WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual atmosphere neutrons

  1. Atmospheric neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preszler, A.M.; Moon, S.; White, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Additional calibrations of the University of California double-scatter neutron and additional analysis corrections lead to the slightly changed neutron fluxes reported here. The theoretical angular distributions of Merker (1975) are in general agreement with our experimental fluxes but do not give the peaks for vertical upward and downward moving neutrons. The theoretical neutron escape current J 2 /sub pi/ (Merker, 1972; Armstrong et al., 1973) is in agreement with the experimental values from 10 to 100 MeV. Our experimental fluxes agree with those of the Kanbach et al. (1974) in the overlap region from 70 to 100 MeV

  2. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael; Gnaëpel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines.

  3. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  4. Residual stress measurement at Budapest Neutron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyula, T.

    2005-01-01

    The use of residual stress measurements of different construction element and recent possibilities of Budapest Neutron Centre are presented. The details investigated already: gas turbine wheel, axial compressor blade, turbine blade and plastically deformed stainless steel. We demonstrated the use of a neutron scattering (SANS, residual stress, diffraction) for the materials behavior investigation in order to analyze the processes going on under the different mechanical loading. The direction of possible instrumental development is presented. (author)

  5. Neutron diffraction residual strain / stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Residual stresses affect mechancial properties of materials and prodcuts, it is essential to estimate them practically in order to esatblish acceptable limits. Knowledge of the development of residual stresses in components at the various production stages- extrusion, rolling, machining, welding and heat treating-can be used to imporve product reliability and performance. This short article gives an example relevant to the power industry using ANSTO's 'Kowari' neutron strain scanner.

  6. Residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction method has great advantages, allowing us to determine the residual stress deep present within the bulk materials and components nondestructively. Therefore, the method has been applied to confirm the structural integrity of the actual mechanical components and structures and to improve the manufacturing process and strength reliability of the products. This article reviews the residual stress measurement methodology of neutron diffraction. It also refers to the appropriate treatments of diffraction plane, stress-free lattice spacing, coarse grain and surface error to obtain reliable results. Finally, a few applications are introduced to show the capabilities of the neutron stress measurement method for the studies on the strength and elasto-plastic behaviors of crystalline materials. (author)

  7. Development and Applications of Residual Stress Measurements Using Neutron Beams

    OpenAIRE

    ABRIOLA S. A.; BALAGUROV A.; BASHIR J.; DAS A.; EDWARDS L.; GNAEUPEL-HEROLD T.; GOH B.; IONITA I.; MIKULA P.; OHMS Carsten; PELD N.; SCHNEIDER Rainer; SUTIARSO S.; TOROK G.; VENTER A.

    2012-01-01

    The deep penetration and selective absorption of neutrons make them a powerful tool in nondestructive testing of materials with large samples or objects. Residual stress formed in a material during manufacturing, welding, utilization or repairs can be measured by means of neutron diffraction. In fact, neutron diffraction is the only non-destructive testing method, which can facilitate 3-D mapping of residual stress in a bulk component. Stress measurement using neutron beams is a technique ...

  8. Residual stresses analysis by X-ray and neutrons diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodini, A.; Perrin, M.

    1996-04-01

    This conference is composed of 17 papers grouped in 13 chapters which main themes are: advantages of neutrons and synchrotron radiation for material characterization; residual stress evaluation from micro-deformation measurements in polycrystalline materials; X-ray and neutron diffractometry; residual stress evaluation by X-ray diffraction in extreme surfaces; residual stress diffraction evaluation in monocrystalline nickel base alloys, in polyphasic materials, composite materials, thin films, multilayers and joints; application to thermonuclear reactor components

  9. The Effect of Anisotropic Scatter on Atmospheric Neutron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    THE EFFECT OF ANISOTROPIC SCATTER ON ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRON TRANSPORT THESIS MARCH 2015 Nicholas J...iii AFIT-ENP-MS-15-M-085 THE EFFECT OF ANISOTROPIC SCATTER ON ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRON TRANSPORT THESIS Presented to the...EFFECT OF ANISOTROPIC SCATTER ON ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRON TRANSPORT Nicholas J. McIntee, BSE Major, USA Committee Membership: Dr. Kirk A. Mathews

  10. Single event phenomena in atmospheric neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossett, C.A.; Hughlock, B.W.; Katoozi, M.; LaRue, G.S.; Wender, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    As integrated circuit technology achieves higher density through smaller feature sizes and as the airplane manufacturing industry integrates more sophisticated electronic components into the design of new aircraft, it has become increasingly important to evaluate the contribution of single event effects, primarily Single Event Upset (SEU), to the safety and reliability of commercial aircraft. In contrast to the effects of radiation on electronic systems in space applications for which protons and heavy ions are of major concern, in commercial aircraft applications the interactions of high energy neutrons are the dominant cause of single event effects. These high energy neutrons are produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays, principally protons and heavy ions, in the upper atmosphere. This paper will describe direct experimental measurements of neutron-induced Single Event Effect (SEE) rates in commercial high density static random access memories in a neutron environment characteristic of that at commercial airplane altitudes. The first experimental measurements testing current models for neutron-silicon burst generation rates will be presented, as well as measurements of charge collection in silicon test structures as a function of neutron energy. These are the first laboratory SEE and charge collection measurements using a particle beam having a continuum energy spectrum and with a shape nearly identical to that observed during flight

  11. Measurements of residual stresses and textures by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Many measurement methods of residual stress are compared and characteristic properties of neutron diffraction method are described. The penetration depth of neutron, photon radiation and Cu-Kα ray to metals are compared and the values of neutron are larger than others. Two kinds of measurement methods of residual stress by neutron diffraction, the angular scattering and the time of flight method, are explained. The results of measurement of residual stresses of carbon steel and titanium butt weld joint, Wasploy alloy, aluminum alloy and Incoloy 800 tube in stream generator of nuclear power plant are reported. Neutron diffraction profile of SiCp/Al2024-T6 was measured by TOF method. The textures of Zr-2.5% Nb and SUS316 steel were observed. (S.Y.)

  12. Possible standard specimens for neutron diffraction residual stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J.; Fields, R.J.; Blackburn, J.; Proctor, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, sub-surface residual stress measurements by means of neutron diffraction are being conducted at various laboratories around the world. Unlike X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement setups, neutron instruments in use worldwide vary widely in design, neutron flux, and level of dedication towards residual stress measurements. Although confidence in the neutron technique has increased within the materials science and engineering communities, no demonstration of standardization or consistency between laboratories has been made. One of the steps in the direction of such standardization is the development of standard specimens, that have well characterized residual stress states and which could be examined worldwide. In this paper the authors will examine two options for a neutron stress standard specimen: (1) a steel ring-plug specimen with very well defined diametrical interference; (2) a spot weld in a High Strength Low Alloy steel disk. The results of neutron residual stress measurements on these specimens will be discussed and conclusions as to their usefulness as neutron stress standards will be presented

  13. Frontline and future of residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Neutron diffraction method is very much effective for measurements of residual stress and texture. In this paper the present techniques for measurements of residual stress and texture are reviewed and plans of improvement of RESA in JRR-3 and Ibaraki Prefecture's Material Design Diffractometer to be installed in J-PARC are introduced. (author)

  14. Nondestructive determination of residual stresses by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, H.; Barrera, E.V.

    1993-01-01

    Nondestructive determination of residual stresses and strains in engineering materials has been limited to analytical models and near-surface measurement techniques such as x-ray diffraction and ultrasonic testing. The use of neutron diffraction for residual stress determination is similar in methodology to x-ray diffraction but provides superior analysis capability because of the lower absorption of neutrons in most materials. Neutron diffraction measurements can be made from sampling depths of several millimeters in most materials as compared to micrometer sampling depth of x-rays. This paper will discuss the principles of neutron diffraction as well as the advantages and limitations of the technique. Specific examples of residual stress measurements using conventional and time-of flight techniques will be provided

  15. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is one of the most powerful methods for condensed matter studies. This method is used for non-destructive determination of residual stresses in material. The fundamental aspects of neutron diffraction are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facility. The principal advantage of using neutrons rather than the more conventional X-rays is the fact that neutron can penetrate deeply (2-4 cm for steel and more than 10 cm for aluminium) into metals to determine internal parameters within the bulk of materials. We present results of measurements residual stresses in NPP construction material - austenitic stainless steel (Cr-18%, Ni-10%, Ti-1%) coated with high-nickel alloy. (authors)

  16. Neutron measurement of residual stresses in a used railway rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, P.J.; Low, K.S.; Mills, G.; Webster, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The high resolution neutron diffraction technique has been applied to determine, non-destructively, the residual stress distribution developed in the head of a railway rail after normal service. Measurements were made, using the neutron strain scanner at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, on a transverse slice of rail 12mm thick taken from a section of straight track. The rail head was scanned in the three principal orientations in a series of parallel traverses sufficiently close to enable a two-dimensional matrix of data to be accumulated and vertical, transverse and longitudinal residual stress contours to be drawn. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and unique characteristics of the neutron technique to determine nondestructively and continuously the residual stresses inside engineering components

  17. European standardization activities on residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Youtsos, A G

    2002-01-01

    A main objective of a recently completed European research project, RESTAND - residual stress standard using neutron diffraction, was to develop industrial confidence in the application of the neutron-diffraction technique for residual stress measurement and its principal deliverable was a relevant draft code of practice. In fact this draft standard was jointly developed within RESTAND and VAMAS TWA 20 - an international pre-normative research activity. As no such standard is yet available, on the basis of this draft standard document the European Standards Committee on Non-Destructive Testing (CEN TC/138) has established a new ad hoc Work Group (AHG7). The objective of this group is the development of a European pre-standard on a 'test method for measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction'. The document contains the proposed protocol for making the measurements. It includes the scope of the method, an outline of the technique, the calibration and measurement procedures recommended, and details of ...

  18. Neutron activation analysis for noble metals in matte leach residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the neutron activation analysis technique as a method for rapid and precise determinations of platinum group metals in matte leach residues depends on obtaining a method for effecting complete and homogeneous sample dilution. A simple method for solid dilution of metal samples is outlined in this study, which provided a basis for the accurate determination of all the noble metals by the Neutron Activation Analysis technique

  19. Neutron diffraction studies of laser welding residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Peter I.; Bokuchava, Gizo D.; Papushkin, Igor V.; Genchev, Gancho; Doynov, Nikolay; Michailov, Vesselin G.; Ormanova, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    The residual stress and microstrain distribution induced by laser beam welding of the low-alloyed C45 steel plate was investigated using high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction. The neutron diffraction experiments were performed on FSD diffractometer at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The experiments have shown that the residual stress distribution across weld seam exhibit typical alternating sign character as it was observed in our previous studies. The residual stress level is varying in the range from -60 MPa to 450 MPa. At the same time, the microstrain level exhibits sharp maxima at weld seam position with maximal level of 4.8·10-3. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with FEM calculations according to the STAAZ model. The provided numerical model validated with measured data enables to study the influence of different conditions and process parameters on the development of residual welding stresses.

  20. Steel research using neutron beam techniques. In-situ neutron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and residual stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Katsumi; Sato, Kaoru; Nakagaito, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Arakaki, Yu; Tomota, Yo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the neutron beam techniques have been applied for steel researches and industrial applications. In particular, the neutron diffraction is a powerful non-destructive method that can analyze phase transformation and residual stress inside the steel. The small-angle neutron scattering is also an effective method for the quantitative evaluation of microstructures inside the steel. In this study, in-situ neutron diffraction measurements during tensile test and heat treatment were conducted in order to investigate the deformation and transformation behaviors of TRIP steels. The small-angle neutron scattering measurements of TRIP steels were also conducted. Then, the neutron diffraction analysis was conducted on the high strength steel weld joint in order to investigate the effect of the residual stress distribution on the weld cracking. (author)

  1. Neutron diffractometer RSND for residual stress analysis at CAEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hong; Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo; Chen, Yanzhou; Pang, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Changsheng; Gong, Jian; Liu, Yaoguang

    2015-05-01

    Residual Stress Neutron Diffractometer (RSND) has been built at China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) in Mianyang. Due to its excellent flexibility, the residual stress measurement on different samples, as well as in-situ study for materials science, can be carried out through RSND. The basic tests on its intensity and resolution and some preliminary experimental results under mechanical load, demonstrate the high quality of RSND.

  2. Residual stress measurements by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintschovius, L.; Jung, V.; Macherauch, E.; Voehringer, O.

    1983-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of multiaxial residual stress states is presented, which is based on high resolution neutron diffraction. It is analogous to X-ray stress analysis, but the use of neutrons instead of X-rays allows the analysis of the stress distributions also in the interior of technical components in a non-destructive way. To prove the feasibility of the method, investigations of the loading stress distributions of an aluminium bar subjected to purely elastic bending were performed. Limiting factors due to the volume of the internal probe region and the sample thickness are discussed. Complete neutron residual stress analyses were carried out for a plastically deformed bending bar and a transformation-free water-quenched steel cylinder. The results are in fairly good agreement with theoretical expectations and with X-ray control measurements at the surface of the objects. (Auth.)

  3. Residual Stress Measurement of Titanium Casting Alloy by Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, M.; Jing, T.; Muslih, M. R.; Hanabusa, T.

    2008-03-01

    Neutron stress measurement can detect strain and stress information in deep region because of large penetration ability of neutron beams. The present paper describes procedure and results in the residual stress measurement of titanium casting alloy by neutron diffraction. In this study, the three axial method using Hooke's equation was employed for neutron stress measurement. This method was applied to the cylindrical shape sample of titanium casting alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Form the results of this study, this sample has large crystal grain in the inside whole position, it is assumed this large grain was grown up during casting manufacture process. Furthermore, the peak profile used to the stress measurement appears in very weak because of the HCP crystal system of titanium character and effect of large crystal grain. These conditions usually make difficult to measure the accuracy values of residual stresses. Therefore, it had to spend a long time to measure the satisfied data from titanium sample. Regarding to the results of stress measurement, the stress values in the cylindrical sample of three directions is almost same tendency, and residual stresses change from the compressive state in the outer part to the tensile state in the inner part gradually.

  4. Residual stress measurement of welding area by neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tamaki; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Oikawa, Hatsuhiko; Nose, Tetsuro; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Tomota, Yo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Moriai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Resistance spot welding technique is extensively applied to join the body steel sheets in the manufacturing process for the automobile industry. It is known that the fatigue crack initiates occasionally inside of the spot-welded zone in this material, which is a serious issue of the fatigue life. Although this phenomenon is supposed to be related to internal residual stress, the actual residual stress distribution inside of the spot-welded zone is not clear up to now. In this study, a neutron diffraction residual stress measurement technique with well-defined sub-mm 3 square gauge volume is applied in order to clarify the internal three dimensional residual stress distribution just below the spot-welded part of the steel sheets. (author)

  5. Opportunities for inelastic neutron scattering and residual stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.; Studer, A.J.; Cussen, L.; Kirstein, O.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Triple Axis Spectrometer (TAS) at the HIFAR reactor has recently undergone a major refurbishment consisting of the replacement of the motors and motor control system, the construction of a sample table with XYZ translation, modification of the analyser system and the installation of a multiwire position sensitive detector. This has enabled its use for both inelastic neutron scattering and residual stress measurements. This instrument will provide a facility for such fields of work within Australia until the installation of a new state-of-the-art TAS and Residual Stress diffractometer at the Replacement Research Reactor. In this talk we will describe the capabilities of the refurbished TAS and how it fits into the overall picture of neutron scattering facilities available, at present and in the future, to the Australian science community

  6. Residual stress investigations by neutron diffraction at JRC-Petten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsos, A. G.; Ohms, C.; Timke, Th.

    1997-02-01

    Reliable estimates of residual stresses based on non-destructive testing techniques have recently become an essential requirement for the efficient design of advanced materials. Over the last ten years the neutron scattering technique has been recognized as a powerful tool in the characterization of such materials. In this paper we briefly describe the neutron diffraction facilities at the high flux reactor (HFR) at Petten. Experimental data on two specimens are next presented. For the first specimen, an austenitic steel ring exhibiting sharp residual stress gradients, our findings, are compared against similar data obtained elsewhere. For the second specimen, a metal/ceramic composite, the test data, are compared against numerical results derived by numerical modelling of the composite's manufacturing process.

  7. Development and Applications of Residual Stress Measurements Using Neutron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The deep penetration and selective absorption of neutrons make them a powerful tool for the non-destructive testing of large samples of material or large objects. Residual stress that is formed in a material during manufacturing, welding, utilization or repair can be measured by means of neutron diffraction. In fact, neutron diffraction is the only non-destructive testing method which can facilitate three dimensional mapping of residual stress in a bulk component. Stress measurement using neutron beams is a technique that enables this kind of high quality non-destructive investigation, and provides insight into the material strain and stress state deep within engineering components and structures under various conditions representative of those which might be experienced in service. Such studies are of importance to improve the quality of industrial components in production and to optimize design criteria in applications. Anisotropies in macroscopic properties such as thermal and electrical conductivities, for instance of fuel elements, and mechanical properties of materials depend on the textures developed during their preparation or thermal treatment. Such textures also can be studied using neutron diffraction techniques. There is currently substantial scientific and industrial demand for high quality non-destructive residual stress measurements, and the continuing competitive drive to optimize performance and minimize weight in many applications indicates that this demand will continue to grow. As such, the neutron diffraction technique is an increasingly important tool for mechanical and materials engineering in the search for improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion. Considering this trend, and in accordance with its purpose of promoting the peaceful use of nuclear applications, in 2006-2009 the IAEA organized a Coordinated Research Project on the Development and Application of the Techniques of Residual Stress Measurements in Materials

  8. Measurements of residual radioactivity in neutron transmutation doped thermistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Camin, D.V.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1994-01-01

    Germanium wafers exposed to intense neutron beams from a nuclear reactor to produce neutron transmutation doped thermistors have been analysed for residual radioactivity in view of their application in experiments on rare decays. Measurements have been routinely carried out for more than three years with germanium spectrometers of low intrinsic radioactivity operating in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in order to suppress the background due to cosmic rays. Four long lived nuclei produced during the irradiation by the fast neutron component of the flux have been identified. It is shown that two of them will contribute considerably to the background in experiments on rare events carried out with thermal detectors, especially in the direct search of dark matter. These measurements also enable investigation of the presence of contaminants in the germanium wafer before irradiation. The sensitivity can be as low as 10 -14 g/g for some elements. ((orig.))

  9. European standardization activities on residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youtsos, A.G.; Ohms, C.

    2002-01-01

    A main objective of a recently completed European research project, RESTAND - residual stress standard using neutron diffraction, was to develop industrial confidence in the application of the neutron-diffraction technique for residual stress measurement and its principal deliverable was a relevant draft code of practice. In fact this draft standard was jointly developed within RESTAND and VAMAS TWA 20 - an international pre-normative research activity. As no such standard is yet available, on the basis of this draft standard document the European Standards Committee on Non-Destructive Testing (CEN TC/138) has established a new ad hoc Work Group (AHG7). The objective of this group is the development of a European pre-standard on a 'test method for measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction'. The document contains the proposed protocol for making the measurements. It includes the scope of the method, an outline of the technique, the calibration and measurement procedures recommended, and details of how the strain data should be analysed to calculate stresses and establish the reliability of the results obtained. (orig.)

  10. European standardization activities on residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsos, A. G.; Ohms, C.

    A main objective of a recently completed European research project, RESTAND - residual stress standard using neutron diffraction, was to develop industrial confidence in the application of the neutron-diffraction technique for residual stress measurement and its principal deliverable was a relevant draft code of practice. In fact this draft standard was jointly developed within RESTAND and VAMAS TWA 20 - an international pre-normative research activity. As no such standard is yet available, on the basis of this draft standard document the European Standards Committee on Non-Destructive Testing (CEN TC/138) has established a new ad hoc Work Group (AHG7). The objective of this group is the development of a European pre-standard on a `test method for measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction'. The document contains the proposed protocol for making the measurements. It includes the scope of the method, an outline of the technique, the calibration and measurement procedures recommended, and details of how the strain data should be analysed to calculate stresses and establish the reliability of the results obtained.

  11. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, Nobuaki

    1999-01-01

    The neutron diffraction method is used to measure the inner strain distribution of material using the penetrating power of neutron as one of the effective use of the research reactor for the study and to evaluate a correct fatigue and a lifetime. Internal residual stress measurements have attracted great interest in material science where it is especially important to know the distribution of the internal stress when we estimated the strength of construction materials or processed goods for the industrial applications. This measurement can be applied to the study of hardening of processed goods, metal fatigue, strain of welding. Conventional techniques to measure strain such as strain gauge method, optical interference fringes method, X-ray diffraction method, Raman spectroscopic analysis method, and magnetostriction method, etc. can measure the strain only near the surface of materials. On the other hand, neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis, RESA, installed at T2-1 port of JRR-3M enables us to study the internal stress non-destructively. (J.P.N.)

  12. Analysis of atmospheric particulate samples via instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) is a powerful analytical technique for the elemental characterization of atmospheric particulate samples. It is a true multielement technique with adequate sensitivity to determine 30 to 40 elements in a sample of atmospheric particulate material. Its nondestructive nature allows sample reanalysis by the same or a different analytical technique. In this paper as an example of the applicability of INAA to the study of atmospheric particulate material, a study of the emissions from municipal incinerators is described

  13. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, G.A.; Ezeilo, A.N. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  14. Principles of the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, G.A.; Ezeilo, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The presence of residual stresses in engineering components can significantly affect their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. In order to quantify their effect it is necessary to know their magnitude and distribution. Neutron diffraction is the most suitable method of obtaining these stresses non-destructively in the interior of components. In this paper the principles of the technique are described. A monochromatic beam of neutrons, or time of flight measurements, can be employed. In each case, components of strain are determined directly from changes in the lattice spacings between crystals. Residual stresses can then be calculated from these strains. The experimental procedures for making the measurements are described and precautions for achieving reliable results discussed. These include choice of crystal planes on which to make measurements, extent of masking needed to identify a suitable sampling volume, type of detector and alignment procedure. Methods of achieving a stress free reference are also considered. A selection of practical examples is included to demonstrate the success of the technique. (author) 14 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  15. Development of residual stress measurement apparatus by neutron diffraction and its application to bent carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ohkido, Shinobu; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    To establish the measuring technique of neutron diffraction for the internal residual stress distribution in a structural component, a neutron diffraction apparatus was designed and manufactured in Modified Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR3M). At the first step of measurement, a basic characteristics of the diffractometer was evaluated. The incident neutron beam flux was 10 4 n/cm 2 /sec and the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) was about 0.3 degree. This indicates that the manufactured neutron diffractometer is capable for the residual stress measurement. As the first application of the neutron diffraction measurement, the residual stress distribution in plastically bent carbon steel plate was measured. A typical compressive-tensile-compressive-tensile residual stress pattern in the tangential direction in the bent plane was confirmed. The maximum stress near the surface was about 180 MPa. This means that the technique for residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction can be established in Japan. (author)

  16. Residual strain and stress measurements by neutron diffraction in the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    The residual stress remarkably affects fracture strength, fatigue strength and stress corrosion cracking. It is very much important to measure the residual stresses in the materials in order to secure the reliability of structure. One of the big characteristics of neutron is large penetration depth. This feature enables to measure the residual strain or stress inside of structural components and machine parts. In this paper, several industrial applications of residual stress and strain measurements by neutron diffraction would be introduced. (author)

  17. Residual stress evaluation by neutron and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodini, A.

    2000-01-01

    This lecture is dedicated to the residual stress evaluation using neutron and X ray synchrotron radiation. Residual stress evaluation is an important step for the improvement or the performance of materials, the control of the deformation of the components and the understanding of industrial process. In general, residual stress has various origins: mechanical, thermal, thermomechanical or thermochemical. In general, these residual stresses are caused by plastic deformation, or some source of local incompatibilities and are generated by three fundamental physical origins: plastic flow, volume change and thermal dilatation. These incompatibilities are compensated for partly by the elastic deformation that generates some internal stresses. In the solid, these local incompatibilities are caused by crystal defects. The exact origin of a stress is going to depend on the scale of observation. A classification of the residual stresses in three orders, related to the scale on which one considers materials, is proposed. The diffraction method for determination of macrostresses is based on the measurement of interplanar spacing for various direction in a diffraction experiment. Different examples are proposed. Polycrystalline grains or composite have different physical and elastic properties hence the stress for a particular grains or phase differs from the average value (value of macrostress). This difference is defined as the second order stress. The second order stresses occur because of small scale anisotropy or inhomogeneity in the material : for example, due to mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic constants or plastic flow. However, the second order stress averaged over all grains or phase is not equal to zero and this average is called the mismatch stress. Using the experimental macro stress it is possible to calculate the mismatch stresses. More recently, this technique of diffraction has also been applied for the determination of microstrain (third

  18. The recent development of neutronic techniques for determination of residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodini, A.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a well-established non-destructive method for the measurement of residual stress deep inside materials. This paper gives a short overview of the use of neutrons for materials research and measurement techniques. Neutron diffraction has been applied in determining residual stresses in metal matrix composites. Measurement and prediction of residual stress for plastic deformation are presented. More recently, the neutron diffraction technique has also been applied for the determination of plastic strain which results from microstructural defects and leads to peak broadening. Influence of the shot penning treatment on austenitic steel is presented. (author)

  19. Mapping residual and internal stress in materials by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, Ph.J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron diffraction provides one of the few means of mapping residual stresses deep within the bulk of materials and components. This article reviews the basic scientific methodology by which internal strains and stresses are inferred from recorded diffraction peaks. Both conventional angular scans and time-of-flight measurements are reviewed and compared. Their complementarity with analogous synchrotron X-ray methods is also highlighted. For measurements to be exploited in structural integrity calculations underpinning the safe operation of engineering components, measurement standards have been defined and the major findings are summarised. Examples are used to highlight the unique capabilities of the method showing how it can provide insights ranging from the basic physics of slip mechanisms in hexagonal polycrystalline materials, through the materials optimisation of stress induced transformations in smart nano-materials, to the industrial introduction of novel friction welding processes exploiting stress residual measurements transferred from prototype sub-scale tests to the joining of full-scale aero-engine assemblies. (author)

  20. Mapping residual and internal stress in materials by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Philip J.

    2007-09-01

    Neutron diffraction provides one of the few means of mapping residual stresses deep within the bulk of materials and components. This article reviews the basic scientific methodology by which internal strains and stresses are inferred from recorded diffraction peaks. Both conventional angular scans and time-of-flight measurements are reviewed and compared. Their complementarity with analogous synchrotron X-ray methods is also highlighted. For measurements to be exploited in structural integrity calculations underpinning the safe operation of engineering components, measurement standards have been defined and the major findings are summarised. Examples are used to highlight the unique capabilities of the method showing how it can provide insights ranging from the basic physics of slip mechanisms in hexagonal polycrystalline materials, through the materials optimisation of stress induced transformations in smart nanomaterials, to the industrial introduction of novel friction welding processes exploiting stress residual measurements transferred from prototype sub-scale tests to the joining of full-scale aeroengine assemblies. To cite this article: P.J. Withers, C. R. Physique 8 (2007).

  1. Hydrocracking of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ts Tugsuu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many catalytic processes to refine heavy part of crude oil have attracted much interest due to declining reserves of light crude oils. This study focused on hydrocracking process of atmospheric distillable residue of Mongolian crude oil in the first time compared to those of other countries. Residue samples were hydrocracked with a commercial catalyst at 450°C, 460°C, 470°C for 2 h under hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa. The amount of residual fraction (350°Catmospheric distillable residue from Tamsagbulag crude oil. When the ME-AR was hydrocracked, the high consumption of hydrogen was related to the lowest H/C atomic ratio of feed atmospheric residue. The amount of liquid fractions (BP<350°C including gaseous products increased from 45.4wt% to 89.2wt%, when the reaction temperature increased from 450°C to 470°C. The highest yield of the middle fraction for each sample was observed at temperature of 460°C. On the other hand, the effect of temperature on the yield of middle fraction was not so high as compared with the yields of other fractions. The contents of n-paraffins on midlle and heavy fractions of TB-AR, DQ-AR were similar, but ME-AR’s was around 2 times lower than other after hydrocracking runs.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.166 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 24-28 

  2. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  3. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress in a powder metallurgy component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.C.R.; Hainsworth, S.V.; Cocks, A.C.F.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stresses in a typical industrial green component were determined using neutron diffraction. The measured residual stresses were found to correlate with cross-sectional variations. Residual stress at the edge of the compact in contact with the die wall during compaction reached up to +80 MPa (tension) and -100 MPa (compression)

  4. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  5. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Stegemann@bam.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  6. Residual stress measurement of the jacket material for ITER coil by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Nickel-Iron based super alloy INCOLOY 908 is used for the jacket of a central solenoid coil (CS coil) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). INCOLOY 908, however, has a possibility of fracture due to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO) under a tensile residual stress beyond 200MPa. Therefore it is necessary to measure the residual stress of the jacket to avoid SAGBO. We performed residual stress measurement of the jacket by neutron diffraction using the neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis (RESA) installed at JRR-3M in JAERI. A sample depth dependence of internal strain was obtained from the (111) plane spacing. A residual stress distribution was calculated from the strain using Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio that were evaluated by a tensile test with neutron diffraction. The result shows that the tensile residual stress exceeds 200MPa of the SAGBO condition in some regions inside the jacket. (author)

  7. Residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction inside a steel bar quenched after induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Harukiyo; Tomota, Yo; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Kawasaki, Kazuhiro; Moriai, Atsushi; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    The residual stress of a quenched steel bar with induction heating was measured by neutron diffraction. The conventional X-ray sin 2 ψ method was also used and three dimensional stress condition was estimated from plane-stress data obtained by a progressive polishing technique. Good agreements were found between the results by the neutron and X-ray methods. Improvements of the neutron stress measurement discussed. (author)

  8. On the reliability of neutron diffraction for residual stress measurement in cold-drawn steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Hervias, J; Atienza, J M; Mompean, F; Hofmann, M

    2011-01-01

    Residual strains were measured in the ferrite phase of pearlitic steel rods along the radial, axial and hoop directions. Two samples with different initial diameters were subjected to one drawing pass (using same drawing parameters) with 20% section reduction and measured in two different neutron diffraction instruments. The results show that the residual strain state is very similar in both cases, regardless of the diameter of the initial rod. This means that the final residual strain-stress state is unique and it is related to the cold-drawing process parameters. In addition, the results show the reliability of strain scanning with different neutron instruments and experimental conditions.

  9. Residual Stress Distribution in Carbon Steel Pipe Welded Joint Measured by Neutron Diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto, HAYASHI; Masayuki, ISHIWATA; Yukio, MORII; Nobuaki, MINAKAWA; ROOT, John H.; Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd.,; Nuclear Engineering Division, Hitachi Ltd.,; Tokai Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute; Tokai Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute; National Research Council of Canada

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate crack growth behavior of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in pipes, the residual stress distribution near the pipe weld region has to be measured through the wall thickness.Since the penetration depth of neutron is deep enough to pass through the thick pipe wall, the neutron diffraction technique for the residual stress measurement is effective for this purpose.At the first step the residual stress distribution near the weld region in a butt-welded carbon steel pipe ...

  10. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joint measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate crack growth behavior of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking in pipes, the residual stress distribution near the pipe weld region has to be measured through the wall thickness. Since the penetration depth of neutron is deep enough to pass through the thick pipe wall, the neutron diffraction technique for the residual stress measurement is effective for this purpose. At the first step the residual stress distribution near the weld region in a butt-welded carbon steel pipe was measured by the neutron diffraction. Significant stresses extended only to a distance of 30 mm from the center of the weld. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa through the thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 50 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. The comparison of residual stress distributions measured by the neutron diffraction, the X-ray diffraction and the strain gauge method reveals that the neutron diffraction is the most effective for measuring the residual stress inside the structural components. (author)

  11. Measurement of residual stress in a friction welded joint by using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Morii, Yukio; Hayashi, Makoto; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism that produces residual stress near the boundary of two metals connected by friction welding was investigated by neutron diffraction. This investigation showed that the residual stress near the boundary of friction welding was compressive (about 300 MPa) at the surface and tensile (about 200 MPa) at the center of the welded specimen. These results indicate that the residual stress was produced by the heat history during cooling after the upsetting process. (author)

  12. Neutron diffraction analysis of residual stresses near unannealed welds in anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A T; Chumbley, L S; Goettee, D; Russell, A M

    2014-01-01

    Neutron diffraction analysis was employed to measure residual stresses near welds in used anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks. Tensile residual stresses contribute to stress corrosion cracking of nurse tanks, which can cause tanks to release toxic ammonia vapor. The analysis showed that tensile residual stresses were present in the tanks measured, and the magnitudes of these stresses approached the yield strength of the steel. Implications for agricultural safety and health are discussed.

  13. A study on the neoasozine residues in rice grain by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Lee, K.J.; Lee, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    Residues of neoasozine in rice grain were determined by neutron activation and colorimetric techniques. Twice application of the chemical before flowering did not lead to any increased residue level while 4-times application resulted in significant increase in the residue level up to 0.54 - 0.75 mg As 2 O 3 /kg. The partition ratio of arsenic residues into polished rice grain and bran was 73 : 27 in 100 % polishing while most of the residues in the bran was transferred to oil cake fraction during solvent extraction, reaching up to 2.9 mg As 2 O 3 /kg. The neutron activation technique was advantageous because of its high sensitivity and the smaller sample amounts required for analysis. (author)

  14. Residual Stress Analysis in Deep Drawn Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) Steels Using Neutron Diffraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokmin; Lee, Junghoon; Lee, Sunghak; Woo, Wanchuck; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2014-04-01

    In Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels, delayed fracture occurs due to residual stresses induced during deep drawing. In order to investigate the relation between residual stresses and delayed fracture, in the present study, residual stresses of deep drawn TWIP steels (22Mn-0.6C and 18Mn-2Al-0.6C steels) were investigated using the finite element method (FEM) and neutron diffraction measurements. In addition, the delayed fracture properties were examined by dipping tests of cup specimens in the boiled water. In the FEM analysis, the hoop direction residual stress was highly tensile at cup edge, and the delayed fracture was initiated by the separation of hoop direction and propagated in an axial direction. According to the neutron diffraction analysis, residual stresses in 18Mn-2Al-0.6C steel were about half the residual stresses in 22Mn-0.6C steel. From the residual strain measurement using electron back-scatter diffraction, formation of deformation twins caused a lot of grain rotation and local strain at the grain boundaries and twin boundaries. These local residual strains induce residual stress at boundaries. Al addition in TWIP steels restrained the formation of deformation twins and dynamic strain aging, resulting in more homogeneous stress and strain distributions in cup specimens. Thus, in Al-added TWIP steels, residual stress of cup specimen considerably decreased, and delayed fracture resistance was remarkably improved by the addition of Al in TWIP steels.

  15. Through-thickness Residual Stress Measurement by Neutron Diffraction in Cu+W Plasma Spray Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luzin, V.; Matějíček, Jiří; Gnäupel-Herold, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 652 (2010), s. 50-56 ISSN 1662-9752. [International Conference on Mechanical Stress Evaluation by Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation/5th./. Mito, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion materials * plasma sprayed coatings * residual stress * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://www.scientific.net/MSF.652.50

  16. Internet-Based Remote Collaboration at the Neutron Residual Stress Facility at HFIR

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, M. C.; Hubbard, C. R.; Lenarduzzi, R.; Rome, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Neutron Residual Stress Facility (NRSF) at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is being significantly upgraded in conjunction with the upgrade of the HFIR and associated neutron scattering facilities. We have rewritten the LabVIEW-based data acquisition and control software for the NRSF to provide much greater flexibility in operation of the new equipment and to allow remote control over the Internet. The user interface is dynamically adapted to the specifics of each instrument based ...

  17. Design, simulation and test for double focusing Si monochromator of neutron residual stress diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Rui; Liu Yuntao; Wang Wei; Liu Zhongxiao; Li Junhong; Gao Jianbo; Wang Hongli; Chen Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    The double focusing Si monochromator was designed, simulated and tested for the neutron residual stress diffractometer on China Advanced Research Reactor. The optimal vertical curvature and the optimal thickness of Si wafers were obtained by SIMRES simulation program. In addition, the figure of merit in dependence on the scattering angle, monochromator horizontal curvature and wavelength was also determined by this program. The neutron beam test results indicate that the intensity of neutron increases by 15 times by using double focusing Si monochromator in comparison with Cu monochromator. (authors)

  18. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the level of residual stresses induced by the surfacing in the weld deposit zone and in the base metal, where considerable thermal gradients are present. Surfacing high-nickel filler on an austenitic base metal is one of techniques in repair of primary collector the primary circuit of nuclear power plant type VVER. The repair technology was developed at Welding Research Institute Bratislava. Measurements of residual stresses in the weld overlay and the base metal are necessary for approving the mechanical analysis and verifying of residual stresses determination on welded material by numerical weld g computer simulation. Investigations of residual stresses are important for developing optimal welding techniques. (authors)

  19. Single event upset in static random access memories in atmospheric neutron environments

    CERN Document Server

    Arita, Y; Ogawa, I; Kishimoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) in a 0.4 mu m 4Mbit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) static random access memory (SRAM) were investigated in various atmospheric neutron environments at sea level, at an altitude of 2612 m mountain, at an altitude of commercial airplane, and at an underground depth of 476m. Neutron-induced SEUs increase with the increase in altitude. For a device with a borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) film, SEU rates induced by thermal neutrons increase with the decrease in the cell charge of a memory cell. A thermal neutron-induced SEU is significant in SRAMs with a small cell charge. With the conditions of small cell charge, thermal neutron-induced SEUs account for 60% or more of the total neutron-induced SEUs. The SEU rate induced by atmospheric thermal neutrons can be estimated by an acceleration test using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf. (author)

  20. Neutron Diffraction Evaluation of Near Surface Residual Stresses at Welds in 1300 MPa Yield Strength Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Harati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of residual stress in the weld toe region is of critical importance. In this paper, the residual stress distribution both near the surface and in depth around the weld toe was investigated using neutron diffraction, complemented with X-ray diffraction. Measurements were done on a 1300 MPa yield strength steel welded using a Low Transformation Temperature (LTT consumable. Near surface residual stresses, as close as 39 µm below the surface, were measured using neutron diffraction and evaluated by applying a near surface data correction technique. Very steep surface stress gradients within 0.5 mm of the surface were found both at the weld toe and 2 mm into the heat affected zone (HAZ. Neutron results showed that the LTT consumable was capable of inducing near surface compressive residual stresses in all directions at the weld toe. It is concluded that there are very steep stress gradients both transverse to the weld toe line and in the depth direction, at the weld toe in LTT welds. Residual stress in the base material a few millimeters from the weld toe can be very different from the stress at the weld toe. Care must, therefore, be exercised when relating the residual stress to fatigue strength in LTT welds.

  1. Neutron Diffraction Evaluation of Near Surface Residual Stresses at Welds in 1300 MPa Yield Strength Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Ebrahim; Karlsson, Leif; Svensson, Lars-Erik; Pirling, Thilo; Dalaei, Kamellia

    2017-05-29

    Evaluation of residual stress in the weld toe region is of critical importance. In this paper, the residual stress distribution both near the surface and in depth around the weld toe was investigated using neutron diffraction, complemented with X-ray diffraction. Measurements were done on a 1300 MPa yield strength steel welded using a Low Transformation Temperature (LTT) consumable. Near surface residual stresses, as close as 39 µm below the surface, were measured using neutron diffraction and evaluated by applying a near surface data correction technique. Very steep surface stress gradients within 0.5 mm of the surface were found both at the weld toe and 2 mm into the heat affected zone (HAZ). Neutron results showed that the LTT consumable was capable of inducing near surface compressive residual stresses in all directions at the weld toe. It is concluded that there are very steep stress gradients both transverse to the weld toe line and in the depth direction, at the weld toe in LTT welds. Residual stress in the base material a few millimeters from the weld toe can be very different from the stress at the weld toe. Care must, therefore, be exercised when relating the residual stress to fatigue strength in LTT welds.

  2. Comparison of neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements of residual stress in bead-on-plate weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, A.M.; Price, J.W.; Finlayson, T.R.; Lienert, U.; Ibrahim, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of neutron and synchrotron diffractions for the evaluation of residual stresses in welded components. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve very good agreement between the two independent diffraction techniques. This study shows the significance of the weld start and end sites on the residual strain/stress distribution. Quantitative evaluation of the residual stress development process for multibead weldments has been presented. Some measurements were also taken before and after postweld stress relieving to establish the reduction and redistribution of the residual stress. The detailed measurements of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of residual stress in welded components.

  3. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in a 50 mm thick weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Wanchuck; Em, Vyacheslav; Mikula, Pavel; An, Gyu-Baek; Seong, Baek-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Determined residual stresses through the thickness of the 50 mm thick weld. → Two-dimensional mapping of the longitudinal stress. Observed significant stresses along the heat-affected zone. → Measured the maximum stress of 460 MPa at 40 mm below from the top surface. - Abstract: Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a 50 mm thick ferrite steel weld plate using neutron diffraction. Whereas the limiting penetration depth for iron-based alloys is about 25 mm in the most typical neutron diffractometers, we significantly enhanced the penetration depth up to 50 mm with 2 mm spatial resolution by using the neutron wavelength of 2.39 A. The selected wavelength minimizes the total neutron cross-section and beam attenuation, thereby, maximizes the neutron fluxes at depth. Two-dimensional mapping of the residual stresses shows that significant amounts of the tensile longitudinal stresses (over 90% of yield strength) were developed along the heat-affected zone of the weld.

