WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual atm kinase

  1. DNA Damage-Induced Acetylation of Lysine 3016 of ATM Activates ATM Kinase Activity▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yingli; Xu, Ye; Roy, Kanaklata; Price, Brendan D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATM protein kinase is essential for cells to repair and survive genotoxic events. The activation of ATM's kinase activity involves acetylation of ATM by the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase. In this study, systematic mutagenesis of lysine residues was used to identify regulatory ATM acetylation sites. The results identify a single acetylation site at lysine 3016, which is located in the highly conserved C-terminal FATC domain adjacent to the kinase domain. Antibodies specific for acetyl-ly...

  2. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Terence M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Nyati, Shyam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ross, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Rehemtulla, Alnawaz, E-mail: alnawaz@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  3. Quantitative and Dynamic Imaging of ATM Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Shyam; Young, Grant; Ross, Brian Dale; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events facilitating DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. Traditionally, protein kinases have been analyzed in vitro using biochemical methods (kinase assays using purified proteins or immunological assays) requiring a large number of cells and cell lysis. Genetically encoded biosensors based on optical molecular imaging such as fluorescence or bioluminescence have been developed to enable interrogation of kinase activities in live cells with a high signal to background. We have genetically engineered a hybrid protein whose bioluminescent activity is dependent on the ATM-mediated phosphorylation of a substrate. The engineered protein consists of the split luciferase-based protein complementation pair with a CHK2 (a substrate for ATM kinase activity) target sequence and a phospho-serine/threonine-binding domain, FHA2, derived from yeast Rad53. Phosphorylation of the serine residue within the target sequence by ATM would lead to its interaction with the phospho-serine-binding domain, thereby preventing complementation of the split luciferase pair and loss of reporter activity. Bioluminescence imaging of reporter expressing cells in cultured plates or as mouse xenografts provides a quantitative surrogate for ATM kinase activity and therefore the cellular DNA damage response in a noninvasive, dynamic fashion.

  4. Studies of ATM Kinase Activity Using Engineered ATM Sensitive to ATP Analogues (ATM-AS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enari, Masato; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Miyazaki, Makoto; Otomo, Ryo

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3-K)-related protein kinase (PIKK) family and is implicated in the initiation of signaling pathways following DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) elicited by exposure to ionizing irradiation (IR) or radiomimetic compounds. Loss of function of the ATM gene product results in the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, genomic instability, and cancer predisposition. In response to DSBs, ATM is activated and phosphorylates Ser/Thr-Gln (S/T-Q) sequences on numerous proteins participating in DNA-damage responses. Among these proteins, phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor p53 at Ser15 is known as a target for ATM, which leads to the dissociation of MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, from p53 to prevent MDM2-dependent p53 degradation. Ser46 on p53 is phosphorylated in response to DSBs and contributes to the preferential transactivation of pro-apoptotic genes, such as p53AIP1, Noxa, and PUMA, to prevent tumor formation. Our group have shown that not only ATM preferentially phosphorylates S/T-Q sequences, but also Ser46, which is a noncanonical site with an S-P sequence for ATM. Ser46 on p53 is directly phosphorylated by ATM in a p53 conformation-dependent manner using the ATP analogue-accepting ATM mutant (ATM-AS) system. This protocol summarizes an approach to identify direct numerous targets for ATM kinase and is used to elucidate ATM signaling pathways in the DNA damage responses.

  5. Functional Characterization of ATM Kinase Using Acetylation-Specific Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingli; Du, Fengxia

    2017-01-01

    The activation of ATM is critical in the DNA double strand breaks repair pathway. Acetylation of ATM by Tip60 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) plays a key role in the activation of ATM kinase activity in response to DNA damage. ATM forms a stable complex with Tip60 through the FATC domain of ATM. Tip60 acetylates lysine3016 of ATM, and this acetylation induces the activation of ATM. Several techniques are included in the study of ATM acetylation by Tip60, such as in vitro kinase assay, systematic mutagenesis, western blots. Here, we describe how to study the acetylation of ATM using acetylation-specific antibodies.

  6. Identification of ATM Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Sites by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark E; Lavin, Martin F; Kozlov, Sergei V

    2017-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein kinase is a key regulator of cellular responses to DNA damage and oxidative stress. DNA damage triggers complex cascade of signaling events leading to numerous posttranslational modification on multitude of proteins. Understanding the regulation of ATM kinase is therefore critical not only for understanding the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia and potential treatment strategies, but essential for deciphering physiological responses of cells to stress. These responses play an important role in carcinogenesis, neurodegeneration, and aging. We focus here on the identification of DNA damage inducible ATM phosphorylation sites to understand the importance of autophosphorylation in the mechanism of ATM kinase activation. We demonstrate the utility of using immunoprecipitated ATM in quantitative LC-MS/MS workflow with stable isotope dimethyl labeling of ATM peptides for identification of phosphorylation sites.

  7. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  8. An HTRF® Assay for the Protein Kinase ATM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Phillip; Clark, Jonathan; Hawdon, Simon; Hill, Jennifer; Plater, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of DNA damage pathways and checkpoint arrest. In recent years, there has been growing interest in ATM as a therapeutic target due to its association with cancer cell survival following genotoxic stress such as radio- and chemotherapy. Large-scale targeted drug screening campaigns have been hampered, however, by technical issues associated with the production of sufficient quantities of purified ATM and the availability of a suitable high-throughput assay. Using a purified, functionally active recombinant ATM and one of its physiological substrates, p53, we have developed an in vitro FRET-based activity assay that is suitable for high-throughput drug screening.

  9. The telomeric protein TRF2 binds the ATM kinase and can inhibit the ATM-dependent DNA damage response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Karlseder

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The telomeric protein TRF2 is required to prevent mammalian telomeres from activating DNA damage checkpoints. Here we show that overexpression of TRF2 affects the response of the ATM kinase to DNA damage. Overexpression of TRF2 abrogated the cell cycle arrest after ionizing radiation and diminished several other readouts of the DNA damage response, including phosphorylation of Nbs1, induction of p53, and upregulation of p53 targets. TRF2 inhibited autophosphorylation of ATM on S1981, an early step in the activation of this kinase. A region of ATM containing S1981 was found to directly interact with TRF2 in vitro, and ATM immunoprecipitates contained TRF2. We propose that TRF2 has the ability to inhibit ATM activation at telomeres. Because TRF2 is abundant at chromosome ends but not elsewhere in the nucleus, this mechanism of checkpoint control could specifically block a DNA damage response at telomeres without affecting the surveillance of chromosome internal damage.

  10. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-06-15

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (Atm(KD/-)) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm(-/-)) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate Atm(KD/-), but not Atm-proficientor Atm(-/-) leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy.

  11. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, J.A.; Pellegrini, M.; Filsuf, D.

    2012-01-01

    whether the functions of ATM are mediated solely by its kinase activity, we generated two mouse models containing single, catalytically inactivating point mutations in Atm. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to Atm-null mice, both D2899A and Q2740P mutations cause early embryonic lethality in mice......, without displaying dominant-negative interfering activity. Using conditional deletion, we find that the D2899A mutation in adult mice behaves largely similar to Atm-null cells but shows greater deficiency in homologous recombination (HR) as measured by hypersensitivity to poly (adenosine diphosphate...

  12. Loss of ATM kinase activity leads to embryonic lethality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jeremy A; Pellegrini, Manuela; Lee, Baeck-Seung; Guo, Zhi; Filsuf, Darius; Belkina, Natalya V; You, Zhongsheng; Paull, Tanya T; Sleckman, Barry P; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Nussenzweig, André

    2012-08-06

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) is a key deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage signaling kinase that regulates DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. The majority of patients with A-T, a cancer-prone neurodegenerative disease, present with null mutations in Atm. To determine whether the functions of ATM are mediated solely by its kinase activity, we generated two mouse models containing single, catalytically inactivating point mutations in Atm. In this paper, we show that, in contrast to Atm-null mice, both D2899A and Q2740P mutations cause early embryonic lethality in mice, without displaying dominant-negative interfering activity. Using conditional deletion, we find that the D2899A mutation in adult mice behaves largely similar to Atm-null cells but shows greater deficiency in homologous recombination (HR) as measured by hypersensitivity to poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibition and increased genomic instability. These results may explain why missense mutations with no detectable kinase activity are rarely found in patients with classical A-T. We propose that ATM kinase-inactive missense mutations, unless otherwise compensated for, interfere with HR during embryogenesis.

  13. Neurodegeneration in ataxia-telangiectasia: Multiple roles of ATM kinase in cellular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Kay Rui; Watters, Dianne J

    2018-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, cancer, diabetes, immune deficiency, and increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A-T is attributed to the deficiency of the protein kinase coded by the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene. ATM is a sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and signals to cell cycle checkpoints and the DNA repair machinery. ATM phosphorylates numerous substrates and activates many cell-signaling pathways. There has been considerable debate about whether a defective DNA damage response is causative of the neurological aspects of the disease. In proliferating cells, ATM is localized mainly in the nucleus; however, in postmitotic cells such as neurons, ATM is mostly cytoplasmic. Recent studies reveal an increasing number of roles for ATM in the cytoplasm, including activation by oxidative stress. ATM associates with organelles including mitochondria and peroxisomes, both sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. ATM is also associated with synaptic vesicles and has a role in regulating cellular homeostasis and autophagy. The cytoplasmic roles of ATM provide a new perspective on the neurodegenerative process in A-T. This review will examine the expanding roles of ATM in cellular homeostasis and relate these functions to the complex A-T phenotype. Developmental Dynamics 247:33-46, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production.

  15. ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boo Yong Ahn

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the error control of the partial buffer sharing of ATM by a queueing system M1,M2/G/1/K+1 with threshold and instantaneous Bernoulli feedback. We first derive the system equations and develop a recursive method to compute the loss probabilities at an arbitrary time epoch. We then build an approximation scheme to compute the mean waiting time of each class of cells. An algorithm is developed for finding the optimal threshold and queue capacity for a given quality of service.

  16. Contribution of canonical nonhomologous end joining to chromosomal rearrangements is enhanced by ATM kinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Ragini; Carson, Caree R; Lee, Gabriella; Stark, Jeremy M

    2017-01-24

    A likely mechanism of chromosomal rearrangement formation involves joining the ends from two different chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs). These events could potentially be mediated by either of two end-joining (EJ) repair pathways [canonical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ) or alternative end joining (ALT-EJ)], which cause distinct rearrangement junction patterns. The relative role of these EJ pathways during rearrangement formation has remained controversial. Along these lines, we have tested whether the DNA damage response mediated by the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase may affect the relative influence of C-NHEJ vs. ALT-EJ on rearrangement formation. We developed a reporter in mouse cells for a 0.4-Mbp deletion rearrangement that is formed by EJ between two DSBs induced by the Cas9 endonuclease. We found that disruption of the ATM kinase causes an increase in the frequency of the rearrangement as well as a shift toward rearrangement junctions that show hallmarks of C-NHEJ. Furthermore, ATM suppresses rearrangement formation in an experimental condition, in which C-NHEJ is the predominant EJ repair event (i.e., expression of the 3' exonuclease Trex2). Finally, several C-NHEJ factors are required for the increase in rearrangement frequency caused by inhibition of the ATM kinase. We also examined ATM effectors and found that H2AX shows a similar influence as ATM, whereas the influence of ATM on this rearrangement seems independent of 53BP1. We suggest that the contribution of the C-NHEJ pathway to the formation of a 0.4-Mbp deletion rearrangement is enhanced in ATM-deficient cells.

  17. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint

  18. Phenotypic Analysis of ATM Protein Kinase in DNA Double-Strand Break Formation and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Elisabeth; Wiesmüller, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase, which is involved in various regulatory processes in mammalian cells. Its best-known role is apical activation of the DNA damage response following generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When DSBs appear, sensor and mediator proteins are recruited, activating transducers such as ATM, which in turn relay a widespread signal to a multitude of downstream effectors. ATM mutation causes Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), whereby the disease phenotype shows differing characteristics depending on the underlying ATM mutation. However, all phenotypes share progressive neurodegeneration and marked predisposition to malignancies at the organismal level and sensitivity to ionizing radiation and chromosome aberrations at the cellular level. Expression and localization of the ATM protein can be determined via western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy; however, detection of subtle alterations such as resulting from amino acid exchanges rather than truncating mutations requires functional testing. Previous studies on the role of ATM in DSB repair, which connects with radiosensitivity and chromosomal stability, gave at first sight contradictory results. To systematically explore the effects of clinically relevant ATM mutations on DSB repair, we engaged a series of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from AT patients and controls. To examine DSB repair both in a quantitative and qualitative manners, we used an EGFP-based assay comprising different substrates for distinct DSB repair mechanisms. In this way, we demonstrated that particular signaling defects caused by individual ATM mutations led to specific DSB repair phenotypes. To explore the impact of ATM on carcinogenic chromosomal aberrations, we monitored chromosomal breakage at a breakpoint cluster region hotspot within the MLL gene that has been associated with therapy-related leukemia. PCR-based MLL-breakage analysis of HeLa cells

  19. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibits ATM kinase activity in DNA damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Fumiaki; Fukazawa, Hidesuke; Masutani, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hirobumi; Mizutani, Shuki; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2004-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) mobilize DNA-repair machinery and cell cycle checkpoint by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM). Here we show that ATM kinase activity is inhibited by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in vitro. It was shown by biochemical fractionation procedure that PARP-1 as well as ATM increases at chromatin level after induction of DSB with neocarzinostatin (NCS). Phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 and p53 on serine 15 in Parp-1 knockout (Parp-1 -/- ) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) was significantly induced by NCS treatment compared with MEF derived from wild-type (Parp-1 +/+ ) mouse. NCS-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 in Parp-1 -/- embryonic stem cell (ES) clones was also higher than that in Parp-1 +/+ ES clone. Furthermore, in vitro, PARP-1 inhibited phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 and 32 P-incorporation into p53 by ATM in a DNA-dependent manner. These results suggest that PARP-1 negatively regulates ATM kinase activity in response to DSB

  20. Constitutive phosphorylation of ATM in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with ICF syndrome without downstream kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstine, Jimena V; Nahas, Shareef; Gamo, Kristin; Gartler, Stanley M; Hansen, R Scott; Roelfsema, Jeroen H; Gatti, Richard A; Marahrens, York

    2006-04-08

    Double strand DNA breaks in the genome lead to the activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase in a process that requires ATM autophosphorylation at serine-1981. ATM autophosphorylation only occurs if ATM is previously acetylated by Tip60. The activated ATM kinase phosphorylates proteins involved in arresting the cell cycle, including p53, and in repairing the DNA breaks. Chloroquine treatment and other manipulations that produce chromatin defects in the absence of detectable double strand breaks also trigger ATM phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of p53 in primary human fibroblasts, while other downstream substrates of ATM that are involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks remain unphosphorylated. This raises the issue of whether ATM is constitutively activated in patients with genetic diseases that display chromatin defects. We examined lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) generated from patients with different types of chromatin disorders: Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome, Coffin Lowry syndrome, Rubinstein Taybi syndrome and Fascioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy. We show that ATM is phosphorylated on serine-1981 in LCLs derived from ICF patients but not from the other syndromes. The phosphorylated ATM in ICF cells did not phosphorylate the downstream targets NBS1, SMC1 and H2AX, all of which require the presence of double strand breaks. We demonstrate that ICF cells respond normally to ionizing radiation, ruling out the possibility that genetic deficiency in ICF cells renders activated ATM incapable of phosphorylating its downstream substrates. Surprisingly, p53 was also not phosphorylated in ICF cells or in chloroquine-treated wild type LCLs. In this regard the response to chromatin-altering agents differs between primary fibroblasts and LCLs. Our findings indicate that although phosphorylation at serine-1981 is essential in the activation of the ATM kinase, serine-1981 phosphorylation is

  1. Multifunctional Role of ATM/Tel1 Kinase in Genome Stability: From the DNA Damage Response to Telomere Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a key regulator of the DNA double-strand-break response and belongs to the evolutionary conserved phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related protein kinases. ATM deficiency causes ataxia telangiectasia (AT), a genetic disorder that is characterized by premature aging, cerebellar neuropathy, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to cancer. AT cells show defects in the DNA damage-response pathway, cell-cycle control, and telomere maintenance and length regulation. Likewise, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, haploid strains defective in the TEL1 gene, the ATM ortholog, show chromosomal aberrations and short telomeres. In this review, we outline the complex role of ATM/Tel1 in maintaining genomic stability through its control of numerous aspects of cellular survival. In particular, we describe how ATM/Tel1 participates in the signal transduction pathways elicited by DNA damage and in telomere homeostasis and its importance as a barrier to cancer development. PMID:25247188

  2. Proteomics Reveals Global Regulation of Protein SUMOylation by ATM and ATR Kinases during Replication Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Xiao, Zhenyu

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that protect eukaryotic DNA during the cumbersome task of replication depend on the precise coordination of several post-translational modification (PTM)-based signaling networks. Phosphorylation is a well-known regulator of the replication stress response, and recently an essentia....... They analyze changes in the SUMO and phosphoproteome after MMC and hydroxyurea treatments and find that the DNA damage response kinases ATR and ATM globally regulate SUMOylation upon replication stress and fork breakage....

  3. ATM kinase sustains breast cancer stem-like cells by promoting ATG4C expression and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Martina; Strappazzon, Flavie; Arisi, Ivan; Brandi, Rossella; D'Onofrio, Mara; Sambucci, Manolo; Manic, Gwenola; Vitale, Ilio; Barilà, Daniela; Stagni, Venturina

    2017-03-28

    The efficacy of Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase signalling inhibition in cancer therapy is tempered by the identification of new emerging functions of ATM, which suggests that the role of this protein in cancer progression is complex. We recently demonstrated that this tumor suppressor gene could act as tumor promoting factor in HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) positive breast cancer. Herein we put in evidence that ATM expression sustains the proportion of cells with a stem-like phenotype, measured as the capability to form mammospheres, independently of HER2 expression levels. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that, in mammospheres, ATM modulates the expression of cell cycle-, DNA repair- and autophagy-related genes. Among these, the silencing of the autophagic gene, autophagy related 4C cysteine peptidase (ATG4C), impairs mammosphere formation similarly to ATM depletion. Conversely, ATG4C ectopic expression in cells silenced for ATM expression, rescues mammospheres growth. Finally, tumor array analyses, performed using public data, identify a significant correlation between ATM and ATG4C expression levels in all human breast cancer subtypes, except for the basal-like one.Overall, we uncover a new connection between ATM kinase and autophagy regulation in breast cancer. We demonstrate that, in breast cancer cells, ATM and ATG4C are essential drivers of mammosphere formation, suggesting that their targeting may improve current approaches to eradicate breast cancer cells with a stem-like phenotype.

  4. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  5. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  6. The effect of MRN complex and ATM kinase inhibitors on Zebrafish embryonic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Malina; Fazry, Shazrul

    2018-04-01

    Zebrafish is an ideal animal model to study developmental biology due to its transparent embryos and rapid development stages of embryogenesis. Here we investigate the role of DNA damage proteins, specifically Mre11/Rad50/NBN (MRN) complex and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase during embryogenesis by inhibiting its function using specific MRN complex (Mirin) and ATM Kinase inhibitors (Ku60019 and Ku55933). Zebrafish embryos at midblastula transition (MBT) stage are treated with Mirin, Ku60019 and Ku55933. The embryonic development of the embryos was monitored at 24 hours-post fertilisation (hpf), 48 hpf and 72 hpf. We observed that at the lowest concentrations (3 µM of Mirin, 1.5 nM of Ku60019 and 3 nM of Ku55933), the inhibitors treated embryos have 100% survivability. However, with increasing inhibitor concentration, the survivability drops. Control or mock treatment of all embryos shows 100 % survivability rate. This study suggests that DNA damage repair proteins may be crucial for normal zebrafish embryo development and survival.

  7. A New Player in the Development of TRAIL Based Therapies for Hepatocarcinoma Treatment: ATM Kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stagni, Venturina; Santini, Simonetta; Barilà, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. HCCs are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous tumors characterized by very poor prognosis, mainly due to the lack, at present, of effective therapeutic options, as these tumors are rarely suitable for radiotherapy and often resistant to chemotherapy protocols. In the last years, agonists targeting the Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) death receptor, has been investigated as a valuable promise for cancer therapy, based on their selectivity for malignant cells and low toxicity for healthy cells. However, many cancer models display resistance to death receptor induced apoptosis, pointing to the requirement for the development of combined therapeutic approaches aimed to selectively sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. Recently, we identified ATM kinase as a novel modulator of the ability of chemotherapeutic agents to enhance TRAIL sensitivity. Here, we review the biological determinants of HCC responsiveness to TRAIL and provide an exhaustive and updated analysis of the molecular mechanisms exploited for combined therapy in this context. The role of ATM kinase as potential novel predictive biomarker for combined therapeutic approaches based on TRAIL and chemotherapeutic drugs will be closely discussed

  8. Proteomics Reveals Global Regulation of Protein SUMOylation by ATM and ATR Kinases during Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Munk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that protect eukaryotic DNA during the cumbersome task of replication depend on the precise coordination of several post-translational modification (PTM-based signaling networks. Phosphorylation is a well-known regulator of the replication stress response, and recently an essential role for SUMOs (small ubiquitin-like modifiers has also been established. Here, we investigate the global interplay between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in response to replication stress. Using SUMO and phosphoproteomic technologies, we identify thousands of regulated modification sites. We find co-regulation of central DNA damage and replication stress responders, of which the ATR-activating factor TOPBP1 is the most highly regulated. Using pharmacological inhibition of the DNA damage response kinases ATR and ATM, we find that these factors regulate global protein SUMOylation in the protein networks that protect DNA upon replication stress and fork breakage, pointing to integration between phosphorylation and SUMOylation in the cellular systems that protect DNA integrity.

  9. Tel2 mediates activation and localization of ATM/Tel1 kinase to a double-strand break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carol M; Korkin, Dmitry; Smith, Dana L; Makovets, Svetlana; Seidel, Jeffrey J; Sali, Andrej; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2008-04-01

    The kinases ATM and ATR (Tel1 and Mec1 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae) control the response to DNA damage. We report that S. cerevisiae Tel2 acts at an early step of the TEL1/ATM pathway of DNA damage signaling. We show that Tel1 and Tel2 interact, and that even when Tel1 protein levels are high, this interaction is specifically required for Tel1 localization to a DNA break and its activation of downstream targets. Computational analysis revealed structural homology between Tel2 and Ddc2 (ATRIP in vertebrates), a partner of Mec1, suggesting a common structural principle used by partners of phoshoinositide 3-kinase-like kinases.

  10. Functional intersection of ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit in coding end joining during V(D)J recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Baeck-Seung; Gapud, Eric J; Zhang, Shichuan

    2013-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) ar......V(D)J recombination is initiated by the RAG endonuclease, which introduces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the border between two recombining gene segments, generating two hairpin-sealed coding ends and two blunt signal ends. ATM and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA......-PKcs) are serine-threonine kinases that orchestrate the cellular responses to DNA DSBs. During V(D)J recombination, ATM and DNA-PKcs have unique functions in the repair of coding DNA ends. ATM deficiency leads to instability of postcleavage complexes and the loss of coding ends from these complexes. DNA...... when ATM is present and its kinase activity is intact. The ability of ATM to compensate for DNA-PKcs kinase activity depends on the integrity of three threonines in DNA-PKcs that are phosphorylation targets of ATM, suggesting that ATM can modulate DNA-PKcs activity through direct phosphorylation of DNA...

  11. Low dose ionizing radiation responses and knockdown of ATM kinase activity in glioma stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Y.C.; Roberts, T.; Day, B.; Kozlov, S.; Walker, D.; Lavin, M.; Harding, A.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis of new cells in the mammalian brain has previously been regarded as a negligible event; an assumption that long limited our understanding in the development of neoplasias. The recent discovery of perpetual lineages derived from neural stem cells has resulted in a new approach to studying the cellular behaviour of potential cancer stem cells in the brain. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and lethal brain tumour is derived from a group of cancerous stem cells known as glioma stem cells. GBM cells are impervious to conventional therapies such as surgical resection and ionizing radiation because of their pluripotent and radioresistant properties. Thus in our study, we aim to investigate whether a combination of chemo- and radio- therapies is an effective treatment for glioma stem cells. The study utilizes a specific kinase inhibitor (ATMi) of the ATM (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein which is an essential protein in DNA-damage responses. In the presence of both low dose radiation and ATMi, glioma stem cells have rapid onset of cell death and reduction in growth. Since DNA damage can be inherited through cell division, accumulated DNA breaks in later generations may also lead to cell death. The limitation of conventional radiation therapy is that administration of fractionated (low) doses to reduce any potential harm to the surrounding healthy cells in the brain outweighs the benefits of high radiation doses to induce actual arrest in the propagation of malignant cells. Our study demonstrates a benefit in using low dose radiation combined with chemotherapy resulting in a reduction in malignancy of glioma stem cells. (author)

  12. Regulation of ATM induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.A.; Fang, Z.M.; Kearsley, J.H.; Lee, C.S.; Sarris, M.; De Murrell, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: ATM, the tumour suppressor protein mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia, is of pivotal importance in controlling the cells primary response to ionising radiation (IR) induced DNA damage. Mutations in ATM which reduce the level of the ATM protein and/or compromise ATM functions are known to give rise to radiosensitivity and defective cell cycle checkpoint control. In response to DNA damage ATM kinase is rapidly activated and initiates downstream signalling to cell cycle control molecules including p53. To investigate additional mechanisms of ATM control we have employed ATM antisense expression in cultured cells, western analyses and immunohistochemistry in situ. We report that ATM can be up-regulated up to 10-fold following exposure to low levels of ionising radiation. ATM radiation-induction was radiation dose dependent while the rapidity of the response indicates a post translational pathway. The concurrent time frames for the radiation-induction of ATM levels and the activation of ATM kinase activity appear to be complimentary in boosting ATM's protective response to IR induced DNA damage, especially in ATM 'low expressing' systems. We also provide the first report of ATM misregulation in 2 cancer patients, indicating that ATM is not only radio-protective but has possible implications in cancer, particularly breast cancer. These results have particular importance in defining the regulation of the ATM protein as an: adaptive radio-response; radio-prognostic market in tumours and normal tissue, and breast cancer marker

  13. The effect of ATM kinase inhibition on the initial response of human dental pulp and periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmielova, Jana; Havelek, Radim; Kohlerova, Renata; Soukup, Tomas; Bruckova, Lenka; Suchanek, Jakub; Vavrova, Jirina; Mokry, Jaroslav; Rezacova, Martina

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates early changes in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from dental pulp and periodontal ligament after γ-irradiation and the effect of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) inhibition. MSC were irradiated with 2 and 20 Gy by (60)Co. For ATM inhibition, specific inhibitor KU55933 was used. DNA damage was measured by Comet assay and γH2AX detection. Cell cycle distribution and proteins responding to DNA damage were analyzed 2-72 h after the irradiation. The irradiation of MSC causes an increase in γH2AX; the phosphorylation was ATM-dependent. Irradiation activates ATM kinase, and the level of p53 protein is increased due to its phosphorylation on serine15. While this phosphorylation of p53 is ATM-dependent in MSC, the increase in p53 was not prevented by ATM inhibition. A similar trend was observed for Chk1 and Chk2. The increase in p21 is greater without ATM inhibition. ATM inhibition also does not fully abrogate the accumulation of irradiated MSC in the G2-phase of the cell-cycle. In irradiated MSC, double-strand breaks are tagged quickly by γH2AX in an ATM-dependent manner. Although phosphorylations of p53(ser15), Chk1(ser345) and Chk2(thr68) are ATM-dependent, the overall amount of these proteins increases when ATM is inhibited. In both types of MSC, ATM-independent mechanisms for cell-cycle arrest in the G2-phase are triggered.

  14. Roles of nibrin and ATM/ATR kinases on the G2 checkpoint under endogenous or radio-induced DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Marcelain

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint response to DNA damage involves the activation of DNA repair and G2 lengthening subpathways. The roles of nibrin (NBS1 and the ATM/ATR kinases in the G2 DNA damage checkpoint, evoked by endogenous and radio-induced DNA damage, were analyzed in control, A-T and NBS lymphoblast cell lines. Short-term responses to G2 treatments were evaluated by recording changes in the yield of chromosomal aberrations in the ensuing mitosis, due to G2 checkpoint adaptation, and also in the duration of G2 itself. The role of ATM/ATR in the G2 checkpoint pathway repairing chromosomal aberrations was unveiled by caffeine inhibition of both kinases in G2. In the control cell lines, nibrin and ATM cooperated to provide optimum G2 repair for endogenous DNA damage. In the A-T cells, ATR kinase substituted successfully for ATM, even though no G2 lengthening occurred. X-ray irradiation (0.4 Gy in G2 increased chromosomal aberrations and lengthened G2, in both mutant and control cells. However, the repair of radio-induced DNA damage took place only in the controls. It was associated with nibrin-ATM interaction, and ATR did not substitute for ATM. The absence of nibrin prevented the repair of both endogenous and radio-induced DNA damage in the NBS cells and partially affected the induction of G2 lengthening.

  15. DNA damage-induced regulatory interplay between DAXX, p53, ATM kinase and Wip1 phosphatase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bražina, Jan; Švadlenka, Jan; Macůrek, Libor; Anděra, Ladislav; Hodný, Zdeněk; Bartek, Jiří; Hanzlíková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2015), s. 375-387 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP305/11/P683 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : ATM * DAXX * DNA damage * p53 * Wip1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.952, year: 2015

  16. The orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 potentiates the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin to resolve ATM-deficient non-small cell lung cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Frank P; Lau, Alan; Schamus, Sandra; Conrads, Thomas P; O'Connor, Mark J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2015-12-29

    ATR and ATM are DNA damage signaling kinases that phosphorylate several thousand substrates. ATR kinase activity is increased at damaged replication forks and resected DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM kinase activity is increased at DSBs. ATM has been widely studied since ataxia telangiectasia individuals who express no ATM protein are the most radiosensitive patients identified. Since ATM is not an essential protein, it is widely believed that ATM kinase inhibitors will be well-tolerated in the clinic. ATR has been widely studied, but advances have been complicated by the finding that ATR is an essential protein and it is widely believed that ATR kinase inhibitors will be toxic in the clinic. We describe AZD6738, an orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor. AZD6738 induces cell death and senescence in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. AZD6738 potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and gemcitabine in NSCLC cell lines with intact ATM kinase signaling, and potently synergizes with cisplatin in ATM-deficient NSCLC cells. In contrast to expectations, daily administration of AZD6738 and ATR kinase inhibition for 14 consecutive days is tolerated in mice and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin in xenograft models. Remarkably, the combination of cisplatin and AZD6738 resolves ATM-deficient lung cancer xenografts.

  17. Pharmacologic ATM but not ATR kinase inhibition abrogates p21-dependent G1 arrest and promotes gastrointestinal syndrome after total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Frank P; Leibowitz, Brian J; Barnes, Jennifer; Schamus, Sandy; Kiesel, Brian F; Abberbock, Shira; Conrads, Thomas; Clump, David Andy; Cadogan, Elaine; O'Connor, Mark J; Yu, Jian; Beumer, Jan H; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    We show that ATM kinase inhibition using AZ31 prior to 9 or 9.25 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) reduced median time to moribund in mice to 8 days. ATR kinase inhibition using AZD6738 prior to TBI did not reduce median time to moribund. The striking finding associated with ATM inhibition prior to TBI was increased crypt loss within the intestine epithelium. ATM inhibition reduced upregulation of p21, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and blocked G1 arrest after TBI thereby increasing the number of S phase cells in crypts in wild-type but not Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice. In contrast, ATR inhibition increased upregulation of p21 after TBI. Thus, ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent arrest while ATR inhibition may potentiate arrest in crypt cells after TBI. Nevertheless, ATM inhibition reduced median time to moribund in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice after TBI. ATM inhibition also increased cell death in crypts at 4 h in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/-, earlier than at 24 h in wild-type mice after TBI. In contrast, ATR inhibition decreased cell death in crypts in Cdkn1a(p21 CIP/WAF1 )-/- mice at 4 h after TBI. We conclude that ATM activity is essential for p21-dependent and p21-independent mechanisms that radioprotect intestinal crypts and that ATM inhibition promotes GI syndrome after TBI.

  18. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM/ATR and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in clone-9 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2009-06-01

    Betel-quid use is associated with liver cancer whereas its constituent arecoline is cytotoxic, genotoxic, and induces p53-dependent p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells (rat hepatocytes). The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/rad3-related (ATR)-p53-p21(WAF1) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are involved in the DNA damage response and the pathogenesis of cancers. Thus, we studied the role of ATM/ATR and PI3K in arecoline-induced p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells. We found that arecoline (0.5 mM) activated the ATM/ATR kinase at 30 min. The arecoline-activated ATM/ATR substrate contained p-p53Ser15. Moreover, arecoline only increased the levels of the p-p53Ser6, p-p53Ser15, and p-p53Ser392 phosphorylated p53 isoforms among the known isoforms. ATM shRNA attenuated arecoline-induced p-p53Ser15 and p21(WAF1) at 24 h. Arecoline (0.5 mM) increased phosphorylation levels of p-AktSer473 and p-mTORSer2448 at 30-60 min. Dominant-negative PI3K plasmids attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1), but not p-p53Ser15, at 24 h. Rapamycin attenuated arecoline-induced phosphrylated p-p53Ser15, but not p21(WAF1), at 24 h. ATM shRNA, but not dominant-negative PI3K plasmids, attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) gene transcription. We conclude that arecoline activates the ATM/ATR-p53-p21(WAF1) and the PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p53 pathways in Clone-9 cells. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p-p53Ser15 expression is dependent on ATM whereas arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM and PI3K. Moreover, p21(WAF1) gene is transcriptionally induced by arecoline-activated ATM. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The tyrosyl residues in creatine kinase. Modification by iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoum, A; Kassab, R; Pradel, L A

    1975-10-20

    The effect of the iodination of tyrosyl residues in creatine kinase from rabbit muscle has been investigated at alkaline pH after reversible masking of the reactive thiol groups. The conversion of 4-5 tyrosyl residues to monoiodotyrosines as measured by spectrotitration and by radioactive iodine labelling resulted in almost total loss of enzymic activity. The modified enzyme was unable to bind its nucleotide substrates but no significant conformational change was revealed by optical rotatory dispersion or Stokes radius measurements. However, change in the reactivity of some non-essential thiol groups, presumably those located near the active thiol groups, was observed.

  20. The Conserved ATM Kinase RAG2-S365 Phosphorylation Site Limits Cleavage Events in Individual Cells Independent of Any Repair Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah L. Hewitt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many DNA lesions associated with lymphoid malignancies are linked to off-target cleavage by the RAG1/2 recombinase. However, off-target cleavage has mostly been analyzed in the context of DNA repair defects, confounding any mechanistic understanding of cleavage deregulation. We identified a conserved SQ phosphorylation site on RAG2 365 to 366 that is involved in feedback control of RAG cleavage. Mutation of serine 365 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine permits bi-allelic and bi-locus RAG-mediated breaks in the same cell, leading to reciprocal translocations. This phenomenon is analogous to the phenotype we described for ATM kinase inactivation. Here, we establish deregulated cleavage itself as a driver of chromosomal instability without the associated repair defect. Intriguingly, a RAG2-S365E phosphomimetic rescues the deregulated cleavage of ATM inactivation, reducing the incidence of reciprocal translocations. These data support a model in which feedback control of cleavage and maintenance of genome stability involves ATM-mediated phosphorylation of RAG2.

  1. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  2. ATM function and its relationship with ATM gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with the recurrent deletion (11q22.3-23.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Chen, H-C; Su, X; Thompson, P A; Liu, X; Do, K-A; Wierda, W; Keating, M J; Plunkett, W

    2016-09-02

    Approximately 10-20% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients exhibit del(11q22-23) before treatment, this cohort increases to over 40% upon progression following chemoimmunotherapy. The coding sequence of the DNA damage response gene, ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), is contained in this deletion. The residual ATM allele is frequently mutated, suggesting a relationship between gene function and clinical response. To investigate this possibility, we sought to develop and validate an assay for the function of ATM protein in these patients. SMC1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes 1) and KAP1 (KRAB-associated protein 1) were found to be unique substrates of ATM kinase by immunoblot detection following ionizing radiation. Using a pool of eight fluorescence in situ hybridization-negative CLL samples as a standard, the phosphorylation of SMC1 and KAP1 from 46 del (11q22-23) samples was analyzed using normal mixture model-based clustering. This identified 13 samples (28%) that were deficient in ATM function. Targeted sequencing of the ATM gene of these samples, with reference to genomic DNA, revealed 12 somatic mutations and 15 germline mutations in these samples. No strong correlation was observed between ATM mutation and function. Therefore, mutation status may not be taken as an indicator of ATM function. Rather, a direct assay of the kinase activity should be used in the development of therapies.

