and by precipitation, that are stable, exhibit reduced swelling and resistant to plastic deformation inside the reactor. These alloys of the gamma prime type have improved mechanical strengthm swelling resistance, structural stability and welding properties compared with Inconel 625 [fr

  10. Nickel accumulation by Hybanthus floribundus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C

    1974-04-26

    Several ecotypes of Hybanthus floribundus are found across the southern part of Australia. However, the three nickel accumulating ecotypes are restricted to a broad belt in Western Australia. Nickel concentrations in this shrub were observed to decrease southwards (from 8000 to 1000 p.p.m.) as the annual rainfall increased from 7 inches to more than 30 inches. Studies have shown that nickel concentrations increase from the roots through the rootstock, into the stems and reach maximum towards the leaf tips. High nickel concentrations are also seen in seed capsules (1500 p.p.m.), seeds (2000 p.p.m.) and flowers. The maximum nickel concentration recorded is 1.6% (26% nickel in ash) in mature leaf tissue. 16 references, 2 tables.

  11. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  12. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  13. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  14. Analysis of the dynamic behavior of porous nickel electrodes in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real, Silvia G; Visintin, Arnaldo; Castro, Elida B

    2004-01-01

    The nickel electrode is important for its electrocatalytic properties, when it is used in water electrolysis, and for use as a positive terminal in alkaline nickel-cadmium, nickel-iron, nickel-zinc, nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Since there are many factors related to the functioning of these batteries that have still not been clarified, such as the memory effect associated with the change in structure of the nickel hydroxide and the phenomenon of 'battery sudden death', that produce serious problems mostly in spaces uses, this work discusses the dynamic behavior of the porous nickel hydroxide electrode. This electrode possesses outstanding properties such as high power density, good cyclability and elevated specific energy, which make it unique for the above-mentioned applications. The electrochemical storage of energy in this electrode is based on the reversible characteristics of nickel hydroxide/oxhydroxide redox coupling. The reversibility of the process is an important factor in battery materials. In the case of the Ni oxide, during the electrode discharge H + is inserted and this process inverts during the charging. This work presents the results obtained with the use of impedance spectroscopy for different discharge states of the electrode material in order to correlate its electrochemical properties according to the development of physical chemical models. These models include the charging and discharging processes, the process of proton diffusion in the solid and the porous nature of the material. Knowledge about the functioning of the electrode material is obtained by adjusting the experimental data according to the model and the parametric identification to determine values associated with such variables as area of active material, diffusion coefficient of the H + , conductivity of the solid as a function of the discharge state and kinetic constants of the charge transfer process (CW)

  15. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  16. Charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article provides a long theoretical development of the main ideas of charge imbalance in superconductors. Concepts of charge imbalance and quasiparticle charge are introduced, especially in regards to the use of tunnel injection in producing and detecting charge imbalance. Various mechanisms of charge relaxation are discussed, including inelastic scattering processes, elastic scattering in the presence of energy-gap anisotropy, and various pair-breaking mechanisms. In each case, present theories are reviewed in comparison with experimental data

  17. Effect of Nickel on the growth of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez-Bocanegra, A. R.; Torres-Munoz, J. A.; Neria-Gonzalez, M. I.; Rios-Leal, E.; Aguilar-Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel is not produced in Mexico, but is a component widely used in the paper industry, fertilizers, iron foundry, and jewels fabrication among others. therefore it is founded in residual waters coming form domestic and industrial. It is known that such a heavy metal is essential to the life of some microorganisms including microalgae, however at relatively high concentrations it turns to be toxic inside some physiological processes (Jin et al., 1996). (Author)

  18. Graphene hydrogels deposited in nickel foams for high-rate electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Sheng, Kaixuan; Luo, Peihui; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-08-28

    Graphene hydrogel/nickel foam composite electrodes for high-rate electrochemical capacitors are produced by reduction of an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide in a nickel foam (upper half of figure). The micropores of the hydrogel are exposed to the electrolyte so that ions can enter and form electrochemical double-layers. The nickel framework shortens the distances of charge transfer. Therefore, the electrochemical capacitor exhibits highrate performance (see plots). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  20. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  1. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  2. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Effect of residual elements on high performance nickel base ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    superalloys for gas turbines and strategies for manufacture. O P SINHA*, M ... Superalloys; tramp elements; creep and stress rupture properties; vacuum induction melting. 1. Introduction ... The physical metallurgy of superalloys demands the.

  4. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...

  5. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate...

  6. Nickel-cadmium battery system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M.; Charkey, A.

    A nickel-cadmium battery system has been developed and is being evaluated for electric vehicle propulsion applications. The battery system design features include: (1) air circulation through gaps between cells for thermal management, (2) a metal-gas coulometric fuel gauge for state-of-charge and charge control, and (3) a modified constant current ac/dc power supply for the charger. The battery delivers one and a half to two times the energy density of comparable lead-acid batteries depending on operating conditions.

  7. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  8. Nickel aggregates produced by radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignier, J.L.; Belloni, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel aggregates with subcolloidal size and stable in water have been synthesized by inhibiting the corrosion by the medium. The protective effect of the surfactant is discussed in relation with the characteristics of various types of polyvinyl alcohol studied. The reactivity of aggregates towards oxidizing compounds, nitro blue tetrazolium, methylene blue, silver ions, oxygen, methylviologen, enables an estimation of the redox potential of nickel aggregates (E = - 04 ± 0.05 V). It has been applied to quantitative analysis of the particles in presence of nickel ions. 55 refs [fr

  9. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  10. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-01-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear...

  11. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  12. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  13. Spectrochemical analysis of impurities in nickel and in nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldbart, Z.; Lorber, A.; Harel, A.

    1981-11-01

    Various spectrochemical methods are described for the quantitative determination of 23 impurities in metallic nickel and in nickel oxide. The average limit of detection is from 1 to 5 ppm and the dynamic range lies over 2.5 orders of magnitude. The elements that were determined are: Al,B,Ba,Bi,Ca,Cd,Co,Cu,Fe,Ga,Ge,In,Mg,Mn,Mo,Nb,Si,Sn,Sr,Ti,Cr,V. (author)

  14. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  15. Removing nickel from nickel-coated carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, A.; Hertleer, C.; De Mey, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Conductive fibers/yarns are one of the most important materials for smart textiles because of their electrically conductive functionality combined with flexibility and light weight. They can be applied in many fields such as the medical sector, electronics, sensors and even as thermoelectric generators. Temperature sensors, for example, can be made using the thermocouple or thermopile principle which usually uses two different metal wires that can produce a temperature-dependent voltage. However, if metal wires are inserted into a textile structure, they will decrease the flexibility properties of the textile product. Nickel-coated Carbon Fiber (NiCF), a conductive textile yarn, has a potential use as a textile-based thermopile if we can create an alternating region of carbon and nickel along the fiber which in turn it can be used for substituting the metallic thermopile. The idea was to remove nickel from NiCF in order to obtain a yarn that contains alternating zones of carbon and nickel. Due to no literature reporting on how to remove nickel from NiCF, in this paper we investigated some chemicals to remove nickel from NiCF.

  16. Progress on sputter-deposited thermotractive titanium-nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.; Hou Li; Zhao, Z.; Pence, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    It is now well established that titanium-nickel alloys fabricated as thin films by physical vapor deposition can display the same transformation and shape-memory effects as their ingot-metallurgy counterparts. As such they may find important application to microelectromechanical and biomechanical systems. Furthermore, we show here that titanium-nickel films may be directly processed so as to possess extremely fine austenite grain size and very high strength. These films display classical transformational superelasticity, including high elastic energy storage capacity, the expected dependence of martensite-start temperature on transformation enthalpy, and large, fully recoverable anelastic strains at temperatures above A f . Processing depends on elevated substrate temperatures during deposition, which may be manipulated within a certain range to control both grain size and crystallographic texture. It is also possible to deposit crystalline titanium-nickel films onto polymeric substrates, making them amenable to lithographic patterning into actuator elements that are well-suited to electrical excitation of the martensite reversion transformation. Finally, isothermal annealing of nickel-rich films, under conditions of controlled extrinsic residual stress, leads to topotaxial orientation of Ni 4 Ti 3 -type precipitates, and the associated possibility of two-way memory effects. Much work remains to be done, especially with respect to precise control of composition. (orig.)

  17. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  18. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  19. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  20. Nickel and vanadium extraction from the Syrian petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Syrian petroleum coke samples were characterized and submitted for salt-roasting treatment in electric furnace to evaluate the convenience of this procedure for the extraction of the vanadium, nickel and sulfur from coke. Both solution and solid residue remaining after salt roasting were separated by filtration and were analyzed for vanadium, nickel and sulfur. The solution was analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy for vanadium and nickel and gravimetrically for sulfur. The solid residue and the untreated samples of petroleum coke were analyzed by XRF spectrometry. Results showed that more than 90% of sulfur and 60% of vanadium could be extracted by salt roasting treatment. An alternative procedure has been suggested, in which, more than 80% of sulfur and small percentage of vanadium can be leached by 0.75 M of Na 2 CO 3 solution at 70-80 Co. Vanadium was selectively extracted by DEHPA/TBP from the loaded leached solution. The extraction procedure flowsheet was also suggested. (authors)

  1. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF NICKEL POISONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladmila Bojanic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is widely distributed in the environment. High consumption of nickel containing products inevitably leads to environmental pollution by nickel and its derivatives at all stages of production, utilization, and disposal.Human exposure to nickel occurs primarily via inhalation and ingestion and is particularly high among nickel metallurgy workers. In addition, implantation of nickel-containing endoprostheses and iatrogenic administration of nickel-contaminated medica-tions leads to significant parenteral exposures. Exposure to nickel compounds can produce a variety of adverse effects on human health. Nickel allergy in the form of contact dermatitis is the most common reaction.A frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and irritability are the most common signs of acute poisoning with nickel compounds. The respiratory tract, kidneys and liver suffer the most significant changes like nickel pneumoconiosis, chronic rhinitis and sinonasal tumors and transitory nephropathy. Although the accumulation of nickel in the body through chronic exposure can lead to lung fibrosis, cardiovascular and kidney diseases, the most serious concerns relate to nickel’s carcinogenic activity. Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and metallic nickel is possibly carcinogenic to humans.

  4. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the general population. Nickel content in food may vary considerably from place to place due to the difference in nickel content of the soil. However, certain foods are routinely high in nickel content. Nickel in the diet of a nickel-sensitive person can provoke dermatitis. Careful selection of food with relatively low nickel concentration can bring a reduction in the total dietary intake of nickel per day. This can influence the outcome of the disease and can benefit the nickel sensitive patient.

  5. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  6. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive and the D......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  7. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Ashimav

    2007-01-01

    Nickel is a ubiquitous trace element and it occurs in soil, water, air and of the biosphere. It is mostly used to manufacture stainless steel. Nickel is the commonest cause of metal allergy. Nickel allergy is a chronic and recurring skin problem; females are affected more commonly than males. Nickel allergy may develop at any age. Once developed, it tends to persist life-long. Nickel is present in most of the dietary items and food is considered to be a major source of nickel exposure for the...

  8. Solubility of nickel-cadmium ferrite in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vol'ski, V.; Vol'ska, Eh.; Politan'ska, U.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of a solid solution of nickel-cadmium ferrite containing an excess of ferric oxide, (CdO)sub(0.5), (NiO)sub(0.5) and (Fe 2 O 3 )sub(1.5), in hydrochloric and nitric acids at 20, 40 and 60 deg C, was determined colorimetrically and chelatometrically, as well as by studying the x-ray diffraction patterns of the preparations prior to dissolution and their residues after dissolution. It is shown that cadmium passes into the solution faster than iron and nickel; after 800 hours, the solution contains 40% of iron ions and more than 80% of cadmium ions. The kinetics of ferrite dissolution is studied

  9. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  10. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  11. Effect of nickel and iron co-exposure on human lung cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salnikow, Konstantin; Li Xiaomei; Lippmann, Morton

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in susceptible populations. The epidemiological data also suggest a relationship between PM air pollution and impairment of cardiopulmonary function. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects are not fully understood and are likely related to perturbations of cellular and molecular functions. One type of PM, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), is of particular interest. ROFA does not contain much organic material, but does contain relatively high quantities of transition metals, predominantly nickel, vanadium, and iron, as well as black carbon and sulfates. In this study, we investigated the effect of two metals (iron and nickel) on the induction of 'hypoxia-like' stress and the production of interleukins (ILs) in minimally transformed human airway epithelial cells (1HAEo - ). We found that exposure to soluble nickel sulfate results in the induction of hypoxia-inducible genes and IL-8 production by the 1HAEo - cells. The simultaneous addition of iron in either ferric or ferrous form and nickel completely inhibited IL-8 production and had no effect on 'hypoxia-like' stress caused by nickel, suggesting the existence of two different pathways for the induction 'hypoxia-like' stress and IL-8 production. The effect of nickel was not related to the blocking of iron entry into cells since the level of intracellular iron was not affected by co-exposure with nickel. The obtained data indicate that nickel can induce different signaling pathways with or without interference with iron metabolism. Our observations suggest that in some cases the excess of iron in PM can cancel the effects of nickel

  12. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org

    2012-04-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses — most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.

  13. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  14. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Khondaker, Saiful I [NanoScience Technology Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Majima, Yutaka, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: luisitodv@yahoo.es [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is {approx} 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  15. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W; Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel; Khondaker, Saiful I; Majima, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is ∼ 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  16. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  17. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  18. Comparative study of the influence of antimony oxide additives (III) and nickel hydroxide (II) on electrochemical behavior of cadmium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadnikova, N.V.; Lvova, L.A.; Ryabskaya, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative study of the influence of additives indicated that with partial or complete replacement in the active mass of the cadmium electrode of nickel hydroxide (II) by antimony oxide (III), the electrochemical characteristics do not significantly change. During prolonged storage of charged cadmium electrodes the presence of nickel hydroxide (II) and intermetal compound (IMC) of cadmium with nickel is formed and the specific surface increases. In the case of adding antimony (III) formation of noticeable quantities of IMC of cadmium with antimony is not observed. The specific surface is reduced during storage.

  19. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  20. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  1. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the ...

  2. Oral nickel exposure may induce Type I hypersensitivity reaction in nickel-sensitized subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüköztürk, Suna; Gelincik, Aslı; Ünal, Derya; Demirtürk, Mustafa; Çelik, Dolay Damla; Erden, Sacide; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin; Erdem Kuruca, Serap

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the clinical and immunological changes in the nickel allergic patients with systemic symptoms. We aimed to evaluate T helper cell responses of patients with different clinical presentations due to nickel. Patients having various allergic symptoms and positive patch test results to nickel and 20 controls underwent skin prick tests with nickel. IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma were measured in the culture supernatants of PBMC stimulated by nickel during lymphocyte proliferation test (LTT). 69 patients (56 female, mean age: 49.2 ± 13.1), 97% having nickel containing dental devices and 20 controls (8 female, mean age 34.9 ± 12.06) were evaluated. Skin prick tests with nickel were positive in 70% of the patients (pnickel. Nickel containing dental alloys and oral nickel intake seem to trigger systemic symptoms in previously nickel sensitized patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...

  4. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  5. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...

  6. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  7. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  8. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershberger, J. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: jhersh@anl.gov; Ajayi, O.O. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fenske, G.R. [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 212 Room D204, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing.

  9. Phase transformation in nickel during tribotesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, J.; Ajayi, O.O.; Fenske, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially pure nickel was subjected to a polyalphaolefin-lubricated reciprocating tribotest with increasing load. A friction transition was observed and X-ray diffraction was performed on low-friction and high-friction areas. Hexagonal nickel or nickel carbide was formed at high friction. Broadening of the face-centered cubic peaks did not show dislocation structures characteristic of scuffing

  10. Improved nickel plating of Inconel X-750

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M. E.; Feeney, J. E.; Kuster, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    Electroplating technique with acid pickling provides a method of applying nickel plating on Inconel X-750 tubing to serve as a wetting agent during brazing. Low-stress nickel-plating bath contains no organic wetting agents that cause the nickel to blister at high temperatures.

  11. Nickel-accumulating plant from Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severne, B C; Brooks, R R

    1972-01-01

    A small shrub Hybanthus floribundus (Lindl.) F. Muell. Violaceae growing in Western Australia accumulates nickel and cobalt to a very high degree. Values of up to 23% nickel in leaf ash may represent the highest relative accumulation of a metal on record. The high accumulation of nickel poses interesting problems in plant physiology and plant biochemistry. 9 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H_2SO_4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  13. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlbuaa@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Improved HER efficiency of Ni-Mo coatings was attributed to ‘cauliflower’ like microstructure. • RGO in nickel-RGO composite coating promoted refined grain and facilitated HER. • Synergistic effect between nickel and RGO facilitated HER due to large specific surface of RGO. - Abstract: The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between ‘cauliflower’ like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  14. Void formation in irradiated binary nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Akhter, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    In this work a computer program has been used to compute void radius, void density and swelling parameter for nickel and binary nickel-carbon alloys irradiated with nickel ions of 100 keV. The aim is to compare the computed results with experimental results already reported

  15. Ecological Considerations on Nickel Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Poul V.

    1960-01-01

    The incidence of nickel dermatoses has shifted from the plating industry to other occupations and particularly to non-occupational causes. A Danish survey of 621 cases shows that 4% are due to nickel plating, 9·5% to other occupations, and 86·5% were not due to occupation. A primary eruption not due to occupation had occurred in 14% of the occupational cases. The importance of preventive measures for the community more than for the adequately controlled industry is underlined. PMID:14420983

  16. Carbon formation on nickel and nickel-copper alloy catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstrup, I.; Soerensen, O.; Rostrup-Nielsen, J.R. [Haldor Topsoe Research Labs., Lyngby (Denmark); Tavares, M.T.; Bernardo, C.A.

    1998-05-01

    Equilibrium, kinetic and morphological studies of carbon formation in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, CO, and CO + H{sub 2} gases on silica supported nickel and nickel-copper catalysts are reviewed. The equilibrium deviates in all cases from graphite equilibrium and more so in CO + CO{sub 2} than in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on information from surface science results with chemisorption of CH{sub 4} and possibly also the first dehydrogenation step as rate controlling describes carbon formation on nickel catalyst in CH{sub 4} + H{sub 2} well. The kinetics of carbon formation in CO and CO + H{sub 2} gases are in agreement with CO disproportionation as rate determining step. The presence of hydrogen influences strongly the chemisorption of CO. Carbon filaments are formed when hydrogen is present in the gas while encapsulating carbon dominates in pure CO. Small amounts of Cu alloying promotes while larger amounts (Cu : Ni {>=} 0.1) inhibits carbon formation and changes the morphology of the filaments (``octopus`` carbon formation). Adsorption induced nickel segregation changes the kinetics of the alloy catalysts at high carbon activities. Modifications suggested in some very recent papers on the basis of new results are also briefly discussed. (orig.) 31 refs.

  17. Bioleaching of a low-grade nickel-copper sulfide by mixture of four thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuzhen; Zhong, Hui; Hu, Yuehua; Zhao, Jiancun; He, Zhiguo; Gu, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated thermophilic bioleaching of a low grade nickel-copper sulfide using mixture of four acidophilic thermophiles. Effects of 0.2g/L l-cysteine on the bioleaching process were further evaluated. It aimed at offering new alternatives for enhancing metal recoveries from nickel-copper sulfide. Results showed a recovery of 80.4% nickel and 68.2% copper in 16-day bioleaching without l-cysteine; while 83.7% nickel and 81.4% copper were recovered in the presence of l-cysteine. Moreover, nickel recovery was always higher than copper recovery. l-Cysteine was found contributing to lower pH value, faster microbial growth, higher Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP), higher zeta potential and absorbing on the sulfide surfaces through amino, carboxyl and sulfhydryl groups. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of leached residues showed generation of S, jarosite and ammoniojarosite. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed that l-cysteine could have variant impacts on different microorganisms and changed the microbial community composition dramatically during nickel-copper sulfide bioleaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The mechanism of nickel ferrite formation by glow discharge effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    The influence of various factors on the formation of nickel ferrite by the glow discharge effect has been studied. The ferritization process in the system FeSO4-NiSO4-NaOH-H2O has been studied by the methods of potentiometric titration, measurement of electrical conductivity, residual concentrations and apparent sediment volume. It has been established that the process proceeds in a multistage fashion at pH 11-12 with the formation of polyhydroxo complexes, an intermediate compound and the ferrite formation by its oxidation with active radicals.

  19. Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anirudha; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37 degrees C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

  20. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  1. Preparation by thermal evaporation under vacuum of thin nickel films without support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugne, P.; Garin, P.; Lechauguette, G.

    1959-01-01

    This note deals with the preparation of nickel films without support by means of the technique described but using a new evaporation apparatus. In effect it was necessary, in order to obtain these nickel films, to modify the thermal evaporation conditions. An attempt to obtain a film without support after evaporation in a conventional apparatus led almost invariably to defeat. This appeared to be due to the high concentration of oxygen and of various vapors (diffusion pumps, degassing, etc.) present in the residual atmosphere of the conventional evaporation system. Reprint of a paper published in 'Le Vide, N. 74, March-April 1958, p. 82-83

  2. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  3. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  4. Heat treatment of nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F. Jr.; Clatworthy, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    A heat treating process is described that can be used to produce desired combinations of strength, ductility, and fabricability characteristics in heat resistant age-hardenable alloys having precipitation-hardening amounts of niobium, titanium, and/or tantalum in a nickel-containing matrix. (U.S.)

  5. Electrolytic nickel deposits upon uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.; Chauvin, G.; Coriou, H.; Hure, J.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present a new possibility to protect uranium by very adherent nickel deposits got by aqueous medium electrolysis. Surface treatment of uranium is based upon the chemical etching method from Lietazke. After thermal treatments at 600, 700 and 800 deg. C, under vacuum, a good intermetallic U-Ni diffusion is observed for each case. (author) [fr

  6. Iron-nickel-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karenko, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    A specification is given for iron-nickel-chromium age-hardenable alloys suitable for use in fast breeder reactor ducts and cladding, which utilize the gamma-double prime strengthening phase and are characterized in having a delta or eta phase distributed at or near grain boundaries. A range of compositions is given. (author)

  7. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  8. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  9. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  10. Fractography of hydrogen-embrittled iron-chromium-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tensile specimens of iron-chromium-nickel base alloys were broken in either a hydrogen environment or in air following thermal charging with hydrogen. Fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Fracture morphology of hydrogen-embrittled specimens was characterized by: changed dimple size, twin-boundary parting, transgranular cleavage, and intergranular separation. The nature and extent of the fracture mode changes induced by hydrogen varied systematically with alloy composition and test temperature. Initial microstructure developed during deformation processing and heat treating had a secondary influence on fracture mode

  11. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2011-12-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones. To investigate the proportion of mobile phones sold in Denmark that release nickel after regulation. Metallic parts from 50 randomly selected mobile phones currently for sale in Denmark were tested for nickel release by use of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-nickel spot test. Nine (18%) phones showed at least one positive DMG test reaction and two phones had more than one DMG test-positive spot. Apparently, the proportion of mobile phones with significant nickel release remains unchanged, despite the 2009 revision of the EU Nickel Directive. We encourage manufacturers to measure nickel release from metallic components used in the assembly of mobile phones to ensure safe products. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. A biotemplated nickel nanostructure: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtari, Khadijeh [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fasihi, Javad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollania, Nasrin [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, Khosro, E-mail: khajeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Nickel nanostructure-encapsulated bacteria were prepared using electroless deposition. • Bacterium surface was activated by red-ox reaction of its surface amino acids. • Interfacial changes at cell surfaces were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. • TEM and AFM depicted morphological changes. • Antibacterial activity of nanostructure was examined against different bacteria strains. - Abstract: Nickel nanostructure-encapsulated bacteria were prepared using the electroless deposition procedure and activation of bacterium cell surface by red-ox reaction of surface amino acids. The electroless deposition step occurred in the presence of Ni(II) and dimethyl amine boran (DMAB). Interfacial changes at bacteria cell surfaces during the coating process were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence of tryptophan residues was completely quenched after the deposition of nickel onto bacteria surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicted morphological changes on the surface of the bacterium. It was found that the Ni coated nanostructure was mechanically stable after ultrasonication for 20 min. Significant increase in surface roughness of bacteria was also observed after deposition of Ni clusters. The amount of coated Ni on the bacteria surface was calculated as 36% w/w. The antibacterial activity of fabricated nanostructure in culture media was examined against three different bacteria strains; Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Xantomonas campestris. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined as 500 mg/L, 350 mg/L and 200 mg/L against bacteria, respectively.