  4. Residual stresses in cold-coiled helical compression springs for automotive suspensions measured by neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Brand, P. C.; Drews, A. R.; Krause, A.; Lowe-Ma, C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 367, 1-2 (2004), s. 306-311 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : residual stress, automotive springs, neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  5. Residual stresses determination by neutron diffraction in a 100Cr6 chromium steel bearing ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rogante, M.; Martinat, G.; Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2013), s. 275-281 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 100Cr6 steel * rings * martensitic hardening * tempering * residual stress es * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.546, year: 2013

  6. design and Application of Neutron Residual Stress Diffractometer for China Advanced Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junhong; Gao Jianbo; Li Jizhou; Han Songbai; Zu Yong; Liu Rongdeng; Liu Xiaolong; Liu Yuntao; Chen dongfeng

    2010-01-01

    The neutron residual stress diffractometer for China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) is the first instrument in China for the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction method. Its sample table and some affiliated equipment were relocated from Sweden. According to the situation of CARR, the conceptional and physical design and mechanism fabrication were finished. Now the whole instrument is going to be put in commissioning. The take-off angle of new monochromator's shielding could be continuously changeable from 41 degree to 109 degree. The position of monochromator could be adjusted conveniently and flexibly by a five axis table. The resolution of this diffractometer could reach 0.2% using the double focusing Si(311) monochromator. The technical specification of one dimension neutron position sensitive detector ORDELA 1128N is better than that of ORDELA 1150N used on REST. The various affiliated equipment of instrument enable the diffractometer to measure the texture and tensional experiment in situ. (authors)

  7. Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J

    2002-01-01

    Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)

  8. Residual stress distribution in steel butt welds measured using neutron and synchrotron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, A M; Price, J W H; Finlayson, T R; Lienert, U; Walls, P; Ibrahim, R

    2009-03-25

    70 keV synchrotron radiation and thermal neutrons have been employed to investigate the residual stress characteristics in a fully restrained, steel, butt weld. The focus is on the values of the subsurface and through-thickness strain/stress variation in the middle of the weld. The advantages and limitations of the techniques have been addressed, in relation to the gauge volume, the stress-free reference sample and positioning. The measurement of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improves the resolution at which residual stress in welded components has been determined.

  9. Neutron and X-ray residual stress measurements of WC-Co alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kamiyama, Takashi [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science

    2001-07-01

    As cemented carbides composed of metal carbides and pure metals had low deformation and excellent abrasion resistance at high temperature, they are used for various kinds of machining tools. As WC-Co is a typical cemented carbides, some residual stress when sintering a mixed molding of powdered WC and Co at 1400 to 1450 centigrade were introduced into the alloy, to largely affect strength of its materials. In this study, by using WC-Co alloys with various Co contents, thermal residual stress at each composing phase was tested by using X-ray and neutron methods, to investigate on effect of the Co content on the residual stress. And, a comparison with forecasting values using intercalated matters theory was also investigated. As a result, it was found that on the X-ray method, as thermal compressive residual stress increased with increase of content in Co phase, at more than 23.6 % it reduced and residual stress on vertical direction of specimen surface was nearly zero. And, it was also found that on neutron diffraction using angular dispersion method, residual stress in WC phase well agreed with forecasting value using the intercalated matters theory. Furthermore, it was also found that residual stress, when compensated by tested results of WC phase on 36.9 % material obtained by the angular dispersion method, showed good agreement with the forecasting values without relation to its testing methods. (G.K.)

  10. Neutron and X-ray residual stress measurements of WC-Co alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    As cemented carbides composed of metal carbides and pure metals had low deformation and excellent abrasion resistance at high temperature, they are used for various kinds of machining tools. As WC-Co is a typical cemented carbides, some residual stress when sintering a mixed molding of powdered WC and Co at 1400 to 1450 centigrade were introduced into the alloy, to largely affect strength of its materials. In this study, by using WC-Co alloys with various Co contents, thermal residual stress at each composing phase was tested by using X-ray and neutron methods, to investigate on effect of the Co content on the residual stress. And, a comparison with forecasting values using intercalated matters theory was also investigated. As a result, it was found that on the X-ray method, as thermal compressive residual stress increased with increase of content in Co phase, at more than 23.6 % it reduced and residual stress on vertical direction of specimen surface was nearly zero. And, it was also found that on neutron diffraction using angular dispersion method, residual stress in WC phase well agreed with forecasting value using the intercalated matters theory. Furthermore, it was also found that residual stress, when compensated by tested results of WC phase on 36.9 % material obtained by the angular dispersion method, showed good agreement with the forecasting values without relation to its testing methods. (G.K.)

  11. Residual stress evaluation of quenched steel by neutron diffraction measurement and phase transformation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Ryuji; Ju, Dong Yong; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio; Moriai, Atsushi

    2004-01-01

    Neutron diffraction method is employed to measure the residual stress inside of quenched steel. To determine the residual stress, it is necessary to know the non-distortion lattice spacing and elastic constant of the material depending on gradient distribution of microstructure and carbon content. In this paper, metallo-thermo-mechanical simulation by finite element method is performed to estimate the distribution of martensite phase and carbon content. Non-distortion lattice spacing. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio were measured in order to measure the residual stress of test piece of quenching. These values are decided by the distribution of carbon content and marten-site phase. After that, the residual stresses in cylinder specimen of quenched S45C and SCr420 steel are measured by the neutron diffraction method. In addition, the measured results of XRD, neutron diffraction as well as calculated value are compared and discussed. As the result, the non-distortion lattice spacing depend on martensite phase are verified. It is feasible to evaluate the residual stress inside of the quenching material combing with measured results and simulation values. (author)

  12. Measurement of residual stress in textured Al alloy by neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, S.; Hayashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Akiniwa, Y.; Minakawa, N.; Morii, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Residual stress generated in a shrunken aluminum alloy specimen, which was prepared for the round robin test conducted by VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) TWA-20 organized for the purpose of standardizing residual stress measurement methods, was evaluated by a neutron diffraction method. The main purpose of the round robin test was to assess the reproducibility of data obtained with the measurement facilities of the participants. The general standard of the Residual Stress Analyzer (RESA) constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was verified from the measured residual strains, which were equivalent to the values calculated by FEM and values measured by the research facilities in North America. Residual stress was calculated from residual strain in three perpendicular directions. The diffraction intensities were dependent on measurement directions since the prepared specimen possessed texture. Diffraction profiles in directions having a weak diffraction intensity caused an inaccurate evaluation of the residual stress. To solve this problem, a new method for evaluating residual stress with respect to diffraction plane dependency of the elastic constant was applied. The diffraction plane giving the highest intensity among 110, 200, and 220 diffraction was used to evaluate the residual strain in each of three directions. The residual strain obtained on the used diffraction plane was converted to the equivalent strain for the defined diffraction plane using the ratio of elastic constants of these two planes. The developed evaluation method achieved highly accurate measurement and remarkable efficiency in the measurement process. (author)

  13. Experimental determination of residual stress by neutron diffraction in a boiling water reactor core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payzant, A.; Spooner, S.; Zhu, Xiaojing; Hubbard, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Residual strains in a 51 mm (2-inch) thick 304L stainless steel plate have been measured by neutron diffraction and interpreted in terms of residual stress. The plate, measuring (300 mm) in area, was removed from a 6m (20-ft.) diameter unirradiated boiling water reactor core shroud, and included a multiple-pass horizontal weld which joined two of the cylindrical shells which comprise the core shroud. Residual stress mapping was undertaken in the heat affected zone, concentrating on the outside half of the plate thickness. Variations in residual stresses with location appeared consistent with trends expected from finite element calculations, considering that a large fraction of the residual hoop stress was released upon removal of the plate from the core shroud cylinder

  14. Application of neutron diffraction to measure residual strains in high temperature composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigal, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental neutron diffraction technique was used to measure residual thermal strains developed in high temperature composites during postfabrication cooling. Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide (over the temperature range 20--950 degree C) and tungsten and saphikon fiber-reinforced nickel aluminide composites (at room temperature) were investigated. As a result of thermal expansion mismatch, compressive residual strains and stresses were generated in the silicon carbide fibers during cooldown. The axial residual strains were tensile in the matrix and were lower in nickel aluminide matrix as compared to those in titanium aluminide matrix. The average transverse residual strains in the matrix were compressive. Liquid-nitrogen dipping and thermal-cycling tend to reduce the fabrication-induced residual strains in silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium aluminide matrix composite. However, matrix cracking can occur as a result of these processes. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Radiation dosimetry by neutron or X ray fluorescence activation of residual silver in ionographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, C.

    1987-01-01

    A global measuring technique which is sensitive enough to detect small silver contents in films for dosimetry applications is presented. The applications studied are neutron dosimetry by measuring residual silver due to recoil protons in developed emulsions and high dose dosimetry by the detection of photolytic silver in fixed emulsions. An individual fast neutron dosimeter which can be used in radiation protection was developed, along with an automatic data analysis and readout system. Application of this technique to the measurement of high radiation doses (100 to 1 million Gy) via the measurement of photolytic silver in fixed, but undeveloped, emulsions confirms the usefulness of the method [fr

  16. Characteristic and principle of the residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiniwa, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Although X-ray method has been widely used as the nondestructive measurement method of residual stress, the object to be measured with laboratory X-ray was limited to the vicinity of surface, and the nondestructive measurement of stress inside an essential component could not be performed. Since the neutron method utilizes the wave characteristics of electrically neutral particles, the penetrability is excellent so that information up to the inside of a material can be obtained sufficiently. As the feature of neutron stress measurement, it is suitable for measurement inside metals such as iron and aluminum, which cannot be measured with X-rays. For the measurement of residual stress in localized region, the use of high energy synchrotron radiation is advantageous. In the stress measurement utilizing diffraction phenomena, there is the strain calculated from a change in diffraction lattice spacing. The measured strain is converted into stress using Hooke's Law. As the measurement examples of neutron stress evaluation, the following are introduced: (1) residual stress distribution around the ferrite steel (50 mm thick) welded joint of a large-sized structure, (2) residual stress due to the heat treatment of aluminum alloy with a plate thickness of 20 to 140 mm, and (3) change in the strain of aluminum die block in the vicinity of a cast iron cylinder liner of engine, when heating/cooling up to 470degC. (A.O.)

  17. Residual stress distribution in carbon steel pipe welded joints measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki.

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distributions in a 4 inch diameter carbon steel pipe welded joint were measured by neutron diffraction technique. The results showed that the residual stress distributed near the weld metal, namely within about 30mm. The major tensile stresses occurred in the hoop direction in the fusion and heat affected zones of the weldment, and they attained a level greater than 200 MPa throughout the pipe wall thickness. While the axial residual stress at the inside surface was 40 MPa, the stress at the outside surface was -100 MPa. These residual stress distributions were compared with those measured by the X-ray diffraction technique and strain gauge method, and they agreed with each other. (author)

  18. Residual stresses in LENS[reg] components using neutron diffraction and contour method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangaswamy, P.; Griffith, M.L.; Prime, M.B.; Holden, T.M.; Rogge, R.B.; Edwards, J.M.; Sebring, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    During manufacturing of components by laser engineered net shaping (LENS[reg]), a solid freeform fabrication process, the introduction of residual stresses causes deformation or in the worst case, cracking. The origin is attributed to thermal transients encountered during solidification. In the absence of reliable predictive models for the residual stresses, measurements are necessary. Residual stresses were measured in LENS[reg] samples of 316 stainless steel and Inconel 718 having simple geometrical shapes by both neutron diffraction and the contour methods. The results by the two methods are compared and discussed in the context of the growth direction during the LENS[reg] process. Surprisingly, the residual stresses are practically uni-axial, with high stresses in the growth direction

  19. Residual stresses measurement by neutron diffraction and theoretical estimation in a single weld bead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, John W.H.; Paradowska, Anna; Joshi, Suraj; Finlayson, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Welding residual stresses are important in pressure vessel and structural applications. However, residual stress remains the single largest unknown in industrial damage situations. They are difficult to measure or theoretically estimate and are often significant when compared with the in-service stresses on which they superimpose. High residual stresses lead to loss of performance in corrosion, fatigue and fracture. In this research, a measurement of residual stress by the neutron diffraction technique is compared to an analysis of the same geometry by theoretical finite element procedures. The results indicate good agreement but scope for further understanding of the details of modelling the welding heat source, heat transfer and variation of material properties with temperature

  20. Type I and type II residual stress in iron meteorites determined by neutron diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, Stefano; Pratesi, Giovanni; Kabra, Saurabh; Grazzi, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    In this work we present a preliminary investigation by means of neutron diffraction experiment to determine the residual stress state in three different iron meteorites (Chinga, Sikhote Alin and Nantan). Because of the very peculiar microstructural characteristic of this class of samples, all the systematic effects related to the measuring procedure - such as crystallite size and composition - were taken into account and a clear differentiation in the statistical distribution of residual stress in coarse and fine grained meteorites were highlighted. Moreover, the residual stress state was statistically analysed in three orthogonal directions finding evidence of the existence of both type I and type II residual stress components. Finally, the application of von Mises approach allowed to determine the distribution of type II stress.

  1. Neutron diffraction analysis of residual strain/stress distribution in the vicinity of high strength welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamák I.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses resulting from non homogeneous heat distribution during welding process belong to most significant factor influencing behavior of welded structures. These stresses are responsible for defect occurrence during welding and they are also responsible for crack initiation and propagation at the either static or dynamic load. The significant effect of weld metal chemical composition as well as the effect of fatigue load and local plastic deformation on residual stress distribution and fatigue life have been recognized for high strength steels welds. The changes in residual stress distribution have then positive effect on cold cracking behavior and also on fatigue properties of the welds [1-3]. Several experimental methods, both destructive and non-destructive, such as hole drilling method, X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and others, have been used to examine residual stress distribution in all three significant orientations in the vicinity of the welds. The present contribution summarizes the results of neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in the vicinity of single-pass high-strength-steel welds having different chemical composition as well as the influence of fatigue load and local plastic deformation. It has been observed that the chemical composition of the weld metal has a significant influence on the stress distribution around the weld. Similarly, by aplying both cyclic load or pre-stress load on the specimens, stress relaxation was observed even in the region of approximately 40 mm far from the weld toe.

  2. Determination of residual stresses in autofrettaged steel tubes by neutron and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintschovius, L.; Macherauch, E.; Scholtes, B.

    1986-01-01

    The residual stress state of an autofrettaged 30 CrNiMo 8 steel tube has been investigated by neutron and X-ray diffraction. The results of X-ray measurements on the face of a ring cut out of the tube agree well with the neutron results obtained on the central part of an unmachined specimen. The experimentally determined residual stress distributions resemble only to a first approximation that expected from theoretical estimations. As expected, the tangential stress component at the inner diameter was found to be largest and is compressive. However, the distributions of the tangential and radial residual stress components show large deviations from the expected values. The differences between experiment and theory are probably due to neglecting the Bauschinger effect, the decarburization of the surface layers and the residual stresses produced by an alignment procedure before the autofrettage process. Annealing the tube for 1 h at 450 0 C has little effect on the residual stress distribution, except for a reduction in the steep gradient of the tangential stress component close to the inner surface. (orig.)

  3. FEM Analysis and Measurement of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction on the Dissimilar Overlay Weld Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Lee, Ho Jin; Woo, Wan Chuck; Seong, Baek Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jin Gwi; Park, Kwang Soo; Jung, In Chul [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Much research has been done to estimate the residual stress on a dissimilar metal weld. There are many methods to estimate the weld residual stress and FEM (Finite Element Method) is generally used due to the advantage of the parametric study. And the X-ray method and a Hole Drilling technique for an experimental method are also usually used. The aim of this paper is to develop the appropriate FEM model to estimate the residual stresses of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe. For this, firstly, the specimen of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was manufactured. The SA 508 Gr3 nozzle, the SA 182 safe end and SA376 pipe were welded by the Alloy 182. And the overlay weld by the Alloy 52M was performed. The residual stress of this specimen was measured by using the Neutron Diffraction device in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) research reactor, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Secondly, FEM Model on the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was made and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code (ABAQUS, 2004). Thermal analysis and stress analysis were performed, and the residual stress was calculated. Thirdly, the results of the FEM analysis were compared with those of the experimental methods

  4. Residual Stress Distribution In Heat Affected Zone Of Welded Steel By Means Of Neutron Diffraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajar, Andika; Prasuad; Gunawan; Muslich, M. Rifai

    1996-01-01

    Three dimensional residual stress distribution in the heat affected zone of 10 mm thick welded steel by means of neutron diffraction technique has been measured. The results showed that the residual stress was distributed near the welded metal, namely within about 46,25 mm. The major tensile stresses occurred in the X-direction, and they attained a level greater than 2000 MPa through the position far away fram the weld. The tensile stresses in the Y and Z- directions lied between 500 and 1500 MPa, The results also suggest that the stress in the surface was greater than that in the middle of the sample

  5. Development of procedures for the measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    2002-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a non-destructive method for determining residual stresses in crystalline materials. It is a relatively new technique and no standard is currently available for making these measurements. This paper gives the background to research that has been carried out to develop a standard. It outlines the main findings and indicates the precautions that are required to achieve accurate positioning and alignment of specimens (and components) in a neutron beam and the analysis required to obtain reliable results. It also shows that special attention is needed in dealing with near-surface measurements because of surface aberration. It is demonstrated that, provided the recommended procedures are followed, a positional tolerance of +-0.1 mm can be achieved with an accuracy in strain of propor to 10 sup - sup 4 , to give a resolution in residual stress of propor to 7 to 20 MPa in most materials of practical interest. (orig.)

  6. Neutron diffraction measurements and modeling of residual strains in metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, A.; Leisk, G. G.; Hubbard, C. R.; Misture, S. T.; Wang, X. L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature are used to characterize the residual strains in tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix, tungsten fiber-reinforced Kanthal matrix, and diamond particulate-reinforced copper matrix composites. Results of finite element modeling are compared with the neutron diffraction data. In tungsten/Kanthal composites, the fibers are in compression, the matrix is in tension, and the thermal residual strains are a strong function of the volume fraction of fibers. In copper matrix composites, the matrix is in tension and the stresses are independent of the volume fraction of tungsten fibers or diamond particles and the assumed stress free temperature because of the low yield strength of the matrix phase.

  7. Residual stress measurements on steel using neutron high resolution powder diffractometer (HRPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inawati Tanto

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis by neutron diffraction is based on the determination of lattice strains by precise measurements of the d spacing. Residual stress measurements were made on 0.7 mm of a rolled thin steel and on 1.65 mm of a galvanized flat steel. The neutron measurements in the vertical and horizontal directions were made in transmission and reflection geometry using HRPD on the Hifar Reactor at Lucas Heights, Australia. It can be concluded that the stress arise on the weld section of the galvanized flat steel was compression. On rolled thin steel stresses were measured at the rolled and unrolled section. Datas collected were not consistent with the expectations for example the horizontal rolled measurement was expected to show compressive residual stress, however the opposite was observed. (author), 4 refs, 2 tabs, 1 figs

  8. Procedures for interface residual stress determination using neutron diffraction: Mo-coated steel gear wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Fanara, Carlo; Hughes, Darren J.; Ratel, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses were determined in steel gear wheels coated with molybdenum using neutron diffraction. A systematic procedure was developed to assess them in both the molybdenum coating and in the steel substrate. A detailed description of the problems associated with measurements of this type is given, together with a procedure aimed at rationalising their solution. Precise sample positioning was developed using a new experimental method and advanced metrology equipment allowing off-line sample alignment and mounting. This reliably replaces the inefficient use of entrance scans, usually adopted in residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction. Corrections were applied to overcome the presence of pseudo-strains and data reduction was performed to coherently interpret the results, including the determination of the centre-of-mass of the diffracting volume. The full three-dimensional stress profile was determined in the coating and the substrate. The data analysis methodology is fully described and recommendations are given for this kind of measurement

  9. Residual stress determination in an overlay dissimilar welded pipe by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Wan Chuck [ORNL; Em, Vyacheslav [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Lee, Ho-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction

    2011-01-01

    Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

  10. REAL STRUCTURE AND RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ADVANCED WELDS DETERMINED BY X-RAY AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Trojan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the capability of X-ray diffraction (XRD for evaluation of real structure changes and residual stresses (RS on cross-section of advanced thick welds due to the welding of ferromagnetic plates. The results of neutron diffraction describe a three-dimensional state of RS and also verify previous assumptions of RS redistribution as a result of the surface preparation for determination 2D maps measured by XRD.

  11. Residual Stress in Sprayed Ni+5% Al Coatings Determined by Neutron Diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Sampath, S.; Gnaupel-Herold, T.; Prask, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 74, supplement 8 (2002), s. S1692-S1694 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Grant - others:NSF DMR(US) 6932570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : residual stress, thermal spray coatings, neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.231, year: 2002

  12. Neutron and ultrasonic determination of residual stress in an aluminum ring-plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prask, H.J.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Clark, A.V.; Hehman, C.S.; Nguyen, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    Stress is a principal cause of material failure. This has been a well-recognized problem for decades, yet--in general--neutron diffraction remains the only way to measure sub-surface residual stresses without destroying the component. A field-portable ultrasonic strain-meter is being developed at NIST (Boulder) to determine residual stresses in engineering specimens, nondestructively. To test this and other techniques an array of stress-measurement standards are being prepared. These will be characterized by neutron diffraction and then used to evaluate, quantitatively, the potential of new methods. The first standard specimen produced for this purpose is a large shrink-fit ring-plug of 2024 aluminum (305 mm OD, 25.4 mm thick, 101.6 mm diameter plug). Because of large grain size, a sample-rotation averaging technique was developed to make reliable neutron measurements possible. A comparison of the neutron diffraction and ultrasonic results for this specimen will be presented, along with strain gauge results

  13. Non-destructive measurement of residual stresses in nuclear welds by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A.G.; Idsert, P. v.d.

    2001-01-01

    Non-destructive measurement of welding stresses in structural components remains a challenging task. One out of very few techniques applicable to such problems is the neutron diffraction technique, which is closely related to the well-established X-ray diffraction. Whereas the latter provides for non-destructive measurement of surface stresses only, neutron diffraction enables the engineer to obtain in- depth measurements of residual stress. At the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), Petten, a new residual stress diffractometer has been installed capable of handling components up to 1000 kg - the Large Component Neutron Diffraction Facility (LCNDF). It has facilitated residual stress measurements in various weldments, including steel piping welds for nuclear applications. In this paper the principles of the technique are outlined and major elements of testing equipment and procedures are presented. Particularities to be taken into account especially in testing of austenitic steel welds are explained. Finally test results obtained on two thick steel nuclear piping welds are presented. (orig.)

  14. Diffraction plane dependence of elastic constants in residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Hayashi, Makoto; Morii, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori

    1997-01-01

    In a residual stress measurement by x-ray diffraction method and a neutron diffraction method, strictly speaking, the strain measurement of various diffracted surface was conducted and it is necessary to use its elastic modulus to convert from the strain to the stress. Then, in order to establish the residual stress measuring technique using neutron diffraction, it is an aim at first to make clear a diffraction surface dependency of elastic modulus for the stress conversion in various alloys. As a result of investigations the diffraction surface dependency of elastic module on SUS304 and STS410 steels by using RESA (Neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis) installed at JRR-3M in Tokai Establishment of JAERI, following results are obtained. The elastic modulus of each diffraction surface considering till plastic region could be confirmed to be in a region of ±20% of that calculated by Kroner's model and to be useful for that used on conversion to the stress. And, error of this elastic modulus was thought to cause the transition and defect formed at inner portion of the materials due to a plastic deformation. (G.K.)

  15. Evaluation of residual stresses in metal matrix composite materials, by the means of neutron and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceretti, M.; Braham, C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermally- as well as mechanically-induced residual stresses in metal matrix composites have been analyzed by the means of two complementary techniques: X-ray diffraction for surface analysis, and neutron diffraction for volume analysis. The residual stress relaxation is examined through in-situ measurements with neutron diffraction. Results from both techniques are well correlated, on condition that the same basic assumptions are used

  16. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Analysis of Residual Stress by Diffraction Using Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, ed M. E.; Lodini, A.

    2003-09-01

    The presence of residual stresses within engineering components is often a key feature in determining their usable lifetimes and failure characteristics. Residual surface compression can, for example, restrict the propagation of surface cracks through the bulk. As a consequence, it is essential to characterize the magnitude and spatial distribution of residual stresses and, at least for non-destructive testing, this is most widely achieved using diffraction of neutron and high energy synchrotron radiations. This book aims to provide a detailed description of the methodology used to determine residual stresses. The major emphasis is placed on the neutron method, this being the more widely established approach at present. It contains 20 chapters contributed by 23 authors, divided into five major parts. The overall layout is very logical, with the first part giving a general introduction to the use of neutrons and x-rays for materials research and summarizing the methods used for their production. Part 2 considers the more specific aspects of extracting the residual stress distribution within a bulk sample and includes some valuable comments on a number of potential experimental problems, such as the determination of the stress-free lattice parameter and the effects of broadening of the Bragg peaks. The experimental facilities currently available or under development are described in part 3, with the remaining two parts devoted to general and specific applications of the residual stress measurement technique. As expected with such a large number of different authors, there is some variation in style and quality. However, the text is generally easy to follow and, more importantly, it is largely free of the problems of inconsistent notation and dupication of material that can afflict multi-authored texts. My only negative comment concerns the latter portion of the book devoted to specific applications of the technique, which is illustrative rather than comprehensive. In

  18. Through-Thickness Measurements of Residual Stresses in an Overlay Dissimilar Weld Pipe using Neutron Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Wan Chuck; EM, Vyacheslav; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Kang Soo; Kang, Mi Hyun; Joo, Jong Dae; Seong, Baek Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Jin Gwi; Park, Kwang Soo [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The distribution of residual stresses in dissimilar material joints has been extensively studied because of the wide applications of the dissimilar welds in many inevitable complex design structures. Especially the cracking of dissimilar welding has been a long standing issue of importance in many components of the power generation industries such as nuclear power plant, boiling pressure system, and steam generators. In particular, several failure analysis and direct observations have shown that critical fractures have frequently occurred in one side of the dissimilar welded parts. For example, the heat-affected zone on the ferrite steel side is known to critical in many dissimilar welding pipes when ferrite (low carbon steel) and austenite (stainless) steels are joined. The main cause of the residual stresses can be attributed to the mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the dissimilar metals (ferrite and austenite). Additional cladding over circumferential welds is known to reinforce the mechanical property due to the beneficial compressive residual stress imposed on the weld and heat-affected zone. However, science-based quantitative measurement of the through thickness residual stress distribution is very limited in literature. The deep penetration capability of neutrons into most metallic materials makes neutron diffraction a powerful tool to investigate and map the residual stresses of materials throughout the thickness and across the weld. Furthermore, the unique volume averaged bulk characteristic of materials and mapping capability in three dimensions are suitable for the engineering purpose. Thus, the neutron-diffraction measurement method has been selected as the most useful method for the study of the residual stresses in various dissimilar metal welded structures. The purpose of this study is to measure the distribution of the residual stresses in a complex dissimilar joining with overlay in the weld pipe. Specifically, we measured

  19. Genetic algorithms applied to reconstructing coded imaging of neutrons and analysis of residual watermark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiankui; Hu, Huasi; Jia, Qinggang; Zhang, Fengna; Chen, Da; Li, Zhenghong; Wu, Yuelei; Liu, Zhihua; Hu, Guang; Guo, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Monte-Carlo simulation of neutron coded imaging based on encoding aperture for Z-pinch of large field-of-view with 5 mm radius has been investigated, and then the coded image has been obtained. Reconstruction method of source image based on genetic algorithms (GA) has been established. "Residual watermark," which emerges unavoidably in reconstructed image, while the peak normalization is employed in GA fitness calculation because of its statistical fluctuation amplification, has been discovered and studied. Residual watermark is primarily related to the shape and other parameters of the encoding aperture cross section. The properties and essential causes of the residual watermark were analyzed, while the identification on equivalent radius of aperture was provided. By using the equivalent radius, the reconstruction can also be accomplished without knowing the point spread function (PSF) of actual aperture. The reconstruction result is close to that by using PSF of the actual aperture.

  20. Residual stresses in cold-coiled helical compression springs for automotive suspensions measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejicek, J.; Brand, P.C.; Drews, A.R.; Krause, A.; Lowe-Ma, C.

    2004-01-01

    Residual stresses in cold-coiled helical compression springs for automotive suspensions were determined at several manufacturing stages using neutron diffraction. These results indicate that the residual stresses in the as-coiled springs are nearly uniaxial with peak values of ±900 MPa and independent of coil position. A factory stress-relieved spring showed the same pattern of stresses, but with the peak values reduced to ∼±200 MPa. Residual stresses in a spring annealed in a laboratory furnace at 56 K over the normal factory annealing temperature were ∼35% lower. The effect of cutting the springs either by electric discharge machining (EDM) or by abusive grinding was also examined. From these data, the smallest spring segment that can yield reliable stress data was determined

  1. Discussion on accuracy of weld residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction. Influence of strain free reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Akita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is required to evaluate a strain-free reference, α 0 , to perform accurate stress measurement using neutron diffraction. In this study, accuracy of neutron stress measurement was quantitatively discussed from α 0 evaluations on a dissimilar metal butt-weld between a type 304 austenitic stainless steel and an A533B low alloy ferritic steel. A strain-free standard specimen and a sliced specimen with 10 mm thickness taken from the dissimilar metal butt-weld were utilized. In the lattice constant evaluation using the standard specimen, average lattice constant derived from multiple hkl reflections was evaluated as the stress-free reference with cancelling out an intergranular strain. Comparing lattice constant distributions in each reflection with average lattice constant distribution in the standard specimen, αFe211 and γFe311 reflections were judged as a suitable reflection for neutron strain measurement to reduce intergranular strain effects. Residual stress distribution in the sliced specimen evaluated using α 0 measured here exhibited higher accuracy than that measured using strain gauges. On the other hand, α 0 distributions were evaluated using the sliced specimen under the plane-stress condition. Existence of slight longitudinal residual stresses near the weld center decreased accuracy of the α 0 evaluations, which means that it is required to optimize the thickness of the sliced specimen for accurate α 0 evaluation under plane strain condition. As a conclusion of this study, it was confirmed that procedures of accurate α 0 evaluation, optimization of the measurement condition, and multiple evaluations on the results play an important role to improve accuracy of the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction. (author)

  2. Verification of residual stresses in flash-butt-weld rails using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, David; Kirstein, Oliver; Mutton, Peter John; Chiu, Wing Kong

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses developed during flash-butt welding may play a crucial role in prolonging the fatigue life of the welded tracks under service loading conditions. The finished welds typically exhibit high levels of tensile residual stresses in the web region of the weld. Moreover, the surface condition of the web may contain shear drag or other defects resulting from the shearing process which may lead to the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in a horizontal split web failure mode under high axle loads. However, a comprehensive understanding into the residual stress behaviour throughout the complex weld geometry remains unclear and is considered necessary to establish the correct localised post-weld heat treatment modifications intended to lower tensile residual stresses. This investigation used the neutron diffraction technique to analyse residual stresses in an AS60 flash-butt-welded rail cooled under normal operating conditions. The findings will ultimately contribute to developing modifications to the flash-butt-welding procedure to lower tensile residual stresses which may then improve rail performance under high axle load.

  3. Residual stress analysis for engineering applications by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Residual stresses originate from spatial differences in plastic deformation, temperature, or phase distribution, introduced by manufacturing processes or during service. Engineering parts and materials experience mechanical, thermal, and chemical loads during their service, and most of these loads introduce stresses that are superimposed on the already existing residual stresses. Residual stresses can therefore limit or improve life and strength of engineering parts; knowledge and understanding of these stresses is therefore critical for optimizing strength and durability. The economic and scientific importance of neutron diffraction residual stress analysis has led to an increasing number of suitable instruments worldwide. All of the major sources due in the next several years will have instruments for the sole purpose of performing residual stress and texture measurements. Recently, a dedicated, state-of-the-art diffractometer has been installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology reactor. It has been used for a variety of measurements on basic and engineering stress problems. Among the most prominent examples that have been investigated in collaboration with industrial and academic partners are residual stresses in rails, weldments, and plasma-sprayed coatings

  4. Internal residual strain mapping in carburized chrome molybdenum steel after quenching by neutron strain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaida, Yoshihisa; Serizawa, Takanobu; Manzanka, Michiya

    2011-01-01

    A hollow circular cylinder specimen with an annular U-notch of chrome molybdenum steel with 0.20 mass% C (SCM420) was carburized in carrier gas and quenched in oil bath. In order to determine the case depth, the specimen was cut off and carbon content and Vickers hardness gradients were measured experimentally near the carburized surface. The residual strain mapping in the interior of carburized cylinder was conducted nondestructively by neutron strain scanning. In this study, the neutron diffraction from Fe-211 plane was used for strain scanning. The neutron wavelength was tuned to 0.1654nm so that diffraction angle became about 90deg. Radial, hoop and axial residual strains were measured by scanning diffracting volume along the axial direction of cylinder specimen. Each residual strain was calculated from lattice spacing change. Unstressed lattice spacing was determined experimentally using reference coupon specimens that were cut from the interior of same carburized cylinder. As a result, the diffraction peak width at half height, FWHM, near the carburized surface was about 3.7 times wider than that of coupon specimens. On the other hand, the most peak widths in the interior equaled to that of coupon specimens. Peak width broadened slightly as the diffracting volume approached the carburized case layer. From the center to the quarter of cylinder specimen, the hoop and axial strains were tensile, and the radial one was compressive in the interior. From the quarter to the edge of the cylinder specimen, the hoop tensile strain increased, radial and axial strains changed to tensile and compressive, respectively. Therefore, the interior of the cylinder specimen was found to be deformed elastically to balance the existence of compressive residual stresses in the carburized case layer. (author)

  5. Calculations of neutron flux spectra induced in the earth's atmosphere by galactic cosmic rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Chandler, K. C.; Barish, J.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations have been carried out to determine the neutron flux induced in the earth's atmosphere by galactic protons and alpha particles at solar minimum for a geomagnetic latitude of 42 N. Neutron flux spectra in the energy range from about 10 to the minus 8th to about 100,000 MeV at various depths in the atmosphere were calculated by using Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates methods, and various comparisons with experimental data are presented. The magnitude and shape of the calculated neutron leakage spectrum at the particular latitude considered support the theory that the cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (Crand) mechanism is the source of the protons trapped in the inner radiation belt.

  6. Residual stress determination in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Wanchuck; Em, Vyacheslav; Hubbard, Camden R.; Lee, Ho-Jin; Park, Kwang Soo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Determined residual stress distribution in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe. → Consists of a ferritic (SA508), austenitic (F316L) steels, Alloy 182 consumable. → Measured significant compression (-600 MPa) near the inner wall of overlay. → Validate integrity of the inner wall for the pressurized nozzle nuclear structure. - Abstract: Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d o ) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

  7. Diffraction measurements of residual macrostress and microstress using x-rays, synchrotron and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reviews some recent developments of the measurements of the macrostress and microstress by diffraction using X-rays, synchrotron and neutrons especially in Japan. These three methods are based on the same principle of the diffraction of crystals, and have different advantages. The conventional X-rays detect the stress very near the surface, while the neutron diffraction takes the stress in the interior of the materials. High-energy X-rays from synchrotron sources have the penetration depth in between and are suitable for the measurement of subsurface stresses. After describing the developments of the fundamentals of the methods, the paper covers the recent applications of the diffraction methods to the residual stress analysis in textured thin films, the nondestructive determination of the subsurface distribution of residual stress in shot-peened materials, local stress measurements near the crack tip, the stress measurements of single crystals, macrostress and microstress measurements in composites, and the determination of the internal distribution of the residual stress in welded joints. (author)

  8. Non-destructive analysis of residual stress and texture in MMCs by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Rack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutrons penetrate easily through the thickness of many metals, and therefore serve as effective probes of the residual stress and texture of reinforcement materials as they exist within metal matrices. This study demonstrates the utility of this technique by examining the effects of processing on the residual stresses and texture in a metal-matrix composite. Specimens of silicon-carbide whisker-reinforced aluminum 2124 have been fabricated with whisker volume fractions of 5%, 10% and 20%, and with aging times of 1, 64 and 256 h at 150 o C. Neutron diffraction reveals a systematic loss of sharpness in the crystallographic texture of the matrix as, the volume fraction of whiskers is increased. In contrast, the degree of whisker alignment is relatively unaffected by the whisker volume fraction, but is enhanced by increasing the extrusion ratio. Finally, the residual compression along the axes of the whiskers increases with the duration of the heat treatment, possibly because the matrix lattice contracts during aging. (author)

  9. Residual stress determination in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Wanchuck, E-mail: chuckwoo@kaeri.re.kr [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Em, Vyacheslav [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hubbard, Camden R. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lee, Ho-Jin [Nuclear Materials Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang Soo [Corporate R and D Institute, Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon 641-792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Determined residual stress distribution in a dissimilar weld overlay pipe. {yields} Consists of a ferritic (SA508), austenitic (F316L) steels, Alloy 182 consumable. {yields} Measured significant compression (-600 MPa) near the inner wall of overlay. {yields} Validate integrity of the inner wall for the pressurized nozzle nuclear structure. - Abstract: Residual stresses were determined through the thickness of a dissimilar weld overlay pipe using neutron diffraction. The specimen has a complex joining structure consisting of a ferritic steel (SA508), austenitic steel (F316L), Ni-based consumable (Alloy 182), and overlay of Ni-base superalloy (Alloy 52M). It simulates pressurized nozzle components, which have been a critical issue under the severe crack condition of nuclear power reactors. Two neutron diffractometers with different spatial resolutions have been utilized on the identical specimen for comparison. The macroscopic 'stress-free' lattice spacing (d{sub o}) was also obtained from both using a 2-mm width comb-like coupon. The results show significant changes in residual stresses from tension (300-400 MPa) to compression (-600 MPa) through the thickness of the dissimilar weld overlay pipe specimen.

  10. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makowska, Malgorzata G.; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2015-01-01

    High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible...... with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 ◦C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging...

  11. In situ neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress relaxation in a welded steel pipe during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Skouras, A.; Wang, Y.Q.; Kelleher, J.F.; Zhang, S.Y.; Smith, D.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Pavier, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many previous studies have presented results on the relaxation of residual stress in a welded component as a result of postweld heat treatment. Techniques such as neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling have been used to measure the residual stress after the heat treatment and compare this with the residual stress for the component in the as-welded condition. The work described in this paper is novel: neutron diffraction is used to measure the relaxation of residual stress continuously as the heat treatment is being carried out. Residual stresses are measured in a butt-welded ferritic steel pipe as the pipe is heat treated to 650 °C and then cooled to room temperature. The results identify those parts of the heat treatment that lead to significant stress relaxation and the mechanisms responsible for this relaxation. The techniques developed during this work allow future heat treatments to be optimised to achieve the low levels of residual stress in welded components

  12. The determination of pesticide residues in local vegetables by means of neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolphantha, S.; Karasuddhi, P.; Yamkate, P.; Serichareonsatit, N.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical methods based on neutron activation have been developed for studying pesticides residues of bromine, arsenic and mercury in local vegetables and fruits. The concentration of bromine, arsenic and mercury in samples are enriched prior to neutron irradiations by a technique of dry-ashing and freeze-drying for the determination of arsenic, bromine and mercury respectively. The element bromine is determined instrumentally while arsenic and mercury are determined destructively using a distillation technique. The limit of detection under the conditions used for bromine, arsenic and mercury as obtained are 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 microgram respectively. A total of 45 varieties of vegetables and 20 varieties of fruits are analyzed. The results of the investigation and the concentration range in part per million of bromine, arsenic and mercury are also presented

  13. Neutron-diffraction measurement of residual stresses in Al-Cu cold-cut welding

    CERN Document Server

    Fiori, F

    2002-01-01

    Usually, when it is necessary to join different materials with a large difference in their melting points, welding should be avoided. To overcome this problem we designed and built a device to obtain cold-cut welding, which is able to strongly decrease oxidation problems of the surfaces to be welded. Thanks to this device it is possible to achieve good joining between different pairs of materials (Al-Ti, Cu-Al, Cu-Al alloys) without reaching the material melting point. The mechanical and microstructural characterisation of the joining and the validation of its quality were obtained using several experimental methods. In particular, in this work neutron-diffraction experiments for the evaluation of residual stresses in Cu-Al junctions are described, carried out at the G5.2 diffractometer of LLB, Saclay. Neutron-diffraction results are presented and related to other experimental tests such as microstructural characterisation (through optical and scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical characterisation (ten...