  3. Regulation of the DNA Damage Response by DNA-PKcs Inhibitory Phosphorylation of ATM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jiang, Wenxia; Crowe, Jennie L; Zha, Shan; Paull, Tanya T

    2017-01-05

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) regulates the DNA damage response as well as DNA double-strand break repair through homologous recombination. Here we show that ATM is hyperactive when the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) is chemically inhibited or when the DNA-PKcs gene is deleted in human cells. Pre-incubation of ATM protein with active DNA-PKcs also significantly reduces ATM activity in vitro. We characterize several phosphorylation sites in ATM that are targets of DNA-PKcs and show that phospho-mimetic mutations at these residues significantly inhibit ATM activity and impair ATM signaling upon DNA damage. In contrast, phospho-blocking mutations at one cluster of sites increase the frequency of apoptosis during normal cell growth. DNA-PKcs, which is integral to the non-homologous end joining pathway, thus negatively regulates ATM activity through phosphorylation of ATM. These observations illuminate an important regulatory mechanism for ATM that also controls DNA repair pathway choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of polo-like kinase-1 by DNA damage occurs in an ATM- or ATR-dependent fashion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, MATM; Smits, VAJ; Klompmaker, R; Medema, RH

    2001-01-01

    Polo-like kinases play multiple roles in different phases of mitosis. We have recently shown that the mammalian polo-like kinase, Plk1, is inhibited in response to DNA damage and that this inhibition may lead to cell cycle arrests at multiple points in mitosis. Here we have investigated the role of

  5. The ATM and Rad3-Related (ATR) Protein Kinase Pathway Is Activated by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and Required for Efficient Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Terri G; Bloom, David C; Fisher, Chris

    2018-03-15

    The ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) protein kinase and its downstream effector Chk1 are key sensors and organizers of the DNA damage response (DDR) to a variety of insults. Previous studies of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) showed no evidence for activation of the ATR pathway. Here we demonstrate that both Chk1 and ATR were phosphorylated by 3 h postinfection (h.p.i.). Activation of ATR and Chk1 was observed using 4 different HSV-1 strains in multiple cell types, while a specific ATR inhibitor blocked activation. Mechanistic studies point to early viral gene expression as a key trigger for ATR activation. Both pATR and pChk1 localized to the nucleus within viral replication centers, or associated with their periphery, by 3 h.p.i. Significant levels of pATR and pChk1 were also detected in the cytoplasm, where they colocalized with ICP4 and ICP0. Proximity ligation assays confirmed that pATR and pChk1 were closely and specifically associated with ICP4 and ICP0 in both the nucleus and cytoplasm by 3 h.p.i., but not with ICP8 or ICP27, presumably in a multiprotein complex. Chemically distinct ATR and Chk1 inhibitors blocked HSV-1 replication and infectious virion production, while inhibitors of ATM, Chk2, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) did not. Together our data show that HSV-1 activates the ATR pathway at early stages of infection and that ATR and Chk1 kinase activities play important roles in HSV-1 replication fitness. These findings indicate that the ATR pathway may provide insight for therapeutic approaches. IMPORTANCE Viruses have evolved complex associations with cellular DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, which sense troublesome DNA structures formed during infection. The first evidence for activation of the ATR pathway by HSV-1 is presented. ATR is activated, and its downstream target Chk1 is robustly phosphorylated, during early stages of infection. Both activated proteins are found in the nucleus associated with viral replication compartments and in

  6. Wireless ATM : handover issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo

    1998-01-01

    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  7. Exposure to chronic hyperglycemic conditions results in Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-mediated activation of p53 and ATM kinase in pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidarala, Vaibhav; Kowluru, Anjaneyulu

    2017-05-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia (HG) promotes pancreatic islet dysfunction which leads to the onset of T2DM. This study is aimed at defining regulatory roles of Rac1, a small G-protein, in the activation of p53 and ATM kinase in pancreatic β-cells, under the duress of HG conditions. We report significant stimulatory effects of HG (20 mM; 24 h) on p53 activation in INS-1 832/13 cells, normal rodent and human islets. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 (EHT1864 or NSC23766) significantly suppressed HG-induced p53 activation in INS-1 832/13 cells and rat islets, suggesting novel roles for this small G-protein in the activation of p53. Inhibition of Rac1 geranylgeranylation with simvastatin or GGTI-2147, significantly attenuated HG-induced p53 activation, suggesting requisite roles for this signaling step in HG-mediated effects on β-cells. HG-induced p53 activation was also suppressed by SB203580, a known inhibitor of p38MAPK. Additionally, we observed increased activation of ATM kinase under HG conditions, which was blocked in presence of EHT1864. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of ATM kinase (KU55933) reduced activation of ATM kinase, but not p53, suggesting that HG-mediated activation of p53 and ATM could represent independent pro-apoptotic events. In conclusion, these data indicate that sustained activation of Rac1-p38MAPK signaling axis leads to activation of p53 leading to β-cell dysfunction under the duress of chronic hyperglycemic conditions.

  8. Aurora-B Mediated ATM Serine 1403 Phosphorylation Is Required For Mitotic ATM Activation and the Spindle Checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunying; Tang, Xi; Guo, Xiaojing; Niikura, Yohei; Kitagawa, Katsumi; Cui, Kemi; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The ATM kinase plays a critical role in the maintenance of genetic stability. ATM is activated in response to DNA damage and is essential for cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we report that ATM is activated in mitosis in the absence of DNA damage. We demonstrate that mitotic ATM activation is dependent on the Aurora-B kinase and that Aurora-B phosphorylates ATM on serine 1403. This phosphorylation event is required for mitotic ATM activation. Further, we show that loss of ATM function results in...

  9. Targeting p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Restores Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cells and Corrects Neuromotor Deficits in Atm Knockout Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeesun

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a progressive degenerative disorder that results in major neurological disability. In A-T patients, necropsy has revealed atrophy of cerebellar cortical layers along with Purkinje and granular cell loss. We have previously identified an oxidative stress-mediated increase in phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the resultant downregulation of Bmi-1 and upregulation of p21 as key components of the mechanism causing defective proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm−/− mice. However, the in vivo aspect of alteration in SVZ tissue and the functional significance of p38MAPK activation in NSCs for neuropathogenesis of ATM deficiency remain unknown. Here we show that the NSC population was abnormally decreased in the SVZ of 3-month-old Atm−/− mice; this decrease was accompanied by p38MAPK activation. However, after a 2-month treatment with the p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, starting at 1 month old, Atm−/− mice showed restoration of normal levels of Bmi-1 and p21 with the rescue of NSC population in the SVZ. In addition, treated Atm−/− mice exhibited more Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Most importantly, motor coordination of Atm−/− mice was significantly improved in the treatment group. Our results show for the first time in vivo evidence of depleted NSCs in the SVZ of Atm−/− mice and also demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of p38MAPK signaling has the potential to treat neurological defects of A-T. This study provides a promising approach targeting the oxidative stress-dependent p38 signaling pathway not only for A-T but also for other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23197859

  10. Study of ATM Phosphorylation by Cdk5 in Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Hua; Mao, Zixu

    2017-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-like kinase ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) plays a central role in coordinating the DNA damage responses including cell cycle checkpoint control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Mutations of ATM cause a spectrum of defects ranging from neurodegeneration to cancer predisposition. We previously showed that Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) is activated by DNA damage and directly phosphorylates ATM at serine 794 in postmitotic neurons. Phosphorylation at serine 794 precedes and is required for ATM autophosphorylation at serine 1981, and activates ATM kinase activity. Cdk5-ATM pathway plays a crucial role in DNA damage-induced neuronal injury. This chapter describes protocols used in analyzing ATM phosphorylation by Cdk5 in CGNs (cerebellar granule neurons) and its effects on neuronal survival.

  11. Activation of ATM by DNA Damaging Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurz, Ebba U; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2004-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as a master switch controlling the cell cycle in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs...

  12. Activation of ATM by DNA Damaging Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurz, Ebba U; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as a master switch controlling the cell cycle in response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs...

  13. Residual oxygen time model for oxygen partial pressure near 130 kPa (1.3 atm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    A two-part residual oxygen time model predicts the probability of detectible pulmonary oxygen toxicity P(P[O2tox]) after dives with oxygen partial pressure (PO2) approximately 130 kPa, and provides a tool to plan dive series with selected risk of P[O2tox]. Data suggest that pulmonary oxygen injury at this PO2 is additive between dives. Recovery begins after a delay and continues during any following dive. A logistic relation expresses P(P[O2tox]) as a function of dive duration (T(dur)) [hours]: P(P[O2tox]) = 100/[1+exp (3.586-0.49 x T(dur))] This expression maps T(dur) to P(P[O2tox]) or, in the linear mid-portion of the curve, P(P[O2tox]) usefully to T(dur). For multiple dives or during recovery, it maps to an equivalent dive duration, T(eq). T(eq) was found after second dives of duration T(dur 2). Residual time from the first dive t(r) = T(eq) - T(dur2). With known t(r), t and T(dur) a recovery model was fitted. t(r) = T(dur) x exp [-k x((t-5)/T(dur)2], where t = t - 5 hours, k = 0.149 for resting, and 0.047 for exercising divers, and t represents time after surfacing. The fits were assessed for 1,352 man-dives. Standard deviations of the residuals were 8.5% and 18.3% probability for resting or exercise dives, respectively.

  14. A TAD closer to ATM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Francois; Legube, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) has been known for decades as the main kinase mediating the DNA double-strand break response. Our recent findings suggest that its major role at the sites of breaks likely resides in its ability to modify both the local chromatin landscape and the global chromosome organization in order to promote repair accuracy.

  15. ATM signaling and 53BP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgheib, Omar; Huyen, Yentram; DiTullio, Richard A.; Snyder, Andrew; Venere, Monica; Stavridi, Elena S.; Halazonetis, Thanos D.

    2005-01-01

    The ATM (mutated in Ataxia-Telangiectasia) protein kinase is an important player in signaling the presence of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies suggest that ATM monitors the presence of DNA DSBs indirectly, through DNA DSB-induced changes in chromatin structure. One of the proteins that sense these chromatin structure changes is 53BP1, a DNA damage checkpoint protein conserved in all eukaryotes and the putative ortholog of the S. cerevisiae RAD9 protein. We review here the mechanisms by which ATM is activated in response to DNA DSBs, as well as key ATM substrates that control cell cycle progression, apoptosis and DNA repair

  16. ATM protein is deficient in over 40% of lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaruz, Liza C; Jones, Helen; Dacic, Sanja; Abberbock, Shira; Kurland, Brenda F; Stabile, Laura P; Siegfried, Jill M; Conrads, Thomas P; Smith, Neil R; O'Connor, Mark J; Pierce, Andrew J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2016-09-06

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the USA and worldwide, and of the estimated 1.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed every year, over 30% are lung adenocarcinomas. The backbone of 1st-line systemic therapy in the metastatic setting, in the absence of an actionable oncogenic driver, is platinum-based chemotherapy. ATM and ATR are DNA damage signaling kinases activated at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and stalled and collapsed replication forks, respectively. ATM protein is lost in a number of cancer cell lines and ATR kinase inhibitors synergize with cisplatin to resolve xenograft models of ATM-deficient lung cancer. We therefore sought to determine the frequency of ATM loss in a tissue microarray (TMA) of lung adenocarcinoma. Here we report the validation of a commercial antibody (ab32420) for the identification of ATM by immunohistochemistry and estimate that 61 of 147 (41%, 95% CI 34%-50%) cases of lung adenocarcinoma are negative for ATM protein expression. As a positive control for ATM staining, nuclear ATM protein was identified in stroma and immune infiltrate in all evaluable cases. ATM loss in lung adenocarcinoma was not associated with overall survival. However, our preclinical findings in ATM-deficient cell lines suggest that ATM could be a predictive biomarker for synergy of an ATR kinase inhibitor with standard-of-care cisplatin. This could improve clinical outcome in 100,000's of patients with ATM-deficient lung adenocarcinoma every year.

  17. Reciprocally coupled residues crucial for protein kinase Pak2 activity calculated by statistical coupling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Hsu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of Pak2 activity involves at least two mechanisms: (i phosphorylation of the conserved Thr(402 in the activation loop and (ii interaction of the autoinhibitory domain (AID with the catalytic domain. We collected 482 human protein kinase sequences from the kinome database and globally mapped the evolutionary interactions of the residues in the catalytic domain with Thr(402 by sequence-based statistical coupling analysis (SCA. Perturbation of Thr(402 (34.6% suggests a communication pathway between Thr(402 in the activation loop, and Phe(387 (DeltaDeltaE(387F,402T = 2.80 in the magnesium positioning loop, Trp(427 (DeltaDeltaE(427W,402T = 3.12 in the F-helix, and Val(404 (DeltaDeltaE(404V,402T = 4.43 and Gly(405 (DeltaDeltaE(405G,402T = 2.95 in the peptide positioning loop. When compared to the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA and Src, the perturbation pattern of threonine phosphorylation in the activation loop of Pak2 is similar to that of PKA, and different from the tyrosine phosphorylation pattern of Src. Reciprocal coupling analysis by SCA showed the residues perturbed by Thr(402 and the reciprocal coupling pairs formed a network centered at Trp(427 in the F-helix. Nine pairs of reciprocal coupling residues crucial for enzymatic activity and structural stabilization were identified. Pak2, PKA and Src share four pairs. Reciprocal coupling residues exposed to the solvent line up as an activation groove. This is the inhibitor (PKI binding region in PKA and the activation groove for Pak2. This indicates these evolutionary conserved residues are crucial for the catalytic activity of PKA and Pak2.

  18. ATM is required for the repair of Topotecan-induced replication-associated double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köcher, Sabrina; Spies-Naumann, Anja; Kriegs, Malte; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dornreiter, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: DNA replication is a promising target for anti-cancer therapies. Therefore, the understanding of replication-associated DNA repair mechanisms is of great interest. One key factor of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is the PIK kinase Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) but it is still unclear whether ATM is involved in the repair of replication-associated DSBs. Here, we focused on the involvement of ATM in homology-directed repair (HDR) of indirect DSBs associated with replication. Material and methods: Experiments were performed using ATM-deficient and -proficient human cells. Replication-associated DSBs were induced with Topotecan (TPT) and compared with γ-irradiation (IR). Cell survival was measured by clonogenic assay. Overall DSB repair and HDR were evaluated by detecting residual γH2AX/53BP1 and Rad51 foci, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry and protein expression by Western blot. Results: ATM-deficiency leads to enhanced numbers of residual DSBs, resulting in a pronounced S/G2-block and decreased survival upon TPT-treatment. In common with IR, persisting Rad51 foci were detected following TPT-treatment. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that ATM is essentially required for the completion of HR-mediated repair of TPT-induced DSBs formed indirectly at replication forks

  19. Aberrant overexpression of miR-421 downregulates ATM and leads to a pronounced DSB repair defect and clinical hypersensitivity in SKX squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, Wael Y.; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Köcher, Sabrina; Borgmann, Kerstin; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechtild; Petersen, Cordula; Hu, Hailiang; Gatti, Richard A.; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Dörk, Thilo; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cellular and clinical sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) is determined by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) repair. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the extreme response of a head and neck tumor case (SKX) to standard radiotherapy. Methods: Immunofluorescence (IF) was used for the assessment of DSB repair, Western blot and real-time PCR for protein and mRNA expression, respectively. Results: SKX cells exhibited a pronounced radiosensitivity associated with numerous residual γ-H2AX foci after IR. This was not associated with lacking canonical repair proteins. SKX cells did not express any ATM protein. Accordingly, immunoblotting revealed no ATM kinase activity toward substrates such as p-SMC1, p-CHK2 and p-KAP1. Sequencing of all 66 exons of ATM showed no mutation. ATM mRNA level was moderately reduced, which could be reverted by 5′-Aza-C treatment but without restoring protein levels. Importantly, we demonstrated a post-transcriptional regulation in SKX cells via 6-fold enhanced levels of miR-421, which targets the 3′-UTR of ATM mRNA. Transfection of SKX cells with either anti-miR-421 inhibitor or a microRNA-insensitive ATM vector recovered ATM expression and abrogated the hyper-radiosensitivity. Conclusion: This is the first report describing microRNA-mediated down-regulation of ATM leading to clinically manifest tumor radiosensitivity

  20. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  1. ATM technology and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nim K.

    1993-01-01

    Networks based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) are expected to provide cost-effective and ubiquitous infrastructure to support broadband and multimedia services. In this paper, we give an overview of the ATM standards and its associated physical layer transport technologies. We use the experimental HIPPI-ATM-SONET (HAS) interface in the Nectar Gigabit Testbed to illustrate how one can use the SONET/ATM public network to provide transport for bursty gigabit applications.

  2. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  3. Tyrosine 370 phosphorylation of ATM positively regulates DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Jen; Lan, Li; Peng, Guang; Chang, Wei-Chao; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wang, Ying-Nai; Cheng, Chien-Chia; Wei, Leizhen; Nakajima, Satoshi; Chang, Shih-Shin; Liao, Hsin-Wei; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Lavin, Martin; Ang, K Kian; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) mediates DNA damage response by controling irradiation-induced foci formation, cell cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis. However, how upstream signaling regulates ATM is not completely understood. Here, we show that upon irradiation stimulation, ATM associates with and is phosphorylated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Tyr370 (Y370) at the site of DNA double-strand breaks. Depletion of endogenous EGFR impairs ATM-mediated foci formation, homologous recombination, and DNA repair. Moreover, pretreatment with an EGFR kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, blocks EGFR and ATM association, hinders CHK2 activation and subsequent foci formation, and increases radiosensitivity. Thus, we reveal a critical mechanism by which EGFR directly regulates ATM activation in DNA damage response, and our results suggest that the status of ATM Y370 phosphorylation has the potential to serve as a biomarker to stratify patients for either radiotherapy alone or in combination with EGFR inhibition. PMID:25601159

  4. Threonine 89 Is an Important Residue of Profilin-1 That Is Phosphorylatable by Protein Kinase A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gau

    Full Text Available Dynamic regulation of actin cytoskeleton is at the heart of all actin-based cellular events. In this study, we sought to identify novel post-translational modifications of Profilin-1 (Pfn1, an important regulator of actin polymerization in cells.We performed in vitro protein kinase assay followed by mass-spectrometry to identify Protein Kinase A (PKA phosphorylation sites of Pfn1. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE analysis, we further examined the changes in the isoelectric profile of ectopically expressed Pfn1 in HEK-293 cells in response to forskolin (FSK, an activator of cAMP/PKA pathway. Finally, we combined molecular dynamics simulations (MDS, GST pull-down assay and F-actin analyses of mammalian cells expressing site-specific phosphomimetic variants of Pfn1 to predict the potential consequences of phosphorylation of Pfn1.We identified several PKA phosphorylation sites of Pfn1 including Threonine 89 (T89, a novel site. Consistent with PKA's ability to phosphorylate Pfn1 in vitro, FSK stimulation increased the pool of the most negatively charged form of Pfn1 in HEK-293 cells which can be attenuated by PKA inhibitor H89. MDS predicted that T89 phosphorylation destabilizes an intramolecular interaction of Pfn1, potentially increasing its affinity for actin. The T89D phosphomimetic mutation of Pfn1 elicits several changes that are hallmarks of proteins folded into alternative three-dimensional conformations including detergent insolubility, protein aggregation and accelerated proteolysis, suggesting that T89 is a structurally important residue of Pfn1. Expression of T89D-Pfn1 induces actin:T89D-Pfn1 co-clusters and dramatically reduces overall actin polymerization in cells, indicating an actin-sequestering action of T89D-Pfn1. Finally, rendering T89 non-phosphorylatable causes a positive charge shift in the isoelectric profile of Pfn1 in a 2D gel electrophoresis analysis of cell extracts, a finding that is consistent with

  5. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  6. ATM supports gammaherpesvirus replication by attenuating type I interferon pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Eric J; Stoltz, Kyle P; Ledwith, Mitchell; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2017-10-01

    Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase participates in multiple networks, including DNA damage response, oxidative stress, and mitophagy. ATM also supports replication of diverse DNA and RNA viruses. Gammaherpesviruses are prevalent cancer-associated viruses that benefit from ATM expression during replication. This proviral role of ATM had been ascribed to its signaling within the DNA damage response network; other functions of ATM have not been considered. In this study increased type I interferon (IFN) responses were observed in ATM deficient gammaherpesvirus-infected macrophages. Using a mouse model that combines ATM and type I IFN receptor deficiencies we show that increased type I IFN response in the absence of ATM fully accounts for the proviral role of ATM during gammaherpesvirus replication. Further, increased type I IFN response rendered ATM deficient macrophages more susceptible to antiviral effects of type II IFN. This study identifies attenuation of type I IFN responses as the primary mechanism underlying proviral function of ATM during gammaherpesvirus infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Atm reactivation reverses ataxia telangiectasia phenotypes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Siena, Sara; Campolo, Federica; Gimmelli, Roberto; Di Pietro, Chiara; Marazziti, Daniela; Dolci, Susanna; Lenzi, Andrea; Nussenzweig, Andre; Pellegrini, Manuela

    2018-02-22

    Hereditary deficiencies in DNA damage signaling are invariably associated with cancer predisposition, immunodeficiency, radiation sensitivity, gonadal abnormalities, premature aging, and tissue degeneration. ATM kinase has been established as a central player in DNA double-strand break repair and its deficiency causes ataxia telangiectasia, a rare, multi-system disease with no cure. So ATM represents a highly attractive target for the development of novel types of gene therapy or transplantation strategies. Atm tamoxifen-inducible mouse models were generated to explore whether Atm reconstitution is able to restore Atm function in an Atm-deficient background. Body weight, immunodeficiency, spermatogenesis, and radioresistance were recovered in transgenic mice within 1 month from Atm induction. Notably, life span was doubled after Atm restoration, mice were protected from thymoma and no cerebellar defects were observed. Atm signaling was functional after DNA damage in vivo and in vitro. In summary, we propose a new Atm mouse model to investigate novel therapeutic strategies for ATM activation in ataxia telangiectasia disease.

  8. ATM induction insufficiency in a radiosensitive breast-cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.A.; Fang, Z.H.; Marr, P.J.; Kearsley, J.H.; Papadatos, G.; Lee, C.S.; University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW

    2002-01-01

    ATM induction insufficiency in a radiosensitive breast-cancer patient The ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) gene (ATM) is a dominant breast cancer gene with tumour suppressor activity. ATM also regulates cellular sensitivity to ionising radiation (IR) presumably through its role as a facilitator of DNA repair. In normal cells and tissues the ATM protein is rapidly induced by IR to threshold/maximum levels. The kinase function of the ATM protein is also rapidly activated in response to IR. The fact that women carriers of ATM mutations can have an increased risk of developing breast cancer and that many sporadic breast tumours have reduced levels of the ATM protein broadens the scope of ATM's tumour suppressor within the breast. This report describes the downregulation of ATM protein levels in a radiosensitive breast cancer patient. Postinduction ATM levels were up to tenfold lower in the patient's fresh tissues compared to normal controls. These results might indicate a much broader role for ATM anomalies in breast cancer aetiology. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  9. Leveraging the Pre-DFG Residue Thr-406 To Obtain High Kinase Selectivity in an Aminopyrazole-Type PAK1 Inhibitor Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Joachim; Aliagas, Ignacio; Crawford, James J; Mathieu, Simon; Lee, Wendy; Chao, Qi; Dong, Ping; Rouge, Lionel; Wang, Weiru; Heise, Christopher; Murray, Lesley J; La, Hank; Liu, Yanzhou; Manning, Gerard; Diederich, François; Hoeflich, Klaus P

    2015-06-11

    To increase kinase selectivity in an aminopyrazole-based PAK1 inhibitor series, analogues were designed to interact with the PAK1 deep-front pocket pre-DFG residue Thr-406, a residue that is hydrophobic in most kinases. This goal was achieved by installing lactam head groups to the aminopyrazole hinge binding moiety. The corresponding analogues represent the most kinase selective ATP-competitive Group I PAK inhibitors described to date. Hydrogen bonding with the Thr-406 side chain was demonstrated by X-ray crystallography, and inhibitory activities, particularly against kinases with hydrophobic pre-DFG residues, were mitigated. Leveraging hydrogen bonding side chain interactions with polar pre-DFG residues is unprecedented, and similar strategies should be applicable to other appropriate kinases.

  10. ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) abnormality and diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Masatoshi; Nakata, Shinichiro; Mizutani, Shuki

    2007-01-01

    Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease due to mutation of ATM gene on chromosome 11q22.3, with major symptoms of ataxia, telangiectasia, immunodeficiency and frequent complication of cancer, and the cells have characters of chromosomal break, high sensitivity to radiation and inappropriate continuation of DNA synthesis after radiation. This review describes past and present studies of ATM functions with clinical features in the following order: Clinical symptoms and epidemiology; ATM gene mutation in A-T patients, mainly by frame-shift (80-90%); ATM, whose gene consisted from 66 exons (150 kb), functions in phosphoinositide-3-kinase related kinase family which protecting cells from stress and integrating their system, at response to DNA double strand break, and in the cell cycle checkpoints at G1/S, S and G2/M phases; ATM nonsense/missense mutations in embryonic cells leading to carcinogenesis and role of ATM in the suppression of carcinogenesis in somatic cells; Chromosomal translocation which relating to carcinogenesis, by functional defect of ATM; and Other functions of ATM in neuronal growth, immunodeficiency, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, early senescence, and virus infection. ATM is thus an essential molecule to maintain growth and homeostasis. (T.I.)

  11. Mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis identify several autophosphorylated residues required for the activity of PrkC, a Ser/Thr kinase from Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, Edwige; Stensballe, Allan; Kjellström, Sven

    2003-01-01

    We have shown recently that PrkC, which is involved in developmental processes in Bacillus subtilis, is a Ser/Thr kinase with features of the receptor kinase family of eukaryotic Hanks kinases. In this study, we expressed and purified from Escherichia coli the cytoplasmic domain of PrkC containing...... the kinase and a short juxtamembrane region. This fragment, which we designate PrkCc, undergoes autophosphorylation in E.coli. PrkCc is further autophosphorylated in vitro, apparently through a trans-kinase, intermolecular reaction. PrkC also displays kinase activity with myelin basic protein. Using high...... mass accuracy electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry, we identified seven phosphorylated threonine and one serine residue in PrkCc. All the corresponding residues were replaced by systematic site-directed mutagenesis and the purified mutant...

  12. Molecular Determinants Underlying Binding Specificities of the ABL Kinase Inhibitors: Combining Alanine Scanning of Binding Hot Spots with Network Analysis of Residue Interactions and Coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tse

    Full Text Available Quantifying binding specificity and drug resistance of protein kinase inhibitors is of fundamental importance and remains highly challenging due to complex interplay of structural and thermodynamic factors. In this work, molecular simulations and computational alanine scanning are combined with the network-based approaches to characterize molecular determinants underlying binding specificities of the ABL kinase inhibitors. The proposed theoretical framework unveiled a relationship between ligand binding and inhibitor-mediated changes in the residue interaction networks. By using topological parameters, we have described the organization of the residue interaction networks and networks of coevolving residues in the ABL kinase structures. This analysis has shown that functionally critical regulatory residues can simultaneously embody strong coevolutionary signal and high network centrality with a propensity to be energetic hot spots for drug binding. We have found that selective (Nilotinib and promiscuous (Bosutinib, Dasatinib kinase inhibitors can use their energetic hot spots to differentially modulate stability of the residue interaction networks, thus inhibiting or promoting conformational equilibrium between inactive and active states. According to our results, Nilotinib binding may induce a significant network-bridging effect and enhance centrality of the hot spot residues that stabilize structural environment favored by the specific kinase form. In contrast, Bosutinib and Dasatinib can incur modest changes in the residue interaction network in which ligand binding is primarily coupled only with the identity of the gate-keeper residue. These factors may promote structural adaptability of the active kinase states in binding with these promiscuous inhibitors. Our results have related ligand-induced changes in the residue interaction networks with drug resistance effects, showing that network robustness may be compromised by targeted mutations

  13. Molecular Determinants Underlying Binding Specificities of the ABL Kinase Inhibitors: Combining Alanine Scanning of Binding Hot Spots with Network Analysis of Residue Interactions and Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Amanda; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying binding specificity and drug resistance of protein kinase inhibitors is of fundamental importance and remains highly challenging due to complex interplay of structural and thermodynamic factors. In this work, molecular simulations and computational alanine scanning are combined with the network-based approaches to characterize molecular determinants underlying binding specificities of the ABL kinase inhibitors. The proposed theoretical framework unveiled a relationship between ligand binding and inhibitor-mediated changes in the residue interaction networks. By using topological parameters, we have described the organization of the residue interaction networks and networks of coevolving residues in the ABL kinase structures. This analysis has shown that functionally critical regulatory residues can simultaneously embody strong coevolutionary signal and high network centrality with a propensity to be energetic hot spots for drug binding. We have found that selective (Nilotinib) and promiscuous (Bosutinib, Dasatinib) kinase inhibitors can use their energetic hot spots to differentially modulate stability of the residue interaction networks, thus inhibiting or promoting conformational equilibrium between inactive and active states. According to our results, Nilotinib binding may induce a significant network-bridging effect and enhance centrality of the hot spot residues that stabilize structural environment favored by the specific kinase form. In contrast, Bosutinib and Dasatinib can incur modest changes in the residue interaction network in which ligand binding is primarily coupled only with the identity of the gate-keeper residue. These factors may promote structural adaptability of the active kinase states in binding with these promiscuous inhibitors. Our results have related ligand-induced changes in the residue interaction networks with drug resistance effects, showing that network robustness may be compromised by targeted mutations of key mediating

  14. ATM Protein Physically and Functionally Interacts with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen to Regulate DNA Synthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Armin M.; Choi, Serah; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Banerjee, Dibyendu; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a pleiotropic disease, with a characteristic hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation that is caused by biallelic mutations in A-T mutated (ATM), a gene encoding a protein kinase critical for the induction of cellular responses to DNA damage, particularly to DNA double strand breaks. A long known characteristic of A-T cells is their ability to synthesize DNA even in the presence of ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage, a phenomenon termed radioresistant DNA synthesis. We previously reported that ATM kinase inhibition, but not ATM protein disruption, blocks sister chromatid exchange following DNA damage. We now show that ATM kinase inhibition, but not ATM protein disruption, also inhibits DNA synthesis. Investigating a potential physical interaction of ATM with the DNA replication machinery, we found that ATM co-precipitates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) from cellular extracts. Using bacterially purified ATM truncation mutants and in vitro translated PCNA, we showed that the interaction is direct and mediated by the C terminus of ATM. Indeed, a 20-amino acid region close to the kinase domain is sufficient for strong binding to PCNA. This binding is specific to ATM, because the homologous regions of other PIKK members, including the closely related kinase A-T and Rad3-related (ATR), did not bind PCNA. ATM was found to bind two regions in PCNA. To examine the functional significance of the interaction between ATM and PCNA, we tested the ability of ATM to stimulate DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ, which is implicated in both DNA replication and DNA repair processes. ATM was observed to stimulate DNA polymerase activity in a PCNA-dependent manner. PMID:22362778

  15. A pharmacological screen for compounds that rescue the developmental lethality of a Drosophila ATM mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, Stacey A; Wassarman, David A

    2018-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. ATM encodes a protein kinase that is activated by DNA damage and phosphorylates many proteins, including those involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Characteristic biological and molecular functions of ATM observed in mammals are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. As an example, conditional loss-of-function ATM alleles in flies cause progressive neurodegeneration through activation of the innate immune response. However, unlike in mammals, null alleles of ATM in flies cause lethality during development. With the goals of understanding biological and molecular roles of ATM in a whole animal and identifying candidate therapeutics for A-T, we performed a screen of 2400 compounds, including FDA-approved drugs, natural products, and bioactive compounds, for modifiers of the developmental lethality caused by a temperature-sensitive ATM allele (ATM8) that has reduced kinase activity at non-permissive temperatures. Ten compounds reproducibly suppressed the developmental lethality of ATM8 flies, including Ronnel, which is an organophosphate. Ronnel and other suppressor compounds are known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction or to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which controls the levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, suggesting that detrimental consequences of reduced ATM kinase activity can be rescued by inhibiting the function of mitochondria or increasing acetylcholine levels. We carried out further studies of Ronnel because, unlike the other compounds that suppressed the developmental lethality of homozygous ATM8 flies, Ronnel was toxic to the development of heterozygous ATM8 flies. Ronnel did not affect the innate immune response of ATM8 flies, and it further increased the already high levels of DNA damage in brains of ATM8 flies, but its effects were not harmful to the lifespan of rescued ATM8 flies. These results provide

  16. Hyperoxia activates ATM independent from mitochondrial ROS and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resseguie, Emily A; Staversky, Rhonda J; Brookes, Paul S; O'Reilly, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    High levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) are often used to treat individuals with respiratory distress, yet prolonged hyperoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage molecules such as DNA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is activated by nuclear DNA double strand breaks and delays hyperoxia-induced cell death through downstream targets p53 and p21. Evidence for its role in regulating mitochondrial function is emerging, yet it has not been determined if mitochondrial dysfunction or ROS activates ATM. Because ATM maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, we hypothesized that hyperoxia induces both mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS that activate ATM. In A549 lung epithelial cells, hyperoxia decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity at 12h and basal respiration by 48 h. ROS were significantly increased at 24h, yet mitochondrial DNA double strand breaks were not detected. ATM was not required for activating p53 when mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by chronic exposure to antimycin A. Also, ATM was not further activated by mitochondrial ROS, which were enhanced by depleting manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2). In contrast, ATM dampened the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS during exposure to hyperoxia. Our findings suggest that hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS do not activate ATM. ATM more likely carries out its canonical response to nuclear DNA damage and may function to attenuate mitochondrial ROS that contribute to oxygen toxicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ATM and KAT5 safeguard replicating chromatin against formaldehyde damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Wong, Victor C.; DeLoughery, Zachary; Luczak, Michal W.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Many carcinogens damage both DNA and protein constituents of chromatin, and it is unclear how cells respond to this compound injury. We examined activation of the main DNA damage-responsive kinase ATM and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by formaldehyde (FA) that forms histone adducts and replication-blocking DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC). We found that low FA doses caused a strong and rapid activation of ATM signaling in human cells, which was ATR-independent and restricted to S-phase. High FA doses inactivated ATM via its covalent dimerization and formation of larger crosslinks. FA-induced ATM signaling showed higher CHK2 phosphorylation but much lower phospho-KAP1 relative to DSB inducers. Replication blockage by DPC did not produce damaged forks or detectable amounts of DSB during the main wave of ATM activation, which did not require MRE11. Chromatin-monitoring KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase was responsible for acetylation and activation of ATM by FA. KAT5 and ATM were equally important for triggering of intra-S-phase checkpoint and ATM signaling promoted recovery of normal human cells after low-dose FA. Our results revealed a major role of the KAT5-ATM axis in protection of replicating chromatin against damage by the endogenous carcinogen FA. PMID:26420831

  18. The Wireless ATM Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palitefka

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the proposed wireless ATM structure is provided. Wireless communication have been developed to a level where offered services can now be extended beyond voice and data. There are already wireless LANs, cordless systems offering data services and mobile data. Wireless LAN systems are basically planned for local, on-promises and in-house networking providing short distance radio or infrared links between computer system. The main challenge of wireless ATM is to harmonise the development of broadband wireless system with service B -ISDN/ATM and ATM LANs, and offer multimedia multiservice features for the support of time-sensitive voice communication, video, desktop multimedia applications, and LAN data traffic for the wireless user.

  19. Mutational analysis to identify the residues essential for the inhibition of N-acetyl glutamate kinase of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Hongming; Li, Cheng; Han, Shuangyan; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping

    2015-09-01

    N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of L-arginine that is inhibited by its end product L-arginine in Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum). In this study, the potential binding sites of arginine and the residues essential for its inhibition were identified by homology modeling, inhibitor docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. The allosteric inhibition of NAGK was successfully alleviated by a mutation, as determined through analysis of mutant enzymes, which were overexpressed in vivo in C. glutamicum ATCC14067. Analysis of the mutant enzymes and docking analysis demonstrated that residue W23 positions an arginine molecule, and the interaction between arginine and residues L282, L283, and T284 may play an important role in the remote inhibitory process. Based on the results of the docking analysis of the effective mutants, we propose a linkage mechanism for the remote allosteric regulation of NAGK activity, in which residue R209 may play an essential role. In this study, the structure of the arginine-binding site of C. glutamicum NAGK (CgNAGK) was successfully predicted and the roles of the relevant residues were identified, providing new insight into the allosteric regulation of CgNAGK activity and a solid platform for the future construction of an optimized L-arginine producing strain.

  20. Functional analyses of ATM, ATR and Fanconi anemia proteins in lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beumer, Jan H.; Fu, Katherine Y.; Anyang, Bean N.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    ATM and ATR are kinases implicated in a myriad of DNA-damage responses. ATM kinase inhibition radiosensitizes cells and selectively kills cells with Fanconi anemia (FA) gene mutations. ATR kinase inhibition sensitizes cells to agents that induce replication stress and selectively kills cells with ATM and TP53 mutations. ATM mutations and FANCF promoter-methylation are reported in lung carcinomas. We undertook functional analyses of ATM, ATR, Chk1 and FA proteins in lung cancer cell lines. We included Calu6 that is reported to be FANCL-deficient. In addition, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was interrogated for alterations in: 1) ATM, MRE11A, RAD50 and NBN; 2) ATR, ATRIP and TOPBP1; and 3) 15 FA genes. No defects in ATM, ATR or Chk1 kinase activation, or FANCD2 monoubiquitination were identified in the lung cancer cell lines examined, including Calu6, and major alterations in these pathways were not identified in the TCGA database. Cell lines were radiosensitized by ATM kinase inhibitor KU60019, but no cell killing by ATM kinase inhibitor alone was observed. While no synergy between gemcitabine or carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 was observed, synergy between gemcitabine and Chk1 kinase inhibitor UCN-01 was observed in 54 T, 201 T and H460, and synergy between carboplatin and Chk1 kinase inhibitor was identified in 201 T and 239 T. No interactions between ATM, ATR and FA activation were observed by either ATM or ATR kinase inhibition in the lung cancer cell lines. Analyses of ATM serine 1981 and Chk1 serine 345 phosphorylation, and FANCD2 monoubiquitination revealed that ATM and ATR kinase activation and FA pathway signaling are intact in the lung cancer cell lines examined. As such, these posttranslational modifications may have utility as biomarkers for the integrity of DNA damage signaling pathways in lung cancer. Different sensitization profiles between gemcitabine and carboplatin and ATR kinase inhibitor ETP-46464 and Chk1 kinase inhibitor

  1. ATM-induced radiosensitization in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E. K.; Ahn, S. D.; Rhee, Y. H.; Chung, H. S.; Ha, S. W; Song, C. W.; Griffin, R. J.; Park, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    It has been known that ATM plays a central role in response of cells to ionizing radiation by enhancing DNA repair. We have investigated the feasibility of increasing radiosensitivity of tumor cells with the use of ATM inhibitors such as caffeine, pentoxifylline and wortmannin. Human colorectal cancer RKO.C cells and RKO-ATM cells (RKO cells overexpressing ATM) were used in the present study. The clonogenic cell survival in vitro indicated that RKO-ATM cells were markedly radioresistant than RKO.C cells. Treatment with 3 mM of caffeine significantly increased the radiosensitivity of cells, particulary the RKO-ATM cells, so that the radiosensitivity of RKO.C cells and RKO-ATM cells were almost similar. The radiation induced G2/M arrest in RKO-ATM cells was noticeably longer than that in RKO.C cells and caffeine treatment significantly reduced the length of the radiation induced G2/M arrest in both RKO.C and RKO-ATM cells. Pentoxifylline and wortmannin were also less effective than caffeine to radiosensitize RKO.C or RKO-ATM cells. However, wortmannin was more effective than caffeine against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells indicating the efficacy of ATM inhibitor to increase radiosensitivity is cell line dependent. For in vivo study, RKO.C cells were injected s.c. into the hind-leg of BALB/c-nuslc nude mice, and allowed to grow to 130mm3 tumor. The mice were i.p. injected with caffeine solution or saline and the tumors irradiated with 10 Gy of X-rays. The radiation induced growth delay was markedly increased by 1-2 mg/g of caffeine. It was concluded that caffeine increases radiosensitivity of tumor cells by inhibiting ATM kinase function, thereby inhibiting DNA repair, that occurs during the G2/M arrest after radiation

  2. Tug of War between Survival and Death: Exploring ATM Function in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venturina Stagni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM kinase is a one of the main guardian of genome stability and plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR. The deregulation of these pathways is strongly linked to cancer initiation and progression as well as to the development of therapeutic approaches. These observations, along with reports that identify ATM loss of function as an event that may promote tumor initiation and progression, point to ATM as a bona fide tumor suppressor. The identification of ATM as a positive modulator of several signalling networks that sustain tumorigenesis, including oxidative stress, hypoxia, receptor tyrosine kinase and AKT serine-threonine kinase activation, raise the question of whether ATM function in cancer may be more complex. This review aims to give a complete overview on the work of several labs that links ATM to the control of the balance between cell survival, proliferation and death in cancer.