  13. Synthesis, Structure, Characterization, and Decomposition of Nickel Dithiocarbamates: Effect of Precursor Structure and Processing Conditions on Solid-State Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.; Duffy, Norman V.; Hoops, Michael D.; Gorse, Elizabeth; Fanwick, Philip E.; Masnovi, John; Cowen, Jonathan E.; Dominey, Raymond N.

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal X-ray structures of four nickel dithiocarbamate complexes, the homoleptic mixed-organic bis-dithiocarbamates Ni[S2CN(isopropyl)(benzyl)]2, Ni[S2CN(ethyl)(n-butyl)]2, and Ni[S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)]2, as well as the heteroleptic mixed-ligand complex NiCl[P(phenyl)3][(S2CN(phenyl)(benzyl)], were determined. Synthetic, spectroscopic, structural, thermal, and sulfide materials studies are discussed in light of prior literature. The spectroscopic results are routine. A slightly distorted square-planar nickel coordination environment was observed for all four complexes. The organic residues adopt conformations to minimize steric interactions. Steric effects also may determine puckering, if any, about the nickel and nitrogen atoms, both of which are planar or nearly so. A trans-influence affects the Ni-S bond distances. Nitrogen atoms interact with the CS2 carbons with a bond order of about 1.5, and the other substituents on nitrogen display transoid conformations. There are no strong intermolecular interactions, consistent with prior observations of the volatility of nickel dithiocarbamate complexes. Thermogravimetric analysis of the homoleptic species under inert atmosphere is consistent with production of 1:1 nickel sulfide phases. Thermolysis of nickel dithiocarbamates under flowing nitrogen produced hexagonal or -NiS as the major phase; thermolysis under flowing forming gas produced millerite (-NiS) at 300 C, godlevskite (Ni9S8) at 325 and 350 C, and heazlewoodite (Ni3S2) at 400 and 450 C. Failure to exclude oxygen results in production of nickel oxide. Nickel sulfide phases produced seem to be primarily influenced by processing conditions, in agreement with prior literature. Nickel dithiocarbamate complexes demonstrate significant promise to serve as single-source precursors to nickel sulfides, a quite interesting family of materials with numerous potential applications.

  14. Temperature dependent quasiparticle renormalization in nickel and iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovsyannikov, Ruslan; Thirupathaiah, Setti; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Fink, Joerg; Duerr, Hermann [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    One of the fundamental consequences of electron correlation effects is that the bare particles in solids become 'dressed' with an excitation cloud resulting in quasiparticles. Such a quasiparticle will carry the same spin and charge as the original particle, but will have a renormalized mass and a finite lifetime. The properties of many-body interactions are described with a complex function called self energy which is directly accessible to modern high-resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Ferromagnetic metals like nickel or iron offers the exciting possibility to study the spin dependence of quasiparticle coupling to bosonic modes. Utilizing the exchange split band structure as an intrinsic 'spin detector' it is possible to distinguish between electron-phonon and electron-magnon coupling phenomena. In this contribution we will report a systematic investigation of the k- and temperature dependence of the electron-boson coupling in nickel and iron metals as well as discuss origin of earlier observed anomalous lifetime broadening of majority spin states of nickel at Fermi level.

  15. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    . The main focus will be on the corrosion properties where the following corrosion investigations will be covered; corrosion potential measurements for the different coatings, estimation of corrosion rates for materials in galvanic coupling with tin/nickel coatings, salt spray test, medical tests...

  16. Influence of disorder on phonon resistivity of ion-implanted nickel hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, L.; Bernas, H.; Thome, L.; Traverse, A.; Nedellec, P.

    1982-01-01

    Metastable nickel hydride NiHsub(1.00) is produced by low energy proton implantation into thin nickel films at 6 K. After annealing at different temperatures (125, 185 K), the sample resistivity-temperature dependence is studied by cycling between 4.2 K and the annealing temperature. The temperature-dependent term in the resistivity is thus determined - for the first time - in an implanted system. A T 3 -dependence is found, in contrast to the T 5 -dependence of the ordered NiH β-phase obtained by electrolytic charging. This result is ascribed to implantation induced disorder. Isochronal annealing experiments are discussed elsewhere. (author)

  17. Activation behaviour of ZrCrNi mechanically milled with nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C. B.; Ho Kim, J.; Sub Lee, K.

    1998-01-01

    AB 2 type Laves phase alloys have some promising properties as a negative electrode in rechargeable Ni/MH batteries because of high electrochemical capacity and good cyclic life. However, they have the disadvantage of requiring many charge-discharge cycles for activation. In this study, the mechanical milling with nickel has been introduced to modify the electrochemical behaviour of the ZrCrNi alloy. A composite-like structure (ZrCrNi+nickel) and nanocrystalline ZrCrNi were obtained through the mechanical milling and the hydrogenation behaviour of the electrode was greatly improved. (orig.)

  18. Impact of shuttle environment on prelaunch handling of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Deployment of the American Satellite Company 1 spacecraft for the Space Shuttle Discovery in August 1985 set a new milestone in nickel-hydrogen battery technology. This communications satellite is equipped with two 35 Ah nickel-hydrogen batteries and it is the first such satellite launched into orbit via the Space Shuttle. The prelaunch activities, combined with the environmental constraints onboard the Shuttle, led to the development of a new battery handling procedure. An outline of the prelaunch activities, with particular attention to battery charging, is presented.

  19. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  20. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  1. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with ethylene adsorbed on nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchak, V.N.; Tret'yakov, I.I.; Kislyuk, M.U.

    1976-01-01

    The reactivity of ethylene adsorbed on the pure films of nickel at various temperatures was studied with respect to hydrogen atoms generated in the gaseous phase. The experiments were conducted in a glass vacuum apparatus enabling one to obtain the highest vacuum up to 2x20 -10 torr. The catalyst, nickel films, was produced by their deposition onto the walls of the glass reactor at a pressure of the residual gas of 10 -9 torr and a temperature of the walls of 25 deg C. Gas purity was analyzed by the mass spectrometric method. The ethylene adsorbed at the temperatures below 173 deg K reacted readily with the hydrogen atoms to yield ethane. The process ran without practically any activation energy involved and was limited by the attachment of the first hydrogen atom to the ethylene molecule. The efficiency of this interaction was 0.02 of the number of the hydrogen atoms collisions against the surface occupied by the ethylene. The adsorption of the ethylene at room and higher temperatures was accompanied by its disproportioning with the release of the hydrogen into the gaseous phase and a serious destruction of the ethylene molecules adsorbed to produce hydrogen residues interacting with neither molecular nor atomic hydrogen [ru

  2. Nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes (kiss sleeving process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, B.

    1988-01-01

    This process, the nickel electroplating of steam generator tubes, has been jointly developed under a Belgatom (Laborelec) and Framatome agreement with shared experience gained by both companies, industrial applications being under the responsibility of Framatome. Application of the coating in zones where residual stresses or cracks are present prevents contact between the primary water and the tube, which stops the stress corrosion process. In the Doel 2 plant, 91 tubes have been plated since 1985, and different sets of parameters have been used for comparison purposes. Among these tubes, 9 have been preventively plugged because of defective plating, 9 have been pulled out for laboratory examinations, 2 just after plating and 7 after 1 or 2 yr of service. There are 73 plated tubes still in service. From the tests that were performed, it was possible to select an optimized set of parameters guaranteeing the following properties: bridging of existing cracks and good behavior of the coating in relevant zones, good adhesion to the Inconel tube, high ductility, low residual stresses, thermal shock resistance, corrosion resistance, erosion resistance, and low cobalt content. The licensability of this process is being completed. It is based first on the leak-before-break concept to determine the characteristics of the nickel plating, thickness in particular, and second on the inspectability of ultrasonic testing methods

  3. Effects of antimony additions on the fracture of nickel at 600 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, C.L.; Padgett, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Antimony additions (about 1 wt pct) are found to drastically lower tensile ductility and induce extensive intergranular cracking in nickel at 600 C. This effect is most pronounced at lower strain rates. These results are contrasted to results for pure nickel where ductility is high and failure occurs via plastic instability. Scanning electron microscopy revealed faceting of crack and cavity surfaces in the antimony doped nickel. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed segregation of antimony and (residual) sulfur to both grain boundaries and to the internal free surfaces of cracks and cavities. Inert ion sputter profiling showed that most of the antimony and sulfur enrichment on these surfaces is confined within a few atom layers of the interface. The embrittling influence of antimony is discussed in terms of the observed antimony and sulfur segregation to internal interfaces. Possible connections between the segregation and the observed embrittlement involve segregation effects on grain boundary sliding, grain boundary and surface diffusivities, and interfacial energetics

  4. Influence of RANEY Nickel on the Formation of Intermediates in the Degradation of Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Forchheim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin forms an important part of lignocellulosic biomass and is an abundantly available residue. It is a potential renewable source of phenol. Liquefaction of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin as well as catalytical hydrodeoxygenation of the main intermediates in the degradation of lignin, that is, catechol and guaiacol, was studied. The cleavage of the ether bonds, which are abundant in the molecular structure of lignin, can be realised in near-critical water (573 to 673 K, 20 to 30 MPa. Hydrothermal treatment in this context provides high selectivity in respect to hydroxybenzenes, especially catechol. RANEY Nickel was found to be an adequate catalyst for hydrodeoxygenation. Although it does not influence the cleavage of ether bonds, RANEY Nickel favours the production of phenol from both lignin and catechol. The main product from hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol with RANEY Nickel was cyclohexanol. Reaction mechanism and kinetics of the degradation of guaiacol were explored.

  5. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  6. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nano powders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tientong, J.; Garcia, S.; Thurber, C.R.; Golden, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel nano powders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at ph ∼ 12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54-65 °C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution ph affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (ph ∼10) of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Logutenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nanocrystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nanowires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130°C are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nanowires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  8. Nickel and cobalt base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlle, P.

    1994-01-01

    Nickel base alloys have a good resistance to pitting, cavernous or cracks corrosion. Nevertheless, all the nickel base alloys are not equivalent. Some differences exit between all the families (Ni, Ni-Cu, Ni-Cr-Fe, Ni-Cr-Fe-Mo/W-Cu, Ni-Cr-Mo/W, Ni-Mo). Cobalt base alloys in corrosive conditions are generally used for its wear and cracks resistance, with a compromise to its localised corrosion resistance properties. The choice must be done from the perfect knowledge of the corrosive medium and of the alloys characteristics (chemical, metallurgical). A synthesis of the corrosion resistance in three medium (6% FeCl 3 , 4% NaCl + 1% HCl + 0.1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , 11.5% H 2 SO 4 + 1.2% HCl + 1% Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 1% CuCl 2 ) is presented. (A.B.). 11 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs

  9. Change of lattice parameters in highly disperse nickel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamarnik, M.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    A monotonous increase of the lattice parameters with the decrease of particle size is established by an X-ray study for highly disperse nickel powders in the interval of sizes from 4.9 to 35 nm. The relative changes of lattice parameters are from 4.9x10 -3 ±5x10 -4 up to 3x10 -4 ±1x10 -4 . The effect is explained by the decrease of the intracrystalline pressure in small particles stipulated by electrostatic interaction of the elements of crystal charge lattice. A calculated dependence of the lattice parameters which agrees with experimental curve is obtained in the framework of the model suggested by the charge lattice represented by an ion-electron lattice of positive ions and collectivized electrons with regard of the lattice of atomic neutral cores (the contribution of the latter is proved very small as found from the calculations). (orig.)

  10. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Reconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Erik L.

    1997-01-01

    Reconditioning has traditionally been used as a means of maintaining the performance of normal cells and batteries. This paper describes methods and results in which reconditioning was used to improve the performance of nickel-hydrogen batteries. The following method are discussed: (1) SS/L reconditioning implementation; (2) Superbird reconditioning - pressure/capacity growth; (3) INTELSAT 7/7A reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus and life testing; and (4) N-Star reconditioning - cell voltage plateaus (capacity fading and recovery).

  11. Non-thiolate ligation of nickel by nucleotide-free UreG of Klebsiella aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Diaconescu, Vlad; Joseph, Crisjoe A.; Boer, Jodi L.; Mulrooney, Scott B.; Hausinger, Robert P.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2016-12-21

    Nickel-dependent ureases are activated by a multiprotein complex that includes the GTPase UreG. Prior studies showed that nucleotide-free UreG from Klebsiella aerogenes is monomeric and binds one nickel or zinc ion with near-equivalent affinity using an undefined binding site, whereas nucleotide-free UreG from Helicobacter pylori selectively binds one zinc ion per dimer via a universally conserved Cys-Pro-His motif in each protomer. Iodoacetamide-treated K. aerogenes UreG was nearly unaffected in nickel binding compared to non-treated sample, suggesting the absence of thiolate ligands to the metal. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of nickel-bound UreG showed the metal possessed four-coordinate geometry with all O/N donor ligands including one imidazole, thus confirming the absence of thiolate ligation. The nickel site in Strep-tag II-modified protein possessed six-coordinate geometry, again with all O/N donor ligands, but now including two or three imidazoles. An identical site was noted for the Strep-tag II-modified H74A variant, substituted in the Cys-Pro-His motif, ruling out coordination by this His residue. These results are consistent with metal binding to both His6 and a His residue of the fusion peptide in Strep-tagged K. aerogenes UreG. We conclude that the nickel- and zinc-binding site in nucleotide-free K. aerogenes UreG is distinct from that of nucleotide-free H. pylori UreG and does not involve the Cys-Pro-His motif. Further, we show the Strep-tag II can perturb metal coordination of this protein.

  12. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nanowires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Logutenko, Olga A.; Titkov, Alexander I.; Vorob’yov, Alexander M.; Yukhin, Yriy M.; Lyakhov, Nikolay Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nanostructures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission ...

  13. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, O B

    1979-01-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl/sub 2/ solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  14. Chemically grown, porous, nickel oxide thin-film for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamdar, A.I.; Kim, YoungSam; Im, Hyunsik [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Pawar, S.M.; Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungsang [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    A porous nickel oxide film is successfully synthesized by means of a chemical bath deposition technique from an aqueous nickel nitrate solution. The formation of a rock salt NiO structure is confirmed with XRD measurements. The electrochemical supercapacitor properties of the nickel oxide film are examined using cyclic voltammetery (CV), galvanostatic and impedance measurements in two different electrolytes, namely, NaOH and KOH. A specific capacitance of {proportional_to}129.5 F g{sup -1} in the NaOH electrolyte and {proportional_to}69.8 F g{sup -1} in the KOH electrolyte is obtained from a cyclic voltammetery study. The electrochemical stability of the NiO electrode is observed for 1500 charge-discharge cycles. The capacitative behaviour of the NiO electrode is confirmed from electrochemical impedance measurements. (author)

  15. A microfabricated nickel-hydrogen battery using thick film printing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Waiping G.; Wainright, Jesse S.

    To utilize the distinctive cycle life and safety characteristics of the nickel-hydrogen chemistry while eliminating the high pressure limitations of conventional nickel-hydrogen cells, a microfabricated nickel-hydrogen battery using a low-pressure metal hydride for hydrogen storage is being developed for powering micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and for biomedical applications where the battery would be implanted within the body. Thick film printing techniques which are simple and low cost were used to fabricate this battery. Inks were developed for each of the different battery components, including the electrodes, current collectors and separator. SEM images on these printed components showed the desired characteristics for each. Positive electrode cycling tests were performed on the printed positive electrodes while cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the printed negative electrodes. Consistent charge and discharge performance was observed during positive electrode cycling. Full cells with printed positive and negative assemblies were assembled and tested.

  16. A microfabricated nickel-hydrogen battery using thick film printing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Waiping G.; Wainright, Jesse S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2007-02-25

    To utilize the distinctive cycle life and safety characteristics of the nickel-hydrogen chemistry while eliminating the high pressure limitations of conventional nickel-hydrogen cells, a microfabricated nickel-hydrogen battery using a low-pressure metal hydride for hydrogen storage is being developed for powering micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and for biomedical applications where the battery would be implanted within the body. Thick film printing techniques which are simple and low cost were used to fabricate this battery. Inks were developed for each of the different battery components, including the electrodes, current collectors and separator. SEM images on these printed components showed the desired characteristics for each. Positive electrode cycling tests were performed on the printed positive electrodes while cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the printed negative electrodes. Consistent charge and discharge performance was observed during positive electrode cycling. Full cells with printed positive and negative assemblies were assembled and tested. (author)

  17. The calculation of surface free energy based on embedded atom method for solid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Wenhua; Hu Wangyu; Su Kalin; Liu Fusheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new solution for accurate prediction of surface free energy based on embedded atom method was proposed. ► The temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of solid nickel was obtained. ► In isotropic environment, the approach does not change most predictions of bulk material properties. - Abstract: Accurate prediction of surface free energy of crystalline metals is a challenging task. The theory calculations based on embedded atom method potentials often underestimate surface free energy of metals. With an analytical charge density correction to the argument of the embedding energy of embedded atom method, an approach to improve the prediction for surface free energy is presented. This approach is applied to calculate the temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of bulk nickel and surface energies of nickel nanoparticles, and the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data.

  18. Electrodeposition of Manganese-Nickel Oxide Films on a Graphite Sheet for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Min Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-nickel (Mn-Ni oxide films were electrodeposited on a graphite sheet in a bath consisting of manganese acetate and nickel chloride, and the structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of these films were investigated. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide films had porous structures covered with nanofibers. The X-ray diffractometer pattern revealed the presence of separate manganese oxide (g-MnO2 and nickel oxide (NiO in the films. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 424 F/g in Na2SO4 electrolyte. This electrode maintained 86% of its initial specific capacitance over 2000 cycles of the charge-discharge operation, showing good cycling stability.

  19. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B K; Wainright, J S

    2012-05-15

    A low pressure nickel-hydrogen battery using either a metal hydride or gaseous hydrogen for H(2) storage has been developed for use in implantable neuroprosthetic devices. In this paper, pressure variations inside the cell for the gaseous hydrogen version are analyzed and correlated with oxygen evolution side reaction at the end of charging, the recombination of oxygen with hydrogen during charging and a subsequent rest period, and the self-discharge of the nickel electrode. About 70% of the recombination occurred simultaneously with oxygen evolution during charging and the remaining oxygen recombined with hydrogen during the 1(st) hour after charging. Self-discharge of the cell varies linearly with hydrogen pressure at a given state of charge and increased with increasing battery charge levels. The coulometric efficiency calculated based on analysis of the pressure-time data agreed well with the efficiency calculated based on the current-time data. Pressure variations in the battery are simulated accurately to predict coulometric efficiency and the state of charge of the cell, factors of extreme importance for a battery intended for implantation within the human body.

  20. Analysis of Pressure Variations in a Low-Pressure Nickel-Hydrogen Battery – Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, B. K.; Wainright, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    A low pressure nickel-hydrogen battery using either a metal hydride or gaseous hydrogen for H2 storage has been developed for use in implantable neuroprosthetic devices. In this paper, pressure variations inside the cell for the gaseous hydrogen version are analyzed and correlated with oxygen evolution side reaction at the end of charging, the recombination of oxygen with hydrogen during charging and a subsequent rest period, and the self-discharge of the nickel electrode. About 70% of the recombination occurred simultaneously with oxygen evolution during charging and the remaining oxygen recombined with hydrogen during the 1st hour after charging. Self-discharge of the cell varies linearly with hydrogen pressure at a given state of charge and increased with increasing battery charge levels. The coulometric efficiency calculated based on analysis of the pressure-time data agreed well with the efficiency calculated based on the current-time data. Pressure variations in the battery are simulated accurately to predict coulometric efficiency and the state of charge of the cell, factors of extreme importance for a battery intended for implantation within the human body. PMID:22423175

  1. Respiratory carcinogenicity assessment of soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, Adriana R

    2002-10-01

    The many chemical forms of nickel differ in physicochemical properties and biological effects. Health assessments for each main category of nickel species are needed. The carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds has proven particularly difficult. Epidemiologic evidence indicates an association between inhalation exposures to nickel refinery dust containing soluble nickel compounds and increased risk of respiratory cancers. However, the nature of this association is unclear because of limitations of the exposure data, inconsistent results across cohorts, and the presence of mixed exposures to water-insoluble nickel compounds and other confounders that are known or suspected carcinogens. Moreover, well-conducted animal inhalation studies, where exposures were solely to soluble nickel, failed to demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. Similar negative results were seen in animal oral studies. A model exists that relates respiratory carcinogenic potential to the bioavailability of nickel ion at nuclear sites within respiratory target cells. This model helps reconcile human, animal, and mechanistic data for soluble nickel compounds. For inhalation exposures, the predicted lack of bioavailability of nickel ion at target sites suggests that water-soluble nickel compounds, by themselves, will not be complete human carcinogens. However, if inhaled at concentrations high enough to induce chronic lung inflammation, these compounds may enhance carcinogenic risks associated with inhalation exposure to other substances. Overall, the weight of evidence indicates that inhalation exposure to soluble nickel alone will not cause cancer; moreover, if exposures are kept below levels that cause chronic respiratory toxicity, any possible tumor-enhancing effects (particularly in smokers) would be avoided.

  2. Flare up of Nickel Contact Dermatits Following Oral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient having contact dermatitis due to nickel on the wrist, sides of neck, thighs and legs, confirmed by patch tests with nickel sulphate, showed aggravation of the dermatitis following oral provocation with 25 mg nickel sulphate.

  3. Air Force standards for nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Warren; Milden, Martin

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are presented in viewgraph form and include Air Force nickel hydrogen standardization goals, philosophy, project outline, cell level standardization, battery level standardization, and schedule.

  4. Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.

  5. On the reflectivity of nickel neutron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Habib, N. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.); Kenawy, M.A.; Wahba, M.; Ashry, A.H. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-02-01

    Neutron reflectivities were determined for 300 nm thick films of natural nickel and nickel 58 coated on glass plates. The measurements were performed at glancing angles between 40' and 60'. The incident neutron beam from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels covered neutron wavelengths between 0.55 and 0.80 nm. It was found that nickel 58, because of the high value of its critical glancing angle, is more efficient as a neutron mirror than natural nickel. (orig.).

  6. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  7. [Nickel levels in female dermatological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, U; Twardella, D; Fedorov, M; Darsow, U; Schaller, K-H; Habernegg, R; Behrendt, H; Fromme, H

    2009-07-01

    Nickel levels in urine were determined among 163 female dermatological patients aged 18 to 46 years. Data on life-style factors were collected in parallel via a questionnaire. Urinary nickel excretion was in the normal range of the German female population (0.2-46.1 microg Ni/g creatinine). The 95th percentile (3.9 microg Ni/l urine) exceeded the German reference value (3.0 microg Ni/l urine). In the multivariate regression analyses we found a statistically significant increase of ln-transformed nickel levels with increase in age and in women using dietary supplements. The following variables were not associated with Nickel urine levels: suffering from nickel eczema, smoking, drinking stagnated water, eating foods with high nickel contents and using nickel-containing kitchen utensils as, for example, an electric kettle with an open heater coil. We conclude that personal urinary levels should be assessed with simultaneous consideration of habits and life-style factors. A German national survery would be useful. Those patients who experience the exacerbation of their eczema in cases of oral provocation, for example, by a high nickel diet should be aware of potential sources of nickel, such as supplements.

  8. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35...... was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm...... nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant...

  9. The effect of current density and saccharin addition on the grain size of nickel coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Yung; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently, the main advantage of a radioisotope 'fuel' is concentrated, because it is 'burned' at the rate of the isotopes half life. In other words, given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery would still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on thin non radioactive nickel foil. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To establish the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles were dissolved in an acid solution and electroplated on the Ni sheet. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of the Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the influence of current density and saccharin concentration on the grain size, was investigated. The proposed model can also be applied for radioactive Ni 63 electroplating.