  14. STUDY OF THE THERMAL CRACKING DURING THE VACUUM DISTILLATION OF ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE OF CRUDE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAOUAD ELAYANE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the study of the thermal cracking as undesirable phenomenon in the vacuum distillation of atmospheric residue of crude oil. In this point, we have sought to identify and characterize the effect of the increase in the temperature of vacuum distillation on the separation and the modification of the constituents of atmospheric residue of crude oil whose origin is Arabian Light. This study has been carried out by several techniques of analysis such as the density (ASTM D4052, distillation (ASTM D1160, determination of heavy metals nickel and vanadium (IFP9422, dosing of Conradson Carbon (ASTM D189, dosing of asphaltenes (ASTM D2549 and dosage of PCI (polycyclic aromatics (ASTM D 5186. The results showed a clear idea on the decomposition of the atmospheric residue and their influence on the performance of the vacuum distillation unit.

  15. Comparison between neutron diffraction measurements and numerical simulation of residual stresses of a wire-drawing process

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Tomaz Fantin de; Soares, Carla Adriana Theis; Zottis, Juliana; Nunes, Rafael Menezes; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Hirsch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a drawing processed was simulated to calculate forces and the resulting residual stresses in the material. The calculated residual stresses were compared with experimentally measured residual stresses by the Neutron Diffraction Method. The modeled process was the Wire Drawing. The necessary parameters to model the process were taken from an industrial currently used process. Rods of an AISI 1045 steel with nominal diameters of 21.46 mm were reduced to 20.25 mm by drawing with an...

  16. Accurate Ray-tracing of Realistic Neutron Star Atmospheres for Constraining Their Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Frederic H.; Bejger, Michał; Różańska, Agata; Straub, Odele; Paumard, Thibaut; Fortin, Morgane; Madej, Jerzy; Majczyna, Agnieszka; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Haensel, Paweł; Zdunik, Leszek; Beldycki, Bartosz

    2018-03-01

    Thermal-dominated X-ray spectra of neutron stars in quiescent, transient X-ray binaries and neutron stars that undergo thermonuclear bursts are sensitive to mass and radius. The mass–radius relation of neutron stars depends on the equation of state (EoS) that governs their interior. Constraining this relation accurately is therefore of fundamental importance to understand the nature of dense matter. In this context, we introduce a pipeline to calculate realistic model spectra of rotating neutron stars with hydrogen and helium atmospheres. An arbitrarily fast-rotating neutron star with a given EoS generates the spacetime in which the atmosphere emits radiation. We use the LORENE/NROTSTAR code to compute the spacetime numerically and the ATM24 code to solve the radiative transfer equations self-consistently. Emerging specific intensity spectra are then ray-traced through the neutron star’s spacetime from the atmosphere to a distant observer with the GYOTO code. Here, we present and test our fully relativistic numerical pipeline. To discuss and illustrate the importance of realistic atmosphere models, we compare our model spectra to simpler models like the commonly used isotropic color-corrected blackbody emission. We highlight the importance of considering realistic model-atmosphere spectra together with relativistic ray-tracing to obtain accurate predictions. We also insist upon the crucial impact of the star’s rotation on the observables. Finally, we close a controversy that has been ongoing in the literature in the recent years, regarding the validity of the ATM24 code.

  17. Dosimetry of atmospheric neutrons: aircrew dosimetry and therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatje, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This trainee-ship reports addresses the quantification of the dose received, in real time, by air-crews during commercial flights. Thus, the author first presents the radiative environment which surrounds people and components, and the possible consequences on this exposure. The different parameters influencing the received dose are developed and discussed. The author then describes the French SIEVERT calculation code which is used by all air companies. He also gives a detailed attention to the legal framework regarding radiation protection. In the next part, the author discusses the use of neutrons applied for therapeutic purposes, and their biological effects such as the bystander effect and the radio-sensitivity to low doses. He describes what is a cancer, and presents a therapeutic technique, the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), which is indicated for a certain type of brain cancer, the glioblastoma. The third part proposes an overview of the state-of-the-art of neutron dosimeters, and more particularly those doped with boron, for dose measurement

  18. Residual stress measurements in thick structural weldments by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A.G.; Idsert, P. v.d.; Timke, T.

    2000-01-01

    Welding residual stresses in large structural components are a major concern with respect to their performance and lifetime. In large structures reasonable thermal stress relief treatment is usually impossible due to the component size. On the other hand, prediction of welding stresses by numerical modelling has not yet proven to be generally reliable, while the experimental determination of such stresses remains a demanding task. At the high flux reactor (HFR), Petten, a new residual stress diffractometer has been installed recently capable of handling of components up to 1000 kg - the large component neutron diffraction facility (LCNDF). It has facilitated residual stress measurements in two large welded components, of which results are presented here. The first component represents a bi-metallic weld in form of a pipe of 25 mm wall thickness. Three dimensional measurements of residual stress are discussed in detail. The second specimen is a 66 mm wall thickness austenitic steel nuclear piping weld. Results on relief of strain within the weld through post weld heat treatment (PWHT) are presented. Additionally results obtained earlier at former CRNL (CAN) on a section of a thick nuclear piping weld are presented in order to illustrate the variation in the reference lattice parameter trough the weld and the heat affected zone (HAZ). These results clearly show the necessity to determine the reference parameters for each location in all measurement directions by means of measurements in small coupons free of macro-stresses. (orig.)

  19. Investigation on the Residual Stress State of Drawn Tubes by Numerical Simulation and Neutron Diffraction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkowski, Heinz; Brück, Sebastian; Pirling, Thilo; Carradò, Adele

    2013-11-08

    Cold drawing is widely applied in the industrial production of seamless tubes, employed for various mechanical applications. During pre-processing, deviations in tools and their adjustment lead to inhomogeneities in the geometry of the tubes and cause a gradient in residuals. In this paper a three dimensional finite element (3D-FE)-model is presented which was developed to calculate the change in wall thickness, eccentricity, ovality and residual macro-stress state of the tubes, produced by cold drawing. The model simulates the drawing process of tubes, drawn with and without a plug. For finite element modelling, the commercial software package Abaqus was used. To validate the model, neutron strain imaging measurements were performed on the strain imaging instrument SALSA at the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France) on a series of SF-copper tubes, drawn under controlled laboratory conditions, varying the drawing angle and the plug geometry. It can be stated that there is sufficient agreement between the finite element method (FEM)-calculation and the neutron stress determination.

  20. Investigation on the Residual Stress State of Drawn Tubes by Numerical Simulation and Neutron Diffraction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Carradò

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cold drawing is widely applied in the industrial production of seamless tubes, employed for various mechanical applications. During pre-processing, deviations in tools and their adjustment lead to inhomogeneities in the geometry of the tubes and cause a gradient in residuals. In this paper a three dimensional finite element (3D-FE-model is presented which was developed to calculate the change in wall thickness, eccentricity, ovality and residual macro-stress state of the tubes, produced by cold drawing. The model simulates the drawing process of tubes, drawn with and without a plug. For finite element modelling, the commercial software package Abaqus was used. To validate the model, neutron strain imaging measurements were performed on the strain imaging instrument SALSA at the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France on a series of SF-copper tubes, drawn under controlled laboratory conditions, varying the drawing angle and the plug geometry. It can be stated that there is sufficient agreement between the finite element method (FEM-calculation and the neutron stress determination.

  1. Automation of a neutron diffractometer for analysis of residual stress inside complex engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; James, J.A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Tanguy, A.

    2010-01-01

    Residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction is becoming an increasingly important tool in engineering stress analysis. To this effect, a new generation of dedicated engineering strain instruments are being built at neutron sources, offering considerable improvements in both counting time and spatial resolution. Alongside these improvements, measurements in complex geometry prototype components are increasingly in demand. As a result, there is a strong drive towards integrated sample positioning systems that allow for simplified setup and operating of experiments on components with complex geometries. The present study details work carried out at the ENGIN-X instrument at the UK's ISIS pulsed neutron source, on measurements in a prototype metal matrix composite (MMC) aircraft wheel, forged from a billet produced through a powder-metallurgy route. The measurement was designed to obtain the macrostress and misfit stresses developed in the matrix and in the reinforcement phase in the wheel during fabrication. The study also demonstrates the use of the SScanSS software for experimental design and implementation, which was developed to complement the advances in the instrumentation of new strain mapping diffractometers. SScanSS simplifies the precise spatial location of the measuring gauge volume inside such complex components. (orig.)

  2. Flexible sample environment for high resolution neutron imaging at high temperatures in controlled atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Małgorzata G; Theil Kuhn, Luise; Cleemann, Lars N; Lauridsen, Erik M; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Molaison, Jamie J; Santodonato, Louis J; Tremsin, Anton S; Grosse, Mirco; Morgano, Manuel; Kabra, Saurabh; Strobl, Markus

    2015-12-01

    High material penetration by neutrons allows for experiments using sophisticated sample environments providing complex conditions. Thus, neutron imaging holds potential for performing in situ nondestructive measurements on large samples or even full technological systems, which are not possible with any other technique. This paper presents a new sample environment for in situ high resolution neutron imaging experiments at temperatures from room temperature up to 1100 °C and/or using controllable flow of reactive atmospheres. The design also offers the possibility to directly combine imaging with diffraction measurements. Design, special features, and specification of the furnace are described. In addition, examples of experiments successfully performed at various neutron facilities with the furnace, as well as examples of possible applications are presented. This covers a broad field of research from fundamental to technological investigations of various types of materials and components.

  3. Gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy of planetary surfaces and atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The neutrons and gamma rays escaping from a planet can be used to map the concentrations of various elements in its surface. In a planet, the high-energy particles in the galactic cosmic rays induce a cascade of particles that includes many neutrons. The γ rays are made by the decay of the naturally-occurring radioelements and by nuclear excitations induced by cosmic-ray particles and their secondaries (especially neutron capture or inelastic scattering reactions). After a short history of planetary γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy, the γ-ray spectrometer and active neutron detection system planned for the Mars Observer Mission are presented. The results of laboratory experiments that simulate the cosmic-ray bombardments of planetary surfaces and the status of the theoretical calculations for the processes that make and transport neutrons and γ rays will be reviewed. Studies of Mars, including its atmosphere, are emphasized, as are new ideas, concepts, and problems that have arisen over the last decade, such as Doppler broadening and peaks from neutron scattering with germanium nuclei in a γ-ray spectrometer. 23 refs., 1 fig

  4. Non-destructive neutron activation analysis of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owlya, A.; Kasrai, M.; Massoumi, R.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration of elements in atmospheric particulate in an urban area were determined by means of a Ge(Li) detector. Samples were collected on a Millipore filter at a single location during three seasons of the year and the results compared. These results are compared with results for the same elements in other cities. It was concluded that in a dry climate, at least two parameters are related to seasonal changes in trace element concentration in the atmosphere-rain and snowfall, and the reducation of vertical diffusion of airborne particulates (author)

  5. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress in additively manufactured stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.W.; Bernardin, J.D.; Carpenter, J.S.; Clausen, B.; Spernjak, D.; Thompson, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Charpy test specimens were additively manufactured (AM) on a single stainless steel plate from a 17–4 class stainless steel using a powder-bed, laser melting technique on an EOS M280 direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) machine. Cross-hatched mesh support structures for the Charpy test specimens were varied in strut width and density to parametrically study their influence on the build stability and accuracy as the DMLS process has been known to generate parts with large amounts of residual stress. Neutron diffraction was used to profile the residual stresses in several of the AM samples before and after the samples were removed from the support structure for the purpose of determining residual stresses. The residual stresses were found to depend very little on the properties of the support structure over the limited range studied here. The largest stress component was in the long direction of each of the samples studied and was roughly 2/3 of the yield stress of the material. The stress field was altered considerably when the specimen was removed from the support structure. It was noted in this study that a single Charpy specimen developed a significant tear between the growth plate and support structure. The presence of the tear in the support structure strongly affected the observed stress field: the asymmetric tear resulted in a significantly asymmetric stress field that propagated through removal of the sample from the base plate. The altered final residual stress state of the sample as well as its observed final shape indicates that the tear initiated during the build and developed without disrupting the fabrication process, suggesting a need for in-situ monitoring.

  6. Measurement of through-thickness residual stress in T-butt weldments of offshore steel by high resolution neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.J.; Hutchings, M.T.; Rainey, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The use of high resolution neutron diffraction to measure, nondestructively, the residual strain and hence the residual stress variation through the heat affected zone and into the plate beneath the toe of a T-butt is described. The effects on the strain variation of post weld heat treatment, and of fatigue loading until a crack is formed in the plate, have been investigated. The results indicate the power of the neutron diffraction technique to obtain unique information on the strain distribution with a weldment. (author)

  7. Nanoscale characterisation by SANS and residual stresses determination by neutron diffraction related to materials and components of technological interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogante, Massimo; Rosta, Laszlo

    2005-06-01

    Neutron techniques, among the other non-destructive diagnostics, are becoming more and more relevant in investigating materials and components of industrial interest. In this paper, Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) for microstructural characterisation-especially related to the nanoscale-and Neutron Diffraction for Residual Stresses (RS) measurements are considered. The basic theoretical aspects and some industrial applications of each technique are described. In particular, RS determination in welding, in extruded specimens and in components for energy industry is reported. SANS measurements concerning materials and components for energy and automotive industry are finally presented.

  8. Residual stress in repair welds measured with neutron diffraction with and without post weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.W.H.; Paradowska, A.M.; Finlayson, T.

    2010-01-01

    In welding, residual stresses (RS) are formed in the structure as the result of differential contractions which occur as the weld metal solidifies and cools to ambient temperature. The tensile stresses can have significant effects on the susceptibility of a material to degradation mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, fracture resistance, and creep. Welding repairs have increasingly become a structural integrity concern for aging pressure vessel and piping components. Both the repair procedure and the subsequent safety assessment, such as BS7910 and R6 require a better understanding of the welding effect on structural components. The use of a neutron beam as a non-destructive method of measuring residual stress due to repair welding has been explored. Two types of full penetration butt weld repairs on 25 mm ferritic steel were examined. From the findings of this research in terms of residual stress, temper bead welding repair may not be better than stringer bead welding. Post-weld heat treatment may be still advisable for temper bead weld repairs on ferritic steel.

  9. Residual Stresses in DC cast Aluminum Billet: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Thermomechanical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezet, J.-M.; Evans, A.; Pirling, T.

    2011-05-01

    Thermally-induced residual stresses, generated during the industrial Direct Chill casting process of aluminum alloys, can cause both significant safety concerns as well as the formation of defects during down-stream processing. Although these thermally induced strains can be partially relieved by permanent deformation, cracks will be generated either during solidification (hot tears) or post-solidification cooling (cold cracks) when stresses exceed the deformation limit of the alloy. Furthermore, the thermally induced strains result in the presence of large internal stresses within the billet before further processing steps. Although numerical models have been previously developed to compute these residual stresses, most of the computations have been validated only against measured surface distortions. In the present work, the variation in residual elastic strains and stresses in the steady state regime of casting has been measured as a function of radial position using neutron diffraction in an AA6063 grain-refined cylindrical billet. These measurements have been carried out on the same billet section at Poldi at PSI-Villigen and at Salsa at ILL-Grenoble and compare favorably. The results are used to validate a thermo-mechanical finite element casting model and to assess the level of stored elastic energy within the billet.

  10. Residual stress measurements by X-ray and neutron diffractions in heat-treated SiCw/A2014 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Takahisa; Fujita, Motoo; Tomota, Yo; Ono, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses due to various heat treatments in a 22 volume percent SiC whisker/A2014 metal matrix composite (MMC) were measured by using X-ray and neutron diffractions. Micro residual stresses generated from the differences in thermal expansion coefficients of the constituents and macro residual stresses associated with different cooling rates in the outer and inner regions of an MMC specimen must be distinguished in X-ray stress measurements. The conventional sin 2 ψ method under an assumption of plane stress condition has been found not to be applicable to the present MMC, because interactions among whiskers in the X-ray penetrating area yields σ 33 where the x 3 -axis is normal with respect to specimen's surface. An average value of σ 33 can be measured by X-ray diffraction technique, but does not seem enough to evaluate micro residual stresses. It is found that neutron diffraction is the most powerful method to measure micro residual stresses in the constituents. Elastic residual strains obtained by neutron diffraction in solution treated or T6 heat treated samples show good agreements with predictions calculated by using Eshelby inclusion theory coupled with the Mori-Tanaka mean field concept, indicating that the influence of stress relaxation is negligible. In addition, internal stresses relaxations during holding at room temperature, slow cooling from solution treatment temperature, or subzero cooling are discussed. (author)

  11. Neutron propagation and 2.2 MeV gamma-ray line production in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. T.; Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    Calculation of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line intensity from the sun using a Monte Carlo method for neutron propagation in the solar atmosphere. Detailed results are provided concerning the total gamma-ray yield per neutron and the time profile of the 2.2-MeV line from an instantaneous and monoenergetic neutron source. The parameters which have the most significant effects on the line intensity are the energies of the neutrons, the position of the neutron source on the sun, and the abundance of He-3 in the photosphere. For an isotropic neutron source which is not too close to the limb of the sun, the gamma-ray yield is between about 0.02 to 0.2 photons per neutron, provided that the neutron energies are in the range from 1 to 100 MeV and the ratio He-3/H is less than about .00005.

  12. Residual stresses in a composite steel tube measured by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taran, Yu.V.; Balagurov, A.M.; Zlokazov, V.B.; Schreiber, J.; Stuhr, U.; Kockelmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    The triaxial residual stresses in a composite tube from an austenitic stainless steel with a welded ferritic steel cladding were measured by the time-of-flight neutron diffraction method on the POLDI instrument at the PSI SINQ facility. The POLDI results are compared to the results obtained by the destructive turning out method and theoretical predictions of calculations by the finite element method. Only for the tangential component of the stress tensor the semiquantitative agreement of all used methods was observed. There is a clear discrepancy between the results of the different methods in the axial component. For the radial component all methods reveal quite small stresses, however, with some distinct differences in their distributions

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Determination of residual stresses in materials and industrial components by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Gianni; Bruno, Giovanni; Carradò, Adele; Fiori, Fabrizio; Rogante, Massimo; Rustichelli, Franco

    1999-03-01

    We present a review of the determination of residual stresses in materials and components of industrial interest by using the non-destructive technique of neutron diffraction. The fundamental aspects are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facilities. Several experimental results are then reported, particularly concerning applications to materials and components for power plants (CrMo steel, AISI304 stainless steel and 2.25Cr1Mo ferritic steel), aerospace and automotive technology (Al alloys, metal matrix composites, nickel superalloy gas-turbine components) and fusion-reactor technology (AISI316L for the first wall). A few thermomechanical treatments are considered, such as welding, cold-expanded holes, thermoelastic coupling and thermal and mechanical fatigue. Moreover, a few applications to general industrial problems are shown, namely brazed ceramic-steel components, coatings and fatigue-cracked samples. In some cases, experimental results are compared with numerical models or results from x-ray diffraction measurements.

  14. Residual stress measurements via neutron diffraction of additive manufactured stainless steel 17-4 PH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohammad; Shamsaei, Nima; Winholtz, Robert A; Milner, Justin L; Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Elwany, Alaa; Mahmoudi, Mohamad; Thompson, Scott M

    2017-08-01

    Neutron diffraction was employed to measure internal residual stresses at various locations along stainless steel (SS) 17-4 PH specimens additively manufactured via laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF). Of these specimens, two were rods (diameter=8 mm, length=80 mm) built vertically upward and one a parallelepiped (8×80×9 mm 3 ) built with its longest edge parallel to ground. One rod and the parallelepiped were left in their as-built condition, while the other rod was heat treated. Data presented provide insight into the microstructural characteristics of typical L-PBF SS 17-4 PH specimens and their dependence on build orientation and post-processing procedures such as heat treatment. Data have been deposited in the Data in Brief Dataverse repository (doi:10.7910/DVN/T41S3V).

  15. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of residual stresses in MMC tensile and fatigue specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.

    2000-01-01

    The experiments here described have been carried out in the framework of a more general research, aiming to develop a set of complementary models to predict the in-service performances of particle reinforced MMC automotive and aeronautical components. As MMCs are highly heterogeneous materials......, residual stresses are present in both the matrix and the particles microstructure, prior to any macroscopic loading. They vary with the temperature and with the type and level of loading imposed to the material, having a strong influence on the mechanical behaviour of MMCs. Neutron diffraction measurements...... and thermal mismatch microstresses. The results show that, in general, the main contribution to the stress state of both matrix and reinforcement is given by the thermal microstresses, already existing due to heat treatment prior to mechanical tests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Residual stress measurements via neutron diffraction of additive manufactured stainless steel 17-4 PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masoomi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron diffraction was employed to measure internal residual stresses at various locations along stainless steel (SS 17-4 PH specimens additively manufactured via laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF. Of these specimens, two were rods (diameter=8 mm, length=80 mm built vertically upward and one a parallelepiped (8×80×9 mm3 built with its longest edge parallel to ground. One rod and the parallelepiped were left in their as-built condition, while the other rod was heat treated. Data presented provide insight into the microstructural characteristics of typical L-PBF SS 17-4 PH specimens and their dependence on build orientation and post-processing procedures such as heat treatment. Data have been deposited in the Data in Brief Dataverse repository (doi:10.7910/DVN/T41S3V.

  17. Neutron diffraction investigations on residual stresses contributing to the fatigue crack growth in ferritic steel tubular bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, C.; Evans, A.; Nussbaumer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth observed in tubular K-joint specimens, typical of tubular bridge structures, always initiates at the chord crown toe locations whether the applied stress range is tensile or compressive. Even though other locations around the weld have highest hot-spot stresses, chord crown toe locations are still the most critical. This raises the question about the relevant tensile residual stress level at that location. The results of residual stress investigations, obtained using neutron diffraction measurements highlight that the direction and location of the maximum tensile residual stresses in K-joints is substantially different from those in the more usual tubular butt joints. Indeed, it is shown that the highest tensile residual stresses are oriented perpendicular to the weld direction, which is also the main orientation of the loading stresses applied in K-joints. This paper demonstrates that it is the complex geometry of the K-joint that causes the superposition of critical stresses, making these joints susceptible to fatigue cracking. Therefore, transverse residual stresses play a crucial part in the fatigue crack growth behaviour that applied stresses alone cannot explain. Highlights: ► We measure the 3D residual stresses in tubular joints using neutron diffraction. ► We identify direction and location of the maximum tensile residual stresses. ► K-joint geometry will induce a non-usual orientation of residual stresses. ► Fatigue crack propagation is affected by this critical stress orientation.

  18. Neutron-diffraction measurement of residual stresses in Al-Cu cold-cut welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiori, F.; Marcantoni, M.

    2002-01-01

    Usually, when it is necessary to join different materials with a large difference in their melting points, welding should be avoided. To overcome this problem we designed and built a device to obtain cold-cut welding, which is able to strongly decrease oxidation problems of the surfaces to be welded. Thanks to this device it is possible to achieve good joining between different pairs of materials (Al-Ti, Cu-Al, Cu-Al alloys) without reaching the material melting point. The mechanical and microstructural characterisation of the joining and the validation of its quality were obtained using several experimental methods. In particular, in this work neutron-diffraction experiments for the evaluation of residual stresses in Cu-Al junctions are described, carried out at the G5.2 diffractometer of LLB, Saclay. Neutron-diffraction results are presented and related to other experimental tests such as microstructural characterisation (through optical and scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical characterisation (tensile-strength tests) of the welded interface. (orig.)

  19. Neutron-diffraction measurement of residual stresses in Al-Cu cold-cut welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, F.; Marcantoni, M.

    Usually, when it is necessary to join different materials with a large difference in their melting points, welding should be avoided. To overcome this problem we designed and built a device to obtain cold-cut welding, which is able to strongly decrease oxidation problems of the surfaces to be welded. Thanks to this device it is possible to achieve good joining between different pairs of materials (Al-Ti, Cu-Al, Cu-Al alloys) without reaching the material melting point. The mechanical and microstructural characterisation of the joining and the validation of its quality were obtained using several experimental methods. In particular, in this work neutron-diffraction experiments for the evaluation of residual stresses in Cu-Al junctions are described, carried out at the G5.2 diffractometer of LLB, Saclay. Neutron-diffraction results are presented and related to other experimental tests such as microstructural characterisation (through optical and scanning electron microscopy) and mechanical characterisation (tensile-strength tests) of the welded interface.

  20. Protonation states of histidine and other key residues in deoxy normal human adult hemoglobin by neutron protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevsky, Andrey; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Shibayama, Naoya; Park, Sam-Yong; Ishikawa, Takuya; Mustyakimov, Marat; Fisher, S. Zoe; Langan, Paul; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction analysis, the protonation states of 35 of 38 histidine residues were determined for the deoxy form of normal human adult hemoglobin. Distal and buried histidines may contribute to the increased affinity of the deoxy state for hydrogen ions and its decreased affinity for oxygen compared with the oxygenated form. The protonation states of the histidine residues key to the function of deoxy (T-state) human hemoglobin have been investigated using neutron protein crystallography. These residues can reversibly bind protons, thereby regulating the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. By examining the OMIT F o − F c and 2F o − F c neutron scattering maps, the protonation states of 35 of the 38 His residues were directly determined. The remaining three residues were found to be disordered. Surprisingly, seven pairs of His residues from equivalent α or β chains, αHis20, αHis50, αHis58, αHis89, βHis63, βHis143 and βHis146, have different protonation states. The protonation of distal His residues in the α 1 β 1 heterodimer and the protonation of αHis103 in both subunits demonstrates that these residues may participate in buffering hydrogen ions and may influence the oxygen binding. The observed protonation states of His residues are compared with their ΔpK a between the deoxy and oxy states. Examination of inter-subunit interfaces provided evidence for interactions that are essential for the stability of the deoxy tertiary structure

  1. Neutron and synchrotron measurements of residual strain in TIG welded aluminium alloy 2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.A.; Preston, R.V.; Withers, P.J.; Shercliff, H.R.; Webster, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is one method of joining aluminium alloys with potential application in the aerospace industry. However, for it to be seriously considered as an alternative to mechanical fasteners the interrelated problems of residual stress and distortion need to be addressed. In this paper neutron, laboratory and synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods are used to provide non-destructive information about the residual stress field in TIG-welded 2024 Al alloy. The results compare well despite the differing penetration and sampling volumes associated with each technique. It is found that the magnitudes of the tensile longitudinal stresses decrease along the plate due to progressive heating up of the plate ahead of the arc during welding, so that steady-state conditions are not achieved. Comparison of the data with a finite element model indicates that softening of the heat-affected region must be included to simulate the resulting stress field. The FE model is found to be in good agreement with the data especially in the vicinity of the weld slope-out

  2. Residual stress analysis of an aircraft landing gear part using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunjoo; Seong, Baek Seok; Sim, Cheul Muu

    2013-07-01

    The residual stress of a landing gear part of a fighter jet that has a frequent practice of takeoff and landing was evaluated for the safety. The sample was a cylindrical steel bar with a 22.2 mm diameter and 55 mm length used to fix the main landing gear to the aircraft body. For a deep measurement up to 6 mm, we used a neutron beam. From the measurements, the tensile and compressive strain in the axial direction were observed around one side of the pin hole which was across the steel bar vertically with an 8 mm diameter. The strain distribution along the length of the bar presented a similar tendency through the thickness and a larger value on the surface. The maximum value of the residual stress around the pin hole was about 100 MPa. However, there was no strain on the opposite side of the pin hole. From the results, it may be surmised that the steel bar received a steady force in one direction around the pin hole, however the force was weak and affected a small limited area and thus not influence on the steel bar on the whole.

  3. Investigation of residual stresses in a sleeve coldworked lug specimen by neutron and x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.; Jaensson, B.; Holden, T.M.; Rogge, R.B.; Root, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Sleeve coldworking (SCW) is a mechanical process used in the aircraft industry to strengthen fastener holes of structural parts. By cold-expanding the holes, compressive residual stresses and a high dislocation density are introduced around the holes, the effect of which is to counteract the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and thus increase the fatigue life of the parts. The knowledge of residual stress due to SCW is therefore crucial for assessing the fatigue properties of a treated part. In this study, residual stresses were investigated, by employing neutron and X-ray diffraction methods, in a lug specimen that was sleeve coldworked and fatigued. The specimen had been used for testing the influence of the SCW process on fatigue life and crack propagation behaviour under constant amplitude or variable amplitude cyclic loading. X-ray diffraction has been widely used to determine surface residual stresses in engineering components. Neutron diffraction measurements, on the other hand, probe in-depth stresses, owing to the penetration of the neutron beam into most engineering materials. By using both techniques, we were able to investigate the surface as well as the in-depth distribution of residual stress in the specimen

  4. In Situ Tensile Deformation and Residual Stress Measurement by Neutron Diffraction in Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    The deformation behavior of monolithic modified 9Cr-1Mo (Grade 91) steel during uniaxial tensile loading was studied using the in situ neutron diffraction technique. The residual stress distribution across gas tungsten arc welds in the Grade 91 steel was measured by the time-of-flight neutron diffraction method using the SMARTS diffractometer at Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Grade 91 plates were welded using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) technique. The load sharing by different grain orientations was observed during the tensile loading. The residual stresses along three orthogonal directions were determined at the mid-thickness, 4.35 and 2.35 mm below the surface of both the as-welded and post-weld heat-treated plates. The residual stresses of the as-welded plates were compared with those of the post-weld heat-treated plates. The post-weld heat treatment significantly reduced the residual stress level in the base metal, the heat-affected zone, and the weld zone. Vickers microhardness across the weld zone of the as-welded and post-weld heat-treated specimens was evaluated and correlated with the observed residual stress profile and microstructure.

  5. Development of a phoswich detector for neutron dose rate measurements in the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doensdorf, Esther Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The Earth is constantly exposed to a stream of energetic particles from outer space. Through the interaction of this radiation with the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere a complex radiation field is formed which varies with the location inside the Earth's atmosphere. This radiation field consists of charged and uncharged particles leading to the constant exposure of human beings to radiation. As this ionizing radiation can be harmful for humans, it is necessary to perform dose rate measurements in different altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Due to their higher biological effectiveness the exposure to neutrons is more harmful than the exposure to γ-rays and charged particles, which is why the determination of neutron dose rates is the focus of this work. In this work the prototype of a Phoswich detector called PING (Phoswich Instrument for Neutrons and Gammas) is developed to determine dose rates caused by neutrons in the Earth's atmosphere and to distinguish these from γ-rays. The instrument is composed of two different scintillators optically coupled to each other and read out by one common photomultiplier tube. The scintillator package consists of an inner plastic scintillator made of the material BC-412 and a surrounding anti-coincidence made of sodium doped caesium iodide (CsI(Na)). In this work the instrument is calibrated, tested and flown and a procedure for a pulse shape analysis for this instrument is developed. With this analysis it is possible to distinguish pulses from the plastic scintillator and pulses from the CsI(Na). The pulses from the plastic scintillator are mainly due to the interaction of neutrons but there is an energy-dependent contribution of γ-rays to these events. Measurements performed on board an airplane show that the dose rates measured with the developed detector are in the same order of magnitude as results of other instruments. During measurements on board stratospheric balloons the altitude dependence of count rates and

  6. Cosmic Rays and Clouds, 1. Formation of Lead Mesoatoms In Neutron Monitor By Soft Negative Muons and Expected Atmospheric Electric Field Effect In The Cosmic Ray Neutron Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, L. I.; Dorman, I. V.

    We extend our model (Dorman and Dorman, 1995) of cosmic ray atmospheric electric field effect on the case of neutron monitor. We take into account that about 0.07 of neu- tron monitor counting rate caused by negative soft muons captured by lead nucleons and formed mesoatoms with generation of several MeV energy neutrons from lead. In this case the neutron monitor or neutron supermonitor works as analyzer which de- tects muons of only one, negative sign. It is very important because the atmospheric electric field effect have opposite signs for positive and negative muons that main part of this effect in the muon telescope or in ionization chamber is compensated and we can observe only small part of total effect of one sign muons. On the basis of our gen- eral theory of cosmic ray meteorological effects with taking into account of negative soft muon acceleration and deceleration in the Earth atmosphere (in dependence of di- rection and intensity of electric field) we discuss the possibility of existing this effect in cosmic ray neutron component and made some rough estimations. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I. and Dorman I.V., 1995. "Cosmic-ray atmospheric electric field effects". Canadian J. of Physics, Vol. 73, pp. 440-443.

  7. Residual Stress Analysis of Severe Plastic Deformed Materials using the Finite Element Method and the Neutron Diffraction Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Hyun; Seong, Back Suck; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2009-01-01

    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is one of the most promising top-down techniques, moving towards industrialization to fabricate bulk ultrafine grain materials. The strain distribution and deformation behavior during the ECAP (equal channel angular pressing), influenced by tool angles, friction and material behavior, was studied through experimental and numerical analyses. The residual stress of work piece which was straight before ECAP produces many serious problems in the next processing e.g. input of the work piece for the next ECAP. The bent work piece needs additional straightening or surface polishing even if the amount of bending is small, and residual stress need to be released before service applications. Residual stress, particularly tensile residual stress can be a very important factor in affecting the reliability and integrity of working parts. The formation of tensile residual stress may result in initiation of fatigue cracks, stress corrosion cracking, or other types of fracture. Hence, residual stress and resulting bending need to be controlled during ECAP. Thus, in current study the bending behavior and the residual stress of the work piece in ECAP are analyzed through experimental and finite element analyses by considering the effects of material, geometric, and processing parameters individually. The stress states in the ECAP processed work piece were measured by the non-destructive way using neutron diffraction. Efforts were made to suggest the alternate routes to reduce the residual stress and bending of work piece in ECAP

  8. Relaxation behavior of laser-peening residual stress under tensile loading investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Moriai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Kengo; Takeda, Kazuya; Ohya, Shin-ichi; Sano, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Compressive residual stresses induced by peening techniques improve the strength properties of steels, such as fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. However, the compressive residual stress might be reduced owing to thermal and mechanical loading in-service. In this study, the behavior of surface and internal residual stresses of a laser-peened ferritic steel under quasi-static tensile loading was investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The complementary use of these diffraction techniques provided decisive experimental evidence for elucidating the relaxation process. As the applied tensile stress increases, the inside of the sample yields before the surface yielding at the critical applied stress (the applied stress for the onset of relaxation of the surface residual stress). The internal yielding causes the redistribution of residual stress, resulting in the relaxation of the surface compressive residual stress. Therefore, the relaxation of the surface compressive residual stress under tensile loading starts before the surface yielding. The critical applied stress of peened samples subjected to a tensile loading can be estimated from the von Mises yield criterion with the maximum tensile residual stress inside the sample. The FWHM of X-ray diffraction profile of the sample surface was increased by laser-peening, and it was further increased by further plastic deformation after peening. (author)

  9. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise and Neutron Diffraction Techniques for the Study of Intergranular Residual Strains in Mild Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutanu, Roxana; Clapham, Lynann; Rogge, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Intergranular residual stresses (IS) are microscopic residual stresses which have been found to accumulate along the direction in steels. The direction is also the magnetic easy axis direction in steel. This work involved Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) studies on steel samples, deformed uniaxially to increasing levels of strain. The MBN results indicated that a bulk magnetic easy axis was produced by the deformation process, and neutron diffraction experiments showed that this easy axis was correlated with the tensile strain in grains oriented in the direction

  10. Two-quasineutron states in 98248Cf and 98250Cf and the neutron-neutron residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, K.; Ahmad, I.; Friedman, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Two-quasineutron states in 248 Cf and 250 Cf were investigated by single-neutron transfer reactions, 249 Cf(d,t) 248 Cf and 249 Cf(d,p) 250 Cf. The majority of levels observed were assigned to 12 bands in 248 Cf and six bands in 250 Cf, constructed from the single-particle states in neighboring Cf nuclei. The effective two-body interactions between two odd neutrons coupled outside a deformed core were deduced from the differences in the energies of the bandheads formed by the parallel and antiparallel coupling of the intrinsic spins of the two single-particle states

  11. Magnetic Hydrogen Atmosphere Models and the Neutron Star RX J1856.5-3754

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Wynn C.G.; /MIT, MKI /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Kaplan, David L.; /MIT, MKI; Chang, Philip; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Santa Barbara; van Adelsberg, Matthew; /Cornell; Potekhin, Alexander Y.; /Cornell U., Astron. Dept. /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.

    2006-12-08

    RX J1856.5-3754 is one of the brightest nearby isolated neutron stars, and considerable observational resources have been devoted to it. However, current models are unable to satisfactorily explain the data. We show that our latest models of a thin, magnetic, partially ionized hydrogen atmosphere on top of a condensed surface can fit the entire spectrum, from X-rays to optical, of RX J1856.5-3754, within the uncertainties. In our simplest model, the best-fit parameters are an interstellar column density N{sub H} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} and an emitting area with R{sup {infinity}} {approx} 17 km (assuming a distance to RX J1856.5-3754 of 140 pc), temperature T{sup {infinity}} {approx} 4.3 x 10{sup 5} K, gravitational redshift z{sub g} {approx} 0.22, atmospheric hydrogen column y{sub H} {approx} 1 g cm{sup -2}, and magnetic field B {approx} (3-4) x 10{sup 12} G; the values for the temperature and magnetic field indicate an effective average over the surface. We also calculate a more realistic model, which accounts for magnetic field and temperature variations over the neutron star surface as well as general relativistic effects, to determine pulsations; we find there exist viewing geometries that produce pulsations near the currently observed limits. The origin of the thin atmospheres required to fit the data is an important question, and we briefly discuss mechanisms for producing these atmospheres. Our model thus represents the most self-consistent picture to date for explaining all the observations of RX J1856.5-3754.

  12. Neutron diffraction residual stress measurements in a 316L stainless steel bead-on-plate weld specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratihar, S.; Turski, M.; Edwards, L.; Bouchard, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of residual stress in three orthogonal directions has been measured within a Type 316L austenitic stainless steel bead-on-plate weld specimen. Neutron diffraction was employed using the ENGIN-X instrument, located at the ISIS spallation facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. A stress-free lattice parameter reference value was determined from a small cube, extracted from a far corner of the plate. A high magnitude of tensile residual stress was found along the weld bead in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The distributions of stress along through-thickness lines at the weld bead nominal start and stop locations and at the mid-length position showed an almost identical stress variation. However, a map of measured residual strain in the transverse direction beneath the weld bead revealed a concentration of strain located several millimetres before the nominal weld stop position where through-wall stress profiles were measured

  13. Welding residual stress estimation by inherent strain analysis and thermal elastic plastic analysis and its verification using neutron diffraction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Hayashi, Makoto; Hattori, Toshio

    1997-01-01

    The internal residual stress distribution that resulted from welding a 4-inch-diameter carbon-steel pipe butt-joint was evaluated using several methods and the results were compared. The analytical evaluation methods used were inherent strain analysis and thermal elastic plastic analysis, and the experimental methods were X-ray diffraction and strain gauge for the surface residual stress, and neutron diffraction for the internal stress. The residual stress distributions determined using the various methods agreed well with each other, both for surface stress and internal stress. The characteristics of the evaluation methods were summarized and it was found the most suitable method for any particular situation can be selected by considering the evaluated location and the operating conditions of the object to be evaluated. (author)

  14. Residual stress distribution in austenitic stainless steel pipe butt-welded joint measured by neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Noda, Michiyasu; Oumaya, Toru; Takahashi, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Residual stress is inevitable consequence of welding or manufacturing process, which might greatly affect propagation of high-cycle fatigue or SCC crack. In order to evaluate damages due to the crack, it is required to estimate residual stress and to reflect them to the evaluation process as well. The magnitude and distribution of residual stress greatly depend on the individual process of welding or manufacturing, while the accuracy of prediction or measurement is still insufficient. This paper reports the result of residual stress measurement of butt-welded pipe made of austenitic stainless steel. It also intended to improve prediction and measurement techniques concerning to residual stress. The measurement was conducted by neutron diffraction technique employing the diffractometer for residual stress analysis developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The measured results showed typical characteristics of butt-welded pipe both in decline of stress along axial direction and in radial distribution of bending due to axial stress. The measured result agreed qualitatively with the result predicted by the finite element analysis. A quantitative comparison between measured result and analysis showed a shift of the measured stress toward higher tensile. The measured result was also compared with the results by X-ray diffraction and strain-gauge methods to grasp the distinctive results of the methods. (author)

  15. Neutron analyses for nuclear materials: texture, residual stresses and small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechade, J.L.; Carlan, Y. de; Mathon, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron techniques are very useful for metallurgical investigations of nuclear materials, bringing complementary results compared to others analysis techniques like XRD, TEM, APT. Especially, statistical information representative of the bulk material are obtained. In the first part of this article we recall the theoretical principles of neutron diffraction techniques and of the small angle neutron scattering technique (SANS). In the second part we review examples of neutron applications for texture measurements, stress determination and the microstructural characterisation by SANS, particularly for 2 main components of nuclear reactors: the pressure vessel (welding and base metal) and the fuel cladding

  16. Determination of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties using Neutron, X-ray Diffraction, Micro- and Nanoindentation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Cecilia

    2003-12-01

    The existence of residual stresses in engineering materials can significantly affect subsequent lifetime by augmenting or impeding failure. Consequently, for an accurate assessment of engineering lifetimes, there is a need to quantify residual stresses. Furthermore, knowledge of the origin of these stresses in conjunction with mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness, among others, can be used to improve functionality by tailoring the microstructure through processing. In this work, neutron, x-ray diffraction, micro- and nanoindentation techniques were used for residual stress determination and mechanical characterization of WC-Co functionally graded composites, a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy weld, compressed steel and compacted Fe-brass powders. The neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to assess residual strains and stresses while the instrumented indentation techniques were used to determine hardness, fracture toughness and elastic modulus. In each of these engineering materials, valuable insight relating to the overall mechanical performance was obtained. X-ray diffraction was used to determine thermal residual stresses that develop in a functionally graded WC-Co composite, commonly used as tool bits. Microstresses in the graded zone were attributed to the thermal mismatch between WC and the Co phase. The compressive macrostresses were determined to be a result of the compositional gradient. Micro- and nanoindentation experiments were used to determine hardness as a function of depth in two WC-Co functionally graded materials (FGMs). A relationship between hardness and Co phase content was established and explained for the two graded and five homogeneous samples. An experimental and simulation study of residual stresses was made in the vicinity of a gas tungsten arc weld in a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy used in a satellite component. The experimental measurements were made by neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned

  17. Residual stress in a laser welded EUROFER blanket module assembly using non-destructive neutron diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.J.; Koukovini-Platia, E.; Heeley, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Residual stresses were determined in a welded EUROFER blanket assembly with integrated cooling channels. • Good agreement was seen between experimentally determined and predicted stresses. • We show that microstructure changes that occur in EUROFER steels during welding must be considered for residual stress determination. • An experimental route is proposed for validation of predicted stresses in reactor components using non-destructive diffraction techniques. - Abstract: Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications

  18. The use of neutron diffraction for the determination of the in-depth residual stresses profile in weld coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Maria Jose; Batista, A.C.; Nobre, J.P.; Loureiro, Altino; Kornmeier, Joana R.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron diffraction is a non-destructive technique, particularly suitable for the analysis of residual stress fields in welds. The technique is used in this article to study ferritic samples, coated by submerged arc welding using stainless steel filler metals. This procedure is often used for manufacturing process equipment for chemical and nuclear industries, for ease of implementation and economic reasons. The main disadvantage of that processes is the cracking phenomenon that often occurs at the interface between the base material and coatings, which can be minimized by performing post-weld stress relief heat treatments. The samples analyzed in this study were made of carbon steel plates, coated by submerged arc welding two types of stainless steel filler metals. For the first layer was used one EN 12 072 - S 2 U 23 12 electrode, while for the second and third layers were used an EN 12 072 - 19 12 3 S L electrode. After cladding, the samples were submitted to a post-weld heat treatment for 1 hour at 620 deg C. The residual stress profiles obtained by neutron diffraction evidence the relaxation of residual stress given by the heat treatment. (author)

  19. Characterizing Phase Transformations and Their Effects on Ferritic Weld Residual Stresses with X-Rays and Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H.; Francis, J. A.; Stone, H. J.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Withers, P. J.