  3. Tug of War between Survival and Death: Exploring ATM Function in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, Venturina; Oropallo, Veronica; Fianco, Giulia; Antonelli, Martina; Cinà, Irene; Barilà, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a one of the main guardian of genome stability and plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR). The deregulation of these pathways is strongly linked to cancer initiation and progression as well as to the development of therapeutic approaches. These observations, along with reports that identify ATM loss of function as an event that may promote tumor initiation and progression, point to ATM as a bona fide tumor suppressor. The identification of ATM as a positive modulator of several signalling networks that sustain tumorigenesis, including oxidative stress, hypoxia, receptor tyrosine kinase and AKT serine-threonine kinase activation, raise the question of whether ATM function in cancer may be more complex. This review aims to give a complete overview on the work of several labs that links ATM to the control of the balance between cell survival, proliferation and death in cancer. PMID:24681585

  4. Activation of the LRR Receptor-Like Kinase PSY1R Requires Transphosphorylation of Residues in the Activation Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian B. Oehlenschlæger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available PSY1R is a leucine-rich repeat (LRR receptor-like kinase (RLK previously shown to act as receptor for the plant peptide hormone PSY1 (peptide containing sulfated tyrosine 1 and to regulate cell expansion. PSY1R phosphorylates and thereby regulates the activity of plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases. While this mechanism has been studied in detail, little is known about how PSY1R itself is activated. Here we studied the activation mechanism of PSY1R. We show that full-length PSY1R interacts with members of the SERK co-receptor family in planta. We identified seven in vitro autophosphorylation sites on serine and threonine residues within the kinase domain of PSY1R using mass spectrometry. We furthermore show that PSY1R autophosphorylation occurs in trans and that the initial transphosphorylation takes place within the activation loop at residues Ser951, Thr959, and Thr963. While Thr959 and Thr963 are conserved among other related plant LRR RLKs, Ser951 is unique to PSY1R. Based on homology modeling we propose that phosphorylation of Ser951 stabilize the inactive conformation of PSY1R.

  5. Mapping the residues of protein kinase CK2 implicated in substrate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1995-01-01

    , hampering the calculation of kinetic parameters. In contrast 3 mutants (K74-77A, K79R80K83A and R191,195K198A) phosphorylated the peptide with reduced efficiency accounted for by increased Km and decreased Vmax values. By using derivatives of the RRRADDSDDDDD peptide in which individual aspartyl residues......, respectively. These data support the conclusion that the basic residues present in the p+1 loop of CK2 alpha specifically recognize the acidic determinant adjacent to the C-terminal side of serine, while the specificity determinants located more down-stream are variably recognized by different residues...

  6. ATM regulates Cdt1 stability during the unperturbed S phase to prevent re-replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahori, Satoko; Kohmon, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Junya; Tani, Yuhei; Yugawa, Takashi; Komatsu, Kenshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Sugimoto, Nozomi; Fujita, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays crucial roles in DNA damage responses, especially with regard to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, it appears that ATM can be activated not only by DSB, but also by some changes in chromatin architecture, suggesting potential ATM function in cell cycle control. Here, we found that ATM is involved in timely degradation of Cdt1, a critical replication licensing factor, during the unperturbed S phase. At least in certain cell types, degradation of p27Kip1 was also impaired by ATM inhibition. The novel ATM function for Cdt1 regulation was dependent on its kinase activity and NBS1. Indeed, we found that ATM is moderately phosphorylated at Ser1981 during the S phase. ATM silencing induced partial reduction in levels of Skp2, a component of SCFSkp2 ubiquitin ligase that controls Cdt1 degradation. Furthermore, Skp2 silencing resulted in Cdt1 stabilization like ATM inhibition. In addition, as reported previously, ATM silencing partially prevented Akt phosphorylation at Ser473, indicative of its activation, and Akt inhibition led to modest stabilization of Cdt1. Therefore, the ATM-Akt-SCFSkp2 pathway may partly contribute to the novel ATM function. Finally, ATM inhibition rendered cells hypersensitive to induction of re-replication, indicating importance for maintenance of genome stability. PMID:24280901

  7. ATM-Deficient Colorectal Cancer Cells Are Sensitive to the PARP Inhibitor Olaparib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Jette, Nicholas; Moussienko, Daniel; Bebb, D Gwyn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2017-04-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase plays a central role in the cellular response to DNA damage. Loss or inactivation of both copies of the ATM gene (ATM) leads to ataxia telangiectasia, a devastating childhood condition characterized by neurodegeneration, immune deficiencies, and cancer predisposition. ATM is also absent in approximately 40% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs), and we previously showed that MCL cell lines with loss of ATM are sensitive to poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Next-generation sequencing of patient tumors has revealed that ATM is altered in many human cancers including colorectal, lung, prostate, and breast. Here, we show that the colorectal cancer cell line SK-CO-1 lacks detectable ATM protein expression and is sensitive to the PARP inhibitor olaparib. Similarly, HCT116 colorectal cancer cells with shRNA depletion of ATM are sensitive to olaparib, and depletion of p53 enhances this sensitivity. Moreover, HCT116 cells are sensitive to olaparib in combination with the ATM inhibitor KU55933, and sensitivity is enhanced by deletion of p53. Together our studies suggest that PARP inhibitors may have potential for treating colorectal cancer with ATM dysfunction and/or colorectal cancer with mutation of p53 when combined with an ATM kinase inhibitor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent studies on the ATM gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, M.F.; Khanna, K.K.; Waters, D.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Radiosensitivity is a universal characteristic of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), observed after exposure of patients and of cells in culture to radiation. This sensitivity is manifested as higher levels of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and reduced survival compared to controls. The gene for A-T was mapped to chromosome 11q 22-23 seven years ago and more recently we have been involved in the cloning of a single gene, ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), mutated in this syndrome. ATM is a large gene, approximately 150 kb in size, composed of 66 exons and codes for a major mRNA of 13 kb with a predicted open reading frame of 9.135 kb. It is not yet known what activity the ATM gene product possesses, but the ralatedness of this gene sequence to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gene family supports a role for ATM in intracellular signalling. Considerable information is already available on defective signalling through the p53 damage-inducible pathway in A-T. This includes failure to arrest at either the G1/S or G2/M checkpoints as well as radioresistant DNA synthesis. A reduced and/or delayed response in the induction of p53 after exposure of A-T cells to ionizing radiation can account for the defective G1/S checkpoint. More recently we have demonstrated that the ATM gene product is involved in the control of multiple cell cycle checkpoints. Antibodies prepared against ATM peptides demonstrate the presence of a protein 350 kDa in size, which is the predicted size for this protein based on open reading frame of 9 kb. This protein is present both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm where it is present in vesicular structures. As expected from mutation data the ATM protein is absent in cells from some patients with A-T. The cloning of the ATM gene will allow for screening of radiosensitive patients for mutations in this gene and will provide a means of identifying interacting proteins and thus an understanding of how it functions

  9. ATMS Step By Step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Library of Australia, Canberra.

    This manual is designed to provide an introduction and basic guide to the use of IBM's Advanced Text Management System (ATMS), the text processing system to be used for the creation of Australian data bases within AUSINET. Instructions are provided for using the system to enter, store, retrieve, and modify data, which may then be displayed at the…

  10. Web Based ATM PVC Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waaij, B.D.; Sprenkels, Ron; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Pras, Aiko

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a public domain web based ATM PVC Management tool for the Dutch SURFnet research ATM network. The aim of this tool is to assists in the creation and deletion of PVCs through local and remote ATM network domains. The tool includes security mechanisms to restrict the

  11. Identification of aspartate-184 as an essential residue in the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, J.A.; Taylor, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrophobic carbodiimide dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) was previously shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and MgATP protected against inactivation. This inhibition by DCCD indicated that an essential carboxyl group was present at the active site of the enzyme even though identification of that carboxyl group was not possible. This presumably was because a nucleophile on the protein cross-linked to the electrophilic intermediate formed when the carbodiimide reacted with the carboxyl group. To circumvent this problem, the catalytic subunit first was treated with acetic anhydride to block accessible lysine residues, thus preventing intramolecular cross-linking. The DCCD reaction then was carried out in the presence of [ 14 C]glycine ethyl ester in order to trap any electrophilic intermediates that were generated by DCCD. The modified protein was treated with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Two major radioactive peptides were isolated as well as one minor peptide. MgATP protected all three peptides from covalent modification. The two major peaks contained the same modified carboxyl group, which corresponded to Asp-184. The minor peak contained a modified glutamic acid, Glu-91. Both of these acidic residues are conserved in all protein kinases, which is consistent with their playing essential roles. The positions of Asp-184 and Glu-91 have been correlated with the overall domain structure of the molecule. Asp-184 may participate as a general base catalyst at the active site. A third carboxyl group, Glu-230, also was identified

  12. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauklin, Siim; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, β-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53

  13. Participation of ATM in cellular response to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiangbing; Song Yi; Mao Jianping; Gong Bo; Dong Yan; Liu Bin; Sun Zhixian

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To clone ATM full length cDNA and cDNA fragments containing some functional domains and to identify proteins that interact with ATM and mediate DNA damage signal transduction in cellular response to DNA damage. Methods: ATM cDNA was amplified from MarthomTM-Ready cDNA kit of human leukocytes by LD-PCR. ATM-interacting proteins were screened by yeast two hybrid system. Results: ATM full-length cDNA and cDNA fragments containing PI3K kinase domain, leucine zipper and proline rich region were amplified from human cDNAs. Several candidate clones that interacted with ATM PI3K domain were identified. Conclusion: ATM mediates DNA damage signal transduction by interacting with many proteins

  14. Phosphorylation of p300 by ATM controls the stability of NBS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eun Ryoung; Choi, Jae Duk; Jeong, Gajin; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Acetyltransferase, p300 is a transcriptional cofactor of signal-responsive transcriptional regulation. The surveillance kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) plays a central role in regulation of a wide range of cellular DNA damage responses. Here, we investigated whether and how ATM mediates phosphorylation of p300 in response to DNA damage and how p300 phosphorylation is functionally linked to DNA damage. ATM-phosphorylated p300 in vitro and in vivo, in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylation of p300 proteins was observed upon γ-irradiation in ATM + cells but not ATM - cells. Importantly, expression of nonphosphorylatable serine to alanine form of p300 (S106A) destabilized both p300 and NBS1 proteins, after DNA damage. These data demonstrate that ATM transduces a DNA damage signal to p300, and that ATM-dependent phosphorylation of p300 is required for stabilization of NBS1 proteins in response to DNA damage.

  15. Activation of Bacillus subtilis Ugd by the BY-Kinase PtkA Proceeds via Phosphorylation of Its Residue Tyrosine 70

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petranovic, Dina; Grangeasse, C.; Macek, B.

    2009-01-01

    -specific phosphoproteomic study indicated that tyrosine 70 is phosphorylated in the Bacillus subtilis UDP-glucose dehydrogenase Ugd. In this study we confirm that this tyrosine 70 is indeed the main residue phosphorylated by the cognate BY-kinase PtkA. Homology-based modeling of the Ugd structure using structures from UDP...

  16. A Novel Method to Screen for Dominant Negative ATM Mutations in Familial Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khanna, Kum K; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Grimmond, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is to identify families carrying potentially pathogenic A TM mutations by assaying for ATM kinase activity in cell lines derived from individuals with multiple cases of breast...

  17. Two amino acid residues confer different binding affinities of Abelson family kinase SRC homology 2 domains for phosphorylated cortactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Stacey M; Liu, Weizhi; Mader, Christopher C; Halo, Tiffany L; Machida, Kazuya; Boggon, Titus J; Koleske, Anthony J

    2014-07-11

    The closely related Abl family kinases, Arg and Abl, play important non-redundant roles in the regulation of cell morphogenesis and motility. Despite similar N-terminal sequences, Arg and Abl interact with different substrates and binding partners with varying affinities. This selectivity may be due to slight differences in amino acid sequence leading to differential interactions with target proteins. We report that the Arg Src homology (SH) 2 domain binds two specific phosphotyrosines on cortactin, a known Abl/Arg substrate, with over 10-fold higher affinity than the Abl SH2 domain. We show that this significant affinity difference is due to the substitution of arginine 161 and serine 187 in Abl to leucine 207 and threonine 233 in Arg, respectively. We constructed Abl SH2 domains with R161L and S187T mutations alone and in combination and find that these substitutions are sufficient to convert the low affinity Abl SH2 domain to a higher affinity "Arg-like" SH2 domain in binding to a phospho-cortactin peptide. We crystallized the Arg SH2 domain for structural comparison to existing crystal structures of the Abl SH2 domain. We show that these two residues are important determinants of Arg and Abl SH2 domain binding specificity. Finally, we expressed Arg containing an "Abl-like" low affinity mutant Arg SH2 domain (L207R/T233S) and find that this mutant, although properly localized to the cell periphery, does not support wild type levels of cell edge protrusion. Together, these observations indicate that these two amino acid positions confer different binding affinities and cellular functions on the distinct Abl family kinases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Mdm2 on serine 395: role in p53 activation by DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Ruth; Balass, Moshe; Kim, Seong-Tae; Shkedy, Dganit; Leal, Juan-Fernando Martinez; Shifman, Ohad; Moas, Miri; Buschmann, Thomas; Ronai, Ze'ev; Shiloh, Yosef; Kastan, Michael B.; Katzir, Ephraim; Oren, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein, a key regulator of cellular responses to genotoxic stress, is stabilized and activated after DNA damage. The rapid activation of p53 by ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents is largely dependent on the ATM kinase. p53 is phosphorylated by ATM shortly after DNA damage, resulting in enhanced stability and activity of p53. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is a pivotal negative regulator of p53. In response to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic drugs, Mdm2 undergoes rapid ATM-dependent phosphorylation prior to p53 accumulation. This results in a decrease in its reactivity with the 2A10 monoclonal antibody. Phage display analysis identified a consensus 2A10 recognition sequence, possessing the core motif DYS. Unexpectedly, this motif appears twice within the human Mdm2 molecule, at positions corresponding to residues 258–260 and 393–395. Both putative 2A10 epitopes are highly conserved and encompass potential phosphorylation sites. Serine 395, residing within the carboxy-terminal 2A10 epitope, is the major target on Mdm2 for phosphorylation by ATM in vitro. Mutational analysis supports the conclusion that Mdm2 undergoes ATM-dependent phosphorylation on serine 395 in vivo in response to DNA damage. The data further suggests that phosphorylated Mdm2 may be less capable of promoting the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of p53 and its subsequent degradation, thereby enabling p53 accumulation. Our findings imply that activation of p53 by DNA damage is achieved, in part, through attenuation of the p53-inhibitory potential of Mdm2. PMID:11331603

  19. ATM-mediated Snail Serine 100 phosphorylation regulates cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boohaker, Rebecca J.; Cui, Xiaoli; Stackhouse, Murray; Xu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Activation of the DNA damage responsive protein kinase ATM is a critical step for cellular survival in response to ionizing irradiation (IR). Direct targets of ATM regulating radiosensitivity remain to be fully investigated. We have recently reported that ATM phosphorylates the transcriptional repressor Snail on Serine 100. We aimed to further study the functional significance of ATM-mediated Snail phosphorylation in response to IR. Material and methods: We transfected vector-only, wild-type, the Serine 100 to alanine (S100A) or to glutamic acid (S100E) substitution of Snail into various cell lines. We assessed colony formation, γ-H2AX focus formation and the invasion index in the cells treated with or without IR. Results: We found that over-expression of the S100A mutant Snail in HeLa cells significantly increased radiosensitivity. Meanwhile the expression of S100E, a phospho-mimicking mutation, resulted in enhanced radio-resistance. Interestingly, S100E could rescue the radiosensitive phenotype in ATM-deficient cells. We also found that expression of S100E increased γ-H2AX focus formation and compromised inhibition of invasion in response to IR independent of cell survival. Conclusion: ATM-mediated Snail Serine 100 phosphorylation in response to IR plays an important part in the regulation of radiosensitivity

  20. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair

  1. ATM and checkpoint responses to DNA double strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, K.K.

    2003-01-01

    DNA damage checkpoints can be classified into G1/S, intra-S and G2/M checkpoints, so named according to the cell cycle transitions that they regulate. DNA damage incurred during the G1 or G2 phase of the cell cycle leads to growth arrest at the G1/S and G2/M phase boundaries, respectively, whereas genotoxic stress during S phase results in the transient suppression of DNA synthesis. In mammals, ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is a protein kinase that controls all checkpoint responses to DNA damage. ATM is a versatile kinase which uses various means to regulate a given checkpoint pathway. It has been shown to act upon several proteins within the same pathway, many times controlling several different modifications of the same protein or using several different targets to arrive at the same end point. Some of the ATM targets act as adaptors by recruiting additional substrates for ATM. ATM controls two types of responses in G1. The p53-dependent responses inhibit Cyclin/Cdk activity by transcriptional induction of p21, whereas p53-independent responses inhibit CDKs through degradation of Cdc25A to maintain CdK2 inhibitory phosphorylation. In regulating p53, ATM directly phosphorylates p53 on Ser15, which likely causes p53 transcriptional activation, concurrently activating other kinases that phosphorylate p53 at other sites such as Ser20, which reduces the ability of MDM2 to bind p53, thus promoting its stability. ATM further ensures p53 stability by phosphorylating MDM2. At least six ATM targets, namely CHK2, CHK1, NBS1, BRCA1, SMC1 and FANCD2, have been implicated in the control of S-phase checkpoint. Cdc25A is the downstream effector of CHK1 and CHK2, though the underlying mechanism for control of intra S-phase checkpoint by other targets remain obscure. G2 checkpoint prevents mitotic entry solely through inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2/Cdk1. Several ATM targets including CHK1, CHK2, BRCA1, MDC1 and p53BP1 have been implicated in the control of G2/M

  2. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  3. ATM-deficiency increases genomic instability and metastatic potential in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Yiannis; Escobar, David; Chiang, Ming-Yi; Roys, Kathryn; Valentine, Virginia; Valentine, Marc B; Rehg, Jerold E; Sahai, Vaibhav; Begley, Lesa A; Ye, Jianming; Paul, Leena; McKinnon, Peter J; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz

    2017-09-11

    Germline mutations in ATM (encoding the DNA-damage signaling kinase, ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) increase Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) susceptibility, and ATM somatic mutations have been identified in resected human pancreatic tumors. Here we investigated how Atm contributes to pancreatic cancer by deleting this gene in a murine model of the disease expressing oncogenic Kras (Kras G12D ). We show that partial or total ATM deficiency cooperates with Kras G12D to promote highly metastatic pancreatic cancer. We also reveal that ATM is activated in pancreatic precancerous lesions in the context of DNA damage and cell proliferation, and demonstrate that ATM deficiency leads to persistent DNA damage in both precancerous lesions and primary tumors. Using low passage cultures from primary tumors and liver metastases we show that ATM loss accelerates Kras-induced carcinogenesis without conferring a specific phenotype to pancreatic tumors or changing the status of the tumor suppressors p53, p16 Ink4a and p19 Arf . However, ATM deficiency markedly increases the proportion of chromosomal alterations in pancreatic primary tumors and liver metastases. More importantly, ATM deficiency also renders murine pancreatic tumors highly sensitive to radiation. These and other findings in our study conclusively establish that ATM activity poses a major barrier to oncogenic transformation in the pancreas via maintaining genomic stability.

  4. Function of the ATR N-terminal domain revealed by an ATM/ATR chimera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinping; Zhao Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G.; Cortez, David

    2007-01-01

    The ATM and ATR kinases function at the apex of checkpoint signaling pathways. These kinases share significant sequence similarity, phosphorylate many of the same substrates, and have overlapping roles in initiating cell cycle checkpoints. However, they sense DNA damage through distinct mechanisms. ATR primarily senses single stranded DNA (ssDNA) through its interaction with ATRIP, and ATM senses double strand breaks through its interaction with Nbs1. We determined that the N-terminus of ATR contains a domain that binds ATRIP. Attaching this domain to ATM allowed the fusion protein (ATM*) to bind ATRIP and associate with RPA-coated ssDNA. ATM* also gained the ability to localize efficiently to stalled replication forks as well as double strand breaks. Despite having normal kinase activity when tested in vitro and being phosphorylated on S1981 in vivo, ATM* is defective in checkpoint signaling and does not complement cellular deficiencies in either ATM or ATR. These data indicate that the N-terminus of ATR is sufficient to bind ATRIP and to promote localization to sites of replication stress

  5. ATM regulates NF-κB-dependent immediate-early genes via RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation coupled to CDK9 promoter recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Choudhary, Sanjeev; Zhao, Yingxin; Edeh, Chukwudi B; Yang, Chunying; Boldogh, Istvan; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-like kinase family, is a master regulator of the double strand DNA break-repair pathway after genotoxic stress. Here, we found ATM serves as an essential regulator of TNF-induced NF-kB pathway. We observed that TNF exposure of cells rapidly induced DNA double strand breaks and activates ATM. TNF-induced ROS promote nuclear IKKγ association with ubiquitin and its complex formation with ATM for nuclear export. Activated cytoplasmic ATM is involved in the selective recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP to phospho-IκBα proteosomal degradation. Importantly, ATM binds and activates the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), ribosmal S6 kinase that controls RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. In ATM knockdown cells, TNF-induced RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation is significantly decreased. We further observed decreased binding and recruitment of the transcriptional elongation complex containing cyclin dependent kinase-9 (CDK9; a kinase necessary for triggering transcriptional elongation) to promoters of NF-κB-dependent immediate-early cytokine genes, in ATM knockdown cells. We conclude that ATM is a nuclear damage-response signal modulator of TNF-induced NF-κB activation that plays a key scaffolding role in IκBα degradation and RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. Our study provides a mechanistic explanation of decreased innate immune response associated with A-T mutation. PMID:24957606

  6. NOTCH1 Inhibits Activation of ATM by Impairing the Formation of an ATM-FOXO3a-KAT5/Tip60 Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Marek; Vermezovic, Jelena; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2016-08-23

    The DNA damage response (DDR) signal transduction pathway is responsible for sensing DNA damage and further relaying this signal into the cell. ATM is an apical DDR kinase that orchestrates the activation and the recruitment of downstream DDR factors to induce cell-cycle arrest and repair. We have previously shown that NOTCH1 inhibits ATM activation upon DNA damage, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that NOTCH1 does not impair ATM recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Rather, NOTCH1 prevents binding of FOXO3a and KAT5/Tip60 to ATM through a mechanism in which NOTCH1 competes with FOXO3a for ATM binding. Lack of FOXO3a binding to ATM leads to the loss of KAT5/Tip60 association with ATM. Moreover, expression of NOTCH1 or depletion of ATM impairs the formation of the FOXO3a-KAT5/Tip60 protein complex. Finally, we show that pharmacological induction of FOXO3a nuclear localization sensitizes NOTCH1-driven cancers to DNA-damage-induced cell death. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Structures of closed and open conformations of dimeric human ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baretić, Domagoj; Pollard, Hannah K.; Fisher, David I.; Johnson, Christopher M.; Santhanam, Balaji; Truman, Caroline M.; Kouba, Tomas; Fersht, Alan R.; Phillips, Christopher; Williams, Roger L.

    2017-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–related protein kinase (PIKK) best known for its role in DNA damage response. ATM also functions in oxidative stress response, insulin signaling, and neurogenesis. Our electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) suggests that human ATM is in a dynamic equilibrium between closed and open dimers. In the closed state, the PIKK regulatory domain blocks the peptide substrate–binding site, suggesting that this conformation may represent an inactive or basally active enzyme. The active site is held in this closed conformation by interaction with a long helical hairpin in the TRD3 (tetratricopeptide repeats domain 3) domain of the symmetry-related molecule. The open dimer has two protomers with only a limited contact interface, and it lacks the intermolecular interactions that block the peptide-binding site in the closed dimer. This suggests that the open conformation may be more active. The ATM structure shows the detailed topology of the regulator-interacting N-terminal helical solenoid. The ATM conformational dynamics shown by the structures represent an important step in understanding the enzyme regulation. PMID:28508083

  8. ATM directs DNA damage responses and proteostasis via genetically separable pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Mand, Michael R; Kao, Chung-Hsuan; Zhou, Yi; Ryu, Seung W; Richards, Alicia L; Coon, Joshua J; Paull, Tanya T

    2018-01-09

    The protein kinase ATM is a master regulator of the DNA damage response but also responds directly to oxidative stress. Loss of ATM causes ataxia telangiectasia, a neurodegenerative disorder with pleiotropic symptoms that include cerebellar dysfunction, cancer, diabetes, and premature aging. We genetically separated the activation of ATM by DNA damage from that by oxidative stress using separation-of-function mutations. We found that deficient activation of ATM by the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex and DNA double-strand breaks resulted in loss of cell viability, checkpoint activation, and DNA end resection in response to DNA damage. In contrast, loss of oxidative activation of ATM had minimal effects on DNA damage-related outcomes but blocked ATM-mediated initiation of checkpoint responses after oxidative stress and resulted in deficiencies in mitochondrial function and autophagy. In addition, expression of a variant ATM incapable of activation by oxidative stress resulted in widespread protein aggregation. These results indicate a direct relationship between the mechanism of ATM activation and its effects on cellular metabolism and DNA damage responses in human cells and implicate ATM in the control of protein homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material---ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Materials Characterization Center glasses ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 are designed to simulate high-level waste glasses that are likely to result from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The three Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) are borosilicate glasses based upon the MCC-76-68 glass composition. One radioisotope was added to form each ATM. The radioisotopes added to form ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 were 241 Am, 237 Np, and 239 Pu, respectively. Each of the ATM lots was produced in a nominal lot size of 450 g from feed stock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1200/degree/C in a platinum crucible. Each ATM was then cast into bars. Analyzed compositions of these glasses are listed. The nonradioactive elements were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), and the radioisotope analyses were done by alpha energy analysis. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  10. ATM security via "Stargate" solution

    OpenAIRE

    Hensley, Katrina; Ludden, Fredrick

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. In today's world of integrating voice, video and data into a single network, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks have become prevalent in the Department of Defense. The Department of Defense's critical data will have to pass through public networks, which causes concern for security. This study presents an efficient solution aimed at authenticating communications over public ATM networks. The authenticating device, Stargate, utiliz...

  11. Connecting Remote Clusters with ATM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, T.C.; Wyckoff, P.S.

    1998-10-01

    Sandia's entry into utilizing clusters of networked workstations is called Computational Plant or CPlant for short. The design of CPlant uses Ethernet to boot the individual nodes, Myrinet to communicate within a node cluster, and ATM to connect between remote clusters. This SAND document covers the work done to enable the use of ATM on the CPlant nodes in the Fall of 1997.

  12. The kinase domain residue serine 173 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chk1 kinase is critical for the response to DNA replication stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Coulton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While mammalian Chk1 kinase regulates replication origins, safeguards fork integrity and promotes fork progression, yeast Chk1 acts only in G1 and G2. We report here that the mutation of serine 173 (S173A in the kinase domain of fission yeast Chk1 abolishes the G1-M and S-M checkpoints with little impact on the G2-M arrest. This separation-of-function mutation strongly reduces the Rad3-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 at serine 345 during logarithmic growth, but not when cells experience exogenous DNA damage. Loss of S173 lowers the restrictive temperature of a catalytic DNA polymerase epsilon mutant (cdc20.M10 and is epistatic with a mutation in DNA polymerase delta (cdc6.23 when DNA is alkylated by methyl-methanesulfate (MMS. The chk1-S173A allele is uniquely sensitive to high MMS concentrations where it displays a partial checkpoint defect. A complete checkpoint defect occurs only when DNA replication forks break in cells without the intra-S phase checkpoint kinase Cds1. Chk1-S173A is also unable to block mitosis when the G1 transcription factor Cdc10 (cdc10.V50 is impaired. We conclude that serine 173, which is equivalent to lysine 166 in the activation loop of human Chk1, is only critical in DNA polymerase mutants or when forks collapse in the absence of Cds1.

  13. In vitro mutagenesis studies at the arginine residues of adenylate kinase. A revised binding site for AMP in the X-ray-deduced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Joon; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Tokutomi, Yuiko; Uesugi, Seiichi; Takenaka, Hitoshi; Hamada, Minoru; Kuby, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Although X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies have been made on the adenylate kinases, the substrate-binding sites are not unequivocally established. In an attempt to shed light on the binding sites for MgATP 2- and for AMP 2- in human cytosolic adenylate kinase, the authors have investigated the enzymic effects of replacement of the arginine residues, which had been assumed by Pai et al. to interact with the phosphoryl groups of AMP 2- and MgATP 2- . With use of the site-directed mutagenesis method, point mutations were made in the artificial gene for hAK1 to replace these arginine residues with alanyl residues and yield the mutants R44A hAK1, R132A hAK1, R138A hAK1, and R149A hAK1. The resulting large increases in the K m,app values for AMP 2- of the mutant enzymes, the relatively small increases in the K m,app values for MgATP 2- , and the fact that the R132A, R138A, and R149A mutant enzymes proved to be very poor catalysts are consistent with the idea that the assigned substrate binding sites of Pai et al. have been reversed and that their ATP-binding site may be assigned as the AMP site

  14. ATM-dependent pathways of chromatin remodelling and oxidative DNA damage responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, N Daniel; Stanley, Fintan K T; Moore, Shaun; Goodarzi, Aaron A

    2017-10-05

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase with a master regulatory function in the DNA damage response. In this role, ATM commands a complex biochemical network that signals the presence of oxidative DNA damage, including the dangerous DNA double-strand break, and facilitates subsequent repair. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding ATM-dependent chromatin remodelling and epigenomic alterations that are required to maintain genomic integrity in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks and/or oxidative stress. We will focus particularly on the roles of ATM in adjusting nucleosome spacing at sites of unresolved DNA double-strand breaks within complex chromatin environments, and the impact of ATM on preserving the health of cells within the mammalian central nervous system.This article is part of the themed issue 'Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. ASCIZ/ATMIN is dispensable for ATM signaling in response to replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; King, Ashleigh; Hoch, Nicolas C; Chang, Catherine; Kelly, Gemma L; Deans, Andrew J; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    The ATM kinase plays critical roles in the response to DNA double-strand breaks, and can also be activated by prolonged DNA replication blocks. It has recently been proposed that replication stress-dependent ATM activation is mediated by ASCIZ (also known as ATMIN, ZNF822), an essential developmental transcription factor. In contrast, we show here that ATM activation, and phosphorylation of its substrates KAP1, p53 and H2AX in response to the replication blocking agent aphidicolin was unaffected in both immortalized and primary ASCIZ/ATMIN-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts compared to control cells. Similar results were also obtained in human ASCIZ/ATMIN-deleted lymphoma cells. The results demonstrate that ASCIZ/ATMIN is dispensable for ATM activation, and contradict the previously reported dependence of ATM on ASCIZ/ATMIN. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Solution structure of the 45-residue MgATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as examined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.C.; Byler, D.M.; Susi, H.; Brown, M.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildvan, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been studied in aqueous solution by two-dimensional NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy. This peptide, which binds MgATP and is believed to represent most of the MgATP-binding site of the enzyme, appears to maintain a conformation similar to that of residues 1-45 in the X-ray structure of intact porcine adenylate kinase, with 42% of the residues of the peptide showing NOEs indicative of phi and psi angles corresponding to those found in the protein. The NMR studies suggest that the peptide is composed of two helical regions of residues 4-7 and 23-29, and three stretches of β-strand at residues 8-15, 30-32, and 35-40, yielding an overall secondary structure consisting of 24% α-helix, 38% β-structure, and 38% aperiodic. Although the resolution-enhanced amide I band of the peptide FTIR spectrum is broad and rather featureless, possible due to disorder, it can be fit by using methods developed on well-characterized globular proteins. The CD spectrum is best fit by assuming the presence of at most 13% α-helix in the peptide, 24 +/- 2% β-structure, and 66 +/- 4% aperiodic. The inability of the high-frequency FTIR and CD methods to detect helices in the amount found by NMR may result from the short helical lengths as well as from static and dynamic disorder in the peptide. Upon binding of MgATP, numerous conformation changes in the backbone of the peptide are detected by NMR, with smaller alterations in the overall secondary structure as assess by CD

  17. A network of hydrophobic residues impeding helix alphaC rotation maintains latency of kinase Gcn2, which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárriz, Andrés; Qiu, Hongfang; Dey, Madhusudan; Seo, Eun-Joo; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2009-03-01

    Kinase Gcn2 is activated by amino acid starvation and downregulates translation initiation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). The Gcn2 kinase domain (KD) is inert and must be activated by tRNA binding to the adjacent regulatory domain. Previous work indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn2 latency results from inflexibility of the hinge connecting the N and C lobes and a partially obstructed ATP-binding site in the KD. Here, we provide strong evidence that a network of hydrophobic interactions centered on Leu-856 also promotes latency by constraining helix alphaC rotation in the KD in a manner relieved during amino acid starvation by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation of Thr-882 in the activation loop. Thus, we show that mutationally disrupting the hydrophobic network in various ways constitutively activates eIF2alpha phosphorylation in vivo and bypasses the requirement for a key tRNA binding motif (m2) and Thr-882 in Gcn2. In particular, replacing Leu-856 with any nonhydrophobic residue activates Gcn2, while substitutions with various hydrophobic residues maintain kinase latency. We further provide strong evidence that parallel, back-to-back dimerization of the KD is a step on the Gcn2 activation pathway promoted by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation. Remarkably, mutations that disrupt the L856 hydrophobic network or enhance hinge flexibility eliminate the need for the conserved salt bridge at the parallel dimer interface, implying that KD dimerization facilitates the reorientation of alphaC and remodeling of the active site for enhanced ATP binding and catalysis. We propose that hinge remodeling, parallel dimerization, and reorientation of alphaC are mutually reinforcing conformational transitions stimulated by tRNA binding and secured by the ensuing autophosphorylation of T882 for stable kinase activation.

  18. Functional link between DNA damage responses and transcriptional regulation by ATM in response to a histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Soo

    2007-09-01

    Mutations in the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene, which encodes a 370 kd protein with a kinase catalytic domain, predisposes people to cancers, and these mutations are also linked to ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). The histone acetylaion/deacetylation- dependent chromatin remodeling can activate the ATM kinase-mediated DNA damage signal pathway (in an accompanying work, Lee, 2007). This has led us to study whether this modification can impinge on the ATM-mediated DNA damage response via transcriptional modulation in order to understand the function of ATM in the regulation of gene transcription. To identify the genes whose expression is regulated by ATM in response to histone deaceylase (HDAC) inhibition, we performed an analysis of oligonucleotide microarrays with using the appropriate cell lines, isogenic A-T (ATM(-)) and control (ATM(+)) cells, following treatment with a HDAC inhibitor TSA. Treatment with TSA reprograms the differential gene expression profile in response to HDAC inhibition in ATM(-) cells and ATM(+) cells. We analyzed the genes that are regulated by TSA in the ATM-dependent manner, and we classified these genes into different functional categories, including those involved in cell cycle/DNA replication, DNA repair, apoptosis, growth/differentiation, cell- cell adhesion, signal transduction, metabolism and transcription. We found that while some genes are regulated by TSA without regard to ATM, the patterns of gene regulation are differentially regulated in an ATM-dependent manner. Taken together, these finding indicate that ATM can regulate the transcription of genes that play critical roles in the molecular response to DNA damage, and this response is modulated through an altered HDAC inhibition-mediated gene expression.