  10. The effect of current density and saccharin addition on the grain size of nickel coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Young Rang; Park, Keun Yung; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the main advantage of a radioisotope 'fuel' is concentrated, because it is 'burned' at the rate of the isotopes half life. In other words, given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery would still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on thin non radioactive nickel foil. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To establish the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles were dissolved in an acid solution and electroplated on the Ni sheet. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of the Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the influence of current density and saccharin concentration on the grain size, was investigated. The proposed model can also be applied for radioactive Ni 63 electroplating

  11. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  13. Influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umegaki, Tetsuo, E-mail: umegaki.tetsuo@nihon-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Seki, Ayano [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Xu, Qiang [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Engineering, Nihon University, 1-8-14, Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • We study influence of preparation conditions on activity of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres. • The activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} increases with increase of Si+Ni content. • The particle size distribution affects the activity and reducibility of active nickel species. • The amount of PS residue in the hollow spheres decreases by treatment of as-prepared sample in toluene. -- Abstract: In this paper, we investigated influence of preparation conditions of hollow silica–nickel composite spheres on their morphology and catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. In the preparation method of this study, when silica–nickel composite shells were coated on polystyrene templates by the sol–gel method using L(+)-arginine as the promoter for the reaction to form silica–nickel composite shell, the polystyrene templates were dissolved subsequently, even synchronously, in the same medium to form hollow spheres. The as-prepared silica–nickel composite spheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of Si+Ni content on the morphology were systematically evaluated. All the as-prepared hollow silica–nickel composite spheres have the similar morphology as identified by SEM and TEM measurement. Homogeneity of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres increases with the increase in the Si+Ni content as shown by the laser diffraction particle size analysis. The catalytic activities of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane prepared with different Si+Ni contents were compared. The catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution in the presence of the hollow spheres increases with the increase of Si+Ni content. The results of FTIR spectra of the hollow silica–nickel composite spheres indicate that a certain amount of residual PS templates exists in hollow silica–nickel

  14. Behavioral interventions to reduce nickel exposure in a nickel processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.

  15. Electrochemical study of nickel from urea-acetamide-LiBr low-temperature molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Min; Gao, Bingliang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Shixing; Li, Liangxing; Wang, Zhaowen; Yu, Jiangyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CV results show that the charge transfer process of Ni(II)/Ni in urea-acetamide-LiBr is irreversible. • The reduction process is a single step two-electron transfer process. • Chronoamperometry indicates that the reaction on tungsten electrode involves progressive nucleation. • EDS and XRD analyses confirm that the obtained deposits are pure nickel. -- Abstract: The electrochemical behavior of nickel was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques at 353 K using a tungsten electrode in urea-acetamide-LiBr low-temperature molten salt. The cyclic voltammograms indicate that the reduction of Ni(II) to Ni proceeds via a single-step, two-electron transfer process. Chronoamperometric measurements show that the electrodeposition of nickel on the tungsten electrode involves three-dimensional (3D) progressive nucleation under diffusion-controlled growth at 353 K. Nickel coatings were prepared at different cathodic potentials (−0.70 to −0.85 V) and different temperatures (343–373 K) in urea-acetamide-LiBr molten salt. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images reveal that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at more positive cathodic potentials within the temperature range of 343–363 K. The EDS and XRD analyses confirm that the obtained deposits are pure nickel

  16. An overview of advanced high-strength nickel-base alloys for LWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prybylowski, J.; Ballinger, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the behavior of high strength nickel base alloys used in light water reactor (LWR) applications. Emphasis is placed on understanding the fundamental mechanisms controlling crack propagation in these environments. To provide a foundation for this survey, general mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement are first reviewed. The behavior of high strength nickel base alloys in LWR environments, as well as in other relevant environments is then reviewed. Suggested mechanisms of crack propagation are discussed. Alternate alloys and microstructural modifications that may result in improved behavior are presented. It is now clear that, at temperatures near 100C, alloy X-750, the predominant high strength nickel base alloy used today in LWR applications, is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. A review of published data from hydrogen embrittlement studies of nickel base superalloys during electrolytic charging and in hydrogen sulfide/brine solutions suggests that other nickel base superalloys are available possessing resistance to hydrogen embrittlement superior to that of alloy X-750. Available results of tests in gaseous hydrogen suggest that reduced grain boundary precipitation and a fine distribution of intragranular precipitates that act as irreversible hydrogen traps is the optimum microstructure for hydrogen embrittlement resistance. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  18. Electrochemically deposited hybrid nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate nanostructures for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi, A., E-mail: safavi@chem.susc.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, S.H., E-mail: habibkazemi@iasbs.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, H. [Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: > Nanostructured hybrid nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate is used in supercapacitors. > A high capacitance (765 F g{sup -1}) is obtained at a specific current of 0.2 A g{sup -1}. > Long cycle-life and excellent stability are demonstrated during 1000 cycles. - Abstract: This study describes the use of electrodeposited nanostructured hybrid nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate in electrochemical supercapacitors. Herein, various compositions of nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrates (Ni/CoHCNFe) nanostructures are electrodeposited on an inexpensive stainless steel substrate using cyclic voltammetric (CV) method. The morphology of the electrodeposited nanostructures is studied using scanning electron microscopy, while their electrochemical characterizations are investigated using CV, galvanostatic charge and discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the nanostructures of hybrid metal cyanoferrate, shows a much higher capacitance (765 F g{sup -1}) than those obtained with just nickel hexacyanoferrate (379 F g{sup -1}) or cobalt hexacyanoferrate (277 F g{sup -1}). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results confirm the favorable capacitive behavior of the electrodeposited materials. The columbic efficiency is approximately 95% based on the charge and discharge experiments. Long cycle-life and excellent stability of the nanostructured materials are also demonstrated during 1000 cycles.

  19. Electrochemically deposited hybrid nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate nanostructures for electrochemical supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavi, A.; Kazemi, S.H.; Kazemi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanostructured hybrid nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate is used in supercapacitors. → A high capacitance (765 F g -1 ) is obtained at a specific current of 0.2 A g -1 . → Long cycle-life and excellent stability are demonstrated during 1000 cycles. - Abstract: This study describes the use of electrodeposited nanostructured hybrid nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate in electrochemical supercapacitors. Herein, various compositions of nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrates (Ni/CoHCNFe) nanostructures are electrodeposited on an inexpensive stainless steel substrate using cyclic voltammetric (CV) method. The morphology of the electrodeposited nanostructures is studied using scanning electron microscopy, while their electrochemical characterizations are investigated using CV, galvanostatic charge and discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the nanostructures of hybrid metal cyanoferrate, shows a much higher capacitance (765 F g -1 ) than those obtained with just nickel hexacyanoferrate (379 F g -1 ) or cobalt hexacyanoferrate (277 F g -1 ). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results confirm the favorable capacitive behavior of the electrodeposited materials. The columbic efficiency is approximately 95% based on the charge and discharge experiments. Long cycle-life and excellent stability of the nanostructured materials are also demonstrated during 1000 cycles.

  20. The heat storage material based on paraffin-modified multilayer carbon nanotubes with Nickel-zinc ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchegolkov, A.; Shchegolkov, A.; Dyachkova, T.; Semenov, A.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents an investigation of magnetically controlled heat-storage material based on paraffin, modified with multilayer carbon nanotubes with nickel-zinc ferrite. The technology of obtaining nanomodified material capable of interacting with magnetic field is presented. The study of the heat-exchange processes of charge/discharge with the help of magnetic field are carried out.

  1. Nickel allergy in a Danish population 25 years after the first nickel regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel in metallic items has been regulated in Denmark since 1990; however, 10% of young Danish women are still sensitized to nickel. There is a need for continuous surveillance of the effect of regulation. OBJECTIVES: To identify current self-reported metallic exposures leading...... reactions within 30 min of contact were reported by 30.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel exposures that led to the implementation of a nickel regulation seem to persist. The durations of contact with metallic items to fall under the current REACH regulation of nickel correspond well with the results...... to dermatitis in nickel-allergic patients, and the minimum contact time needed for dermatitis to occur. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all patients who reacted positively to nickel sulfate 5% pet. within the last 5 years at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Gentofte Hospital. RESULTS...

  2. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...... is the possibility that the person is occupationally exposed to nickel. Nail analysis is suggested as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel.......The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...

  3. Prevalence of nickel allergy in Europe following the EU Nickel Directive - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Malin G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2017-01-01

    .4% versus 19.8%) (p = 0.02), in female dermatitis patients aged ≤17 years (14.3% versus 29.2%) (p women: 20.2% versus 36.6%) (p men: 4.9% versus 6.6%) (p ..., and generally remained high, affecting 8-18% of the general population. A consistent pattern of decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy in some EU countries was observed, although the prevalence among young women remains high. Steps should be taken for better prevention of nickel allergy in EU countries.......Nickel contact allergy remains a problem in EU countries, despite the EU Nickel Directive. To study the prevalence of nickel allergy in EU countries following the implementation of the EU Nickel Directive, we performed a systematic search in PubMed for studies that examined the prevalence of nickel...

  4. Transfert de nickel, de cuivre et de zinc lors de la manipulation de pièces de monnaie : le cas du dirham marocain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Paul-Guy; Nourtier, Alain; Monkade, Mohammed; Berrada, Khalid; Boughaleb, Hichame; Outzourhit, Abdelkader; Pichon, Rémy; Haut, Christian; Govers, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    When the euro was introduced, the fact that some coins contain nickel, which is known to be an allergen, gave rise to controversy. More generally, this raises the question of metal transfer from coins to skin. Morocco has used for decades one-dirham coins made of pure or alloyed nickel. Studying their wear, the labile metal on their surface and the transfer to fingers in handling may therefore be especially instructive. Weighing statistics for a sample of 401 coins confirm that cupronickel coins wear out more quickly than pure nickel coins and reveal that the dirham suffers a much stronger wear than other currencies for which wear statistics are available. SEM studies supplemented by ICP quantitative analyses show that the labile metal is mainly made up of chips, even after many handlings. These chips are often cupronickel, even on pure nickel coins, which shows that they are produced by the friction of coins against one another. Secondly, the surface of coins presents sweat residue with an important proportion of copper and a little nickel, which confirms that sweat dissolves surface copper. Depending on the alloy and date, coins have between 20 and 140 μg of labile copper and nickel, with a content of one quarter of nickel on cupronickel coins and about one half on pure nickel coins. The most worn cupronickel coins are the coins that present the largest amount of labile metal, and even labile nickel. In our experiments, the metal transfer to fingers when a cupronickel coin is handled for the first time represents between 4 and 9% of the labile metal and 0.05% of the annual wear. A simple and reliable test of nickel contamination consists in measuring the labile nickel. To cite this article: P.-G. Fournier et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  5. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the level of residual stresses induced by the surfacing in the weld deposit zone and in the base metal, where considerable thermal gradients are present. Surfacing high-nickel filler on an austenitic base metal is one of techniques in repair of primary collector the primary circuit of nuclear power plant type VVER. The repair technology was developed at Welding Research Institute Bratislava. Measurements of residual stresses in the weld overlay and the base metal are necessary for approving the mechanical analysis and verifying of residual stresses determination on welded material by numerical weld g computer simulation. Investigations of residual stresses are important for developing optimal welding techniques. (authors)

  6. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However...

  7. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured.

  8. Technology development for producing nickel metallic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubler, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    A technology to produce metallic filters by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-Brazilian CNEN) providing the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-Brazilian CNEN) in obtaining nickel alloy filters used for filtration process of uranium hexafluoride, was developed. The experiences carried out for producing nickel conical trunk filters from powder metallurgy are related. (M.C.K.)

  9. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  10. Evolution of the nickel/zirconia interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Olson, D.A.; De Jonghe, L.C.; Miller, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The changes taking place at the nickel zirconia interface during oxidation in air at 900 0 C were studied using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The nickel oxide layer growing at the interface and the stabilizers used in zirconia interact, giving different interface morphologies

  11. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  12. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  13. Structure investigations of electrodeposited nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Brauer, G.; Leidheiser, H. Jr

    1981-01-01

    Electrodeposited nickel samples were investigated by positron annihilation (lifetime and Doppler-broadening), Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements. Two-component positron lifetime spectra were obtained. The first component is thought to result from bulk annihilation and trapping at single trapping centres (TC), their concentrations are obtained from the trapping model. The second one possibly denotes annihilation at voids, the number of which is dependent on the stress in the deposit. The Moessbauer results show differences in the magnetic orientation in the three samples examined. (author)

  14. Influence of current density on microstructure and properties of electrodeposited nickel-alumina composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Góral, Anna; Nowak, Marek; Berent, Katarzyna; Kania, Bogusz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Current density of the electrodeposition affects the incorporation of Al 2 O 3 in Ni matrix. • Ni/Al 2 O 3 composite coatings exhibit changes in crystallographic texture. • The pitting corrosion effects were observed in Ni/Al 2 O 3 coatings. • Residual stresses were decreased with increasing current density and coating thickness. - Abstract: Electrodeposition process is a very promising method for producing metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles. In this method insoluble particles suspended in an electrolytic bath are embedded in a growing metal layer. This paper is focused on the investigations of the nickel matrix nanocomposite coatings with hard α-Al 2 O 3 nano-particles, electrochemically deposited from modified Watts-type baths on steel substrates. The influence of various current densities on the microstructure, residual stresses, texture, hardness and corrosion resistance of the deposited nickel/alumina coatings was investigated. The surface morphology, cross sections of the coatings and distribution of the ceramic particles in the metal matrix were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The phase composition, residual stresses and preferred grain orientation of the coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction techniques. The coating morphology revealed that α-Al 2 O 3 particles show a distinct tendency to form agglomerates, approximately uniformly distributed into the nickel matrix

  15. The strengthening mechanism of a nickel-based alloy after laser shock processing at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinghong; Zhou, Liucheng; He, Weifeng; He, Guangyu; Wang, Xuede; Nie, Xiangfan; Wang, Bo; Luo, Sihai; Li, Yuqin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the strengthening mechanism of laser shock processing (LSP) at high temperatures in the K417 nickel-based alloy. Using a laser-induced shock wave, residual compressive stresses and nanocrystals with a length of 30–200 nm and a thickness of 1 μm are produced on the surface of the nickel-based alloy K417. When the K417 alloy is subjected to heat treatment at 900 °C after LSP, most of the residual compressive stress relaxes while the microhardness retains good thermal stability; the nanocrystalline surface has not obviously grown after the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, which shows a comparatively good thermal stability. There are several reasons for the good thermal stability of the nanocrystalline surface, such as the low value of cold hardening of LSP, extreme high-density defects and the grain boundary pinning of an impure element. The results of the vibration fatigue experiments show that the fatigue strength of K417 alloy is enhanced and improved from 110 to 285 MPa after LSP. After the 900 °C per 10 h heat treatment, the fatigue strength is 225 MPa; the heat treatment has not significantly reduced the reinforcement effect. The feature of the LSP strengthening mechanism of nickel-based alloy at a high temperature is the co-working effect of the nanocrystalline surface and the residual compressive stress after thermal relaxation. (paper)

  16. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  17. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; Odonnell, P.M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market.

  18. Improvement of the process for electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtat, M.; Lafage, B.; Leonardi, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel hydroxide electrodes containing 11g/dsqm hydroxide, with capacities of 3.6 to 3.8 Ah/dsqm were prepared at 353 K by electrochemical impregnation. The reproducibility of the results is obtained by readjusting the pH before each preparation. The control of each electrode is done during two cycles of charge and discharge following the manufacture by a potential relaxation method.

  19. Recent progress in nickel carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Positive bacterial mutagenesis tests have been obtained with Ni(II) in Corynybacterium, but not in E. coli, S. typhimurium, or B. subtilis. Transformation assays of several soluble and crystalline Ni compounds have been positive in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Ni(II) binds to DNA, RNA, and nucleoproteins, and becomes localized in nucleoli. Genotoxic effects of Ni include: (a) chromosomal aberrations, including sister-chromatid exchanges, (b) DNA strandbreaks and DNA-protein crosslinks, (c) inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis, (d) infidelity of DNA transcription, and (e) mutations at the HGPRTase locus in Chinese hamster cells and the TK locus in mouse lymphoma cells. These findings are consistent with somatic mutation as the mechanism for initiation of nickel carcinogenesis. Ni compounds cause reversible transition of double-stranded poly(dG-dC) DNA from the right-handed B-helix to the left-handed Z-helix, suggesting a mechanism whereby nickel might modulate oncogene expression. 99 references, 4 tables.

  20. Electrochemical characteristics of silver- and nickel-coated synthetic graphite prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method for the anode of lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Chang; Byun, Dongjin; Lee, Joong Kee; Cho, Byung won

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of synthetic graphite coated with silver and nickel for the anodes of lithium secondary batteries were prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method. The electrode coated with silver showed higher charge-discharge capacities due to a Ag-Li alloy, but rate capability decreased at higher charge-discharge rate. This result can be explained by the formation of an artificial Ag oxidation film with higher impedance, this lowered the rate capability at high charge-discharge rate due to its low electrical conductivity. Rate capability is improved, however, by coating nickel and silver together on the surface of synthetic graphite. The nickel which is inactive with oxidation reaction plays an important role as a conducting agent which enhanced the conductivity of the electrode

  1. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  2. Recovery of vanadium, and nickel from fly ash produced from heavy oil-fired electrical power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stas, J.; Dahdouh, A.; Al-Chayah, O.

    2006-05-01

    After some preliminary tests, two leaching stages of fly ash to recover vanadium, molybdenum and nickel were selected. A first stage alkaline leaching of fly ash to recover vanadium and molybdenum followed by a second stage sulfuric acid leaching of the residual ash to recover nickel. The impact of some operational parameters (L/S, leaching temperature, mixing time, and agent leaching concentrations) on the recovery of V, Ni was investigated. Conditions of precipitation of V and Mo from alkaline medium and Ni from sulfuric acid solution were established. (author)

  3. Nickel accumulation and storage in bradyrhizobium japonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.J.; Pihl, T.D.; Stults, L.; Sray, W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogenase-depressed (chemolithotrophic growth conditions) and heterotrophically grown cultures of Bradyrhizobium japonicum accumulated nickel about equally over a 3-h period. Both types of cultures accumulated nickel primarily in a form that was not exchangeable with NiCl 2 , and they accumulated much more Ni than would be needed for the Ni-containing hydrogenase. The nickel accumulated by heterotrophically incubated cultures could later be mobilized to allow active hydrogenase synthesis during derepression in the absence of nickel, while cells both grown with Ni and the derepressed without nickel had low hydrogenase activities. The level of activity in cells grown with Ni and then derepressed without nickel was about the same as that in cultures derepressed in the presence of nickel. The Ni accumulated by heterotrophically grown cultures was associated principally with soluble proteins rather than particulate material, and this Ni was not lost upon dialyzing an extract containing the soluble proteins against either Ni-containing or EDTA-containing buffer. However, this Ni was lost upon pronase or low pH treatments. The soluble Ni-binding proteins were partially purified by gel filtration and DEAE chromatography. They were not antigenically related to hydrogenase peptides. Much of the 63 Ni eluted as a single peak of 48 kilodaltons. Experiments involving immunuprecipitation of 63 Ni-containing hydrogenase suggested that the stored source of Ni in heterotrophic cultures that could later be mobilized into hydrogenase resided in the nonexchangeable Ni-containing fraction rather than in loosely bound or ionic forms

  4. Environmental and human toxicology of nickel - a review; Umwelt- und Humantoxikologie von Nickel - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyersmann, D. [Fachbereich Biologie und Chemie, Univ. Bremen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Nickel is a relatively rare element, and its concentrations in ambient air, soils and waters are very low. Higher burdens of nickel are found in nickel industries and their proximity. The human uptake of nickel from the ambient air is neglectably low, except in industrial exposures. The main fraction of human nickel uptake is from food, nearly 50% stems from vegetables. Only about 2% of the oral uptake of nickel are resorbed and distributed over all organs investigated. The uptake of nickel compounds through the skin generally is very low. However, chronic skin contact with nickel and nickel compounds causes a specific contact allergy. This disease was observed after occupational exposure but also frequently in the general population. The number of new cases has dropped considerably due to reinforced prevention. Epidemiological studies with workers of nickel smelting and refining plants have demonstrated increased risks of nose and lung cancer. Human data are supported by results from animal experiments which have shown that inhalation of various nickel compounds caused lung cancer. Furthermore, animal experiments have yielded evidence that oral and inhalative exposure to nickel compounds impair reproduction. National and international agencies have classified various nickel compounds as carcinogenic to humans. The unit cancer risk attributed to life-long inhalation of 1 {mu}g Ni/m{sup 3} air is estimated to be between 2 x 10{sup -4} and 7 x 10{sup -4}. Occupational exposure limits in Germany have been the Technical Guidance Values of 0.5 mg/m{sup 3} for nickel and weakly soluble nickel compounds and of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} for inhalable droplets of soluble nickel salts. The German limit value for ambient immission is 0.015 mg Ni/m{sup 2}. d, and for emission 0,5 mg Ni/m{sup 3}. Limit values for nickel in air are to be taken not as safe thresholds but as guidance values for the delimitation of the cancer risk. (orig.)

  5. Uso de los residuos sólidos mineros de la extracción del níquel como estimulantes para la producción de biogás. // Use of the nickel solid mining residuals as stimulants for the biogasproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pereda Reyes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La adición de diferentes materiales con vistas a mejorar el proceso anaerobio ha venido incrementándose en los últimostiempos existiendo bases teóricas bien fundamentadas para la realización de esta práctica. Este proceso biológico, requiereno sólo de macronutrientes (N, P, K, S, elementos vitales para el desarrollo de los microorganismos y que deben estarpresentes en grandes cantidades, sino también de los denominados micronutrientes y factores estimulantes al proceso, loscuales en cantidades muy pequeñas (trazas, son esenciales para el óptimo desarrollo de los microorganismos, como es elcaso de algunos metales obligatorios (Fe, Ni y Co.En este trabajo se presenta un estudio preliminar del efecto de la adición de residuales mineros cubanos como catalizadoresdel proceso anaerobio. Se realizó la caracterización de dicho residual minero (Cola, empleado en los ensayosexperimentales. Se demostró que la Cola SI aporta nutrientes esenciales al proceso de depuración anaerobia de aguasresiduales. Hubo mayor efectividad en condiciones extremas: poco sustrato y concentraciones tóxicas de Nitrógeno yAzufre, y en cualquiera de las variantes analizadas, la mejor respuesta se obtuvo con una concentración de Cola igual a 3mg/L, con una eliminación de materia orgánica de más del 80%.Palabras claves: Digestión anaerobia, biogás, traza de metales, residuo minero.________________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The addition of several compounds in order to improve anaerobic process has been increased during last decades, beingwell-sustained by theoretical bases. This biological process requires not only macronutrients (N, P, K, S, essentialelements in large quantities for microorganisms well developments, but also those known as micronutrients and stimulatingelements which in a very small concentrations are of vital importance for the optimum microorganism development, as thecase of obligatory metals

  6. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  7. Nickel and titanium nanoboride composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, K A; Galevsky, G V; Rudneva, V V; Kozyrev, N A; Orshanskaya, E G

    2015-01-01

    Electrodeposition conditions, structural-physical and mechanical properties (microhardness, cohesion with a base, wear resistance, corrosion currents) of electroplated composite coatings on the base of nickel with nano and micro-powders of titanium boride are investigated. It has been found out that electro-crystallization of nickel with boride nanoparticles is the cause of coating formation with structural fragments of small sizes, low porosity and improved physical and mechanical properties. Titanium nano-boride is a component of composite coating, as well as an effective modifier of nickel matrix. Nano-boride of the electrolyte improves efficiency of the latter due to increased permissible upper limit of the cathodic current density. (paper)

  8. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  9. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the form of coherent, technically very profitable coating without usage of external source of electric current. The research was aimed at evaluating the surface changes after chemical nickel-plating at various changes of technological parameters.

  10. Dielectric behavior and ac electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline nickel aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurien, Siby; Mathew, Jose; Sebastian, Shajo; Potty, S.N.; George, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel aluminate was prepared by chemical co-precipitation, and nanoparticles having different particle size were obtained by annealing the precursor at different temperatures. The TG/DTA measurements showed thermal decomposition was a three-step process with crystallisation of the spinel phase started at a temperature 420 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the specimen began to crystallise on annealing above 420 deg. C and became almost crystalline at about 900 deg. C. The particle sizes were calculated from XRD. Dielectric properties of nickel aluminate were studied as a function of the frequency of the applied ac signal at different temperatures. It was seen the real dielectric constant ε', and dielectric loss tan δ decreased with frequency of applied field while the ac conductivity increased as the frequency of the applied field increased. The dielectric relaxation mechanism is explained by considering nanostructured NiAl 2 O 4 as a carrier-dominated dielectric with high density of hopping charge carriers. The variation of ε' with different particle size depends on several interfacial region parameters, which change with the average particle size

  11. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in work at Exide in three main development areas, i.e., battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and electrochemical studies is reported. Battery design and development concentrated on the optimization of design parameters, including electrode spacing, charging methods, electrolyte concentration, the design and fabrication of prototype cells and modules, and testing to verify these parameters. Initial experiments indicated that an interelectrode spacing of 2.5 mm was optimum when normal (D.C.) charging is used. It was during these experiments that a high rate charging technique was developed to deposit a dense active zinc which did not shed during vibration. A 4 cell - 300 Ah experimental module was built and sent to NBTL for testing. Initial testing on this module and a 300 Ah cell are reported. Experiments on electrolyte concentration indicate that higher concentrations of KOH (8M, 9M or 10M) are beneficial to capacity maintenance. Available nickel cathodes were evaluated for possible use in the VIBROCEL. These included pocket, sintered plaque impregnated, nickel plated steel wool impregnated, plastic bonded and CMG (multifoil) electrodes. These electrodes have Coulombic densities ranging from 70 Ah/Kg for pocket plates to 190 Ah/Kg for CMG electrodes. Detailed test data are presented for each type including rate capability, effect of zincate on performance, and capacity maintenance with cycling. Work on zinc deposition emphasized the special charging technique. This is a deposition using special waveforms of charging current, to deposit dense crystalline zinc on the anode substrate.