    2008-12-01

    Weld residual stresses often approach, or exceed, the yield strength of the material, with serious implications for the integrity of engineering structures. It is not always feasible to measure residual stresses, so integrity assessments often rely heavily on numerical models. In ferritic steels, the credibility of such models depends on their ability to account for solid-state phase transformations, which can have a controlling effect on the final residual stress state. Furthermore, a better understanding of weld transformations provides an opportunity to engineer the weld stress state and microstructure for improved life. In this article, the complementary merits of synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction are exploited both to verify and refine weld models and to inspire the development of weld filler metals to control weld stresses. In terms of weld filler metal design, X-ray diffraction is used to characterize phase transformations in real time during realistic weld cooling cycles, for understanding small-scale behavior and identifying features that need to be incorporated into finite-element models. Meanwhile, neutron diffraction is used to elucidate the practical consequences of solid-state phase transformations on the macroscopic scale, thereby providing crucial validatory structural integrity data.

  20. Residual stress in a laser welded EUROFER blanket module assembly using non-destructive neutron diffraction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, D J; Heeley, E L

    2014-01-01

    Whilst the structural integrity and lifetime considerations in welded joints for blanket modules can be predicted using finite element software, it is essential to prove the validity of these simulations. This paper provides detailed analysis for the first time, of the residual stress state in a laser-welded sample with integral cooling channels. State-of-the-art non-destructive neutron diffraction was employed to determine the triaxial stress state and to understand microstructural changes around the heat affected zone. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to probe the variation of strain-free lattice reference parameter around the weld zone allowing correction of the neutron measurements. This paper details an important experimental route to validation of predicted stresses in complex safety-critical reactor components for future applications.

  1. Evaluation of residual stress distribution of butt-weld pipe and redistribution behavior with crack extension using neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Hayashi, Makoto; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio; Ando, Kotoji

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress is known to be redistributed as a result of crack extension. The neutron diffraction method was used to evaluate this residual stress redistribution, using a specimen consisting of a butt-weld-jointed pipe made of type-304 austenitic stainless steel (inner diameter φ=97.1 mm, thickness t=8.9mm). Half-elliptical cracks were introduced by an electrical discharge machining at the inner surface of a heat-affected zone. The ratios of a/t, for crack depth a and specimen thickness t, were 0.25 and 0.5, with aspect ratios a/c, for crack half-length c, of 0.1 and 0.5 Comparing the residual stress distribution before and after the crack introduction showed that although the residual stress distribution along the line of the ligament at the deepest point of the crack changed slightly in front of the crack tip, it did not change throughout the ligament. This result shows that residual stress redistributes through-out in the whole crack tip region, including the width of the crack. (author)

  2. Analysis of residual stress in metal-inert-gas-welded Al-2024 using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Stelmukh, V.; Edwards, L.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to measure and map the full three-dimensional state of residual stress across the cross-section in coupon samples of metal-inert-gas (MIG)-welded 2024 aluminium alloy. Samples were analysed both as-welded and following a post-welding skim which served to remove the weld flash and reduce the plate thickness. The profile of the residual stress and its evolution following skimming has been accurately characterized. The longitudinal direction shows the highest residual stress, approaching 300 MPa in tension. The skimming treatment did not change the peak stress, but the overall profile of stress was altered: this is slightly unexpected as machining away stressed material would generally be expected to reduce the peak residual stress. The results are discussed in terms of the generation of stress during welding and its evolution during skimming. Finally a comparison is made with the stress generated in the as-welded and skimmed conditions of a variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA)-welded specimen of similar dimensions, to show the effects of different weld processes on the residual stress generated. The stress measurement in the VPPA sample was carried out under near identical experimental conditions

  3. As-Cast Residual Stresses in an Aluminum Alloy AA6063 Billet: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezet, J.-M.; Phillion, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of thermally induced residual stresses, created during the industrial direct chill (DC) casting process of aluminum alloys, can cause both significant safety concerns and the formation of defects during downstream processing. Although numerical models have been previously developed to compute these residual stresses, most of the computations have been validated only against measured surface distortions. Recently, the variation in residual elastic strains in the steady-state regime of casting has been measured as a function of radial position using neutron diffraction (ND) in an AA6063 grain-refined cylindrical billet. In the present study, these measurements are used to show that a well-designed thermomechanical finite element (FE) process model can reproduce relatively well the experimental results. A sensitivity analysis is then carried out to determine the relative effect of the various mechanical parameters when computing the as-cast residual stresses in a cylindrical billet. Two model parameters have been investigated: the temperature when the alloy starts to thermally contract and the plasticity behavior. It is shown that the mechanical properties at low temperatures have a much larger influence on the residual stresses than those at high temperatures.

  4. Effects of neutron radiation and residual stresses on the corrosion of welds in light water reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Bob van der; Gavillet, Didier; Lapena, Jesus; Ohms, Carsten; Roth, Armin; Dyck, Steven van

    2006-01-01

    After many years of operation in Light Water Reactors (LWR) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) of internals has been observed. In particular the heat-affected zone (HAZ) has been associated with IASCC attack. The welding process induces residual stresses and micro-structural modifications. Neutron irradiation affects the materials response to mechanical loading. IASCC susceptibility of base materials is widely studied, but the specific conditions of irradiated welds are rarely assessed. Core component relevant welds of Type 304 and 347 steels have been fabricated and were irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten to 0.3 and 1 dpa (displacement per atom). In-service welds were cut from the thermal shield of the decommissioned BR-3 reactor. Residual stresses, measured using neutron diffraction, ring core tests and X-ray showed residual stress levels up to 400 MPa. Micro-structural characterization showed higher dislocation densities in the weld and HAZ. Neutron radiation increased the dislocation density, resulting in hardening and reduced fracture toughness. The sensitization degree of the welds, measured with the electrochemical potentio-dynamic reactivation method, was negligible. The Slow Strain Rate Tensile (SSRT) tests, performed at 290 deg. C in water with 200 ppb dissolved oxygen, (DO), did not reveal inter-granular cracking. Inter-granular attack of in-service steel is observed in water with 8 ppm (DO), attributed not only to IASCC, but also to IGSCC from thermal sensitization during fabrication. Stress-relieve annealing has caused Cr-grain boundary precipitation, indicating the sensitization. The simulated internal welds, irradiated up to 1.0 dpa, did not show inter-granular cracking with 8 ppm DO. (authors)

  5. Neutron Diffraction Residual Strain Tensor Measurements Within The Phase IA Weld Mock-up Plate P-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has worked with NRC and EPRI to apply neutron and X-ray diffraction methods to characterize the residual stresses in a number of dissimilar metal weld mockups and samples. The design of the Phase IA specimens aimed to enable stress measurements by several methods and computational modeling of the weld residual stresses. The partial groove in the 304L stainless steel plate was filled with weld beads of Alloy 82. A summary of the weld conditions for each plate is provided in Table 1. The plates were constrained along the long edges during and after welding by bolts with spring-loaded washers attached to the 1-inch thick Al backing plate. The purpose was to avoid stress relief due to bending of the welded stainless steel plate. The neutron diffraction method was one of the methods selected by EPRI for non-destructive through thickness strain and stress measurement. Four different plates (P-3 to P-6) were studied by neutron diffraction strain mapping, representing four different welding conditions. Through thickness neutron diffraction strain mappings at NRSF2 for the four plates and associated strain-free d-zero specimens involved measurement along seven lines across the weld and at six to seven depths. The mountings of each plate for neutron diffraction measurements were such that the diffraction vector was parallel to each of the three primary orthogonal directions of the plate: two in-plane directions, longitudinal and transverse, and the direction normal to the plate (shown in left figure within Table 1). From the three orthogonal strains for each location, the residual stresses along the three plate directions were calculated. The principal axes of the strain and stress tensors, however, need not necessarily align with the plate coordinate system. To explore this, plate P-5 was selected for examination of the possibility that the principal axes of strain are not along the sample coordinate system axes. If adequate data could

  6. Multielement characterization of atmospheric pollutants by x-ray fluorescence analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancitelli, L.A.; Tanner, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of a wide spectrum of elements in aerosols collected on air filters and in rainwater can yield information on the origin, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants. In order to determine the elemental content of these aerosols, a pair of highly sensitive, precise and complementing instrumental techniques, x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis, have been developed and employed. Data are presented on the results of combined x-ray fluorescence and activation analysis of aerosols collected in a number of urban areas of the USA and from the 80th median sampling network in March 1972. From a comparison of these ratios in granite and diabase with those of filters placed in urban areas, it is evident that Zn, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb levels have been increased by as much as several orders of magnitude. Al, Co, La, Fe, Eu, Sm, Tb, Ta, Hf, and Th appear to exist at levels compatible with an earth's crust origin

  7. Assessment of the effects of atmospheric neutrons on onboard electronic equipment and search for hardening solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, S.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with the impact of atmospheric neutrons on complex electronic components such as built-in memories or processors. The first part describes the radiation environment, the neutron-matter interaction and the consequences on electronic devices, and presents the commonly used experimental simulations and the testing methods. The potential of laser beam for testing is highlighted. The second chapter presents the development of a testing platform for various types of memories (MRAM and SDRAM). The equipment and the dedicated software are described. A testing platform for processor is also presented. The third chapter is dedicated to the presentation of a 4 Mbit bulk-type SRAM memory and of its testing involving a laser beam equipment. Several results show the presence of error clusters that may endangered the memory as a whole. These error clusters are due to the architecture of the internal addressing scheme of the memory. The simulation of these error clusters must be improved in order to define an optimized strategy of hardening

  8. FEA predictions of residual stress in stainless steel compared to neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. [Finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flower, E.C.; MacEwen, S.R.; Holden, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    Residual stresses in a body arise from nonuniform plastic deformation and continue to be an important consideration in the design and the fabrication of metal components. The finite element method offers a potentially powerful tool for predicting these stresses. However, it is important to first verify this method through careful analysis and experimentation. This paper describes experiments using neutron and x-ray diffraction to provide quantitative data to compare to finite element analysis predictions of deformation induced residual stress in a plane stress austenitic stainless steel ring. Good agreement was found between the experimental results and the numerical predictions. Effects of the formulation of the finite element model on the analysis, constitutive parameters and effects of machining damage in the experiments are addressed.

  9. FEA predictions of residual stress in stainless steel compared to neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, E.C.; MacEwen, S.R.; Holden, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    Residual stresses in a body arise from nonuniform plastic deformation and continue to be an important consideration in the design and the fabrication of metal components. The finite element method offers a potentially powerful tool for predicting these stresses. However, it is important to first verify this method through careful analysis and experimentation. This paper describes experiments using neutron and x-ray diffraction to provide quantitative data to compare to finite element analysis predictions of deformation induced residual stress in a plane stress austenitic stainless steel ring. Good agreement was found between the experimental results and the numerical predictions. Effects of the formulation of the finite element model on the analysis, constitutive parameters and effects of machining damage in the experiments are addressed

  10. Use of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction for evaluation of residual stresses in a 2024-T351 aluminum alloy variable-polarity plasma-arc weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, S.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Edwards, L.

    2006-02-01

    The residual stress fields associated with variable-polarity plasma-arc (VPPA) welds in 2024-T351 aluminum alloy plates have been measured nondestructively using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Neutron diffraction allows in-depth measurements of the full strain tensor to be made in thick components; synchrotron X-rays allow for rapid measurements of strains inside components, although their penetration is less than that of the neutrons and constraints arising from the diffraction geometry generally lead to only two strain components being easily measurable. Hence, a combination of the two techniques, applied as described herein, is ideal for a detailed nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses in plates. The residual stresses in a 12-mm-thick VPPA-welded aluminum 2024-T351 alloy plate have been measured using neutron diffraction. The stresses were then remeasured by a combination of neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction after the plate had been reduced in thickness (or, skimmed) to 7 mm by machining both sides of the weld, mimicking the likely manufacturing operation, should such welds be used in aerospace structures. A strong tensile residual stress field was measured in the longitudinal direction, parallel to the weld, in both the as-welded and skimmed specimens. There was only a slight modification of the residual stress state on skimming.

  11. Comparison between Neutron Diffraction measurements and numerical simulation of residual stresses of a Wire-Drawing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz Fantin de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a drawing processed was simulated to calculate forces and the resulting residual stresses in the material. The calculated residual stresses were compared with experimentally measured residual stresses by the Neutron Diffraction Method. The modeled process was the Wire Drawing. The necessary parameters to model the process were taken from an industrial currently used process. Rods of an AISI 1045 steel with nominal diameters of 21.46 mm were reduced to 20.25 mm by drawing with an drawing angle of 15°. Compression tests were used to determinate flow curves of the real material an used in the simulation models. The possibility to estimate drawing forces by numerical simulation was evaluated by comparing simulated results with values from empirical equations given by the literature. The results have shown a sufficient accuracy for the calculation of forces, but the comparison of residual stresses has shown differences to the experimentally determined ones that can be minimized by the consideration of high strain rates in the compression tests, anisotropy of the material and kinematic hardening.

  12. Neutron diffraction residual stress analysis of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y-TZP ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, K.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Gurauskis, J.; Sanchez-Herencia, A. J.; Baudin, C.

    2016-05-01

    Residual stress measurements were conducted by time-of-flight neutron diffraction and Rietveld analysis method in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y-TZP ceramic composites fabricated by different green processing techniques (a novel tape casting and conventional slip casting) and with different Y-TZP content (5 and 40 vol.% Y-TZP). The results show that the residual stresses in Y-TZP particulates are tensile and the ones in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix are compressive, with almost flat through-thickness residual stress profiles in all bulk samples. As Y-TZP content increased, tension in Y-TZP phase was decreased but compression in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was increased (in absolute value). The values of residual stresses for both phases were mainly dependent on the Y-TZP content in the studied Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y-TZP composites, irrespective of sample orientation and fabrication processes (a novel tape casting and conventional slip casting). (Author)

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutyser, P.; Maenhaut, W.; Dams, R.

    1978-01-01

    An automated precipitation sampler and an instrumental neutron activation analysis (i.n.a.a.) method for the determination of some major and trace elements in dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water are presented. The sampler features a rain detector which makes separate collections of dry atmospheric fall-out and rain-water possible. The sampler is equipped with u.v. lamps in order to avoid algal growth during extended collection periods. After collection, the samples are separated into water-soluble and insoluble fractions. The soluble fraction is preconcentrated before analysis by freeze-drying. The i.n.a.a. method involves the measurement of both short- and long-lived radioactivities so that a total of 35 elements can be determined. The possibility of losses during freeze-drying and the accuracy of the i.n.a.a. method were investigated for 7 elements by analysis of a soluble fraction with an independent method, viz. inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. (Auth.)

  14. Trace element contents in atmospheric suspended particles: inferences from instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Boix, A.; Sanfeliu, T.; Martynov, V.V.; Piven, P.I.; Kabina, L.P.; Souschov, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of trace element concentrations in total suspended particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in two different areas in Northeastern Spain (a rural area influenced by the emissions of a large coal-fired power station, and the urban and industrial areas of Castellon). Total suspended particles were sampled by means of standard MCV high- and medium-volume captors, using cellulose membrane filters of 0.8 and 0.45 μm pore size. Preliminary research was performed on the homogeneous distribution of elements in the sample filters and on the study of blank filters for the calculations of the background average element contents. The results obtained allowed to distinguish different major anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the atmosphere at the sampling sites: (a) Zr, Hf, Sc, U and Th are related to atmospheric pollution derived from the ceramic industry of the Castellon area; (b) As, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se, Zn are related to traffic and other industrial emission in the Castellon area, and As, Cr, Sb and Zn to power generation emissions in the rural area. (orig.). With 3 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Neutron diffraction study of residual strains across electron beam welds in AISI 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braham, C.; Ceretti, M.; Coppola, R.; Lodini, A.; Rustichelli, F.; Tosto, S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of neutron diffraction investigation of the strains produced across an electron-beam (EB) weld in SA AISI 316L reference steel for NET are presented. The sample size was 10 x 5 x 3 cm 3 and the measurements have been carried out at different distances from the weld plane with a spatial resolution of approximately 8 mm 3 in the bulk of the material. Grain size and crystallographic texture effects were investigated, on the same sample, by means of X-ray diffraction and metallography. A method to determine the stress field from the neutron diffraction data even in the presence of strong texture is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Green's-function approach to the atmospheric albedo neutron-transport problem. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, D.R.

    1991-03-01

    This study investigated the reflection of neutron radiation off of the earth's upper atmosphere, with the goal of generating a quick-running computer algorithm to estimate the albedo free field flux at any point above the atmosphere. This thesis involved analytic development in the construction of the algorithm and employed Monte Carlo simulation for generating the energy and angle distributions of the reflected radiation. The Green's function approach to modeling the neutron transport process involved approximating each energy bin of the source spectrum as a Dirac pulse in energy and summing the contribution from each source bin. The computer program integrates over the surface of the atmosphere and uses the Monte Carlo data to calculate the albedo flux at any specified time and location. Run time was maximum of six minutes for a flux calculation, but a gain on the order of one thousand should be achieved on mainframe computer systems. The albedo flux from an instantaneous point source raises quickly to a maximum and then falls off over time. Albedo fluxes as much as 10(-16) (neutrons/square cm sec/source neutron) were calculated. The accuracy of the algorithm is greatly affected by the fineness of the energy bins involved.

  17. Residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction in laser and electron beam welded joints in 9Cr-1Mo(V, Nb) steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Bhanumurthy, K.; Dey, G.K.; Kundu, Amrita; Bouchard, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Residual stresses are invariably associated with welded joints and have serious implications for integrity of welded components in service conditions. Laser and electron beam welding produces weld joints with narrow fusion zone and heat affected zone. Therefore, there exists very high spatial gradient of residual stresses across the weld joints; measurement of which is indeed a challenging task. Residual stress measurements in laser and electron beam welded 9Cr-1Mo (V, Nb) steel plates were carried out by neutron diffraction. Measurements for laser welded plates were carried out using monochromatic neutron beam at ILL, France and that for electron beam welded plates were carried out using white neutron beam at ISIS, UK. Measurements were made across the weld joints as well as along the weld centre-line for the three orthogonal components-longitudinal, transverse and normal of the residual stress. The cross-weld residual stress profile showed a low tensile/compressive trough in the fusion zone and a high tensile peak on the either side of the joint in the parent metal just outside of metallurgical HAZ. Besides, longitudinal and normal components of the residual stress are significant while the transverse component is the least significant. Residual stress profiles showed very similar characteristics in the weld joints made by laser and electron beam welding processes. These results are presented in this paper and discussed in the context of the metallurgical attributes of the material

  18. Observation of the hot GDR in neutron-deficient thorium evaporation residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.P.; Back, B.B.; Carpenter, M.P.; Dioszegi, I.; Eisenman, K.; Heckman, P.; Hofman, D.J.; Kelly, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nanal, V.; Pennington, T.; Siemssen, R.H.; Thoennessen, M.; Varner, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    The giant dipole resonance built on excited states was observed in very fissile nuclei in coincidence with evaporation residues. The reaction 48 Ca+ 176 Yb populated evaporation residues of mass A=213-220 with a cross section of ∼200 μb at 259 MeV. The extracted giant dipole resonance parameters are in agreement with theoretical predictions for this mass region

  19. Investigation on the Residual Stress State of Drawn Tubes by Numerical Simulation and Neutron Diffraction Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Palkowski, Heinz; Br?ck, Sebastian; Pirling, Thilo; Carrad?, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Cold drawing is widely applied in the industrial production of seamless tubes, employed for various mechanical applications. During pre-processing, deviations in tools and their adjustment lead to inhomogeneities in the geometry of the tubes and cause a gradient in residuals. In this paper a three dimensional finite element (3D-FE)-model is presented which was developed to calculate the change in wall thickness, eccentricity, ovality and residual macro-stress state of the tubes, produced by c...

  20. Residual Stress in Wheels: Comparison of Neutron Diffraction and Ultrasonic Methods, with Trends in RCF

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Bevan, Adam; Zhang, S. Y; Kabra, S

    2014-01-01

    The critical damage mechanism on many GB passenger train wheels is Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) cracking in the rim. Evidence from field observations suggests that RCF damage occurs much more quickly as the wheelsets near the end of their life. Wheel manufacturing processes induce a compressive hoop stress in the wheel rim; variations in residual stress through the life of a wheel may influence the observed RCF damage rates.\\ud This paper describes experiments to measure residual stresses in...

  1. Measurement of residual stress fields in FHPP welding: a comparison between DSPI combined with hole-drilling and neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Matias R.; Albertazzi, Armando; Staron, Peter; Pisa, Marcelo

    2013-04-01

    This paper shows a portable device to measure mainly residual stress fields outside the optical bench. This system combines the traditional hole drilling technique with Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry. The novel feature of this device is the high degree of compaction since only one base supports simultaneously the measurement module and the hole-drilling device. The portable device allows the measurement of non-uniform residual stresses in accordance with the ASTM standard. In oil and gas offshore industries, alternative welding procedures among them, the friction hydro pillar processing (FHPP) is highlighted and nowadays is an important maintenance tool since it has the capability to produce structure repairs without risk of explosions. In this process a hole is drilled and filled with a consumable rod of the same material. The rod, which could be cylindrical or conical, is rotated and pressed against the hole, leading to frictional heating. In order to assess features about the residual stress distribution generated by the weld into the rod as well as into the base material around the rod, welded samples were evaluated by neutron diffraction and by the hole drilling technique having a comparison between them. For the hole drilling technique some layers were removed by using electrical discharge machining (EDM) after diffraction measurements in order to assess the bulk stress distribution. Results have shown a good agreement between techniques.

  2. Residual stress measurements on a stress relieved Zircaloy-4 weld by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1 Menai 2234, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: dgc@ansto.gov.au; Ripley, M.I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1 Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Brown, D.W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Vogel, S.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holden, T.M. [Northern Stress Technologies, Deep River, Ont., K0J 1P0 (Canada)

    2006-12-15

    The macroscopic stress distribution across an annealed Zircaloy-4 gas tungsten arc weld was measured by neutron time-of-flight diffraction at the SMARTS diffractometer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The stresses after annealing are about 40% lower than those in the same weld prior to heat treatment. The intergranular strains in the reference coupons, which give the macroscopic stress free lattice spacings, are consistent with the difference in cooling the strongly textured plate and the weakly textured weld.

  3. Neutron Diffraction Residual Stress Measurements in Key-Hole Laser Formed Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, A. M.; Suder, W.; Williams, S.

    2010-11-01

    There is a new generation of lasers available for materials processing. The new lasers include fibre and disc laser are characterized by very high beam quality at very high power levels providing extremely high energy density. In general laser welding is selected over other welding processes because of the minimisation of the heat input, residual stresses and distortion, for this reason they are increasingly popular over a wide range of industries. The narrowness of the welds makes it challenging to resolve the details of the residual stresses produced by the welding process. Residual strain/stress measurements of two specimens produced using the fibre laser were performed on Engin-X. Across the weld and through thickness distributions are reported in this paper.

  4. Residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction: Current possibilities and outlook to the future - Involvement of JRC-IE in the context of the ERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Neov, D.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is presented in this paper as a very powerful method for measuring residual stresses in crystalline material components. The paper presents the underlying principles for the application of the method. The evolution of this relatively young technique over the past 25 years is shown and developments in instrumentation and measurement possibilities are sketched, whereby a brief look into the future is taken. The neutron diffractometers employed at the High Flux Reactor of the JRC are described and some examples of residual stress measurements performed here are given. In some cases a comparison with numerical predictions is made. Finally, the role of the JRC as a facilitator of European and international collaboration in this research area is explained. The JRC has provided significant contributions to the standardization of the method, and for several years it has managed the European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity (NET). (authors)

  5. Single-Residue Sensitivity in Neutron Reflectivity and Resonant X-ray Reflectivity from Langmuir Monolayers of Synthetic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzalka, Joseph; Satija, Sushil; Dimasi, Elaine; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Gog, Thomas; Blasie, J. Kent

    2004-03-01

    Labeling groups with ^2H to distinguish them in the scattering length density (SLD) profile constitutes the chief advantage of neutron reflectivity (NR) in studying Langmuir monolayers (LM) of lipids and proteins. Solid phase synthesis (SPPS) permits the labeling of a single residue in a peptide. Recent work demonstrates the sensitivity of NR to single ^2H-labeled residues in LM of vectorially oriented α -helical bundle peptides. NR requires comparison of isomorphic samples of all-^1H and ^2H-labeled peptides. Alternately, resonant x-ray reflectivity (RXR) uses only one sample. RXR exploits energy-dependent changes in the scattering factor from heavy atoms to distinguish them within the SLD profile. Peptides may be labeled by SPPS (e.g. Br-Phe), or may have inherent labels (e.g. Fe in heme proteins). As test cases, we studied LM of Br-labeled lipids and peptides with RXR. Both approaches require a model-independent means of obtaining SLD profiles from the reflectivity data. We have applied box-refinement to obtain the gradient SLD profile. This is fit uniquely with a sum of Gaussians and integrated analytically [Blasie et al., PRB 67 224201 (2003)] to provide the SLD profile. Label positions can then be determined to sub-Ångstrom accuracy. This work supported by the NIH (GM55876).

  6. Residual Stresses in Thick Bi-metallic Fusion Welds: A Neutron Diffraction Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ohms, C.

    2013-01-01

    Welding is applied in many industrial sectors to join components, and has become an important manufacturing process because it enables the fabrication of structures that could not otherwise be constructed. Weld regions have inhomogeneous microstructures and are more susceptible to crack initiation and crack propagation than the surrounding base material regions. Residual stresses are also formed, which superimpose with applied loads, resulting in a reduction of the maximum applied load a comp...

  7. Comparison of Measured Residual Stress in an Extra Thick Multi-pass Weld Using Neutron Diffraction Method and Inherent Strain Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, JeongUng; An, GyuBaek; Woo, Wan Chuck

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of large-scale containership, a large amount of high-strength steels with extra thick plates is being extensively used. The welding stress existing in the extra thick welded plates has a significant effect on the integrity of the component in terms of brittle fracture and fatigue behavior. It has been reported that welding residual stress distribution in an extra thick plate can affect the propagation path of the crack. Therefore, it is important to measure the distribution of welding residual stresses for the reliable design of the welded structures. So far various researches have been carried out for the determination of residual stresses on the surface of steels. In this paper, the total residual stresses in the 70 mm thick multipass FACW butt joint were measured by integrating initial stress into ISM. Concretely, two methods named as initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were employed to determine the total residual stresses. Furthermore, the distributions of residual stresses were compared with the results of the Neutron Diffraction Method(NDM). In order to measure the three dimensional residual stresses in the welded joint with initial stresses existing before welding, initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM were developed. The residual stresses in 70 mm-thick butt joint by flux cored arc welding were carried out with a good accuracy using the two developed methods. The residual stresses in welded joint using both initial stress integrated ISM and initial inherent strain integrated ISM agreed well with the results measured by Neutron Diffraction Method. This suggests that the integrated ISM is a reliable method for residual stress measurement if initial stress existed

  8. Residual stress evaluation by neutron diffraction. Some industrial applications and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogante, M.

    2001-01-01

    Materials and components of technological and industrial interest can present Residual Stresses (RS), that can be generated during the manufacturing process - e. g. extruding, welding, and forging -, or as a consequence of plastic deformations or thermal treatments. When RS add to external loads, they can enhance fatigue processes, earlier inducing failure of the component. Examples of RS determination in industrial applications are reported: the one focuses on AA 6082 alloy extruded samples, the other on a 2,25Cr1Mo ferritic steel welded pipe after thermal treatment. Other examples are shown, successively, concerning particular industrial problems which need to be studied also by adopting the same technique. (R.P.)

  9. Neutron-diffraction measurements for residual stress analysis in automotive steel gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, G.; Bruno, G.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Manescu, A.; Marcantoni, M.; Turquier, F.

    Standard production and machining of automotive components is still attractive, although it is not cost-effective if the life of the component has the highest priority. An important parameter to increase the fatigue life of these components is the beneficial introduction of residual stress, especially in the most loaded superficial layers. The aim of the present study is to investigate the residual stress in two steel gears produced from extruded bars cut and machined and then submitted to tempering and nitriding. The results have been compared with those obtained on sintered, nitro-carburised steel gears manufactured using the net-shape forming technique. They show a higher tensile stress level in the bulk of the component with higher carbon and chromium content, that is, a strong influence of nitriding elements. Consequently, in the nitrided layers, the calculated compressive stresses reach relatively high values in an aluminium- and carbon-rich sample. These stresses are sensibly larger than those found in the sintered and nitro-carburised gears, both in the surface and in the bulk.

  10. Residual stress measurements in a ferritic steel/In625 superalloy dissimilar metal weldment using neutron diffraction and deep-hole drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skouras, A.; Paradowska, A.; Peel, M.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Pavier, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the use of non-invasive and semi-invasive techniques to measure the residual stresses in a large dissimilar weldment. This took the form of a butt weld between two sections of a P92 steel pipe, joined using an In625 welding consumable. Residual stress measurements have been carried out on the 30 mm thick welded pipe using the deep-hole drilling technique to characterise the through wall section residual stress distribution for the weld metal, HAZ and parent material. In addition, neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out within the weld zone. Diffraction patterns presented a high intensity and sharp peaks for the base P92 steel material. However measurements in the weld superalloy material were proven problematic as very weak diffraction patterns were observed. A thorough examination of the weld material suggested that the likely cause of this phenomenon was texture in the weld material created during the solidification phase of the welding procedure. This paper discusses the challenges in the execution and interpretation of the neutron diffraction results and demonstrates that realistic measurements of residual stresses can be achieved, in complex dissimilar metal weldments. Highlights: ► One of the few papers to measure residual stresses on dissimilar metal welds. ► Paper managed to provide realistic measurements of residual stresses using the DHD and ND technique. ► Results of this study have demonstrated the effect of texture during the ND measurements.

  11. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, M.N., E-mail: mjames@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Newby, M.; Doubell, P. [Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd, Lower Germiston Road, Rosherville, Johannesburg (South Africa); Hattingh, D.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen' s Building, University Walk, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique.

  12. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.N.; Newby, M.; Doubell, P.; Hattingh, D.G.; Serasli, K.; Smith, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of residual stress trends across bimetallic interface in stainless clad RPV. • Comparison between deep hole drilling (DHD – stress components in two directions) and neutron diffraction (ND – stress components in three directions). • Results indicate that both techniques can assess the trends in residual stress across the interface. • Neutron diffraction gives more detailed information on transient residual stress peaks. - Abstract: The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV steel. This work measures residual stresses using the deep hole drilling (DHD) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques and compares residual stress data obtained by the two methods in a stainless clad coupon of A533B Class 2 steel. The results give confidence that both techniques are capable of assessing the trends in residual stresses, and their magnitudes. Significant differences are that the ND data shows greater values of the tensile stress peaks (∼100 MPa) than the DHD data but has a higher systematic error associated with it. The stress peaks are sharper with the ND technique and also differ in spatial position by around 1 mm compared with the DHD technique

  13. Non destructive neutron diffraction measurements of cavities, inhomogeneities, and residual strain in bronzes of Ghiberti's relief from the Gates of Paradise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G.; Senesi, R.; Alessandroni, M.; Andreani, C.; Vitali, G.; Porcinai, S.; Giusti, A. M.; Materna, T.; Paradowska, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative neutron studies of cultural heritage objects provide access to microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic structures in a nondestructive manner. In this paper we present a neutron diffraction investigation of a Ghiberti Renaissance gilded bronze relief devoted to the measurement of cavities and inhomogeneities in the bulk of the sample, along with the bulk phase composition and residual strain distribution. The quantitative measurements allowed the determination of the re-melting parts extension, as well as improving current knowledge about the manufacturing process. The study provides significant and unique information to conservators and restorators about the history of the relief.

  14. Non destructive neutron diffraction measurements of cavities, inhomogeneities, and residual strain in bronzes of Ghiberti's relief from the Gates of Paradise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Senesi, R.; Alessandroni, M.; Andreani, C.; Vitali, G.; Porcinai, S.; Giusti, A. M.; Materna, T.; Paradowska, A. M.

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative neutron studies of cultural heritage objects provide access to microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic structures in a nondestructive manner. In this paper we present a neutron diffraction investigation of a Ghiberti Renaissance gilded bronze relief devoted to the measurement of cavities and inhomogeneities in the bulk of the sample, along with the bulk phase composition and residual strain distribution. The quantitative measurements allowed the determination of the re-melting parts extension, as well as improving current knowledge about the manufacturing process. The study provides significant and unique information to conservators and restorators about the history of the relief.

  15. Multi-scale Model of Residual Strength of 2D Plain Weave C/SiC Composites in Oxidation Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xihui; Sun, Zhigang; Sun, Jianfen; Song, Yingdong

    2017-02-01

    Multi-scale models play an important role in capturing the nonlinear response of woven carbon fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites. In plain weave carbon fiber/silicon carbon (C/SiC) composites, the carbon fibers and interphases will be oxidized at elevated temperature and the strength of the composite will be degraded when oxygen enters micro-cracks formed in the as-produced parts due to the mismatch in thermal properties between constituents. As a result of the oxidation on fiber surface, fiber shows a notch-like morphology. In this paper, the change rule of fiber notch depth is fitted by circular function. And a multi-scale model based upon the change rule of fiber notch depth is developed to simulate the residual strength and post-oxidation stress-strain curves of the composite. The multi-scale model is able to accurately predict the residual strength and post-oxidation stress-strain curves of the composite. Besides, the simulated residual strength and post-oxidation stress-strain curves of 2D plain weave C/SiC composites in oxidation atmosphere show good agreements with experimental results. Furthermore, the oxidation time and temperature of the composite are investigated to show their influences upon the residual strength and post-oxidation stress-strain curves of plain weave C/SiC composites.

  16. Neutron diffraction residual stress analysis of steel engineering components: a study of the elastic and plastic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the elastic and plastic anisotropy has been investigated in a welded pipe for nuclear applications (AISI 347) and in a welded plate for conventional power plants (Uni-Fe510D). The analysis has been performed exploiting neutron conventional and reverse time-of-flight spectra and comparing the single peak fit of some set of lattice planes with the Rietveld average. The results show that only some crystallographic directions (namely the left angle 311 right angle and the left angle 111 right angle for γ-Fe and left angle 211 right angle and the left angle 110 right angle for α-Fe) are in agreement with the average inherent in the Rietveld refinement. Those peaks are therefore recommended for residual stress analysis at steady state sources. The other peaks yield more scattered data (with higher statistical error), but allow spotting the influence of plastic anisotropy. The latter has a greater influence on all single peak data if the macroscopic stress exceeds the bulk yield strength. (orig.)

  17. Residual stresses and structural integrity in nuclear structural materials: recent developments and results from neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Daniels, JE

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made in the investigation of residual stresses over a variety of length scales in nuclear structural materials, ranging from stainless steels to hydrided zirconium alloys. In this manuscript we review some of these developments, such as, in-situ characterization of stresses at crack tips in steels and zirconium alloys, residual stresses around welds, and the characterization of hydrided zirconium alloys. Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction are essential and complementary tools in this approach, and their applicability to structural integrity issues is discussed in view of existing and future large-scale research facilities. (au)

  18. A fundamental study on measurement of internal residual stress of sintered Fe-Cr/TiN composite material with neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takago, Shigeki; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Hirose, Yukio; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    The Neutron diffraction technique was applied for the internal stress measurements of a composite material consisted of chromium alloy and titanium nitride manufactured by the powder metallurgy. The material has been developed for the valve seat insert of diesel engines in automobiles, because material has high wear-resistance and heat-resistance. In this study, the influence of the titanium nitride on the stresses in each phase was investigated. The Fe-Cr 200 diffraction peak occurs at 2θ=93.4 deg. and the TiN 311 diffraction peak at 2θ=109.5 deg are available. Neutron diffraction data obtained from both phases were compared to the Micromechanics model based on Eshelby's approach and the Mori-Tanaka theorem. It was found that experimental phase stress agrees well with the theoretical estimation. It has been shown that neutron diffraction method is suitable to determine the residual stress of composite materials. (author)

  19. Correlation of Magnetic Properties and Residual Stress Distribution Monitored by X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction in Welded AISI 1008 Steel Sheets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vourna, P.; Hervoches, Charles; Vrána, Miroslav; Ktena, A.; Hristoforou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2015), s. 6200104 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) * neutron diffraction (ND) * residual stress * X- ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015

  20. Residual stress determination by neutron diffraction in a car gear-shaft made of 20NiCrMo2 alloyed case hardening steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rogante, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2012), s. 213-220 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/12/1360 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : 20NiCrMo2 steel * gear-shaft * caser hardening * residual stress * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2012

  1. Residual elastic strain measurement in heat-treated and/or plastically deformed two-phase stainless steel by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjo, S.; Sato, Hideo; Tomota, Yo; Ono, Masayoshi

    1997-01-01

    The testing method of microscopic residual stress in commercial material using neutral diffraction is not established yet like that using x-ray diffraction. Then, in this research a microscopic residual stress of α/γ two phase Fe-Cr-Ni alloy convenient for an experiment was tried by using neutron diffraction, to investigate its testing method. And further, a test using x-ray diffraction was also conducted for their comparison. As a result, some problems in the residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction were summarized shown as follows. On precision of d 0 , since proper reference material was difficult for material M to provide, a preferable result could not be obtained in the stress measurement using PSD method. On curve fitting, by changing from a multi order function to a Voigt function by using the curve-fitting method, it was found that the peak could be fit better. Furthermore, on the problem of testing condition, because of weak intensity of the neutron source, it was necessary to use a monochromator capable of collecting incident beam like Bent crystal, and to improve sample setting, counter and slit. (G.K.)

  2. Neutron diffraction residual stress measurements on girth-welded 304 stainless steel pipes with weld metal deposited up to half and full pipe wall thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, R.D.; Hutchings, M.T.; James, J.A.; Ganguly, S.; Mizuno, R.; Ogawa, K.; Okido, S.; Paradowska, A.M.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The residual stress distribution has been measured in two girth-welded austenitic stainless steel pipe weldments using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. One had weld filler metal deposited up to half the pipe wall thickness, and one had weld metal deposited up to full pipe wall thickness. The aim of the work is to evaluate the evolution in residual stress profile on filling the weld, on which there is little experimental data, and where the selection of the correct hardening model used in finite element modelling can benefit greatly from an understanding of the intermediate residual stresses partway through the welding operation. The measured residual stresses are compared with those calculated by finite element modelling and measured using X-ray diffraction. The results show a change in the measured hoop stress at the weld toe from tension to compression between the half- and fully-filled weld. The finite element results show an overprediction of the residual stress, which may be a consequence of the simple isotropic hardening model applied. The results have implications for the likely occurrence of stress corrosion cracking in this important type of pipe-to-pipe weldment. Highlights: ► 304 steel girth welded with weld metal to half and full pipe wall thickness. ► Residual stresses measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction, and modelled by FE. ► Weld toe residual σ hoop changes from tensile to compressive from half to fully-filled. ► FE model for the fully-filled weld gives higher stress levels than those measured. ► Discrepancy is attributed to the isotropic hardening model used.