  19. ATM-Dependent Hyper-Radiosensitivity in Mammalian Cells Irradiated by Heavy Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Lian; Yu Dong; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Cao Jianping; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Fan Saijun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS) and the later appearing radioresistance (termed induced radioresistance [IRR]) was mainly studied in low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation with survival observation. The aim of this study was to find out whether equivalent hypersensitivity occurred in high LET radiation, and the roles of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. Methods and Materials: Survival and mutation were measured by clonogenic assay and HPRT mutation assay. ATM Ser1981 activation was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment of specific ATM inhibitor (10 μM KU55933) and activator (20 μg/mL chloroquine) before carbon radiation were adopted to explore the involvement of ATM. The roles of ATM were also investigated in its G2/M checkpoint function with histone H3 phosphorylation analysis and flow cytometric assay, and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair function measured using γ-H2AX foci assay. Results: HRS/IRR was observed with survival and mutation in normal human skin fibroblast cells by carbon ions, while impaired in cells with intrinsic ATM deficiency or normal cells modified with specific ATM activator or inhibitor before irradiation. The dose-response pattern of ATM kinase activation was concordant with the transition from HRS to IRR. The ATM-dependent 'early' G2 checkpoint arrest and DNA DSB repair efficiency could explain the difference between HRS and IRR. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the HRS/IRR by carbon ion radiation is an ATM-dependent phenomenon in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  20. Identification of p32 as a novel substrate for ATM in heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisakazu; Takashima, Seiji; Asano, Yoshihiro; Shintani, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Satoru; Seguchi, Osamu; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Atsushi; Higo, Shuichiro; Ogai, Akiko; Minamino, Tetsuo; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Hori, Masatsugu

    2008-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents to induce DNA damage have been limited to use due to severe side effects of cardiotoxicity. ATM (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) is an essential protein kinase in triggering DNA damage responses. However, it is unclear how the ATM-mediated DNA damage responses are involved in the cardiac cell damage. To elucidate these functions in heart, we searched for specific substrates of ATM from mouse heart homogenate. Combining an in vitro phosphorylation following anion-exchange chromatography with purification by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we successfully identified p32, an ASF/SF2-associated protein, as a novel substrate for ATM. An in vitro kinase assay using recombinant p32 revealed that ATM directly phosphorylated p32. Furthermore, we determined Ser 148 of p32 as an ATM phosphorylation site. Since p32 is known to regulate mRNA splicing and transcription, p32 phosphorylation by ATM might be a new transcriptional regulatory pathway for specific DNA damage responses in heart

  1. Gigabit ATM: another technical mistake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Paul

    1998-09-01

    Once upon a time, or more precisely during February 1988 at the CCITT Seoul plenary, and definitely arriving as a revolution, ATM hit the hard-core B-ISDN circuit-switching gang. Initiated by the Telecoms' camp, but, surprisingly, soon to be pushed by computer minded people, ATM's generic technological history is somewhat richer than single-sided stories. Here are two classical elements of that history: Firstly, together with X.25, ATM suffers from the connection versus datagram dichotomy, well known for more than twenty years. Secondly, and lesser known, ATM's use of cells in support of the 'I' of B-ISDN was questioned from the very beginning by the packet switching camp. Furthermore, in this context, there are two other essential elements to be considered: Firstly, the exponential growth of the Internet and later intranets, using Internet technology, sparked by the success of the Web and the WINTEL alliance, resulted in a corresponding demand for both aggregate and end-system network bandwidth. Secondly, servers, historically restricted to the exclusive club of HIPPI-equipped supercomputers, suddenly become ordinary high-end PCs with 64-bit wide PCI busses -- definitely aiming at the Gigabit. Here, if your aim is for Gigabit ATM with 5000-transactions per second classical supercomputers, a 65K ATM MTU -- as implemented by Cray -- might be okay. Following Clark and others, another part of the story is the adoption and redefinition, by the IETF, of the Telecoms' notion of 'Integrated Services' and QoS mechanisms. The quest for low-delay IP packet forwarding, perhaps possible over ATM cut-throughs, has resulted in the switching versus/or integrated-with-routing movement. However, a blow for ATM may be the recent results concerning fast routing table lookup algorithms. This, by making Gigabit routing possible using ordinary Pentium processors may eventually render the much prophesized ATM switching performance unnecessary. Recently, with the rise of Gigabit Ethernet

  2. Histone H2AX participates the DNA damage-induced ATM activation through interaction with NBS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Chen, Benjamin; Burma, Sandeep; Bruma, Sandeep; Tashiro, Satoshi; Matsuura, Shinya; Tanimoto, Keiji; Chen, David J; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2009-03-20

    Phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX) functions in the recruitment of DNA damage response proteins to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and facilitates DSB repair. ATM also co-localizes with gamma-H2AX at DSB sites following its auto-phosphorylation. However, it is unclear whether gamma-H2AX has a role in activation of ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we show that ATM as well as NBS1 is recruited to damaged-chromatin in a gamma-H2AX-dependent manner. Foci formation of phosphorylated ATM and ATM-dependent phosphorylation is repressed in H2AX-knockdown cells. Furthermore, anti-gamma-H2AX antibody co-immunoprecipitates an ATM-like protein kinase activity in vitro and recombinant H2AX increases in vitro kinase activity of ATM from un-irradiated cells. Moreover, H2AX-deficient cells exhibited a defect in ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoints. Taken together, gamma-H2AX has important role for effective DSB-dependent activation of ATM-related damage responses via NBS1.

  3. Histone H2AX participates the DNA damage-induced ATM activation through interaction with NBS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Junya; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Chen, Benjamin; Bruma, Sandeep; Tashiro, Satoshi; Matsuura, Shinya; Tanimoto, Keiji; Chen, David J.; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) functions in the recruitment of DNA damage response proteins to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and facilitates DSB repair. ATM also co-localizes with γ-H2AX at DSB sites following its auto-phosphorylation. However, it is unclear whether γ-H2AX has a role in activation of ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoints. Here, we show that ATM as well as NBS1 is recruited to damaged-chromatin in a γ-H2AX-dependent manner. Foci formation of phosphorylated ATM and ATM-dependent phosphorylation is repressed in H2AX-knockdown cells. Furthermore, anti-γ-H2AX antibody co-immunoprecipitates an ATM-like protein kinase activity in vitro and recombinant H2AX increases in vitro kinase activity of ATM from un-irradiated cells. Moreover, H2AX-deficient cells exhibited a defect in ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoints. Taken together, γ-H2AX has important role for effective DSB-dependent activation of ATM-related damage responses via NBS1.

  4. Squalene Inhibits ATM-Dependent Signaling in γIR-Induced DNA Damage Response through Induction of Wip1 Phosphatase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tatewaki

    Full Text Available Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM kinase plays a crucial role as a master controller in the cellular DNA damage response. Inhibition of ATM leads to inhibition of the checkpoint signaling pathway. Hence, addition of checkpoint inhibitors to anticancer therapies may be an effective targeting strategy. A recent study reported that Wip1, a protein phosphatase, de-phosphorylates serine 1981 of ATM during the DNA damage response. Squalene has been proposed to complement anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, there is little mechanistic information supporting this idea. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of squalene on ATM-dependent DNA damage signals. Squalene itself did not affect cell viability and the cell cycle of A549 cells, but it enhanced the cytotoxicity of gamma-irradiation (γIR. The in vitro kinase activity of ATM was not altered by squalene. However, squalene increased Wip1 expression in cells and suppressed ATM activation in γIR-treated cells. Consistent with the potential inhibition of ATM by squalene, IR-induced phosphorylation of ATM effectors such as p53 (Ser15 and Chk1 (Ser317 was inhibited by cell treatment with squalene. Thus, squalene inhibits the ATM-dependent signaling pathway following DNA damage through intracellular induction of Wip1 expression.

  5. ATM facilitates mouse gammaherpesvirus reactivation from myeloid cells during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinski, Joseph M; Darrah, Eric J; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Mboko, Wadzanai P; Mounce, Bryan C; Malherbe, Laurent P; Corbett, John A; Gauld, Stephen B; Tarakanova, Vera L

    2015-09-01

    Gammaherpesviruses are cancer-associated pathogens that establish life-long infection in most adults. Insufficiency of Ataxia-Telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase leads to a poor control of chronic gammaherpesvirus infection via an unknown mechanism that likely involves a suboptimal antiviral response. In contrast to the phenotype in the intact host, ATM facilitates gammaherpesvirus reactivation and replication in vitro. We hypothesized that ATM mediates both pro- and antiviral activities to regulate chronic gammaherpesvirus infection in an immunocompetent host. To test the proposed proviral activity of ATM in vivo, we generated mice with ATM deficiency limited to myeloid cells. Myeloid-specific ATM deficiency attenuated gammaherpesvirus infection during the establishment of viral latency. The results of our study uncover a proviral role of ATM in the context of gammaherpesvirus infection in vivo and support a model where ATM combines pro- and antiviral functions to facilitate both gammaherpesvirus-specific T cell immune response and viral reactivation in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conditional abrogation of Atm in osteoclasts extends osteoclast lifespan and results in reduced bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirozane, Toru; Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2016-09-28

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a central component involved in the signal transduction of the DNA damage response (DDR) and thus plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Although the primary functions of ATM are associated with the DDR, emerging data suggest that ATM has many additional roles that are not directly related to the DDR, including the regulation of oxidative stress signaling, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial homeostasis, and lymphocyte development. Patients and mice lacking ATM exhibit growth retardation and lower bone mass; however, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal defects are not fully understood. In the present study, we generated mutant mice in which ATM is specifically inactivated in osteoclasts. The mutant mice did not exhibit apparent developmental defects but showed reduced bone mass due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts lacking ATM were more resistant to apoptosis and showed a prolonged lifespan compared to the controls. Notably, the inactivation of ATM in osteoclasts resulted in enhanced NF-κB signaling and an increase in the expression of NF-κB-targeted genes. The present study reveals a novel function for ATM in regulating bone metabolism by suppressing the lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  7. Absence of ERK5/MAPK7 delays tumorigenesis in Atm-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Jaén, Alba; Angulo-Ibáñez, Maria; Rovira-Clavé, Xavier; Gamez, Celina Paola Vasquez; Soriano, Francesc X; Reina, Manuel; Espel, Enric

    2016-11-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a cell cycle checkpoint kinase that upon activation by DNA damage leads to cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or apoptosis. The absence of Atm or the occurrence of loss-of-function mutations in Atm predisposes to tumorigenesis. MAPK7 has been implicated in numerous types of cancer with pro-survival and pro-growth roles in tumor cells, but its functional relation with tumor suppressors is not clear. In this study, we show that absence of MAPK7 delays death due to spontaneous tumor development in Atm-/- mice. Compared with Atm-/- thymocytes, Mapk7-/-Atm-/- thymocytes exhibited an improved response to DNA damage (increased phosphorylation of H2AX) and a restored apoptotic response after treatment of mice with ionizing radiation. These findings define an antagonistic function of ATM and MAPK7 in the thymocyte response to DNA damage, and suggest that the lack of MAPK7 inhibits thymic lymphoma growth in Atm-/- mice by partially restoring the DNA damage response in thymocytes.

  8. Discrimination between acid and alkali-labile phosphorylated residues on Immobilon: phosphorylation studies of nucleoside diphosphate kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Walz, K; Issinger, O G

    1996-01-01

    of phosphoserine after strong acid hydrolysis of the histidine autophosphorylated enzyme is in fact a nonenzymatic transphosphorylation from phosphohistidine due to the harsh acid treatment. This methodology was also applied to in vivo phosphorylation studies of C. albicans NDP kinase. We believe...

  9. Critical involvement of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response in the apoptotic demise of HIV-1-elicited syncytia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Perfettini

    Full Text Available DNA damage can activate the oncosuppressor protein ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, which phosphorylates the histone H2AX within characteristic DNA damage foci. Here, we show that ATM undergoes an activating phosphorylation in syncytia elicited by the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 in vitro. This was accompanied by aggregation of ATM in discrete nuclear foci that also contained phospho-histone H2AX. DNA damage foci containing phosphorylated ATM and H2AX were detectable in syncytia present in the brain or lymph nodes from patients with HIV-1 infection, as well as in a fraction of blood leukocytes, correlating with viral status. Knockdown of ATM or of its obligate activating factor NBS1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 protein, as well as pharmacological inhibition of ATM with KU-55933, inhibited H2AX phosphorylation and prevented Env-elicited syncytia from undergoing apoptosis. ATM was found indispensable for the activation of MAP kinase p38, which catalyzes the activating phosphorylation of p53 on serine 46, thereby causing p53 dependent apoptosis. Both wild type HIV-1 and an HIV-1 mutant lacking integrase activity induced syncytial apoptosis, which could be suppressed by inhibiting ATM. HIV-1-infected T lymphoblasts from patients with inactivating ATM or NBS1 mutations also exhibited reduced syncytial apoptosis. Altogether these results indicate that apoptosis induced by a fusogenic HIV-1 Env follows a pro-apoptotic pathway involving the sequential activation of ATM, p38MAPK and p53.

  10. The ATM signaling network in development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracker, Travis H.; Roig, Ignasi; Knobel, Philip A.; Marjanović, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) rapidly recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the appropriate cellular programs to maintain genome integrity. This includes the coordination of cell cycle checkpoints, transcription, translation, DNA repair, metabolism, and cell fate decisions, such as apoptosis or senescence (Jackson and Bartek, 2009). DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and defects in their metabolism underlie many human hereditary diseases characterized by genomic instability (Stracker and Petrini, 2011; McKinnon, 2012). Patients with hereditary defects in the DDR display defects in development, particularly affecting the central nervous system, the immune system and the germline, as well as aberrant metabolic regulation and cancer predisposition. Central to the DDR to DSBs is the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a master controller of signal transduction. Understanding how ATM signaling regulates various aspects of the DDR and its roles in vivo is critical for our understanding of human disease, its diagnosis and its treatment. This review will describe the general roles of ATM signaling and highlight some recent advances that have shed light on the diverse roles of ATM and related proteins in human disease. PMID:23532176

  11. The ATM signaling network in development and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis H. Stracker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR rapidly recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the appropriate cellular programs to maintain genome integrity. This includes the coordination of cell cycle checkpoints, transcription, translation, DNA repair, metabolism and cell fate decisions, such as apoptosis or senescence(Jackson and Bartek, 2009. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs represent one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and defects in their metabolism underlie many human hereditary diseases characterized by genomic instability(Stracker and Petrini, 2011;McKinnon, 2012. Patients with hereditary defects in the DDR display defects in development, particularly affecting the central nervous system (CNS, the immune system and the germline, as well as aberrant metabolic regulation and cancer predisposition. Central to the DDR to DSBs is the ATM kinase, a master controller of signal transduction. Understanding how ATM signaling regulates various aspects of the DDR and its roles in vivo is critical for our understanding of human disease, its diagnosis and its treatment. This review will describe the general roles of ATM signaling and highlight some recent advances that have shed light on the diverse roles of ATM and related proteins in human disease.

  12. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) interacts with p400 ATPase for an efficient DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca J; Savoian, Matthew S; Weber, Lauren E; Park, Jeong Hyeon

    2016-11-04

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and TRRAP proteins belong to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase family and are involved in DNA damage repair and chromatin remodeling. ATM is a checkpoint kinase that is recruited to sites of DNA double-strand breaks where it phosphorylates a diverse range of proteins that are part of the chromatin and DNA repair machinery. As an integral subunit of the TRRAP-TIP60 complexes, p400 ATPase is a chromatin remodeler that is also targeted to DNA double-strand break sites. While it is understood that DNA binding transcriptional activators recruit p400 ATPase into a regulatory region of the promoter, how p400 recognises and moves to DNA double-strand break sites is far less clear. Here we investigate a possibility whether ATM serves as a shuttle to deliver p400 to break sites. Our data indicate that p400 co-immunoprecipitates with ATM independently of DNA damage state and that the N-terminal domain of p400 is vital for this interaction. Heterologous expression studies using Sf9 cells revealed that the ATM-p400 complex can be reconstituted without other mammalian bridging proteins. Overexpression of ATM-interacting p400 regions in U2OS cells induced dominant negative effects including the inhibition of both DNA damage repair and cell proliferation. Consistent with the dominant negative effect, the stable expression of an N-terminal p400 fragment showed a decrease in the association of p400 with ATM, but did not alter the association of p400 with TRRAP. Taken together, our findings suggest that a protein-protein interaction between ATM and p400 ATPase occurs independently of DNA damage and contributes to efficient DNA damage response and repair.

  13. Complex control of ATM in response to radiation damage to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, M.F.; Beamish, H.; Chen, P.; Keating, K.; Scott, S.; Spring, K.; Kozlov, S.; Walters, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia is characterized by neurodegeneration, immunodeficiency, extreme sensitivity to ionizing radiation, abnormalities in cell cycle checkpoints and a predisposition to develop leukemias and lymphomas. It appears likely that the basis of the hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation is due to defective sensing of double strand breaks in DNA and as a consequence a failure to repair all of these breaks. After exposure of cells to radiation the kinase activity of pre-existing ATM protein is rapidly activated leading to the radiation-induced phosphoylation of a number of important substrates including p53, c-Abl, BRCA1, NBS1 and chk2. Defective phosphorylation of BRCA1 and NBS1 is associated with increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. We have also demonstrated that a reduction in the amount of ATM protein using antisense ATM cDNA transfection prior to exposure to radiation also sensitizes cells. This was further confirmed by treating human lymphoblastoid cells with EGF prior to radiation exposure. Furthermore radiation reverses the downregulation of ATM by EGF over a 3 hour period. Under these conditions cells are still sensitized to radiation since the restoration of ATM kinase activity is slower than that arising from activation of existing protein. Alterations in the amount of ATM protein are also observed in response to mitogenic agents. Thus it is evident that ATM protein and kinase activity are regulated in a complex fashion and this appears to vary in different tissues. The implications for altering ATM for therapeutic benefit will be discussed

  14. DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR Interplay Maintains Genome Integrity during Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez-Rios, Vanessa; Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Downing, Susanna M; Li, Yang; Brown, Eric J; Russell, Helen R; McKinnon, Peter J

    2017-01-25

    The DNA damage response (DDR) orchestrates a network of cellular processes that integrates cell-cycle control and DNA repair or apoptosis, which serves to maintain genome stability. DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent kinase, encoded by PRKDC), ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated), and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are related PI3K-like protein kinases and central regulators of the DDR. Defects in these kinases have been linked to neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental syndromes. In all cases, the key neuroprotective function of these kinases is uncertain. It also remains unclear how interactions between the three DNA damage-responsive kinases coordinate genome stability, particularly in a physiological context. Here, we used a genetic approach to identify the neural function of DNA-PKcs and the interplay between ATM and ATR during neurogenesis. We found that DNA-PKcs loss in the mouse sensitized neuronal progenitors to apoptosis after ionizing radiation because of excessive DNA damage. DNA-PKcs was also required to prevent endogenous DNA damage accumulation throughout the adult brain. In contrast, ATR coordinated the DDR during neurogenesis to direct apoptosis in cycling neural progenitors, whereas ATM regulated apoptosis in both proliferative and noncycling cells. We also found that ATR controls a DNA damage-induced G 2 /M checkpoint in cortical progenitors, independent of ATM and DNA-PKcs. These nonoverlapping roles were further confirmed via sustained murine embryonic or cortical development after all three kinases were simultaneously inactivated. Thus, our results illustrate how DNA-PKcs, ATM, and ATR have unique and essential roles during the DDR, collectively ensuring comprehensive genome maintenance in the nervous system. The DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for prevention of a broad spectrum of different human neurologic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of the DDR at a physiological level is lacking. In contrast to many in

  15. Wireless Connectivity to ATM Communication Grid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajaravivarma, Veeramuthu

    1998-01-01

    The AFOSR funds were used to purchase a 12 port Fore ATM switch, ATM network interface cards, a SUN UltraSPARC workstation, Lucent WavePoint wireless bridge, and Lucent WaveLAN wireless network interface cards...

  16. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  17. Solution structure of the 45-residue ATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as determined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.C.; Byler, D.M.; Susi, H.; Brown, E.M.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildyan, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    In the X-ray structure of adenylate kinase residues 1-45 exist as 47% α-helix, 29% β-structure (strands and turns) and 24% coil. The solution structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45, which constitutes the MgATP binding site was studied by 3 independent spectroscopic methods. Globularity of the peptide was shown by its broad NMR resonances which narrow upon denaturation, and by its ability to bind MgATP with similar affinity and conformation as the intact enzyme does. COSY and NOESY NMR methods at 250 and 500 MHz reveal proximities among NH, Cα, and Cβ protons indicative of >20% α-helix, and >20% β-structure. Correlation of regions of secondary structure with the primary sequence by 2D NMR indicates at least one α-helix (res. 23 to 29) and two β-strands (res. 12 to 15 and 34 to 38). The broad amide I band in the deconvoluted FTIR spectrum could be fit as the sum of 4 peaks due to specific secondary structures, yielding ≤=45% α-helix, ≤=40% β-structure and ≥=15% coil. The CD spectrum, from 185-250 nm, interpreted with a 3-parameter basis set, yielded 20 +/- 5% α=helix, and ≤=20% β-structure. The solution structure of peptide 1-45 thus approximates that of residues 1-45 in the crystal

  18. ATM in Europe: analysis of current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    This deliverable provides an overview of the current status of the European market for ATM services. The offer of ATM services by principal operators in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom is described. In addition, a number...... of international providers of ATM in Europe are presented....

  19. ATM and ATR play complementary roles in the behavior of excitatory and inhibitory vesicle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aifang; Zhao, Teng; Tse, Kai-Hei; Chow, Hei-Man; Cui, Yong; Jiang, Liwen; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M T; Herrup, Karl

    2018-01-09

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) are large PI3 kinases whose human mutations result in complex syndromes that include a compromised DNA damage response (DDR) and prominent nervous system phenotypes. Both proteins are nuclear-localized in keeping with their DDR functions, yet both are also found in cytoplasm, including on neuronal synaptic vesicles. In ATM- or ATR-deficient neurons, spontaneous vesicle release is reduced, but a drop in ATM or ATR level also slows FM4-64 dye uptake. In keeping with this, both proteins bind to AP-2 complex components as well as to clathrin, suggesting roles in endocytosis and vesicle recycling. The two proteins play complementary roles in the DDR; ATM is engaged in the repair of double-strand breaks, while ATR deals mainly with single-strand damage. Unexpectedly, this complementarity extends to these proteins' synaptic function as well. Superresolution microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation reveal that ATM associates exclusively with excitatory (VGLUT1 + ) vesicles, while ATR associates only with inhibitory (VGAT + ) vesicles. The levels of ATM and ATR respond to each other; when ATM is deficient, ATR levels rise, and vice versa. Finally, blocking NMDA, but not GABA, receptors causes ATM levels to rise while ATR levels respond to GABA, but not NMDA, receptor blockade. Taken together, our data suggest that ATM and ATR are part of the cellular "infrastructure" that maintains the excitatory/inhibitory balance of the nervous system. This idea has important implications for the human diseases resulting from their genetic deficiency.

  20. Structure-based network analysis of activation mechanisms in the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases: the regulatory spine residues are global mediators of structural stability and allosteric interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A James

    Full Text Available The ErbB protein tyrosine kinases are among the most important cell signaling families and mutation-induced modulation of their activity is associated with diverse functions in biological networks and human disease. We have combined molecular dynamics simulations of the ErbB kinases with the protein structure network modeling to characterize the reorganization of the residue interaction networks during conformational equilibrium changes in the normal and oncogenic forms. Structural stability and network analyses have identified local communities integrated around high centrality sites that correspond to the regulatory spine residues. This analysis has provided a quantitative insight to the mechanism of mutation-induced "superacceptor" activity in oncogenic EGFR dimers. We have found that kinase activation may be determined by allosteric interactions between modules of structurally stable residues that synchronize the dynamics in the nucleotide binding site and the αC-helix with the collective motions of the integrating αF-helix and the substrate binding site. The results of this study have pointed to a central role of the conserved His-Arg-Asp (HRD motif in the catalytic loop and the Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG motif as key mediators of structural stability and allosteric communications in the ErbB kinases. We have determined that residues that are indispensable for kinase regulation and catalysis often corresponded to the high centrality nodes within the protein structure network and could be distinguished by their unique network signatures. The optimal communication pathways are also controlled by these nodes and may ensure efficient allosteric signaling in the functional kinase state. Structure-based network analysis has quantified subtle effects of ATP binding on conformational dynamics and stability of the EGFR structures. Consistent with the NMR studies, we have found that nucleotide-induced modulation of the residue interaction networks is not

  1. Lead (Pb) induced ATM-dependent mitophagy via PINK1/Parkin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xueyan; Qi, Yongmei; Feng, Zengxiu; Ma, Lin; Gao, Ke; Zhang, Yingmei

    2018-07-01

    Lead (Pb), a widely distributed environmental pollutant, is known to induce mitochondrial damage as well as autophagy in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that Pb could trigger mitophagy in both HEK293 cells and the kidney cortex of male Kunming mice. However, whether ataxia telangiectasis mutated (ATM) which is reported to be linked with PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)/Parkin pathway (a well-characterized mitophagic pathway) participates in the regulation of Pb-induced mitophagy and its exact role remains enigmatic. Our results indicated that Pb activated ATM in vitro and in vivo, and further in vitro studies showed that ATM could co-localize with PINK1 and Parkin in cytosol and interact with PINK1. Knockdown of ATM by siRNA blocked Pb-induced mitophagy even under the circumstance of enhanced accumulation of PINK1 and mitochondrial Parkin. Intriguingly, elevation instead of reduction in phosphorylation level of PINK1 and Parkin was observed in response to ATM knockdown and Pb did not contribute to the further increase of their phosphorylation level, implying that ATM indirectly regulated PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for Pb toxicity and suggest the regulatory importance of ATM in PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) silencing promotes neuroblastoma progression through a MYCN independent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandriota, Stefano J.; Valentijn, Linda J.; Lesne, Laurence; Betts, David R.; Marino, Denis; Boudal-Khoshbeen, Mary; London, Wendy B.; Rougemont, Anne-Laure; Attiyeh, Edward F.; Maris, John M.; Hogarty, Michael D.; Koster, Jan; Molenaar, Jan J.; Versteeg, Rogier

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer with highly heterogeneous biology and clinical behavior, is characterized by genomic aberrations including amplification of MYCN. Hemizygous deletion of chromosome 11q is a well-established, independent marker of poor prognosis. While 11q22-q23 is the most frequently deleted region, the neuroblastoma tumor suppressor in this region remains to be identified. Chromosome bands 11q22-q23 contain ATM, a cell cycle checkpoint kinase and tumor suppressor playing a pivotal role in the DNA damage response. Here, we report that haploinsufficiency of ATM in neuroblastoma correlates with lower ATM expression, event-free survival, and overall survival. ATM loss occurs in high stage neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification. In SK-N-SH, CLB-Ga and GI-ME-N human neuroblastoma cells, stable ATM silencing promotes neuroblastoma progression in soft agar assays, and in subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. This effect is dependent on the extent of ATM silencing and does not appear to involve MYCN. Our findings identify ATM as a potential haploinsufficient neuroblastoma tumor suppressor, whose inactivation mirrors the increased aggressiveness associated with 11q deletion in neuroblastoma. PMID:26053094

  3. Magnesium-adenosine diphosphate binding sites in wild-type creatine kinase and in mutants: role of aromatic residues probed by Raman and infrared spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, H; Marcillat, O; Buchet, R; Vial, C

    2000-08-08

    Two distinct methods were used to investigate the role of Trp residues during Mg-ADP binding to cytosolic creatine kinase (CK) from rabbit muscle: (1) Raman spectroscopy, which is very sensitive to the environment of aromatic side-chain residues, and (2) reaction-induced infrared difference spectroscopy (RIDS) and photolabile substrate (ADP[Et(PhNO(2))]), combined with site-directed mutagenesis on the four Trp residues of CK. Our Raman results indicated that the environment of Trp and of Tyr were not affected during Mg-ADP binding to CK. Analysis of RIDS of wild-type CK, inactive W227Y, and active W210,217,272Y mutants suggested that Trp227 was not involved in the stacking interactions. Results are consistent with Trp227 being essential to prevent water molecules from entering in the active site [as suggested by Gross, M., Furter-Graves, E. M., Wallimann, T., Eppenberger, H. M., and Furter, R. (1994) Protein Sci. 3, 1058-1068] and that another Trp could in addition help to steer the nucleotide in the binding site, although it is not essential for the activity of CK. Raman and infrared spectra indicated that Mg-ADP binding does not involve large secondary structure changes. Only 3-4 residues absorbing in the amide I region are directly implicated in the Mg-ADP binding (corresponding to secondary structure changes less than 1%), suggesting that movement of protein domains due to Mg-nucleotide binding do not promote large secondary structure changes.

  4. Redes Atm de Alto Desempenho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Oliveira Santos de Sá Lisboa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A tendência atual de integração de serviços de dados, voz e vídeo, estimulada pelo pleno sucesso da Internet, aumentou a demanda por maior banda e melhor desempenho nas redes de comunicação de dados. Neste contexto, a tecnologia ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode vem sendo utilizada na implementação de backbone de LANs e WANs, justamente por oferecer a possibilidade de integração de serviços com qualidade, alta escalabilidade e altas taxas de transferência em banda larga. Neste artigo serão abordados os principais conceitos relacionados à tecnologia ATM, suas vantagens e desvantagens em face de outras tecnologias (como Fast e Gigabit Ethernet, além de casos de sua utilização em empresas e instituições de ensino.

  5. Simplified management of ATM traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Marko; Ilvesmaeki, Mika

    1997-10-01

    ATM has been under a thorough standardization process for more than ten years. Looking at it now, what have we achieved during this time period? Originally ATM was meant to be an easy and efficient protocol enabling varying services over a single network. What it is turning to be it `yet another ISDN'--network full of hopes and promises but too difficult to implement and expensive to market. The fact is that more and more `nice features' are implemented on the cost of overloading network with hard management procedures. Therefore we need to adopt a new approach. This approach keeps a strong reminder on `what is necessary.' This paper presents starting points for an alternative approach to the traffic management. We refer to this approach as `the minimum management principle.' Choosing of the suitable service classes for the ATM network is made difficult by the fact that the more services one implements the more management he needs. This is especially true for the variable bit rate connections that are usually treated based on the stochastic models. Stochastic model, at its best, can only reveal momentary characteristics in the traffic stream not the long range behavior of it. Our assumption is that ATM will move towards Internet in the sense that strict values for quality make little or no sense in the future. Therefore stochastic modeling of variable bit rate connections seems to be useless. Nevertheless we see that some traffic needs to have strict guarantees and that the only economic way of doing so is to use PCR allocation.

  6. Structure of calmodulin complexed with an olfactory CNG channel fragment and role of the central linker: Residual dipolar couplings to evaluate calmodulin binding modes outside the kinase family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contessa, Gian Marco; Orsale, Maria; Melino, Sonia; Torre, Vincent; Paci, Maurizio; Desideri, Alessandro; Cicero, Daniel O.

    2005-01-01

    The NMR high-resolution structure of calmodulin complexed with a fragment of the olfactory cyclic-nucleotide gated channel is described. This structure shows features that are unique for this complex, including an active role of the linker connecting the N- and C-lobes of calmodulin upon binding of the peptide. Such linker is not only involved in the formation of an hydrophobic pocket to accommodate a bulky peptide residue, but it also provides a positively charged region complementary to a negative charge of the target. This complex of calmodulin with a target not belonging to the kinase family was used to test the residual dipolar coupling (RDC) approach for the determination of calmodulin binding modes to peptides. Although the complex here characterized belongs to the (1--14) family, high Q values were obtained with all the 1:1 complexes for which crystalline structures are available. Reduction of the RDC data set used for the correlation analysis to structured regions of the complex allowed a clear identification of the binding mode. Excluded regions comprise calcium binding loops and loops connecting the EF-hand motifs

  7. ATM promotes the obligate XY crossover and both crossover control and chromosome axis integrity on autosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barchi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiosis in most sexually reproducing organisms, recombination forms crossovers between homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes and thereby promotes proper chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. The number and distribution of crossovers are tightly controlled, but the factors that contribute to this control are poorly understood in most organisms, including mammals. Here we provide evidence that the ATM kinase or protein is essential for proper crossover formation in mouse spermatocytes. ATM deficiency causes multiple phenotypes in humans and mice, including gonadal atrophy. Mouse Atm-/- spermatocytes undergo apoptosis at mid-prophase of meiosis I, but Atm(-/- meiotic phenotypes are partially rescued by Spo11 heterozygosity, such that ATM-deficient spermatocytes progress to meiotic metaphase I. Strikingly, Spo11+/-Atm-/- spermatocytes are defective in forming the obligate crossover on the sex chromosomes, even though the XY pair is usually incorporated in a sex body and is transcriptionally inactivated as in normal spermatocytes. The XY crossover defect correlates with the appearance of lagging chromosomes at metaphase I, which may trigger the extensive metaphase apoptosis that is observed in these cells. In addition, control of the number and distribution of crossovers on autosomes appears to be defective in the absence of ATM because there is an increase in the total number of MLH1 foci, which mark the sites of eventual crossover formation, and because interference between MLH1 foci is perturbed. The axes of autosomes exhibit structural defects that correlate with the positions of ongoing recombination. Together, these findings indicate that ATM plays a role in both crossover control and chromosome axis integrity and further suggests that ATM is important for coordinating these features of meiotic chromosome dynamics.

  8. ATM and p53 combined analysis predicts survival in glioblastoma multiforme patients: A clinicopathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Guadagno, Elia; Solari, Domenico; Borrelli, Giorgio; Pignatiello, Sara; Cappabianca, Paolo; Del Basso De Caro, Marialaura

    2018-06-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant cancers, with a distinguishing dismal prognosis: surgery followed by chemo- and radiotherapy represents the current standard of care, and chemo- and radioresistance underlie disease recurrence and short overall survival of patients suffering from this malignancy. ATM is a kinase activated by autophosphorylation upon DNA doublestrand breaks arising from errors during replication, byproducts of metabolism, chemotherapy or ionizing radiations; TP53 is one of the most popular tumor suppressor, with a preeminent role in DNA damage response and repair. To study the effects of the immunohistochemical expression of p-ATM and p53 in glioblastoma patients, 21 cases were retrospectively examined. In normal brain tissue, p-ATM was expressed only in neurons; conversely, in tumors cells, the protein showed a variable cytoplasmic expression (score: +,++,+++), with being completely undetectable in three cases. Statistical analysis revealed that high p-ATM score (++/+++) strongly correlated to shorter survival (P = 0.022). No difference in overall survival was registered between p53 normally expressed (NE) and overexpressed (OE) glioblastoma patients (P = 0.669). Survival analysis performed on the results from combined assessment of the two proteins showed that patients with NE p53 /low pATM score had longer overall survival than the NE p53/ high pATM score counterpart. Cox-regression analysis confirmed this finding (HR = 0.025; CI 95% = 0.002-0.284; P = 0.003). Our study outlined the immunohistochemical expression of p-ATM/p53 in glioblastomas and provided data on their possible prognostic/predictive of response role. A "non-oncogene addiction" to ATM for NEp53 glioblastoma could be postulated, strengthening the rationale for development of ATM inhibiting drugs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The depletion of ATM inhibits colon cancer proliferation and migration via B56γ2-mediated Chk1/p53/CD44 cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Tang, Jiajia; Ding, Chaodong; Liang, Weicheng; Zhang, Li; Chen, Tianke; Xiong, Yan; Dai, Xiaowei; Li, Wenfeng; Xu, Yunsheng; Hu, Jin; Lu, Liting; Liao, Wanqin; Lu, Xincheng

    2017-04-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase is a major guardian of genomic stability, and its well-established function in cancer is tumor suppression. Here, we report an oncogenic role of ATM. Using two isogenic sets of human colon cancer cell lines that differed only in their ATM status, we demonstrated that ATM deficiency significantly inhibits cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The tumor-suppressive function of ATM depletion is not modulated by the compensatory activation of ATR, but it is associated with B56γ2-mediated Chk1/p53/CD44 signaling pathways. Under normal growth conditions, the depletion of ATM prevents B56γ2 ubiquitination and degradation, which activates PP2A-mediated Chk1/p53/p21 signaling pathways, leading to senescence and cell cycle arrest. CD44 was validated as a novel ATM target based on its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. The activation of p53 induced by ATM depletion suppresses CD44 transcription, thus resulting in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration suppression. Our study suggests that ATM has tumorigenic potential in post-formed colon neoplasia, and it supports ATM as an appealing target for improving cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel targets for ATM-deficient malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Johannes; Hofmann, Kay; Chen, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Conventional chemo- and radiotherapies for the treatment of cancer target rapidly dividing cells in both tumor and non-tumor tissues and can exhibit severe cytotoxicity in normal tissue and impair the patient's immune system. Novel targeted strategies aim for higher efficacy and tumor specificity. The role of ATM protein in the DNA damage response is well known and ATM deficiency frequently plays a role in tumorigenesis and development of malignancy. In addition to contributing to disease development, ATM deficiency also renders malignant cells heavily dependent on other pathways that cooperate with the ATM-mediated DNA damage response to ensure tumor cell survival. Disturbing those cooperative pathways by inhibiting critical protein components allows specific targeting of tumors while sparing healthy cells with normal ATM status. We review druggable candidate targets for the treatment of ATM-deficient malignancies and the mechanisms underlying such targeted therapies. PMID:27308314

  11. Functional and nonfunctional testing of ATM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Manuel; Ferreira, M. E. P.; Guimaraes, Francisco E.; Mamede, J.; Henriques, M.; da Silva, Jorge A.; Carrapatoso, E.

    1995-02-01

    ATM network will support new multimedia services that will require new protocols, those services and protocols will need different test strategies and tools. In this paper, the concepts of functional and non-functional testers of ATM networks are discussed, a multimedia service and its requirements are presented and finally, a summary description of an ATM network and of the test tool that will be used to validate it are presented.

  12. Synchronous and Asynchronous ATM Multiplexor Properties Comparsion

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Zabka

    2006-01-01

    The article is aimed to ATM multiplexor computer model utilisation. Based on simulation runs we try to review aspects of use a synchronous and asynchronous ATM multiplexors. ATM multiplexor is the input queuing model with three inputs. Synchronous multiplexor works without an input priority. Multiplexor inputs are served periodically. Asynchronous multiplexor model supports several queuing and priority mechanisms. CLR and CTD are basic performance parameters. Input cell flows are genera...

  13. Implementation of virtual LANs over ATM WANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Torsten; Maehler, Martin

    1998-09-01

    Virtual LANs (VLANs) allow to interconnect users over campus or wide area networks and gives the users the impression as they would be connected to the same local area network (LAN). The implementation of VLANs is based on ATM Forum's LAN Emulation and LAN/ATM switches providing interconnection of emulated LANs over ATM and the LAN ports to which the user's end systems are attached to. The paper discusses possible implementation architectures and describes advanced features such as ATM short-cuts, QoS, and redundancy concepts.