  12. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  13. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone fondue

  14. Point defects in nickel; Les defauts ponctuels dans le nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretto, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I{sub B} (31 deg. K), I{sub C} (42 deg. K), I{sub D} (from to 57 deg. K) and I{sub E} (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I{sub B} the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I{sub D} it is near the <110> direction from the vacancy. In stage I{sub E} there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II{sub B} (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III{sub A} (370 deg. K) and III{sub B} (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [French] Les defauts crees dans le nickel par irradiation avec des electrons a la temperature de 20 deg. K et par irradiation avec des neutrons a la temperature de 28 deg. K sont etudies par l'analyse simultanee du trainage magnetique, de la microscopie electronique et de la restauration de la resistivite electrique. Les echantillons sont en nickel, purifie par la methode de la zone

  15. Gaps and pseudogaps in perovskite rare earth nickelates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. James Allen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on tunneling measurements that reveal the evolution of the quasiparticle state density in two rare earth perovskite nickelates, NdNiO3 and LaNiO3, that are close to a bandwidth controlled metal to insulator transition. We measure the opening of a sharp gap of ∼30 meV in NdNiO3 in its insulating ground state. LaNiO3, which remains a correlated metal at all practical temperatures, exhibits a pseudogap of the same order. The results point to both types of gaps arising from a common origin, namely, a quantum critical point associated with the T = 0 K metal-insulator transition. The results support theoretical models of the quantum phase transition in terms of spin and charge instabilities of an itinerant Fermi surface.

  16. Selected Test Results from the Encell Technology Nickel Iron Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Kamal Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Baca, Wes Edmund [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Avedikian, Kristan [Encell Technology, Alachua, FL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Encell Nickel Iron (NiFe) battery was measured. Tests included capacity, capacity as a function of rate, capacity as a function of temperature, charge retention (28-day), efficiency, accelerated life projection, and water refill evaluation. The goal of this work was to evaluate the general performance of the Encell NiFe battery technology for stationary applications and demonstrate the chemistry's capabilities in extreme conditions. Test results have indicated that the Encell NiFe battery technology can provide power levels up to the 6C discharge rate, ampere-hour efficiency above 70%. In summary, the Encell batteries have met performance metrics established by the manufacturer. Long-term cycle tests are not included in this report. A cycle test at elevated temperature was run, funded by the manufacturer, which Encell uses to predict long-term cycling performance, and which passed their prescribed metrics.

  17. Electrical properties of thermally evaporated nickel-dimethylglyoxime thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhel, A. A.; Ali-Mohamed Ahmed, Y.

    2005-06-01

    Thin Bis-(dimethylglyoximato)nickel(II) [Ni(DMG)2] films of amorphous and crystalline structures were prepared by vacuum deposition on Si (P) substrates. The films were characterised by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. The constructed Al/Ni(DMG)2/Si(P) metal-insulator-semiconductor devices were characterised by the measurement of the gate-voltage dependence of their capacitance and ac conductance, from which the surface states density Dit of insulator/semiconductor interface and the density of the fixed charges in the oxide were determined. The ac electrical conduction and dielectric properties of the Ni(DMG)2-Silicon structure were studied at room temperature. The data of the ac measurements of the annealed films follow the correlated barrier-hopping CBH mode, from which the fundamental absorption bandgap, the minimum hopping distance, and other parameters of the model were determined.

  18. Plan charge exchange scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Bhatti, S.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rafique, M.

    1980-01-01

    By a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, a very good fit with experiment for the pion-nucleon charge exchange reaction at Fermilab energies is obtained on a simple Regge-pole model using a quadratic rho trajectory and energy-independent parameters

  19. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio; Nigro, Raffaella Lo; Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico; Bongiorno, Corrado; Fragala, Ignazio L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac) 2 (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl 2 was formed from CCl 4 solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl 2 films

  20. Annealing texture of rolled nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshchaninov, I.V.; Khayutin, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    A texture of pure nickel and binary alloys after the 95% rolling and annealing has been studied. Insoluble additives (Mg, Zr) slacken the cubic texture in nickel and neral slackening of the texture (Zr). In the case of alloying with silicium (up to 2%) the texture practically coinsides with that of a technical-grade nickel. The remaining soluble additives either do not change the texture of pure nickel (C, Nb) or enhance the sharpness and intensity of the cubic compontnt (Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Co -at their content 0.5 to 2.0%). A model is proposed by which variation of the annealing texture upon alloying is caused by dissimilar effect of the alloying elements on the mobility of high- and low-angle grain boundaries

  1. Influence of γ- radiation on the recombination properties of P-type nickel doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, A.O.; Karimov, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that the life-time of the charge carriers is most sensitive parameter of the semiconductors. The results of numerous investigations show that by irradiation of the multi-crystal silicon with high-energy particles (electrons, protons, γ-quanta) the life-time of the minor charge carriers appreciably decreases. Ones think that the reason of such effect is the generation of the recombination radiation defects by irradiation. In this connection in this work the investigation of the nickel doped silicon with various post-diffusion cooling is performed. As an initial material the p - Si with ∼ 10 Ohm·cm specific resistance was used. The dislocation density is taken to be ∼10 4 cm -2 . Doping of silicon by nickel carried out in the temperature range of 1050-1150 degree C with succeeding I and II type cooling. The life-time of the charge carriers was determined using the stationary photoconductivity method. It is discovered that the life-time of the charge carriers in p-Si is longer than that in the control silicon as well as τ slightly increases by increasing of the nickel's atoms concentration (in these samples the acceptor centers concentration changes in the range of 1.5·10 14 - 3.5·10 14 cm -3 ). This effect is explained on a basis of investigations of the photoconductivity relaxation kinetics (at 70 K) by the capture of the charge carriers to the sticking level. It is revealed that the relative life-time changing is appreciably various one from other in I and II type samples. In the rapid cooled samples τ more stable than slow cooled samples. In the rapid cooled samples more stable than slow cooled samples up to doze ∼2.5·10 8 R. (author)

  2. Nonequilibrium lattice-driven dynamics of stripes in nickelates using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Kung, Y.F.; Moritz, B.; Coslovich, G.; Kaindl, R.A.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Robinson, J.S.; Minitti, M.P.; Dakovski, G.; Schlotter, W.F.; Turner, J.J.; Gerber, S.; Sasagawa, T.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.X.; Devereaux, T.P.

    2017-03-13

    We investigate the lattice coupling to the spin and charge orders in the striped nickelate, La 1.75 Sr 0.25 NiO 4 , using time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering. Lattice-driven dynamics of both spin and charge orders are observed when the pump photon energy is tuned to that of an E u bond- stretching phonon. We present a likely scenario for the behavior of the spin and charge order parameters and its implications using a Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  3. Formal Valence, 3 d Occupation, and Charge Ordering Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren

    2014-03-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT), discovered by Verwey in the late 1930s, has been thought to be one of the best understood of MITs, the other ones being named after Wigner, Peierls, Mott, and Anderson. Continuing work on these transitions finds in some cases less and less charge to order, raising the fundamental question of just where the entropy is coming from, and just what is ordering. To provide insight into the mechanism of charge-ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation, I will (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new theoretical results for the rare earth nickelates (viz. YNiO3), the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2, and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze cationic occupations of actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. Several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion; moreover, the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional based calculations that contain no charge transfer The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians will be discussed. Acknowledgment: Y. Quan, V. Pardo. Supported by NSF award DMR-1207622-0.

  4. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  5. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smithrick, J.J.; O`Donnell, P.M. [NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (>30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4,000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft.

  6. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  7. Sustainability of compressive residual stress by stress improvement processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Satoru; Okita, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Atsunori

    2013-01-01

    Stress improvement processes are countermeasures against stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant components. It is necessary to confirm whether compressive residual stress induced by stress improvement processes can be sustained under operation environment. In order to evaluate stability of the compressive residual stress in 60-year operating conditions, the 0.07% cyclic strains of 200 times at 593 K were applied to the welded specimens, then a thermal aging treatment for 1.66x10 6 s at 673 K was carried out. As the result, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stresses were sustained on both surfaces of the dissimilar welds of austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L) and nickel base alloy (NCF600 and alloy 182) processed by laser peening (LP), water jet peening (WJP), ultrasonic shot peening (USP), shot peening (SP) and polishing under 60-year operating conditions. (author)

  8. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  9. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  10. A Study on the Effect of Electrodeposition Parameters on the Morphology of Porous Nickel Electrodeposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Srijan; Patra, Arghya; Jena, Sambedan; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition of nickel foam by dynamic hydrogen bubble-template method is optimized, and the effects of key deposition parameters (applied voltage and deposition time) and bath composition (concentration of Ni2+, pH of the bath, and roles of Cl- and SO4 2- ions) on pore size, distribution, and morphology and crystal structure are studied. Nickel deposit from 0.1 M NiCl2 bath concentration is able to produce the honeycomb-like structure with regular-sized holes. Honeycomb-like structure with cauliflower morphology is deposited at higher applied voltages of 7, 8, and 9 V; and a critical time (>3 minutes) is required for the development of the foamy structure. Compressive residual stresses are developed in the porous electrodeposits after 30 seconds of deposition time (-189.0 MPa), and the nature of the residual stress remains compressive upto 10 minutes of deposition time (-1098.6 MPa). Effect of pH is more pronounced in a chloride bath compared with a sulfate bath. The increasing nature of pore size in nickel electrodeposits plated from a chloride bath (varying from 21 to 48 μm), and the constant pore size (in the range of 22 to 24 μm) in deposits plated from a sulfate bath, can be ascribed to the striking difference in the magnitude of the corresponding current-time profiles.

  11. Ultrahigh specific capacitances for supercapacitors achieved by nickel cobaltite/carbon aerogel composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Hsing-Chi; Cheng, Wei-Yun; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lu, Shih-Yuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-05

    Nickel cobaltite, a low cost and an environmentally friendly supercapacitive material, is deposited as a thin nanostructure of 3-5 nm nanocrystals into carbon aerogels, a mesoporous host template of high specific surface areas and high electric conductivities, with a two-step wet chemistry process. This nickel cobaltite/carbon aerogel composite shows ultrahigh specific capacitances of around 1700 F g{sup -1} at a scan rate of 25 mV s{sup -1} within a potential window of -0.05 to 0.5 V in 1 M NaOH solutions. The composite also possesses an excellent high rate capability manifested by maintaining specific capacitances above 800 F g{sup -1} at a high scan rate of 500 mV s{sup -1}, and an outstanding cycling stability demonstrated by a negligible 2.4% decay in specific capacitances after 2000 cycles. The success is attributable to the fuller utilization of nickel cobaltite for pseudocapacitance generation, made possible by the composite structure enabling well exposed nickel cobaltite to the electrolyte and easy transport of charge carriers, ions, and electrons, within the composite electrode. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  13. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Luis; Berrios, Cristhian; Yanez, Mauricio; Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  14. Glucose sensing on graphite screen-printed electrode modified by sparking of copper nickel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riman, Daniel; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Karantzalis, Alexandros E; Hrbac, Jan; Prodromidis, Mamas I

    2017-04-01

    Electric spark discharge was employed as a green, fast and extremely facile method to modify disposable graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) with copper, nickel and mixed copper/nickel nanoparticles (NPs) in order to be used as nonenzymatic glucose sensors. Direct SPEs-to-metal (copper, nickel or copper/nickel alloys with 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25wt% compositions) sparking at 1.2kV was conducted in the absence of any solutions under ambient conditions. Morphological characterization of the sparked surfaces was performed by scanning electron microscopy, while the chemical composition of the sparked NPs was evaluated with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance of the various sparked SPEs towards the electro oxidation of glucose in alkaline media and the critical role of hydroxyl ions were evaluated with cyclic voltammetry and kinetic studies. Results indicated a mixed charge transfer- and hyroxyl ion transport-limited process. Best performing sensors fabricated by Cu/Ni 50/50wt% alloy showed linear response over the concentration range 2-400μM glucose and they were successfully applied to the amperometric determination of glucose in blood. The detection limit (S/N 3) and the relative standard deviation of the method were 0.6µM and green methods in sensor's development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Luis [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Berrios, Cristhian [Laboratorio de Electrocatalisis, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Yanez, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Recursos Renovables, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla-160 C, Concepcion (Chile); Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I., E-mail: gloria.cardenas@usach.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-11-26

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  16. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  17. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We...... investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found...... that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses...

  18. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  19. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  20. Separation and purification of carrier-free cobalt-58 from neutron irradiated nickel foil for electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egamediev, S.; Nurbaeva, D.; Rakhmanov, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Cobalt-58 will be used for tracer studies of the behaviour of cobalt radionuclides in no- carrier-added form during electrochemical deposition on metal backing. The 58 Co can be produced by using 58 Ni(n,p) 58 Co nuclear reaction in nuclear reactor. 58 Co (T 1/2 =71 days) decays by positron emitting (15%) and electron capture (85%) with simultaneous γ -irradiation. In this study, we have developed the simple method for separation and purification of 58 Co in no- carrier-added form from neutron irradiated nickel foil. Previously, we have studied the dissolution of nickel foil in various media to find best conditions for rapid dissolution of nickel target. It was found that nickel foil dissolved completely without heating in 6.3 M hydrobromic acid with addition a few drops of hydrogen peroxide. After dissolution of the target material, the cobalt-58 is separated from nickel, copper, iron and other elements by extraction chromatography. The solution in 6.3 M hydrobromic acid is passed through a column containing suspension of polytetrafluoroethylene powder with 0.5 M trioctylamine in xylene, equilibrated with the same acid. Nickel is not extracted and passed through column. Cobalt is retained and finally eluted with 3 M HBr in the one free column volume. The cobalt fraction is percolated through a column filled with suspension of pure polytetrafluoroethylene powder to purify from the admixture of extractant. The obtained solution is evaporated to dryness and the dry residue is treated by evaporation with aqua regia. After treatment the damp residue is dissolved in electrolyte and the obtained solution is used to study of 58 Co electrochemical deposition procedure. The yield of cobalt-58 was higher than 93% and the radiochemical purity was more than 99%. This method will be used for separation and purification of cobalt-57 to make of sealed sources for X-ray fluorescence analysis

  1. Residual stress measurement of the jacket material for ITER coil by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Nickel-Iron based super alloy INCOLOY 908 is used for the jacket of a central solenoid coil (CS coil) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). INCOLOY 908, however, has a possibility of fracture due to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO) under a tensile residual stress beyond 200MPa. Therefore it is necessary to measure the residual stress of the jacket to avoid SAGBO. We performed residual stress measurement of the jacket by neutron diffraction using the neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis (RESA) installed at JRR-3M in JAERI. A sample depth dependence of internal strain was obtained from the (111) plane spacing. A residual stress distribution was calculated from the strain using Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio that were evaluated by a tensile test with neutron diffraction. The result shows that the tensile residual stress exceeds 200MPa of the SAGBO condition in some regions inside the jacket. (author)

  2. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited nickel and nickel-based alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Had, J.; Neufuss, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2003), s. 215-226 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, nickel, nickel-based alloys Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  3. Synthesis of Nickel and Nickel Hydroxide Nanopowders by Simplified Chemical Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerapan Tientong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanopowders were synthesized by a chemical reduction of nickel ions with hydrazine hydrate at pH ~12.5. Sonication of the solutions created a temperature of 54–65°C to activate the reduction reaction of nickel nanoparticles. The solution pH affected the composition of the resulting nanoparticles. Nickel hydroxide nanoparticles were formed from an alkaline solution (pH~10 of nickel-hydrazine complexed by dropwise titration. X-ray diffraction of the powder and the analysis of the resulting Williamson-Hall plots revealed that the particle size of the powders ranged from 12 to 14 nm. Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone into the synthesis decreased the nickel nanoparticle size to approximately 7 nm. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the particles were in the nanometer range. The structure of the synthesized nickel and nickel hydroxide nanoparticles was identified by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  4. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...... to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water...

  5. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...

  6. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...

  7. Exposure of nickel and the relevance of nickel sensitivity among hospital cleaners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmensen, O J; Menne, T; Kaaber, K; Solgaard, P

    1981-01-01

    The nickel content of water specimens from consecutive stages during the cleaning process in a Danish hospital was analyzed. Statistically significant increases of the nickel concentrations were found from step to step of the cleaning, eventually exceeding the theoretical sensitizing safety limit. The relevance of the findings in relation to hand eczema is discussed.

  8. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  9. Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J

    2002-01-01

    Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)

  10. Nickel allergy from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood, and the ......Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood...

  11. Hydrogen-absorbing alloys for the nickel-metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingming Geng; Jianwen Han; Feng Feng [University of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Northwood, D.O. [University of Windsor, Ontario (Canada). Mechanical and Materials Engineering]|[Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    In recent years, owing to the rapid development of portable electronic and electrical appliances, the market for rechargeable batteries has increased at a high rate. The nickel-metal hydride battery (Ni/MH) is one of the more promising types, because of its high capacity, high-rate charge/discharge capability and non-polluting nature. This type of battery uses a hydrogen storage alloy as its negative electrode. The characteristics of the Ni/MH battery, including discharge voltage, high-rate discharge capability and charge/discharge cycle lifetime are mainly determined by the construction of the negative electrode and the composition of the hydrogen-absorbing alloy. The negative electrode of the Ni/MH battery described in this paper was made from a mixture of hydrogen-absorbing alloy, nickel powder and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). A multicomponent MmNi{sub 5}-based alloy (Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85} Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35}) was used as the hydrogen-absorbing alloy. The discharge characteristics of the negative electrode, including discharge capacity, cycle lifetime, and polarization overpotential, were studied by means of electrochemical experiments and analysis. The decay of the discharge capacity for the Ni/MH battery (AA size, 1 Ah) was about 1% after 100 charge/discharge cycles and 10% after 500 charge/discharge cycles. (author)

  12. Effect of surface treatments on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Masaru; Kaneda, Junya; Tamako, Hiroaki; Hato, Hisamitsu; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of surface treatment on SCC susceptibility of Ni base alloys was investigated. Cracks were observed in all grinding specimens in a creviced bent beam (CBB) test. On the other hand, no cracks occurred in shot peening (SP), water jet peening (WJP) specimens. It was indicated that these surface treatments effectively reduced the SCC susceptibility of nickel-base alloys. As a result of a residual stress test, the surface of specimens with grinding had high tensile residual stress. However, SP and WJP improved surface residual stress to compressive stress. The depth of the compressive effect of WJP was almost the same as that of SP. However, the surface hardness of WJP specimens differed from that of SP and it was found that WJP had less impact on surface hardening. This difference was consistent with their surface microstructures. The surface of SP specimens had clearly the deformation region, but the surface of WJP specimens was localized. (author)

  13. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...

  14. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  15. Tool life and surface integrity aspects when drilling nickel alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, S.; Pervaiz, S.; Vincent, S.; Karthikeyan, R.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel based super alloys manufactured through powder metallurgy (PM) route are required to increase the operational efficiency of gas turbine engines. They are material of choice for high pressure components due to their superior high temperature strength, excellent corrosion, oxidation and creep resistance. This unique combination of mechanical and thermal properties makes them even more difficult-to-machine. In this paper, the hole making process using coated carbide inserts by drilling and plunge milling for a nickel-based powder metallurgy super alloy has been investigated. Tool life and process capability studies were conducted using optimized process parameters using high pressure coolants. The experimental trials were directed towards an assessment of the tendency for surface malformations and detrimental residual stress profiles. Residual stresses in both the radial and circumferential directions have been evaluated as a function of depth from the machined surface using the target strain gauge / center hole drilling method. Circumferential stresses near workpiece surface and at depth of 512 µm in the starting material was primarily circumferential compression which was measured to be average of –404 MPa. However, the radial stresses near workpiece surface was tensile and transformed to be compressive in nature at depth of 512 µm in the starting material (average: -87 Mpa). The magnitude and the depth below the machined surface in both radial and circumferential directions were primarily tensile in nature which increased with hole number due to a rise of temperature at the tool–workpiece interface with increasing tool wear. These profiles are of critical importance for the selection of cutting strategies to ensure avoidance/minimization of tensile residual stresses that can be detrimental to the fatigue performance of the components. These results clearly show a tendency for the circumferential stresses to be more tensile than the radial stresses

  16. A paste type negative electrode using a MmNi{sub 5} based hydrogen storage alloy for a nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Hoshino, H. [Tokai Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). School of Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Different conducting materials (nickel, copper, cobalt, graphite) were mixed with a MmNi{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloy, and negative electrodes for a nickel-metal hydride(Ni-MH) rechargeable battery were prepared and examined with respect to the discharge capacity of the electrodes. The change in the discharge capacity of the electrodes with different conducting materials was measured as a function of the number of electrochemical charge and discharge cycles. From the measurements, the electrodes with cobalt and graphite were found to yield much higher discharge capacities than those with nickel or cobalt. From a comparative discharge measurements for an electrode composed of only cobalt powder without the alloy and an electrode with a mixture of cobalt and the alloy, an appreciable contribution of the cobalt surface to the enhancement of charge and discharge capacities was found. (author)

  17. Density-functional tight-binding investigation of the structure, stability and material properties of nickel hydroxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Soran; Mosey, Nicholas J.

    2018-01-01

    Nickel hydroxide is a material composed of two-dimensional layers that can be rolled up to form cylindrical nanotubes belonging to a class of inorganic metal hydroxide nanotubes that are candidates for applications in catalysis, energy storage, and microelectronics. The stabilities and other properties of this class of inorganic nanotubes have not yet been investigated in detail. The present study uses self-consistent-charge density-functional tight-binding calculations to examine the stabilities, mechanical properties, and electronic properties of nickel hydroxide nanotubes along with the energetics associated with the adsorption of water by these systems. The tight-binding model was parametrized for this system based on the results of first-principles calculations. The stabilities of the nanotubes were examined by calculating strain energies and performing molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that single-walled nickel hydroxide nanotubes are stable at room temperature, which is consistent with experimental investigations. The nanotubes possess size-dependent mechanical properties that are similar in magnitude to those of other inorganic nanotubes. The electronic properties of the nanotubes were also found to be size-dependent and small nickel oxyhydroxide nanotubes are predicted to be semiconductors. Despite this size-dependence, both the mechanical and electronic properties were found to be almost independent of the helical structure of the nanotubes. The calculations also show that water molecules have higher adsorption energies when binding to the interior of the nickel hydroxide nanotubes when compared to adsorption in nanotubes formed from other two-dimensional materials such as graphene. The increased adsorption energy is due to the hydrophilic nature of nickel hydroxide. Due to the broad applications of nickel hydroxide, the nanotubes investigated here are also expected to be used in catalysis, electronics, and clean energy production.

  18. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure.......Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure....

  19. Plasma assisted fabrication of multi-layer graphene/nickel hybrid film as enhanced micro-supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q.; Li, W. L.; Zhao, W. L.; Wang, J. Y.; Xing, Y. P.; Li, X.; Xue, T.; Qi, W.; Zhang, K. L.; Yang, Z. C.; Zhao, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    A facile synthesis strategy has been developed for fabricating multi-layer graphene/nickel hybrid film as micro-supercapacitor electrodes by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The as-presented method is advantageous for rapid graphene growth at relatively low temperature of 650 °C. In addition, after pre-treating for the as-deposited nickel film by using argon plasma bombardment, the surface-to-volume ratio of graphene film on the treated nickel substrate is effectively increased by the increasing of surface roughness. This is demonstrated by the characterization results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy. Moreover, the electrochemical performance of the resultant graphene/nickel hybrid film as micro-supercapacitor working electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. It was found that the increase of the surface-to-volume ratio of graphene/nickel hybrid film improved the specific capacitance of 10 times as the working electrode of micro-supercapacitor. Finally, by using comb columnar shadow mask pattern, the micro-supercapacitor full cell device was fabricated. The electrochemical performance measurements of the micro-supercapacitor devices indicate that the method presented in this study provides an effective way to fabricate micro-supercapacitor device with enhanced energy storage property.