  3. Investigation of hydrophobic substrates for solution residue analysis utilizing an ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge microplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, Htoo W; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2018-03-12

    A practical method for preparation of solution residue samples for analysis utilizing the ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (AD-LS-APGD-OES) microplasma is described. Initial efforts involving placement of solution aliquots in wells drilled into copper substrates, proved unsuccessful. A design-of-experiment (DOE) approach was carried out to determine influential factors during sample deposition including solution volume, solute concentration, number of droplets deposited, and the solution matrix. These various aspects are manifested in the mass of analyte deposited as well as the size/shape of the product residue. Statistical analysis demonstrated that only those initial attributes were significant factors towards the emission response of the analyte. Various approaches were investigated to better control the location/uniformity of the deposited sample. Three alternative substrates, a glass slide, a poly(tetrafluoro)ethylene (PTFE) sheet, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated glass slide, were evaluated towards the microplasma analytical performance. Co-deposition with simple organic dyes provided an accurate means of determining the location of the analyte with only minor influence on emission responses. The PDMS-coated glass provided the best performance by virtue of its providing a uniform spatial distribution of the residue material. This uniformity yielded an improved limits of detection by approximately 22× for 20 μL and 4 x for 2 μL over the other two substrates. While they operate by fundamentally different processes, this choice of substrate is not restricted to the LS-APGD, but may also be applicable to other AD methods such as DESI, DART, or LIBS. Further developments will be directed towards a field-deployable ambient desorption OES source for quantitative analysis of microvolume solution residues of nuclear forensics importance.

  4. Neutron Scattering of Residual Hydrogen in 1,4-Dioxane-D8 Liquid. Understanding Measurements with Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Hongjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kidder, Michelle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-25

    That incoherent scattering from protiated molecular liquids adds a constant background to the measured scattering intensity is well known, but less appreciated is the fact that coherent scattering is also induced by the presence of hydrogen in a deuterated liquid. In fact, the scattering intensity can be very sensitive, in the small-q region, with respect to the amounts and distribution of residual H in the system. We used 1,4-dioxane liquid to demonstrate that the partial structure factors of the HD and DD atom pairs contribute significantly to inter-molecular scattering and that uncertainty in the extent of deuteration account for discrepancies between simulations and measurements. Both contributions to uncertainty have similar magnitudes: scattering interference of the hydrogen-deuterium pair, and complementary interference from the deuterium-deuterium pair by virtue of chemical inhomogeneity. This situation arises in practice since deuteration of liquids is often 99% or less. A combined experimental and extensive computational study of static thermal neutron scattering of 1,4-dioxane demonstrates the foregoing. We show, through simulations, that the reason for the differences is the content of protiated dioxane (vendors quote 1%). We estimate that up to 5% (at 298K and at 343K) protiated mole fraction may be involved in generating the scattering differences. Finally, we find that the particular distribution of hydrogen in the protiated molecules affects the results significantly; here we considered molecules to be either fully protiated or fully deuterated. This scenario best reconciles the computational and experimental results, and leads us to speculate that the deuteration synthesis process tends to leave a molecule either fully deuterated or fully protiated. Although we have used 1,4-dioxane as a model liquid, the effects described in this study extend to similar liquids and similar systematic experimental/computational studies can be performed to either

  5. Application of nickel nanoparticles as catalyst in the viscosity reduction of Venezuelan atmospheric residues by water reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golindano, T.; Martinez, S.; Pimentel, M.; Segovia, X.; Pena, J.P.; Sanchez, R.; Sardella, R. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Dept. of Residue and Heavy Crude Processing; Canizales, E. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). INTEVEP Dept. of Analytics

    2009-07-01

    A catalytic upgrading process for extra-heavy crude oil was presented. Nickel nanoparticles were combined with transition metals and used as a catalyst for a water reformation process used to reduce oil viscosity. Thermal and catalytic process experiments were conducted in order to determine the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were dispersed in gasoil in order to promote better interactions between the heavy feeds and the catalyst. The nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and chemical analyses. The study showed that the nanoparticles increased the conversion rate from 14.6 p/p to 37.4 p/p. Bottom products generated by the catalytic process were of higher quality than products produced using thermal processing techniques. It was concluded that the nanostructured materials diminished the viscosity of the atmospheric residue. 5 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Determination of chlorantraniliprole residues in crops by liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joann; Rodgers, Carol A; Chickering, Clark D; Hill, Sidney J; Stry, James J

    2010-01-01

    An analytical method is presented for the determination of chlorantraniliprole residues in crops. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from crop matrixes with acetonitrile after a water soak. The extracts were passed through a strong anion-exchange (SAX) SPE cartridge stacked on top of a reversed-phase (RP) polymer cartridge. After both cartridges were rinsed and vacuum-dried, the SAX cartridge was removed, and chlorantraniliprole was eluted from the RP polymer cartridge with acetonitrile. The acetonitrile eluate was evaporated to dryness, reconstituted, and analyzed using an LC/MS/MS instrument equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The method was successfully validated at 0.010, 0.10, and 10 mg/kg for the following crop matrixes: potatoes, sugar beets (tops), lettuce, broccoli, soybeans, soybean forage, tomatoes, cucumbers, oranges, apples, pears, peaches, almonds (nutmeat), rice grain, wheat grain, wheat hay, corn stover, alfalfa forage, cottonseed, grapes, and corn grain. The average recoveries from all crop samples fortified at the method LOQ ranged from 91 to 108%, with an overall average recovery of 97%. The average recoveries from all crop samples fortified at 10 times the method LOQ ranged from 89 to 115%, with an overall average recovery of 101%. For all of the fortified control samples analyzed in this study, the overall average recovery was 99%.

  7. The 2D-Micro Hole & Strip Plate in CF4 atmosphere aiming neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal da Luz, H.; Gouvêa, A. L.; Mir, J. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Micro Hole & Strip Plate (MHSP) achieves gains above 300 in tetrafluoromethane (CF4) at 2.6 bar, making it suitable for neutron detection. Over the past few years, the imaging capabilities of the MHSP have been developed, leading to the 2D-MHSP. In this device, the position coordinates are determined using the principle of resistive charge division. The GEM-side was specially patterned in strips interconnected by a resistive strip for one of the coordinates and, in the MS-side, the anode strips were also interconnected by another resistive strip. By applying a trivial center of mass algorithm it is possible to obtain both coordinates and the energy of each detected event. The ability to register position and energy for each event can be very useful for event validation in neutron detection. In this work, the performance of the 2D-MHSP in CF4 is investigated. The Modular Transfer Function (MTF) is presented, showing that position resolutions of 700μm in x and 1 mm in the y-direction are obtained with X-rays. It is also demonstrated that resolutions below the proton range (1 mm) are possible at 2.6 bar CF4, demonstrating that the MHSP can be a cost effective choice for neutron imaging.

  8. NET TG1: Residual stress assessment by neutron diffraction and finite element modeling on a single bead weld on a steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Wimpory, R.C.; Katsareas, D.E.; Youtsos, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the efforts of Task Group 1 (TG1) of the European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity (NET), the Joint Research Centre (JRC) participated in the experimental round robin campaign for residual stress analysis on a single weld bead on a steel plate. In parallel, the University of Patras (UP), in collaboration with the JRC, contributed to the corresponding numerical analysis round robin exercise. Neutron diffraction measurements were performed on a specimen, designated as A12, using the residual stress diffractometer at beam tube HB5 at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, The Netherlands. Several line scans of strains and stresses were performed in accordance with an experimental protocol devised for this exercise and their results are presented in this paper. Two scans were made along the weld longitudinal direction beneath the upper surface of the plate, three were made in the weld transverse direction, and three through the thickness of the plate. The measured residual stresses are presented in detail. The measurements confirm that the stress distribution around this single weld bead on a plate is intrinsically 3-dimensional. The procedure followed by UP in the numerical assessment of the problem is presented in detail. The numerical results are presented in direct comparison to the JRC measurement data

  9. Application of neutron diffraction to the characterization of residual thermal strains in YBa2Cu3O7-δ/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Singh, J.P.; Faber, J. Jr.; Hitterman, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Additions of silver (Ag) have been reported to improve the mechanical properties of high-temperature superconductor by YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (abbreviated YBCO). However, during fabrication of YBCO/Ag composites, differential thermal expansion upon cooling can lead to potentially troublesome residual stresses. The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source and General Purpose Powder Diffractometer at Argonne National Laboratory were used to show that neutron diffraction techniques can be applied to YBCO/Ag composites to measure bulk residual strains in the constituent parts, and to determine the effect of Ag on stoichiometry (and thus on the critical current density). We have observed residual tensile strains in Ag as a function of crystallographic direction; three strains range from as high as 0.085% in 15% Ag samples to as low as about 0.02% in a 30% Ag sample. Compressive strains in the YBCO (111) crystallographic direction were approximated by correcting for the diffraction peak shift due to changes in stoichiometry with varying Ag content. The estimated compressive-strain values vary from 0.04% (15% Ag) to 0.09% (20% Ag) to 0.01% (30% Ag), with an uncertainty of about 0.03%. The presence of significant average tensile strain in the Ag, particularly for 15% and 20% Ag samples, indicates good interface bonding between YBCO and Ag

  10. Mannobiose Binding Induces Changes in Hydrogen Bonding and Protonation States of Acidic Residues in Concanavalin A As Revealed by Neutron Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlits, Oksana O. [UT/ORNL; Coates, Leighton [Biology; Woods, Robert J. [Complex; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Biology

    2017-08-30

    Plant lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with various biomedical applications. Concanavalin A (Con A) holds promise in treating cancerous tumors. To better understand the Con A carbohydrate binding specificity, we obtained a room-temperature neutron structure of this legume lectin in complex with a disaccharide Manα1–2Man, mannobiose. The neutron structure afforded direct visualization of the hydrogen bonding between the protein and ligand, showing that the ligand is able to alter both protonation states and interactions for residues located close to and distant from the binding site. An unprecedented low-barrier hydrogen bond was observed forming between the carboxylic side chains of Asp28 and Glu8, with the D atom positioned equidistant from the oxygen atoms having an O···D···O angle of 101.5°.

  11. Residual stress characterization in low transformation temperature 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel weld by neutron diffraction and the contour method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, Denis; Bocher, Philippe; Thomas, Marc; Gharghouri, Michael; Cote, Marjolaine

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the results of residual stress characterization by neutron diffraction and the contour method on 13%Cr-4%Ni welds made using 410NiMo weld filler metal. The transverse, longitudinal and normal components of stress were determined by neutron diffraction. The longitudinal stress distribution was also measured by the contour method. The last bead of the weld was found to be in a state of triaxial compression while a part of the heat-affected zone as well as a region beneath the weld were in a state of longitudinal tension. These results are explained with reference to the low martensitic transformation start temperature (M s ) of the alloy. The same measurements were made on an identical weld that had undergone a standardized post-weld heat treatment. The maximum tensile stress was reduced from 534 to 136 MPa, and the maximum compressive stress was reduced from 371 to 152 MPa.

  12. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Serbia Studied by Moss Biomonitoring, Neutron Activation Analysis and GIS Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frontasyeva, M V; Kumar, M; Matavuly, M; Pavlov, S S; Radnovic, D; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    The results of a pilot study on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements using the moss biomonitoring technique in the northern part of Serbia and some areas of Bosnia are presented. Samples of Hypnum cupressiforme along with some other moss types were collected at 92 sites during the summer of 2000. A total of 44 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons. The observed levels of Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, etc. in the area surrounding the town of Bor (Serbia) are comparable to those reported from similar industrial areas in other countries such as the Copper Basin in Poland and the South Urals of Russia. In the same region the maximum Se and Mo concentrations are the highest ever recorded in biomonitoring studies using mosses. High median concentrations of Fe and Ni in Serbian mosses are associated with a crustal component as apparent from factor analysis of the moss data. This component could be a result of windblown soil dust (most ...

  13. Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.holmberg@swerea.se [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); University West, 461 86 Trollhättan (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Stormvinter, Albin; Kristoffersen, Hans [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden); Haakanen, Merja [Stresstech OY, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40 800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Berglund, Johan [Swerea IVF AB, Argongatan 30, 431 22 Mölndal (Sweden)

    2016-06-14

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  14. Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Jonas; Steuwer, Axel; Stormvinter, Albin; Kristoffersen, Hans; Haakanen, Merja; Berglund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  15. As-Cast Residual Stresses in an Aluminum Alloy AA6063 Billet: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Drezet, Jean-Marie; Phillion, André

    2010-01-01

    The presence of thermally induced residual stresses, created during the industrial direct chill (DC) casting process of aluminum alloys, can cause both significant safety concerns and the formation of defects during downstream processing. Although numerical models have been previously developed to compute these residual stresses, most of the computations have been validated only against measured surface distortions. Recently, the variation in residual elastic strains in the steady-state regim...

  16. Study of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yangshao

    1994-01-01

    Aerosol samples were collected to study the characteristics of marine aerosols in the different western Pacific ocean areas. During the first cruise from 15 October to 25 November 1989, aerosol samples were collected with a kA-200 Andersen cascade impactor and a kB-120 sampler. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine the elemental composition of the aerosols. The concentrations of crustal and pollution elements in aerosols were higher over the ocean area close to the China coast and decreased very rapidly with increasing distance from land. The morphology and elemental composition of aerosol particles showed that the seasalt particles may conglomerate with small crustal and pollution particles from land to form large particles. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. The Catalytic Activity of Modified Zeolite Lanthanum on the Catalytic Cracking of Al-Duara Atmospheric Distillation Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Khalifa Esgair

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric residue fluid catalytic cracking was selected as a probe reaction to test the catalytic performance of modified NaY zeolites and prepared NaY zeolites. Modified NaY zeolites have been synthesized by simple ion exchange methods. Three samples of modified zeolite Y have been obtained by replacing the sodium ions in the original sample with lanthanum and the weight percent added are 0.28, 0.53, and 1.02 respectively. The effects of addition of lanthanum to zeolite Y in different weight percent on the cracking catalysts were investigated using an experimental laboratory plant scale of fluidized bed reactor. The experiments have been performed with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV range of 6 to 24 h-1, and the range of temperature from 450 to 510 oC. The activity of the catalyst with 1.02 wt% lanthanum has been shown to be much greater than that of the sample parent NaY. Also it was observed that the addition of the lanthanum causes an increase in the thermal stability of the zeolite.

  18. Neutron diffraction investigations on residual stresses contributing to the fatigue crack growth in ferritic steel tubular bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Claire; Evans, Alexander; Nussbaumer, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth observed in tubular K-joint specimens, typical of tubular bridge structures, always initiates at the chord crown toe locations whether the applied stress range is tensile or compressive. Even though other locations around the weld have highest hot-spot stresses, chord crown toe locations are still the most critical. This raises the question about the relevant tensile residual stress level at that location. The results of residual stress investigations, obtained using neut...

  19. Development of nondestructive hybrid measuring method for three-dimensional residual stress distribution of thick welded joint. Hybrid measuring method of inherent strain method and neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Kasahara, Norifumi; Tamura, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    The measuring methods of the residual stress are classified into destructive one and nondestructive one. The inherent strain method (ISM) is destructive one. The neutron diffraction method (NDM) is nondestructive one. But the measurable depth is limited within about 20 mm and the method cannot measure the weld zone, without destruction of the object. So, in this study, the hybrid measuring method has been developed, by combining the ISM and the NDM. The theory of the hybrid method is the same as the ISM. In the analysis, the strains measured by the NDM without destruction are used. This hybrid measuring method is a true nondestructive measuring method for a thick welded joint. The applicability of the hybrid method has been verified by simulation, using a butt welded joint of thick pipes. In the simulation, the reliable order of the strains measured by the present NDM is very important, and was considered as 10 micro. The measurable regions by the present NDM were assumed. Under the above conditions, the data (the residual elastic strains assumed to be measured by the NDM) were made, and used in the ISM. As a result of such simulation, it has been cleared that the estimated residual stress has very high accuracy, if enough data are used. The required number of data is less than the ISM. (author)

  20. Neutron Diffraction Measurement of Residual Stresses, Dislocation Density and Texture in Zr-bonded U-10Mo ''Mini'' Fuel Foils and Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Donald W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Okuniewski, M. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sisneros, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, G. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Balogh, L [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2014-08-07

    Aluminum clad monolithic uranium 10 weight percent molybdenum (U-10Mo) fuel plates are being considered for conversion of several research and test nuclear reactors from high-enriched to low-enriched uranium fuel due to the inherently high density of fissile material. Comprehensive neutron diffraction measurements of the evolution of the textures, residual phase stresses, and dislocation densities in the individual phases of the mini-foils throughout several processing steps and following hot-isostatic pressing to the Al cladding, have been completed. Recovery and recrystallization of the bare U-10Mo fuel foil, as indicated by the dislocation density and texture, are observed depending on the state of the material prior to annealing and the duration and temperature of the annealing process. In general, the HIP procedure significantly reduces the dislocation density, but the final state of the clad plate, both texture and dislocation density, depends strongly on the final processing step of the fuel foil. In contrast, the residual stresses in the clad fuel plate do not depend strongly on the final processing step of the bare foil prior to HIP bonding. Rather, the residual stresses are dominated by the thermal expansion mismatch of the constituent materials of the fuel plate.

  1. Study of occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at an iron and steel complex by using neutron activation analysis of scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Z.F.; Qian, Q.F.; Feng, X.Q.; Zhang, P.Q.; Liu, N.Q.; Feng, W.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken. (author)

  2. The determination of pesticide residues and contaminants in vegetables by means of neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear detection and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolphanta, S.

    1977-11-01

    Neutron activation techniques have been applied to study the existence of pesticide residues (As, Br, Hg) and pollutants (Cd, Co, Zn) in local vegetable and fruit samples, polished and unpolished glutinous and non-glutinous milled rice, and fish caught in polluted and unpolluted areas of the Gulf of Thailand. Since the baseline levels of these toxic elements in vegetables, fruits, rice and fish are not known as yet, the results cannot be regarded as conclusive. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the concentration of these elements in fish caught in polluted and unpolluted areas. The Gulf of Thailand does not therefore appear to be polluted at present. The substoichiometric isotope dilution technique was successfully applied to mercury determinations, and only to a limited extent to Cd due to shutdown of the TRR-1 reactor

  3. Neutron and X-ray diffraction analysis of residual stresses in cold-rolled pearlitic steel sheet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seefeldt, M.; Walentek, A.; Van Houtte, P.; Vrána, Miroslav; Lukáš, Petr

    524/525, - (2006), s. 375-380 ISSN 0255-5476 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : pearlitic steel sheet * cold rolling * residual stresses Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  4. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of heat treatment effectiveness in generating compressive residual stress in an automotive crown gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pyzalla, A.; Quadrini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Thermal austenitizing and tempering treatments are being developed in automotive industry to prevent crack initiation and avoid crack propagation, especially in components where stress intensity factors influence the stress field and then the fatigue life of the component itself. This is the case of crown gears, where the teeth root undergoes frequently to cracking when tensile residual stresses are present at the surface, as typical loads are impulsive and very high. The sign reversal of these stresses is the aim of austenitizing and tempering treatments. In this work residual stress measurements carried out at HMI-BENSC are presented, in a UNI55Cr3 steel crown gear submitted to such kind of treatments, performed with a new multi-frequency induction technique whose effectiveness is checked. (author)

  5. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in large zirconia based refractory bricks produced by electro-fusion and casting

    OpenAIRE

    ÖRS , Taylan; Gouraud , Fanny; Guinebretière , René; HUGER , Marc; Michel , Vincent; Castelnau , Olivier

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Electro-fusion and casting is used to produce large refractory bricks (∼250 kg) containing a high amount of ZrO2. These bricks are used in glass-making furnaces where good mechanical performance is required at very high temperatures (>1500 °C). During the manufacturing procedure, they develop large residual stresses as a result of the cooling conditions and structural phase transformations they underwent. This leads to stress concentration and crack formation at differ...

  6. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stress distribution in large zirconia based refractory bricks produced by electro-fusion and casting

    OpenAIRE

    ÖRS, Taylan; GOURAUD, Fanny; GUINEBRETIÈRE, René; HUGER, Marc; MICHEL, Vincent; CASTELNAU, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Electro-fusion and casting is used to produce large refractory bricks (∼250 kg) containing a high amount of ZrO2. These bricks are used in glass-making furnaces where good mechanical performance is required at very high temperatures (>1500 °C). During the manufacturing procedure, they develop large residual stresses as a result of the cooling conditions and structural phase transformations they underwent. This leads to stress concentration and crack formation at different length scales. In or...

  7. The Optical/UV Excess of X-Ray-dim Isolated Neutron Stars. I. Bremsstrahlung Emission from a Strangeon Star Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weiyang; Lu, Jiguang; Men, Yunpeng; Xu, Renxin [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tong, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Ge, Mingyu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Zhaosheng, E-mail: r.x.xu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2017-03-01

    X-ray-dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are characterized by Planckian spectra in X-ray bands, but show optical/ultraviolet (UV) excesses: the factors by which the measured photometry exceeds those extrapolated from X-ray spectra. To solve this problem, a radiative model of bremsstrahlung emission from a plasma atmosphere is established in the regime of a strangeon star. A strangeon star atmosphere could simply be regarded as the upper layer of a normal neutron star. This plasma atmosphere, formed and maintained by the interstellar-medium-accreted matter due to the so-called strangeness barrier, is supposed to be of two temperatures. All seven XDINS spectra could be well fitted by the radiative model, from optical/UV to X-ray bands. The fitted radiation radii of XDINSs are from 7 to 13 km, while the modeled electron temperatures are between 50 and 250 eV, except RX J0806.4–4123, with a radiation radius of ∼3.5 km, indicating that this source could be a low-mass strangeon star candidate. This strangeon star model could further be tested by soft X-ray polarimetry, such as the Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe, which is expected to be operational on China’s space station around 2020.

  8. Evaporation residue cross sections and average neutron multiplicities in the /sup 64/Ni+/sup 92/Zr and /sup 12/C+/sup 144/Sm reactions leading to /sup 156/Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Holzmann, R.; Henning, W.; Khoo, T.L.; Lesko, K.T.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Radford, D.C.; Van den Berg, A.M.; Kuehn, W.; Ronningen, R.M.

    1986-11-27

    Evaporation residue cross sections and neutron multiplicity distributions have been measured for the /sup 12/C+/sup 144/Sm and /sup 64/Ni+/sup 92/Zr reactions leading to the same compound nucleous /sup 156/Er. Statistical model calculations can account for the data in the /sup 12/C-induced reaction. In contrast, the inhibition of neutron emission with respect to statistical model predictions seen in /sup 64/Ni+/sup 92/Zr cannot be explained even with the inclusion of the broad angular momentum distributions required to describe the fusion cross section data.

  9. The high pressure liquid chromatography and its application to the separation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric dust and burning residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.-C.

    1975-09-01

    A new technique of analysis is described: the high speed liquid chromatography or more exactly the high performance liquid chromatography because of the progress achieved on the new packings of the columns. The main types of chromatography, according to the phenomena involved are described: adsorption, partition, ion-exchange and exclusion chromatography. A brief outline is given of the theory for determination of stationary and mobile phases in order to obtain the optimum conditions of separation. Some exemples of possible applications are given, particularly the use of this technique for the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric pollution and burning residues [fr

  10. Residual-Charge Induced Memory Effect of Electric Polarization in Multiferroic CuFe1-xGaxO2 as Seen via Polarized Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Taro; Mitsuda, Setsuo; Yamazaki, Hiroe; Matsuura, Masato

    2013-02-01

    We have investigated ferroelectric polarization memory effect in a magneto-electric (ME) multiferroic CuFe1-x GaxO2 (CFGO) with x=0.035, which exhibits a spin-driven ferroelectric phase below TC˜ 7 K in zero magnetic field. In a previous study on CFGO(x=0.035), we have reported that the ferroelectric polarization induced by an applied electric field is retrieved after heating the sample to a non-ferroelectric high-temperature phase and then cooling down to the ferroelectric phase without electric field. [Mitsuda et al. Physica B 404 (2009) 2532] By measuring thermally stimulated electric current in detail, the previous study has elucidated that residual charges trapped in the sample are relevant to the memory effect. In the present study, we have performed polarized neutron diffraction measurements on CFGO(x=0.035) with applied electric fields, in order to investigate the multiferroic domain structure, which can reflect spatial distribution of internal electric fields due to the trapped charges. The present results have shown that the effect of the internal electric fields is significantly different from that of the ``uniform'' electric field applied on the first cooling. To explain the present results, we suggest a model that the residual charges are trapped on boundaries between the three types of magnetic domains originating from the trigonal symmetry of the crystal, implying that the presence of the bound charges of the ferroelectric polarization on the domain boundaries is a key to the memory effect in this system.

  11. Thermostrengthening modes in getting heat-strengthened pellets in weak oxidizing atmosphere with residual carbon for blast furnace melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Євген Валерійович Чупринов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the laboratory tests, that are close to industrial modes of bowl pelletizers and roasting bowl operations, thermostrengthening modes of raw pellets have been worked out and selected, the main technological feature of the pellets being the presence of rolled up solid fuel. The results, obtained in the tests, showed that the selected modes make it possible to get heat-strengthened pellets with the maximum amount of residual carbon in the final product. The results, demonstrating the effect of the heating rate on the process parameters, in particular, on the content of residual carbon in the obtained heat-strengthened pellets are important. It has been shown that increasing the heating rate of raw pellets from 100 to 500°C/min, and cooling rate of the heat-strengthened pellets from 100 to 600°C/min with decreasing oxygen content in the heat-carrying agent for gas burning in the burners and cooling gas from 21% to 10,3-5,1% make it possible to increase the content of residual carbon in the heat-strengthened pellets from 0,8-1,9% to 3,5-3,7%. The obtained heat-strengthened pellets with the residual carbon not only satisfy all the requirements of the blast furnace melting, but also possess better metallurgical characteristics than oxidized heat-strengthened pellets

  12. Report on the workshop on neutrons for engineering and its conclusions regarding the residual-stress diffractometer at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to: inform the Australian research organizations and universities of the capabilities of an engineering and materials science instrument; promote the use of neutron diffraction to map and investigate strains/stresses in materials and components for industrial applications and research; identify the future needs and opportunities in this area; present the options for a stress mapping diffractometer at the Replacement Research Reactor and receive feedback on these options; identify the ancillary equipment and facilities required. Presented papers and discussions at the workshop indicated that there are a number of important benefits to Australia in the building of a first-class instrument for materials science and engineering and many residual stress-related problems in a wide variety of fields in Australia, such as the manufacturing industries, mining, oil and gas, rail transport, defense and life extension. Stress scanning provides another tool for solving problems to complement facilities at the major research institutes, CSIRO, AMIRA, DSTO, ANSTO and the universities. It will create a regional pool of experts who may tap into the pool of expertise internationally. The turn around time for tests for Australian customers will be reduced thus avoiding having to go overseas to have the tests performed. From an educational perspective the instrument will build expertise in Australia and will help to attract graduates into engineering. A detailed list of the attendees and affiliations is in Appendix C

  13. Measurement of the Residual Gases O2 and CO2 in Meat Products Packed in Modified Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čapla

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, consumers have increased demand for quality and food safety and also rising demand for natural foods without chemical additives. There are many ways to presserve freshness of these products, one of them is modified atmosphere packaging, which can mean elimination and/or replacement surrounding the product before closing it in package with a mixture of gases other than the original ambient air atmosphere. for replacement of atmosphere are generally used three types of gases such as carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. this type of packaging is often used for meat and meat products, which belongs to foods that are under normal conditions perishable and for increasing the shelf life of meat products are also used various other preservation methods or their combinations. Packaging of meat and meat products in modified atmosphere is usually made with a high content of carbon dioxide, which has good bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect and is also an effective mean for increasing the shelf life of packaged products during storage and sale.

  14. Determination of elements in the atmosphere of Valle de Toluca by Neutron Activation (July 1992 - April 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, I.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue with the environmental monitoring program of Valle de Toluca by means of the Neutron Activation Analysis and atomic absorption techniques. The analytical results corresponding to the period of July 1992 to April 1993, and the analyzed elements by Neutron Activation were Na, V, Br, Al and Mn, while Cr and Pb were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Since the study is a joint project with the Facultad de Quimica de la Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, the purpose is to continue with this type of chemical analysis. (Author)

  15. A Compact Monitoring System for Recording X-Rays, Gamma Rays and Neutrons Generated By Atmospheric Lightning Discharges and Other Natural Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I. M.; Alves, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The generation of X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons by atmospheric lightning discharges has been predicted by different researchers several decades ago. But only within the last 25 years the first experimental evidences of events relating the generation of these radiations with lightning have been made; since then there is a continuing effort to collect more information about this type of phenomenon. In this study we describe a compact monitoring system to detect simultaneously X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons using rather inexpensive off-the-shelf commercial detectors (Micro Roengten Radiation Monitor, 8-inch gamma tube coupled to a 3x3 inch sodium iodide [Nai(Tl)] crystal, Ludlum He-3 neutron detector) and accompanying computer interfaces. The system is extremely portable and can be powered with small automotive batteries, if necessary. Measurements are performed at ground-level. Preliminary measurements have already yielded positive results, e.g., changes in the neutron flux related to a lightning discharge and varying weather conditions have been observed in the city of Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil (23° 11‧ 11″S, 45° 52‧ 43″ W, 600 m above sea level). This a pilot study, in the near future a larger number of these compact monitoring system will be installed in different location in order to increase the area coverage. Although the main objective of the study is to detect high-energy events produced by lightning discharges, the monitoring system will also be able to detect changes in the radiation background produced by other natural phenomena.

  16. Residual stress measurements of welded stainless steel 304 plate using the HANARO residual stress instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, M. K.; Lee, C. H.; Em, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to nondestructively measure in-depth residual stress distribution of the metallic materials, it is unique method to use neutron diffraction. In this paper the principles of residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction is described. The residual stress distribution of welded strainless steeel 304 plate using te HANARO residual stress instrument is also described

  17. Study of atmospheric aerosols in Zaire by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tshiashala, M.D.; Lumu, B.M.; Matamba, K.; Ronneau, C.

    1992-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy were applied to the determination of trace element abundances in airborne particulate matter collected throughout Kinshasa, Zaire. Statistical treatment of the resulting data was used to assess the variations between sites and to identify the sources of the pollutants. 10 refs, 5 tabs

  18. The 2D-Micro Hole and Strip Plate in CF{sub 4} atmosphere aiming neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natal da Luz, H; Gouvea, A L; Veloso, J F C A [Physics Department, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810 Aveiro (Portugal); Mir, J A [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxon, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Santos, J M F dos, E-mail: hugonluz@ua.p [Physics Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2009-12-15

    The Micro Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) achieves gains above 300 in tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) at 2.6 bar, making it suitable for neutron detection. Over the past few years, the imaging capabilities of the MHSP have been developed, leading to the 2D-MHSP. In this device, the position coordinates are determined using the principle of resistive charge division. The GEM-side was specially patterned in strips interconnected by a resistive strip for one of the coordinates and, in the MS-side, the anode strips were also interconnected by another resistive strip. By applying a trivial center of mass algorithm it is possible to obtain both coordinates and the energy of each detected event. The ability to register position and energy for each event can be very useful for event validation in neutron detection. In this work, the performance of the 2D-MHSP in CF{sub 4} is investigated. The Modular Transfer Function (MTF) is presented, showing that position resolutions of 700{mu}m in x and 1 mm in the y-direction are obtained with X-rays. It is also demonstrated that resolutions below the proton range (1 mm) are possible at 2.6 bar CF{sub 4}, demonstrating that the MHSP can be a cost effective choice for neutron imaging.

  19. The use of neutron diffraction for the determination of the in-depth residual stresses profile in weld coatings; A utilizacao da difracao de neutroes na determinacao do perfil de tensoes residuais em revestimentos por soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Maria Jose; Batista, A.C.; Nobre, J.P. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Centro de Estudos de Materiais por Difraccao de Raios X (CEMDRX); Loureiro, Altino [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Centro de Engenharia Mecanica (CEMUC); Kornmeier, Joana R., E-mail: mjvaz@fe.up.pt [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany). FRM II

    2013-04-15

    The neutron diffraction is a non-destructive technique, particularly suitable for the analysis of residual stress fields in welds. The technique is used in this article to study ferritic samples, coated by submerged arc welding using stainless steel filler metals. This procedure is often used for manufacturing process equipment for chemical and nuclear industries, for ease of implementation and economic reasons. The main disadvantage of that processes is the cracking phenomenon that often occurs at the interface between the base material and coatings, which can be minimized by performing post-weld stress relief heat treatments. The samples analyzed in this study were made of carbon steel plates, coated by submerged arc welding two types of stainless steel filler metals. For the first layer was used one EN 12 072 - S 2 U 23 12 electrode, while for the second and third layers were used an EN 12 072 - 19 12 3 S L electrode. After cladding, the samples were submitted to a post-weld heat treatment for 1 hour at 620 deg C. The residual stress profiles obtained by neutron diffraction evidence the relaxation of residual stress given by the heat treatment. (author)

  20. An improved crude oil atmospheric distillation process for energy integration: Part II: New approach for energy saving by use of residual heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benali, Tahar; Tondeur, Daniel; Jaubert, Jean Noël

    2012-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, it was shown on thermodynamic grounds that introducing a flash in the preheating train of an atmospheric oil distillation process, together with an appropriate introduction of the resulting vapour into the column, could potentially bring substantial energy savings, by reducing the duty of the preheating furnace, by doing some pre-fractionation and by reducing the column irreversibilities. Part II expands on this idea by showing how this can be done while keeping the throughput and the product characteristics unchanged. The outcome is that placing several flashes after the heat exchangers and feeding the corresponding vapour streams to the appropriate trays of the column reduces the pumparound flows and the heat brought to the preheating train. The resulting heat deficit may then be compensated in an additional heat exchanger by using low level heat recuperated from the products of the distillation and/or imported from other processes. The use of this residual heat reduces the furnace duty by approximately an equivalent amount. Thus high level energy (fuel-gas burnt in the furnace) is replaced by residual low level heat. The simulation with an example flowsheet shows that the savings on fuel could be as high as 21%. - Highlights: ► Flash installation in the preheating train of the crude oil distillation process. ► Pumparound streams and heat sent to the preheating train are reduced. ► A high level heat deficit is induced and replaced by low level heat. ► Considerable energy savings and greenhouse gas emissions are achieved.

  1. Neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.; Wirtz, K.

    1974-01-01

    This textbook consists of four sections which deal with the following subjects: 1. Production of neutrons and their interactions with the nuclei; neutron sources; neutron detectors; cross-section measurements. 2. Theory of neutron interactions with macroscopic media; neutron slowing down; space distribution of moderated neutrons; neutron thermalization; neutron scattering. 3. Radioactive probe measurements of thermal neutron fluxes; activation by means of epithermal neutrons; threshold detectors of fast neutrons; neutron calibration. 4. Neutron energy; slowing down kernels; neutron age; diffusion length and absorption of neutrons

  2. The industrial uses of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the neutron scattering and radiography techniques that have been used to solve industrial problems. Over the last ten years the application of neutron techniques to industrial problems has grown as neutron techniques have evolved to study ever more complex systems. The problems raised by industry use a wide spectrum of the neutron scattering techniques available, although some techniques are used frequently - especially for studying residual stress, Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) for studying large scale structures, reflectometry and radiography. This paper reviews the techniques involved and illustrates the new problems that are now being solved using accelerator-based pulsed neutron scattering techniques.(author), 26 refs., 8 figs

  3. Atmospheric depositions of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allajbeu, Sh.; Lazo, P.; Yushin, N.S.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Qarri, F.; Duliu, O.G.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are conservative elements, scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REE in the environment requires their monitoring in environmental matrices, where they are mainly present at trace levels. The results on determination of the content of 11 elements by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at the IBR-2 reactor in Dubna in carpet-forming moss species Hypnum cupressiforme collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole Albanian territory are presented and discussed. The paper is focused on Sc and lanthanides, as well as Fe and Th, the last ones showing correlations with the investigated REE. With the exception of Fe, all other elements were never determined in the air deposition of Albania. The STATISTICA TM 10 software was used for data analysis. The median values for the content of elements under investigation were compared to those in Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania and Serbia, as well as Norway selected as a pristine area. Therefore, it was shown that the accumulation of REE in mosses is associated with the wind blown metal-enriched soils that are pointed out as the main emitting factor. [ru

  4. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  5. Residual stress analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques

  6. s-process studies in the light of new experimental cross sections: Distribution of neutron fluences and r-process residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, F.; Beer, H.; Wisshak, K.; Clayton, D.D.; Macklin, R.L.; Ward, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A best set of neutron-capture cross sections has been evaluated for the most important s-process isotopes. With this data base, s-process studies have been carried out using the traditional model which assumes a steady neutron flux and an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations. The calculated sigmaN-curve is in excellent agreement with the empirical sigmaN-values of pure s-process nuclei. Simultaneously, good agreement is found between the difference of solar and s-process abundances and the abundances of pure r-process nuclei. We also discuss the abundance pattern of the iron group elements where our s-process results complement the abundances obtained from explosive nuclear burning. The results obtained from the traditional s-process model such as seed abundances, mean neutron irradiations, or neutron densities are compared to recent stellar model calculations which assume the He-burning shells of red giant stars as the site for the s-process. (orig.) [de

  7. Disruptive tension under normalized atmospheric pulse and residual tension on lightning arresters power systems: statistical methods application. Practical results and comments; Ensaios de tensao disruptiva sob impulso atmosferico normalizado e tensao residual em para-raios para sistemas de potencia: a aplicacao de metodos estatisticos. Comentarios e resultados praticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.L.B. [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia (Brazil); Oliveira, A.L. [Eletricidade da Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    The necessity of complementary assays of disruptive tension under normalized atmospheric pulses and residual tension on lightning arresters, as well as the adequate use of a statistical treatment of its results are commented. Some statistical methods and its applicability on lightning arresters characteristics surveys, and its quality control are proposed 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Critical comparison of two independent measurements of residual stress in an electron-beam welded uranium cylinder: Neutron diffraction and the contour method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W., E-mail: dbrown@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Holden, T.M. [Northern Stress Technologies, Deep River, Ontario, K0J 1P0 (Canada); Clausen, B.; Prime, M.B.; Sisneros, T.A.; Swenson, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Vaja, J. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Neutron diffraction and contour method measurements were conducted to assess the stresses associated with an electron-beam, circumferential, partial penetration weld of a uranium tube. To obtain reasonable results in the coarse-grained base metal, the specimen was continuously rotated during the neutron experiments to average over the entire circumference. The severe anisotropic character of uranium, which has an orthorhombic crystal structure, forces a number of judicious choices to be made in the neutron analysis. For the contour method, the cylindrical geometry necessitated the development of a two-step process, and discontinuities across the unwelded portion of the joint required special treatment. High tensile hoop stresses ({approx}300 MPa) were found in the center of the weld close to the outside diameter. Balancing hoop compression was observed in the far-field stress profile. Also, a tensile axial stress (85 {+-} 25 MPa) was observed near the outer diameter.

  9. Study of residual stresses i electron-beam welded F82H modified martensitic steel using X-ray and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.; Braham, C.; Ceretti, M.

    1998-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steels are presently considered as one of the most realistic options for the construction of the 'first-wall' and other components in future fusion reactors. More specifically the modified martensitic Chromium steel F82H is being characterised as a reference material in view of a possible utilisation in the DEMO reactor. This work presents the results of a study, carried out using X-ray and neutron diffraction to investigate the stress field in a prototype F82H-mod. weld obtained using the electron-beam welding technique. The stress has been measured, both with X-rays and neutrons, at different distances from the heat-affected zone. The differences between the results obtained with X-ray and neutron diffraction are tentatively discussed in terms of phase inhomogeneity inside the HAZ. (author)

  10. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  11. Solar Neutrons and Related Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, Lev

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive compilation and review of the extensive body of experimental and theoretical material on solar neutrons and related phenomena published in the scientific literature over the last sixty years. Phenomena related to solar neutrons are more specifically: the decay products of solar neutrons solar gamma rays generated in processes like nuclear reactions between solar energetic charged particles and matter of the solar atmosphere, as well as by the capture of solar neutrons by hydrogen atoms in the solar atmosphere the propagation of solar neutrons, solar gamma rays and other secondary particles through the solar photosphere, chromosphere and corona, as well as through interplanetary space and through the Earth's atmosphere. Models and simulations of particle acceleration, interactions, and propagation processes show that observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays in space and in the Earth's atmosphere yield essential and unique information on the source function of ene...

  12. Assessment of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements in Belgrade using the moss biomonitoring technique and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Popovic, A.