  14. ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of MEF2D Promotes Neuronal Survival after DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shing Fai; Sances, Sam; Brill, Laurence M.; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Zaidi, Rameez; McKercher, Scott R.; Akhtar, Mohd W.; Nakanishi, Nobuki

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, which encodes a kinase critical for the normal DNA damage response, cause the neurodegenerative disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). The substrates of ATM in the brain are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ATM phosphorylates and activates the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), which plays a critical role in promoting survival of cerebellar granule cells. ATM associates with MEF2D after DNA damage and phosphorylates the transcription factor at four ATM consensus sites. Knockdown of endogenous MEF2D with a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) increases sensitivity to etoposide-induced DNA damage and neuronal cell death. Interestingly, substitution of endogenous MEF2D with an shRNA-resistant phosphomimetic MEF2D mutant protects cerebellar granule cells from cell death after DNA damage, whereas an shRNA-resistant nonphosphorylatable MEF2D mutant does not. In vivo, cerebella in Mef2d knock-out mice manifest increased susceptibility to DNA damage. Together, our results show that MEF2D is a substrate for phosphorylation by ATM, thus promoting survival in response to DNA damage. Moreover, dysregulation of the ATM–MEF2D pathway may contribute to neurodegeneration in AT. PMID:24672010

  15. Low ATM protein expression and depletion of p53 correlates with olaparib sensitivity in gastric cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Eiji; Williamson, Christopher T; Ye, Ruiqiong; Elegbede, Anifat; Peterson, Lars; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Bebb, D Gwyn

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have shown considerable promise in the treatment of homologous recombination (HR)-defective tumors, such as BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient breast and ovarian cancers. We previously reported that mantle cell lymphoma cells with deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that PARP inhibitors can potentially target ATM deficiency arising in a solid malignancy. We show that ATM protein expression varies between gastric cancer cell lines, with NUGC4 having significantly reduced protein levels. Significant correlation was found between ATM protein expression and sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor olaparib, with NUGC4 being the most sensitive. Moreover, reducing ATM kinase activity using a small-molecule inhibitor (KU55933) or shRNA-mediated depletion of ATM protein enhanced olaparib sensitivity in gastric cancer cell lines with depletion or inactivation of p53. Our results demonstrate that ATM is a potential predictive biomarker for PARP-1 inhibitor activity in gastric cancer harboring disruption of p53, and that combined inhibition of ATM and PARP-1 is a rational strategy for expanding the utility of PARP-1 inhibitors to gastric cancer with p53 disruption. PMID:24841718

  16. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  17. ATM/ATR-mediated phosphorylation of PALB2 promotes RAD51 function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlskog, Johanna K; Larsen, Brian D; Achanta, Kavya

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage activates the ATM and ATR kinases that coordinate checkpoint and DNA repair pathways. An essential step in homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA breaks is the formation of RAD51 nucleofilaments mediated by PALB2-BRCA2; however, roles of ATM and ATR in this critical step of HDR are poor...... function, as the PALB2-dependent checkpoint response is normal in cells expressing the phospho-deficient PALB2 mutant. Collectively, our findings highlight a critical importance of PALB2 phosphorylation as a novel regulatory step in genome maintenance after genotoxic stress....

  18. Identification of the hot spot residues for pyridine derivative inhibitor CCT251455 and ATP substrate binding on monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) kinase by molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Duan, Wenxiu; Han, Qianqian; Sun, Xuan; Li, Wenqian; Hu, Shuangyun; Wan, Jiajia; Wu, Jiang; Ge, Yushu; Liu, Dan

    2018-03-08

    Protein kinase monopolar spindle 1 plays an important role in spindle assembly checkpoint at the onset of mitosis. Over expression of MPS1 correlated with a wide range of human tumors makes it an attractive target for finding an effective and specific inhibitor. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of protein MPS1 itself as well as protein bound systems with the inhibitor and natural substrate based on crystal structures. The reported orally bioavailable 1 h-pyrrolo [3,2-c] pyridine inhibitors of MPS1 maintained stable binding in the catalytic site, while natural substrate ATP could not stay. Comparative study of stability and flexibility of three systems reveals position shifting of β-sheet region within the catalytic site, which indicates inhibition mechanism was through stabilizing the β-sheet region. Binding free energies calculated with MM-GB/PBSA method shows different binding affinity for inhibitor and ATP. Finally, interactions between protein and inhibitor during molecular dynamic simulations were measured and counted. Residue Gly605 and Leu654 were suggested as important hot spots for stable binding of inhibitor by molecular dynamic simulation. Our results reveal an important position shifting within catalytic site for non-inhibited proteins. Together with hot spots found by molecular dynamic simulation, the results provide important information of inhibition mechanism and will be referenced for designing novel inhibitors.

  19. ATM: Restructing Learning for Deaf Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Barbara; Stockford, David

    Governor Baxter School for the Deaf is one of six Maine pilot sites chosen by NYNEX to showcase asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) technology. ATM is a network connection that allows high bandwidth transmission of data, voice, and video. Its high speed capability allows for high quality two-way full-motion video, which is especially beneficial to a…

  20. Satellite ATM Networks: Architectures and Guidelines Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.; Yegendu, Ferit

    1999-01-01

    An important element of satellite-supported asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networking will involve support for the routing and rerouting of active connections. Work published under the auspices of the Telecommunications Industry Association (http://www.tiaonline.org), describes basic architectures and routing protocol issues for satellite ATM (SATATM) networks. The architectures and issues identified will serve as a basis for further development of technical specifications for these SATATM networks. Three ATM network architectures for bent pipe satellites and three ATM network architectures for satellites with onboard ATM switches were developed. The architectures differ from one another in terms of required level of mobility, supported data rates, supported terrestrial interfaces, and onboard processing and switching requirements. The documentation addresses low-, middle-, and geosynchronous-Earth-orbit satellite configurations. The satellite environment may require real-time routing to support the mobility of end devices and nodes of the ATM network itself. This requires the network to be able to reroute active circuits in real time. In addition to supporting mobility, rerouting can also be used to (1) optimize network routing, (2) respond to changing quality-of-service requirements, and (3) provide a fault tolerance mechanism. Traffic management and control functions are necessary in ATM to ensure that the quality-of-service requirements associated with each connection are not violated and also to provide flow and congestion control functions. Functions related to traffic management were identified and described. Most of these traffic management functions will be supported by on-ground ATM switches, but in a hybrid terrestrial-satellite ATM network, some of the traffic management functions may have to be supported by the onboard satellite ATM switch. Future work is planned to examine the tradeoffs of placing traffic management functions onboard a satellite as

  1. An ATM-independent S-phase checkpoint response involves CHK1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiang; Hu, Baocheng; Guan, Jun; Iliakis, George; Wang, Ya

    2002-01-01

    After exposure to genotoxic stress, proliferating cells actively slow down the DNA replication through a S-phase checkpoint to provide time for repair. We report that in addition to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent pathway that controls the fast response, there is an ATM-independent pathway that controls the slow response to regulate the S-phase checkpoint after ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. The slow response of S-phase checkpoint, which is resistant to wortmannin, sensitive to caffeine and UCN-01, and related to cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation, is much stronger in CHK1 overexpressed cells, and it could be abolished by Chk1 antisense oligonucleotides. These results provide evidence that the ATM-independent slow response of S-phase checkpoint involves CHK1 pathway.

  2. ATM inhibition induces synthetic lethality and enhances sensitivity of PTEN-deficient breast cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Yan, Huaying; Guo, Wenhao; Tang, Mei; Zhao, Xinyu; Tong, Aiping; Peng, Yong; Li, Qintong; Yuan, Zhu

    2018-05-01

    PTEN deficiency often causes defects in DNA damage repair. Currently, effective therapies for breast cancer are lacking. ATM is an attractive target for cancer treatment. Previous studies suggested a synthetic lethality between PTEN and PARP. However, the synthetically lethal interaction between PTEN and ATM in breast cancer has not been reported. Moreover, the mechanism remains elusive. Here, using KU-60019, an ATM kinase inhibitor, we investigated ATM inhibition as a synthetically lethal strategy to target breast cancer cells with PTEN defects. We found that KU-60019 preferentially sensitizes PTEN-deficient MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells to cisplatin, though it also slightly enhances sensitivity of PTEN wild-type breast cancer cells. The increased cytotoxic sensitivity is associated with apoptosis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and PARP cleavage. Additionally, the increase of DNA damage accumulation due to the decreased capability of DNA repair, as indicated by γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci, also contributed to this selective cytotoxicity. Mechanistically, compared with PTEN wild-type MDA-MB-231 cells, PTEN-deficient MDA-MB-468 cells have lower level of Rad51, higher ATM kinase activity, and display the elevated level of DNA damage. Moreover, these differences could be further enlarged by cisplatin. Our findings suggest that ATM is a promising target for PTEN-defective breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. MicroRNA203a suppresses glioma tumorigenesis through an ATM-dependent interferon response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan He; Wang, Yinan; Sims, Michelle; Cai, Chun; He, Ping; Häcker, Hans; Yue, Junming; Cheng, Jinjun; Boop, Frederick A; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2017-12-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly and incurable brain tumor. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in regulating the cancer cell phenotype, the underlying mechanisms of how they regulate tumorigenesis are incompletely understood. We previously showed that miR-203a is expressed at relatively low levels in GBM patients, and ectopic miR-203a expression in GBM cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and migration, increased sensitivity to apoptosis induced by interferon (IFN) or temozolomide in vitro , and inhibited GBM tumorigenesis in vivo . Here we show that ectopic expression of miR-203a in GBM cell lines promotes the IFN response pathway as evidenced by increased IFN production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, and high basal tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple STAT proteins. Importantly, we identified that miR-203a directly suppressed the protein levels of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase that negatively regulates IFN production. We found that high ATM expression in GBM correlates with poor patient survival and that ATM expression is inversely correlated with miR-203a expression. Knockout of ATM expression and inhibition of ATM function in GBM cell lines inhibited cell proliferation and migration, increased sensitivity to apoptosis induced by therapeutic agents in vitro , and markedly suppressed GBM tumor growth and promoted animal survival. In contrast, restoring ATM levels in GBM cells ectopically expressing miR-203a increased tumorigenicity and decreased animal survival. Our study suggests that low miR-203a expression in GBM suppresses the interferon response through an ATM-dependent pathway.

  4. ATM Deficiency Generating Genomic Instability Sensitizes Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells to Therapy-Induced DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkhofer, Lukas; Schmitt, Anna; Romero Carrasco, Maria Carolina; Ihle, Michaela; Hampp, Stephanie; Ruess, Dietrich Alexander; Hessmann, Elisabeth; Russell, Ronan; Lechel, André; Azoitei, Ninel; Lin, Qiong; Liebau, Stefan; Hohwieler, Meike; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Lesina, Marina; Algül, Hana; Gieldon, Laura; Schröck, Evelin; Gaedcke, Jochen; Wagner, Martin; Wiesmüller, Lisa; Sipos, Bence; Seufferlein, Thomas; Reinhardt, Hans Christian; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier; Kleger, Alexander

    2017-10-15

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) harbor recurrent functional mutations of the master DNA damage response kinase ATM, which has been shown to accelerate tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To study how ATM deficiency affects genome integrity in this setting, we evaluated the molecular and functional effects of conditional Atm deletion in a mouse model of PDAC. ATM deficiency was associated with increased mitotic defects, recurrent genomic rearrangements, and deregulated DNA integrity checkpoints, reminiscent of human PDAC. We hypothesized that altered genome integrity might allow synthetic lethality-based options for targeted therapeutic intervention. Supporting this possibility, we found that the PARP inhibitor olaparib or ATR inhibitors reduced the viability of PDAC cells in vitro and in vivo associated with a genotype-selective increase in apoptosis. Overall, our results offered a preclinical mechanistic rationale for the use of PARP and ATR inhibitors to improve treatment of ATM-mutant PDAC. Cancer Res; 77(20); 5576-90. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. ROS-activated ATM-dependent phosphorylation of cytoplasmic substrates identified by large scale phosphoproteomics screen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Waardenberg, Ashley J; Engholm-Keller, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoi......ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signalling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle...... checkpoints, initiating DNA repair and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach...... to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and A-T (ataxia-telangiectasia) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites...

  6. Requirement of the ATM/p53 tumor suppressor pathway for glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armata, Heather L; Golebiowski, Diane; Jung, Dae Young; Ko, Hwi Jin; Kim, Jason K; Sluss, Hayla K

    2010-12-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients can develop multiple clinical pathologies, including neuronal degeneration, an elevated risk of cancer, telangiectasias, and growth retardation. Patients with A-T can also exhibit an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The ATM protein kinase, the product of the gene mutated in A-T patients (Atm), has been implicated in metabolic disease, which is characterized by insulin resistance and increased cholesterol and lipid levels, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. ATM phosphorylates the p53 tumor suppressor on a site (Ser15) that regulates transcription activity. To test whether the ATM pathway that regulates insulin resistance is mediated by p53 phosphorylation, we examined insulin sensitivity in mice with a germ line mutation that replaces the p53 phosphorylation site with alanine. The loss of p53 Ser18 (murine Ser15) led to increased metabolic stress, including severe defects in glucose homeostasis. The mice developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The insulin resistance correlated with the loss of antioxidant gene expression and decreased insulin signaling. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment restored insulin signaling in late-passage primary fibroblasts. The addition of an antioxidant in the diet rendered the p53 Ser18-deficient mice glucose tolerant. This analysis demonstrates that p53 phosphorylation on an ATM site is an important mechanism in the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis.

  7. ATM-mediated transcriptional and developmental responses to gamma-rays in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Ricaud

    Full Text Available ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated is an essential checkpoint kinase that signals DNA double-strand breaks in eukaryotes. Its depletion causes meiotic and somatic defects in Arabidopsis and progressive motor impairment accompanied by several cell deficiencies in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT. To obtain a comprehensive view of the ATM pathway in plants, we performed a time-course analysis of seedling responses by combining confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of root development and genome-wide expression profiling of wild-type (WT and homozygous ATM-deficient mutants challenged with a dose of gamma-rays (IR that is sublethal for WT plants. Early morphologic defects in meristematic stem cells indicated that AtATM, an Arabidopsis homolog of the human ATM gene, is essential for maintaining the quiescent center and controlling the differentiation of initial cells after exposure to IR. Results of several microarray experiments performed with whole seedlings and roots up to 5 h post-IR were compiled in a single table, which was used to import gene information and extract gene sets. Sequence and function homology searches; import of spatio-temporal, cell cycling, and mutant-constitutive expression characteristics; and a simplified functional classification system were used to identify novel genes in all functional classes. The hundreds of radiomodulated genes identified were not a random collection, but belonged to functional pathways such as those of the cell cycle; cell death and repair; DNA replication, repair, and recombination; and transcription; translation; and signaling, indicating the strong cell reprogramming and double-strand break abrogation functions of ATM checkpoints. Accordingly, genes in all functional classes were either down or up-regulated concomitantly with downregulation of chromatin deacetylases or upregulation of acetylases and methylases, respectively. Determining the early transcriptional indicators of

  8. ATM loss leads to synthetic lethality in BRCA1 BRCT mutant mice associated with exacerbated defects in homology-directed repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chin; Kass, Elizabeth M; Yen, Wei-Feng; Ludwig, Thomas; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Jasin, Maria

    2017-07-18

    BRCA1 is essential for homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double-strand breaks in part through antagonism of the nonhomologous end-joining factor 53BP1. The ATM kinase is involved in various aspects of DNA damage signaling and repair, but how ATM participates in HDR and genetically interacts with BRCA1 in this process is unclear. To investigate this question, we used the Brca1 S1598F mouse model carrying a mutation in the BRCA1 C-terminal domain of BRCA1. Whereas ATM loss leads to a mild HDR defect in adult somatic cells, we find that ATM inhibition leads to severely reduced HDR in Brca1 S1598F cells. Consistent with a critical role for ATM in HDR in this background, loss of ATM leads to synthetic lethality of Brca1 S1598F mice. Whereas both ATM and BRCA1 promote end resection, which can be regulated by 53BP1, 53bp1 deletion does not rescue the HDR defects of Atm mutant cells, in contrast to Brca1 mutant cells. These results demonstrate that ATM has a role in HDR independent of the BRCA1-53BP1 antagonism and that its HDR function can become critical in certain contexts.

  9. Flow enforcement algorithms for ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars; Jacobsen, Søren B.; Moth, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Four measurement algorithms for flow enforcement in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks are presented. The algorithms are the leaky bucket, the rectangular sliding window, the triangular sliding window, and the exponentially weighted moving average. A comparison, based partly on teletraffic...

  10. A perspective on how ATM lost Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosby, S.; Rooney, S.; Isaacs, R.; Bos, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to the initial high expectations, ATM failed to become the universal network technology covering all services and running from the desktop to the back-bone. This paper tries to identify the technological problems that contributed to this failure.

  11. A survey of IP over ATM architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Tsang, R.; Brandt, J.; Hutchins, J.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has burgeoned into a worldwide information highway consisting of approximately 5 million hosts on over 45,000 interconnected networks. This unprecedented growth, together with the introduction of multimedia workstations, has spurred the development of innovative applications that require high speed, low latency, and real-time transport. Today`s Internet can neither scale in its bandwidth nor guarantee the Quality of Services (QoS) necessary to meet these performance requirements. Many network researchers propose to use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology as the underlying infrastructure for the next generation of workgroup, campus, and enterprise IP networks. Since ATM is significantly different from today`s legacy network technologies, efficient implementation of IP over ATM is especially challenging. This tutorial paper covers several existing proposals that integrate IP over ATM.

  12. ATM Card Cloning and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Paramjit; Krishan, Kewal; Sharma, Suresh K; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2018-05-01

    With the advent of modern technology, the way society handles and performs monetary transactions has changed tremendously. The world is moving swiftly towards the digital arena. The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) cards (credit and debit) has led to a "cash-less society" and has fostered digital payments and purchases. In addition to this, the trust and reliance of the society upon these small pieces of plastic, having numbers engraved upon them, has increased immensely over the last two decades. In the past few years, the number of ATM fraud cases has increased exponentially. With the money of the people shifting towards the digital platform, ATM skimming has become a problem that has eventually led to a global outcry. The present review discusses the serious repercussions of ATM card cloning and the associated privacy, ethical and legal concerns. The preventive measures which need to be taken and adopted by the government authorities to mitigate the problem have also been discussed.

  13. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation.

  14. Early-stage apoptosis is associated with DNA-damage-independent ATM phosphorylation and chromatin decondensation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kenneth Bødtker; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren Tvorup

    2008-01-01

    Chromatin condensation and degradation of DNA into internucleosomal DNA fragments are key hallmarks of apoptosis. The phosphorylation of protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and histone H2A.X was recently shown to occur concurrently with apoptotic DNA fragmentation. We have used...... necrosis factor-alpha mixed with cycloheximide (TNF-alpha/CHX). In extension to previous findings, ATM phosphorylation was associated with chromatin decondensation, i.e., by loss of dense foci of constitutive heterochromatin. These results suggest that chromatin is decondensed and that ATM is activated...

  15. Dual inhibition of ATR and ATM potentiates the activity of trabectedin and lurbinectedin by perturbing the DNA damage response and homologous recombination repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Michelle; Bouzid, Hana; Soares, Daniele G; Selle, Frédéric; Morel, Claire; Galmarini, Carlos M; Henriques, João A P; Larsen, Annette K; Escargueil, Alexandre E

    2016-05-03

    Trabectedin (Yondelis®, ecteinascidin-743, ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product approved for treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma and relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent structurally related to trabectedin. Both ecteinascidins generate DNA double-strand breaks that are processed through homologous recombination repair (HRR), thereby rendering HRR-deficient cells particularly sensitive. We here characterize the DNA damage response (DDR) to trabectedin and lurbinectedin in HeLa cells. Our results show that both compounds activate the ATM/Chk2 (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2) and ATR/Chk1 (ATM and RAD3-related/checkpoint kinase 1) pathways. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of Chk1/2, ATR or ATM is not accompanied by any significant improvement of the cytotoxic activity of the ecteinascidins while dual inhibition of ATM and ATR strongly potentiates it. Accordingly, concomitant inhibition of both ATR and ATM is an absolute requirement to efficiently block the formation of γ-H2AX, MDC1, BRCA1 and Rad51 foci following exposure to the ecteinascidins. These results are not restricted to HeLa cells, but are shared by cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian carcinoma cells. Together, our data identify ATR and ATM as central coordinators of the DDR to ecteinascidins and provide a mechanistic rationale for combining these compounds with ATR and ATM inhibitors.

  16. Noncanonical ATM Activation and Signaling in Response to Transcription-Blocking DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteijn, Jurgen A; Vermeulen, Wim; Tresini, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Environmental genotoxins and metabolic byproducts generate DNA lesions that can cause genomic instability and disrupt tissue homeostasis. To ensure genomic integrity, cells employ mechanisms that convert signals generated by stochastic DNA damage into organized responses, including activation of repair systems, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptotic mechanisms. DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathways coordinate these responses and determine cellular fates in part, by transducing signals that modulate RNA metabolism. One of the master DDR coordinators, the Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase, has a fundamental role in mediating DNA damage-induced changes in mRNA synthesis. ATM acts by modulating a variety of RNA metabolic pathways including nascent RNA splicing, a process catalyzed by the spliceosome. Interestingly, ATM and the spliceosome influence each other's activity in a reciprocal manner by a pathway that initiates when transcribing RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) encounters DNA lesions that prohibit forward translocation. In response to stalling of RNAPII assembly of late-stage spliceosomes is disrupted resulting in increased splicing factor mobility. Displacement of spliceosomes from lesion-arrested RNA polymerases facilitates formation of R-loops between the nascent RNA and DNA adjacent to the transcription bubble. R-loops signal for noncanonical ATM activation which in quiescent cells occurs in absence of detectable dsDNA breaks. In turn, activated ATM signals to regulate spliceosome dynamics and AS genome wide.This chapter describes the use of fluorescence microscopy methods that can be used to evaluate noncanonical ATM activation by transcription-blocking DNA damage. First, we present an immunofluorescence-detection method that can be used to evaluate ATM activation by autophosphorylation, in fixed cells. Second, we present a protocol for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) of GFP-tagged splicing factors, a highly sensitive and

  17. Introduction to multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Andre N.

    1997-10-01

    Multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA) is a new protocol specified by the ATM Forum. MPOA provides a framework for effectively synthesizing bridging and routing with ATM in an environment of diverse protocols and network technologies. The primary goal of MPOA is the efficient transfer of inter-subnet unicast data in a LAN Emulation (LANE) environment. MPOA integrates LANE and the next hop resolution protocol (NHRP) to preserve the benefits of LAN Emulation, while allowing inter-subnet, internetwork layer protocol communication over ATM VCCs without requiring routers in the data path. It reduces latency and the internetwork layer forwarding load on backbone routers by enabling direct connectivity between ATM-attached edge devices (i.e., shortcuts). To establish these shortcuts, MPOA uses both routing and bridging information to locate the edge device closest to the addressed end station. By integrating LANE and NHRP, MPOA allows the physical separation of internetwork layer route calculation and forwarding, a technique known as virtual routing. This separation provides a number of key benefits including enhanced manageability and reduced complexity of internetwork layer capable edge devices. This paper provides an overview of MPOA that summarizes the goals, architecture, and key attributes of the protocol. In presenting this overview, the salient attributes of LANE and NHRP are described as well.

  18. Health ATMs in Saudi Arabia: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Bakheet

    2017-06-01

    Health ATMs are terminals which are connected to a centrally located database storing patients' electronic healthcare records (EHR). These machines are capable of collecting information in a far superior fashion than humans and are also able to rectify obsolete data in a manner that humans are generally not inclined to. The main goal of this study is to assess the importance of adopting health ATMs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which can improve the confidence of patients, reward health self-management, and achieve positive health outcomes through their easy-to-use applications that are secure and accessible through various devices. Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis was used to assess the efficiency of adopting health ATMs in KSA and reveal the said characteristics. Three focus groups assembled in the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam during the period 2013-2014. The groups consisted of individuals experienced in the function of health ATMs. It was found that the sector possessed a number of strengths that would help it in reaching the goals outlined therein, thereby achieving successful outcomes. Health ATMs could be a promising new advancement in the field of health if the project were to be planned and implemented correctly. Their benefits would consequently reach organizational and national levels. It is, therefore, crucial to educate the project managers about the benefits of learning from others as well as educating them about the needs and the requirements of the concerned organization.

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Activated ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of Cytoplasmic Substrates Identified by Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Screen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergei V.; Waardenberg, Ashley J.; Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Arthur, Jonathan W.; Graham, Mark E.; Lavin, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia, mutated (ATM) protein plays a central role in phosphorylating a network of proteins in response to DNA damage. These proteins function in signaling pathways designed to maintain the stability of the genome and minimize the risk of disease by controlling cell cycle checkpoints, initiating DNA repair, and regulating gene expression. ATM kinase can be activated by a variety of stimuli, including oxidative stress. Here, we confirmed activation of cytoplasmic ATM by autophosphorylation at multiple sites. Then we employed a global quantitative phosphoproteomics approach to identify cytoplasmic proteins altered in their phosphorylation state in control and ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) cells in response to oxidative damage. We demonstrated that ATM was activated by oxidative damage in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus and identified a total of 9,833 phosphorylation sites, including 6,686 high-confidence sites mapping to 2,536 unique proteins. A total of 62 differentially phosphorylated peptides were identified; of these, 43 were phosphorylated in control but not in A-T cells, and 19 varied in their level of phosphorylation. Motif enrichment analysis of phosphopeptides revealed that consensus ATM serine glutamine sites were overrepresented. When considering phosphorylation events, only observed in control cells (not observed in A-T cells), with predicted ATM sites phosphoSerine/phosphoThreonine glutamine, we narrowed this list to 11 candidate ATM-dependent cytoplasmic proteins. Two of these 11 were previously described as ATM substrates (HMGA1 and UIMCI/RAP80), another five were identified in a whole cell extract phosphoproteomic screens, and the remaining four proteins had not been identified previously in DNA damage response screens. We validated the phosphorylation of three of these proteins (oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1), HDGF, and ccdc82) as ATM dependent after H2O2 exposure, and another protein (S100A11) demonstrated ATM

  20. The ATM and ATR inhibitors CGK733 and caffeine suppress cyclin D1 levels and inhibit cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alao, John P; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and the ATM- related (ATR) kinases play a central role in facilitating the resistance of cancer cells to genotoxic treatment regimens. The components of the ATM and ATR regulated signaling pathways thus provide attractive pharmacological targets, since their inhibition enhances cellular sensitivity to chemo- and radiotherapy. Caffeine as well as more specific inhibitors of ATM (KU55933) or ATM and ATR (CGK733) have recently been shown to induce cell death in drug-induced senescent tumor cells. Addition of these agents to cancer cells previously rendered senescent by exposure to genotoxins suppressed the ATM mediated p21 expression required for the survival of these cells. The precise molecular pharmacology of these agents however, is not well characterized. Herein, we report that caffeine, CGK733, and to a lesser extent KU55933, inhibit the proliferation of otherwise untreated human cancer and non-transformed mouse fibroblast cell lines. Exposure of human cancer cell lines to caffeine and CGK733 was associated with a rapid decline in cyclin D1 protein levels and a reduction in the levels of both phosphorylated and total retinoblastoma protein (RB). Our studies suggest that observations based on the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation and survival must be interpreted with caution. The differential effects of caffeine/CGK733 and KU55933 on cyclin D1 protein levels suggest that these agents will exhibit dissimilar molecular pharmacological profiles

  1. Comparison of performance between TCP/IP over ATM e ATM nativo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Silva Freitas

    2001-01-01

    Com o recente desenvolvimento de tecnologias de redes de altas taxas de transmissão, tais como Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), o problema da carência por largura de banda foi solucionado. A questão atual é a implementação de sistemas que suportem os protocolos ATM de forma nativa e integral. Atualmente tem-se utilizado aplicativos tradicionais baseados nos protocolos TCP(UDP)/IP no topo da pilha de protocolos ATM. Tal modelo traz redundâncias que implicam diretamente em aumento de overhead ...

  2. WSB1 overcomes oncogene-induced senescence by targeting ATM for degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Jin; Lee, Seung Baek; Yi, Sang-Yeop; Han, Sang-Ah; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Min; Tong, Seo-Yun; Yin, Ping; Gao, Bowen; Zhang, Jun; Lou, Zhenkun

    2017-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) or apoptosis through the DNA-damage response is an important barrier of tumorigenesis. Overcoming this barrier leads to abnormal cell proliferation, genomic instability, and cellular transformation, and finally allows cancers to develop. However, it remains unclear how the OIS barrier is overcome. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase WD repeat and SOCS box-containing protein 1 (WSB1) plays a role in overcoming OIS. WSB1 expression in primary cells helps the bypass of OIS, leading to abnormal proliferation and cellular transformation. Mechanistically, WSB1 promotes ATM ubiquitination, resulting in ATM degradation and the escape from OIS. Furthermore, we identify CDKs as the upstream kinase of WSB1. CDK-mediated phosphorylation activates WSB1 by promoting its monomerization. In human cancer tissue and in vitro models, WSB1-induced ATM degradation is an early event during tumorigenic progression. We suggest that WSB1 is one of the key players of early oncogenic events through ATM degradation and destruction of the tumorigenesis barrier. Our work establishes an important mechanism of cancer development and progression in premalignant lesions. PMID:27958289

  3. Efficient autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of the beta-subunit by casein kinase-2 require the integrity of an acidic cluster 50 residues downstream from the phosphoacceptor site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1994-01-01

    Various beta-mutants were investigated either as subunits or as substrates for casein kinase 2 (CK-2), in the absence of presence of polylysine. A total of 21 beta-mutants were characterized for their susceptibility to autophosphorylation, by combining them in equimolar amounts with the recombina...

  4. Interaction between CK2α and CK2β, the Subunits of Protein Kinase CK2: Thermodynamic Contributions of Key Residues on the CK2α Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, J; Bischoff, N; Kloppfleisch, K

    2011-01-01

    that Leu41 or Phe54 single mutations were most disruptive to binding of CK2β. Additionally, these CK2α mutants retained their kinase activity. Furthermore, the substitution of Leu41 in combination with Phe54 showed that the individual mutations were not additive, suggesting that the cooperative action...

  5. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Configuration Management Plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the Software Configuration Management (SCM) approach and procedures to be utilized in developing and maintaining the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS). The configuration management procedures are necessary to ensure that any changes made to software and related documentation are consistent with ATMS goals and contained securely in a central library. This plan applies to all software and associated documentation used in producing ATMS V1.0 and ATMS V2.0 system

  6. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  7. A Managerial Analysis of ATM in Facilitating Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    In this paper, the fundamental characteristics and capabilities of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks in a distance learning environment are examined. Current and projected ATM applications are described, and issues and challenges associated with developing ATM networking solutions for instructional delivery are explored. Other topics…

  8. Automated transportation management system (ATMS) software project management plan (SPMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, R.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-20

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management plan (SPMP) is the lead planning document governing the life cycle of the ATMS and its integration into the Transportation Information Network (TIN). This SPMP defines the project tasks, deliverables, and high level schedules involved in developing the client/server ATMS software.

  9. ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2 Ser394 regulates the amplitude and duration of the DNA damage response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Hugh S.; Woda, Bruce A.; Jones, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR) activates the ATM kinase, which subsequently stabilizes and activates the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Although phosphorylation of p53 by ATM was found previously to modulate p53 levels and transcriptional activities in vivo, it does not appear to be a major regulator of p53 stability. We have utilized mice bearing altered Mdm2 alleles to demonstrate that ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2 serine 394 is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation after DNA damage. In addition, we demonstrate that dephosphorylation of Mdm2 Ser394 regulates attenuation of the p53-mediated response to DNA damage. Therefore, the phosphorylation status of Mdm2 Ser394 governs p53 protein levels and functions in cells undergoing DNA damage. PMID:22624716

  10. Analysis of Chromosomal Aberrations after Low and High Dose Rate Gamma Irradiation in ATM or NBS Suppressed Human Fibroblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z.; Pluth, J. M.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the biological effects of heavy nuclei is needed for space radiation protection and for cancer therapy. High-LET radiation produces more complex DNA lesions that may be non-repairable or that may require additional processing steps compared to endogenous DSBs, increasing the possibility of misrepair. Interplay between radiation sensitivity, dose, and radiation quality has not been studied extensively. Previously we studied chromosome aberrations induced by low- and high- LET radiation in several cell lines deficient in ATM (ataxia telangactasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. We found that the yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations were significantly increased in the DSB repair defective cells compared to normal cells. The increased aberrations observed for the ATM and NBS defective lines was due to a significantly larger quadratic dose-response term compared to normal fibroblasts for both simple and complex aberrations, while the linear dose-response term was significantly higher in NBS cells only for simple exchanges. These results point to the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that function to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. To further understand the sensitivity differences that were observed in ATM and NBS deficient cells, in this study, chromosomal aberration analysis was performed in normal lung fibroblast cells treated with KU-55933, a specific ATM kinase inhibitor, or Mirin, an MRN complex inhibitor involved in activation of ATM. We are also testing siRNA knockdown of these proteins. Normal and ATM or NBS suppressed cells were irradiated with gamma-rays and chromosomes were collected with a premature chromosome

  11. ATM splicing variants as biomarkers for low dose dexamethasone treatment of A-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotta, Michele; Biagiotti, Sara; Spapperi, Chiara; Orazi, Sara; Rossi, Luigia; Chessa, Luciana; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; D'Agnano, Daniela; Soresina, Annarosa; Micheli, Roberto; Magnani, Mauro

    2017-07-05

    Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT) is a rare incurable genetic disease, caused by biallelic mutations in the Ataxia Telangiectasia-Mutated (ATM) gene. Treatment with glucocorticoid analogues has been shown to improve the neurological symptoms that characterize this syndrome. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the glucocorticoid action in AT patients is not yet understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that Dexamethasone treatment may partly restore ATM activity in AT lymphoblastoid cells by a new ATM transcript, namely ATMdexa1. In the present study, the new ATMdexa1 transcript was also identified in vivo, specifically in the PMBCs of AT patients treated with intra-erythrocyte Dexamethasone (EryDex). In these patients it was also possible to isolate new "ATMdexa1 variants" originating from canonical and non-canonical splicing, each containing the coding sequence for the ATM kinase domain. The expression of the ATMdexa1 transcript family was directly related to treatment and higher expression levels of the transcript in patients' blood correlated with a positive response to Dexamethasone therapy. Neither untreated AT patients nor untreated healthy volunteers possessed detectable levels of the transcripts. ATMdexa1 transcript expression was found to be elevated 8 days after the drug infusion, while it decreased 21 days after treatment. For the first time, the expression of ATM splicing variants, similar to those previously observed in vitro, has been found in the PBMCs of patients treated with EryDex. These findings show a correlation between the expression of ATMdexa1 transcripts and the clinical response to low dose dexamethasone administration.

  12. Dancing on damaged chromatin. Functions of ATM and the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex in cellular responses to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Kenta; Ohara, Maki; Seki, Ryota; Tauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In order to preserve and protect genetic information, eukaryotic cells have developed a signaling or communications network to help the cell respond to DNA damage, and ATM and NBS1 are key players in this network. ATM is a protein kinase which is activated immediately after a DNA double strand break (DSB) is formed, and the resulting signal cascade generated in response to cellular DSBs is regulated by post-translational protein modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In addition, to ensure the efficient functioning of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoints, the highly ordered structure of eukaryotic chromatin must be appropriately altered to permit access of repair-related factors to DNA. These alterations are termed chromatin remodeling, and are executed by a specific remodeling complex in conjunction with histone modifications. Current advances in the molecular analysis of DNA damage responses have shown that the auto-phosphorylation of ATM and the interaction between ATM and NBS1 are key steps for ATM activation, and that the association of ATM and NBS1 is involved in chromatin remodeling. Identification of novel factors which function in ubiquitination (RNF8, Ubc13, Rap80, etc.) has also enabled us to understand more details of the early stages in DNA repair pathways which respond to DSBs. In this review, the focus is on the role of ATM and the RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex in DSB response pathways, and their role in DSB repair and in the regulation of chromatin remodeling. (author)

  13. Lysine 356 is a critical residue for binding the C-6 phospho group of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate to the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Lin, K; Correia, J J; Pilkis, S J

    1992-08-15

    Lysine 356 has been implicated by protein modification studies as a fructose-2,6-bisphosphate binding site residue in the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase domain of rat liver 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (Kitajima, S., Thomas, H., and Uyeda, K. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 13995-14002). However, Lys-356 is found in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain (Bazan, F., Fletterick, R., and Pilkis, S. J. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9642-9646). In order to ascertain whether Lys-356 is involved in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase catalysis and/or domain/domain interactions of the bifunctional enzyme, Lys-356 was mutated to Ala, expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified to homogeneity. Circular dichroism experiments indicated that the secondary structure of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was not significantly different from that of the wild-type enzyme. The Km for fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and the Ki for the noncompetitive inhibitor, fructose 6-phosphate, for the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were 2700- and 2200-fold higher, respectively, than those of the wild-type enzyme. However, the maximal velocity and the Ki for the competitive product inhibitor, inorganic phosphate, were unchanged compared to the corresponding values of the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, which exhibits substrate inhibition, there was no inhibition by substrate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant. In the presence of saturating substrate, inorganic phosphate, which acts by relieving fructose-6-phosphate and substrate inhibition, is an activator of the bisphosphatase. The Ka for inorganic phosphate of the Lys-356-Ala mutant was 1300-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. The kinetic properties of the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase of the Lys-356-Ala mutant were essentially identical with that of the wild-type enzyme. The results demonstrate that: 1) Lys-356 is a critical residue in fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase for binding the 6

  14. Germline variants in the ATM gene and breast cancer susceptibility in Moroccan women: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaymaa Marouf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ATM gene encoding a large protein kinase is mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (AT, an autosomale recessive disease characterized by neurological and immunological symptoms, and cancer predisposition. Previous studies suggest that heterozygous carriers of ATM mutations have an increased risk of breast cancer compared with non carriers, but the contribution of specific variants has been difficult to estimate. However, two functional ATM variants, c.7271T > G and c.1066–6T > G (IVS10–6T > G, are associated with increased risk for the development of breast cancer. Methods: To investigate the role of ATM in breast cancer susceptibility, we genotyped 163 case patients with breast cancer and 150 healthy control individuals for the c.7271T > G and c.1066–6T > G (IVS10–6T > G ATM variants using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Results: We did not detect the ATM c.7271T > G and c.1066–6T > G (IVS10–6T > G mutations in any of 150 healthy control individuals and 163 breast cancer patients, including 59 women diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age ( G (IVS10–6T > G mutation and the rare c.7271T > G variant are not a risk factor for developing breast cancer in the Moroccan population. Larger and/or combined association studies are needed to clarify this issue. Keywords: Breast cancers, ATM gene, Germline mutation, Genetic susceptibility, Moroccan population

  15. Performance analysis of ATM/DQDB interworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kvols, Kenn

    1992-01-01

    The cell loss ratio and cell delay variation of a distributed-queue dual-bus (DQDB) network receiving traffic from a number of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connections are considered. Every connection carries either connection oriented or connectionless traffic. In the analysis of the access ...... to the bus, it is shown that consecutive service times of the local access queue are correlated. Two models, one of which includes the correlation, are presented. The correlation effect is illustrated and the models are evaluated by means of a number of simulation cases......The cell loss ratio and cell delay variation of a distributed-queue dual-bus (DQDB) network receiving traffic from a number of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) connections are considered. Every connection carries either connection oriented or connectionless traffic. In the analysis of the access...