  20. Combination of Asymmetric Supercapacitor Utilizing Activated Carbon and Nickel Oxide with Cobalt Polypyridyl-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Narjes; Aghaei, Alireza; Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; Marzbanrad, Ehsan; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Häggman, Leif; Wang, Michael; Boschloo, Gerrit; Hagfeldt, Anders; Skunik-Nuckowska, Magdalena; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dye Solar Cell and supercapacitor are integrated into a single device capable of generation and storage of energy. • The solar cell part of the device utilizes the Co-based electrolyte and nickel/PEDOT counter electrode. • A cobalt-doped nickel oxide together with activated carbon is used in the capacitor part of the device. • The integrated photocapacitor is characterized by the capacitance of 32 F g −1 and the total efficiency of 0.6%. - Abstract: A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) based on the metal-free organic sensitizer and the cobalt (II, III) polypyridyl electrolyte was integrated here within an asymmetric supercapacitor utilizing cobalt-doped nickel oxide and activated carbon as positive and negative electrodes, respectively. A low cost nickel foil served as intermediate (auxiliary) bifunctional electrode separating two parts of the device and permitting the DSC electrolyte regeneration at one side and charge storage within cobalt-doped nickel oxide at the other. The main purpose of the research was to develop an integrated photocapacitor system capable of both energy generation and its further storage. Following irradiation at the 100 mW cm −2 level, the solar cell generated an open-circuit voltage of 0.8 V and short-circuit current of 8 mA cm −2 which corresponds to energy conversion efficiency of 4.9%. It was further shown that upon integration with asymmetric supercapacitor, the photogenerated energy was directly injected into porous charge storage electrodes thus resulting in specific capacitance of 32 F g −1 and energy density of 2.3 Wh kg −1 . The coulumbic and total (energy conversion and charge storage) efficiency of photocapacitor were equal to 54% and 0.6%, respectively

  1. Template-free approach to synthesize hierarchical porous nickel cobalt oxides for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jie; Sun, Jing; Xu, Chaohe; Xu, Huan; Gao, Lian

    2012-10-01

    Nickel cobalt oxides with various Ni/Co ratios were synthesized using a facile template-free approach for electrochemical supercapacitors. The texture and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The results show that a hierarchical porous structure assembled from nanoflakes with a thickness of ~10 nm was obtained, and the ratio of nickel to cobalt in the nanocomposites was very close to the precursors. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge and discharge tests were carried out to study the electrochemical performance. Both nickel cobalt oxides (Ni-Co-O-1 with Ni : Co = 1, Ni-Co-O-2 with Ni : Co = 2) outperform pure NiO and Co3O4. The Ni-Co-O-1 and Ni-Co-O-2 possess high specific capacities of 778.2 and 867.3 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and capacitance retentions of 84.1% and 92.3% at 10 A g-1, respectively. After full activation, the Ni-Co-O-1 and Ni-Co-O-2 could achieve a maximum value of 971 and 1550 F g-1 and remain at ~907 and ~1450 F g-1 at 4 A g-1, respectively. Also, the nickel cobalt oxides show high capacity retention when fast charging.Nickel cobalt oxides with various Ni/Co ratios were synthesized using a facile template-free approach for electrochemical supercapacitors. The texture and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). The results show that a hierarchical porous structure assembled from nanoflakes with a thickness of ~10 nm was obtained, and the ratio of nickel to cobalt in the nanocomposites was very close to the precursors. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge and discharge tests were carried out to study the electrochemical performance. Both nickel cobalt oxides (Ni-Co-O-1 with Ni : Co = 1, Ni-Co-O-2 with Ni

  2. Nickel hydrogen and silver zinc battery cell modeling at the Aerospace Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1996-02-01

    A nickel hydrogen battery cell model has been fully developed and implemented at The Aerospace Corporation. Applications of this model to industry needs for the design of better cells, power system design and charge control thermal management, and long-term performance trends will be described. Present efforts will be described that are introducing the silver and zinc electrode reactions into this model architecture, so that the model will be able to predict performance for not only silver zinc cells, but also nickel zinc, silver hydrogen, and silver cadmium cells. The silver zinc cell modeling effort is specifically designed to address the concerns that arise most often in launch vehicle applications: transient response, power-on voltage regulation, hot or cold operation, electrolyte spewing, gas venting, self-discharge, separator oxidation, and oxalate crystal growth. The specific model features that are being employed to address these issues will be described.

  3. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found that the capacitive properties of graphene films are related to the number of graphene layers. Owing to the close attachment of graphene films on the nickel substrate and the low charge-transfer resistance, the specific capacitance of thinner graphene films is almost twice that of the thicker ones and remains stable up to 1000 cycles. These results illustrate the potential for developing high-performance graphene-based electrical energy storage devices. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and supercapacitor application of coin-like β-nickel hydroxide nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongliang; Liu Suqin; Huang Chenghuan; Zhou Zhi; Li Yanhua; Fang Dong

    2011-01-01

    Coin-like nickel hydroxide nanoplates are synthesized via a simple coordination homogeneous precipitation method. The structure and morphology of as-prepared products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the products are typical β-nickel hydroxide with bunches coin-like nanoplates morphology. The electrochemical properties of coin-like β-Ni(OH) 2 are examined by cyclic voltammetric, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscope. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the electrodes have good reversibility. A specific capacitance of 1532 F g −1 is obtained at a charge/discharge current density of 0.2 A g −1 .

  5. Numerous dilemmas surrounding the 1917 nickel coins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Extraordinary Loans Amounting to 200 Million Dinars and the Minting of Silver and Nickel Coins in 1916 was the legal basis for minting the 5-, 10-, and 20-para nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia featuring the year 1917 as their minting year. Some authors believe that these coins were minted in the Minting House in Paris, whereas the others agree that they were certainly minted in France, but in a still unidentified minting house. There are authors who in recent reference literature underline the possibility of their minting in the USA Gorham Company, in Providence, Rhode Island. These coins had all the characteristics of the nickel coins of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1883, 1884, 1904 and 1912. Although, according to the Law, the Minister of Finance was authorized to mint 10 million dinars of these nickel coins, only 5 million pieces in each denomination were actually minted, in the total nominal value of just 1,750,000 dinars. The general opinion is that after the war only a small amount of these nickel coins reached Serbia, because the ships transporting the Serbian coins from the minting house sank on their way. The only varying aspect in this explanation is the location from which the ships were sailing towards Corfu, i.e. from the USA or from France. These coins stopped being legal tender as of 30 November 1931.

  6. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm-2 (specific capacitance of 50 F g-1) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm-2 and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg-1 (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  7. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-09-07

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm(-2) (specific capacitance of 50 F g(-1)) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg(-1) (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2), with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  8. Bioavailability of nickel in man: effects of foods and chemically-defined dietary constituents on the absorption of inorganic nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Viteri, F; Shuler, T R; Nielsen, F H

    1982-01-01

    By serial determination of the change in plasma nickel concentration following a standard dose of 22.4 mg of nickel sulfate hexahydrate containing 5 mg of elemental nickel, the bioavailability of nickel was estimated in human subjects. Plasma nickel concentration was stable in the fasting state and after an unlabeled test meal, but after the standard dose of nickel in water was elevated 48.8, 73.0, 80.0, and 53.3 microgram/1, respectively, at hours 1, 2, 3, and 4. Plasma nickel did not rise above fasting levels when 5 mg of nickel was added to two standard meals: a typical Guatemalan meal and a North American breakfast. When 5 mg of nickel was added to five beverages-whole cow milk, coffee, tea, orange juice, and Coca Cola-the rise in plasma nickel was significantly suppressed with all but Coca Cola. Response to nickel also was suppressed in the presence of 1 g of ascorbic acid. Phytic acid in a 2:1 molar ratio with nickel, however, did not affect the rise in plasma nickel. The chelate of iron and ethylenediaminetetraacetate, NaFeEDTA, an iron-fortifying agent suggested for application in Central America, slightly but not significantly depressed plasma nickel rise at 2 hours, whereas disodium EDTA depressed plasma nickel levels significantly below the fasting nickel curve at 3 and 4 hours postdose. These studies suggest that the differential responses of inorganic nickel to distinct foods, beverages, and chemically-defined dietary constituents could be important to human nutrition.

  9. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  10. A simple and selective method for the separation of Cu radioisotopes from nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xianfeng [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: x.fan@bham.ac.uk; Parker, David J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Smith, Mike D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ingram, Andy [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Yang Zhufang [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Seville, Jonathan P.K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    Separation of copper radioisotopes from a nickel target is normally performed using solvent extraction or anion exchange rather than using cationic exchange. A commonly held opinion is that cationic exchangers have very similar thermodynamic complexation constants for metallic ions with identical charges, therefore making the separation very difficult or impossible. The results presented in this article indicate that the selectivity of Chelex-100 (a cationic ion exchanger) for Cu radioisotope and Ni ions not only depends on the thermodynamic complexation constant in the resin but also markedly varies with the concentration of mobile H{sup +}. In our developed method, separation of copper radioisotopes from a nickel target was fulfilled in a column filled with Chelex-100 via controlling the HNO{sub 3} concentration of the eluent, and the separation is much more effective, simple and economical in comparison with the common method of anion exchange. For an irradiated nickel target with 650 mg Ni, after separation, the loss of Cu radioisotopes in the nickel portion was reduced from 30% to 0.33% of the total initial radioactivity and the nickel mixed into the radioactive products was reduced from 9.5 to 0.5 mg. This significant improvement will make subsequent labeling much easier and reduce consumption of chelating agents and other chemicals during labeling. If the labeled agent is used in human medical applications, the developed method will significantly decrease the uptake of Ni and chelating agents by patients, therefore reducing both the stress on human body associated with clearing the chemicals from blood and tissue and the risk of various types of acute and chronic disorder due to exposure to Ni.

  11. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. An advanced 125 Ah IPV nickel-hydrogen cell was designed. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion. The advanced cell design is in the process of being validated using real time LEO cycle life testing of NWSC, Crane, Indiana. An update of validation test results confirming this technology is presented.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  13. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of new nickel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A novel nickel molybdenum complex with the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid ligand was success- ... made for preparing nanoparticles with controllable size and shape. 2. ... Formula weight ..... talline nickel molybdates J. Alloys Compd.

  14. THE LOCAL LASER-STIMULATED ELECTRODEPOSITION OF THE NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovskyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mask-free method for obtaining the local nickel coatings using laser radiation is developed. The parameters of local nickel coatings are calculated. The rate of electroplating process is estimated.

  15. Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilunen, M; Aitio, A; Tossavainen, A

    1997-04-01

    An occupational hygiene survey was made in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland and exposure to nickel was studied by means of biological measurements and, in three shops, by using air measurements. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16 mumol l.-1 (range 0.001-4.99 mumol l.-1). After the 1-5 week vacation the urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in the industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between the concentrations of nickel in the air and in the urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in the urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion.

  16. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Stab; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel......-exposure investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final...... of the doses that, theoretically, would cause systemic contact dermatitis in exposed nickel-sensitive patients. The results from the 2 most sensitive groups show that 1% of these individuals may react with systemic contact dermatitis at normal daily nickel exposure from drinking water and diet, i.e. 0...

  17. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frate, David T.; Nahra, Henry K.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells have been used on several satellites and are planned for use on the International Space Station. In January 1992, the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) conducted hypervelocity impact testing on Ni/H2 cells to characterize their failure modes. The cell's outer construction was a 24 mil-thick Inconel 718 pressure vessel. A sheet of 1.27 cm thick honeycomb was placed in front of the battery cells during testing to simulate the on-orbit box enclosure. Testing was conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The hypervelocity gun used was a 7.6 mm (0.30 caliber) two-stage light gas gun. Test were performed at speeds of 3, 6, and 7 km/sec using aluminum 2017 spherical particles of either 4.8 or 6.4 mm diameter as the projectile. The battery cells were electrically charged to about 75 percent of capacity, then back-filled with hydrogen gas to 900 psi simulating the full charge condition. High speed film at 10,000 frames/sec was taken of the impacts. Impacts in the dome area (top) and the electrode area (middle) of the battery cells were investigated. Five tests on battery cells were performed. The results revealed that in all of the test conditions investigated, the battery cells simply vented their hydrogen gas and some electrolyte, but did not burst or generate any large debris fragments.

  18. Preparation and supercapacitor application of the single crystal nickel hydroxide and oxide nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Ni, Haifang [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Cai, Yun; Cai, Xiaoyan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Liu, Yongjun [Advanced Analysis and Measurement Center, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Chen, Gang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China); Fan, Li-Zhen, E-mail: fanlizhen@ustb.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Wang, Yude, E-mail: ydwang@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, 650091 Kunming (China)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The nickel hydroxide and nickel oxide nanosheets prepared using CTAB at room temperature exhibit a high specific capacitance, prompt charge/discharge rate. - Highlights: • The nickel hydroxide nanosheets were prepared using CTAB at room temperature. • Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheet can be successfully converted to NiO nanosheet via calcination. • The NiO nanosheet has a specific capacitance of 388 F g{sup −1} at 5 A g{sup −1} in KOH solution. • Anneal temperature impacts capacitive properties as electrode. - Abstract: The single crystalline Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheets were synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using nickel chloride as precursors and ammonia as precipitating agent. The Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheets were successfully converted to NiO nanosheets via calcination under appropriate conditions. Analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra were employed to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the final products. The experimental results revealed that Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheets were shape-preserved transformed to NiO nanosheets at 250 °C for 24 h. Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiO nanosheets were directly functionalized as supercapacitor electrodes for potential energy storage applications, whose charge–discharge properties, electrochemical impedance spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and cycle performance were examined. The experimental results show that the single-crystalline NiO nanosheets are a promising candidate for the supercapacitor electrode. They exhibit a high specific capacitance, prompt charge/discharge rate.

  19. Supercapacitors Based on Nickel Oxide/Carbon Materials Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Lota, Katarzyna; Sierczynska, Agnieszka; Lota, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    In the thesis, the properties of nickel oxide/active carbon composites as the electrode materials for supercapacitors are discussed. Composites with a different proportion of nickel oxide/carbon materials were prepared. A nickel oxide/carbon composite was prepared by chemically precipitating nickel hydroxide on an active carbon and heating the hydroxide at 300 ∘C in the air. Phase compositions of the products were characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology of the composite...

  20. Essential elucidation for preparation of supported nickel phosphide upon nickel phosphate precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of supported nickel phosphide (Ni 2 P) depends on nickel phosphate precursor, generally related to its chemical composition and supports. Study of this dependence is essential and meaningful for the preparation of supported Ni 2 P with excellent catalytic activity. The chemical nature of nickel phosphate precursor is revealed by Raman and UV–vis spectra. It is found that initial P/Ni mole ratio ≥0.8 prohibits the Ni-O-Ni bridge bonding (i.e., nickel oxide). This chemical bonding will not result in Ni 2 P structure, verified by XRD characterization results. The alumina (namely, γ-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , or α-Al 2 O 3 ) with distinct physiochemical properties also results in diverse chemical nature of nickel phosphate, and then different nickel phosphides. The influence of alumina support on producing Ni 2 P was explained by the theory of surface energy heterogeneity, calculated by the NLDFT method based on N 2 -sorption isotherm. The uniform surface energy of α-Al 2 O 3 results only in the nickel phosphosate precursor and thus the Ni 2 P phase. - Graphical abstract: Surface energy heterogeneity in alumina (namely α-Al 2 O 3 , θ-Al 2 O 3 , and γ-Al 2 O 3 ) supported multi-oxidic precursors with different reducibilities and thus diverse nickel phosphides (i.e., Ni 3 P, Ni 12 P 5 , Ni 2 P). - Highlights: • Preparing pure Ni 2 P. • Elucidating nickel phosphate precursor. • Associating with surface energy

  1. Nickel - iron battery. Nikkel - jern batteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H. A.

    1989-03-15

    A newer type of nickel-iron battery, (SAFT 6v 230 Ah monobloc), which could possibly be used in relation to electrically driven light road vehicles, was tested. The same test methods used for lead batteries were utilized and results compared favourably with those reached during other testings carried out, abroad, on a SAFT nickle-iron battery and a SAB-NIFE nickel-iron battery. Description (in English) of the latter-named tests are included in the publication as is also a presentation of the SAFT battery. Testing showed that this type of battery did not last as long as had been expected, but the density of energy and effect was superior to lead batteries. However energy efficiency was rather poor in comparison to lead batteries and it was concluded that nickel-iron batteries are not suitable for stationary systems where recharging under a constant voltage is necessary. (AB).

  2. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  3. Characterization and Growth Mechanism of Nickel Nano wires Resulting from Reduction of Nickel Formate in Polyol Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logutenko, O.A.; Titkov, A.I.; Vorobyov, A.M.; Yukhin, Y.M.; Lyakhov, N.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nickel linear nano structures were synthesized by reduction of nickel formate with hydrazine hydrate in ethylene glycol medium in the absence of any surfactants or capping agents for direction of the particles growth. The effect of the synthesis conditions such as temperature, reduction time, type of polyol, and nickel formate concentration on the reduction products was studied. The size and morphology of the nickel nano wires were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the nickel nano crystallites were wire-shaped with a face-center-cubic phase. Ethylene glycol was found to play a crucial role in the formation of the nickel nano wires. The possible growth processes of the wire-shaped particles taking place at 110 and 130 degree are discussed. It was shown that, under certain synthesis conditions, nickel nano wires grow on the surface of the crystals of the solid intermediate of nickel with hydrazine hydrate.

  4. Chemistry of nickel and copper production from sulphide ores | Love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nickel is one of Zimbabwe's principle metallurgical exports. It is processed to a very high level of purity and hence has a high value. The economics of nickel production can be difficult, as the selling value of nickel varies tremendously with time, from a low of US$ 3 900 per ton in late 1998 to US$ 10 100 per ton in May 2000, ...

  5. Impact of nickel (Ni) on hematological parameters and behavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... The effect of nickel on hematological parameters and behaviour in Cyprinus carpio after a 96 h exposure to nickel test was investigated. .... important food item in human diet. Nickel is a natural element in the earth's makeup. This must be a factor in assessing its ability to harm the environment. Although,.

  6. Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rystedt, I; Fischer, T

    1983-05-01

    Eight hundred fifty-three hard metal workers were examined and patch tested with 20 substances from their environment, including nickel and cobalt. Nickel sensitivity was found in 2 men and 38 women. 88% of the nickel-sensitive individuals had developed a jewelry dermatitis prior to employment in the hard metal industry or before the appearance of hand eczema. 29% of the hard metal workers gave a history of slight irritant dermatitis. In the nickel sensitized group, 40% had had severe hand eczema which generally appeared 6-12 months after starting employment. In 25% of the cases, nickel sensitive individuals developed cobalt allergy, compared with 5% in the total population investigated. Most facts indicate that nickel sensitivity and irritant hand eczema precede cobalt sensitization. Hard metal workers with simultaneous nickel and cobalt sensitivity had a more severe hand eczema than those with isolated cobalt or nickel sensitivity or only irritant dermatitis. 64% of the female population had pierced ear lobes. Among the nickel allergic women, 95% had pierced ear lobes. The use of earrings containing nickel after piercing is strongly suspected of being the major cause of nickel sensitivity. Piercing at an early age seems to increase the risk of incurring nickel sensitivity.

  7. In situ fabrication of nickel based oxide on nitrogen-doped graphene for high electrochemical performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Denghui; Zhang, Mingmei; Wang, Ying; Yan, Zaoxue; Jing, Junjie; Xie, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we synthesize Ni(OH)2 homogeneous grown on nitrogen-doped graphene (Ni(OH)2/NG), subsequently, small and uniform nickel oxide nanoparticle (NiO/NG) is also successfully obtained through tube furnace calcination method. The high specific capacitance of the NiO/NG electrode can reach to 1314.1 F/g at a charge and discharge current density of 2 A/g, meanwhile the specific capacitance of Ni(OH)2/NG electrode is also 1350 F/g. The capacitance of NiO/NG can remain 93.7% of the maximum value after 1000 cycles, while the Ni(OH)2/NG electrode losses 16.9% of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. It can be attributed to nickel hydroxide instability during charge-discharge cycles.

  8. Nickel sensitisation in mice: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Wäckerle-Men, Ying; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    The market release of new domestic and industrial chemical and metal products requires certain safety certification, including testing for skin sensitisation. Although various official guidelines have described how such testing is to be done, the validity of the available test models are in part dubious, for which reason regulatory agencies and research aim to further improve and generalise the models for testing of skin sensitisation. We applied a recently published murine model of nickel allergy as to test its applicability in a regulatory setting and to study and better understand the events leading to type-IV hypersensitivity. Nickel was chosen as model hapten since it induces allergic contact dermatitis with high incidence in the general population. Typically, C57BL/6 mice were sensitised and challenged by intradermal applications of nickel, and cutaneous inflammation was analysed by the mouse ear-swelling test, by histology, and by lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. Surprisingly, the study suggested that the skin reactions observed were results of irritant reactions rather than of adaptive immune responses. Non-sensitised mice responded with cutaneous inflammation and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity which were comparable with nickel-sensitised mice. Furthermore, histological examinations as well as experiments in T-cell deficient mice demonstrated that lymphocytes were not involved and that nickel caused an irritant contact dermatitis rather a true allergic type-IV contact dermatitis. The authors question the validity of the described murine model of nickel allergy. Copyright 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prototype nickel component demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    We have been developing a process to produce high-purity nickel structures from nickel carbonyl using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The prototype demonstration effort had been separated into a number of independent tasks to allow Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) the greatest flexibility in tailoring the project to their needs. LANL selected three of the proposed tasks to be performed--Task 1- system modification and demonstration, Task 2-stainless steel mandrel trials, and Task 4-manufacturing study. Task 1 focused on converting the CVD system from a hot-wall to a cold-wall configuration and demonstrating the improved efficiency of the reactor type by depositing a 0.01-inch-thick nickel coating on a cylindrical substrate. Since stainless steel substrates were preferred because of their low α-emitter levels, Task 2 evaluated mandrel configurations which would allow removal of the nickel tube from the substrate. The manufacturing study was performed to develop strategies and system designs for manufacturing large quantities of the components needed for the Sudbury Nuetrino Observatory (SNO) program. Each of these tasks was successfully completed. During these efforts, BIRL successfully produced short lengths of 2-inch-diameter tubing and 6-inch-wide foil with levels of α-radiation emitting contaminants lower than either conventional nickel alloys or electroplated materials. We have produced both the tubing and foil using hot-substrate, cold-wall reactors and clearly demonstrated the advantages of higher precursor efficiency and deposition rate associated with this configuration. We also demonstrated a novel mandrel design which allowed easy removal of the nickel tubing and should dramatically simplify the production of 1.5-meter-long tubes in the production phase of the program

  10. Nickel adsorption on chalk and calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belova, Dina Alexandrovna; Lakshtanov, Leonid; Carneiro, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel uptake from solution by two types of chalk and calcite was investigated in batch sorption studies. The goal was to understand the difference in sorption behavior between synthetic and biogenic calcite. Experiments at atmospheric partial pressure of CO2, in solutions equilibrated with calcite...... = - 1.12 on calcite and log KNi = - 0.43 and - 0.50 on the two chalk samples. The study confirms that synthetic calcite and chalk both take up nickel, but Ni binds more strongly on the biogenic calcite than on inorganically precipitated, synthetic powder, because of the presence of trace amounts...... of polysaccharides and clay nanoparticles on the chalk surface....

  11. Nitrogen solubility in nickel base multicomponent melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shov, L.A.; Stomakhin, A.Ya.; Sokolov, V.M.; Teterin, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    Applicability of various methods for calculation of nitrogen solubility in high-alloyed nickel base alloys, containing Cr, Fe, W, Mo, Ti, Nb, has been estimated. A possibility is shown to use the formUla, derived for the calculation of nitrogen solubility in iron on the basis of statistical theory for a grid model of solution which does not require limitations for the content of a solvent component. The calculation method has been used for nickel alloys, with the concentration of solvent, iron, being accepted equal to zero, and employing parameters of nitrogen interaction as determined for iron-base alloys

  12. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  13. The electrostatics of charged insulating sheets peeled from grounded conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, M J; Horenstein, M N

    2008-01-01

    The physics of a charged, insulating sheet peeled from a ground-plane conductor is examined. Contact charging is ensured by charging a sheet to 10-12 kV with corona to establish intimate electrostatic contact with the underlying conductor. The surface potential is next forced to zero by sweeping the sheet with a stainless-steel brush, and the surface recharged to a new potential between 0 and 11 kV. The sheet is then peeled from the ground plane and its residual charge density is measured. Results show that the residual charge equals the breakdown-limiting value, but its polarity depends on the surface potential acquired just prior to peeling. The results have relevance to studies of industrial webs and insulating sheets.