    2006-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other elements using the moss genera Brachythecium sp. (B. rutabulum and B. salebrosum) and Eurhynchium sp. (E. hians and E. striatum) collected in autumn 2004 in the urban area of Belgrade. The concentrations of 36 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th, U) were determined in moss and local topsoil samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentration of elements in moss positively correlated to those obtained for topsoil. High enrichment factors for As, Zn, Mo, Br, Sb, Se, Hg, and Cl, calculated to continental crust composition, gave an evidence for anthropogenic impact on urban area, mainly due to intensive vehicular traffic and fossil fuel combustion. The concentrations of elements in moss, characteristic for fossil fuel combustion, obtained in this study, were substantially lower than in the previous investigation (2000) conducted in the area of Belgrade. The level of concentrations for V, Cr, Ni, and As in moss from this study correlated to those measured for neighboring countries, and were several times higher than the base-level data from low polluted areas. The level of accumulated elements in both investigated moss genera were similar and all studied species could be combined for biomonitoring purposes in urban areas

  13. Study of different operational modes of the IAP 2-port-DOAS instrument for atmospheric trace gases investigation during CINDI-2 campaign basing on residual noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovski, A.; Postylyakov, O.; Elokhov, A.; Bruchkovski, I.

    2017-11-01

    An instrument for measuring atmospheric trace gases by DOAS method using scattered solar radiation was developed in A.M.Obukhov IAP RAS. The instrument layout is based on the lab Shamrock 303i spectrograph supplemented by 2-port radiation input system employing optical fiber. Optical ports may be used with a telescope with fixed field of view or with a scanning MAX-DOAS unit. MAX-DOAS unit port will be used for investigation of gas contents and profiles in the low troposphere. In September 2016 the IAP instrument participated in the CINDI-2 campaign, held in the Netherlands. CINDI 2 (2nd Cabauw Intercomparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments) involves about 40 instruments quasi-synchronously performing DOAS measurements of NO2 and other trace gases. During the campaign the instrument ports had telescopes A and B with similar field of view of about 0.3°. Telescope A was always directed to the zenith. Telescope B was directed at 5° elevation angle. Two gratings were installed in the spectrometer. They provide different spectral resolution (FWHM 0.4 and 0.8 nm respectively) and spectral window width ( 70 and 140 nm respectively). During CINDI-2 campaign we performed test measurements in UV and visible wavelength ranges to investigate instrument stability and retrieval errors of NO2 and HCHO contents. We perform the preliminary error analysis of retrieval of the NO2 and HCHO differential slant column densities using spectra measured in four modes of the instrument basing on residual noise analysis in this paper. It was found that rotation of grating turret does not significantly affected on quality of NO2 DSCD retrieval from spectra which measured in visible spectral region. Influence of grating turret rotation is much more significant for gas DSCD retrieval from spectra which measured in UV spectral region. Standard deviation of retrieval error points to presence of some systematic error.

  14. Upper limits to the quiet-time solar neutron flux from 10 to 100 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    A large-area solid-angle double-scatter neutron telescope was flown to search for solar neutrons on three balloon flights in 1971 and 1972. The first two flights were launched from Palestine, Texas, and the third from Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The float altitude on each flight was at about 5 g/sq cm residual atmosphere. Neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV were measured. No solar flares occurred during the flights. Upper limits to the quiet-time solar neutron fluxes at the 95-per cent confidence level are 2.8, 4.6, 9.6, and 9.0 x 10 to the -4th power neutron/sq cm/sec in the energy intervals of 10-30, 30-50, 50-100, and 10-100 MeV, respectively.

  15. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  16. Through-the-thickness residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction in inoxidizable martensitic steel samples with and without tungsten carbide coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rogante, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Vrána, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 204, č. 5 (2009), s. 650-656 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : 13Cr4Ni steel * residual stress * Coating Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.793, year: 2009

  17. A time series approach to the correction for atmosphere effects and the significance of a semi-diurnal variation in corrected intensities of secondary cosmic ray neutrons and mesons (NM64 and MT64)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijsmans, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this research was to distinguish as accurately as possible between two mechanisms behind a half-daily variation in detected numbers of neutrons and mesons in the secondary cosmic ray particles at sea level. These two mechanisms are due to air pressure variations at sea level and affect the number of primary particles with a certain arrival direction. The distribution among arrival directions in the ecliptic plane varies if a gradient exists in the guiding centre density of primaries in directions perpendicular to the neutral sheet. Chapter 2 is devoted to the calculation of a physically and statistically justifiable determination of the barometric coefficient for neutron measurements and air pressures. Chapter 3 deals with the estimation of atmospheric correction coefficients for the elimination of the influence of changing atmospheric conditions on the number of detected mesons. For mesons the variation of total mass, and also the variations in mass-distribution along the trajectory of the mesons are important. After correction for atmospheric variations using the resulting atmospheric correction coefficients from chapter 2 and 3, the influence of the structure of the interplanetary magnetic field near the earth is examined in chapter 4. 0inally, in chapter 5, a power spectral analysis of variations in corrected intensities of neutrons and mesons is carried out. Such an analysis distinguishes the variance of a time series into contributions within small frequency intervals. From the power spectra of variations on a yearly basis, a statistically fundamented judgement can be given as to the significance of the semi-diurnal variation during the different phases of the solar magnetic activity cycle. (Auth.)

  18. Neutron/muon correlation functions to improve neutron detection capabilities outside nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinario, Donald Thomas

    The natural neutron background rate is largely due to cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and the subsequent neutron emission from the interaction products. The neutron background is part of a larger cosmic radiation shower that also includes electrons, gamma rays, and muons. Since neutrons interact much differently than muons in building materials, the muon and neutron fluence rates in the natural background can be compared to the measured muon and neutron fluence rate when shielded by common building materials. The simultaneous measurement of muon and neutron fluence rates might allow for an earlier identification of man-made neutron sources, such as hidden nuclear materials. This study compares natural background neutron rates to computer simulated neutron rates shielded by common structural and building materials. The characteristic differences between neutrons and muons resulted in different attenuation properties under the same shielded conditions. Correlation functions between cosmic ray generated neutrons and muons are then used to predict neutron fluence rates in different urban environments.

  19. Neutrons and Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekkebus, Allen E.

    2007-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted two workshops in April 2007 relevant to nuclear engineering education. In the Neutron Stress, Texture, and Phase Transformation for Industry workshop (http://neutrons.ornl.gov/workshops/nst2/), several invited speakers gave examples of neutron stress mapping for nuclear engineering applications. These included John Root of National Research Council of Canada, Mike Fitzpatrick of the UK's Open University, and Yan Gao of GE Global Research on their experiences with industrial and academic uses of neutron diffraction. Xun-Li Wang and Camden Hubbard described the new instruments at ORNL that can be used for such studies. This was preceded by the Neutrons for Materials Science and Engineering educational symposium (http://neutrons.ornl.gov/workshops/edsym2007). It was directed to the broad materials science and engineering community based in universities, industry and laboratories who wish to learn what the neutron sources in the US can provide for enhancing the understanding of materials behavior, processing and joining. Of particular interest was the presentation of Donald Brown of Los Alamos about using 'Neutron diffraction measurements of strain and texture to study mechanical behavior of structural materials.' At both workshops, the ORNL neutron scattering instruments relevant to nuclear engineering studies were described. The Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) is currently in operation at the High Flux Isotope Reactor; the VULCAN Engineering Materials Diffractometer will begin commissioning in 2008 at the Spallation Neutron Source. For characteristics of these instruments, as well as details of other workshops, meetings, capabilities, and research proposal submissions, please visit http://neutrons.ornl.gov. To submit user proposals for time on NRSF2 contact Hubbard at hubbardcratornl.gov

  20. Weld residual stresses near the bimetallic interface in clad RPV steel: A comparison between deep-hole drilling and neutron diffraction data

    OpenAIRE

    James, MN; Newby, M; Doubell, P; Hattingh, DG; Serasli, K; Smith, DJ

    2014-01-01

    The inner surface of ferritic steel reactor pressure vessels (RPV) is clad with strip welded austenitic stainless steel primarily to increase the long-term corrosion resistance of the ferritic vessel. The strip welding process used in the cladding operation induces significant residual stresses in the clad layer and in the RPV steel substrate, arising both from the thermal cycle and from the very different thermal and mechanical properties of the austenitic clad layer and the ferritic RPV ste...

  1. Neutron source for generating fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, H.; Morhart, A.

    1980-01-01

    In radiotherapeutics, neutron sources are needed, generating a dose rate as high as possible and neutrons as energetic as possible. By bombardment of tritium targets with deuterons of some 100 keV, neutrons of about 15 MeV are produced, but because of the large slow-down effect in the target consisting of heavy metal the yield is too small. On applying beryllium targets the neutron yields are too small below a deuteron energy of 15 MeV; at the same time, the high percentage of low energy neutrons is undesirable. Based on the favorable yield of the D(d,n) He 3 reaction for deuterons of about 100 MeV, a gas-target chamber is designed. The pressure chamber is designed for a deuterium pressure of up to 11 atmospheres and provided with cooling devices. The flux density in beam direction at a distance of 1 m reaches 108 per cm 2 , the maximum energy of the neutrons amounts to 12 MeV at deuteron energies of 9 MeV, and the neutron share below 9 MeV is small. The maximum dose rate in a tissue-equivalent phantom lies at 40 rads/min. (orig./PW)

  2. Evaluation of residual stresses in composite materials by using neutron diffraction; study of elasto-plasticity; Etude des composites a matrice metallique par la technique de la diffraction de neutrons: analyse du comportement elastoplastique et evaluation des contraintes residuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy-Tubiana, R

    1999-11-05

    This work deals with the study of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) using neutrons diffraction method and the analysis of the elastoplastic behavior in such materials. First, we evaluated macro-stresses in aluminium MMC reinforced with 17%vol. of SiC particles. One of the analyzed sample has been 4 point bending deformed, measurements have been performed after relaxation. The difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion constrains the matrix to be in tensile state and the particles in compressive state in the sample which has not be deformed. In the sample deformed, the MMC response is predicted by the science of Resistance Materials applied to a bent bar. We assume that macro-stresses are the sum of stresses with different origins (elastic, plastic, thermal mismatch): elastic mismatch is evaluated by Eshelby model and we determined micro-stresses in the unbent bar: they are equivalent and constant along width direction. For the bent bar, we observe relaxation of thermal stresses in the surface region. Theses results are confirmed by measurements of tensile/compressive sample using neutrons diffraction method. We also observed the influence of mechanical and thermal treatment on such MMC: the shear stress (established by the auto-coherent model) depends only on the way of cooling. Finally, a study was performed on titanium MMC for SNECMA on rotor beings used in the gas turbine engine industry. Evolution of stresses between felloe and boring is confirmed by a finite elements modeling and they are the first experimental results in this application. (author)

  3. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  4. Application of thermal neutrons in testing of nuclear facilities materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milczarek, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent applications of thermal neutrons in testing of materials used in nuclear facilities are presented. The neutron radiography technique, characterization of residual stresses with neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering is considered in some detail. The results of testing of fuel elements, steel used for pressurized reactor vessels and changes induced in control rods are discussed. (author)

  5. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  6. Neutrons for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons are a unique tool for materials science, from hard to soft matter. This uniqueness relies on the privileged penetration of neutrons in any kind of matter, their particular contrast for different elements/isotopes, their capability to characterize in situ, in operation and in real time. Often enough neutron research explains the functionality of materials and work pieces by their atomistic foundation and opens the way for optimization of the functionality. In this paper the author reviews some new applications of neutron irradiation in industry: homogenous doping for power electronics; the selection of the right candidates for hydrogen storage materials; the optimization of Li-ion batteries and organic solar cells; the 3-dimensional determination of residual stresses without damaging the specimen. Concerning medicine there were some advances for the production of some isotopes like Lu 177 or Mo 99 -Tc 99m

  7. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Spallation Neutron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Wender, Stephen A.; Mocko, Michael

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides the scientific community with intense sources of neutrons, which can be used to perform experiments supporting civilian and national security research. These measurements include nuclear physics experiments for the defense program, basic science, and the radiation effect programs. This paper focuses on the radiation effects program, which involves mostly accelerated testing of semiconductor parts. When cosmic rays strike the earth's atmosphere, they cause nuclear reactions with elements in the air and produce a wide range of energetic particles. Because neutrons are uncharged, they can reach aircraft altitudes and sea level. These neutrons are thought to be the most important threat to semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. The best way to determine the failure rate due to these neutrons is to measure the failure rate in a neutron source that has the same spectrum as those produced by cosmic rays. Los Alamos has a high-energy and a low-energy neutron source for semiconductor testing. Both are driven by the 800-MeV proton beam from the LANSCE accelerator. The high-energy neutron source at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility uses a bare target that is designed to produce fast neutrons with energies from 100 keV to almost 800 MeV. The measured neutron energy distribution from WNR is very similar to that of the cosmic-ray-induced neutrons in the atmosphere. However, the flux provided at the WNR facility is typically 5×107 times more intense than the flux of the cosmic-ray-induced neutrons. This intense neutron flux allows testing at greatly accelerated rates. An irradiation test of less than an hour is equivalent to many years of neutron exposure due to cosmic-ray neutrons. The low-energy neutron source is located at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center. It is based on a moderated source that provides useful neutrons from subthermal energies to ∼100 keV. The characteristics of these sources, and

  8. Industrial applications of neutron beam and outline of J-PARC (1). Industrial application technologies of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Neutron diffraction method is used to be applied to measure micro-structure for material physics and chemicals. Recently neutron diffraction has been used for non-destructive testing, such as radiography, prompt gamma analysis and residual stress. In the industrial applications residual stresses and textures in the engineering materials are measured using neutron diffraction. In this paper the present techniques for measurements of residual stress and texture are mainly reviewed. (author)

  9. Thermal treatment of YBa2Cu3-xALxO6+#delta# single crystals in different atmospheres and neutron-diffraction study of excess oxygen pinned by the Al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brecht, E.; Schmahl, W.W.; Miehe, G.

    1996-01-01

    YBa2Cu3-xAlxO6+delta single crystals with different Al contents (x = 0.06, 0.14 and 0.19) were heat treated in different atmospheres, The oxidized as-grown crystals show a macroscopically tetragonal tweed-structure. The oxygen content delta in the Cu(1) layer of these oxidized samples is signific......YBa2Cu3-xAlxO6+delta single crystals with different Al contents (x = 0.06, 0.14 and 0.19) were heat treated in different atmospheres, The oxidized as-grown crystals show a macroscopically tetragonal tweed-structure. The oxygen content delta in the Cu(1) layer of these oxidized samples...... is significantly lower than 1, which results from the Al coordination disturbing the ordering in the chain-oxygen sublattice. Neutron-diffraction data show that upon reduction at 1044 K the oxygen content delta within the Cu(1) layer remains at 0.25 due to pinning of excess oxygen by the aluminum at x = 0.......19. Crystals annealed in reducing atmospheres at temperatures above 973 K develop orthorhombic long-range order after reoxidation at 673 K, probably due to short-range clustering of the AlOn defects. The obtained orthorhombicity of the reoxidized material decreases with decreasing temperature of the reduction...

  10. Measurement for skyshine of neutron generated by the K-600 neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Huazhi; Li Guisheng; Wu Jingmin; Li Jianping

    1988-01-01

    The attenuation low of neutron scattering in atmosphere that generated by K-600 neutron generator at IMP was measured in order to evaluate the effect of the neutron generator to surroundings. The attenuation lenth λ = 396m was obtained and this result is in aggreement with the measured data at some laboratories abroad

  11. Residual stresses in steel and zirconium weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Coleman, C.E.; Bowden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional scans of residual stress within intact weldments provide insight into the consequences of various welding techniques and stress-relieving procedures. The neutron diffraction method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses has been applied to a circumferential weld in a ferritic steel pipe of outer diameter 114 mm and thickness 8.6 mm. The maximum tensile stresses, 250 MPa in the hoop direction, are found at mid-thickness of the fusion zone. The residual stresses approach zero within 20 mm from the weld center. The residual stresses caused by welding zirconium alloy components are partially to blame for failures due to delayed-hydride cracking. Neutron diffraction measurements in a GTA-welded Zr-2.5 Nb plate have shown that heat treatment at 530 C for 1 h reduces the longitudinal residual strain by 60%. Neutron diffraction has also been used to scan the residual stresses near circumferential electron beam welds in irradiated and unirradiated Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes. The residual stresses due to electron beam welding appear to be lower than 130 MPa, even in the as-welded state. No significant changes occur in the residual stress pattern of the electron-beam welded tube, during a prolonged exposure to thermal neutrons and the temperatures typical of an operating nuclear reactor

  12. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  13. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for insect repellent residue analysis in surface waters using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; García-Sillero, Daniel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2018-04-06

    Insect repellents (IRs) are a group of organic chemicals whose function is to prevent the ability of insects of landing in a surface. These compounds have been found in the environment and may pose a risk to non-target organisms. In this study, an on-line solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method was developed using an atmospheric photoionization source (SPE-HPLC-(APPI)-MS/MS). The use of the APPI as an alternative ionization technique to electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) allowed expanding the range of analytical techniques suitable for the analysis of IRs, so far relied in gas chromatography. High sensitivity and precision was reached with method limits of quantification between 0.2 and 4.6 ng l -1 and interday and intraday precision equal or below 15%. The validated method was applied to the study of surface water samples from three European river basins with different flow regime (Adige River in Italy, Sava River in the Balkans, and Evrotas River in Greece). The results showed that two IRs (DEET and Bayrepel) were ubiquitous in the Sava and Evrotas basins, reaching concentrations as high as 105 μg l -1 of Bayrepel in the Sava River, and 5 μg l -1 of DEET in the Evrotas River. Densely populated areas and effluent waste waters are pointed out as the responsible for this pollution. In the alpine river Adige, only three samples showed low levels of IRs (6.01-37.8 ng l -1 ). The concentrations measured were used to perform an environmental risk assessment based on the hazard quotients (HQs) estimation approach by using the chronic and acute eco-toxicity data available. The results revealed that despite the high frequency and eventually high concentrations of these IRs determined in the three basins, only few sites were at risk, with 1 < HQs < 3.3. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutron guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Geoffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  15. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  16. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  17. Neutron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Reuss, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Originally just an offshoot of nuclear physics, neutron physics soon became a branch of physics in its own right. It deals with the movement of neutrons in nuclear reactors and ail the nuclear reactions they trigger there, particularly the fission of heavy nuclei which starts a chain reaction to produce energy. Neutron Physics covers the whole range of knowledge of this complex science, discussing the basics of neutron physics and some principles of neutron physics calculations. Because neutron physics is the essential part of reactor physics, it is the main subject taught to students of Nuclear Engineering. This book takes an instructional approach for that purpose. Neutron Physics is also intended for ail physicists and engineers involved in development or operational aspects of nuclear power.

  18. Spectral unfolding of fast neutron energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Michelle; Jackman, Kevin; Engle, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of the energy distribution of a neutron flux is difficult in experiments with constrained geometry where techniques such as time of flight cannot be used to resolve the distribution. The measurement of neutron fluxes in reactors, which often present similar challenges, has been accomplished using radioactivation foils as an indirect probe. Spectral unfolding codes use statistical methods to adjust MCNP predictions of neutron energy distributions using quantified radioactive residuals produced in these foils. We have applied a modification of this established neutron flux characterization technique to experimentally characterize the neutron flux in the critical assemblies at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and the spallation neutron flux at the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results of the unfolding procedure are presented and compared with a priori MCNP predictions, and the implications for measurements using the neutron fluxes at these facilities are discussed.

  19. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Eiichi

    1988-01-01

    The thermal neutron absorption coefficient is essentially different from the X-ray absorption coefficient. Each substance has a characteristic absorption coefficient regardless of its density. Neutron deams have the following features: (1) neutrons are not transmitted efficiently by low molecular weight substances, (2) they are transmitted efficiently by heavy metals, and (3) the transmittance differs among isotopes. Thus, neutron beams are suitable for cheking for foreign matters in heavy metals and testing of composites consisting of both heavy and light materials. A neutron source generates fast neutrons, which should be converted into thermal neutrons by reducing their energy. Major neutron souces include nuclear reactors, radioisotopes and particle accelerators. Photographic films and television systems are mainly used to observe neutron transmission images. Computers are employed for image processing, computerized tomography and three-dimensional analysis. The major applications of neutron radiography include inspection of neclear fuel; evaluation of material for airplane; observation of fuel in the engine and oil in the hydraulic systems in airplanes; testing of composite materials; etc. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  1. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  2. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  3. The neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheetham, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    In 1932, when Chadwick obtained the first unambiguous evidence for the existence of the neutron, his discovery confirmed the widely held belief that there existed a particle with zero charge and a mass similar to that of the proton. Indeed, as early as 1920, Lord Rutherford had suggested such a possibility in a lecture to the Royal Society. The discovery of the neutron had an immediate and dramatic impact in several areas. The nucleus, which had hitherto been regarded, somewhat unsatisfactorily, as a combination of protons and electrons, was now seen as comprising of protons and neutrons. This in turn lead to a proper understanding of the nature of isotopes and provided a fresh basis for nuclear theories. This paper examines the nature and properties of the neutron, and describes some facets of its remarkable role in contemporary science and technology. The aspects covered are its properties, the production and detection of neutrons, the reactions between neutrons and nuclei, fission reactions, neutron scattering, pulsed neutron scattering and neutron spectroscopy. (author)

  4. Compact neutron generator with nanotube ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Ivashchuk, O. O.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Klenin, A. A.; Kubankin, A. S.; Nazhmudinov, R. M.; Nikulin, I. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shchagin, A. V.; Zhukova, P. N.

    2018-02-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of fast neutrons generated when a positive acceleration potential is applied to an array of orientated carbon nanotubes, which are used as an ion source. The neutrons with energy of 2.45 MeV are generated as a result of D-D fusion reaction. The dependencies of the neutron yield on the value of the applied potential and residual pressure of deuterium are measured. The proposed approach is planned to be used for the development of compact neutron generators.

  5. Comparison of the atmospheric- and reduced-pressure HS-SPME strategies for analysis of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics using a steel fiber coated with a multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Nouriasl, Kolsoum; Yazdankhah, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    A low-cost, sensitive and reliable reduced-pressure headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) setup was developed and evaluated for direct extraction of residual solvents in commercial antibiotics, followed by determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). A stainless steel narrow wire was made porous and adhesive by platinization by a modified electrophoretic deposition method and coated with a polyaniline/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite. All experimental variables affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated for both atmospheric-pressure and reduced-pressure conditions. Comparison of the optimal experimental conditions and the results demonstrated that the reduced-pressure strategy leads to a remarkable increase in the extraction efficiency and reduction of the extraction time and temperature (10 min, 25 °Ϲ vs 20 min, 40 °Ϲ). Additionally, the reduced-pressure strategy showed better analytical performances compared with those obtained by the conventional HS-SPME-GC-FID method. Limit of detections, linear dynamic ranges, and relative standard deviations of the reduced-pressure HS-SPME procedure for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in injectable solid drugs were obtained over the ranges of 20-100 pg g -1 , 0.02-40 μg g -1 , and 2.8-10.2%, respectively. The procedure developed was successful for the analysis of BTEX in commercial containers of penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefazolin. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the developed RP-HS-SPME setup.

  6. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  7. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  8. Neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews neutron diffraction work from the early studies to the present-day development of the subject. Direct structural investigations were described, including chemical applications associated with single crystal techniques, and magnetic applications identified with powder techniques. The properties of the neutron beams are discussed, as well as the use of polarised beams. (UK)

  9. Neutron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beynon, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    the paper concerns neutron holography, which allows an image to be constructed of the surfaces, as well as the interiors, of objects. The technique of neutron holography and its applications are described. Present and future use of the method is briefly outlined. (U.K.)

  10. Neutron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Lou, Tak Pui [Berkeley, CA; Reijonen, Jani [Oakland, CA

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  11. Neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-10-21

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap.

  12. Neutron reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    Neutron (and X-ray) reflectometry constitute complementary interfacially sensitive techniques that open access to studying the structure within thin films of both soft and hard condensed matter. Film thickness starts oxide surfaces on bulk substrates, proceeding to (pauci-)molecular layers and up...... to hundreds of nanometers. Thickness resolution for flat surfaces is in the range of few Ǻngstrøm, and as a peculiar benefit, the presence and properties of buried interfaces are accessible. Focus here will be on neutron reflectometry, a technique that is unique in applications involving composite organic...... films or films with magnetic properties. The reason is the peculiar property of neutron light since the mass of a neutron is close to the one of a proton, and since it bears a magnetic moment. The optical properties of matter, when interacting with neutrons, are described by a refractive index...

  13. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  14. The nev diffractometer ARES for the analysis of residual stresses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staron, P.; Ruhnau, H. U.; Marmotti, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Kampmann, R.

    276/278, - (2000), s. 158-159 ISSN 0921-4526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : neutron instruments * residual stress Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.893, year: 2000

  15. Neutron scattering in Indonesia. Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, Abarrul

    2000-01-01

    Neutron scattering in Indonesia is still alienated due to some reasons and conditions which are discussed. The reactor and its latest operation mode are also described. The neutron beam facilities which include one diffractometer for residual stress measurement, one diffractometer for single crystal structural determination and texture measurement, one high resolution powder diffractometer, one neutron radiography facility, one triple axis spectrometer, one small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and one high resolution small angle neutron scattering spectrometer were presented briefly together with improvements of neutron intensities at some spectrometers in connection with the setting of main beam shutter position. Special attention is given for four instruments mostly related to this workshop. Their performances and problems faced in the past 9 months are presented as well as the future plan for refurbishment and development. (author)

  16. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  17. Hybrid scintillators for neutron discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Patrick L; Cordaro, Joseph G; Anstey, Mitchell R; Morales, Alfredo M

    2015-05-12

    A composition capable of producing a unique scintillation response to neutrons and gamma rays, comprising (i) at least one surfactant; (ii) a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent; and (iii) at least one luminophore. A method including combining at least one surfactant, a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent and at least one luminophore in a scintillation cell under vacuum or an inert atmosphere.

  18. Neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.; Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, S.

    1999-01-01

    Diffraction methods, especially X-ray diffraction, are widely used in materials science. Neutron diffraction is in many ways similar to X-ray diffraction, but is also complementary to the X-ray technique so that in some cases it yields information not accessible using X-rays. Successes of neutron diffraction include the elucidation of the crystal structures of high temperature superconductors and materials that display colossal magnetoresistance, the phase analysis of zirconia engineering ceramics, in depth stress determination in composites, successful determination of the structures of metal hydrides, transition metal polymer complexes and the determination of magnetic structure. A brief description of current studies, using neutron diffraction is given

  19. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the text of 16 lectures given at the Summer School and the report on a panel discussion entitled ''the relative merits and complementarities of x-rays, synchrotron radiation, steady- and pulsed neutron sources''. figs., tabs., refs

  20. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  1. Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2005-01-01

    The neutron probe is a standard tool for measuring soil water content. This article provides an overview of the underlying theory, describes the methodology for its calibration and use, discusses example applications, and identifies the safety issues. Soil water makes land-based life possible by satisfying plant water requirements, serving as a medium for nutrient movement to plant roots and nutrient cycling, and controlling the fate and transport of contaminants in the soil environment. Therefore, a successful understanding of the dynamics of plant growth, nutrient cycling, and contaminant behavior in the soil requires knowledge of the soil water content as well as its spatial and temporal variability. After more than 50 years, neutron probes remain the most reliable tool available for field monitoring of soil water content. Neutron probes provide integrated measurements over relatively large volumes of soil and, with proper access, allow for repeated sampling of the subsurface at the same locations. The limitations of neutron probes include costly and time-consuming manual operation, lack of data automation, and costly regulatory requirements. As more non-radioactive systems for soil water monitoring are developed to provide automated profiling capabilities, neutron-probe usage will likely decrease. Until then, neutron probes will continue to be a standard for reliable measurements of field water contents in soils around the globe

  2. Electromagnetic neutron-atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    In the collision of a neutron with an atom there exists, in addition to the strong interaction with the nucleus and the magnetic dipole interaction with the magnetic electrons, a number of secondary electromagnetic interactions. The latter interactions include the spin-orbit (or Schwinger) interaction, the Foldy interaction, the nuclear magnetic dipole interaction, and interactions arising from the electric polarizability and the finite intrinsic charge radius of the neutron. We present in this paper a comprehensive review of the electromagnetic neutron-atom interactions with particular emphasis on the question of the extent to which the secondary interactions are already included implicitly in the scattering lengths obtained from accurate neutron optical measurements, which one finds listed in data tables, and the conditions under which explicit corrections for the residual secondary interactions are required in the analysis of neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering data for condensed matter. The main conclusion is that, except for the lightest atoms, the current habit of neglecting the secondary interactions can lead to significant systematic errors of up to 2 to 3% in neutron scattering experiments which extend over a wide range of momentum transfers. (orig.)

  3. Residual stresses in cold drawn ferritic rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza, J.M.; Martinez-Perez, M.L.; Ruiz-Hervias, J.; Mompean, F.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Elices, M.

    2005-01-01

    The residual stress state generated by cold-drawing in a ferritic steel rod has been determined. Stress profiles in the three principal directions were measured by neutron and X-ray diffraction and calculated by 3D finite element simulation. The agreement between the simulations and the experimental data is excellent

  4. FOREWORD: Neutron metrology Neutron metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David J.; Nolte, Ralf; Gressier, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    The International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) has consultative committees covering various areas of metrology. The Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI) differs from the others in having three sections: Section (I) deals with radiation dosimetry, Section (II) with radionuclide metrology and Section (III) with neutron metrology. In 2003 a proposal was made to publish special issues of Metrologia covering the work of the three Sections. Section (II) was the first to complete their task, and their special issue was published in 2007, volume 44(4). This was followed in 2009 by the special issue on radiation dosimetry, volume 46(2). The present issue, volume 48(6), completes the trilogy and attempts to explain neutron metrology, the youngest of the three disciplines, the neutron only having been discovered in 1932, to a wider audience and to highlight the relevance and importance of this field. When originally approached with the idea of this special issue, Section (III) immediately saw the value of a publication specifically on neutron metrology. It is a topic area where papers tend to be scattered throughout the literature in journals covering, for example, nuclear instrumentation, radiation protection or radiation measurements in general. Review articles tend to be few. People new to the field often ask for an introduction to the various topics. There are some excellent older textbooks, but these are now becoming obsolete. More experienced workers in specific areas of neutron metrology can find it difficult to know the latest position in related areas. The papers in this issue attempt, without presenting a purely historical outline, to describe the field in a sufficiently logical way to provide the novice with a clear introduction, while being sufficiently up-to-date to provide the more experienced reader with the latest scientific developments in the different topic areas. Neutron radiation fields obviously occur throughout the nuclear

  5. Magnetic field devices for neutron spin transport and manipulation in precise neutron spin rotation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado-Velázquez, M. [Posgrado en Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 (Mexico); Barrón-Palos, L., E-mail: libertad@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico); Crawford, C. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2017-05-11

    The neutron spin is a critical degree of freedom for many precision measurements using low-energy neutrons. Fundamental symmetries and interactions can be studied using polarized neutrons. Parity-violation (PV) in the hadronic weak interaction and the search for exotic forces that depend on the relative spin and velocity, are two questions of fundamental physics that can be studied via the neutron spin rotations that arise from the interaction of polarized cold neutrons and unpolarized matter. The Neutron Spin Rotation (NSR) collaboration developed a neutron polarimeter, capable of determining neutron spin rotations of the order of 10{sup −7} rad per meter of traversed material. This paper describes two key components of the NSR apparatus, responsible for the transport and manipulation of the spin of the neutrons before and after the target region, which is surrounded by magnetic shielding and where residual magnetic fields need to be below 100 μG. These magnetic field devices, called input and output coils, provide the magnetic field for adiabatic transport of the neutron spin in the regions outside the magnetic shielding while producing a sharp nonadiabatic transition of the neutron spin when entering/exiting the low-magnetic-field region. In addition, the coils are self contained, forcing the return magnetic flux into a compact region of space to minimize fringe fields outside. The design of the input and output coils is based on the magnetic scalar potential method.

  6. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 × 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earth’s surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  7. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  8. Neutron emission study after muon capture by nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouyssy, Alain.

    1974-01-01

    Muon capture by nuclei, used in the beginning for checking the weak interaction, is now a method of investigation of nuclear structure. Study of spectrum, asymmetry and polarization of emitted neutrons after polarized muon capture has been done in three directions: weak coupling constants, final state interaction, nuclear wave functions. The neutron intensity and helicity are very dependent of the neutron - residual nucleus interaction, while the asymmetry is sensitive to the wave functions used for the proton. Moreover if the induced tensor coupling constant is different from zero the asymmetry is increased. Longitudinal polarization experiments, with those for neutron intensity, would be of great interest to give informations on neutron asymmetry [fr

  9. Current status of neutron scattering facilities in Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, Abarrul

    1999-01-01

    Brief explanation of the research reactor as a neutron source is presented together with its current operation mode. The neutron beam facilities include one diffractometer for residual stress measurement, one diffractometer for single crystal structural determination and texture measurement, one high resolution powder diffractometer, one neutron radiography facility, one triple axis spectrometer, one small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and one high resolution small angle neutron scattering spectrometer. Current status of three instruments mostly related to this workshop, their performances and problems faced in the last year are presented as well as the future plan for refurbishment and development. (author)

  10. Structural materials evaluation by neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that neutron diffraction method enables us to measure residual stresses inside materials. It can also evaluate deformation behaviors and phase transformation of materials under loading at various environments such as high or low temperature and also evaluate microstructural factors such as dislocation density, cell size and texture by analyzing diffraction profile. This article reviews some topics of structural materials evaluation using neutron diffraction. (author)

  11. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  12. German neutron scattering conference. Programme and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 - Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons - Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN - by the Juelich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH. In between the large European and international neutron scattering conferences ECNS (2011 in Prague) and ICNS (2013 in Edinburgh), it offers the vibrant German and international neutron community an opportunity to debate topical issues in a stimulating atmosphere. Originating from ''BMBF Verbundtreffen'' - meetings for projects funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research - this conference series has a strong tradition of providing a forum for the discussion of collaborative research projects and future developments in the field of research with neutrons in general. Neutron scattering, by its very nature, is used as a powerful probe in many different disciplines and areas, from particle and condensed matter physics through to chemistry, biology, materials sciences, engineering sciences, right up to geology and cultural heritage; the German Neutron Scattering Conference thus provides a unique chance for exploring interdisciplinary research opportunities. It also serves as a showcase for recent method and instrument developments and to inform users of new advances at neutron facilities.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of brannerite wasteforms for the immobilization of mixed oxide fuel residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D.J.; Stennett, M.C.; Hyatt, N.C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    A possible method for the reduction of civil Pu stockpiles is the reuse of Pu in mixed oxide fuel (MOX). During MOX fuel production, residues unsuitable for further recycle will be produced. Due to their high actinide content MOX residues require immobilization within a robust host matrix. Although it is possible to immobilize actinides in vitreous wasteforms; ceramic phases, such as brannerite (UTi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), are attractive due to their high waste loading capacity and relative insolubility. A range of uranium brannerite, formulated Gd{sub x}U{sub 1-x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6}, were prepared using a mixed oxide route. Charge compensation of divalent and trivalent cations was expected to occur via the oxidation of U{sup 4+} to higher valence states (U{sup 5+} or U{sup 6+}). Gd{sup 3+} was added to act as a neutron absorber in the final Pu bearing wasteform. X-ray powder diffraction of synthesised specimens found that phase distribution was strongly affected by processing atmosphere (air or Ar). In all cases prototypical brannerite was formed accompanied by different secondary phases dependent on processing atmosphere. Microstructural analysis (SEM) of the sintered samples confirmed the results of the X-ray powder diffraction. The preliminary results presented here indicate that brannerite is a promising host matrix for mixed oxide fuel residues. (authors)

  14. Stress measurement technique using neutron diffraction and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is the only method by which residual stresses inside materials at centimeter-order depth can be measured nondestructively. Residual lattice strains in (hkl) can be evaluated from the shift of the diffraction peak from its original position under the stress-free condition. Residual stresses can be calculated by applying Hooke's law to lattice strains measured in three orthogonal directions. In addition, the neutron diffraction method can evaluate macroscopic deformation of engineering materials by measuring microstructural factors such as microstrains. Therefore, the neutron diffraction technique is very helpful in the design and development of engineering components, as well as in studies on materials engineering. This paper shows principle of neutron stress measurement and engineering neutron diffractometers as well as some applications. (author)

  15. Neutron diffraction experience at RESA for engineering-aid application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Kato, Takashi; Nakajima, Hideo; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Morii, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    In RESA facility, neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis of JAERI, a neutron diffraction method of residual stress measurement has been developed. In engineering, an estimation of an applied strain by a machining process is important for a design and manufacturing goods. The neutron diffraction is expected to apply for such a practical application. In this study, the internal residual stress of a conduit material used for a huge superconducting coil with a complex fabrication process was measured by the neutron diffraction in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of neutron diffraction measurement as an engineering-aid tool. Strain and stress applied by machining were estimated from the measurements of the conduit before and after machining. The results of the measurement were compared with the finite element method calculation. (author)

  16. Neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcomb, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Thermal neutrons have a particular combination of properties, which make them the probe of choice for a wide range of scattering applications. They penetrate most materials easily, the wavelength matches interatomic spacings, the energy matches the atomic vibrational energies and the magnetic moment allows them to uniquely interact with magnetic structures. Their widely varying scattering length is also used to advantage. It enables the determination of light atoms in the presence of heavy ones: hydrogen in organic molecules, and oxygen in the high Tc superconductors for example, or solving problems in alloy systems where distinction of atoms, which are neighbours in the periodic table, is required. In the 50 years since thermal neutron beams have been used for research there has been a steady increase in applications as technology has advanced. This also applies to the environments in which the materials are studied. In-situ studies at other than ambient temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields are now routine. By using multiple detector channels in powder instruments the data collection rate has increased by an order of magnitude to some extent compensating for the diffuse nature of the neutron source. The applications of neutron scattering are becoming more industrially oriented. The talk will highlight the complementarity of neutrons to other more readily available techniques, and give examples of recent research and applications. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  17. Neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief account is given of neutron diffraction techniques. Similarities and differences compared with the more familiar X-ray counterparts are discussed. In certain applications, neutron diffraction can be used to obtain information about materials which would be difficult or even impossible to obtain using other techniques. One spectacular success has been the elucidation, from neutron powder diffraction, of the crystal structures of high critical temperature oxide superconductors. There have been substantial contributions in other fields, and these are illustrated by Australian work. The ability of the neutron to penetrate deeply into most materials has been invoked for in-depth determination of stresses in composites and of phase composition in zirconia ceramics. The unique properties of the neutron have been successfully exploited in studies of metal hydrides, to determine where hydrogen is located, and in magnetic structure determination. There is much interest in studying materials under different conditions of temperature and pressure, and kinetic studies under such conditions are now becoming possible. The article includes information on the principles, the instrumentation with particular reference to the instruments installed around the HIFAR reactor at Lucas Heights, and methods for the interpretation of data. 59 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs

  18. Neutron multiplicity recordings during GLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard, Vashenyuk; Leonid, Schur; Balabin, Yuri; Gvozdevsky, Boris

    A neutron multiplicity can give the information on a spectrum of primary solar protons and its variations during ground level enhancements (GLE). Such rare events are detected by ground based neutron monitors. With the help of the multiplicity recorder designed in PGI the variations of multiplicities during the GLE of December 13, 2006 on the neutron monitor in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. The neutron monitor in Barentsburg (18-NM-64) was put into operation on April, 2003. The recently developed data acquisition system is based on a PC equipped with two extension cards. One of them is ADLINK PCI-7233H, which is a high-speed 32-channel digital input card. The other is ADLINK PCI-8554, 12-channel counter/timer card. The specially written collecting program runs continuously. It captures the data registered by the two cards and stores the data to the hard disk. The PCI-7233H card registers pulses from all 18 channels of the neutron monitor and intervals between them. PCI-8554 card counts pulses from atmospheric pressure and temperature sensors. On the basis of this device the multiplicity recorder is realized to register the count rates on multiplicities (2-10). During the GLE on 13 December, 2006 significant increase of the count rates of multiplicities from 2 up to 5 was detected. The multiplicity spectrum changes are compared with the solar proton spectrum dynamics during event. The spectra of relativistic solar protons were derived by modeling technique from the worldwide neutron monitor network.

  19. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Paccagnella, A.; Bagatin, M.; Gerardin, S.; Cazzaniga, C.; Frost, C. D.; Picozza, P.; Gorini, G.; Mancini, R.; Sarno, M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  20. Fast neutron irradiation tests of flash memories used in space environment at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andreani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neutron accelerated study of soft errors in advanced electronic devices used in space missions, i.e. Flash memories performed at the ChipIr and VESUVIO beam lines at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The two neutron beam lines are set up to mimic the space environment spectra and allow neutron irradiation tests on Flash memories in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV and up to 800 MeV. The ISIS neutron energy spectrum is similar to the one occurring in the atmospheric as well as in space and planetary environments, with intensity enhancements varying in the range 108- 10 9 and 106- 10 7 respectively. Such conditions are suitable for the characterization of the atmospheric, space and planetary neutron radiation environments, and are directly applicable for accelerated tests of electronic components as demonstrated here in benchmark measurements performed on flash memories.