  16. DNA-PK, ATM and ATR collaboratively regulate p53-RPA interaction to facilitate homologous recombination DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M A; Li, Z; Dangeti, M; Musich, P R; Patrick, S; Roginskaya, M; Cartwright, B; Zou, Y

    2013-05-09

    Homologous recombination (HR) and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are two distinct DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair pathways. Here, we report that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), the core component of NHEJ, partnering with DNA-damage checkpoint kinases ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), regulates HR repair of DSBs. The regulation was accomplished through modulation of the p53 and replication protein A (RPA) interaction. We show that upon DNA damage, p53 and RPA were freed from a p53-RPA complex by simultaneous phosphorylations of RPA at the N-terminus of RPA32 subunit by DNA-PK and of p53 at Ser37 and Ser46 in a Chk1/Chk2-independent manner by ATR and ATM, respectively. Neither the phosphorylation of RPA nor of p53 alone could dissociate p53 and RPA. Furthermore, disruption of the release significantly compromised HR repair of DSBs. Our results reveal a mechanism for the crosstalk between HR repair and NHEJ through the co-regulation of p53-RPA interaction by DNA-PK, ATM and ATR.

  17. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  18. Preventive Methods for ATM Mode Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Baronak; Robert Trska

    2004-01-01

    Broadband transfer mode ATM represent one of alternative solutions for growing requirements on transfer capabilities. Its advantage is an effort for provisions of guaranteed quality of transport services with preservations of high transfer rate. This property is covered by several mechanisms, which role is to control not only the traffic of existing connections, but also the admission of new ones and prevent the violation of requirements on transport quality of existing and new connections.

  19. ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS

  20. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  1. ATM Is Required for the Prolactin-Induced HSP90-Mediated Increase in Cellular Viability and Clonogenic Growth After DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayazi Atici, Ödül; Urbanska, Anna; Gopinathan, Sesha Gopal; Boutillon, Florence; Goffin, Vincent; Shemanko, Carrie S

    2018-02-01

    Prolactin (PRL) acts as a survival factor for breast cancer cells, but the PRL signaling pathway and the mechanism are unknown. Previously, we identified the master chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) α, as a prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) target gene involved in survival, and here we investigated the role of HSP90 in the mechanism of PRL-induced viability in response to DNA damage. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) protein plays a critical role in the cellular response to double-strand DNA damage. We observed that PRL increased viability of breast cancer cells treated with doxorubicin or etoposide. The increase in cellular resistance is specific to the PRL receptor, because the PRL receptor antagonist, Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, prevented the increase in viability. Two different HSP90 inhibitors, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and BIIB021, reduced the PRL-mediated increase in cell viability of doxorubicin-treated cells and led to a decrease in JAK2, ATM, and phosphorylated ATM protein levels. Inhibitors of JAK2 (G6) and ATM (KU55933) abolished the PRL-mediated increase in cell viability of DNA-damaged cells, supporting the involvement of each, as well as the crosstalk of ATM with the PRL pathway in the context of DNA damage. Drug synergism was detected between the ATM inhibitor (KU55933) and doxorubicin and between the HSP90 inhibitor (BIIB021) and doxorubicin. Short interfering RNA directed against ATM prevented the PRL-mediated increase in cell survival in two-dimensional cell culture, three-dimensional collagen gel cultures, and clonogenic cell survival, after doxorubicin treatment. Our results indicate that ATM contributes to the PRL-JAK2-STAT5-HSP90 pathway in mediating cellular resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  2. Differential Processing of Low and High LET Radiation Induced DNA Damage: Investigation of Switch from ATM to ATR Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    The members of the phosphatidylinositol kinase-like kinase family of proteins namely ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) are directly responsible for the maintenance of genomic integrity by mounting DDR through signaling and facilitating the recruitment of repair factors at the sites of DNA damage along with coordinating the deployment of cell cycle checkpoints to permit repair by phosphorylating Checkpoint kinase Chk1, Chk2 and p53. High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of protons and high energy and charged (HZE) particles from SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk for astronauts on their space flight missions. The determination of these risks and the design of potential safeguards require sound knowledge of the biological consequences of lesion induction and the capability of the cells to counter them. We here strive to determine the coordination of ATM and ATR kinases at the break sites directly affecting checkpoint signaling and DNA repair and whether differential processing of breaks induced by low and high LET radiation leads to possible augmentation of swap of these damage sensors at the sites of DNA damage. Exposure of cells to IR triggers rapid autophosphorylation of serine-1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates monomer formation of ATM. ATM kinase activity depends on the disruption of the dimer, which allows access and phosphorylation of downstream ATM substrates like Chk2. Evidence suggests that ATM is activated by the alterations in higher-order chromatin structure although direct binding of ATM to DSB ends may be a crucial step in its activation. On the other hand, in case of ATR, RPA (replication protein A)-coated ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) generated as a result of stalled DNA replication or during processing of chromosomal lesions is crucial for the localization of ATR to sites of DNA damage in association with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP). Although the

  3. Casein kinase 2 down-regulation and activation by polybasic peptides are mediated by acidic residues in the 55-64 region of the beta-subunit. A study with calmodulin as phosphorylatable substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggio, F; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1994-01-01

    to substitute for wild-type beta-subunit as a suppressor of activity toward calmodulin. The only mutations that reduced the ability of the beta-subunit to suppress calmodulin phosphorylation activity, though being compatible with normal reconstitution of CK2 holoenzyme, were those affecting Asp55, Glu57...... are conversely ineffective. The latent "calmodulin kinase" activity of CK2 can also be specifically unmasked by a peptide (alpha[66-86]) reproducing a basic insert of the catalytic subunit. This effect is reversed by equimolar addition of a peptide (beta[55-71]) including the 55-64 acidic stretch of the beta......-subunit. Comparable polylysine stimulation was observed with the holoenzymes reconstituted with either beta wt or the beta mutants capable of assembling with the alpha-subunit, with the notable exception of those bearing Ala substitutions for acidic residues at positions 55, 57, and 59-61. These were nearly...

  4. Proton NMR Studies of a Large Protein. pH, Substrate Titrations, and NOESY Experiments with Perdeuterated Yeast Phosphoglycerate Kinase Containing [ 1H]Histidine Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, K. M.; Serpersu, E. H.

    Fully deuterated yeast phosphoglycerate kinase ([ 2H]PGK) was prepared biosynthetically with only histidine side chains of normal ( 1H) isotopic composition. The 1H NMR spectrum of this enzyme([ 1H]His[ 2H]PGK) showed that the histidine side chains are clearly visible as sharp signals. Thus detailed structural studies by 1H NMR became feasible with isotope-hybrid phosphoglycerate kinase which is otherwise too large ( Mr ˜ 46,000) for conventional 1H NMR studies. Proton signals of bound substrates were visible in the 1H NMR spectrum even with a substrate-to-enzyme ratio of less than 1/2 (mol/mol). The 2D NOESY spectrum of enzyme-MgdATP-glycerol 3-phosphate complex showed that, although protein concentration was very high (1.5 m M), no intraprotein cross peaks were observed other than those of intraresidue histidine NOE cross peaks. In addition, intrasubstrate NOEs and intermolecular NOEs between histidine and substrate protons were visible at a 1.5/1 substrate/enzyme (mol/mol) ratio. Paramagnetic effects of a substrate analog, Cr(III)ATP, on some of the histidine side chains indicated that the formation of the ternary enzyme-substrate complex causes large conformational changes in the enzyme.

  5. ATM Expression Predicts Veliparib and Irinotecan Sensitivity in Gastric Cancer by Mediating P53-Independent Regulation of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Tan, Shi Hui; Yeo, Mei Shi; Yan, Fui Leng; Peethala, Praveen C; Liem, Natalia; Krishnan, Vaidehi; Yong, Wei Peng

    2016-12-01

    Identification of synthetically lethal cellular targets and synergistic drug combinations is important in cancer chemotherapy as they help to overcome treatment resistance and increase efficacy. The Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase is a nuclear protein that plays a major role in the initiation of DNA repair signaling and cell-cycle check points during DNA damage. Although ATM was shown to be associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer, its implications as a predictive biomarker for cancer chemotherapy remain unexplored. The present study evaluated ATM-induced synthetic lethality and its role in sensitization of gastric cancer cells to PARP and TOP1 inhibitors, veliparib (ABT-888) and irinotecan (CPT-11), respectively. ATM expression was detected in a panel of gastric cell lines, and the IC 50 against each inhibitors was determined. The combinatorial effect of ABT-888 and CPT-11 in gastric cancer cells was also determined both in vitro and in vivo ATM deficiency was found to be associated with enhanced sensitivity to ABT-888 and CPT-11 monotherapy, hence suggesting a mechanism of synthetic lethality. Cells with high ATM expression showed reduced sensitivity to monotherapy; however, they showed a higher therapeutic effect with ABT-888 and CPT-11 combinatorial therapy. Furthermore, ATM expression was shown to play a major role in cellular homeostasis by regulating cell-cycle progression and apoptosis in a P53-independent manner. The present study highlights the clinical utility of ATM expression as a predictive marker for sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to PARP and TOP1 inhibition and provides a deeper mechanistic insight into ATM-dependent regulation of cellular processes. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3087-96. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Hsp90α regulates ATM and NBN functions in sensing and repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Rosa; Antoccia, Antonio; Leone, Stefano; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90α) regulates cell proteostasis and mitigates the harmful effects of endogenous and exogenous stressors on the proteome. Indeed, the inhibition of Hsp90α ATPase activity affects the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR). Although the interplay between Hsp90α and several DNA damage response (DDR) proteins has been reported, its role in the DDR is still unclear. Here, we show that ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated kinase (ATM) and nibrin (NBN), but not 53BP1, RAD50, and MRE11, are Hsp90α clients as the Hsp90α inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) induces ATM and NBN polyubiquitination and proteosomal degradation in normal fibroblasts and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Hsp90α-ATM and Hsp90α-NBN complexes are present in unstressed and irradiated cells, allowing the maintenance of ATM and NBN stability that is required for the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex-dependent ATM activation and the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of both NBN and Hsp90α in response to IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Hsp90α forms a complex also with ph-Ser1981-ATM following IR. Upon phosphorylation, NBN dissociates from Hsp90α and translocates at the DSBs, while phThr5/7-Hsp90α is not recruited at the damaged sites. The inhibition of Hsp90α affects nuclear localization of MRE11 and RAD50, impairs DDR signaling (e.g., BRCA1 and CHK2 phosphorylation), and slows down DSBs repair. Hsp90α inhibition does not affect DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity, which possibly phosphorylates Hsp90α and H2AX after IR. Notably, Hsp90α inhibition causes H2AX phosphorylation in proliferating cells, this possibly indicating replication stress events. Overall, present data shed light on the regulatory role of Hsp90α on the DDR, controlling ATM and NBN stability and influencing the DSBs signaling and repair. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. ATM Quality of Service Tests for Digitized Video Using ATM Over Satellite: Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Brooks, David E.; Frantz, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    A digitized video application was used to help determine minimum quality of service parameters for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite. For these tests, binomially distributed and other errors were digitally inserted in an intermediate frequency link via a satellite modem and a commercial gaussian noise generator. In this paper, the relation- ship between the ATM cell error and cell loss parameter specifications is discussed with regard to this application. In addition, the video-encoding algorithms, test configurations, and results are presented in detail.

  8. Susceptibility of ATM-deficient pancreatic cancer cells to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Michael; Eshleman, James; Goggins, Michael

    2017-05-19

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is inactivated in a significant minority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and may be predictor of treatment response. We determined if ATM deficiency renders pancreatic cancer cells more sensitive to fractionated radiation or commonly used chemotherapeutics. ATM expression was knocked down in three pancreatic cancer cell lines using ATM-targeting shRNA. Isogenic cell lines were tested for sensitivity to several chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. DNA repair kinetics were analyzed in irradiated cells using the comet assay. We find that while rendering pancreatic cancer cells ATM-deficient did not significantly change their sensitivity to several chemotherapeutics, it did render them exquisitely sensitized to radiation. Pancreatic cancer ATM status may help predict response to radiotherapy.

  9. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  10. The ATM signaling cascade promotes recombination-dependent pachytene arrest in mouse spermatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most mutations that compromise meiotic recombination or synapsis in mouse spermatocytes result in arrest and apoptosis at the pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase. Two main mechanisms are thought to trigger arrest: one independent of the double-strand breaks (DSBs that initiate meiotic recombination, and another activated by persistent recombination intermediates. Mechanisms underlying the recombination-dependent arrest response are not well understood, so we sought to identify factors involved by examining mutants deficient for TRIP13, a conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the completion of meiotic DSB repair. We find that spermatocytes with a hypomorphic Trip13 mutation (Trip13mod/mod arrest with features characteristic of early pachynema in wild type, namely, fully synapsed chromosomes without incorporation of the histone variant H1t into chromatin. These cells then undergo apoptosis, possibly in response to the arrest or in response to a defect in sex body formation. However, TRIP13-deficient cells that additionally lack the DSB-responsive kinase ATM progress further, reaching an H1t-positive stage (i.e., similar to mid/late pachynema in wild type despite the presence of unrepaired DSBs. TRIP13-deficient spermatocytes also progress to an H1t-positive stage if ATM activity is attenuated by hypomorphic mutations in Mre11 or Nbs1 or by elimination of the ATM-effector kinase CHK2. These mutant backgrounds nonetheless experience an apoptotic block to further spermatogenic progression, most likely caused by failure to form a sex body. DSB numbers are elevated in Mre11 and Nbs1 hypomorphs but not Chk2 mutants, thus delineating genetic requirements for the ATM-dependent negative feedback loop that regulates DSB numbers. The findings demonstrate for the first time that ATM-dependent signaling enforces the normal pachytene response to persistent recombination intermediates. Our work supports the conclusion that recombination defects trigger

  11. Naphthalimides Induce G2 Arrest Through the ATM-Activated Chk2-Executed Pathway in HCT116 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalimides, particularly amonafide and 2-(2-dimethylamino-6-thia-2-aza-benzo[def]chrysene-1,3-diones (R16, have been identified to possess anticancer activities and to induce G2-M arrest through inhibiting topoisomerase II accompanied by Chk1 degradation. The current study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s responsible for the naphthalimide-induced cell cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Using phosphorylated histone H3 and mitotic protein monoclonal 2 as mitosis markers, we first specified the G2 arrest elicited by the R16 and amonafide. Then, R16 and amonafide were revealed to induce phosphorylation of the DNA damage sensor ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM responding to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Inhibition of ATM by both the pharmacological inhibitor caffeine and the specific small interference RNA (siRNA rescued the G2 arrest elicited by R16, indicating its ATM-dependent characteristic. Furthermore, depletion of Chk2, but not Chk1 with their corresponding siRNA, statistically significantly reversed the R16- and amonafide-triggered G2 arrest. Moreover, the naphthalimides phosphorylated Chk2 in an ATM-dependent manner but induced Chk1 degradation. These data indicate that R16 and amonafide preferentially used Chk2 as evidenced by the differential ATM-executed phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Thus, a clear signaling pathway can be established, in which ATM relays the DNA DSBs signaling triggered by the naphthalimides to the checkpoint kinases, predominantly to Chk2,which finally elicits G2 arrest. The mechanistic elucidation not only favors the development of the naphthalimides as anticancer agents but also provides an alternative strategy of Chk2 inhibition to potentiate the anticancer activities of these agents.

  12. LRRK2 interacts with ATM and regulates Mdm2-p53 cell proliferation axis in response to genotoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongcan; Cao, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Minxia; Zhou, Zhi Dong; Li, Baojie; Li, Jing; Tan, Eng King; Zeng, Li

    2017-11-15

    Pathogenic leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are recognized as the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease in certain populations. Recently, LRRK2 mutations were shown to be associated with a higher risk of hormone-related cancers. However, how LRRK2 itself contributes to cancer risk remains unknown. DNA damage causes cancer, and DNA damage responses are among the most important pathways in cancer biology. To understand the role of LRRK2 in DNA damage response pathway, we induced DNA damage by applying genotoxic stress to the cells with Adriamycin. We found that DNA damage enhances LRRK2 phosphorylation at Serine 910, Serine 935 and Serine 1292. We further showed that LRRK2 phosphorylation is abolished in the absence of ATM, suggesting that LRRK2 phosphorylation requires ATM. It should also be noted that LRRK2 interacts with ATM. In contrast, overexpression or knockdown of LRRK2 does not affect ATM phosphorylation, indicating that LRRK2 is the downstream target of ATM in response to DNA damage. Moreover, we demonstrated that LRRK2 increases the expression of p53 and p21 by increasing the Mdm2 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. Loss-of-function in LRRK2 has the opposite effect to that of LRRK2. In addition, FACS analysis revealed that LRRK2 enhances cell cycle progression into S phase in response to DNA damage, a finding that was confirmed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunostaining. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that LRRK2 plays an important role in the ATM-Mdm2-p53 pathway that regulates cell proliferation in response to DNA damage. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Cadmium induced radioadaptive response via an ATM-independent H2S/cystathionine γ-lyase modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yan; Yuan Dexiao; Zhang Jianghong; Shao Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    The combined exposure to environmental toxicants such as heavy metals and radiation is an important research area in health protection. Here we explored cadmium induced radioadaptive response (RAR) and investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and ATM kinase in this response. Our data showed that the cadmium ions with a sub-lethal concentration could induce RAR in Chang liver cells towards subsequent γ-irradiation and this response could be abrogated by DL-propargylglycine (PPG), the endogenous H 2 S synthetase inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), but not by aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), the inhibitor of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). Moreover, the pretreatment of cells with NaHS also stimulated cellular adaptive response to radiation. Both cadmium treatment and irradiation up-regulated the expression of CSE protein in a time-dependent manner but had no influence on the expression of CBS protein. In the primed cells, the time course of CBS expression showed no significant difference with the cells treated with 2Gy irradiation alone, however, the CSE expression was easier to reach the maximum level, indicating a more efficient H 2 S production by CSE. Moreover, the cadmium-induced RAR was totally suppressed by KU-55933, a specific ATM inhibitor that did not change the CSE expression after radiation. However, exogenous H 2 S decreased the phosphorylation level of radiation-induced ATM. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate firstly that H 2 S is involved in the cadmium induced cross-adaptive response to challenging radiation. CSE, rather than CBS, may mainly responsible for the H 2 S production during this RAR which may also be mediated by ATM pathway. However, the activation of CSE is independent of ATM but could negatively regulate the phosphorylation of ATM.

  14. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bret R; Golding, Sarah E; Rao, Raj R; Valerie, Kristoffer

    2010-04-02

    The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR) is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR) and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs) and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR), showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ]) in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  15. p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 Down-Regulation and Defective Proliferation in ATM-Deficient Neural Stem Cells Can Be Restored by Akt Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeesun; Hwangbo, Jeon; Wong, Paul K. Y.

    2011-01-01

    A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated) gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm -/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway. PMID:21305053

  16. Autoregulation of kinase dephosphorylation by ATP binding in AGC protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tung O; Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S; Rodeck, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    AGC kinases, including the three Akt (protein kinase B) isoforms, protein kinase A (PKA) and all protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, require activation loop phosphorylation (threonine 308 in Akt1) as well as phosphorylation of a C-terminal residue (serine 473 in Akt1) for catalytic activity and phosphorylation of downstream targets. Conversely, phosphatases reverse these phosphorylations. Virtually all cellular processes are affected by AGC kinases, a circumstance that has led to intense scrutiny of the molecular mechanisms that regulate phosphorylation of these kinases. Here, we review a new layer of control of phosphorylation in Akt, PKA and PKC pointing to ATP binding pocket occupancy as a means to decelerate dephosphorylation of these and, potentially, other kinases. This additional level of kinase regulation opens the door to search for new functional motifs for the rational design of non- ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors that discriminate within and between protein kinase families.

  17. Autoregulation of kinase dephosphorylation by ATP binding to AGC protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, John M; Armen, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    AGC kinases, including the three Akt (protein kinase B) isoforms, protein kinase A (PKA) and all protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, require activation loop phosphorylation (threonine 308 in Akt1) as well as phosphorylation of a C-terminal residue (serine 473 in Akt1) for catalytic activity and phosphorylation of downstream targets. Conversely, phosphatases reverse these phosphorylations. Virtually all cellular processes are affected by AGC kinases, a circumstance that has led to intense scrutiny of the molecular mechanisms that regulate phosphorylation of these kinases. Here, we review a new layer of control of phosphorylation in Akt, PKA and PKC pointing to ATP binding pocket occupancy as a means to decelerate dephosphorylation of these and, potentially, other kinases. This additional level of kinase regulation opens the door to search for new functional motifs for the rational design of non-ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors that discriminate within and between protein kinase families. PMID:22262182

  18. ATM LAN Emulation: Getting from Here to There.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses current LAN (local area network) configuration and explains ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) as the future telecommunications transport. Highlights include LAN emulation, which enables the interconnection of legacy LANs and the new ATM environment; virtual LANs; broadcast servers; and standards. (LRW)

  19. ATM Tactical Network - a challenge for the military networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waveren, C.J. van; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Burakowski, W.; Kopertowski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of tactical networks will be based on the ATM technology. The POST-2000 tactical network is just in the designing phase. The objective of this paper is to point out the main problems which should be solved to adopt ATM technology into the tactical network environment. The

  20. Enhancing the Current Automated Teller Machine (ATM) in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is going to be achieved by creating another input device that collects the money into the ATM system, reads its denomination and either saves it or transfers it the required customer ... Keywords: Automated Teller Machine (ATM), Interswitch, Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Telecommunication.

  1. ATM: The Key To Harnessing the Power of Networked Multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rod

    1996-01-01

    ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) network technology handles the real-time continuous traffic flow necessary to support desktop multimedia applications. Describes network applications already used: desktop video collaboration, distance learning, and broadcasting video delivery. Examines the architecture of ATM technology, video delivery and sound…

  2. ATM Technology Adoption in U.S. Campus Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Engui; Perry, John F.; Anderson, Larry S.; Brook, R. Dan; Hare, R. Dwight; Moore, Arnold J.; Xu, Xiaohe

    This study examined the relationships between ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) adoption in universities and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information processing maturity. Another purpose of the study was to identify the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking. Subjects were university domain LAN…

  3. ATM, radiation, and the risk of second primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonine L; Concannon, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    It was first suggested more than 40 years ago that heterozygous carriers for the human autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) might also be at increased risk for cancer. Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with regard to cellular DNA damage responses. However, an overall model of how ATM contributes to cancer risk, and in particular, the role of DNA damage in this process, remains lacking. This review considers these questions in the context of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Heterozygous carriers of loss of function mutations in ATM that are A-T causing, are at increased risk of breast cancer. However, examination of a range of genetic variants, both rare and common, across multiple cancers, suggests that ATM may have additional effects on cancer risk that are allele-dependent. In the case of CBC, selected common alleles at ATM are associated with a reduced incidence of CBC, while other rare and predicted deleterious variants may act jointly with radiation exposure to increase risk. Further studies that characterize germline and somatic ATM mutations in breast cancer and relate the detected genetic changes to functional outcomes, particularly with regard to radiation responses, are needed to gain a complete picture of the complex relationship between ATM, radiation and breast cancer.

  4. Models for setting ATM parameter values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Søren; Gravey, A.; Romæuf, L.

    1996-01-01

    essential to set traffic characteristic values that are relevant to the considered cell stream, and that ensure that the amount of non-conforming traffic is small. Using a queueing model representation for the GCRA formalism, several methods are available for choosing the traffic characteristics. This paper......In ATM networks, a user should negotiate at connection set-up a traffic contract which includes traffic characteristics and requested QoS. The traffic characteristics currently considered are the Peak Cell Rate, the Sustainable Cell Rate, the Intrinsic Burst Tolerance and the Cell Delay Variation...... (CDV) tolerance(s). The values taken by these traffic parameters characterize the so-called ''Worst Case Traffic'' that is used by CAC procedures for accepting a new connection and allocating resources to it. Conformance to the negotiated traffic characteristics is defined, at the ingress User...

  5. Parametric analysis of ATM solar array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. K.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods used for the calculation of ATM solar array performance characteristics and provides the parametric analysis of solar panels used in SKYLAB. To predict the solar array performance under conditions other than test conditions, a mathematical model has been developed. Four computer programs have been used to convert the solar simulator test data to the parametric curves. The first performs module summations, the second determines average solar cell characteristics which will cause a mathematical model to generate a curve matching the test data, the third is a polynomial fit program which determines the polynomial equations for the solar cell characteristics versus temperature, and the fourth program uses the polynomial coefficients generated by the polynomial curve fit program to generate the parametric data.

  6. ATM-induced radiosensitization in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C. W.; Griffin, R. J.; Park, H. J.; Chung, H. S.; Choi, E. K.; Ahn, S. D.; Rhee, Y. H.; Ha, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    It has been known that ATM plays a central role in response of cells to ionizing radiation by enhancing DNA repair. Based in large part on studies of the homologous proteins in yeast, it is predicted that ATM function as proximal signal transducers in G1, S, and G2 checkpoint pathways. With the exception of p53, the downstream components of these pathways remain largely undefined. We have investigated the feasibility of increasing radiosensitivity of tumor cells with the use of ATM inhibitors such as caffeine, pentoxifylline, and wortmannin. Also in an effort to examine and understand the molecular mechanism by which ATM might exert its cellular effects, we have expressed the full length wild type ATM in RKO cells

  7. Mechanism of the pH-induced conformational change in the sensor domain of the DraK Histidine kinase via the E83, E105, and E107 residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kwon Joo; Hong, Young-Soo; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Jae Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Jin-Wan; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hwang, Eunha; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Eun-Gyeong; Kwon, Ohsuk; Cheong, Hae-Kap

    2014-01-01

    The DraR/DraK two-component system was found to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in a medium-dependent manner; however, its function and signaling and sensing mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we describe the solution structure of the extracellular sensor domain of DraK and suggest a mechanism for the pH-dependent conformational change of the protein. The structure contains a mixed alpha-beta fold, adopting a fold similar to the ubiquitous sensor domain of histidine kinase. A biophysical study demonstrates that the E83, E105, and E107 residues have abnormally high pKa values and that they drive the pH-dependent conformational change for the extracellular sensor domain of DraK. We found that a triple mutant (E83L/E105L/E107A) is pH independent and mimics the low pH structure. An in vivo study showed that DraK is essential for the recovery of the pH of Streptomyces coelicolor growth medium after acid shock. Our findings suggest that the DraR/DraK two-component system plays an important role in the pH regulation of S. coelicolor growth medium. This study provides a foundation for the regulation and the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces.

  8. Mechanism of the pH-induced conformational change in the sensor domain of the DraK Histidine kinase via the E83, E105, and E107 residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Joo Yeo

    Full Text Available The DraR/DraK two-component system was found to be involved in the differential regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis in a medium-dependent manner; however, its function and signaling and sensing mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we describe the solution structure of the extracellular sensor domain of DraK and suggest a mechanism for the pH-dependent conformational change of the protein. The structure contains a mixed alpha-beta fold, adopting a fold similar to the ubiquitous sensor domain of histidine kinase. A biophysical study demonstrates that the E83, E105, and E107 residues have abnormally high pKa values and that they drive the pH-dependent conformational change for the extracellular sensor domain of DraK. We found that a triple mutant (E83L/E105L/E107A is pH independent and mimics the low pH structure. An in vivo study showed that DraK is essential for the recovery of the pH of Streptomyces coelicolor growth medium after acid shock. Our findings suggest that the DraR/DraK two-component system plays an important role in the pH regulation of S. coelicolor growth medium. This study provides a foundation for the regulation and the production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces.

  9. Scenarios for control and data flows in multiprotocol over ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujoory, Ali

    1997-10-01

    The multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA), specified by the ATM Forum, provides an architecture for transfer of Internetwork layer packets (Layer 3 datagram such as IP, IPX) over ATM subnets or across the emulated LANs. MPOA provides shortcuts that bypass routers to avoid router bottlenecks. It is a grand union of some of the existing standards such as LANE by the ATM Forum, NHRP by the IETF, and the Q.2931 by ITU. The intent of this paper is to clarify the data flows between pairs of source and destination hosts in an MPOA system. It includes scenarios for both the intra- and inter-subnet flows between different pairs of MPOA end-systems. The intrasubnet flows simply use LANE for address resolution or data transfer. The inter-subnet flows may use a default path for short-lived flows or a shortcut for long-lived flows. The default path uses the LANE and router capabilities. The shortcut path uses LANE plus NHRP for ATM address resoluton. An ATM virtual circuit is established before the data transfer. This allows efficient transfer of internetwork layer packets over ATM for real-time applications.

  10. Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Kanaklata; Wang, Lilin; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Price, Brendan D.

    2006-01-01

    Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells

  11. 3rd ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI) held its third International Workshop on ATM / CNS in 2013 with the theme of "Drafting the future sky". There is worldwide activity taking place in the research and development of modern air traffic management (ATM) and its enabling technologies in Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS). Pioneering work is necessary to contribute to the global harmonization of air traffic management and control. At this workshop, leading experts in  research, industry and academia from around the world met to share their ideas and approaches on ATM/CNS related topics.

  12. ATM localization and gene expression in the adult mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemput, Julia; Masson, Christel; Bigot, Karine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Dansault, Anouk; Provost, Alexandra; Gadin, Stéphanie; Aoufouchi, Said; Menasche, Maurice; Abitbol, Marc

    2009-01-01

    High levels of metabolism and oxygen consumption in most adult murine ocular compartments, combined with exposure to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are major sources of oxidative stress, causing DNA damage in ocular cells. Of all mammalian body cells, photoreceptor cells consume the largest amount of oxygen and generate the highest levels of oxidative damage. The accumulation of such damage throughout life is a major factor of aging tissues. Several multiprotein complexes have recently been identified as the major sensors and mediators involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The activity of these complexes initially seemed to be restricted to dividing cells, given their ultimate role in major cell cycle checkpoints. However, it was later established that they are also active in post-mitotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate that the DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for the development, maintenance, and normal functioning of the adult central nervous system. One major molecular factor in the DDR is the protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). It is required for the rapid induction of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks. These cytotoxic DNA lesions may be caused by oxidative damage. To understand how ATM prevents oxidative stress and participates in the maintenance of genomic integrity and cell viability of the adult retina, we determined the ATM expression patterns and studied its localization in the adult mouse eye. Atm gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR experiments and its localization by in situ hybridization on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. ATM protein expression was determined by western blot analysis of proteins homogenates extracted from several mouse tissues and its localization by immunohistochemistry experiments performed on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. In addition, subcellular localization was realized by confocal microscopy imaging of ocular tissue sections, with a special

  13. Virtual C Machine and Integrated Development Environment for ATMS Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a prototype virtual machine that fits on current Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) controllers and provides functionality for complex traffic operations.;Prepared in cooperation with Utah S...

  14. Cost-benefit analysis of the ATM automatic deposit service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Županović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bankers and other financial experts have analyzed the value of automated teller machines (ATM in terms of growing consumer demand, rising costs of technology development, decreasing profitability and market share. This paper presents a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis of the ATM automatic deposit service. The first step is to determine user attitudes towards using ATM automatic deposit service by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The second step is to determine location priorities for ATMs that provide automatic deposit services using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP model. The results of the previous steps enable a highly efficient application of cost-benefit analysis for evaluating costs and benefits of automatic deposit services. To understand fully the proposed procedure outside of theoretical terms, a real-world application of a case study is conducted.

  15. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) user's manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software User Guide (SUG) constitutes the user procedures for the ATMS System. Information in this document will be used by the user to operate the automated system. It is intended to be used as a reference manual to guide and direct the user(s) through the ATMS software product and its environment. The objectives of ATMS are as follows: to better support the Procurement function with freight rate information; to free Transportation Logistics personnel from routine activities such as the auditing and input of freight billing information; to comply with Headquarters Department of Energy-Inspector General (DOE-IG) audit findings to automate transportation management functions; to reduce the keying of data into the Shipment Mobility Accountability Collection (SMAC) database; and to provide automation for the preparing of Bill of Lading, Declaration of Dangerous Goods, Emergency Response Guide and shipping Labels using HM181 Retrieval of hazardous material table text information

  16. Method of ATMS operators in the formalism of Faddeev equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The method of ATMS operators is generalized for the case of Faddeev equations. The method to construct effective equations for both elastic scattering and scattering with rearrangement is presented. Properties to obtained equations are considered

  17. ATM suppresses SATB1-induced malignant progression in breast epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Ordinario

    Full Text Available SATB1 drives metastasis when expressed in breast tumor cells by radically reprogramming gene expression. Here, we show that SATB1 also has an oncogenic activity to transform certain non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines. We studied the non-malignant MCF10A cell line, which is used widely in the literature. We obtained aliquots from two different sources (here we refer to them as MCF10A-1 and MCF10A-2, but found them to be surprisingly dissimilar in their responses to oncogenic activity of SATB1. Ectopic expression of SATB1 in MCF10A-1 induced tumor-like morphology in three-dimensional cultures, led to tumor formation in immunocompromised mice, and when injected into tail veins, led to lung metastasis. The number of metastases correlated positively with the level of SATB1 expression. In contrast, SATB1 expression in MCF10A-2 did not lead to any of these outcomes. Yet DNA copy-number analysis revealed that MCF10A-1 is indistinguishable genetically from MCF10A-2. However, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that these cell lines have significantly divergent signatures for the expression of genes involved in oncogenesis, including cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Above all, the early DNA damage-response kinase, ATM, was greatly reduced in MCF10A-1 cells compared to MCF10A-2 cells. We found the reason for reduction to be phenotypic drift due to long-term cultivation of MCF10A. ATM knockdown in MCF10A-2 and two other non-malignant breast epithelial cell lines, 184A1 and 184B4, enabled SATB1 to induce malignant phenotypes similar to that observed for MCF10A-1. These data indicate a novel role for ATM as a suppressor of SATB1-induced malignancy in breast epithelial cells, but also raise a cautionary note that phenotypic drift could lead to dramatically different functional outcomes.

  18. Teleoperation system using Asynchronous transfer mode, ATM network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dani Baba; A Nasoruddin Mohamad

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the application of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in a distributed industrial environment such as in teleoperation, which performs real time control manipulation from a remote location. In our study, two models of teleoperation are proposed; the first model is a point to point connection and the second model is through an ATM network. The performance results are analysed as to determine whether the two models can support the teleoperation traffics via simulation using commercial software design tool. (Author)

  19. 4th ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book is a compilation of selected papers from the 4th ENRI International Workshop on ATM/CNS (EIWAC2015). The work focuses on novel techniques for aviation infrastructure in air traffic management (ATM) and communications, navigation, surveillance, and informatics (CNSI) domains. The contents make valuable contributions to academic researchers, engineers in the industry, and regulators of aviation authorities. As well, readers will encounter new ideas for realizing a more efficient and safer aviation system. .

  20. A survey on the status of ATM based LAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sung Woon; Kang, Soon Ju

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the technical status of the ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) as a new high speed data communication method. Since the FDDI(Fiber optic Distributed Data Interchange) backbone has been installed in september 1995, it has been used as a main network structure of KAERI. However, recently high speed and multimedia data communication environment is being required to accommodate the recent trend of the network usage in KAERI. For example, the rapid growth of Internet usage and increased activities of information retrieval systems on KAERI-Net demand more effective network system. Chapter 1 discusses the status of KAERI-Net and the selection criteria of a network model according to the national plan of super high speed network structure. In Chapter 2, the basic concept of ATM such as communication method and communication structure is studied, and Chapter 3 presents the overall concepts of standard model of ATM. In Chapter 4, we survey the recent trend of technical development of ATM and analyze the status of ATM technology. As a concluding remark, Chapter 5 discusses the criteria and check points for optimal design of KAERI-Net backbone. This report will be used as a technical reference for the installation of ATM in KAERI-Net. 10 tabs., 32 figs., 11 refs. (Author)

  1. Modular and Stochastic Approaches to Molecular Pathway Models of ATM, TGF beta, and WNT Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; O'Neill, Peter; Ponomarev, Artem; Carra, Claudio; Whalen, Mary; Pluth, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    Deterministic pathway models that describe the biochemical interactions of a group of related proteins, their complexes, activation through kinase, etc. are often the basis for many systems biology models. Low dose radiation effects present a unique set of challenges to these models including the importance of stochastic effects due to the nature of radiation tracks and small number of molecules activated, and the search for infrequent events that contribute to cancer risks. We have been studying models of the ATM, TGF -Smad and WNT signaling pathways with the goal of applying pathway models to the investigation of low dose radiation cancer risks. Modeling challenges include introduction of stochastic models of radiation tracks, their relationships to more than one substrate species that perturb pathways, and the identification of a representative set of enzymes that act on the dominant substrates. Because several pathways are activated concurrently by radiation the development of modular pathway approach is of interest.

  2. Mobile phone signal exposure triggers a hormesis-like effect in Atm+/+ and Atm-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuan; Wei, Xiaoxia; Fei, Yue; Su, Liling; Zhao, Xinyuan; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping

    2016-11-18

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as possible carcinogens to humans; however, this conclusion is based on limited epidemiological findings and lacks solid support from experimental studies. In particular, there are no consistent data regarding the genotoxicity of RF-EMFs. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is recognised as a chief guardian of genomic stability. To address the debate on whether RF-EMFs are genotoxic, we compared the effects of 1,800 MHz RF-EMF exposure on genomic DNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with proficient (Atm +/+ ) or deficient (Atm -/- ) ATM. In Atm +/+ MEFs, RF-EMF exposure for 1 h at an average special absorption rate of 4.0 W/kg induced significant DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and activated the SSB repair mechanism. This effect reduced the DNA damage to less than that of the background level after 36 hours of exposure. In the Atm -/- MEFs, the same RF-EMF exposure for 12 h induced both SSBs and double-strand breaks and activated the two repair processes, which also reduced the DNA damage to less than the control level after prolonged exposure. The observed phenomenon is similar to the hormesis of a toxic substance at a low dose. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report a hormesis-like effect of an RF-EMF.