  14. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  15. Plastic-bonded electrodes for nickel-cadmium accumulators. IV - Some specific problems of the positive active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micka, K.; Mrha, J.; Klapste, B.

    1980-06-01

    The active layer of plastic-bonded nickel oxide electrodes undergoes expansion during discharging and contraction during charging; the latter however does not fully compensate for the expansion. These volume changes can be made reversible by the action of an external pressure. The electro-chemical behavior of the conductive components, carbon black and graphite, shows more or less severe corrosion during anodic current loading.

  16. Communication between the Zinc and Nickel Sites in Dimeric HypA: Metal Recognition and pH Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.; Perovic, I.; Martin-Diaconescu, V.; O'Brien, K.; Chivers, P.; Sondej Pochapsky, S.; Pochapsky, T.; Maroney, M.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys) 4 site to a Zn(His) 2 (Cys) 2 site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the β-CH 2 protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys) 4 ) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model wherein HypA controls the

  17. Communication between the Zinc and Nickel Sites in Dimeric HypA: Metal Recognition and pH Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, R.; Perovic, I; Martin-Diaconescu, V; O’Brien, K; Chivers, P; Sondej Pochapsky, S; Pochapsky, T; Maroney, M

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys){sub 4} site to a Zn(His){sub 2}(Cys){sub 2} site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the {beta}-CH{sub 2} protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys){sub 4}) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model

  18. Long life nickel electrodes for a nickel-hydrogen cell: Cycle life tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to develop a long life nickel electrode for a Ni/H2 cell, the cycle life of nickel electrodes was tested in Ni/H2 boiler plate cells. A 19 test cell matrix was made of various nickel electrode designs including three levels each of plaque mechanical strength, median pore size of the plaque, and active material loading. Test cells were cycled to the end of their life (0.5v) in a 45 minute low Earth orbit cycle regime at 80% depth-of-discharge. It is shown that the active material loading level affects the cycle life the most with the optimum loading at 1.6 g/cc void. Mechanical strength does not affect the cycle life noticeably in the bend strength range of 400 to 700 psi. It is found that the best plaque is made of INCO nickel powder type 287 and has median pore size of 13 micron.

  19. Mechanism of formation of corrosion layers on nickel and nickel-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetkoff, Tzvety; Gencheva, Petia

    2003-01-01

    A review of the corrosion of Ni and Ni-based alloys in melts containing oxyanions (nitrate, sulphate, hydroxide and carbonate) is presented, emphasising the mechanism of growth, the composition and structure of the passivating oxide films formed on the material in such conditions. First, the thermodynamical background involving solubility and point defect chemistry calculations for oxides formed on Ni, Cr and Ni-Cr alloys in molten salt media is briefly commented. The main passivation product on the Ni surface has been reported to be cubic NiO. In the transition stage, further oxidation of the compact NiO layer has been shown to take place in which Ni(III) ions and nickel cation vacancies are formed. Transport of nickel cation vacancies has been proposed to neutralise the charges of the excess oxide ions formed in the further oxidation reaction. Ex situ analysis studies reported in the literature indicated the possible formation of Ni 2 O 3 phase in the anodic layer. During the third stage of oxidation, a survey of the published data indicated that oxygen evolution from oxyanion melts is the predominant reaction taking place on the Ni/NiO electrode. This has been supposed to lead to a further accumulation of oxygen ions in the oxide lattice presumably as oxygen interstitials, and a NiO 2 phase formation has been also suggested. Literature data on the composition of the oxide film on industrial Ni-based alloys and superalloys in melts containing oxyanions are also presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the effect of the composition of the alloy, the molten salt mixture and the gas atmosphere on the stability and protective ability of corrosion layers

  20. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmerman, P.; Ratnakumar, B.V.; Distefano, S.

    1996-02-01

    The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

  1. Effect of residual stresses on hydrogen permeation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Bercot, P.; Takadoum, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on electrochemical permeation in iron membrane was investigated. Four thermal and mechanical treatments were chosen to obtain different surface states in relation to the residual stresses. Residual stresses were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Macherauch and Mueller method. The results were completed by the microhardness measurements. For all iron membranes, compressive residual stresses were obtained. Electrochemical permeation experiments using a Devanathan and Stachurski cell were employed to determine the hydrogen permeation behaviour of the various iron membranes. The latter was charged with hydrogen by galvanostatic cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH at 25 deg. C. The experimental results revealed that hydrogen permeation rate increases with increasing residual stresses introduced in iron membranes.

  2. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is one of the most powerful methods for condensed matter studies. This method is used for non-destructive determination of residual stresses in material. The fundamental aspects of neutron diffraction are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facility. The principal advantage of using neutrons rather than the more conventional X-rays is the fact that neutron can penetrate deeply (2-4 cm for steel and more than 10 cm for aluminium) into metals to determine internal parameters within the bulk of materials. We present results of measurements residual stresses in NPP construction material - austenitic stainless steel (Cr-18%, Ni-10%, Ti-1%) coated with high-nickel alloy. (authors)

  3. Carcinogenicity assessment of water-soluble nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Prueitt, Robyn L; Dodge, David G; Thakali, Sagar

    2009-01-01

    IARC is reassessing the human carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in 2009. To address the inconsistencies among results from studies of water-soluble nickel compounds, we conducted a weight-of-evidence analysis of the relevant epidemiological, toxicological, and carcinogenic mode-of-action data. We found the epidemiological evidence to be limited, in that some, but not all, data suggest that exposure to soluble nickel compounds leads to increased cancer risk in the presence of certain forms of insoluble nickel. Although there is no evidence that soluble nickel acts as a complete carcinogen in animals, there is limited evidence that suggests it may act as a tumor promoter. The mode-of-action data suggest that soluble nickel compounds will not be able to cause genotoxic effects in vivo because they cannot deliver sufficient nickel ions to nuclear sites of target cells. Although the mode-of-action data suggest several possible non-genotoxic effects of the nickel ion, it is unclear whether soluble nickel compounds can elicit these effects in vivo or whether these effects, if elicited, would result in tumor promotion. The mode-of-action data equally support soluble nickel as a promoter or as not being a causal factor in carcinogenesis at all. The weight of evidence does not indicate that soluble nickel compounds are complete carcinogens, and there is only limited evidence that they could act as tumor promoters.

  4. Cryoforming evaluation using high-purity nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.E.; Meisner, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    The cryogenic forming process was evaluated using nickel 270 to see if it had significant advantages over room-temperature (RT) forming. Typically, the procedure involved fast-strain-rate forming a set of nickel samples at cryogenic temperatures and another set at RT. Both sets were measured at RT for failure strength and their strength-preparation elongation curves compared at equal strains. Two more sets were formed, this time at slow strain rates (one at cryogenic temperatures, the other at RT). Both sets were measured at RT for failure strength and their strength-preparation elongation curves of these sets compared with the previous two at equal temperatures and strains. Cryoforming produced a 30 percent higher-strength nickel than that produced at room temperature at equal strains and strain rates. Forming rate effects disappeared as working temperature decreased. Rate-insensitive cryoforming produced a considerably stronger room-temperature material than room-temperature forming at high strain rates. Transmission electron microscopy indicated apparent structural differences between cryoformed and room-temperature-formed nickel. 14 fig

  5. Nickel-iron spherules from aouelloul glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.T.; Dwornik, E.J.; Merrill, C.W.

    1966-01-01

    Nickel-iron spherules, ranging from less than 0.2 to 50 microns in diameter and containing 1.7 to 9.0 percent Ni by weight, occur in glass associated with the Aouelloul crater. They occur in discrete bands of siliceous glass enriched in dissolved iron. Their discovery is significant tangible evidence that both crater and glass originated from terrestrial impact.

  6. Important Parameters and Applications for Nickel Electroforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Benzon, Michael Eis; Rasmussen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    H-value, temperature and the use of pulse plating and additives will be examined with respect to mechanical properties such as internal stress, material distribution and hardness. Pulse plating in a chloride and Watts nickel bath and DC plating in sulphamate bath will be discussed, as well as different methods...... for measuring internal stress and material distribution....

  7. Diffusion of alloying elements in liquid nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, G.S.; Majboroda, V.P.; Permyakova, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    Values of diffusion coefficients for chromium, vanadium, zinc, silicon, tin, antimony, lead and zirconium in liquid nickel are determined within 1500-1700 deg C temperature range using annular gap technique. The data obtained are explained concerning microheterogeneous structure of metallic melts

  8. Cost reductions in nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Richard L.; Sindorf, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    Significant progress was made toward the development of a commercially marketable hydrogen nickel oxide battery. The costs projected for this battery are remarkably low when one considers where the learning curve is for commercialization of this system. Further developmental efforts on this project are warranted as the H2/NiO battery is already cost competitive with other battery systems.

  9. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  10. Nickel nanostructured materials from liquid phase photodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuffrida, Salvatore, E-mail: sgiuffrida@unict.it; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Costanzo, Lucia L.; Ventimiglia, Giorgio [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Nigro, Raffaella Lo [IMM-CNR (Italy); Favazza, Maria; Votrico, Enrico [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy); Bongiorno, Corrado [IMM-CNR (Italy); Fragala, Ignazio L. [Universita degli Studi di Catania and INSTM UdR di, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    Liquid Phase Photo-Deposition (LPPD) technique has been used to obtain both colloidal particles and thin films of metallic and chloride nickel from solutions of only precursor Ni(acac){sub 2} (acac=2,4-pentandionato). Metallic nickel was obtained from ethanol solutions by direct nickel(II) photoreduction at 254 nm and by acetone sensitised reaction at 300 nm. In this latter process the rate was higher than in the first one. NiCl{sub 2} was formed from CCl{sub 4} solution by a solvent-initiated reaction. TEM analysis, performed on colloidal particles of nickel, showed that their dimensions are in the range 2-4 nm. The films did not present carbon contamination and were characterized by AFM, XPS and GIXRD. Metallic films consisted of particles of 20-40 nm that are the result of the aggregation of smaller crystallites (4-5 nm). Larger agglomerations (around 200 nm) have been observed for NiCl{sub 2} films.

  11. Continuous deionization of a dilute nickel solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Koene, L.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the continuous removal of nickel ions from a dilute solution using a hybrid ion-exchange/electrodialysis process. Emphasis was placed on the ionic state of the bed during the process, and the mass balance of ions in the system. Much of this information was obtained by analysing

  12. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wołowiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  14. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  15. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  16. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  17. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  18. The role of nickel in urea assimilation by algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T A; Bekheet, I A

    1982-12-01

    Nickel is required for urease synthesis by Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Tetraselmis subcordiformis and for growth on urea by Phaeodactylum. There is no requirement for nickel for urea amidolyase synthesis by Chlorella fusca var. vacuolata. Neither copper nor palladium can substitute for nickel but cobalt partially restored urease activity in Phaeodactylum. The addition of nickel to nickel-deficient cultures of Phaeodactylum or Tetraselmis resulted in a rapid increase of urease activity to 7-30 times the normal level; this increase was not inhibited by cycloheximide. It is concluded that nickel-deficient cells over-produce a non-functional urease protein and that either nickel or the functional urease enzyme participates in the regulation of the production of urease protein.

  19. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  20. Possible use of ferrocyanide as a redox additive for prevention of electrolyte decomposition in overcharged nickel batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoming Zhu [Wuhan University (China). Dept. of Chemistry; College of Xianning (China). Dept. of Chemistry; Hanxi Yang; Xingping Ai [Wuhan University (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-11-30

    The redox reaction of ferrocyanide was investigated for possible use as a redox additive for the prevention of the electrolyte decomposition of aqueous secondary Ni-NH batteries in the overcharged condition. It was found that with the presence of ferrocyanide, the charging voltage can be leveled off just above the complete oxidation of the positive nickel electrode. As a result, the oxygen evolution was greatly suppressed and the internal pressure of the batteries was kept at low level even at prolonged overcharging. In addition, no detrimental effects of the redox additive were observed on the normal charge-discharge performance of Ni-MH batteries. (author)

  1. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  2. Two-dimensional nickel hydroxide nanosheets as high performance pseudo-capacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Karthik S.; Nagaraja, H. S.

    2018-04-01

    Electrochemical supercapacitor is a vital technology for the progress of consistent energy harvesting devices. Herein, we report the fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes based on nickel hydroxide nanosheets synthesized via one-pot hydrothermal method. Structure and shape of synthesized materials were analyzed with XRD and SEM measurements. Pseudo-capacitive performances of the fabricated electrodes were evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements with three-electrode configurations. Results indicated the specific capacitance of l80 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1 scan rate and complimented with capacitance retention of 76% for l500 cycles.

  3. Three-dimensional space charge calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.; Wadlinger, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating space-charge forces suitable for use in a particle tracing code. Poisson's equation is solved in three dimensions with boundary conditions specified on an arbitrary surface by using a weighted residual method. Using a discrete particle distribution as our source input, examples are shown of off-axis, bunched beams of noncircular crosssection in radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and drift-tube linac geometries

  4. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne

    2009-01-01

    the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  5. Response surface methodology optimization of nickel (II) removal using pigeon pea pod bio sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, J.; Lenin, C.; Nancyflavia, C.; Rashika, P.; Saravanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pod of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), a cellulose rich agricultural residue, was investigated for its nickel binding efficiency. The influence of key physicochemical parameters such as contact time, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dosage and p H on nickel (II) removal was studied. The equilibrium time was found to be 45 min. The optimum Ni (II) removal was obtained at an initial metal ion concentration of 80 mg/l, p H of 9.0 and an adsorbent dose of 400 mg/100 ml. A search for optimal combination of key variables was studied by response surface methodology for maximum removal of nickel. The experiment encompassing 17 runs was established with the aid of Box–Behnken design. Owing to the reasonable agreement between predicted and adjusted R2 value (0.9714), the corresponding quadratic model gives the most appropriate relationship between the variables and response. The optimal point obtained was located in the valid region and the optimum adsorption parameters were predicted as an initial Ni (II) concentration of 60 mg/l, p H value of 9.0 and contact time of 75 min. Under these adsorption conditions, a maximum removal of 96.54 % of initial metal concentration was demonstrated.

  6. Retardation of grain boundary self-diffusion in nickel doped with antimony and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, R.A.; White, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Many important metallurgical phenomena are strongly influenced or controlled by grain boundary mass transport. There is also much evidence that the composition of grain boundaries is often significantly different from the overall composition of metals and alloys, owing to strong segregation of residual (and often undetected) impurities. This segregation, which does not always advertise its presence through grain boundary brittleness, may vary markedly from heat to heat, and occasionally from specimen to specimen within a given heat. Unfortunately, there are relatively few experimental observations of how such segregation affects grain boundary mass transport, and even less fundamental understanding of how these effects occur. In this paper we present autoradiographic results on self-diffusion of 63 Ni in nickel and nickel doped with antimony and tin. While these results do not permit a quantitative evaluation of the grain boundary diffusivity, D, they qualitatively illustrate the dramatic effect that these solute elements have on the ability of nickel grain boundaries to act as preferential paths for mass transport

  7. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  8. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  9. Nickel Nanowire@Porous NiCo2O4 Nanorods Arrays Grown on Nickel Foam as Efficient Pseudocapacitor Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzhao Wan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional hierarchical nanostructure composed of nickel nanowires and porous NiCo2O4 nanorods arrays on the surface of nickel foam is successfully fabricated by a facile route. In this structure, the nickel nanowires are used as core materials to support high-pseudocapacitance NiCo2O4 nanorods and construct the well-defined NiCo2O4 nanorods shell/nickel nanowires core hierarchical structure on nickel foam. Benefiting from the participation of nickel nanowires, the nickel nanowire@NiCo2O4/Ni foam electrode shows a high areal specific capacitance (7.4 F cm−2 at 5 mA cm−2, excellent rate capability (88.04% retained at 100 mA cm−2, and good cycling stability (74.08% retained after 1,500 cycles. The superior electrochemical properties made it promising as electrode for supercapacitors.

  10. DC Electric Arc Furnace Application for Production of Nickel-Boron Master Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Murat; Tasyürek, Kerem Can; Bugdayci, Mehmet; Turan, Ahmet; Yücel, Onuralp

    2017-09-01

    In this study, nickel-boron (Ni-B) alloys were produced via a carbothermic reduction starting from boric acid (H3BO3) with high-purity nickel oxide (NiO), charcoal, and wood chips in a direct current arc furnace. In electric arc furnace experiments, different starting mixtures were used, and their effects on the chemical compositions of the final Ni-B alloys were investigated. After the reduction and melting stages, Ni-B alloys were obtained by tapping from the bottom of the furnace. The samples from the designated areas were also taken and analyzed. The chemical composition of the final alloys and selected samples were measured with wet chemical analysis. The Ni-B alloys had a composition of up to 14.82 mass% B. The phase contents of the final alloys and selected samples were measured using x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data helped predict possible reactions and reaction mechanisms. The material and energy balance calculations were made via the XRD Rietveld and chemical compositions. Nickel boride phases started to form 600 mm below the surface. The targeted NiB phase was detected at the tapping zone of the crucible (850-900 mm depth). The energy consumption was 1.84-4.29 kWh/kg, and the electrode consumption was 10-12 g/kg of raw material charged.

  11. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  12. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  13. High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Electrodes Based on Nickel Oxide-coated Nickel Foam Prepared by Sparking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuminjak, Yaowamarn; Daothong, Suphaporn; Kuntarug, Aekapong; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Horprathum, Mati; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Singjai, Pisith

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO particles (3-10 nm) were sparked on Ni foams with varying times (45-180 min). • Larger NiO nanoparticles were aggregated to foam-like structure at a longer time. • The optimal time of 45 min led to a high specific capacity of 920 C/g at 1 A/g. • The specific capacity remained as high as 699 (76% of 920) C/g at 20 A/g. • The optimal electrode exhibited 96% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 4 A/g. - Abstract: In this work, high-performance electrochemical energy storage electrodes were developed based on nickel oxide (NiO)-coated nickel (Ni) foams prepared by a sparking method. NiO nanoparticles deposited on Ni foams with varying sparking times from 45 to 180 min were structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the electrochemical energy storage characteristics of the electrodes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that NiO nanoparticles sparked on Ni foam with a longer time would be agglomerated and formed a foam-like network with large pore sizes and a lower surface area, leading to inferior charge storage behaviors. The NiO/Ni foam electrode prepared with the shortest sparking of 45 min displayed high specific capacities of 920 C g"-"1 (1840 F g"-"1) at 1 A g"-"1 and 699 (76% of 920) C g"-"1 at 20 A g"-"1 in a potential window of 0-0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl as well as a good cycling performance with 96% capacity retention at 4 A g"-"1 after 1000 cycles and a low equivalent series resistance of 0.4 Ω. Therefore, NiO/Ni foam electrodes prepared by the sparking method are highly promising for high-capacity energy storage applications.

  14. Effect of tetraethylthiuramdisulphide and diethyldithiocarbamate on nickel toxicokinetics in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalsgaard, G.; Andersen, O.

    1994-01-01

    A new experimental pharmacokinetic model using the γ-emitting isotope 57 Ni for studying nickel toxicokinetics was employed in a recent investigation in order to quantitatively study, for the first time, the effect of tetraethylthiuram disulphide (disulfiram, Antabuse, TTD) and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on whole-body retention and organ distribution of nickel in mice. TTD or its decomposition product DDC given orally by stomach tube shortly after oral administration of a low dose of nickel chloride labelled with 57 Ni resulted in an approximately ten times higher whole-body retention of nickel compared to the retention in a control group exposed to nickel only. These chelators increased the whole-body retention of nickel also when given by intraperitoneal injection shortly after oral or intraperitoneal administration of nickel. Oral administration of a single dose of TTD or DDC rapidly after an oral dose of nickel chloride also resulted in extensive changes in the organ distribution of nickel, thus the nickel content in the brain was at least 700 times higher than in a control group given the same dose of nickel only. If DDC was given intraperitoneally after nickel given orally, the relative organ distribution of nickel to most organs was the same as if the chelator was given orally, though the contents of the liver and lungs were lower. That TTD and DDC resulted in a transport of nickel to the brain, is underlined by the fact that after 20 hr, approximately 15% and after 45-50 hr, 30% of the total body burden of Ni was found in the brain. Stating the nickel content as concentrations, we found after 19 hr to 23 hr the highest nickel concentration in the brain, kidneys, lungs and liver, in order of decreasing concentration. From 68 hr to 122 hr the order was brain, lungs, kidneys and liver. TTD and DDC are widely used clinically. These results indicate, that long-term simultaneous administration of nickel and TTD or DDC to humans should be avoided, as

  15. The GENIALL process for generation of nickel-iron alloys from nickel ores or mattes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, G.; Frias, C.; Palma, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new process, called GENIALL (acronym of Generation of Nickel Alloys), for nickel recovery as ferronickel alloys from ores or mattes without previous smelting is presented in this paper. Its core technology is a new electrolytic concept, the ROSEL cell, for electrowinning of nickel-iron alloys from concentrated chloride solutions. In the GENIALL Process the substitution of iron-based solid wastes as jarosite, goethite or hematite, by saleable ferronickel plates provides both economic and environmental attractiveness. Another advantage is that no associated sulfuric acid plant is required. The process starts with leaching of the raw material (ores or mattes) with a solution of ferric chloride. The leachate liquor is purified by conventional methods like cementation or solvent extraction, to remove impurities or separate by-products like copper and cobalt. The purified solution, that contains a mixture of ferrous and nickel chlorides is fed to the cathodic compartment of the electrowinning cell, where nickel and ferrous ions are reduced together to form an alloy. Simultaneously, ferrous chloride is oxidized to ferric chloride in the anodic compartment, from where it is recycled to the leaching stage. The new electrolytic equipment has been developed and scaled up from laboratory to pilot prototypes with commercial size electrodes of 1 m 2 . Process operating conditions have been established in continuous runs at bench and pilot plant scale. The technology has shown a remarkable capacity to produce nickel-iron alloys of a wide range of compositions, from 10% to 80% nickel, just by adjusting the operating parameters. This emerging technology could be implemented in many processes in which iron and other non-ferrous metals are harmful impurities to be removed, or valuable metals to be recovered as a marketable iron alloy. Other potential applications of this technology are regeneration of spent etching liquors, and iron removal from aqueous effluents. (author)

  16. Residual stress in ion implanted titanium nitride studied by parallel beam glancing incidence x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.E.; Perry, A.J.; Treglio, J.R.; Valvoda, V.; Rafaja, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ion implantation is known to increase the lifetime of cutting tools. Current theories are the increase in lifetime is caused by an increase in the residual stress, or by work hardening of the surface associated with the implantation. In this work the effect of ion implantation on the residual stress in titanium nitride coatings made by the standard industrial methods of chemical and physical vapor deposition (CVD and PVD) is studied. It is found in the as-received condition (unimplanted), the residual stress levels are near zero for CVD materials and highly compressive, of the order of 6 GPa, for PVD materials. Ion implantation has no effect on the residual stress in the coatings made by CVD. Nitrogen does increase the compressive residual stress by some 10% in the near surface regions of PVD coatings, while nickel-titanium dual metal ion implantation does not have any effect. It appears that the lifetime increase is not associated with residual stress effects

  17. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  18. Analytical approaches for the characterization of nickel proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Lamana, Javier; Szpunar, Joanna

    2017-08-16

    The use of nickel in modern industry and in consumer products implies some health problems for the human being. Nickel allergy and nickel carcinogenicity are well-known health effects related to human exposure to nickel, either during production of nickel-containing products or by direct contact with the final item. In this context, the study of nickel toxicity and nickel carcinogenicity involves the understanding of their molecular mechanisms and hence the characterization of the nickel-binding proteins in different biological samples. During the last 50 years, a broad range of analytical techniques, covering from the first chromatographic columns to the last generation mass spectrometers, have been used in order to fully characterize the nickel proteome. The aim of this review is to present a critical view of the different analytical approaches that have been applied for the purification, isolation, detection and identification of nickel-binding proteins. The different analytical techniques used are discussed from a critical point of view, highlighting advantages and limitations.