  1. Residual stresses of water-jet peened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    The specimen material was austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L. The residual stress was induced by water-jet peening. The residual stress was measured using the 311 diffraction with conventional X-rays. The measured residual stress showed the equi-biaxial stress state. To investigate thermal stability of the residual stress, the specimen was aged thermally at 773K in air to 1000h. The residual stress kept the equi-biaxial stress state against the thermal aging. Lattice plane dependency of the residual stress induced by water-jet peening was evaluated using hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual stress measured by the soft lattice plane showed the equi-biaxial stress state, but the residual stress measured by the hard lattice plane did not. In addition, the distributions of the residual stress in the depth direction were measured using a strain scanning method with hard synchrotron X-rays and neutrons. (author)

  2. Neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Freitas, A.G. de; Gammal, A.; Rizzatti, M.R.; Vercelli, P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the main characteristics of the neutron radiography technique, which has been developed in the Nuclear Physics Department of the IPEN-CNEN-SP. Its employment, in technology varies enormously and includes among others, the inspection of the hydrogen-rich substances, highly radioactive materials, etc. The indirect conversion method with Dysprosium screen was employed. The experimental arrangement used was a neutron collimator installed in the bottom of the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor pool. Several samples were analysed which were exposed in a neutron flux ∼ 10 7 n/s.cm 2 during 10 minutes. The obtained results confirm the main characteristics of this technique as well as its viability to be developed in this reactor. (author)

  3. neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron radiography (or radiology) is a diverse filed that uses neutrons of various energies, subthermal, thermal, epithermal or fast in either steady state or pulsed mode to examine objects for industrial, medical, or other purposes, both microscopic and macroscopic. The applications include engineering design, biological studies, nondestructive inspection and materials evaluation. In the past decade, over 100 different centers in some 30 countries have published reports of pioneering activities using reactors, accelerators and isotopic neutron sources. While film transparency and electronic video are most common imaging methods for static or in motion objects respectively, there are other important data gathering techniques, including track etch, digital gauging and computed tomography. A survey of the world-wide progress shows the field to be gaining steadily in its diversity, its sophistication and its importance. (author)

  4. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  5. Neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, G.

    1996-01-01

    X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  6. Neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heger, G. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Inst. fuer Kristallographie, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  7. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, N

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, po...

  8. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  9. Characterization of residual stresses generated during inhomogeneous plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, T.; Faurholdt, T.; Clausen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses generated by macroscopic inhomogeneous plastic deformation are predicted by an explicit finite element (FE) technique. The numerical predictions are evaluated by characterizing the residual elastic strains by neutron diffraction using two different (hkl) reflections. Intergranular...... residual elastic strains between subsets of grains are predicted numerically and verified by neutron diffraction. Subsequently, the measured residual strain profiles in the test samples are modified by the intergranular strains and compared to the engineering predictions of the FE technique. Results...... compare well and verify the capability of the numerical technique as well as the possibilities of experimental validation using neutron diffraction. The presented experimental and numerical approach will subsequently be utilized for the evaluation of more complicated plastic deformation processes...

  10. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  11. Study of atmospherical neutrinos therapeutic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roustit, Rudy

    2008-01-01

    Glioblastoma is nowadays one of the most murderer cancers with only 5 % survival after 3 years in case of classic treatment in radiotherapy. However, recently a new treatment have been create, the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using interaction's properties between bore 10 atoms and low energy neutrons that produced by giant accelerators or nuclear reactors. The target of this stage consist in adapt this technique in using a natural neutron source (atmospheric neutrons) and to know his radio-biologic efficacy. For this, we have been realised a numerical simulation of this source throughout a patient's brain [fr

  12. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  13. Thermal evolution of the crystal structure of proton conducting BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ from high-resolution neutron diffraction in dry and humid atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson Andersson, Annika K; Selbach, Sverre M; Grande, Tor; Knee, Christopher S

    2015-06-21

    The crystal structure of the proton conducting perovskite BaCe(0.8)Y(0.2)O(3-δ) (BCY20) has been studied via high-resolution in situ neutron diffraction performed in controlled dry and humid (heavy water) oxygen flow. Two phase transitions, cubic Pm3[combining macron]m→R3[combining macron]c (775 °C)→Imma (250 °C) were observed on cooling from 1000 °C in dry O(2). A significant shift of the phase stability fields was observed on cooling in wet oxygen (pD(2)O ≈ 0.2 atm) with the R3[combining macron]c structure stabilised at 900 °C, and the R3[combining macron]c→Imma transition occurring at 675 °C. On cooling below 400 °C a monoclinic, I2/m, phase started to appear. The structural dependence on hydration level is primarily due to the de-stabilisation of the correlated, octahedra tilts as a consequence of structural relaxation around the oxygen vacancies present in the non-hydrated phase. The tendency of hydrated BaCe(0.8)Y(0.2)O(3-δ) to show octahedral tilting is also found to be enhanced, indicating that the deuteronic (protonic) defects influence the crystal structure, possibly via hydrogen bonding. Stabilisation of the monoclinic I2/m phase is attributed to the structural effect of deuterons that is inferred to increase on cooling as deuterons localise to a greater extent. Changing from wet oxidising (O(2) + D2O(g)) to wet reducing (5% H2 in Ar + D2O(g)) atmosphere did not influence the structure or the phase stability, indicating that Ce(4+) was not reduced under the present conditions. Based on the observed cell volume expansion protonic defects are present in the material at 900 °C at a D(2)O partial pressure of ∼0.2 atm. The origin of the chemical expansion is explained by the effective size of the oxygen vacancy being significantly smaller than the [OD] defect. Rietveld analysis has been used to locate possible sites for the deuterons in the high temperature, R3[combining macron]c and Imma, phases that are most relevant for proton transport.

  14. Jovian atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M.; Travis, L.D.

    1986-10-01

    A conference on the atmosphere of Jupiter produced papers in the areas of thermal and ortho-para hydrogen structure, clouds and chemistry, atmospheric structure, global dynamics, synoptic features and processes, atmospheric dynamics, and future spaceflight opportunities. A session on the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune was included, and the atmosphere of Saturn was discussed in several papers

  15. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  16. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleton, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment. 3 claims, 6 figures

  17. Neutron stars as cosmic neutron matter laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, D.

    1986-01-01

    Recent developments which have radically changed our understanding of the dynamics of neutron star superfluids and the free precession of neutron stars are summarized, and the extent to which neutron stars are cosmic neutron matter laboratories is discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab

  18. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  19. Workshop on industrial application of neutron diffraction. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Minakawa, N; Morii, Y; Oyama, Y

    2002-01-01

    This workshop was planned to make use of the neutron from the reactor and the pulse neutron source JSNS for the industrial world. Especially, this workshop focused on the stress measurement by the neutron diffraction and it was held on the Tokai JAERI from October 15 to 16, 2001. The participant total was 93 and 40 participated from the industrial world. The introduction of the residual stress development of measurement technique by the neutron diffraction method and a research of the measurement of the residual stress such as the nuclear reactor material, the ordinary structure material, the composite material, the quenching steel, the high strength material were presented and discussed in this workshop. Moreover, it was introduced for the industrial world that an internal stress measurement is important for development of new product or an improvement of a manufacturing process. The question from the industrial world about which can be measured the product form, the size, the measurement precision, the reso...

  20. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  1. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  2. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  3. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron scattering in contemporary research, neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  4. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic neutron scattering, strongly correlated electrons, polymer dynamics, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  5. Internal exposure to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder in Wistar rats. Pt. 1. Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, Valeriy; Kaprin, Andrey; Galkin, Vsevolod; Ivanov, Sergey; Kolyzhenkov, Timofey; Petukhov, Aleksey; Yaskova, Elena; Belukha, Irina; Khailov, Artem; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Ivannikov, Alexander; Akhmedova, Umukusum; Bogacheva, Viktoria [Medical Radiological Research Center (MRRC) named after A.F. Tsyb - National Medical Research Radiological Center of the Health Ministry of the Russian Federation, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Rakhypbekov, Tolebay; Dyussupov, Altay; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Sayakenov, Nurlan; Uzbekov, Darkhan; Saimova, Aisulu; Shabdarbaeva, Dariya; Kairkhanova, Yankar [Semey State Medical University, Semey (Kazakhstan); Otani, Keiko; Endo, Satoru; Satoh, Kenichi; Kawano, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Shichijo, Kazuko; Nakashima, Masahiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Sakaguchi, Aya; Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Toyoda, Shin [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Sato, Hitoshi [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Science, Ibaraki (Japan); Skakov, Mazhin; Vurim, Alexandr; Gnyrya, Vyacheslav; Azimkhanov, Almas; Kolbayenkov, Alexander [National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Zhumadilov, Kasym [Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2017-03-15

    There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure. Currently, estimation of internal exposure of atomic bomb survivors due to dispersed radioactivity and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground is a matter of some interest, in Japan. The main neutron-activated radionuclides in soil dust were {sup 24}Na, {sup 28}Al, {sup 31}Si, {sup 32}P, {sup 38}Cl, {sup 42}K, {sup 45}Ca, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 56}Mn, {sup 59}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 134}Cs. The radionuclide {sup 56}Mn (T{sub 1/2} = 2.58 h) is known as one of the dominant beta- and gamma emitters during the first few hours after neutron irradiation of soil and other materials on ground, dispersed in the form of dust after a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere. To investigate the peculiarities of biological effects of internal exposure to {sup 56}Mn in comparison with external gamma irradiation, a dedicated experiment with Wistar rats exposed to neutron-activated {sup 56}Mn dioxide powder was performed recently by Shichijo and coworkers. The dosimetry required for this experiment is described here. Assessment of internal radiation doses was performed on the basis of measured {sup 56}Mn activity in the organs and tissues of the rats and of absorbed fractions of internal exposure to photons and electrons calculated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo using a mathematical rat phantom. The first results of

  6. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms and water molecules around proteins and nucleic acids play a crucial role in many physiological functions. Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms. (a) Since almost all the H atom positions can be identified experimentally, the geometrical details of certain types of H-bonds can be visualized and (b) as far as mechanistic implications are concerned, the identification of protonation and deprotonation states of certain important amino acid residues can be carried out. (c) The hydration structure around proteins and the hydration networks around DNA oligomers have been successfully characterized in several outstanding cases. These will open the new field beyond the folding structure of bio-macromolecules such as: 1) Recognition of proteins and nucleic acids through the network structure of water molecules surrounding bio-macromolecules, and 2) The nature of chemical bond in proteins and nucleic acids elucidated by the accumulation of accurate structural information of hydrogen atoms. (author)

  7. Neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The annual report on hand gives an overview of the research work carried out in the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering (LNS) of the ETH Zuerich in 1990. Using the method of neutron scattering, it is possible to examine in detail the static and dynamic properties of the condensed material. In accordance with the multidisciplined character of the method, the LNS has for years maintained a system of intensive co-operation with numerous institutes in the areas of biology, chemistry, solid-state physics, crystallography and materials research. In 1990 over 100 scientists from more than 40 research groups both at home and abroad took part in the experiments. It was again a pleasure to see the number of graduate students present, who were studying for a doctorate and who could be introduced into the neutron scattering during their stay at the LNS and thus were in the position to touch on central ways of looking at a problem in their dissertation using this modern experimental method of solid-state research. In addition to the numerous and interesting ways of formulating the questions to explain the structure, nowadays the scientific programme increasingly includes particularly topical studies in connection with high temperature-supraconductors and materials research

  8. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  9. Stress and strain measurements. X-rays and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron diffraction, often in combination with X-ray diffraction, is a powerful means with respect to an optimisation of the microstructure of multiphase alloys as well as to the optimisation of the manufacturing processes and the shape of components. As examples for engineering materials characterised and optimised by neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction metal and ceramic matrix composites, Ni-base alloys as well as multiphase Al-alloys are given. Processes and components studied by neutron diffraction e.g. are single crystal turbine blade, turbine disks, impellers and shot peened samples. Neutron residual stress analysis is used for the calibration of finite element calculations, e.g. of calculations of the residual stress state in rails, crankshafts and extruded rods. Recently, a new method for residual stress analysis in the bulk of components by high energy synchrotron radiation, which is complementary to neutron residual stress analysis, has been introduced. This new method is compared to neutron residual stress analysis and future trends are outlined. (author)

  10. Overview of soil moisture measurements with neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Aagje; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture measurements are useful for hydrological and agricultural applications. Soil moisture can be measured with a range of in-situ sensors in the soil, such as probes based on the difference in dielectric permittivity of wet and dry soil. At a large scale of tenths of kilometres, soil moisture can be measured with microwave remote sensing from satellites. At the intermediate scale, detection methods such as GPS reflectometry and the use of cosmic rays have been developed recently. One of the principles that can be used to measure soil moisture, is the difference in behaviour of neutrons in wet and dry soil. Neutrons are massive, electrically neutral particles that transfer their energy easily to light atoms, such as hydrogen. Therefore, in wet soil, neutrons lose their energy quickly. In dry soil, they scatter elastically from the heavy atoms and can be detected. The amount of detected neutrons is therefore inversely correlated with the amount of hydrogen in the soil. In this research we look for an overview of the possibilities to measure soil moisture with neutrons and how neutrons can be detected. Neutrons can be used to measure at the point scale and at a larger scale of approximately 1 km. We discuss in-situ measurements, in which a neutron source is put into the soil. Immediately next to the source is a detector, that counts the amount of neutrons that scatters back if the soil is dry. At a larger scale or measurement volume, we discuss the measurement of soil moisture with neutrons from cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are charged particles, accelerated by astrophysical sources (such as a Supernova). When the particles enter the atmosphere, they interact with the atmospheric atoms and form a shower. At sea level, we find several types of particles, such as muons and neutrons. We discuss why neutrons would be more useful for soil moisture measurements than other particles and how the use of cosmic-ray neutrons influences the measurement volume. Here we

  11. The status and future of residual stress analysis and the VAMAS TWA20 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is one of the few techniques available that can be used non-destructively to measure residual strains inside components so as to be able to determine the corresponding residual stresses. VAMAS TWA20 is an international project designed to facilitate the basic research necessary to develop the first international standard for the determination of residual stresses using neutron diffraction so that the technique may be used confidently by industry. The VAMAS project and the status and future of the neutron technique are discussed and illustrated by a range of examples from the project. (author)

  12. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  13. Neutron structure analysis using neutron imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Yuko; Minezaki, Yoshiaki; Niimura, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Neutron is complementary against X-ray and is dispensable for structure analysis. However, because of the lack of the neutron intensity, it was not so common as X-ray. In order to overcome the intensity problem, a neutron imaging plate (NIP) has been successfully developed. The NIP has opened the door of neutron structure biology, where all the hydrogen atoms and bound water molecules of protein are determined, and contributed to development of other fields such as neutron powder diffraction and neutron radiography, too. (author)

  14. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  15. REFRACTIVE NEUTRON LENS

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, P. V.; Kolchevsky, N. N.

    2013-01-01

    Compound concave refractive lenses are used for focusing neutron beam. Investigations of spectral and focusing properties of a refractive neutron lens are presented. Resolution of the imaging system on the base of refractive neutron lenses depends on material properties and parameters of neutron source. Model of refractive neutron lens are proposed. Results of calculation diffraction resolution and focal depth of refractive neutron lens are discussed.

  16. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  17. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  18. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  19. Neutron measurements at BRIT/BARC medical cyclotron facility of RMC, Parel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathian, Deepa; Sathian, V.; Phandnis, U.V.; Soni, P.S.; Mohite, D.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron leakage and its long distance propagation in the atmosphere from the intense neutron facilities such as high energy accelerators like Cyclotron are very important for the shielding design of the facilities and resulting dose reduction to nearby population, because of strong penetrability of high energy neutrons. The neutron interaction cross sections are highly energy dependent, so different methods are adopted for measuring different energy neutrons. The method also depends on the amount of neutron fluence rate expected at the location. When the fluence rate is very high, the foil activation is the best method for the measurement of neutron fluence rate. In foil activation technique an inactive material is activated by neutrons and the activity is measured and correlated to the neutron fluence rate. In this paper, neutron fluence rate measurement using different activation foils at medical cyclotron room of Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) is discussed. (author)

  20. Comparison of residual stress in martensitic alloys by nondestructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Suresh, S.B.; Wells, D.

    2006-01-01

    Three martensitic materials, namely Alloys EP-823, HT-9 and 422 were subjected to tensile loading at ambient temperature. The cylindrical specimens tested at different levels of tensile loading were analyzed for characterization of residual stress resulting from plastic deformation corresponding to the applied loads between the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength. The extent of residual stress developed at these applied stresses was analyzed by nondestructive positron annihilation spectroscopy, activation, and neutron diffraction techniques. The results indicate that the residual stresses characterized by all three techniques exhibited a consistent pattern showing a gradual enhancement in residual stress with increasing applied load

  1. Cosmic-ray neutron simulations and measurements in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Lin; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2014-10-01

    This study used simulations of galactic cosmic ray in the atmosphere to investigate the neutron background environment in Taiwan, emphasising its altitude dependence and spectrum variation near interfaces. The calculated results were analysed and compared with two measurements. The first measurement was a mobile neutron survey from sea level up to 3275 m in altitude conducted using a car-mounted high-sensitivity neutron detector. The second was a previous measured result focusing on the changes in neutron spectra near air/ground and air/water interfaces. The attenuation length of cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere was estimated to be 163 g cm(-2) in Taiwan. Cosmic-ray neutron spectra vary with altitude and especially near interfaces. The determined spectra near the air/ground and air/water interfaces agree well with measurements for neutrons below 10 MeV. However, the high-energy portion of spectra was observed to be much higher than our previous estimation. Because high-energy neutrons contribute substantially to a dose evaluation, revising the annual sea-level effective dose from cosmic-ray neutrons at ground level in Taiwan to 35 μSv, which corresponds to a neutron flux of 5.30 × 10(-3) n cm(-2) s(-1), was suggested. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Neutron microdosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.

    1987-01-01

    A major effort was made during the past year to do precision microdosimetry of neutrons at the RARAF facility. By precision microdosimetry the authors mean a special effort to understand, better than previously, some of the factors which go into the limitation of the accuracy and precision of microdosimetric measurements of neutrons. That such factors are still not clearly understood, or at least accounted for, is immediately evident upon examination of published microdosimetric measurements. What becomes immediately apparent upon examination of, say, the dose mean lineal energies reported, is that the spread of reported values for exceeds the reported experimental uncertainty, commonly taken as about 5%. Differences of 50% are not uncommon. It is easy to make the mistake that since classical microdosimetry uses a well-established experimental tool, the proportional counter, that sources of error should also be well understood. However, microdosimetry makes use of the proportional counter in a way which is quite different from its origins as a low-energy photon spectroscopy device. Microdosimetric spectra, particularly of neutrons, span 5 to 6 decades of event sizes. It is by no means certain that proportionality extends over such a range, and in fact it has been pointed out that it probably does not. Data analysis techniques vary from one experimenter to another, and can substantially affect mean values as well as spectral shape. The authors are examining these parameters, as well as others, such as calibration errors, but they are especially concentrating on the effect of counter design and performance on the resultant spectra which the counter measures

  3. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  4. Structural integrity assessment based on the HFR Petten neutron beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A.G.; Idsert, P. van den

    2002-01-01

    Neutrons are becoming recognized as a valuable tool for structural-integrity assessment of industrial components and advanced materials development. Microstructure, texture and residual stress analyses are commonly performed by neutron diffraction and a joint CEN/ISO Pre-Standard for residual stress analysis is under development. Furthermore neutrons provide for defects analyses, i.e. precipitations, voids, pores and cracks, through small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) or radiography. At the High Flux Reactor, 12 beam tubes have been installed for the extraction of thermal neutrons for such applications. Two of them are equipped with neutron diffractometers for residual stress and structure determination and have been extensively used in the past. Several other facilities are currently being reactivated and upgraded. These include the SANS and radiography facilities as well as a powder diffractometer. This paper summarizes the main characteristics and current status of these facilities as well as recently investigated applications. (orig.)

  5. Structural integrity assessment based on the HFR Petten neutron beam facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohms, C.; Youtsos, A. G.; van den Idsert, P.

    Neutrons are becoming recognized as a valuable tool for structural-integrity assessment of industrial components and advanced materials development. Microstructure, texture and residual stress analyses are commonly performed by neutron diffraction and a joint CEN/ISO Pre-Standard for residual stress analysis is under development. Furthermore neutrons provide for defects analyses, i.e. precipitations, voids, pores and cracks, through small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) or radiography. At the High Flux Reactor, 12 beam tubes have been installed for the extraction of thermal neutrons for such applications. Two of them are equipped with neutron diffractometers for residual stress and structure determination and have been extensively used in the past. Several other facilities are currently being reactivated and upgraded. These include the SANS and radiography facilities as well as a powder diffractometer. This paper summarizes the main characteristics and current status of these facilities as well as recently investigated applications.

  6. Structural integrity assessment based on the HFR Petten neutron beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Ohms, C; Idsert, P V D

    2002-01-01

    Neutrons are becoming recognized as a valuable tool for structural-integrity assessment of industrial components and advanced materials development. Microstructure, texture and residual stress analyses are commonly performed by neutron diffraction and a joint CEN/ISO Pre-Standard for residual stress analysis is under development. Furthermore neutrons provide for defects analyses, i.e. precipitations, voids, pores and cracks, through small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) or radiography. At the High Flux Reactor, 12 beam tubes have been installed for the extraction of thermal neutrons for such applications. Two of them are equipped with neutron diffractometers for residual stress and structure determination and have been extensively used in the past. Several other facilities are currently being reactivated and upgraded. These include the SANS and radiography facilities as well as a powder diffractometer. This paper summarizes the main characteristics and current status of these facilities as well as recently in...

  7. Progress report on neutron science. April 1, 2006 - March 31, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masayasu; Ohhara, Takashi; Moriai, Atsushi

    2008-03-01

    There are 13 research groups in neutron science and technology in the Quantum Beam Science Directorate (QuBS) and Advanced Science Research Center (ASRC) of Japan Atomic Research Agency (JAEA). A wide variety of research is performed by these group: neutron scattering (condensed matter physics, polymer science, biology, and residual stress analysis), prompt gamma-ray analysis, neutron radiography, neutron optics, and development of a neutron spectrometer, neutron beam handling device and neutron detector. This issue summarizes research progress in neutron science and technology including activities of the Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate of JAEA, and of the COMMON USE PROGRAM of JAEA utilizing the research reactor JRR-3 during the period between April 1, 2006 and March 31, 2007. This report contains highlights of research by these 13 neutron research groups of QuBS and ASRC, introducing 68 experimental reports. (author)

  8. Neutron star cooling: effects of envelope physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riper, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron star cooling calculations are reported which employ improved physics in the calculation of the temperature drop through the atmosphere. The atmosphere microphysics is discussed briefly. The predicted neutron star surface temperatures, in the interesting interval 200 less than or equal to t (yr) less than or equal to 10 5 , do not differ appreciably from the earlier results of Van Riper and Lamb (1981) for a non-magnetic star; for a magnetic star, the surface temperature is lower than in the previous work. Comparison with observational limits show that an exotic cooling mechanism, such as neutrino emission from a pion condensate or in the presence of percolating quarks, is not required unless the existence of a neutron star in the Tycho or SN1006 SNRs is established

  9. Neutron matter, symmetry energy and neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, Gandolfi [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Steiner, Andrew W [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry, and its connection to the structure of neutron stars. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  10. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  11. Neutron generator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelman, H.E.; Bridges, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of controlling the neutron output of a neutron generator tube used in neutron well logging. The system operates by monitoring the target beam current and comparing a function of this current with a reference voltage level to develop a control signal used in a series regulator to control the replenisher current of the neutron generator tube. (U.K.)

  12. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  13. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  14. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  15. Miscellaneous neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddings, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    Attention is brought to the less often uses of neutrons in the areas of neutron radiography, well logging, and neutron gaging. Emphasis on neutron radiography points toward the isotopic sensitivity of the method versus the classical bulk applications. Also recognized is the ability of neutron radiography to produce image changes that correspond to thickness and density changes obtained in photon radiography. Similarly, neutron gaging applications center on the measurement of radiography. Similarly, neutron gaging applications center on the measurement of water, oil, or plastics in industrial samples. Well logging extends the neutron gaging to encompass many neutron properties and reactions besides thermalization and capture. Neutron gaging also gives information on organic structure and concentrations of a variety of elements or specific compounds in selected matrices

  16. Neutrons in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Occasionally to the fiftieth anniversy of the discovery of the neutron the author presents a historical review about the impact of this discovery on different fields at physics. Especially considered are nuclear physics, the neutron as an elementary particles, ultracold neutrons, condensed matter physics, radiation damage induced by neutrons, neutron activation analysis, imaging and radiography by neutrons, neutrons in mining operations, track etching, the use of intense gamma sources, gauging systems, neutron holography and neutron stars. (HSI)

  17. Neutron scattering in engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, G. A.; Ezeilo, A. N.

    1997-02-01

    The state of stress generated in engineering components during manufacture and use can significantly influence their load carrying capacity and resistance to fracture. Some manufacturing processes introduce damaging residual tensile stresses whereas others can produce beneficial compression. In order to make reliable estimates of component performance it is necessary to have an accurate knowledge of these stresses. In this paper a technique for measuring residual stresses non-destructively by neutron diffraction is outlined. A representative selection of stress distributions developed by a range of manufacturing processes is examined. Some comparisons are made with strain gauge, X-ray and finite element determinations. It is shown how the results can be of benefit in engineering stress analysis.

  18. A utilização da difração de neutrões na determinação do perfil de tensões residuais em revestimentos por soldadura The use of neutron diffraction for the determination of the in-depth residual stresses profile in weld coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Marques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de difração de neutrões é usada neste artigo para estudar amostras ferríticas, revestidas comaços inoxidáveisausteníticos através de soldadura por arco submerso. Este procedimento é frequentemente usado no fabrico de equipamentos de processo para as indústrias química e nuclear, por facilidade de execução e razões económicas. A principal desvantagem deste processo de revestimento é a fissuração que frequentemente ocorre na interface material base/soldadura, potenciada pela presença de tensões residuais resultantes da operação de soldadura, a qual pode ser minimizada com a realização de tratamentos térmicos de relaxação de tensões. As amostras foram produzidas a partir de placas em aço ao carbono, tendo uma das superfícies sido revestida com dois tipos de aço inoxidável. Para a primeira camada foi usado um elétrodo EN 12072 - S 23 12 2 L e para a segunda e a terceira camadas foi usado um elétrodo EN 12072 - S 19 12 3 L. Após a soldadura, as amostras foram submetidas a um tratamento térmico de relaxação de tensões, durante 1 hora, à temperatura de 620ºC. Os perfis de tensões residuais obtidos por difração de neutrões evidenciam a relaxação de tensões residuais após o tratamento térmico realizado. A técnica de difração de neutrões revelou-se muito adequada na avaliação de tensões residuais neste tipo de ligações.The neutron diffraction is a non-destructive technique, particularly suitable for the analysis of residual stress fields in welds. The technique is used in this article to study ferritic samples, coated by submerged arc welding using stainless steel filler metals. This procedure is often used for manufacturing process equipment for chemical and nuclear industries, for ease of implementation and economic reasons. The main disadvantage of that processes is the cracking phenomenon that often occurs at the interface between the base material and coatings, which can be

  19. Residual strains in girth-welded linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwen, S.R.; Holden, T.M.; Powell, B.M.; Lazor, R.B.

    1987-07-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction has been used to measure the axial residual strains in and adjacent to a multipass girth weld in a complete section of 914 mm (36 inches) diameter, 16 mm (5/8 inch) wall, linepipe. The experiments were carried out at the NRU reactor, Chalk River using the L3 triple-axis spectrometer. The through-wall distribution of axial residual strain was measured at 0, 4, 8, 20 and 50 mm from the weld centerline; the axial variation was determined 1, 5, 8, and 13 mm from the inside surface of the pipe wall. The results have been compared with strain gauge measurements on the weld surface and with through-wall residual stress distributions determined using the block-layering and removal technique

  20. Optimization of bent perfect Si(220)-crystal monochromator for residual strain/stress instrument - Part II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moon, MK.; Em, Vt.; Lee, C.H.; Mikula, Pavol; Hong, KP; Choi, YH; Cheon, JK; Nam, UW; Kong, KN; Jin, KC

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 368, 1 2 3 4 (2005), s. 70-75 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0891 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron monochromator * residual stress measurement * neutron diffractometers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2005

  1. Study of materials properties by neutron beam applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, H. J.; Kim, B. C.; Jun, B. C.; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S.; Shim, H. S.; Choi, B. H.; Ho, J. W.; Kang, S. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Park, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. J.; Cho, Y. S.

    1997-10-01

    Horizontal and vertical beam ports related works for neutron beam experimental facilities in HANARO has been done. And the preparation works of neutron spectrometers, design, manufacture and installation of the high resolution powder diffractometer, the four circle diffractometer, the polarized neutron spectrometer, the small angle neutron spectrometer and the position sensitive detector unit for residual stress measurement have been done. The status for each spectrometer are described. The development of neutron spectroscopy technique for the crystal structure analysis on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x , U 3 Si, Pb(Yb,Nb)O 3 by neutron diffraction, the anisotropic properties of textured orthorhombic polycrystalline materials and the low temperature sample environment facility has been performed and neutron reflectometry has been reviewed. After the design and manufacture of neutron radiography facility, it has been installed at NR beam tube and its' performance evaluation has been done. The image processing technique for real time testing is under development. As for neutron transmutation doping, design of irradiation tube, estimation on neutron flux distribution and flux quality, and study of irradiation damage recovery under annealing have been tried. (author). 11 refs., 40 tabs., 86 figs.

  2. Residual Stresses in 21-6-9 Stainless Steel Warm Forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everhart, Wesley A.; Lee, Jordan D.; Broecker, Daniel J.; Bartow, John P.; McQueen, Jamie M.; Switzner, Nathan T.; Neidt, Tod M.; Sisneros, Thomas A.; Brown, Donald W.

    2012-11-14

    Forging residual stresses are detrimental to the production and performance of derived machined parts due to machining distortions, corrosion drivers and fatigue crack drivers. Residual strains in a 21-6-9 stainless steel warm High Energy Rate Forging (HERF) were measured via neutron diffraction. The finite element analysis (FEA) method was used to predict the residual stresses that occur during forging and water quenching. The experimentally measured residual strains were used to calibrate simulations of the three-dimensional residual stress state of the forging. ABAQUS simulation tools predicted residual strains that tend to match with experimental results when varying yield strength is considered.

  3. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl

    1960-01-01

    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  4. Industrial applications of neutron diffraction and outline of J-PARC(2). Outline of J-PARC and present situation of industrial application in neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Neutron diffraction method is very much effective for measurement of residual stress and texture in the engineering materials. Now a new neutron science facility named as Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is under constructing in Nuclear Science Research Institute of JAEA. In this paper, an outline of J-PARC and Ibaraki Prefecture's Materials Design Diffractometer to be installed in J-PARC are introduced. In addition, present situations of industrial application of neutron scattering are reviewed. (author)

  5. Neutron range spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  6. Neutrons and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.; Meinnel, J.

    2003-01-01

    The neutron is the only probe that gives information simultaneously on structure issues through interference phenomena and on dynamics issues through spectroscopy. The neutron carries a s=1/2 spin value which allows it to be polarizable and to interact with any magnetic field through the magnetic momentum associated to its spin. The great interest of neutron in research relies on 3 facts: -) the neutron fluxes used to study matter are supplied by nuclear reactors and spallation sources with wave lengths and energy range that directly correspond to interatomic distances and thermal-motion energies of matter, -) the possibility of setting or changing the contrast of an element by using its different isotopes, and -) the neutron does not carry an electrical charge so it can enter the bulk of matter easily and gives an image of stress and patterns of large pieces of metal through a non-destructive examination. This course reviews all the aspects of the use of neutron in physics and is made up of 16 chapters: 1) properties of neutrons, 2) neutron production, 3) complementarity between X-ray and neutrons, 4) neutron diffraction, 5) neutron diffusion, 6) neutron spectroscopy, 7) crystallography, 8) imaging techniques with neutrons, 9) neutron activation analysis, 10) low-angle diffusion, 11) neutron reflectivity, 12) non-destructive testing, 13) microstructure and diffraction rays of X-radiation, 14) access to neutron source facilities, 15) composites materials and neutron diffusion, and 16) studies of liquids and glasses through neutron and X-ray diffraction. (A.C.)

  7. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  8. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kajita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric neutrinos are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith angle and energy-dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. It was found that neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. This paper discusses atmospheric neutrino experiments and the neutrino oscillation studies with these neutrinos.

  9. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  10. Neutron in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10 2 to 10 3 times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  11. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  12. Micro structural evaluation technique of steel using neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, Haruo; Sato, Kaoru; Sueyoshi, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Structural analysis using Neutrons is a very unique technique for its strong penetration ability through steels. Numerous evaluation techniques are available at present, and JFE Steel has been adapting the technique through participating in research activities such as in the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. This paper introduces some results including precipitation evaluation using a small angle scattering, residual strain estimation through diffractions, and in-situ transformation observation by time-of-flight methods of neutron beams diffraction. (author)

  13. Basics of Neutrons for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    These are slides from a presentation on the basics of neutrons. A few topics covered are: common origins of terrestrial neutron radiation, neutron sources, neutron energy, interactions, detecting neutrons, gammas from neutron interactions, neutron signatures in gamma-ray spectra, neutrons and NaI, neutron fluence to dose (msV), instruments' response to neutrons.

  14. Neutron stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons, the Boltzmann transport equation with delayed neutrons for the average flux emerges in a natural way without recourse to any approximation. From this theory a general expression is obtained for the Feynman Y-function when delayed neutrons are included. The single mode approximation for the particular case of a subcritical assembly is developed, and it is shown that Y-function reduces to the familiar expression quoted in many books, when delayed neutrons are not considered, and spatial and source effects are not included. (author)

  15. Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, Eric G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 x 10-4 or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 x 10-5 is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n → p + e + $\\bar{v}$e) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta (σn • pp x pe). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D.

  16. Time reversal invariance in polarized neutron decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, E.G.

    1994-03-01

    An experiment to measure the time reversal invariance violating (T-violating) triple correlation (D) in the decay of free polarized neutrons has been developed. The detector design incorporates a detector geometry that provides a significant improvement in the sensitivity over that used in the most sensitive of previous experiments. A prototype detector was tested in measurements with a cold neutron beam. Data resulting from the tests are presented. A detailed calculation of systematic effects has been performed and new diagnostic techniques that allow these effects to be measured have been developed. As the result of this work, a new experiment is under way that will improve the sensitivity to D to 3 x 10 -4 or better. With higher neutron flux a statistical sensitivity of the order 3 x 10 -5 is ultimately expected. The decay of free polarized neutrons (n → p + e + bar v e ) is used to search for T-violation by measuring the triple correlation of the neutron spin polarization, and the electron and proton momenta (σ n · p p x p e ). This correlation changes sign under reversal of the motion. Since final state effects in neutron decay are small, a nonzero coefficient, D, of this correlation indicates the violation of time reversal invariance. D is measured by comparing the numbers of coincidences in electron and proton detectors arranged symmetrically about a longitudinally polarized neutron beam. Particular care must be taken to eliminate residual asymmetries in the detectors or beam as these can lead to significant false effects. The Standard Model predicts negligible T-violating effects in neutron decay. Extensions to the Standard Model include new interactions some of which include CP-violating components. Some of these make first order contributions to D

  17. Salient features, response and operation of Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mufti, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Ishtiaq, P.M.; Darzi, M.A.; Mir, T.A.; Shah, G.N.

    2016-01-01

    Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor (LFGNM) provides continuous ground level intensity measurements of atmospheric secondary neutrons produced in interactions of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's constituent atmosphere. We report the LFGNM detector salient features and simulation of its energy response for 10 −11 MeV to 10 4 MeV energy incident neutrons using the FLUKA Monte Carlo package. An empirical calibration of the LFGNM detector carried out with a Pu–Be neutron source for maximising its few MeV neutron counting sensitivity is also presented. As an illustration of its functionality a single representative transient solar modulation event recorded by LFGNM depicting Forbush decrease in integrated neutron data for which the geospace consequences are well known is also presented. Performance of LFGNM under actual observation conditions for effectively responding to transient solar modulation is seen to compare well with other world-wide conventional neutron monitors.

  18. Salient features, response and operation of Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mufti, S., E-mail: mufti.sabiuddin@gmail.com [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Srinagar - 190 006 (India); Chatterjee, S. [TLD Unit, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata - 700 064 (India); Ishtiaq, P.M.; Darzi, M.A.; Mir, T.A.; Shah, G.N. [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Srinagar - 190 006 (India)

    2016-03-21

    Lead-Free Gulmarg Neutron Monitor (LFGNM) provides continuous ground level intensity measurements of atmospheric secondary neutrons produced in interactions of primary cosmic rays with the Earth's constituent atmosphere. We report the LFGNM detector salient features and simulation of its energy response for 10{sup −11} MeV to 10{sup 4} MeV energy incident neutrons using the FLUKA Monte Carlo package. An empirical calibration of the LFGNM detector carried out with a Pu–Be neutron source for maximising its few MeV neutron counting sensitivity is also presented. As an illustration of its functionality a single representative transient solar modulation event recorded by LFGNM depicting Forbush decrease in integrated neutron data for which the geospace consequences are well known is also presented. Performance of LFGNM under actual observation conditions for effectively responding to transient solar modulation is seen to compare well with other world-wide conventional neutron monitors.

  19. Study of residual stresses in CT test specimens welded by electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papushkin, I. V.; Kaisheva, D.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Angelov, V.; Petrov, P.

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports result of residual stress distribution studies in CT specimens reconstituted by electron beam welding (EBW). The main aim of the study is evaluation of the applicability of the welding technique for CT specimens’ reconstitution. Thus, the temperature distribution during electron beam welding of a CT specimen was calculated using Green’s functions and the residual stress distribution was determined experimentally using neutron diffraction. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments were performed on a Fourier stress diffractometer at the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The neutron diffraction data estimates yielded a maximal stress level of ±180 MPa in the welded joint.

  20. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed.

  1. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed

  2. Fluxo de vapor de água atmosférico na obtenção do resíduo ET-P em três macrorregiões brasileiras Atmospheric water vapor flux in the determination of the residual ET-P in three Brazilian macro regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enilson P. Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available São analisados, neste trabalho, a precipitação, a evapotranspiração e o resíduo (ET-P para três áreas de controle de 10 por 10 graus de latitude e longitude sobre as regiões Nordeste, Norte e Sudeste do Brasil. O fluxo de vapor d'água resultante é calculado e comparado com o resíduo. As análises são feitas a partir dos dados de reanálise mensais do National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction - NCAR/NCEP, para o período de 1958 a 1998. Aspectos da variação sazonal e interanual dos elementos citados são apresentados para cada uma das áreas e, entre os resultados obtidos, destacam-se a boa correlação entre o resíduo e o fluxo de vapor d'água resultante, com coeficientes de determinação de 0,86, 0,84 e 0,74 para as áreas Nordeste, Norte e Sudeste, respectivamente.This paper presents an analysis of precipitation, evapotranspiration and ET-P residuals for three 10º by 10º latitude/longitude control areas over the northeast, north and southeast of Brazil. The resulting water vapor flux is calculated and compared to the residual. The analysis is performed through the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data for the period from 1958 to 1998. Some aspects of both seasonal and interannual variation of these variables are presented for each depicted area. The main result is the good correlation between the residuals and the resulting water vapor flux with determination coefficients of 0.86, 0.84 and 0.74 for these respective regions.

  3. Atmospheric electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, H.

    1984-01-01

    The book Atmospheric Electrodynamics, by Hans Voland is reviewed. The book describes a wide variety of electrical phenomena occurring in the upper and lower atmosphere and develops the mathematical models which simulate these processes. The reviewer finds that the book is of interest to researchers with a background in electromagnetic theory but is of only limited use as a reference work

  4. Atmospheric Dispositifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    , the conceptual foundations and protocols for the production of atmosphere in architecture might be found beneath the surface of contemporary debates. In this context, the notion of atmospheric dispositif – illustrated through an oeuvre of the German architect Werner Ruhnau and its theoretical and historical...

  5. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  6. Neutron anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone

  7. Neutron anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, G E

    1996-01-01

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content-the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite- and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilising distances ranging from 1 mm to 10 mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals-including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighbouring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction, for a sample of bone.