  3. Alterations in cellular energy metabolism associated with the antiproliferative effects of the ATM inhibitor KU-55933 and with metformin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Zakikhani

    Full Text Available KU-55933 is a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of the protein encoded by Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, an important tumor suppressor gene with key roles in DNA repair. Unexpectedly for an inhibitor of a tumor suppressor gene, KU-55933 reduces proliferation. In view of prior preliminary evidence suggesting defective mitochondrial function in cells of patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia (AT, we examined energy metabolism of cells treated with KU-55933. The compound increased AMPK activation, glucose uptake and lactate production while reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and coupled respiration. The stimulation of glycolysis by KU-55933 did not fully compensate for the reduction in mitochondrial functions, leading to decreased cellular ATP levels and energy stress. These actions are similar to those previously described for the biguanide metformin, a partial inhibitor of respiratory complex I. Both compounds decreased mitochondrial coupled respiration and reduced cellular concentrations of fumarate, malate, citrate, and alpha-ketogluterate. Succinate levels were increased by KU-55933 levels and decreased by metformin, indicating that the effects of ATM inhibition and metformin are not identical. These observations suggest a role for ATM in mitochondrial function and show that both KU-55933 and metformin perturb the TCA cycle as well as oxidative phosphorylation.

  4. Genetic variants in ATM, H2AFX and MRE11 genes and susceptibility to breast cancer in the polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podralska, Marta; Ziółkowska-Suchanek, Iwona; Żurawek, Magdalena; Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Agnieszka; Słomski, Ryszard; Nowak, Jerzy; Stembalska, Agnieszka; Pesz, Karolina; Mosor, Maria

    2018-04-20

    DNA damage repair is a complex process, which can trigger the development of cancer if disturbed. In this study, we hypothesize a role of variants in the ATM, H2AFX and MRE11 genes in determining breast cancer (BC) susceptibility. We examined the whole sequence of the ATM kinase domain and estimated the frequency of founder mutations in the ATM gene (c.5932G > T, c.6095G > A, and c.7630-2A > C) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in H2AFX (rs643788, rs8551, rs7759, and rs2509049) and MRE11 (rs1061956 and rs2155209) among 315 breast cancer patients and 515 controls. The analysis was performed using high-resolution melting for new variants and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for recurrent ATM mutations. H2AFX and MRE11 polymorphisms were analyzed using TaqMan assays. The cumulative genetic risk scores (CGRS) were calculated using unweighted and weighted approaches. We identified four mutations (c.6067G > A, c.8314G > A, c.8187A > T, and c.6095G > A) in the ATM gene in three BC cases and two control subjects. We observed a statistically significant association of H2AFX variants with BC. Risk alleles (the G of rs7759 and the T of rs8551 and rs2509049) were observed more frequently in BC cases compared to the control group, with P values, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.0018, 1.47 (1.19 to 1.82); 0.018, 1.33 (1.09 to 1.64); and 0.024, 1.3 (1.06 to 1.59), respectively. Haplotype-based tests identified a significant association of the H2AFX CACT haplotype with BC (P ATM gene to the development of breast cancer needs further detailed study.

  5. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present review on casein kinases focuses mainly on the possible metabolic role of CK-2, with special emphasis on its behavior in pathological tissues. From these data at least three ways to regulate CK-2 activity emerge: (i) CK-2 activity changes during embryogenesis, being high at certain...

  6. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret R Adams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR, showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ] in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  7. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed

  8. Homeostatic regulation of meiotic DSB formation by ATM/ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Tim J.; Wardell, Kayleigh; Garcia, Valerie; Neale, Matthew J., E-mail: m.neale@sussex.ac.uk

    2014-11-15

    Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and RAD3-related (ATR) are widely known as being central players in the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR), mounting responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) respectively. The DDR signalling cascade couples cell cycle control to damage-sensing and repair processes in order to prevent untimely cell cycle progression while damage still persists [1]. Both ATM/ATR are, however, also emerging as essential factors in the process of meiosis; a specialised cell cycle programme responsible for the formation of haploid gametes via two sequential nuclear divisions. Central to achieving accurate meiotic chromosome segregation is the introduction of numerous DSBs spread across the genome by the evolutionarily conserved enzyme, Spo11. This review seeks to explore and address how cells utilise ATM/ATR pathways to regulate Spo11-DSB formation, establish DSB homeostasis and ensure meiosis is completed unperturbed.

  9. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTPα, PTPε, and PTPλ. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined

  10. Kinases and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Cicenas; Egle Zalyte; Amos Bairoch; Pascale Gaudet

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinases are a large family of enzymes catalyzing protein phosphorylation. The human genome contains 518 protein kinase genes, 478 of which belong to the classical protein kinase family and 40 are atypical protein kinases [...

  11. ATM signaling and genomic stability in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, Martin F.; Birrell, Geoff; Chen, Philip; Kozlov, Sergei; Scott, Shaun; Gueven, Nuri

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks represent the most threatening lesion to the integrity of the genome in cells exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic chemicals. Those breaks are recognized, signaled to cell cycle checkpoints and repaired by protein complexes. The product of the gene (ATM) mutated in the human genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) plays a central role in the recognition and signaling of DNA damage. ATM is one of an ever growing number of proteins which when mutated compromise the stability of the genome and predispose to tumour development. Mechanisms for recognising double strand breaks in DNA, maintaining genome stability and minimizing risk of cancer are discussed

  12. Inositol pyrophosphates mediate the DNA-PK/ATM-p53 cell death pathway by regulating CK2 phosphorylation of Tti1/Tel2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Feng; Cha, Jiyoung; Xu, Jing; Xu, Risheng; Vandiver, M. Scott; Tyagi, Richa; Tokhunts, Robert; Koldobskiy, Michael A.; Fu, Chenglai; Barrow, Roxanne; Wu, Mingxuan; Fiedler, Dorothea; Barrow, James C.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2014-01-01

    The apoptotic actions of p53 require its phosphorylation by a family of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related-kinases (PIKKs), which include DNA-PKcs and ATM. These kinases are stabilized by the TTT (Tel2, Tti1, Tti2) co-chaperone family, whose actions are mediated by CK2 phosphorylation. The inositol pyrophosphates, such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), are generated by a family of inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) of which IP6K2 has been implicated in p53-associated cell death. In the present study we report a novel apoptotic signaling cascade linking CK2, TTT, the PIKKs, and p53. We demonstrate that IP7, formed by IP6K2, binds CK2 to enhance its phosphorylation of the TTT complex thereby stabilizing DNA-PKcs and ATM. This process stimulates p53 phosphorylation at serine-15 to activate the cell death program in human cancer cells and in murine B cells. PMID:24657168

  13. Adaptive Restoration of Airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM Thermal Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Yuan; E. Doak; P. Guss; A. Will

    2002-01-01

    To incorporate the georegistration and restoration processes into airborne data processing in support of U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear emergency response task, we developed an adaptive restoration filter for airborne Daedalus AADS1268 ATM thermal data based on the Wiener filtering theory. Preliminary assessment shows that this filter enhances the detectability of small weak thermal anomalies in AADS1268 thermal images

  14. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material: ATM-106

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1988-10-01

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material (ATM)-106 spent fuel from Assembly BT03 of pressurized-water reactor Calvert Cliffs No. 1. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well- characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCWRM) program. ATM-106 consists of 20 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 3700 GJ/kgM (43 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of /approximately/10%. Characterization data include (1) as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (6) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel rod are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report. 12 refs., 110 figs., 81 tabs

  15. The ATM gene and the radiobiology of ataxia-telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, T.J.; Shiloh, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is the classic human genetic disease involving severe ionizing radiation sensitivity and as such has been intensely studied by radiation biologists over the years. Unlike its counterpart for UV light sensitivity -xeroderma pigmentosum - A-T has no obvious DNA repair defect; and there has been much speculation as to the mechanism underlying the altered radioresponses associated with this disease. The gene defective in A-T (ATM) has recently been cloned, and its primary coding sequence determined. The primary sequence of the ATM protein suggests that it has some regulatory functions related to cellular radioresponse and maintenance of genomic stability, and shares these functions with a growing family of other proteins in various organisms. At this juncture it is appropriate to review our current knowledge about the radiobiology of A-T and reflect on the possible radiobiological mechanisms that are suggested by the ATM gene itself. This article will attempt briefly to review current knowledge about the radiobiology of A-T and to introduce new speculations about underlying radiobiological mechanisms that are suggested by the primary amino acid sequence of the predicted ATM gene product. (Author)

  16. Utilisation des modules ATM pour le projet FP420

    CERN Document Server

    Renaglia, T

    2006-01-01

    Le but de cette note est de résumer les premières caractéristiques de l'intégration de 2 modules ATM pour le projet FP420 (voir note technique EDMS n° 743628) ainsi que la liste des problèmes découverts à ce jour sur l

  17. Germline variants in the ATM gene and breast cancer susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaymaa Marouf

    2017-03-06

    Mar 6, 2017 ... Results: We did not detect the ATM c.7271T > G and c.1066–6T > G (IVS10–6T > G) ..... [8] Lavin MF, Shiloh Y. The genetic defect in ataxia-telangiectasia. .... [36] Inskip HM, Kinlen LJ, Taylor AM, Woods CG, Arlett CF. Risk of ...

  18. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  19. ATM down-regulation is associated with poor prognosis in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, R C; Canevari, R A; Villacis, R A R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene downexpression has been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas (BC); however, the prognostic value and mechanisms of ATM deregulation remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ATM and miRNAs (miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-203, miR-421, miR-664, miR-576-5p...... and miR-18a) expression levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in 52 BC and 3 normal breast samples. ATM protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 968 BC and 35 adjacent normal breast tissues. ATM copy number alteration was detected by array comparative genomic...... hybridization (aCGH) in 42 tumours. RESULTS: Low ATM levels were associated with tumour grade. Absence of ATM protein expression was associated with distant metastasis (P ATM...

  20. The RETAIN project: DICOM teleradiology over an ATM-based network. Radiological Examinations Transfer on an ATM Integrated Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heautot, J F; Eichelberg, M; Gibaud, B; Tréguier, C; Lemoine, D; Scarabin, J M; Piqueras, J; Carsin, M; Gandon, Y

    2000-01-01

    The RETAIN project (Radiological Examinations Transfer on an ATM Integrated Network) has aimed at testing videoconferencing and DICOM image transfers to get advice about difficult radiological cases over an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)-based network, which affords a more comfortable interface than narrow-band networks and allows exchange of complete image series using the DICOM format of studies. For this purpose, an experimental ATM network was applied between six university hospitals in four different countries. An assessment of the functionalities of the system was performed by means of log-file analysis, video recording of the sessions and forms filled out by the participants at the end of each session. Questionnaires were answered by the users at the end of the project to bring out perspectives of utilisation and added value. We discussed 43 cases during 20 sessions. For technical or organisational problems, only 20 of the 36 planned sessions took place. The throughput over ATM (10.5 Mbit/s, 20 times faster than six ISDN B-channels) was adequate. Despite the experimental configuration of the network, the system was considered as satisfactory by all the physicians. In 72 % of the sessions, the expected result (answer to the question) was gained. By common consent, videoconferencing was unanimously regarded as a prominent tool in improving the interaction quality. Asynchronous transfer mode is an efficient method for fast transferring of radiologic examinations in DICOM format and for discussing them through high-quality videoconferencing.

  1. ATM Technology and Banking System in West African Sub-Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... At this point in time, it is pertinent to ask, what is ATM? ATM is Automated .... can be installed on ATMs running Microsoft Windows XP operating system that records sensitive ... almost real time bank services. The citizens of ...

  2. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... guaranteed QoS requirements to a variety of ATM applications....

  3. A 2.5 gb/s GaAs ATM Mux Demux ASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Lassen, Peter Stuhr

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high speed GaAs ATM Mux Demur ASIC (AMDA) which is the key element in a high speed ATM Add-Drop unit. This unit is used in a new distributed ATM multiplexing-demultiplexing architecture for broadband switching systems. The Add-Drop unit...

  4. ATM Technology and Banking System in West African Sub-Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM) technology has had its significant impact in banking system in Nigeria and some other West African Countries. The most significant impact of ATM technology is the customer's ability to withdraw money outside banking hours. But this feat achieved by ATM technology is not without ...

  5. Phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to vanadate: Involvement of ATM pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsura; Inageda, Kiyoshi; Nishitai, Gen; Matsuoka, Masato

    2007-01-01

    When A549 cells were exposed to sodium metavanadate (NaVO 3 ), the pentavalent species of vanadium (vanadate), phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 was found in a time (8-48 h)- and dose (10-200 μM)-dependent manner. After the incubation with 50 or 100 μM NaVO 3 for 48 h, accumulation of p53 protein was accompanied with Ser15 phosphorylation. Among serines in p53 protein immunoprecipitated from A549 cells treated with 100 μM NaVO 3 for 48 h, only Ser15 was markedly phosphorylated. Treatment with other vanadate compounds, sodium orthovanadate (Na 3 VO 4 ) and ammonium metavanadate (NH 4 VO 3 ), also induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. While phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) was found in cells treated with NaVO 3 , treatment with U0126 did not suppress Ser15 phosphorylation. On the other hand, treatment with wortmannin or caffeine, the inhibitors to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinases (PIKKs), suppressed both NaVO 3 -induced Ser15 phosphorylation and accumulation of p53 protein. The silencing of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression using short-interference RNA resulted in the marked suppression of Ser15 phosphorylation in A549 cells exposed to NaVO 3 . However, treatment with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetylcysteine did not suppress NaVO 3 -induced Ser15 phosphorylation. Transcriptional activation of p53 and DNA fragmentation in A549 cells treated with NaVO 3 were suppressed only slightly by S15A mutation, suggesting that Ser15 phosphorylation is not essential for these responses. The present results showed that vanadate induces the phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 depending on ATM, one of the members of PIKK family, in this human pulmonary epithelial cell line

  6. Phosphorylation of the Mdm2 oncoprotein by the c-Abl tyrosine kinase regulates p53 tumor suppression and the radiosensitivity of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael I; Roderick, Justine E; Zhang, Hong; Woda, Bruce A; Kelliher, Michelle A; Jones, Stephen N

    2016-12-27

    The p53 tumor suppressor acts as a guardian of the genome by preventing the propagation of DNA damage-induced breaks and mutations to subsequent generations of cells. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of the Mdm2 oncoprotein at Ser394 by the ATM kinase is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation in cells treated with ionizing radiation, and that loss of Mdm2 Ser394 phosphorylation leads to spontaneous tumorigenesis and radioresistance in Mdm2 S394A mice. Previous in vitro data indicate that the c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Mdm2 at the neighboring residue (Tyr393) in response to DNA damage to regulate p53-dependent apoptosis. In this present study, we have generated an Mdm2 mutant mouse (Mdm2 Y393F ) to determine whether c-Abl phosphorylation of Mdm2 regulates the p53-mediated DNA damage response or p53 tumor suppression in vivo. The Mdm2 Y393F mice develop accelerated spontaneous and oncogene-induced tumors, yet display no defects in p53 stabilization and activity following acute genotoxic stress. Although apoptosis is unaltered in these mice, they recover more rapidly from radiation-induced bone marrow ablation and are more resistant to whole-body radiation-induced lethality. These data reveal an in vivo role for c-Abl phosphorylation of Mdm2 in regulation of p53 tumor suppression and bone marrow failure. However, c-Abl phosphorylation of Mdm2 Tyr393 appears to play a lesser role in governing Mdm2-p53 signaling than ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2 Ser394. Furthermore, the effects of these phosphorylation events on p53 regulation are not additive, as Mdm2 Y393F/S394A mice and Mdm2 S394A mice display similar phenotypes.

  7. The wip1 phosphatase (PPM1D) antagonizes activation of the CHK2 tumor suppressor kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manet, Oliva-Trastoy; Berthonaud, V.; Chevalier, A.; Ducrot, C.; Marsolier-Kergoat, M.C.; Mann, C.; Leteurtre, F. [CEA Saclay, DSV, DBJC, SBGM, Lab. du Controle du Cycle Cellulaire, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The DNA checkpoints are signal transduction pathways that sense DNA damage and coordinate various responses such as cell cycle arrests, DNA repair or cell death. These pathways are particularly well conserved in eukaryotes and the family of the 'Checkpoint Kinases 2' genes (or CHK2) plays a major role in them. This family includes the Rad53 protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its Chk2 human homologue. Rad53 plays a central part in DNA checkpoint: rad53d mutants (whose RAD53 gene has been deleted) are hypersensitive to all genotoxic stresses. Mice Chk2-1- cells are defective in the G1, the intra-S, and the G2/M checkpoints. Mutations in CHK2 have been associated to many forms o f cancer, either sporadic or hereditary which demonstrates Chk2 tumor suppressor function. Chk2 proteins are characterized by several conserved elements: (i) an N-terminal domain with a series of SQ/TQ motifs, preferential phosphorylation sites for the ATM/ATR kinases, (ii) an FHA domain (ForkHead Associated) that binds specifically to phosphorylated residues within TXXY motifs (with the Y residue depending on the FHA domain and conferring an extra specificity) and (iii) a kinase domain including an activation loop. The Chk2 protein is activated by phosphorylation of its threonine T68, mainly by ATM, upon DNA double-strand breaks. This phosphorylation allows for the homo-dimerization of Chk2 through the binding of phospho-T68 from one molecule to the FHA domain of another molecule. It results in trans auto-phosphorylations, especially at threonines T383 and T387 in the activation T-loop. Fully active Chk2 becomes monomeric and, diffusing through the whole nucleus, phosphorylates its targets (CDC25 A and CDC25C/cell cycle arrest; p53, E2F, PML/apoptosis; BRCA2/DNA repair). Chk2/Rad53 inactivation occurs in two cases: once the DNA lesions have been repaired (it is called recovery) or, under certain conditions, in the presence of unrepaired DNA damage (it is then called

  8. The wip1 phosphatase (PPM1D) antagonizes activation of the CHK2 tumor suppressor kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manet, Oliva-Trastoy; Berthonaud, V.; Chevalier, A.; Ducrot, C.; Marsolier-Kergoat, M.C.; Mann, C.; Leteurtre, F.

    2006-01-01

    The DNA checkpoints are signal transduction pathways that sense DNA damage and coordinate various responses such as cell cycle arrests, DNA repair or cell death. These pathways are particularly well conserved in eukaryotes and the family of the 'Checkpoint Kinases 2' genes (or CHK2) plays a major role in them. This family includes the Rad53 protein of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its Chk2 human homologue. Rad53 plays a central part in DNA checkpoint: rad53d mutants (whose RAD53 gene has been deleted) are hypersensitive to all genotoxic stresses. Mice Chk2-1- cells are defective in the G1, the intra-S, and the G2/M checkpoints. Mutations in CHK2 have been associated to many forms o f cancer, either sporadic or hereditary which demonstrates Chk2 tumor suppressor function. Chk2 proteins are characterized by several conserved elements: (i) an N-terminal domain with a series of SQ/TQ motifs, preferential phosphorylation sites for the ATM/ATR kinases, (ii) an FHA domain (ForkHead Associated) that binds specifically to phosphorylated residues within TXXY motifs (with the Y residue depending on the FHA domain and conferring an extra specificity) and (iii) a kinase domain including an activation loop. The Chk2 protein is activated by phosphorylation of its threonine T68, mainly by ATM, upon DNA double-strand breaks. This phosphorylation allows for the homo-dimerization of Chk2 through the binding of phospho-T68 from one molecule to the FHA domain of another molecule. It results in trans auto-phosphorylations, especially at threonines T383 and T387 in the activation T-loop. Fully active Chk2 becomes monomeric and, diffusing through the whole nucleus, phosphorylates its targets (CDC25 A and CDC25C/cell cycle arrest; p53, E2F, PML/apoptosis; BRCA2/DNA repair). Chk2/Rad53 inactivation occurs in two cases: once the DNA lesions have been repaired (it is called recovery) or, under certain conditions, in the presence of unrepaired DNA damage (it is then called adaptation

  9. Absence of Wip1 partially rescues Atm deficiency phenotypes in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Yolanda; Nguyen, Thuy-Ai; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Herron, Alan; Rao, Pulivarthi; Zhu, Chengming; Lu, Xiongbin; Donehower, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Wildtype p53-Induced Phosphatase 1 (WIP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that dephosphorylates proteins in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-initiated DNA damage response pathway. WIP1 may play a homeostatic role in ATM signaling by returning the cell to a normal pre-stress state following completion of DNA repair. To better understand the effects of WIP1 on ATM signaling, we crossed Atm-deficient mice to Wip1-deficient mice and characterized phenotypes of the double knockout progeny. We hypothesized that the absence of Wip1 might rescue Atm deficiency phenotypes. Atm null mice, like ATM-deficient humans with the inherited syndrome ataxia telangiectasia, exhibit radiation sensitivity, fertility defects, and are T-cell lymphoma prone. Most double knockout mice were largely protected from lymphoma development and had a greatly extended lifespan compared to Atm null mice. Double knockout mice had increased p53 and H2AX phosphorylation and p21 expression compared to their Atm null counterparts, indicating enhanced p53 and DNA damage responses. Additionally, double knockout splenocytes displayed reduced chromosomal instability compared to Atm null mice. Finally, doubly null mice were partially rescued from infertility defects observed in Atm null mice. These results indicate that inhibition of WIP1 may represent a useful strategy for cancer treatment in general and A-T patients in particular. PMID:21765465

  10. Digital Coin Business Model Using the Coin ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Gyo; Park, Sang-Sung; Shin, Young-Geun; Jang, Dong-Sik

    2009-08-01

    Because about 83.6 billion won worth coins are not collected annually, 35 billion won of government money is being wasted for producing new coins in Korea. In order to improve unnecessary government money leakage, we now have to develop a proper way of managing small valued money such as coins. We have already developed the coin ATM to solve such problem in the previous study. In this study, we proposed business model, which enables users to deposit or consume such small amount of money with the coin ATM. The proposed business model has advantages that enable to connect various payment system and is efficient to consume such small amount of money. This business model improves not only the way of managing small valued money but also the way of consuming small valued money. Furthermore, our business model can contribute to activating circulation of coins as well as preventing leakage of government money.

  11. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerpr...

  12. Final report for the protocol extensions for ATM Security Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarman, T.D.; Pierson, L.G.; Brenkosh, J.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the summary report for the Protocol Extensions for Asynchronous Transfer Mode project, funded under Sandia`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development program. During this one-year effort, techniques were examined for integrating security enhancements within standard ATM protocols, and mechanisms were developed to validate these techniques and to provide a basic set of ATM security assurances. Based on our experience during this project, recommendations were presented to the ATM Forum (a world-wide consortium of ATM product developers, service providers, and users) to assist with the development of security-related enhancements to their ATM specifications. As a result of this project, Sandia has taken a leading role in the formation of the ATM Forum`s Security Working Group, and has gained valuable alliances and leading-edge experience with emerging ATM security technologies and protocols.

  13. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grose, C.; Jackson, W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing [γ- 32 P]ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when [ 32 P]GTP was substituted for [ 32 P]ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein

  14. CaC in ATM – the Diffuse Method

    OpenAIRE

    I. Baroňák; M. Vozňák

    2006-01-01

    Connection Admission Control is an element in the of preclusive mechanisms of ATM management. Its main task is to prevent overloading of the network and to ensure the required quality of service. This means that it has to predict the service of the network and according to its state it can manage both existing and new connections. This paper deals with the diffuse method, a CAC method that enables us to obtain the required results. 

  15. Analysis of expected ATM processes changes in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav MIHETEC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates feasibility of the new Air Traffic Management (ATM organisation in Functional Airspace Block Central Europe (FAB CE and specifies the implementation scenarios that are proposed by Central European Air Traffic Services Coordination Group (CEATS CG. The paper elaborates elements of required Functional Airspace Block Central Europe implementation and identifies and assesses the implementation blockers. Provision of air navigation services in European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC area is diversely regulated and highly fragmented.

  16. Enhanced ATM Security using Biometric Authentication and Wavelet Based AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedharan Ajish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional ATM terminal customer recognition systems rely only on bank cards, passwords and such identity verification methods are not perfect and functions are too single. Biometrics-based authentication offers several advantages over other authentication methods, there has been a significant surge in the use of biometrics for user authentication in recent years. This paper presents a highly secured ATM banking system using biometric authentication and wavelet based Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm. Two levels of security are provided in this proposed design. Firstly we consider the security level at the client side by providing biometric authentication scheme along with a password of 4-digit long. Biometric authentication is achieved by considering the fingerprint image of the client. Secondly we ensure a secured communication link between the client machine to the bank server using an optimized energy efficient and wavelet based AES processor. The fingerprint image is the data for encryption process and 4-digit long password is the symmetric key for the encryption process. The performance of ATM machine depends on ultra-high-speed encryption, very low power consumption, and algorithmic integrity. To get a low power consuming and ultra-high speed encryption at the ATM machine, an optimized and wavelet based AES algorithm is proposed. In this system biometric and cryptography techniques are used together for personal identity authentication to improve the security level. The design of the wavelet based AES processor is simulated and the design of the energy efficient AES processor is simulated in Quartus-II software. Simulation results ensure its proper functionality. A comparison among other research works proves its superiority.

  17. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 14, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used

  18. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Eastern Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the eastern Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create

  19. ATM Coastal Topography-Texas, 2001: UTM Zone 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipp, Emily S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Yates, Xan; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Texas coastline within UTM zone 15, from Matagorda Peninsula to Galveston Island, acquired October 12-13, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant

  20. ATM Coastal Topography-Florida 2001: Western Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the western Florida panhandle coastline, acquired October 2-4 and 7-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used

  1. Wireless ATM: A Technologi cal Framework to m-banking

    OpenAIRE

    Susmi Routray; A. M. Sherry; B. V. R. Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Mobile and Wireless communication devices are becoming enablers for organizations to conduct business more effectively and efficiently. One of the most effective applications is mobile banking (m-banking). For any application to gain recognition technological advancements play a vital role. To make m-banking application a success bandwidth management is an important issue. The incr eased flexibility and mobility feature of wireless ATM and its bandwidth on demand fu...

  2. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs enhances radiosensitivity and increases the levels of ATM and ATR in NSCLC cells exposed to carbon ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Yang, Xinrui; Yang, Zhen; Ran, Juntao; Zhang, Qiuning; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits radioresistance to conventional rays, due to its DNA damage repair systems. NSCLC may potentially be sensitized to radiation treatment by reducing those factors that continuously enhance the repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, normal lung fibroblast MRC-5 and lung cancer A549 cells were treated with NU7026 and CGK733, which are inhibitors of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (PKcs) and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), respectively, followed by exposure to X-rays and carbon ion irradiation. The cytotoxic activity, cell survival rate, DNA damage repair ability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rate of the treated cells were analyzed with MTT assay, colony formation assay, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, respectively. The transcription and translation levels of the ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs genes were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The results indicated that the radiosensitivity and DNA repair ability of A549 cells were reduced, and the percentages of apoptotic cells and those arrested at the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle were significantly increased, following ionizing radiation with inhibitor-pretreatment. The expression levels of ATM, ATR, DNA-PKcs and phosphorylated histone H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were all upregulated at the transcriptional or translational level in A549 cells treated with carbon ion irradiation, compared with the control and X-rays-treated cells. In addition, the treatment with 5-50 µM NU7026 or CGK733 did not produce any obvious cytotoxicity in MRC-5 cells, and the effect of the DNA-PKcs-inhibitor on enhancing the radiosensitivity of A549 cells was stronger than that observed for the ATM and ATR-inhibitor. These findings demonstrated a minor role for ATM and ATR in radiation-induced cell death, since the upregulation of

  3. Studies of ATM for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Bystrický, J; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some of the conclusions of our studies on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) and fast Ethernet in the ATLAS level-2 trigger pilot project. We describe the general concept and principles of our data-collection and event-building scheme that could be transposed to various experiments in high-energy and nuclear physics. To validate the approach in view of ATLAS high-level triggers, we assembled a testbed composed of up to 48 computers linked by a 7.5-Gbit/s ATM switch. This modular switch is used as a single entity or is split into several smaller interconnected switches. This allows study of how to construct a large network from smaller units. Alternatively, the ATM network can be replaced by fast Ethernet. We detail the operation of the system and present series of performance measurements made with event-building traffic pattern. We extrapolate these results to show how today's commercial networking components could be used to build a 1000-port network adequate for ATLAS needs. Lastly, we li...

  4. ATM is required for SOD2 expression and homeostasis within the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Lisa M; Kepple, Jessica D; Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Stanton, Virginia L; Reinhard, Mary K; Backman, Lindsey R F; Streitfeld, W Scott; Babu, Nivetha Ramesh; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; McKinnon, Peter J; Brown, Kevin D

    2017-12-01

    ATM activates the NF-κB transcriptional complex in response to genotoxic and oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine if the NF-κB target gene and critical antioxidant SOD2 (MnSOD) in cultured mammary epithelium is also ATM-dependent, and what phenotypes arise from deletion of ATM and SOD2 within the mammary gland. SOD2 expression was studied in human mammary epithelial cells and MCF10A using RNAi to knockdown ATM or the NF-κB subunit RelA. To study ATM and SOD2 function in mammary glands, mouse lines containing Atm or Sod2 genes containing LoxP sites were mated with mice harboring Cre recombinase under the control of the whey acidic protein promoter. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression, and mammary gland structure was studied using histology. SOD2 expression is ATM- and RelA-dependent, ATM knockdown renders cells sensitive to pro-oxidant exposure, and SOD mimetics partially rescue this sensitivity. Mice with germline deletion of Atm fail to develop mature mammary glands, but using a conditional knockout approach, we determined that Atm deletion significantly diminished the expression of Sod2. We also observed that these mice (termed Atm Δ/Δ ) displayed a progressive lactation defect as judged by reduced pup growth rate, aberrant lobulo-alveolar structure, diminished milk protein gene expression, and increased apoptosis within lactating glands. This phenotype appears to be linked to dysregulated Sod2 expression as mammary gland-specific deletion of Sod2 phenocopies defects observed in Atm Δ/Δ dams. We conclude that ATM is required to promote expression of SOD2 within the mammary epithelium, and that both ATM and SOD2 play a crucial role in mammary gland homeostasis.

  5. Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum pyruvate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Cook

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase plays a critical role in cellular metabolism of glucose by serving as a major regulator of glycolysis. This tetrameric enzyme is allosterically regulated by different effector molecules, mainly phosphosugars. In response to binding of effector molecules and substrates, significant structural changes have been identified in various pyruvate kinase structures. Pyruvate kinase of Cryptosporidium parvum is exceptional among known enzymes of protozoan origin in that it exhibits no allosteric property in the presence of commonly known effector molecules. The crystal structure of pyruvate kinase from C. parvum has been solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. In the active site a glycerol molecule is located near the γ-phosphate site of ATP, and the protein structure displays a partially closed active site. However, unlike other structures where the active site is closed, the α6' helix in C. parvum pyruvate kinase unwinds and assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal structure a sulfate ion is found at a site that is occupied by a phosphate of the effector molecule in many pyruvate kinase structures. A new feature of the C. parvum pyruvate kinase structure is the presence of a disulfide bond cross-linking the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. The disulfide bond is formed between cysteine residue 26 in the short N-helix of one monomer with cysteine residue 312 in a long helix (residues 303-320 of the second monomer at the interface of these monomers. Both cysteine residues are unique to C. parvum, and the disulfide bond remained intact in a reduced environment. However, the significance of this bond, if any, remains unknown at this time.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-1 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center Approved Testing Material ATM-1 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates nonradioactive constituents and uranium to represent high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. Its composition is based upon the simulated HLW glass type 76-68 to which depleted uranium has been added as UO 2 . Three separate lots of ATM-1 glass have been fabricated, designated ATM-1a, ATM-1b, and ATM-1c. Limited analyses and microstructural evaluations were conducted on each type. Each lot of ATM-1 glass was produced from a feedstock melted in an air atmosphere at between 1150 to 1200 0 C and cast into stress annealed rectangular bars. Bars of ATM-1a were nominally 1.3 x 1.3 x 7.6 cm (approx.36 g each), bars of ATM-1b were nominally 2 x 2.5 x 17.5 cm (approx.190 g each) and bars of ATM-1c were nominally 1.9 x 1.9 x 15 cm (approx.170 g each). Thirteen bars of ATM-1a, 14 bars of ATM-1b, and 6 bars of ATM-1c were produced. Twelve random samples from each of lots ATM-1a, ATM-1b, and ATM-1c were analyzed. The concentrations (except for U and Cs) were obtained by Inductively-Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis. Cesium analysis was performed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, while uranium was analyzed by Pulsed Laser Fluorometry. X-ray diffraction analysis of four samples indicated that lot ATM-1a had no detectable crystalline phases (<3 wt %), while ATM-1b and ATM-1c contained approx.3 to 5 wt % iron-chrome spinel crystals. These concentrations of secondary spinel component are not considered uncommon. Scanning electron microscopy examination of fracture surfaces revealed only a random, apparently crystalline, second phase (1-10 μm diam) and a random distribution of small voids or bubbles (approx.1 μm nominal diam)

  7. Requirement of Sequences outside the Conserved Kinase Domain of Fission Yeast Rad3p for Checkpoint Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Carolyn Riley; Evans, Sarah Tyler; Carr, Antony M.; Enoch, Tamar

    1999-01-01

    The fission yeast Rad3p checkpoint protein is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related family of protein kinases, which includes human ATMp. Mutation of the ATM gene is responsible for the disease ataxia-telangiectasia. The kinase domain of Rad3p has previously been shown to be essential for function. Here, we show that although this domain is necessary, it is not sufficient, because the isolated kinase domain does not have kinase activity in vitro and cannot complement a rad3 deletion strain. Using dominant negative alleles of rad3, we have identified two sites N-terminal to the conserved kinase domain that are essential for Rad3p function. One of these sites is the putative leucine zipper, which is conserved in other phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related family members. The other is a novel motif, which may also mediate Rad3p protein–protein interactions. PMID:10512862

  8. Downregulation of ATM Gene and Protein Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-Ferreira, T M M; Bueno, R C; Terra, E M; Avante, M L; Tinucci-Costa, M; Carvalho, M; Cassali, G D; Linde, S D; Rogatto, S R; Laufer-Amorim, R

    2016-11-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein associated with DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. In women, ATM transcript and protein downregulation have been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas, and the absence of ATM protein expression has been associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate ATM gene and protein expression in canine mammary tumors and their association with clinical outcome. ATM gene and protein expression was evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in normal mammary gland samples (n = 10), benign mammary tumors (n = 11), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 19), and metastatic mammary carcinomas (n = 11). Lower ATM transcript levels were detected in benign mammary tumors and carcinomas compared with normal mammary glands (P = .011). Similarly, lower ATM protein expression was observed in benign tumors (P = .0003), nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas (P ATM gene or protein levels were detected among benign tumors and nonmetastatic and metastatic mammary carcinomas (P > .05). The levels of ATM gene or protein expression were not significantly associated with clinical and pathological features or with survival. Similar to human breast cancer, the data in this study suggest that ATM gene and protein downregulation is involved in canine mammary gland tumorigenesis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of a human ATM gene analogue at Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V.

    2001-12-01

    The human ATM gene, whose inactivation is responsible for the human disease ataxia telangiectasia is conserved throughout the Eukaryotes and plays an important role in the cellular responses to DNA damage, in particular to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we describe the identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of ATM (AtATM), and the molecular and cytological characterization of plants, hereafter called atm, carrying a disrupting T-DNA insertion in this gene. AtATM covers a 32 kb region on chromosome 3. The AtATM transcript has a complex structure, is 12 kb long and formed by 79 exons. The transcriptional level of AtATM is very low in all the tissues tested, and does not vary after exposure to ionizing radiations (IR). In atm plants, the protein is not detected suggesting the mutants are null. The atm mutants are partially sterile. Aberrant segregation of chromosomes during meiosis I on both male and female sides account for this sterility. However, meiotic recombination frequency is normal. Mutant plants are also hypersensitive to gamma rays and methyl methane sulfonate, but not to UV-B, pointing to a specific defect of atm mutants in the response to DNA DSBs. In plants, ionizing radiations induce a strong, rapid and transient transcriptional activation of genes involved in the cellular response to or the repair of DSBs. This transcriptional regulation of AtRAD51, AtPARP1, atGR1 and AtL1G4 is lost in the atm mutants . The absence of AtRAD51 induction associated with ionizing radiation sensitivity suggest that AtAtm play an important function in DSB repair by homologous recombination. In addition we show that homologous intra-chromosomal recombination frequency is elevated in the mutant comparing to wild-type, with or without gamma irradiation. These results show the implication of AtAtm in the genomic stability. (author)

  10. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  11. Development of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for NPOESS C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, C.; Kunkee, D.

    2008-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is planned for flight on the first NPOESS mission (C1) in 2013. The C1 ATMS will be the second instrument of the ATMS series and will provide along with the companion Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles for NPOESS. The first flight of the ATMS is scheduled in 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, which is an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. This poster will focus on the development of the ATMS for C1 including aspects of the sensor calibration, antenna beam and RF characteristics and scanning. New design aspects of the C1 ATMS, required primarily by parts obsolescence, will also be addressed in this poster.

  12. HealthATM: personal health cyberinfrastructure for underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Nathan E; Horan, Thomas A; Thoms, Brian P

    2011-05-01

    There is an opportunity for personal health record (PHR) systems to play a vital role in fostering health self-management within underserved populations. If properly designed and promoted, it is possible that patients will use PHRs to become more empowered in taking an active role toward managing their health needs. This research examines the potential of a cyberinfrastructure-based PHR to encourage patient activation in health care, while also having population health implications. A multi-phased, iterative research approach was used to design and evaluate a PHR system called HealthATM, which utilizes services from a cloud computing environment. These services were integrated into an ATM-style interface aimed at providing a broad range of health consumers with the ability to manage health conditions and encourage accomplishment of health goals. Evaluation of the PHR included 115 patients who were clients of several free clinics in Los Angeles County. The majority of patients perceived ease of use (74%) and confidence (73%) in using the HealthATM system, and thought they would like to use it frequently (73%). Patients also indicated a belief in being responsible for their own health. However, fewer felt as though they were able to maintain necessary life changes to improve their health. Findings from the field tests suggest that PHRs can be a beneficial health management tool for underserved populations. In order for these types of tools to be effective within safety-net communities, they must be technically accessible and provide meaningful opportunities to increase patient engagement in their health care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  14. Design Issues for Traffic Management for the ATM UBR + Service for TCP Over Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj

    1999-01-01

    This project was a comprehensive research program for developing techniques for improving the performance of Internet protocols over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based satellite networks. Among the service categories provided by ATM networks, the most commonly used category for data traffic is the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. UBR allows sources to send data into the network without any feedback control. The project resulted in the numerous ATM Forum contributions and papers.