  19. Nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Divya Ratan; Khan, Muhammad F; Tandar, Anwar; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Neuharth, Renée; Patel, Amit N; Muhlestein, Joseph B; Badger, Rodney S

    2015-02-01

    We sought to compare nickel elution properties of contemporary interatrial shunt closure devices in vitro. There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved devices for percutaneous closure of secundum atrial septal defect: the Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO; St Jude Medical Corporation) and Gore Helex septal occluder (HSO; W.L. Gore & Associates). The new Gore septal occluder (GSO) device is in clinical trials. These are also used off-label for patent foramen ovale closure in highly selected patients. These devices have high nickel content. Nickel allergy is the most common reason for surgical device explantation. Nickel elution properties of contemporary devices remain unknown. We compared nickel elution properties of 4 devices - ASO, GSO, HSO, and sternal wire (SW) - while Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) served as control. Three samples of each device were submerged in DPBS. Nickel content was measured at 14 intervals over 90 days. Nickel elution at 24 hours, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L), was significantly higher for ASO (2.98 ± 1.65 mg/L; P=.04) and SW (0.03 ± 0.014 mg/L; P=.03). Nickel levels at 90 days, compared to control (0.005 ± 0.0 mg/L) and adjusting for multiple comparisons, were significantly higher for ASO (19.80 ± 2.30 mg/L; P=.01) and similar for HSO (P=.34), GSO (P=.34), and SW (P=.34). ASO had significantly higher nickel elution compared to HSO, GSO, and SW (P=.01). There is substantial variability in nickel elution; devices with less exposed nickel (HSO and GSO) have minimal elution. The safety of low nickel elution devices in patients with nickel allergy needs to be evaluated in prospective trials.

  20. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  1. Modeling of Residual Stress and Machining Distortion in Aerospace Components (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    John Gayda, “The Effect of Heat Treatment on Residual Stress and Machining Distortions in Advanced Nickel Base Disk Alloys,” NASA/TM-2001-210717. 2...Wei-Tsu Wu, Guoji Li, Juipeng Tang, Shesh Srivatsa, Ravi Shankar, Ron Wallis, Padu Ramasundaram and John Gayda, “A process modeling system for heat...Materials Processing Technology 98 (2000) 189-195. 6. M.A. Rist, S. Tin, B.A. Roder, J.A. James, and M.R. Daymond , “Residual Stresses in a

  2. The solidification velocity of nickel and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgilbers, Alex Sho

    2002-09-01

    The solidification velocity of several Ni-Ti, Ni-Sn, Ni-Si, Ti-Al and Ti-Ni alloys were measured as a function of undercooling. From these results, a model for alloy solidification was developed that can be used to predict the solidification velocity as a function of undercooling more accurately. During this investigation a phenomenon was observed in the solidification velocity that is a direct result of the addition of the various alloying elements to nickel and titanium. The additions of the alloying elements resulted in an additional solidification velocity plateau at intermediate undercoolings. Past work has shown a solidification velocity plateau at high undercoolings can be attributed to residual oxygen. It is shown that a logistic growth model is a more accurate model for predicting the solidification of alloys. Additionally, a numerical model is developed from simple description of the effect of solute on the solidification velocity, which utilizes a Boltzmann logistic function to predict the plateaus that occur at intermediate undercoolings.

  3. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantik, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1999-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used in this study to assess the environmental impact of five candidate batteries for electric vehicles under different conditions of charging. The entire lifetime of a passenger electric vehicle is considered as the basis for all batteries. Five different battery systems are considered. The four of them are electrically recharged - Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal hydride and Sodium-Nickel chloride whereas one system comprises batteries that are recharged mechanically (Zinc-Air). One specific battery from these five systems is selected. The results are representative of these particular batteries and not of the battery systems to which they belong. The study includes three scenarios, the basic scenario and two fast charging scenarios. The difference between the scenarios is in the phase of the battery's use and involves the charging regimes. Consequently, the other stages of the battery's life are identical in all three scenarios. The basic scenario implies normal overnight charging is used during the entire lifetime of an electric vehicle. In the first fast charging scenario, fast charging is combined with normal charging. The second fast charging scenario involves the exclusive use of fast charging. In both fast charging scenarios the user's behaviour is considered. In this study, it is believed that it is the violation of fast charging rules, set by the battery manufacturer rather than the fast charging technique, that will be critical for the cycle life of the battery. Due to low energy efficiency of the batteries and losses in the charging procedure, the use of energy for operating the electric vehicle seems to be a major contributor to the total environmental impact of the system. Significant resource constraints may prevent mass production of certain batteries or lead to increased prices of others. Use of fast charging increases the number of batteries used during the lifetime of the electric

  4. Stable cyclic performance of nickel oxide–carbon composite anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung; Wang, Xinghui; Fan, Yu; Xiao, Qizhen; Fitzgerald, Eugene; Pey, Kin Leong; Zhang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) directly grown on nickel foam is regarded as a promising lithium ion battery anode material which shows good cyclic and rate performances with a theoretical specific capacity of 718 mA h g −1 . In this study, we demonstrated a carbon-incorporated NiO anode (NiO–C) with a capacity per unit area of 2.11 mA h cm −2 and 1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.2 C and 0.5 C rates, respectively, fabricated by thermal oxidation of carbon coated nickel foam. The specific capacity of our NiO–C composite samples at 0.5 C rate is found to be typically 389.16 mA h g −1 , with a stable cyclic performance up to more than 100 cycles. This remarkable performance is apparently superior to the control samples of pure NiO samples. The improved performance is contributed to carbon incorporation which serves as a fluent channel for electrons and a flexible network preventing NiO nanostructures from structural deformation during charge and discharge processes. The advantage of using our approach is the easy preparation of the NiO–C composite using a simple two-step process: chemical vapor deposition of ethanol and annealing in air. - Highlights: • We demonstrated a directly grown NiO–C anode on nickel foam substrate. • NiO–C anode was made using simple processes: CVD of ethanol and annealing in air. • The NiO–C anode has a stable cycle life up to 102 cycles. • It has an acceptable areal capacity (1.76 mA h cm −2 at 0.5 C rate) for practical use. • Carbon provides electrons path and buffering matrix preventing NiO pulverization

  5. Validation test of advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts with the intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement was to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another advancement was to modify the state-of-the-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes. The modified design is referred to as the advanced design. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO testing. The primary function of the advanced cell is to store and deliver energy for long-term, LEO spacecraft missions. The new features of this design are: (1) use of 26 percent rather than 31 percent KOH electrolyte; (2) use of a patented catalyzed wall wick; (3) use of serrated-edge separators to facilitate gaseous oxygen and hydrogen flow within the cell, while still maintaining physical contact with the wall wick for electrolyte management; and (4) use of a floating rather than a fixed stack (state-of-the-art) to accommodate nickel electrode expansion due to charge/discharge cycling. The significant improvements resulting from these innovations are: extended cycle life; enhanced thermal, electrolyte, and oxygen management; and accommodation of nickel electrode expansion.

  6. Coulombic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  7. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  8. Comparison of inorganic inhibitors of copper, nickel and copper-nickels in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, A. Igual; Anton, J. Garcia; Guin-tilde on, J.L.; Herranz, V. Perez

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and two copper-nickel (Cu90/Ni10 and Cu70/Ni30) alloys in 850 g/L LiBr solution in the absence and presence of three different inorganic inhibitors (chromate CrO 4 2- , molybdate MoO 4 2- , and tetraborate B 4 O 7 2- ) has been studied. Differences in inhibition efficiency are discussed in terms of potentiodynamic and cyclic measurements. The best protection is obtained by adding chromate to the 850 g/L LiBr solution while the inhibition efficiencies of molybdate and tetraborate ions were not markedly high. Very aggressive anions, such as bromides, in the present experimental conditions, notably reduce the action of the less efficient molecules (molybdate and tetraborate), but not that of the most efficient ones (chromate). The results of the investigation show that the inhibiting properties depend on the nickel content in the alloy; this element improves the general corrosion resistance of the material in the sense that it shifts free corrosion potential towards more noble values and density corrosion currents towards lower levels. The nickel content in the alloy also enlarges the passivating region of the materials in chromate and molybdate-containing solution; furthermore it decreases the current passivating values to lower values. Nickel addition improves the localized corrosion resistance in the bromide media

  9. Recovery Of Nickel From Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries Using A Direct Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D.J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nickel is produced as Ferro-Nickel through a smelting process from Ni-bearing ore. However, these days, there have been some problems in nickel production due to exhaustion and the low-grade of Ni-bearing ore. Moreover, the smelting process results in a large amount of wastewater, slag and environmental risk. Therefore, in this research, spent Ni-Cd batteries were used as a base material instead of Ni-bearing ore for the recovery of Fe-Ni alloy through a direct reduction process. Spent Ni-Cd batteries contain 24wt% Ni, 18.5wt% Cd, 12.1% C and 27.5wt% polymers such as KOH. For pre-treatment, Cd was vaporized at 1024K. In order to evaluate the reduction conditions of nickel oxide and iron oxide, pre-treated spent Ni-Cd batteries were experimented on under various temperatures, gas-atmospheres and crucible materials. By a series of process, alloys containing 75 wt% Ni and 20 wt% Fe were produced. From the results, the reduction mechanism of nickel oxide and iron oxide were investigated.

  10. Nanostructured nickel doped β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyalakshmi, K. [Department of Physics, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul 624622 (India); Vijayakumar, S. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Gandhigram 624302 (India); Purushothaman, K.K. [Department of Physics, TRP Engineering College, Trichy (India); Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muralg@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Gandhigram 624302 (India)

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanorod with pores has been observed for 5 wt.% nickel doped β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films. • Film with 5 wt.% of nickel exhibits a specific capacitance of 417 F g{sup −1}. • These films exhibit high energy density. • The charge transfer resistance is 103 Ω. - Abstract: Interesting thin film electrodes of nickel doped vanadium pentoxide with different levels of doping (2.5–10 wt.%) are prepared on FTO and glass substrate at 300 °C using sol–gel spin coating method. The structural and morphological studies are made to understand the nature of the surface of the thin films. The electrochemical characteristics have been investigated through cyclic voltammetry and ac impedance spectroscopy measurements. The doping of nickel with β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} has led to enhanced intercalation and deintercalation of ions. β-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films with 5 wt.% of Ni exhibit the maximum specific capacitance of 417 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s, with a good cyclic stability making it a promising candidate for supercapacitor application.

  11. Review of the logging residue problem and its reduction through marketing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Adams; Richard C. Smith

    1976-01-01

    This study notes the increasing concern over logging residue in forest land management and describes the various administrative and technological means for accomplishing reductions of logging residue. Alternative sales arrangements can include such things as reduction of stumpage charges for low quality logs or required yarding of unutilized material to the landing or...

  12. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  13. Corrosion behaviour of cladded nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, W.; Ruczinski, D.; Nolde, M.; Blum, J.

    1995-01-01

    As a consequence of the high cost of nickel base alloys their use as surface layers is convenient. In this paper the properties of SA-as well as RES-cladded NiMo 16Cr16Ti and NiCr21Mo14W being produced in single and multi-layer technique are compared and discussed with respect to their corrosion behaviour. Decisive criteria describing the qualities of the claddings are the mass loss, the susceptibility against intergranular corrosion and the pitting corrosion resistance. The results prove that RES cladding is the most suitable technique to produce corrosion resistant nickel base coatings. The corrosion behaviour of a two-layer RES deposition shows a better resistance against pitting than a three layer SAW cladding. 7 refs

  14. Process for obtaining cobalt and lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapcov, V.; Samusi, N.; Gulea, A.; Horosun, I.; Stasiuc, V.; Petrenco, P.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to the process for obtaining polycrystalline ceramics of cobalt and lanthanum nickelate with the perovskite structure from coordinative hetero metallic compounds. The obtained products can be utilized in the industry in the capacity of catalysts. Summary of the invention consists in obtaining polycrystalline ceramics LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 with the perovskite structure by pyrolysis of the parent compounds, namely, the coordinative hetero metallic compounds of the lanthanum cobalt or lanthanum nickel. The pyrolysis of the parent compound runs during one hour at 800 C. The technical result of the invention consists in lowering the temperature of the parent compound pyrolysis containing the precise ratio of metals necessary for ceramics obtaining

  15. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  16. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  17. Size-controlled synthesis of nickel nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y.; Kondoh, H.; Ohta, T.; Gao, S.

    2005-01-01

    A facile reduction approach with nickel acetylacetonate, Ni(acac) 2 , and sodium borohydride or superhydride leads to monodisperse nickel nanoparticles in the presence of hexadecylamine (HDA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The combination of HDA and TOPO used in the conventional synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals also provides better control over particle growth in the metal nanoparticle synthesis. The size of Ni nanoparticles can be readily tuned from 3 to 11 nm, depending on the ratio of HDA to TOPO in the reaction system. As-synthesized Ni nanoparticles have a cubic structure as characterized by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that Ni nanoparticles have narrow size distribution. SQUID magnetometry was also used in the characterization of Ni nanoparticles. The synthetic procedure can be extended to the preparation of high quality metal or alloy nanoparticles

  18. Normal modes of vibration in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgeneau, R J [Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cordes, J [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dolling, G; Woods, A D B

    1964-07-01

    The frequency-wave-vector dispersion relation, {nu}(q), for the normal vibrations of a nickel single crystal at 296{sup o}K has been measured for the [{zeta}00], [{zeta}00], [{zeta}{zeta}{zeta}], and [0{zeta}1] symmetric directions using inelastic neutron scattering. The results can be described in terms of the Born-von Karman theory of lattice dynamics with interactions out to fourth-nearest neighbors. The shapes of the dispersion curves are very similar to those of copper, the normal mode frequencies in nickel being about 1.24 times the corresponding frequencies in copper. The fourth-neighbor model was used to calculate the frequency distribution function g({nu}) and related thermodynamic properties. (author)

  19. Characterization testing of a 40 ampere hour bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40-ampere hour (A h), 10-cell, bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, to study the effects of operating parameters such as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure on capacity, A h and watt hour (W h) efficiencies, and end-of-charge and midpoint discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout the test matrix except during the high-rate (5 C and 10 C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 in. x 2 in. battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit cycle life testing at a 40-percent depth of discharge and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  20. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  1. Hierarchical Nickel Sulfide Coated Halloysite Nanotubes For Efficient Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanan; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Yun; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An integration strategy was presented to construct Ni 3 S 2 based hierarchical composite. •Nanowhisker Ni 3 S 2 were densely integrated onto halloysite nanotubes. •The well-designed electrode exhibits remarkable capacitance and cycling stability. •This strategy provides good reference to electrode materials design for energy storage -- Abstract: Cost-effective and robust energy storage systems have attracted great attention for portable electronic devices. Three-dimensional electrodes can effectively enhance the charge transfer, increase the mechanical stability and thus improve the electrochemical performance upon continuous charge-discharge. The earth abundant halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have shown immense potential in constructing nanoarchitectural composites. Here, we first demonstrate the development of hybrid composite of nickel sulfide (Ni 3 S 2 ) and HNTs with glucose as binders for efficient energy storage in supercapacitor. The surface sulfhydrylation of HNTs and glucose-assisted hydrothermal reaction are crucial for the preparation of well-structured composite. Due to the synergistic effect between components, the Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS composite electrode delivers a capacity of 450.4C g −1 and high retention of 82.6% over 2000 cycles in three-electrode supercapacitors. Moreover, the Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS//Whatman paper//Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS two-electrode symmetric supercapacitor exhibits a maximum potential window of 1.3 V, with a capacity of 250C g −1 and performance loss of only 18.2% over 2000 cycling at 1 A g −1 . A maximum energy density of 79.6 Wh kg −1 is achieved at a power density of 1.03 kW kg −1 . Such excellent energy storage performance suggests the great potential of Ni 3 S 2 /HNTs@HS for high-efficiency energy storage systems.

  2. Impedances of nickel electrodes cycled in various KOH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret A.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent tests at Hughes have shown that Ni/H2 cells cycled in 26 percent KOH have much longer lives than those cycled in other concentrations. As part of an ongoing program to try to correlate the impedances of nickel electrodes with their life and performance, impedances were measured of a number of electrodes from these tests that had been cycled in concentrations from 21 to 36 percent KOH. These had ranged from about 1000 to 40,000 cycles. After cycling ten times to reduce possible changes due to storage, impedances were measured at five voltages corresponding to low states of charge. The results were analyzed using a standard circuit model including Warburg impedance term. Lower kinetic resistances and Warburg slopes were found for several electrodes which had been cycled in 26 percent KOH even though they had been cycled for a much longer time than the others. Interpretation of the data is complicated by the fact that the cycle lives, storage times, and failure mechanisms varied. Several other circuit models have also been examined, but the best correlations with life were found with parameters obtained from the simple model.

  3. Life cycle evaluation of spaceflight qualified nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, D.K.; Brill, J.N. [Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States). Advanced Systems Operation

    1995-12-31

    Life cycle test results are summarized from more than 300 spaceflight qualified nickel-hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) battery cells currently on life test. Cells ranging in size from 4 ampere-hours (Ah) to 120 Ah are being tested under a variety of conditions to support current NiH{sub 2} battery applications. Results to date include 55,600 accelerated LEO cycles at 30% DOD; 102,840 accelerated LEO cycles at 15% DOD; 44,900 cycles under a real-time LEO profile; 44,100 cycles in real-time LEO; 30 accelerated GEO eclipse seasons and 7 real-time GEO eclipse seasons, both at 75% DOD maximum. Alternative separator materials have completed more than 40,000 charge/discharge cycles in accelerated LEO testing and advanced design electrocatalytic hydrogen electrodes have completed more than 16,000 cycles in real-time LEO testing. Common pressure vessel cell designs have completed 18,000 cycles in real-time LEO testing at 45% DOD.

  4. Bloch walls in a nickel single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.; Treimer, W.

    2001-01-01

    We present a consistent theory for the dependence of the magnetic structure in bulk samples on external static magnetic fields and corresponding experimental results. We applied the theory of micromagnetism to this crystal and calculated the Bloch wall thickness as a function of external magnetic fields. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental data, so that the Bloch wall thickness of a 71 deg. nickel single crystal was definitely determined with some hundred of nanometer

  5. Multiple cell CPV nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken R.; Zagrodnik, Jeffrey P.

    1991-01-01

    Johnson Controls, Inc. has developed a multiple cell CPV nickel hydrogen battery that offers significant weight, volume, and cost advantages for aerospace applications. The baseline design was successfully demonstrated through the testing of a 26-cell prototype, which completed over 7000 44 percent depth-of-discharge low earth orbit cycles. Prototype designs using both nominal 5 and 10 inch diameter vessels are currently being developed for a variety of customers and applications.

  6. Dislocation density changes in nickel under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseeva, I.V.; Okrainets, P.N.; Pishchak, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in dislocation density was studied in the process of nickel creep p at t=900 deg c and σ=2 kgf/mm 2 . The dislocation structure was studied independently by the X-ray technique and transmission electron-microscopy. The e two methods show good conformity of results by comparison. It is concluded that independent determination of dislocation density under creep is possible us sing the X-ray technique

  7. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Innovations: laser-cutting nickel-titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, T.R.; Moore, B.; Toyama, N. [LPL Systems, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Laser-cutting is well established as the preferred method for manufacturing many endovascular medical devices. Sometimes laser processing has been poorly understood by nickel-titanium (NiTi) material suppliers, medical device manufacturers, and device designers, but the field has made important strides in the past several years. A variety of sample, nonspecific applications are presented for cutting tubing and sheet stock. Limiting constraints, key considerations, and areas for future development are identified. (orig.)

  9. Selenium plating of aluminium and nickel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, N.; Shams, N.; Kamal, A.; Ashraf, A.

    1993-01-01

    Selenium exhibits photovoltaic and photoconductive properties. This makes selenium useful in the production of photocells, exposure meters for photographic use, in solar cells, etc. In commerce, selenium coated surfaces are extensively used as photo receptive drums in the xerography machines for reproducing documents. Laboratory experiments were designed to obtain selenium plating on different materials. Of the various electrodes tested for cathodic deposition, anodized aluminum and nickel plated copper were found to give good results. (author)

  10. Investigation of nickel hydrogen battery technology for the RADARSAT spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, D. A.; Lackner, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The low Earth orbit (LEO) operations of the RADARSAT spacecraft require high performance batteries to provide energy to the payload and platform during eclipse period. Nickel Hydrogen cells are currently competing with the more traditional Nickel Cadmium cells for high performance spacecraft applications at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and Leo. Nickel Hydrogen cells appear better suited for high power applications where high currents and high Depths of Discharge are required. Although a number of GEO missions have flown with Nickel Hydrogen batteries, it is not readily apparent that the LEO version of the Nickel Hydrogen cell is able to withstand the extended cycle lifetime (5 years) of the RADARSAT mission. The problems associated with Nickel Hydrogen cells are discussed in the contex of RADARSAT mission and a test program designed to characterize cell performance is presented.

  11. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  12. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  13. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  14. Joining U.S. NRC international round robin for weld residual stress analysis. Stress analysis and validation in PWSCC mitigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Serizawa, Hisashi; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to establish properly reliable weld residual stress analysis methods for accurate crack initiation and growth assessment of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), which may occur in nickel-based dissimilar metal welds in pressurized water reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted an international round robin for weld residual stress analysis to improve stress analysis methods and to examine the uncertainties involved in the calculated stress values. In this paper, the results from the authors' participation in the round robin were reported. In the round robin, the weld residual stress in a nickel-based dissimilar metal weld of a pressurizer surge nozzle mock-up was computed under various analysis conditions. Based on these residual stress analysis results, a welding simulation code currently being developed that uses the iterative substructure method was validated and affecting factors on the analysis results were identified. (author)

  15. Structure and electrochemical properties of nanometer Cu substituted α-nickel hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Jie [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China); Zhu, Yanjuan, E-mail: YanJuanZhu007@126.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China); Zhang, Zhongju [Guangzhou Tiger Head Battery Group Co., Ltd., 568 Huangpu Road, Guangzhou 510655, Guangdong Province (China); Xu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Weiren [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, Jian [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong Province (China); Zhang, Wei; Han, Quanyong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, WaiHuan Xi Road, No. 100, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong Province (China)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cu substituted α-nickel hydroxide was prepared by ultrasonic assisted precipitation. ► The XRD peaks are anisotropic broadening. ► The electrode for 0.9 wt.% Cu has the highest capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C. -- Abstract: Nanometer Cu-substituted α-nickel hydroxide was synthesized by means of ultrasonic-assisted precipitation. Particle size distribution (PSD) measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) were used to characterize the physical properties of the synthesized samples. The results indicate that the average particle size of the samples is about 96–110 nm and the XRD diffraction peaks are anisotropic broadening. The crystal grains are mainly polycrystal structure with columnar or needle-like morphology, containing many defects. With increase of Cu content, the shape of primary particles transform from columnar to needle-like. The influences of doping amounts of Cu on the electrochemical performance were investigated through constant current charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetric measurements. The specific capacity increases initially and then decreases with increasing Cu-doping ratio, the electrode C containing 0.9 wt.% Cu shows the maximum discharge capacity of 310 mAh/g at 0.2 C, and it has the lowest charging voltage, higher discharge voltage plateau, better cycle performance and larger proton diffusion coefficient than the other electrodes.

  16. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  17. Contractor Software Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... Examples of computer software costs that contractors charge through indirect rates are material management systems, security systems, labor accounting systems, and computer-aided design and manufacturing...

  18. Nanoroses of nickel oxides: Synthesis, electron tomography study, and application in CO oxidation and energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz; Sougrat, Rachid; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Rahal, Raed; Cha, Dong Kyu; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Bouhrara, Mohamed; Alshareef, Husam N.; Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Nickel oxide and mixed-metal oxide structures were fabricated by using microwave irradiation in pure water. The nickel oxide self-assembled into unique rose-shaped nanostructures. These nickel oxide roses were studied by performing electron

  19. Nickel-hydrogen battery and hydrogen storage alloy electrode; Nikkeru suiso denchi oyobi suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, T. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Furukawa, J. [The Furukawa Battery Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-03-22

    Hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery has such problem that the inner pressure of the battery elevates when it is overcharged since the oxygen gas evolves from the positive electrode. This invention relates to the hermetically sealed nickel-hydrogen battery consisting of positive electrode composed mainly of nickel hydroxide and negative electrode composed mainly of hydrogen storage alloy. According to the invention, the negative electrode contains organic sulfur compound having carbon-sulfur bond. As a result, the elevation of battery inner pressure due to the hydrogen gas evolution, the decrease in discharge capacity due to the repetition of charge and discharge, and the lowering of voltage after charging can be suppressed. The adequate content of the organic sulfur compound is 0.05 - 1 part in weight to 100 part in weight of hydrogen storage alloy. As for the organic sulfur compound, n-butylthiol, ethylthioethane, phenyldithiobenzene, trimethylsulfonium bromide, thiobenzophenone, 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride, and ethylene sulphidic acid are employed. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cell - Update II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles, compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min discharge (2X normal rate). The depth-of-discharge was 80 percent. Six 48-Ah Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells), and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The three 31 percent KOH cells failed (cycles 3729, 4165, and 11355). One of the 26 percent KOH cells failed at cycle 15314. The other two 26 percent KOH cells were cycled for over 16,000 cycles during the continuing test.