  8. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Fundamentals part 5. Neutron sources for neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito

    2007-01-01

    Neutrons for experiments by neutron beams are classified regarding neutron sources as follows: (1) Neutrons from radioisotopes, (2) Neutrons from nuclear reactions induced by deuteron beams from accelerators, (3) Neutrons from nuclear spallation induced by high energy proton beams from accelerators, and (4) Neutrons from reactors. As for the neutron imaging, weak intensity neutron sources can be useful if the detector system is sensitive enough. A newly developed spallation neutron source has eminent characteristics that the neutron emission is pulsive with strong peak intensity. Imaging experiments availing this property will be developed henceforth. (K. Yoshida)

  9. Workshop on industrial application of neutron diffraction. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakawa, Nobuaki; Moriai, Atsushi; Morii, Yukio; Oyama, Yukio

    2002-03-01

    This workshop was planned to make use of the neutron from the reactor and the pulse neutron source JSNS for the industrial world. Especially, this workshop focused on the stress measurement by the neutron diffraction and it was held on the Tokai JAERI from October 15 to 16, 2001. The participant total was 93 and 40 participated from the industrial world. The introduction of the residual stress development of measurement technique by the neutron diffraction method and a research of the measurement of the residual stress such as the nuclear reactor material, the ordinary structure material, the composite material, the quenching steel, the high strength material were presented and discussed in this workshop. Moreover, it was introduced for the industrial world that an internal stress measurement is important for development of new product or an improvement of a manufacturing process. The question from the industrial world about which can be measured the product form, the size, the measurement precision, the resolution, and the installation plan of internal stress measurement equipment using the pulse neutron source under construction. From an expert, there was a question concerning on the internal stress distribution measurement about stress corrosion cracking etc. (author)

  10. Internal strain measurement using pulsed neutron diffraction at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, J.A.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Shi, N.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of residual stress in engineering components can effect their mechanical properties and structural integrity. Neutron diffraction in the only technique that can make nondestructive measurements in the interior of components. By recording the change in crystalline lattice spacings, elastic strains can be measured for individual lattice reflections. Using a pulsed neutron source, all lattice reflections are recorded in each measurement, which allows for easy examination of heterogeneous materials such as metal matrix composites. Measurements made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) demonstrate the potential at pulsed sources for in-situ stress measurements at ambient and elevated temperatures

  11. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  12. Neutron beams for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuplenikov, Eh.L.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Tsymbal, V.A.; Kandybej, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    It was given the analysis and generalization of the study results carried out during some decades in many world countries on application of thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons for neutron, gamma-neutron and neutron-capture therapy. The main attention is focused on the practical application possibility of the accumulated experience for the base creation for medical research and the cancer patients effective treatment.

  13. Reactor Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    The present status and the prospects for development of reactor neutron sources for neutron scattering research in the world are considered. The fields of application of neutron scattering relative to synchrotron radiation, the creation stages of reactors (steady state and pulsed) and their position in comparison with spallation neutron sources at present and in the foreseen future are discussed. (author). 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Properties of neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The Conference presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: white neutron sources, primarily pulsed (6 papers); fast neutron fields (5 papers); Californium-252 prompt fission neutron spectra (14 papers); monoenergetic sources and filtered beams (11 papers); 14 MeV neutron sources (10 papers); selected special application (one paper); and a general interest session (4 papers). Individual abstracts were prepared separately for the papers

  15. Polarimetric neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasset, F.

    2001-01-01

    Polarimetric Neutron Scattering in introduced, both by, explaining methodological issues and the corresponding instrumental developments. After a short overview of neutron spin polarization and the neutron polarization 3d-vector a pictorial approach of the microscopic theory is used to show how a polarized beam interacts with lattice and magnetic Fourier components in a crystal. Examples are given of using Spherical Neutron Polarimetry (SNP) and the corresponding Cryopad polarimeter for the investigation of non-collinear magnetic structures. (R.P.)

  16. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoste, J.

    1988-06-01

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  17. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, N.S.; Dassisti, M.; Benyounis, K.Y.; Olabi, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  18. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  19. Spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.; Bartholomew, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The principles and theory of spallation neutron sources are outlined and a comparison is given with other types of neutron source. A summary of the available accelerator types for spallation neutron sources and their advantages and disadvantages is presented. Suitable target materials are discussed for specific applications, and typical target assemblies shown. (U.K.)

  20. Advances in neutron tomography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Up to now the interaction of the neutron spin with magnetic fields in samples has not been applied to imaging techniques despite the fact that it was proposed many years ago. About ten years ago neutron depolarization as imaging signal for neutron radiography or tomography was demonstrated and in principle it works.

  1. Fundamental neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  2. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  3. Neutron detection and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, R.H.; Van Esch, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method of recording neutron images is described which comprises imagewise irradiating with neutrons an intensifying screen containing a gadolinium compound that fluoresces when struck by x-rays and subjecting the fluorescent light pattern resulting from the impact of the neutrons on the screen onto a photographic material. (auth)

  4. Residual strain mapping of Roman styli from Iulia Concordia, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvemini, Filomena; Grazzi, Francesco; Angelini, Ivana; Davydov, Vadim; Vontobel, Peter; Vigoni, Alberto; Artioli, Gilberto; Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Iulia Concordia is an important Roman settlement known for the production of iron objects and weapons during the Roman Empire. A huge number of well-preserved styli were found in the past century in the bed of an old channel. In order to shed light about the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing, a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis was performed on the POLDI materials science diffractometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Here, we present results from our investigation conducted on 11 samples, allowing to define, in a non-invasive way, the residual strain map related to the ancient Roman working techniques. - Highlights: • We examined 11 Roman styli from the settlement of Iulia Concordia, Italy. • We performed a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis on POLDI at PSI (CH). • We identified the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing. • We clarified the way and direction of working applied for different classes of styli

  5. Residual strain mapping of Roman styli from Iulia Concordia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvemini, Filomena, E-mail: floriana.salvemini@fi.isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra (Italy); Grazzi, Francesco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Angelini, Ivana [Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geoscienze (Italy); Davydov, Vadim; Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institut, SINQ Spallation Neutron Source, Villigen (Switzerland); Vigoni, Alberto [Dedalo s.n.c., Vicolo dei Conti 6, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Artioli, Gilberto [Università degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Geoscienze (Italy); Zoppi, Marco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Iulia Concordia is an important Roman settlement known for the production of iron objects and weapons during the Roman Empire. A huge number of well-preserved styli were found in the past century in the bed of an old channel. In order to shed light about the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing, a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis was performed on the POLDI materials science diffractometer at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland. Here, we present results from our investigation conducted on 11 samples, allowing to define, in a non-invasive way, the residual strain map related to the ancient Roman working techniques. - Highlights: • We examined 11 Roman styli from the settlement of Iulia Concordia, Italy. • We performed a neutron diffraction residual strain analysis on POLDI at PSI (CH). • We identified the production processes used by Roman for stylus manufacturing. • We clarified the way and direction of working applied for different classes of styli.

  6. Current Status and Future Works of Neutron Scattering Laboratory at BATAN in Serpong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, A.

    2008-01-01

    Current status of neutron beam instruments using neutrons produced by the Multi Purpose Research Reactor--30MWth (MPR 30, RSG GA Siwabessy) located in Serpong is presented. Description of the reactor as the neutron source is mentioned briefly. There are six neutron beam tubes coming from the beryllium reflector surrounding half of the reactor core providing neutrons in the experimental hall of the reactor (XHR). Four of them are dedicated to R and D in materials science using neutron scattering techniques. Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF), Triple Axis Spectrometer (TAS) and Residual Stress Measurement (RSM) Diffractometer are installed respectively at beam tubes S2, S4 and S6. The largest neutron beam tube (S5) is exploited to accommodate two neutron guide tubes that transfer the neutrons to a neighbouring building called neutron guide hall (NGH). There are three other neutron beam instruments installed in this building, namely Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) Spectrometer (SMARTer), High Resolution SANS (HRSANS) Spectrometer and High Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD). In the XHR, a Four Circle and Texture Diffractometer (FCD/TD) is attached to one of the neutron guide tubes. These seven instruments were installed to utilize the neutrons for materials science research, and recently the RSM diffractometer has shown its capabilities in identifying different amount of stress left due to different treatments of welding in fuel cladding, while the SANS spectrometer is now gaining capabilities in identifying different sizes and shapes of macromolecules in polymers as well as investigations of magnetic samples. In the mean time, non-destructive tests using the NRF is gathering more confidence from some latest real time measurements eventhough there are still some shortcomings in the components and their alignments. Future works including improvement of each facility and its components, even replacement of some parts are necessary and have to be carried out

  7. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  8. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction method. Standard method using angular dispersion method and trial of using neutron IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takago, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlined a stress measurement method using neutrons, and introduced the application examples to stress measurement for metal-based composite materials. In the angular dispersion type measurement using a steady-state reactor type neutron source, the white beams taken out from a nuclear reactor are monochromatized (wavelength λ is a constant value) with a single crystal monochromator and utilized. As an example of measurement, there was the case as follows: the stress of a sintered material which has been put to practical use as valve seat part for automobiles was measured by the neutron method, and the deformation behavior during load was studied. This study performed neutron diffraction measurement using a residual stress analyzer (RESA: Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis) installed at JAEA's experimental reactor JRR-3. As a result, it was found that the stress state of the sintered composite material of Fe-Cr and TiN can be predicted with a micromechanics model. A neutron diffraction ring can be obtained using a neutron image plate (IP), where fine powder of gadolinium (Gd) was incorporated into IP for X-rays, and it can be used as an IP reader in the same way as the case of X-rays. A report has been introduced on the examination results of the highly accurate stress measurement by applying the cos α method devised for X-ray stress measurement to neutron diffraction ring. (A.O.)

  9. MAGNETIC DRAG ON HOT JUPITER ATMOSPHERIC WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Rosalba; Menou, Kristen; Rauscher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Hot Jupiters, with atmospheric temperatures T ∼> 1000 K, have residual thermal ionization levels sufficient for the interaction of ions with the planetary magnetic field to result in a sizable magnetic drag on the (neutral) atmospheric winds. We evaluate the magnitude of magnetic drag in a representative three-dimensional atmospheric model of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b and find that it is a plausible mechanism to limit wind speeds in this class of atmospheres. Magnetic drag has a strong geometrical dependence, both meridionally and from the dayside to the nightside (in the upper atmosphere), which could have interesting consequences for the atmospheric flow pattern. By extension, close-in eccentric planets with transiently heated atmospheres will experience time-variable levels of magnetic drag. A robust treatment of magnetic drag in circulation models for hot atmospheres may require iterated solutions to the magnetic induction and Saha equations as the hydrodynamic flow is evolved.

  10. Neutron scatter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  11. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  12. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  13. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  14. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the neutron polarization analyzer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, the small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1/-2, the very-small-angle neutron diffractometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  15. Semiconductor neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D [Los Alamos, NM; Littlewood, Peter B [Cambridge, GB; Blagoev, Krastan B [Arlington, VA; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos, NM; Smith, James L [Los Alamos, NM; Sullivan, Clair J [Los Alamos, NM; Alexandrov, Boian S [Los Alamos, NM; Lashley, Jason Charles [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-03-08

    A neutron detector has a compound of lithium in a single crystal form as a neutron sensor element. The lithium compound, containing improved charge transport properties, is either lithium niobate or lithium tantalate. The sensor element is in direct contact with a monitor that detects an electric current. A signal proportional to the electric current is produced and is calibrated to indicate the neutrons sensed. The neutron detector is particularly useful for detecting neutrons in a radiation environment. Such radiation environment may, e.g. include gamma radiation and noise.

  16. Nanosecond neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobov, S.I.; Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Pukhov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    High-voltage nanosecond neutron generator for obtaining neutrons in D-T reaction is described. Yield of 6x10 6 neutron/pulse was generated in a sealed gas-filled diode with a target on the cathode by accelerating pulse voltage of approximately 0.5 MV and length at half-height of 0.5 ns and deuterium pressure of 6x10 -2 Torr. Ways of increasing neutron yield and possibilities of creating generators of nanosecond neutron pulses with great service life are considered

  17. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  18. Recent tendency to neutron beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    1979-01-01

    The application of neutron beam experiment to the study of reactor materials is described in this paper. In Japan, neutron beam experiments have been developed, using reactors JRR-2, JRR-3 and KUR-1. Most of experimental apparatuses in Japan are neutron diffraction systems and three-axis neutron spectrometers, similarly to those in U.S.A. and Canada. In Europe, cold neutron experiments have been developed. The most interesting experiment at present is the small angle scattering experiment. This technique can be applied to the other field than solid state physics. Nondestructive measurements for large samples can be made. Measurement while controlling outside conditions, and measurement for radioactive substances of considerable intensity are possible. Statistical mean values for larger volumes can be obtained as compared with electron microscope observation. Effects of multiple scattering are negligible. A non-destructive test of the properties of turbine blades was made at the GALILEO research reactor. The results were useful for the estimation of the residual life of the blades. Anomaly in the welded parts of pressure vessels for reactors can be detected by the small angle scattering method. The voids in irradiated samples were also observed by this technique. (Kato, T.)

  19. In situ structural studies with neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laversenne, L.; Hansen, T.C.

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the features of neutron diffraction in terms of necessary neutron sources, diffusion contrast, penetration and magnetism. In situ diffraction experiments consist in recording the diffraction signal of a sample when this sample undergoes a monitored change in one of the following parameters: temperature (thermo-diffraction), pressure, magnetic or electric field or gaseous atmosphere. Most in situ diffraction experiments are performed on powders and they required a more or less complex equipment according to the parameter that varies. Examples and results of in situ neutron diffraction experiments are detailed in the article: -) the electrochemical loading of electrodes, -) the absorption of hydrogen for energy storage, -) the study of materials under high pressure which has allowed the investigation of phase diagrams when the inter-atomic distance varies, and -) the study of magnetism through thermo-diffraction. (A.C.)

  20. Thermal neutron moderating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Hiroyuki.

    1995-01-01

    In a thermal neutron moderating device, superconductive coils for generating magnetic fields capable of applying magnetic fields vertical to the longitudinal direction of a thermal neutron passing tube, and superconductive coils for magnetic field gradient for causing magnetic field gradient in the longitudinal direction of the thermal neutron passing tube are disposed being stacked at the outside of the thermal neutron passing tube. When magnetic field gradient is present vertically to the direction of a magnetic moment, thermal neutrons undergo forces in the direction of the magnetic field gradient in proportion to the magnetic moment. Then, the magnetic moment of the thermal neutrons is aligned with the direction vertical to the passing direction of the thermal neutrons, to cause the magnetic field gradient in the passing direction of the thermal neutrons. The speed of the thermal neutrons can be optionally selected and the wavelength can freely be changed by applying forces to the thermal neutrons and changing the extent and direction of the magnetic field gradient. Superconductive coils are used as the coils for generating magnetic fields and the magnetic field gradient in order to change extremely high energy of the thermal neutrons. (N.H.)

  1. Neutron structural biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in protein which play important roles in physiological functions. However, there are relatively few examples of neutron crystallography in biology since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections due to the low flux of neutrons illuminating the sample. In order to overcome the flux problem, we have successfully developed the neutron IP, where the neutron converter, {sup 6}Li or Gd, was mixed with a photostimulated luminescence material on flexible plastic support. Neutron Laue diffraction 2A data from tetragonal lysozyme were collected for 10 days with neutron imaging plates, and 960 hydrogen atoms in the molecule and 157 bound water molecules were identified. These results explain the proposed hydrolysis mechanism of the sugar by the lysozyme molecule and that lysozyme is less active at pH7.0. (author)

  2. Atlas of neutron resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Mughabghab, Said

    2018-01-01

    Atlas of Neutron Resonances: Resonance Properties and Thermal Cross Sections Z= 1-60, Sixth Edition, contains an extensive list of detailed individual neutron resonance parameters for Z=1-60, as well as thermal cross sections, capture resonance integrals, average resonance parameters and a short survey of the physics of thermal and resonance neutrons. The long introduction contains: nuclear physics formulas aimed at neutron physicists; topics of special interest such as valence neutron capture, nuclear level density parameters, and s-, p-, and d-wave neutron strength functions; and various comparisons of measured quantities with the predictions of nuclear models, such as the optical model. As in the last edition, additional features have been added to appeal to a wider spectrum of users. These include: spin-dependent scattering lengths that are of interest to solid-state physicists, nuclear physicists and neutron evaluators; calculated and measured Maxwellian average 5-keV and 30-keV capture cross sections o...

  3. Neutron image intensifier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verat, M.; Rougeot, H.; Driard, B.

    1983-01-01

    The most frequently used techniques in neutron radiography employ a neutron converter consisting of either a scintillator or a thin metal sheet. The radiation created by the neutrons exposes a photographic film that is in contact with the converter: in the direct method, the film is exposed during the time that the object is irradiated with neutrons; in the transfer method, the film is exposed after the irradiation of the object with neutrons. In industrial non-destructive testing, when many identical objects have to be checked, these techniques have several disadvantages. Non-destructive testing systems without these disadvantages can be constructed around neutron-image intensifier tubes. A description and the operating characteristics of neutron-image intensifier tubes are given. (Auth.)

  4. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  5. Methods of neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.

    1981-01-01

    The different methods of neutron spectrometry are based on the direct measurement of neutron velocity or on the use of suitable energy-dependent interaction processes. In the latter case the measuring effect of a detector is connected with the searched neutron spectrum by an integral equation. The solution needs suitable unfolding procedures. The most important methods of neutron spectrometry are the time-of-flight method, the crystal spectrometry, the neutron spectrometry by use of elastic collisions with hydrogen nuclei, and neutron spectrometry with the aid of nuclear reactions, especially of the neutron-induced activation. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are contrasted considering the resolution, the measurable energy range, the sensitivity, and the experimental and computational efforts. (author)

  6. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  7. Neutron microscope with refractive wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masalovich, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A possibility of applying a refractive element in a mirror-neutron microscope using ultracold neutrons to reduce neutron aberrations is considered. Application of a refractive element in a neutron microscope with horizontal optical axis is studied. A scheme of neutron microscope with a refractive wedge is presented, evaluation of quartz wedge parameters is made. It is stressed that application of refractive elements in neutron microscopes facilitates aberration reduction in neutron-optical systems

  8. Evaluation of the Neutron Detector Response for Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum by Monte Carlo Transport Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazianotto, Mauricio T.; Carlson, Brett V.; Federico, Claudio A.; Gonzalez, Odair L.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrons generated by the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere make an important contribution to the dose accumulated in electronic circuits and aircraft crew members at flight altitude. High-energy neutrons are produced in spallation reactions and intranuclear cascade processes by primary cosmic-ray particle interactions with atoms in the atmosphere. These neutrons can produce secondary neutrons and also undergo a moderation process due to atmosphere interactions, resulting in a wider energy spectrum, ranging from thermal energies (0.025 eV) to energies of several hundreds of MeV. The Long-Counter (LC) detector is a widely used neutron detector designed to measure the directional flux of neutrons with about constant response over a wide energy range (thermal to 20 MeV). ). Its calibration process and the determination of its energy response for the wide-energy of cosmic ray induced neutron spectrum is a very difficult process due to the lack of installations with these capabilities. The goal of this study is to assess the behavior of the response of a Long Counter using the Monte Carlo (MC) computational code MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended). The dependence of the Long Counter response on the angle of incidence, as well as on the neutron energy, will be carefully investigated, compared with the experimental data previously obtained with 241 Am-Be and 252 Cf neutron sources and extended to the neutron spectrum produced by cosmic rays. (Author)

  9. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  10. NEUTRON DENSITY CONTROL IN A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G.J.

    1959-06-30

    The method and means for controlling the neutron density in a nuclear reactor is described. It describes the method and means for flattening the neutron density distribution curve across the reactor by spacing the absorbing control members to varying depths in the central region closer to the center than to the periphery of the active portion of the reactor to provide a smaller neutron reproduction ratio in the region wherein the members are inserted, than in the remainder of the reactor thereby increasing the over-all potential power output.

  11. Artefacts of fast neutron radiography concerned with neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikerov, V.I.; Isakov, A.I.; Tukarev, V.A.; Koshelev, A.P.; Bykov, A.A.; Khodeev, A.I.; Waschkowski, W.

    1999-01-01

    The paper considers peculiarities of fast neutron radiography with a two dimensional detector. Effects produced by scattered neutrons was simulated for various neutron sources. Contribution of γ-rays generated in the sample was estimated for a fission spectrum of fast neutrons. Feasibility of fast neutrons collimating by a honeycomb collimator was considered.(author)

  12. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  13. Pulsed neutron porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D. Jr.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations and, during the bursts, the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  14. A polarizing neutron periscope for neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael; Boeni, Peter; Calzada, Elbio; Muehlbauer, Martin; Neubauer, Andreas; Schillinger, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    Optical neutron polarizers like guides or benders destroy the collimation of a neutron beam due to multiple reflections or scattering. This makes them unsuitable for their use in polarized neutron radiography, because the beam collimation is essential to obtain high spatial resolution. We have developed a neutron polarizer based on the principle of an optical periscope with a zigzag double reflection on two parallel high-m supermirror polarizers. If the supermirrors are perfectly parallel and flat, the beam collimation is left unchanged by such a device. A first proof of concept version of this type of polarizer was built and tested. We expect to achieve a beam polarization of up to 99% with an improved version yet to be built.

  15. A polarizing neutron periscope for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael [FRM II, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E21, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Michael.Schulz@frm2.tum.de; Boeni, Peter [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E21, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Calzada, Elbio; Muehlbauer, Martin [FRM II, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E21, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Neubauer, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E21, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schillinger, Burkhard [FRM II, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E21, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-21

    Optical neutron polarizers like guides or benders destroy the collimation of a neutron beam due to multiple reflections or scattering. This makes them unsuitable for their use in polarized neutron radiography, because the beam collimation is essential to obtain high spatial resolution. We have developed a neutron polarizer based on the principle of an optical periscope with a zigzag double reflection on two parallel high-m supermirror polarizers. If the supermirrors are perfectly parallel and flat, the beam collimation is left unchanged by such a device. A first proof of concept version of this type of polarizer was built and tested. We expect to achieve a beam polarization of up to 99% with an improved version yet to be built.

  16. Neutron wave optics studied with ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyerl, A.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses experiments demonstrating or utilizing the wave properties of neutrons with wavelengths of about 100 nm. In particular the 'UCN gravity diffractometer' and the gravity spectrometer NESSIE (Neutronen-Schwerkraft-Spectrometrie) are illustrated. (Auth.)

  17. Atmospheric thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarne, J V

    1973-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...

  18. Status of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Existing and planned facilities using proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source are reviewed. These include new project of neutron science proposed from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present status of facility requirement and accelerator technology leads us to new era of neutron science such as neutron scattering research and nuclear transmutation study using very intense neutron source. (author)

  19. Simulation of a high energy neutron irradiation facility at beamline 11 of the China Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tairan, Liang [School of Physics and Electronic Information Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao 028043 (China); Zhiduo, Li [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Wen, Yin, E-mail: wenyin@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Fei, Shen [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Quanzhi, Yu [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Institute of Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Tianjiao, Liang [Dongguan Branch, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-07-11

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) will accommodate 20 neutron beamlines at its first target station. These beamlines serve different purposes, and beamline 11 is designed to analyze the degraded models and damage mechanisms, such as Single Event Effects in electronic components and devices for aerospace electronic systems. This paper gives a preliminary discussion on the scheme of a high energy neutron irradiation experiment at the beamline 11 shutter based on the Monte Carlo simulation method. The neutron source term is generated by calculating the neutrons scattering into beamline 11 with a model that includes the target-moderator-reflector area. Then, the neutron spectrum at the sample position is obtained. The intensity of neutrons with energy of hundreds of MeV is approximately 1E8 neutron/cm{sup 2}/s, which is useful for experiments. The displacement production rate and gas productions are calculated for common materials such as tungsten, tantalum and SS316. The results indicate that the experiment can provide irradiation dose rate ranges from 1E-5 to 1E-4 dpa per operating year. The residual radioactivity is also calculated for regular maintenance work. These results give the basic reference for the experimental design.

  20. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  1. Precision neutron polarimetry for neutron beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttila, S. I. (Seppo I.); Bowman, J. D. (J. David)

    2004-01-01

    The abBA collaboration is developing a new type of field-expansion spectrometer for measurement of the three correlation coefficients a, A, and B and shape parameter b. The measurement of A and B requires precision neutron polarimetry. We will polarize a pulsed cold neutron beam from SNS using a {sup 3}He neutron spin filter. The well-known polarizing cross section for n-{sup 3}He has 1/v dependence, which is used to determine the absolute beam polarization through a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. We show that measuring the TOF dependence of A and B, the coefficients and the neutron polarization can be determined with small loss of statistical precision and negligible systematic error. We conclude that it is possible to determine the neutron polarization averaged over a run in the neutron beta decay experiment to better than 10{sup -3}. We discuss various sources of systematic uncertainties in the measurement of A and B and conclude that they are less than 10{sup -4}.

  2. Neutron radiography using neutron imaging plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chankow, Nares; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Wonglee, Sarinrat

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this research are to study properties of a neutron imaging plate (NIP) and to test it for use in nondestructive testing (NDT) of materials. The experiments were carried out by using a BAS-ND 2040 Fuji NIP and a neutron beam from the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1. The neutron intensity and Cd ratio at the specimen position were approximately 9x10(5) ns/cm(2) s and 100 respectively. It was found that the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) readout of the imaging plate was directly proportional to the exposure time and approximately 40 times faster than the conventional NR using Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The sensitivities of the imaging plate to slow neutron and to Ir-192 gamma-rays were found to be approximately 4.2x10(-3) PSL/mm(2) per neutron and 6.7x10(-5) PSL/mm(2) per gamma-ray photon respectively. Finally, some specimens containing light elements were selected to be radiographed with neutrons using the NIP and the Gd converter screen/X-ray film technique. The image quality obtained from the two recording media was found to be comparable. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Precision neutron polarimetry for neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttila, S.I.; Bowman, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The abBA collaboration is developing a new type of field-expansion spectrometer for measurement of the three correlation coefficients a, A, and B and shape parameter b. The measurement of A and B requires precision neutron polarimetry. We will polarize a pulsed cold neutron beam from SNS using a 3 He neutron spin filter. The well-known polarizing cross section for n- 3 He has 1/v dependence, which is used to determine the absolute beam polarization through a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement. We show that measuring the TOF dependence of A and B, the coefficients and the neutron polarization can be determined with small loss of statistical precision and negligible systematic error. We conclude that it is possible to determine the neutron polarization averaged over a run in the neutron beta decay experiment to better than 10 -3 . We discuss various sources of systematic uncertainties in the measurement of A and B and conclude that they are less than 10 -4 .

  4. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  5. Neutron sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications

  6. Experiments on neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghaffar Ramli; Azali Muhamad; Wan Ruslan Yusof; Ahmad Sabri Abdul Razak; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim; Rosley Jaafar

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the neutron-radiography research activities in Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN) as a trial before a neutron-radiography service can routinely be given. This trial neutron-radiography research encompasses the design and construction of a facility (NuR 1), collimator and the exposure system, as well as measurements of neutron and gamma dose-distribution, neutron-beam properties in NuR 1 and characteristics of the image recorder. A few problems arose in the early stage of work and the action taken to overcome these are also mentioned. Finally, methods of increasing the quality of the image are proposed and attempted. This project has given some important information so as to enable the construction of a permanent facility (Nur 2) and the execution of a neutron-radiography service. (author)

  7. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  8. Biological effects of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiu, Toshiaki; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ishida, Yuka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (JP)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  9. ASIC based neutron monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastrakar, R.S.; Madavi, Vaishali; Chandratre, V.B.; Manna, A.; Jakati, R.K.; Kataria, S.K.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2005-01-01

    A Neutron monitor is designed and developed using the OCTPREM, ADAM ASIC and the triplex LCD devices developed by Electronics Division BARC. The Neutron monitor uses BF3 as detector. The Neutron monitor is subdivided into three modules front end pulse processing using the OCTPREM ASIC, H.V. Unit, and the counting display unit using ADAM ASIC. The monitor features low power design and portable. The unit demonstrates the success of the devices developed in Electronics Division BARC. (author)

  10. The Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux (φ th ∼ 9·10 19 m -2 ·s -1 ) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs

  11. Neutron-emission measurements at a white neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Data on the spectrum of neutrons emittcd from neutron-induced reactions are important in basic nuclear physics and in applications. Our program studies neutron emission from inelastic scattering as well as fission neutron spectra. A ''white'' neutron source (continuous in energy) allows measurements over a wide range of neutron energies all in one experiment. We use the tast neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for incident neutron energies from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV These experiments are based on double time-of-flight techniques to determine the energies of the incident and emitted neutrons. For the fission neutron measurements, parallel-plate ionization or avalanche detectors identify fission in actinide samples and give the required fast timing pulse. For inelastic scattering, gamma-ray detectors provide the timing and energy spectroscopy. A large neutron-detector array detects the emitted neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques are used to measure the energies of both the incident and emitted neutrons. Design considerations for the array include neutron-gamma discrimination, neutron energy resolution, angular coverage, segmentation, detector efficiency calibration and data acquisition. We have made preliminary measurements of the fission neutron spectra from {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu. Neutron emission spectra from inelastic scattering on iron and nickel have also been investigated. The results obtained will be compared with evaluated data.

  12. Recoverable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keay, R.T.; Williams, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    In the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel elements the nuclear fuel material is separated from the material which forms the remainder of the elements by dissolving the nuclear fuel material in nitric acid. Neutron absorbers are added to control criticality. The neutron absorbers comprise pellets each having a core of neutron absorbing material encased in a sheath of a material which is resistant to attack by acid, the core or sheath being magnetic. The sheath protects the core of neutron absorbing material from attack by the acid and the magnetic content of the core or sheath enables the absorbers to be recovered for reuse by magnetic separation techniques. (author)

  13. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  14. Neutrons in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Satoru; Niimura, Nobuo.

    1993-01-01

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  15. Neutron visual sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi; Segawa, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    The neutron visual sensing technique is a technology to extract physical quantities from the information on inner structures of complex materials or machineries which have been visualized and recorded by using neutron beams. Research and utilization of this technique is now under worldwide development since it can provide the information that is not possible by X-ray radiography. We show how to use stationary neutron sources (Research reactors) in chapter 2, and how to utilize pulsed neutron source (Japan Proton Accelerator Complex, J-PARC). Also the production of micro-element analyzer by an enterprise using the knowledge on radiological equipment is described as an example. (author)

  16. Neutrons for probing matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, F. Ed.; Mazzucchetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors tell the story of the French Orphee reactor located in Saclay from the decision to build it in the seventies, to its commissioning in 1980, to its upgrading in the nineties and to its today's operating life. As early as its feasibility studies Orphee has been designed as a dual-purpose reactor: scientific research for instance in crystallography and magnetism, and industrial uses like neutron radiography, silicon doping or radionuclide production. This book is divided into 4 parts: 1) the neutron: an explorer of the matter, 2) the Orphee reactor: a neutron source, 3) the adventurers of the matter: Leon Brillouin laboratory's staff, and 4) the perspectives for neutrons

  17. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  18. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  19. Neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.I.F.

    1990-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction is a powerful technique that provides a detailed description of moderately complex crystal structures. This is nowhere more apparent than in the area of high temperature superconductors where neutron powder diffraction has provided precise structural and magnetic information, not only under ambient conditions but also at high and low temperatures and high pressures. Outside superconductor research, the variety of materials studied by neutron powder diffraction is equally impressive including zeolites, fast ionic conductors, permanent magnets and materials undergoing phase transitions. Recent advances that include high resolution studies and real-time crystallography are presented. Future possibilities of neutron powder diffraction are discussed

  20. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  1. Polycapillary neutron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildner, D.F.R.

    1997-01-01

    The principle of multiple mirror reflection from smooth surfaces at small grazing angles enables the transport and guiding of high intensity slow neutron beams to locations of low background for neutron scattering and absorption experiments and to provide facilities for multiple instruments. Curved guides have been widely used at cold neutron facilities to remove the unwanted radiation (fast neutrons and gamma rays) from the beam without the use of filters. A typical guide has transverse dimensions of 50 mm and, with a radius of curvature of 1 km, transmits wavelengths longer than 5 A. Much tighter curves requires narrower transverse dimensions, otherwise there is little transmission. Typical neutron benders have a number of slots with transverse dimensions of ∼5 mm. Based on the same principle but using a different technology, recent developments in glass polycapillary fibers have produced miniature versions of neutron guides. Fibers with many thousands of channels having sizes of ∼ 10 μm enable beams of long wavelength neutrons (λ > 4 A) to be transmitted efficiently in a radius of curvature as small as a fraction of 1 m. A large collection of these miniature versions of neutron guides can be used to bend the neutron trajectories such that the incident beam can be focused. (author)

  2. Fusion between heavy neutron-rich nuclei using radioactive and stable ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, D.; Liang, J.F.; Gross, C.J.; Beene, J.R.; Varner, R.L.; Galindo U, A.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Mueller, P.E.; Stracener, D. W. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Amro, H.; Kolata, J.J. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bierman, J.D. [Physics Department AD-51, Gonzaga Universiy, Spokane, WA 99258-0051 (United States); Caraley, A.L. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, NY 13126 (United States); Chavez L, E.; Ortiz, M.E. [lFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Jones, K.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08856 (United States); Loveland, W.; Sprunger, P.H.; Vinodkumar, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Evaporation residues (ERs) and fission products were measured following bombardment of {sup 64}Ni with radioactive Sn and Te neutron rich isotopes. The experimental setup was tailored to measurements with low intensity radioactive beams and the data obtained show the obvious enhancement of ER production (survival) with the addition of neutrons to the fused system. A calculation of nucleus-nucleus capture within a WKB formalism incorporating neutron transfer in a two step approach was performed. Using global potentials in our calculations we attempted to predict trends as well as account for measured capture cross sections of collisions between heavy nuclei with large neutron excess. (Author)

  3. Calculation of delayed-neutron energy spectra in a QRPA-Hauser-Feshbach model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, William B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical {beta}-delayed-neutron spectra are calculated based on the Quasiparticle Random-Phase Approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Neutron emissions from an excited daughter nucleus after {beta} decay to the granddaughter residual are more accurately calculated than in previous evaluations, including all the microscopic nuclear structure information, such as a Gamow-Teller strength distribution and discrete states in the granddaughter. The calculated delayed-neutron spectra agree reasonably well with those evaluations in the ENDF decay library, which are based on experimental data. The model was adopted to generate the delayed-neutron spectra for all 271 precursors.

  4. Water transport through cement-based barriers-A preliminary study using neutron radiography and tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brew, D.R.M. [ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation), Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: dbr@ansto.gov.au; Beer, F.C. de; Radebe, M.J.; Nshimirimana, R. [Necsa (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation), Pretoria (South Africa); McGlinn, P.J.; Aldridge, L.P.; Payne, T.E. [ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation), Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2009-06-21

    In this preliminary study we use neutron radiography and tomography to examine differences in water transport through cement pastes and mortars. Bulk residual water contents and sorptivity curves determined using neutron radiography are compared with data obtained gravimetrically. In addition, macro-pore volume distributions of each sample were measured. Furthermore, it was possible to use neutron radiography to monitor the change in the mass of water when samples were dried or when water moved into the samples. The trends and absolute values of weight loss and gain obtained using both approaches are very consistent for mortars, especially when a neutron-scattering correction is applied.

  5. Fast neutron dosimetry. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in: the development and testing of new gas mixtures more suitable for fast neutron dosimetry using the common A150-type Tissue-equivalent plastic ion chambers; comparison of photon doses determined with a graphite-walled proportional counter and with paired dosimeters irradiated by 14.8-MeV neutrons; a detector for the direct measurement of LET distributions from irradiation with fast neutrons; LET distributions from fast neutron irradiation of TE-plastic and graphite measured in a cylindrically symmetric geometry; progress in development of a tandem fast neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma ray source irradiation facility; an approach to the correlation of cellular response with lineal energy; calculated and measured HTO atmospheric dispersion rates within meters of a release site; application of cavity theory to fast neutrons; and fast neutron dosimetry by thermally stimulated currents in Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. (GHT)

  6. Fast neutron dosimetry. Progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attix, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in: the development and testing of new gas mixtures more suitable for fast neutron dosimetry using the common A150-type Tissue-equivalent plastic ion chambers; comparison of photon doses determined with a graphite-walled proportional counter and with paired dosimeters irradiated by 14.8-MeV neutrons; a detector for the direct measurement of LET distributions from irradiation with fast neutrons; LET distributions from fast neutron irradiation of TE-plastic and graphite measured in a cylindrically symmetric geometry; progress in development of a tandem fast neutron and 60 Co gamma ray source irradiation facility; an approach to the correlation of cellular response with lineal energy; calculated and measured HTO atmospheric dispersion rates within meters of a release site; application of cavity theory to fast neutrons; and fast neutron dosimetry by thermally stimulated currents in Al 2 O 3

  7. Neutron monitoring for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron monitoring is a subject of increasing general interest and considerable attention is being paid to the development of improved techniques and methods for neutron monitoring. The Agency, therefore, considered it important to prepare a guide on the subject of neutron monitoring for radiation protection purposes. The present Manual is intended for those persons or authorities in Member States, particularly developing countries, who are responsible for the organization of neutron monitoring programmes and practical neutron monitoring. This Manual consequently, deals with topics such as neutron dosimetry, sources of neutrons and neutron detection as well as field instruments and operational systems used in this context

  8. Atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactivity in air was measured by a network of continuously operating air samplers at nineteen locations near the Site perimeter and five locations somewhat distant from the Site. The Site perimeter samplers provided for general coverage in all directions but with emphasis in the prevalent downwind directions to the south and east of the Site including the communities of Benton City, Richland, Pasco, Connell, and Othello. The distant air sample locations provided background airborne radioactivity data for comparison. These samplers were located at Sunnyside, Moses Lake, Washtucna, Walla Walla, and at McNary Dam. Airborne radionuclide concentrations during 1982 were lower than those observed in 1981 because of the gradual decline of atmospheric fallout associated with a foreign atmospheric nuclear test that occurred in the fall of 1980. Airborne radioactivity data collected during 1982 did not indicate the presence of detectable levels of Hanford origin radionuclides in the offsite environs

  9. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  10. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  11. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  12. Effect of residual stress on the integrity of a branch connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Kirstein, O.; Luzin, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new connection to an existing gas pipeline was made by hot-tapping, welding directly onto a pressurised pipeline. The welds were not post-weld heat treated, causing significant residual stresses. The critical weld had residual stresses determined by neutron diffraction using ANSTO's residual stress diffractometer, Kowari. The maximum measured residual stress (290 MPa) was 60% of the yield strength. The magnitudes of errors from a number of sources were estimated. An integrity assessment of the welded branch connection was performed with the measured residual stress values and with residual stress distributions from the BS 7910 and API 579 analysis codes. Analysis using estimates of residual stress from API 579 overestimated the critical crack size. Highlights: ► Residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction in a thick section, non post-weld heat treated ferritic weld. ► There is little published data on these welds. ► The work compares the measured residual stresses with code-based residual stress distributions.

  13. Material evaluation by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Various experiments using pulse neutrons are being carried out at the Material and Life Science Experimental Facility of Japan Proton Accelerator Experimental Facility (J-PARC MLF). This paper took up a material evaluation technology utilizing diffraction phenomena making use of high permeability, and introduced the measurements of residual stress, crystal structure analysis with discrimination of elements, texture identification, and phase fraction. When neutron diffraction is used for residual stress measurement, it is possible to measure an aeon piece of about 30 mm in thickness and the inside of an car engine block made of aluminum alloy. As a measurement example, in the case of STPT410 carbon steel butt welded pipe joint, from the residual stress distribution in the three axial directions, high residual stress is seen in the circumferential direction and the maximum tensile stress is 200 MPa or more. These distributions almost agree with analysis values using other methods. From the residual stress on the cylinder wall surface of 1,500 cc aluminum alloy engine block, it was thought that the cylinder wall could be thinned by 1 mm unit. The time required for the texture measurement of metals is about one minute, which is 1/100 or less of the X-ray method. As an analytical example of light elements such as Li that cannot be analyzed with X-rays, in the crystal structure analysis of Li electrodes for Li ion batteries, this method is used for the analysis of fine crystal structure during charging and discharging processes. (A.O.)

  14. Structure determination of drug target proteins by neutron crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamada, Taro; Adachi, Motoyasu

    2010-01-01

    High resolution X-ray crystallography provides information for most of the atoms comprising the proteins, with the exception of hydrogen atoms. Whereas, neutron crystallography, which is a powerful technique for locating hydrogen atoms, enables us to obtain accurate atomic positions within proteins. Neutron diffraction data can provide information of the location of hydrogen atoms to the structural information determined by X-ray crystallography. Here, we show the recent results of the structural determination of drug-target proteins, porcine pancreatic elastase and human immuno-deficiency virus type-1 protease by both X-ray and neutron diffraction. The structure of porcine pancreatic elastase with its potent inhibitor was determined to 0.094 nm resolution by X-ray diffraction and 0.165 nm resolution by neutron diffraction. The structure of HIV-PR with its potent inhibitor was also determined to 0.093 nm resolution by X-ray diffraction and 0.19 nm resolution by neutron diffraction. The ionization state and the location of hydrogen atoms of the catalytic residue in these enzymes were determined by neutron diffraction. Furthermore, collaborative use of both X-ray and neutron crystallography to identify the location of ambiguous hydrogen atoms will be shown. (author)

  15. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  16. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsing, F

    2005-06-15

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  17. Neutrons from Antiproton Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    the volume targeted for irradiation. A major part of this peripheral dose arise from neutrons, which in particular are problematic due to their high RBE for secondary cancer incidence. We have measured the fast and thermal neutron spectrum in different geometrical configurations in order to experimentally...

  18. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  19. Hyperons in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1986-04-01

    Generalized beta equilibrium involving nucleons, hyperons, and isobars is examined for neutron star matter. The hyperons produce a considerable softening of the equation of state. It is shown that the observed masses of neutron stars can be used to settle a recent controversy concerning the nuclear compressibility. Compressibilities less than 200 MeV are incompatible with observed masses. 7 refs., 9 figs

  20. Neutron capture therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.