  1. Sintering of nickel catalysts. Effects of time, atmosphere, temperature, nickel-carrier interactions, and dopants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehested, Jens; Gelten, Johannes A.P.; Helveg, Stig [Haldor Topsoee A/S, Nymoellevej 55, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-08-01

    Supported nickel catalysts are widely used in the steam-reforming process for industrial scale production of hydrogen and synthesis gas. This paper provides a study of sintering in nickel-based catalysts (Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ni/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Specifically the influence of time, temperature, atmosphere, nickel-carrier interactions and dopants on the rate of sintering is considered. To probe the sintering kinetics, all catalysts were analyzed by sulfur chemisorption to determine the Ni surface area. Furthermore selected samples were further analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury porosimetry, BET area measurements, and electron microscopy (EM). The observed sintering rates as a function of time, temperature, and P{sub H{sub 2}O}/P{sub H{sub 2}} ratio were consistent with recent model predictions [J. Sehested, J.A.P. Gelten, I.N. Remediakis, H. Bengaard, J.K. Norskov, J. Catal. 223 (2004) 432] over a broad range of environmental conditions. However, exposing the catalysts to severe sintering conditions the loss of nickel surface area is faster than model predictions and the deviation is attributed to a change in the sintering mechanism and nickel removal by nickel-carrier interactions. Surprisingly, alumina-supported Ni particles grow to sizes larger than the particle size of the carrier indicating that the pore diameter does not represent an upper limit for Ni particle growth. The effects of potassium promotion and sulfur poisoning on the rates of sintering were also investigated. No significant effects of the dopants were observed after ageing at ambient pressure. However, at high pressures of steam and hydrogen (31bar and H{sub 2}O:H{sub 2}=10:1) potassium promotion increased the sintering rate relative to that of the unpromoted catalyst. Sulfur also enhances the rate of sintering at high pressures, but the effect of sulfur is less than for potassium. (author)

  2. Systemic nickel hypersensitivity and diet: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzutelli, S

    2011-02-01

    Nickel is a very common metal contained in many everyday objects and is the leading cause of ACD (Allergic Contact Dermatitis). Nickel is present in most of the constituents of a normal diet, but some food groups are usually considered to be richer. However, the nickel content of specific food can vary widely, depending on many factors. Thus, the daily intake of nickel is also highly variable both among different populations and in a single individual, in different seasons and even in different days. Measuring precisely the daily intake of nickel from food and drinks is extremely difficult, if not impossible. The relationship between ACD and contact with nickel is undisputed and widely confirmed in literature. The situation is different for systemic nickel allergy syndrome (SNAS). The SNAS can have cutaneous signs and symptoms (Systemic Contact Dermatitis or SCD) or extracutaneous signs and symptoms (gastrointestinal, respiratory, neurological, etc.).The occurrence of SCD as a systemic reaction to the nickel normally assumed in the daily diet is very controversial. A rigorous demonstration of the relationship between SCD and nickel is extremely difficult. In particular, further and larger studies are needed to assess the reality and the prevalence of nickel urticaria. With respect to nickel-related gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, headache, recurring cold sores and recurrent infections in general, the data available in literature are not conclusive and the studies lack the support of clear, first-hand evidence. With respect to respiratory disorders, the role of food nickel and the effectiveness of a dietary treatment have been assumed but not proven. In fact, the usefullness of a therapeutic low-nickel diet is controversial: rare, if not exceptional, and limited to very sporadic cases of SCD. Additionally, the quantitative and qualitative composition of a low-nickel diet presents few certainties and many uncertainties

  3. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    OpenAIRE

    LU Wenya; CHENG Xianhua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the p...

  4. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  5. An Electrochemical Investigation of Methanol Oxidation on Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Cyclic voltammetry, electrooxidation, glassy carbon electrode, methanol, nickel hydroxide nanoparticles. 1. ... substrate at room temperature without templates. Recently, we ... placed in ethanol and sonicated to remove adsorbed particles.

  6. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  7. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  8. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  9. Magnetoelectric Effect in Gallium Arsenide-Nickel-Tin-Nickel Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, D. A.; Tikhonov, A. A.; Laletin, V. M.; Firsova, T. O.; Manicheva, I. N.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental data have been presented for the magnetoelectric effect in nickel-tin-nickel multilayer structures grown on a GaAs substrate by cathodic electrodeposition. The method of fabricating these structures has been described, and the frequency dependence of the effect has been demonstrated. It has been shown that tin used as an intermediate layer reduces mechanical stresses due to the phase mismatch at the Ni-GaAs interface and, thus, makes it possible to grow good structures with a 70-μm-thick Ni layer. The grown structures offer good adhesion between layers and a high Q factor.

  10. Alloys of nickel-iron and nickel-silicon do not swell under fast neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, G.; Silvent, A.; Regnard, C.; Sainfort, G.

    1975-01-01

    This research is concerned with the effect of fast-neutron irradiation on the swelling of nickel and nickel alloys. Ni-Fe (0-60at%Fe) and Ni-Si (0-8at%Si) were studied, and the fluences were in the range 10 20 -4.3x10 22 n/cm 2 . In dilute alloys, the added elements are dissolved and reduce swelling, silicon being particularly effective. In more concentrated alloys, irradiation of Ni-Fe and Ni-Si alloys brings about the formation of plate-shaped precipitates of Ni 3 X and these alloys do not swell. (Auth.)

  11. Development of technique for AR coating and nickel and copper metallization of solar cells. FPS Project: Product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, W.

    1982-01-01

    Printed nickel overplated with copper and applied on top of a predeposited silicon nitride antireflective coating system for metallizing solar cells was analyzed. The ESL D and E paste formulations, and the new formulations F, G, H, and D-1 were evaluated. The nickel thick films were tested after firing for stability in the cleaning and plating solutions used in the Vanguard-Pacific brush plating process. It was found that the films are very sensitive to the leaning and alkaline copper solutions. Less sensitivity was displayed to the neutral copper solution. Microscopic and SEM observations show segregation of frit at the silicon nitride thick film interface with loose frit residues after lifting off plated grid lines.

  12. Charge Screening in a Charged Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a highly dense system of helium-4 nuclei and electrons in which the helium-4 nuclei have condensed. We present the condensation mechanism in the framework of low energy effective field theory and discuss the screening of electric charge in the condensate.

  13. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  14. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The microstructures of several high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography. The purposes of this study were to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels and to establish whether any additional phases were present after neutron irradiation. The nickel levels in these steels were at least twice that typically found in Western pressure vessel steels. Two different types of pressure vessel steels with low and high copper contents were selected for this study. The first set of alloys was low copper (∼0.05% Cu) base (15Ch2NMFAA) and weld (12Ch2N2MAA) materials used in a VVER-1000 reactor. The composition of the lower nickel VVER-1000 base material was Fe- 0.17 wt% C, 0.30% Si, 0.46% Mn, 2.2% Cr, 1.26% Ni, 0.05% Cu, 0.01% S, 0.008% P, 0.10% V and 0.50% Mo. The composition of the higher nickel VVER-1000 weld material was Fe- 0.06 wt % C, 0.33% Si, 0.80% Mn, 1.8% Cr, 1.78% Ni, 0.07% Cu, 0.009% S, 0.005% P, and 0.63% Mo. The VVER-1000 steels were irradiated in the HSSI Program's irradiation facilities at the University of Michigan, Ford Nuclear Reactor at a temperature of 288 o C for 2,137 h at an average flux of 7.08 x 10 11 cm 2 s -1 for a fluence of 5.45 x 10 18 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV) and for 5,340 h at an average flux of 4.33 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 for a fluence of 8.32 x 10 1 28 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). Therefore, the total fluence was 1.38 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). The second type of pressure vessel steel was a high copper (0.20% Cu) weld from the Palisades reactor. The average composition of the Palisades weld was Fe- 0.11 wt% C, 0.18% Si, 1.27% Mn, 0.04% Cr, 1.20% Ni, 0.20% Cu, 0.017% S, 0.014% P, 0.003% V and 0.55% Mn. The Palisades weld, designated weldment 'B' from weld heat 34B009, was irradiated at a temperature of 288 o C and a flux of ∼7 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 to a fast fluence of 1.4 x 10 19 n cm -2 (E >1 MeV). These three

  15. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  16. Dosimeter charging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, F.A.; Moorman, Ch.J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for charging a dosimeter which has a capacitor connected between first and second electrodes and a movable electrode in a chamber electrically connected to the first electrode. The movable electrode deflects varying amounts depending upon the charge present on said capacitor. The charger apparatus includes first and second charger electrodes couplable to the first and second dosimeter electrodes. To charge the dosimeter, it is urged downwardly into a charging socket on the charger apparatus. The second dosimeter electrode, which is the dosimeter housing, is electrically coupled to the second charger electrode through a conductive ring which is urged upwardly by a spring. As the dosimeter is urged into the socket, the ring moves downwardly, in contact with the second charger electrode. As the dosimeter is further urged downwardly, the first dosimeter electrode and first charger electrode contact one another, and an insulator post carrying the first and second charger electrodes is urged downwardly. Downward movement of the post effects the application of a charging potential between the first and second charger electrodes. After the charging potential has been applied, the dosimeter is moved further into the charging socket against the force of a relatively heavy biasing spring until the dosimeter reaches a mechanical stop in the charging socket

  17. Spacecraft Surface Charging Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Charging of Large Spwc Structure• . in Polut Otbil.’" Prweedings of thre Air For’e Grespykirs fitrano, W4r4 nop em Natural Charging of large Space Stru, ures...3, p. 1433- 1440, 1991. Bowman, C., Bogorad, A., Brucker, G., Seehra, S., and Lloyd, T., "ITO-Coated RF Transparent Materials for Antenna Sunscreen

  18. Unilateral CHARGE association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J; van Stuijvenberg, M; Dikkers, FG; Pijnenburg, MWH

    A case with a predominantly unilateral CHARGE association is reported. The CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations. This boy had left-sided anomalies consisting of choanal atresia. coloboma and peripheral facial palsy. The infant had a frontal encephalocele. an anomaly

  19. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  20. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  1. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Teh-Long; Lai, Yuan-Lung; Yu, Jen-Wei; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2009-01-01

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  2. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate and thermal conversion to nickel oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Teh-Long [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Lai, Yuan-Lung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jen-Wei [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Shu, Youn-Yuen, E-mail: shuyy@nknucc.nknu.edu.tw [Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chen-Bin, E-mail: chenbin@ccit.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University, Tahsi, Taoyuan 335, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Coralloid nanostructured nickel hydroxide hydrate has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal process using nickel sulfate hexahydrate as precursor and urea as hydrolysis-controlling agent. A pure coralloid nanostructured nickel oxide can be obtained from the nickel hydroxide hydrate after calcination at 400 deg. C. The thermal property, structure and morphology of samples were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  3. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  4. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, L.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Forensic Institute of Porto Alegre, Av. Princesa Isabel 1056, CEP 90230-010 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amaral, L. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm{sup 2}. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm{sup 2}. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  5. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.; Silva, L.M.; Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm 2 . For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm 2 . The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer

  6. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  7. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  8. Separation and Precipitation of Nickel from Acidic Sulfate Leaching Solution of Molybdenum-Nickel Black Shale by Potassium Nickel Sulfate Hexahydrate Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhigan; Wei, Chang; Fan, Gang; Li, Xingbin; Li, Minting; Li, Cunxiong

    2018-02-01

    Nickel was separated and precipitated with potassium nickel sulfate hexahydrate [K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O] from acidic sulfate solution, a leach solution from molybdenum-nickel black shale. The effects of the potassium sulfate (K2SO4) concentration, crystallization temperature, solution pH, and crystallization time on nickel(II) recovery and iron(III) precipitation were investigated, revealing that nickel and iron were separated effectively. The optimum parameters were K2SO4 concentration of 200 g/L, crystallization temperature of 10°C, solution pH of 0.5, and crystallization time of 24 h. Under these conditions, 97.6% nickel(II) was recovered as K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals while only 2.0% of the total iron(III) was precipitated. After recrystallization, 98.4% pure K2Ni(SO4)2·6H2O crystals were obtained in the solids. The mother liquor was purified by hydrolysis-precipitation followed by cooling, and more than 99.0% K2SO4 could be crystallized. A process flowsheet was developed to separate iron(III) and nickel(II) from acidic-sulfate solution.

  9. Electrochemical behavior of heavily cycled nickel electrodes in Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of charge and discharge voltage changes with cycling of Ni/H2 cells containing electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. A study has also been made of electrochemical behavior of the nickel electrodes from the cycled Ni/H2 cells as a function of overcharge amounts. Discharge voltages depressed gradually with cycling for cells having high KOH concentrations (31 to 36 percent), but the voltages increased for those having low KOH concentrations (21 to 26 percent). To determine if there was a crystallographic change of the active material due to cycling, electrochemical behavior of nickel electrodes was studied in an electrolyte flooded cell containing either 31 or 26 percent KOH electrolyte as a function of the amount of overcharge. The changes in discharge voltage appear to indicate crystal structure changes of active material from gamma-phase to beta-phase in low KOH concentrations, and vice versa in high KOH concentration.

  10. Hydrogen bond strengths in phosphorylated and sulfated amino acid residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Rapp

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification by the addition of an oxoanion functional group, usually a phosphate group and less commonly a sulfate group, leads to diverse structural and functional consequences in protein systems. Building upon previous studies of the phosphoserine residue (pSer, we address the distinct nature of hydrogen bonding interactions in phosphotyrosine (pTyr and sulfotyrosine (sTyr residues. We derive partial charges for these modified residues and then study them in the context of molecular dynamics simulation of model tripeptides and sulfated protein complexes, potentials of mean force for interacting residue pairs, and a survey of the interactions of modified residues among experimental protein structures. Overall, our findings show that for pTyr, bidentate interactions with Arg are particularly dominant, as has been previously demonstrated for pSer. sTyr interactions with Arg are significantly weaker, even as compared to the same interactions made by the Glu residue. Our work sheds light on the distinct nature of these modified tyrosine residues, and provides a physical-chemical foundation for future studies with the goal of understanding their roles in systems of biological interest.

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic analysis and electrochemical performance of modified β-nickel hydroxide electrode with CuO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shruthi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a modified β-nickel hydroxide (β-Ni(OH2 electrode material with CuO has been prepared using a co-precipitation method. The structure and property of the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR, Raman and thermal gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA techniques. The results of the FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-DTA indicate that the modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode materials contain intercalated water molecules and anions. A pasted–type electrode was prepared using nickel hydroxide powder as the main active material on a nickel sheet as a current collector. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS studies were undertaken to assess the electrochemical behavior of pure β-Ni(OH2 and modified β-Ni(OH2 electrode with CuO in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. The addition of CuO into β-nickel hydroxide was found to enhance the reversibility of the electrode reaction and also increase the separation of the oxidation current peak of the active material from the oxygen evolution current. The modified nickel hydroxide with CuO was also found to exhibit a higher proton diffusion coefficient and a lower charge transfer resistance. These findings suggest that the modified β-Ni(OH2 with CuO possesses an enhanced electrochemical response and thus can be recognized as a promising candidate for battery electrode applications.

  12. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel induces nickel allergy in mice via a MyD88-dependent and interleukin-1-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennegaard, Marie T; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Skov, Lone; Nielsen, Morten M; Schmidt, Jonas D; Bzorek, Michael; Poulsen, Steen S; Thomsen, Allan R; Woetmann, Anders; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Odum, Niels; Menné, Torkil; Geisler, Carsten; Bonefeld, Charlotte M

    2014-10-01

    Several attempts to establish a model in mice that reflects nickel allergy in humans have been made. Most models use intradermal injection of nickel in combination with adjuvant to induce nickel allergy. However, such models poorly reflect induction of nickel allergy following long-lasting epicutaneous exposure to nickel. To develop a mouse model reflecting nickel allergy in humans induced by epicutaneous exposure to nickel, and to investigate the mechanisms involved in such allergic responses. Mice were exposed to NiCl2 on the dorsal side of the ears. Inflammation was evaluated by the swelling and cell infiltration of the ears. T cell responses were determined as numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes. Localization of nickel was examined by dimethylglyoxime staining. Epicutaneous exposure to nickel results in prolonged localization of nickel in the epidermis, and induces nickel allergy in mice. The allergic response to nickel following epicutaneous exposure is MyD88-dependent and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-dependent, but independent of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. This new model for nickel allergy that reflects epicutaneous exposure to nickel in humans shows that nickel allergy is dependent on MyD88 and IL-1 receptor signalling, but independent of TLR4. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Occupational exposure to nickel, uranium and thorium in a nickel mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, A.M.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Dias da Cunha, K.; Lourenco, M.C.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Miekeley, N.T.

    2002-01-01

    The workers involved in mining and milling ores are exposed in the workplace to many hazardous agents that can cause a health detriment. In this work, the measurements obtained in a nickel mineral processing facility in the Brazilian Central-West are presented. One of the most important hazardous agents in this facility is the aerosol present in the air that contains nickel, uranium and thorium. The aerosol is inhaled or ingested, metabolised and deposited in the whole body or in specific organs. The surveillance of internal contamination of workers was performed by analysis of urine, fecal and hair samples. The ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) method was used to analytically determine nickel, uranium and thorium in these biological samples. Additional data were obtained by the collection of air samples in the workplace. A cascade impactor with six stages was used to collect mineral dust particles with an aerodynamic diameter in the range of 0.64 to 19.4 μm. The particles impacted in each stage of the cascade impactor were analysed by PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission), which permits the determination of elemental mass air concentration and the MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter). The concentrations of nickel, uranium and thorium were determined in the aerosol samples. All the results were analysed using statistical methods and biokinetical modelling was applied to evaluate the internal contamination and to make a risk estimation. (author)

  14. P-matrix description of charged particles interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V.A.; Petrov, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with formalism of the P-matrix description of two charged particles interaction. Separation in the explicit form of the background part corresponding to the purely Coulomb interaction in the P-matrix is proposed. Expressions for the purely Coulomb P-matrix, its poles, residues and purely Coulomb P-matrix approach eigenfunctions are obtained. (author). 12 refs

  15. Drinking water pollution with nickel from water boilers; Nickel-Eintrag aus Wasserkochern ins Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, E. [Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Stuttgart (Germany). Chemisches Inst.

    1998-07-01

    The EU is planning to drop the threshold value for nickel in drinking water down to 20 {mu}g/l (present German threshold value: 50 {mu}g/l). Since ICP-MS-screenings of spot checks of water cookers were striking with respect to nickel, emissions of electrical water cookers have been investigated systematically within this study. As a result, water cookers with open heating coils are emitting relevant amounts of nickel into the water while it is brought to the boil. Investigation of eight preused water cookers with open heating coils revealed that the boiled water contained more than 50 {mu}g Ni/l in one case, more than 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two cases and, between 10 and 20 {mu}g Ni/l in two more cases, respectively. Removing of the lime by the aid of citric acid is increasing the nickel concentrations by a factor of up to 50 (max. 640 {mu}g/l). A new device was checked in a long-term test. During standard use with tapwater, Ni concentrations fall below the detection limit of 5 {mu}g Ni/l (120 cooking events). However, after removing of the lime, 5 times of cooking were necessary in order to diminish the Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of dionized water Ni concentrations below the limit of 20 {mu}g/l. In the case of deionized water Ni concentrations remained between 94 und 190 {mu}g/l. Health risk assessment: The intake of nickel with beverages made from hot water out of these cookers is in the range of 26 {mu}g/day. Considering an alltogether dietary nickel intake of 130-170 (900) {mu}g/day, this is not beyond the scope. However, according to the fact that nickel allergies (dermatitis) are very frequent (up to 13% of the population), this source should be limited or closed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aus Anlass der geplanten Absenkung des Trinkwassergrenzwertes fuer Nickel auf 20 {mu}g/l sowie aufgrund von Auffaelligkeiten bei Stichprobenuntersuchungen wurde das Nickel-Emissionsverhalten von elektrischen Wassererhitzern betrachtet. Hierbei erwies sich

  16. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  17. Heavy metal residues in beef carcasses in Beni-Suef abattoir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Khalafalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 samples were collected from cattle slaughtered in the Beni-Suef abattoir in Egypt. Samples included muscle, liver and kidney. Animals were randomly selected from the slaughter line. The age of the slaughtered cattle was less than three years (18-30 months. Samples were packed separately in plastic bags, identified and stored at -18°C until analysis which was performed at the Max Rubner Institute in Kulmbach, Germany, for the following heavy metals residues: lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium and nickel in beef muscle, liver and kidney samples. The results revealed that the overall mean residual levels of lead were 8.77 µg/kg, 42.70 µg/kg and 109.42 µg/kg fresh weight in muscle, liver and kidney samples, respectively, while the mean residual levels of cadmium were 1.40 µg/kg, 14.16 µg/kg and 62.56 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the mean arsenic residual levels were 5.06 µg/kg, 4.64 µg/kg and 14.92 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean residual levels of mercury were 3.91 µg/kg, 5.81 µg/kg and 10.14 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the residual levels of chromium were 11.20 µg/kg, 21.85 µg/kg and 25.49 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. Finally, the mean residual levels of nickel were 21.17 µg/kg, 14.59 µg/kg and 34.95 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean values of all heavy metals examined were low and did not exceed the permissible limits adopted by different organisations. Most heavy metals accumulated in higher concentrations in the kidney in comparison to the liver and muscle.

  18. Residual stress measurements in the dissimilar metal weld in pressurizer safety nozzle of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.; Scaldaferri, Denis H.B.; Paula, Raphael G.; Souto, Joao P.R.S.; Carvalho Junior, Ideir T.

    2013-01-01

    Weld residual stresses have a large influence on the behavior of cracking that could possibly occur under normal operation of components. In case of an unfavorable environment, both stainless steel and nickel-based weld materials can be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Stress corrosion cracks were found in dissimilar metal welds of some pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear plants. In the nuclear reactor primary circuit the presence of tensile residual stress and corrosive environment leads to so-called Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). The PWSCC is a major safety concern in the nuclear power industry worldwide. PWSCC usually occurs on the inner surface of weld regions which come into contact with pressurized high temperature water coolant. However, it is very difficult to measure the residual stress on the inner surfaces of pipes or nozzles because of inaccessibility. A mock-up of weld parts of a pressurizer safety nozzle was fabricated. The mock-up was composed of three parts: an ASTM A508 C13 nozzle, an ASTM A276 F316L stainless steel safe-end, an AISI 316L stainless steel pipe and different filler metals of nickel alloy 82/182 and AISI 316L. This work presents the results of measurements of residual strain from the outer surface of the mock-up welded in base metals and filler metals by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. (author)

  19. Voltage and capacity stability of the Hubble telescope nickel-hydrogen battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, H. [Communications Satellite Corp., Clarksburg, MD (United States). COMSAT Labs.; Wajsgras, H. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Rao, G.M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The power system of the Ubble Space Telescope includes two orbital replacement units, each containing three nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H{sub 2}) batteries of 88 Ah capacity. Since launch in April 1990, the batteries have completed 23 000 charge and discharge cycles and continue to meet the power demands of the satellite. The voltage, capacity, and pressure characteristics of all six batteries were analyzed to determine the state of health of the battery and to identify any signs of performance degradation. The battery pressures have changed to varying degrees. The end-of-charge pressure for battery 4 increased by 96 psi, while that for battery 3 decreased by 37 psi. The voltages of the individual cells show a decay rate of 0.69 mV per 1000 cycles, and the capacity of the batteries has apparently decreased, possibly due to the system being operated at a lower stage of charge. Autonomous battery operation involving charge termination at a preselected voltage continues to restore the energy dissipated during each orbit. The accumulated data on voltages and recharge ratios can be used to design new temperature-compensated voltage levels for similar missions that employ Ni-H{sub 2} batteries. (orig.)

  20. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India); Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India). Department of Chemistry

    2004-09-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)