  15. A Methodology to Integrate Security and Cost-effectiveness in ATM

    OpenAIRE

    Matarese, Francesca; Montefusco, Patrizia; Neves, José; Rocha, André

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the definition of a new methodology for carrying out security risk assessment in the air traffic management (ATM) domain so as to enhance security awareness and integrate secure and cost-effective design objectives. This process is carried out by modelling the system, identifying the assets, threats and vulnerabilities, prioritizing the threats and proposing cost-effective countermeasures for the weaknesses found. ATM security is concerned with securing ATM a...

  16. Automated Biometric Voice-Based Access Control in Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)

    OpenAIRE

    Yekini N.A.; Itegboje A.O.; Oyeyinka I.K.; Akinwole A.K.

    2012-01-01

    An automatic teller machine requires a user to pass an identity test before any transaction can be granted. The current method available for access control in ATM is based on smartcard. Efforts were made to conduct an interview with structured questions among the ATM users and the result proofed that a lot of problems was associated with ATM smartcard for access control. Among the problems are; it is very difficult to prevent another person from attaining and using a legitimate persons card, ...

  17. APPLICATION OF QUEUING THEORY TO AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM) FACILITIES USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    UDOANYA RAYMOND MANUEL; ANIEKAN OFFIONG

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the importance of applying queuing theory to the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) using Monte Carlo Simulation in order to determine, control and manage the level of queuing congestion found within the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) centre in Nigeria and also it contains the empirical data analysis of the queuing systems obtained at the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) located within the Bank premises for a period of three (3) months. Monte Carlo Simulation is applied to th...

  18. The Landscape of Somatic Genetic Alterations in Breast Cancers From ATM Germline Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Britta; Bi, Rui; Kumar, Rahul; Blecua, Pedro; Mandelker, Diana L; Geyer, Felipe C; Pareja, Fresia; James, Paul A; Couch, Fergus J; Eccles, Diana M; Blows, Fiona; Pharoah, Paul; Li, Anqi; Selenica, Pier; Lim, Raymond S; Jayakumaran, Gowtham; Waddell, Nic; Shen, Ronglai; Norton, Larry; Wen, Hannah Y; Powell, Simon N; Riaz, Nadeem; Robson, Mark E; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2018-02-28

    Pathogenic germline variants in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a gene that plays a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle checkpoints, confer an increased breast cancer (BC) risk. Here, we investigated the phenotypic characteristics and landscape of somatic genetic alterations in 24 BCs from ATM germline mutation carriers by whole-exome and targeted sequencing. ATM-associated BCs were consistently hormone receptor positive and largely displayed minimal immune infiltrate. Although 79.2% of these tumors exhibited loss of heterozygosity of the ATM wild-type allele, none displayed high activity of mutational signature 3 associated with defective homologous recombination DNA (HRD) repair. No TP53 mutations were found in the ATM-associated BCs. Analysis of an independent data set confirmed that germline ATM variants and TP53 somatic mutations are mutually exclusive. Our findings indicate that ATM-associated BCs often harbor bi-allelic inactivation of ATM, are phenotypically distinct from BRCA1/2-associated BCs, lack HRD-related mutational signatures, and that TP53 and ATM genetic alterations are likely epistatic.

  19. ATM Quality of Service Parameters at 45 Mbps Using a Satellite Emulator: Laboratory Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of 45-Mbps DS3 intermediate-frequency loopback measurements of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service parameters (cell error ratio and cell loss ratio) are presented. These tests, which were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research, represent initial efforts to quantify the minimum parameters for stringent ATM applications, such as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video transmission. Portions of these results were originally presented to the International Telecommunications Union's ITU-R Working Party 4B in February 1996 in support of their Draft Preliminary Recommendation on the Transmission of ATM Traffic via Satellite.

  20. Premeiotic germ cell defect in seminiferous tubules of Atm-null testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Keiyo; Hirao, Atsushi; Ohmura, Masako; Azuma, Masaki; Arai, Fumio; Nagamatsu, Go; Suda, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong spermatogenesis is maintained by coordinated sequential processes including self-renewal of stem cells, proliferation of spermatogonial cells, meiotic division, and spermiogenesis. It has been shown that ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) is required for meiotic division of the seminiferous tubules. Here, we show that, in addition to its role in meiosis, ATM has a pivotal role in premeiotic germ cell maintenance. ATM is activated in premeiotic spermatogonial cells and the Atm-null testis shows progressive degeneration. In Atm-null testicular cells, differing from bone marrow cells of Atm-null mice, reactive oxygen species-mediated p16 Ink4a activation does not occur in Atm-null premeiotic germ cells, which suggests the involvement of different signaling pathways from bone marrow defects. Although Atm-null bone marrow undergoes p16 Ink4a -mediated cellular senescence program, Atm-null premeiotic germ cells exhibited cell cycle arrest and apoptotic elimination of premeiotic germ cells, which is different from p16 Ink4a -mediated senescence

  1. Basic residues in the 74-83 and 191-198 segments of protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit are implicated in negative but not in positive regulation by the beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Vaglio, P; Marin, O

    1997-01-01

    by the beta-subunit many fold more than that of alpha wild type, while extrastimulation by beta mutant D55L56E57A, observable with alpha wild type, is abolished with these mutants. These data support the conclusion that down regulation by the acidic residues clustered in the N-terminal moiety of beta...... is mediated by basic residues in the 74-83 and in the 191-198 sequences of the alpha-subunit. These are also implicated in substrate recognition consistent with the concept that the N-terminal acidic region of the beta subunit operates as a pseudosubstrate. In contrast, another CK2alpha mutant, V66A, is more...

  2. Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) Interface Control Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.

    2017-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) documents the airspace adaptation and air traffic inputs of NASA's Future ATM Concepts and Evaluation Tool (FACET). Its intended audience is the project manager, project team, development team, and stakeholders interested in interfacing with the system. FACET equips Air Traffic Management (ATM) researchers and service providers with a way to explore, develop and evaluate advanced air transportation concepts before they are field-tested and eventually deployed. FACET is a flexible software tool that is capable of quickly generating and analyzing thousands of aircraft trajectories. It provides researchers with a simulation environment for preliminary testing of advanced ATM concepts. Using aircraft performance profiles, airspace models, weather data, and flight schedules, the tool models trajectories for the climb, cruise, and descent phases of flight for each type of aircraft. An advanced graphical interface displays traffic patterns in two and three dimensions, under various current and projected conditions for specific airspace regions or over the entire continental United States. The system is able to simulate a full day's dynamic national airspace system (NAS) operations, model system uncertainty, measure the impact of different decision-makers in the NAS, and provide analysis of the results in graphical form, including sector, airport, fix, and airway usage statistics. NASA researchers test and analyze the system-wide impact of new traffic flow management algorithms under anticipated air traffic growth projections on the nation's air traffic system. In addition to modeling the airspace system for NASA research, FACET has also successfully transitioned into a valuable tool for operational use. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) traffic flow managers and commercial airline dispatchers have used FACET technology for real-time operations planning. FACET integrates live air traffic data from FAA radar systems and weather data

  3. A mathematical model for the detection mechanism of DNA double-strand breaks depending on autophosphorylation of ATM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Kazunari; Nacher, Jose C; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    After IR stress, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occur and repair proteins (RPs) bind to them, generating DSB-RP complexes (DSBCs), which results in repaired DSBs (RDSBs). In recent experimental studies, it is suggested that the ATM proteins detect these DNA lesions depending on the autophosphorylation of ATM which exists as a dimer before phosphorylation. Interestingly, the ATM proteins can work as a sensor for a small number of DSBs (approximately 18 DSBs in a cell after exposure to IR). Thus the ATM proteins amplify the small input signals based on the phosphorylation of the ATM dimer proteins. The true DSB-detection mechanism depending on ATM autophosphorylation has yet to be clarified. We propose a mathematical model for the detection mechanism of DSBs by ATM. Our model includes both a DSB-repair mechanism and an ATM-phosphorylation mechanism. We model the former mechanism as a stochastic process, and obtain theoretical mean values of DSBs and DSBCs. In the latter mechanism, it is known that ATM autophosphorylates itself, and we find that the autophosphorylation induces bifurcation of the phosphorylated ATM (ATM*). The bifurcation diagram depends on the total concentration of ATM, which makes three types of steady state diagrams of ATM*: monostable, reversible bistable, and irreversible bistable. Bistability exists depending on the Hill coefficient in the equation of ATM autophosphorylation, and it emerges as the total concentration of ATM increases. Combining these two mechanisms, we find that ATM* exhibits switch-like behaviour in the presence of bistability, and the detection time after DNA damage decreases when the total concentration of ATM increases. This work provides a mathematical model that explains the DSB-detection mechanism depending on ATM autophosphorylation. These results indicate that positive auto-regulation works both as a sensor and amplifier of small input signals.

  4. Defining ATM-Independent Functions of the Mre11 Complex with a Novel Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Nicolas, Laura; Yang-Lott, Katherine; Guryanova, Olga A; Levine, Ross L; Bassing, Craig H; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Petrini, John H J

    2016-02-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) occupies a central node of the DNA damage response (DDR) network and is required for ATM activation in response to DNA damage. Hypomorphic alleles of MRE11 and NBS1 confer embryonic lethality in ATM-deficient mice, indicating that the complex exerts ATM-independent functions that are essential when ATM is absent. To delineate those functions, a conditional ATM allele (ATM(flox)) was crossed to hypomorphic NBS1 mutants (Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) mice). Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) hematopoietic cells derived by crossing to vav(cre) were viable in vivo. Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) (VAV) mice exhibited a pronounced defect in double-strand break repair and completely penetrant early onset lymphomagenesis. In addition to repair defects observed, fragile site instability was noted, indicating that the Mre11 complex promotes genome stability upon replication stress in vivo. The data suggest combined influences of the Mre11 complex on DNA repair, as well as the responses to DNA damage and DNA replication stress. A novel mouse model was developed, by combining a vav(cre)-inducible ATM knockout mouse with an NBS1 hypomorphic mutation, to analyze ATM-independent functions of the Mre11 complex in vivo. These data show that the DNA repair, rather than DDR signaling functions of the complex, is acutely required in the context of ATM deficiency to suppress genome instability and lymphomagenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates cytokine-dependent cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    Full Text Available The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting

  6. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Loss of tumour-specific ATM protein expression is an independent prognostic factor in early resected NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lars F; Klimowicz, Alexander C; Otsuka, Shannon; Elegbede, Anifat A; Petrillo, Stephanie K; Williamson, Tyler; Williamson, Chris T; Konno, Mie; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Hao, Desiree; Morris, Don; Magliocco, Anthony M; Bebb, D Gwyn

    2017-06-13

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is critical in maintaining genomic integrity. In response to DNA double-strand breaks, ATM phosphorylates downstream proteins involved in cell-cycle checkpoint arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Here we investigate the frequency, and influence of ATM deficiency on outcome, in early-resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Tissue microarrays, containing 165 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded resected NSCLC tumours from patients diagnosed at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Canada, between 2003 and 2006, were analyzed for ATM expression using quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Both malignant cell-specific ATM expression and the ratio of ATM expression within malignant tumour cells compared to that in the surrounding tumour stroma, defined as the ATM expression index (ATM-EI), were measured and correlated with clinical outcome. ATM loss was identified in 21.8% of patients, and was unaffected by clinical pathological variables. Patients with low ATM-EI tumours had worse survival outcomes compared to those with high ATM-EI (p ATM-deficient patients may derive greater benefit from guideline-recommended adjuvant chemotherapy following surgical resection. Taken together, these results indicate that ATM loss seems to be an early event in NSCLC carcinogenesis and is an independent prognostic factor associated with worse survival in stage II/III patients.

  8. Nedd4 family interacting protein 1 (Ndfip1) is required for ubiquitination and nuclear trafficking of BRCA1-associated ATM activator 1 (BRAT1) during the DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ley-Hian; Chow, Yuh-Lit; Li, Yijia; Goh, Choo-Peng; Putz, Ulrich; Silke, John; Ouchi, Toru; Howitt, Jason; Tan, Seong-Seng

    2015-03-13

    During injury, cells are vulnerable to apoptosis from a variety of stress conditions including DNA damage causing double-stranded breaks. Without repair, these breaks lead to aberrations in DNA replication and transcription, leading to apoptosis. A major response to DNA damage is provided by the protein kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) that is capable of commanding a plethora of signaling networks for DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and even apoptosis. A key element in the DNA damage response is the mobilization of activating proteins into the cell nucleus to repair damaged DNA. BRAT1 is one of these proteins, and it functions as an activator of ATM by maintaining its phosphorylated status while also keeping other phosphatases at bay. However, it is unknown how BRAT1 is trafficked into the cell nucleus to maintain ATM phosphorylation. Here we demonstrate that Ndfip1-mediated ubiquitination of BRAT1 leads to BRAT1 trafficking into the cell nucleus. Without Ndfip1, BRAT1 failed to translocate to the nucleus. Under genotoxic stress, cells showed increased expression of both Ndfip1 and phosphorylated ATM. Following brain injury, neurons show increased expression of Ndfip1 and nuclear translocation of BRAT1. These results point to Ndfip1 as a sensor protein during cell injury and Ndfip1 up-regulation as a cue for BRAT1 ubiquitination by Nedd4 E3 ligases, followed by nuclear translocation of BRAT1. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. The crustal uplift determined at the Jakobshavn glacier (West Greenland) using ATM and GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Frumosu, Flavia Dalia; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    present both a predicted and observed crustal upliftfor the Jakobshavn glacier using ATM data (Airborne Topographic Mapper) from NASA ATM flights during 1997, 2005 and 2010 supplemented with data provided from continuous Global Positioning System (GPS), measurements made on bedrock between 2005...

  10. Investment and Usage of New Technologies : Evidence from a Shared ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, S.; Verboven, F.L.; Degryse, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    When new technologies become available, it is not only essential that firms have the correct investment incentives, but often also that consumers make the proper usage decisions. This paper studies investment and usage in a shared ATM network. Be- cause all banks coordinate their ATM investment

  11. Investment and Usage of New Technologies : Evidence from a Shared ATM Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, S.; Verboven, F.L.; Degryse, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    When new technologies become available, it is not only essential that firms have the correct investment incentives, but often also that consumers make the proper usage decisions. This paper studies investment and usage in a shared ATM network. Be- cause all banks coordinate their ATM investment

  12. Efficient Bandwidth Allocation for Integrated Services in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1999-01-01

    An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is proposed for supporting intergrated services in wireless ATM networks. These include CBR, VBR amd ABR types of traffic. The proposed scheme is based om A-PRMA for carrying ATM traffic in a dynamic TDMA type access system. It allows mobile users to adjust...

  13. ATM protein is located on presynaptic vesicles and its deficit leads to failures in synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Graham; Cheng, Aifang; Han, Yu Ray; Zhao, Teng; Du, Shengwang; Loy, Michael M T; Herrup, Karl; Plummer, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia is a multisystemic disorder that includes a devastating neurodegeneration phenotype. The ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) protein is well-known for its role in the DNA damage response, yet ATM is also found in association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures: endosomes and lysosomes, as well as neuronal synaptic vesicles. In keeping with this latter association, electrical stimulation of the Schaffer collateral pathway in hippocampal slices from ATM-deficient mice does not elicit normal long-term potentiation (LTP). The current study was undertaken to assess the nature of this deficit. Theta burst-induced LTP was reduced in Atm(-/-) animals, with the reduction most pronounced at burst stimuli that included 6 or greater trains. To assess whether the deficit was associated with a pre- or postsynaptic failure, we analyzed paired-pulse facilitation and found that it too was significantly reduced in Atm(-/-) mice. This indicates a deficit in presynaptic function. As further evidence that these synaptic effects of ATM deficiency were presynaptic, we used stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstruction revealed that ATM is significantly more closely associated with Piccolo (a presynaptic marker) than with Homer1 (a postsynaptic marker). These results underline how, in addition to its nuclear functions, ATM plays an important functional role in the neuronal synapse where it participates in the regulation of presynaptic vesicle physiology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Using attack-defense trees to analyze threats and countermeasures in an ATM: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraile, Marlon; Ford, Margaret; Gadyatskaya, Olga; Kumar, Rajesh; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    Securing automated teller machines (ATMs), as critical and complex infrastructure, requires a precise understanding of the associated threats. This paper reports on the application of attack-defense trees to model and analyze the security of ATMs.We capture the most dangerous multi-stage attack

  15. ATM haplotypes and cellular response to DNA damage: association with breast cancer risk and clinical radiosensitivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angele, S.; Romestaing, P.; Moullan, N.; Vuillaume, M.; Chapot, B.; Friesen, M.; Jongmans, W.; Cox, D.G.; Pisani, P.; Gerard, J.P.; Hall, J.

    2003-01-01

    The ATM gene, mutated in the cancer-prone and radiation-sensitive syndrome ataxia-telangiectasia (AT), could predispose to breast cancer (BC) development and adverse radiotherapy responses. Sixteen ATM variants were genotyped in 254 BC cases, 70 of whom were adverse radiotherapy responders (RS-BC),

  16. Analisis Tingkat Kepentingan Dan Kinerja Layanan Automated Teller Machine (Atm) Bank Mandiri

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, Lenny; Sugiharto, Toto

    2008-01-01

    Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk menganalisis tingkat kepentingan dan kinerja layananATM Bank Mandiri. Analisis Servqual yang terdiri atas dimensi tangible, realibility,responsiveness, assurance,dan empathy digunakan untuk menganalisis kinerjalayanan ATM. Sementara itu, Customer Satisfaction Index dan ImportancePerformance Analysis yang terdiri atas analisis kuadran dan analisis kesenjangandigunakan untuk menginvestigasi kepuasan pelanggan dan untuk mengidentifikasikandimensi layanan yang kiner...

  17. Thymidine kinases in archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, A.R.; Matakos, A.; Sandrini, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six fully sequenced archaeal genomes were searched for genes coding for putative deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs). We identified only 5 human-like thymidine kinase 1 genes (TK1s) and none for non-TK1 kinases. Four TK1s were identified in the Euryarchaea and one was found in the Crenarcha...

  18. Materials of 13. conference: ATM'92 - Advanced materials and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    13th conference on metal science, modern materials and technologies (ATM'92) has been held in Popowo near Warsaw, Poland in September 1992. The conference has been divided into 9 sections. There are: Plenary section (7 lectures); Functional materials (12 lectures); Methods of material microstructure shaping (5 lectures and 14 posters); Surface engineering (5 lectures and 27 posters); Composites (5 lectures and 9 posters); Iron alloys A (7 lectures and 8 posters); Iron alloys B (7 lectures and 18 posters); Non-ferrous metal alloys (7 lectures and 11 posters) and Methods for materials research (5 lectures and 23 posters). The new materials preparation, their properties and structure as well as a methods for obtaining a desirable properties of material or their surface have been broadly referred and discussed

  19. Analysis of components from drip tests with ATM-10 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1996-09-01

    Waste package assemblies consisting of actinide-doped West Valley ATM-10 reference glass and sensitized 304L stainless steel have been reacted with simulated repository groundwater using the Unsaturated Test Method. Analyses of surface corrosion and reaction products resulting from tests that were terminated at scheduled intervals between 13 and 52 weeks are reported. Analyses reveal complex interactions between the groundwater, the sensitized stainless steel waste form holder, and the glass. Alteration phases form that consist mainly of smectite clay, brockite, and an amorphous thorium iron titanium silicate, the latter two incorporating thorium, uranium, and possibly transuranics. The results from the terminated tests, combined with data from tests that are still ongoing, will help determine the suitability of glass waste forms in the proposed high-level repository at the Yucca Mountain Site

  20. The combined status of ATM and p53 link tumor development with therapeutic response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Hai; Reinhardt, H Christian; Bartkova, Jirina

    2009-01-01

    commonly used by tumors to bypass early neoplastic checkpoints ultimately determine chemotherapeutic response and generate tumor-specific vulnerabilities that can be exploited with targeted therapies. Specifically, evaluation of the combined status of ATM and p53, two commonly mutated tumor suppressor...... genes, can help to predict the clinical response to genotoxic chemotherapies. We show that in p53-deficient settings, suppression of ATM dramatically sensitizes tumors to DNA-damaging chemotherapy, whereas, conversely, in the presence of functional p53, suppression of ATM or its downstream target Chk2...... actually protects tumors from being killed by genotoxic agents. Furthermore, ATM-deficient cancer cells display strong nononcogene addiction to DNA-PKcs for survival after DNA damage, such that suppression of DNA-PKcs in vivo resensitizes inherently chemoresistant ATM-deficient tumors to genotoxic...

  1. Experiences with ATM in a multivendor pilot system at Forschungszentrum Julich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleines, H.; Ziemons, K.; Zwoll, K.

    1998-08-01

    The ATM technology for high speed serial transmission provides a new quality of communication by introducing novel features in a LAN environment, especially support of real time communication, of both LAN and WAN communication and of multimedia streams. In order to evaluate ATM for future DAQ systems and remote control systems as well as for a high speed picture archiving and communications system for medical images, Forschungszentrum Julich has build up a pilot system for the evaluation of ATM and standard low cost multimedia systems. It is a heterogeneous multivendor system containing a variety of switches and desktop solutions, employing different protocol options of ATM. The tests conducted in the pilot system revealed major difficulties regarding stability, interoperability and performance. The paper presents motivations, layout and results of the pilot system. Discussion of results concentrates on performance issues relevant for realistic applications, e.g., connection to a RAID system via NFS over ATM.

  2. 2-Aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Bui, Minna; Shen, Wang; Baskaran, Subramanian; Allen, Darin A; Elling, Robert A; Flanagan, W Michael; Fung, Amy D; Hanan, Emily J; Harris, Shannon O; Heumann, Stacey A; Hoch, Ute; Ivy, Sheryl N; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Lam, Stuart; Lee, Heman; McDowell, Robert S; Oslob, Johan D; Purkey, Hans E; Romanowski, Michael J; Silverman, Jeffrey A; Tangonan, Bradley T; Taverna, Pietro; Yang, Wenjin; Yoburn, Josh C; Yu, Chul H; Zimmerman, Kristin M; O'Brien, Tom; Lew, Willard

    2009-09-01

    This Letter describes the discovery and key structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of 2-aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors. 2-Aminobenzimidazole serves as a bioisostere of the biaryl urea residue of SNS-314 (1c), which is a potent Aurora kinase inhibitor and entered clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. Compared to SNS-314, this series of compounds offers better aqueous solubility while retaining comparable in vitro potency in biochemical and cell-based assays; in particular, 6m has also demonstrated a comparable mouse iv PK profile to SNS-314.

  3. Fibronectin phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Sumi; Sugiyama, Yayoi; Imada, Masaru

    1988-01-01

    The presence of membrane-associated, extracellular protein kinase (ecto-protein kinase) and its substrate proteins was examined with serum-free cultures of Swiss 3T3 fibroblast. When cells were incubated with [γ- 32 ]ATP for 10 min at 37 degree C, four proteins with apparent molecular weights between 150 and 220 kDa were prominently phosphorylated. These proteins were also radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase catalyzed iodination and were sensitive to mild tryptic digestion, suggesting that they localized on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. Phosphorylation of extracellular proteins with [γ- 32 P]ATP in intact cell culture is consistent with the existence of ecto-protein kinase. Anti-fibronectin antibody immunoprecipitated one of the phosphoproteins which comigrated with a monomer and a dimer form of fibronectin under reducing and nonreducing conditions of electrophoresis, respectively. The protein had affinity for gelatin as demonstrated by retention with gelatin-conjugated agarose. This protein substrate of ecto-protein kinase was thus concluded to be fibronectin. The sites of phosphorylation by ecto-protein kinase were compared with those of intracellularly phosphorylated fibronectin by the analysis of radiolabeled amino acids and peptides. Ecto-protein kinase phosphorylated fibronectin at serine and threonine residues which were distinct from the sites of intracellular fibronectin phosphorylation

  4. Involvement of DNA-PK and ATM in radiation- and heat-induced DNA damage recognition and apoptotic cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and hyperthermia results in important biological consequences, e.g. cell death, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, and DNA strand breaks. There is good evidence that the nucleus, specifically cellular DNA, is the principal target for radiation-induced cell lethality. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered to be the most serious type of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. On the other hand, verifiable mechanisms which can lead to heat-induced cell death are damage to the plasma membrane and/or inactivation of heat-labile proteins caused by protein denaturation and subsequent aggregation. Recently, several reports have suggested that DSBs can be induced after hyperthermia because heat-induced phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci formation can be observed in several mammalian cell lines. In mammalian cells, DSBs are repaired primarily through two distinct and complementary mechanisms: non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), and homologous recombination (HR) or homology-directed repair (HDR). DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are key players in the initiation of DSB repair and phosphorylate and/or activate many substrates, including themselves. These phosphorylated substrates have important roles in the functioning of cell cycle checkpoints and in cell death, as well as in DSB repair. Apoptotic cell death is a crucial cell suicide mechanism during development and in the defense of homeostasis. If DSBs are unrepaired or misrepaired, apoptosis is a very important system which can protect an organism against carcinogenesis. This paper reviews recently obtained results and current topics concerning the role of DNA-PK and ATM in heat- or radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. (author)

  5. Morphology and genomic hallmarks of breast tumours developed by ATM deleterious variant carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Anne-Laure; Mebirouk, Noura; Fuhrmann, Laetitia; Bataillon, Guillaume; Cavaciuti, Eve; Le Gal, Dorothée; Girard, Elodie; Popova, Tatiana; La Rosa, Philippe; Beauvallet, Juana; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; d'Enghien, Catherine Dubois; Laugé, Anthony; Chemlali, Walid; Raynal, Virginie; Labbé, Martine; Bièche, Ivan; Baulande, Sylvain; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Berthet, Pascaline; Caron, Olivier; Buecher, Bruno; Faivre, Laurence; Fresnay, Marc; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gesta, Paul; Janin, Nicolas; Lejeune, Sophie; Maugard, Christine; Moutton, Sébastien; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Zattara, Hélène; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Gladieff, Laurence; Coupier, Isabelle; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hall, Janet; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine; Lesueur, Fabienne

    2018-04-17

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management. To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Morphology of ATM-associated tumours was compared with that of 599 patients with no BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations from a hospital-based series, as well as with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Absolute copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles were obtained from the OncoScan SNP array. In addition, we performed whole-genome sequencing on four tumours from ATM loss-of-function variant carriers with available frozen material. We found that ATM-associated tumours belong mostly to the luminal B subtype, are tetraploid and show LOH at the ATM locus at 11q22-23. Unlike tumours in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 is inactivated, tumours arising in ATM deleterious variant carriers are not associated with increased large-scale genomic instability as measured by the large-scale state transitions signature. Losses at 13q14.11-q14.3, 17p13.2-p12, 21p11.2-p11.1 and 22q11.23 were observed. Somatic alterations at these loci may therefore represent biomarkers for ATM testing and harbour driver mutations in potentially 'druggable' genes that would allow patients to be directed towards tailored therapeutic strategies. Although ATM is involved in the DNA damage response, ATM-associated tumours are distinct from BRCA1-associated tumours in terms of morphological

  6. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  7. Mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 double heterozygosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jufang; Su, Fengtao; Smilenov, Lubomir B; Zhou, Libin; Hu, Wentao; Ding, Nan; Zhou, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that heterozygosity for a single gene is linked with tumorigenesis and heterozygosity for two genes increases the risk of tumor incidence. Our previous work has demonstrated that Atm/Brca1 double heterozygosity leads to higher cell transformation rate than single heterozygosity. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, a series of pathways were investigated to clarify the possible mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 heterozygosity. Wild type cells, Atm or Brca1 single heterozygous cells, and Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells were used to investigate DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, micronuclei, and cell transformation after photon irradiation. Remarkable high transformation frequency was confirmed in Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells compared to wild type cells. It was observed that delayed DNA damage recognition, disturbed cell cycle checkpoint, incomplete DNA repair, and increased genomic instability were involved in the biological networks. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 negatively impacts these pathways. The quantity of critical proteins such as ATM and BRCA1 plays an important role in determination of the fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and double heterozygosity increases the risk of tumorigenesis. These findings also benefit understanding of the individual susceptibility to tumor initiation

  8. Integrated Service Provisioning in an Ipv6 over ATM Research Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eli Dart; Helen Chen; Jerry Friesen; Jim Brandt; Jim Hutchins; Perry Robertson

    1999-02-01

    During the past few years, the worldwide Internet has grown at a phenomenal rate, which has spurred the proposal of innovative network technologies to support the fast, efficient and low-latency transport of a wide spectrum of multimedia traffic types. Existing network infrastructures have been plagued by their inability to provide for real-time application traffic as well as their general lack of resources and resilience to congestion. This work proposes to address these issues by implementing a prototype high-speed network infrastructure consisting of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) on top of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) transport medium. Since ATM is connection-oriented whereas IP uses a connection-less paradigm, the efficient integration of IPv6 over ATM is especially challenging and has generated much interest in the research community. We propose, in collaboration with an industry partner, to implement IPv6 over ATM using a unique approach that integrates IP over fast A TM hardware while still preserving IP's connection-less paradigm. This is achieved by replacing ATM's control software with IP's routing code and by caching IP's forwarding decisions in ATM's VPI/VCI translation tables. Prototype ''VR'' and distributed-parallel-computing applications will also be developed to exercise the realtime capability of our IPv6 over ATM network.

  9. Mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 double heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jufang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that heterozygosity for a single gene is linked with tumorigenesis and heterozygosity for two genes increases the risk of tumor incidence. Our previous work has demonstrated that Atm/Brca1 double heterozygosity leads to higher cell transformation rate than single heterozygosity. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, a series of pathways were investigated to clarify the possible mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 heterozygosity. Methods Wild type cells, Atm or Brca1 single heterozygous cells, and Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells were used to investigate DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, micronuclei, and cell transformation after photon irradiation. Results Remarkable high transformation frequency was confirmed in Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells compared to wild type cells. It was observed that delayed DNA damage recognition, disturbed cell cycle checkpoint, incomplete DNA repair, and increased genomic instability were involved in the biological networks. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 negatively impacts these pathways. Conclusions The quantity of critical proteins such as ATM and BRCA1 plays an important role in determination of the fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and double heterozygosity increases the risk of tumorigenesis. These findings also benefit understanding of the individual susceptibility to tumor initiation.

  10. Role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in porcine oocyte in vitro maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Li; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is critical for the DNA damage response, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. Significant effort has focused on elucidating the relationship between ATM and other nuclear signal transducers; however, little is known about the connection between ATM and oocyte meiotic maturation. We investigated the function of ATM in porcine oocytes. ATM was expressed at all stages of oocyte maturation and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Furthermore, the ATM-specific inhibitor KU-55933 blocked porcine oocyte maturation, reducing the percentages of oocytes that underwent germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and first polar body extrusion. KU-55933 also decreased the expression of DNA damage-related genes (breast cancer 1, budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1, and P53) and reduced the mRNA and protein levels of AKT and other cell cycle-regulated genes that are predominantly expressed during G2/M phase, including bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, cell division cycle protein 2, cyclinB1, and AKT. KU-55933 treatment decreased the developmental potential of blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation and increased the level of apoptosis. Together, these data suggested that ATM influenced the meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes, potentially by decreasing their sensitivity to DNA strand breaks, stimulating the AKT pathway, and/or altering the expression of other maternal genes. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. An asynchronous data-driven event-building scheme based on ATM switching fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letheren, M.; Christiansen, J.; Mandjavidze, I.; Verhille, H.; De Prycker, M.; Pauwels, B.; Petit, G.; Wright, S.; Lumley, J.

    1994-01-01

    The very high data rates expected in experiments at the next generation of high luminosity hadron colliders will be handled by pipelined front-end readout electronics and multiple levels (2 or 3) of triggering. A variety of data acquisition architectures have been proposed for use downstream of the first level trigger. Depending on the architecture, the aggregate bandwidths required for event building are expected to be of the order 10--100 Gbit/s. Here, an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) packet-switching network technology is proposed as the interconnect for building high-performance, scalable data acquisition architectures. This paper introduces the relevant characteristics of ATM and describes components for the construction of an ATM-based event builder: (1) a multi-path, self-routing, scalable ATM switching fabric, (2) an experimental high performance workstation ATM-interface, and (3) a VMEbus ATM-interface. The requirement for traffic shaping in ATM-based event-builders is discussed and an analysis of the performance of several such schemes is presented

  12. Human lymphocyte damage and phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM induced by γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Mei; Pan Yan; Liu Jianxiang; Ruan Jianlei; Su Xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate 60 Co γ-ray induced damage in lymphocytes and the relationship between doses of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation and the levels of phosphorylated H2AX and ATM. Methods: Cells were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays in the range of 0-8 Gy. The levels of phosphorylated H2AX and ATM were detected by Western blot and FACScan,respectively. The micronucleus(MN)was analyzed by CB method to evaluate DNA damage. Results: FACScan results showed the dose-effect relationship of γ-H2AX expression were linear.square at 0.5 h post-irradiation to different doses, and the fitting curve was shown as Y=3.96+11.29D-0.45D 2 . The level of phosphorylated ATM (p-ATM) was not changed significantly by using the same method. Western blot showed that p-ATM protein expression was significantly increased after irradiation compared with sham, irradiated group. The MN assay which represented DNA damage was sensitive to different doses. Conclusions: γ-ray irradiation could induce the phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM, which may play an important role in indicating DNA damage. Both of H2AX and ATM have the potential as sensitive biomarker and biodosimeter for radiation damage. (authors)

  13. Deregulation of mTOR signaling is involved in thymic lymphoma development in Atm-/- mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Xianghong; Shen, Jianjun; Wong, Paul K.Y.; Yan, Mingshan

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal thymocyte development with thymic lymphomagenesis inevitably occurs in Atm-/- mice, indicating that ATM plays a pivotal role in regulating postnatal thymocyte development and preventing thymic lymphomagenesis. The mechanism for ATM controls these processes is unclear. We have shown previously that c-Myc, an oncoprotein regulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is overexpressed in Atm-/- thymocytes. Here, we show that inhibition of mTOR signaling with its specific inhibitor, rapamycin, suppresses normal thymocyte DNA synthesis by downregulating 4EBP1, but not S6K, and that 4EBP1 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression are coordinately increased in Atm-/- thymocytes. Administration of rapamycin to Atm-/- mice attenuates elevated phospho-4EBP1, c-Myc and cyclin D1 in their thymocytes, and delays thymic lymphoma development. These results indicate that mTOR downstream effector 4EBP1 is essential for normal thymocyte proliferation, but deregulation of 4EBP1 in Atm deficiency is a major factor driving thymic lymphomagenesis in the animals.

  14. Promoter Hypermethylation of the ATM Gene as a Novel Biomarker for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begam, Nasrin; Jamil, Kaiser; Raju, Suryanarayana G

    2017-11-26

    Background: Breast cancer may be induced by activation of protooncogenes to oncogenes and in many cases inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important tumor suppressor gene which plays central roles in the maintenance of genomic integrity by activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting repair of double-strand breaks of DNA. In breast cancer, decrease ATM expression correlates with a poor outcome; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying downregulation are still unclear. Promoter hypermethylation may contribute in downregulation. Hence the present investigation was designed to evaluate promoter methylation and expression of the ATM gene in breast cancer cases, and to determine links with clinical and demographic manifestations, in a South Indian population. Methods: Tumor biopsy samples were collected from 50 pathologically confirmed sporadic breast cancer cases. DNA was isolated from tumor and adjacent non-tumorous regions, and sodium bisulfite conversion and methylation-specific PCR were performed using MS-PCR primers for the ATM promoter region. In addition, ATM mRNA expression was also analyzed for all samples using real-time PCR. Results: Fifty eight percent (58%) of cancer tissue samples showed promoter hypermethylation for the ATM gene, in contrast to only 4.44% of normal tissues (p= 0.0001). Furthermore, ATM promoter methylation was positively associated with age (p = 0.01), tumor size (p=0.045) and advanced stage of disease i.e. stages III and IV (p =0.019). An association between promoter hypermethylation and lower expression of ATM mRNA was also found (p=0.035). Conclusion: We report for the first time that promoter hypermethylation of ATM gene may be useful as a potential new biomarker for breast cancer, especially in the relatively young patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  15. Multiple access protocol for supporting multimedia services in wireless ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1999-01-01

    The furture broadband wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks must provide seamless extension of multimedia services from the wireline ATM networks. This requires an effecient wireless access protocol to fulfill varying Quality-og-Service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications....... In this paper, we propose a multiple access protocol using centralized and distributed channel access control techniques to provide QoS guarantees for multimedia services by taking advantage of the characteristics of different kinds of ATM traffics. Multimedia traffic, including constant bit rate (CBR...

  16. Preslikavanje parametara kvaliteta usluga na protokole ATM mreža

    OpenAIRE

    Milojko Jevtović

    2005-01-01

    Preslikavanje parametara kvaliteta usluga (Quality of Service - QoS) jedan je od bitnih elemenata u koncepciji ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) širokopojasnih mreža. U radu su opisani parametri QoS-a (verovatnoće pogrešnih ramova i ćelija, propusni opseg, kašnjenje ćelija, varijacija kašnjenja) koji se preslikavaju na protokole ATM mreža. Preslikavanje se izvodi između korisničkog i aplikacionog QoS-a, a aplikacioni QoS se preslikava na QoS prenosa i komutacije, odnosno na ATM protokole, tzv....

  17. Video transmission on ATM networks. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Chung

    1993-01-01

    The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

  18. NASA's ATM Technology Demonstration-1: Integrated Concept of Arrival Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Swenson, Harry N.; Prevot, Thomas; Callantine, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes operations and procedures envisioned for NASA s Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration #1 (ATD-1). The ATD-1 Concept of Operations (ConOps) demonstration will integrate three NASA technologies to achieve high throughput, fuel-efficient arrival operations into busy terminal airspace. They are Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering (TMA-TM) for precise time-based schedules to the runway and points within the terminal area, Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) decision support tools for terminal controllers to better manage aircraft delay using speed control, and Flight deck Interval Management (FIM) avionics and flight crew procedures to conduct airborne spacing operations. The ATD-1 concept provides de-conflicted and efficient operations of multiple arrival streams of aircraft, passing through multiple merge points, from top-of-descent (TOD) to touchdown. It also enables aircraft to conduct Optimized Profile Descents (OPDs) from en route altitude to the runway, using primarily speed control to maintain separation and schedule. The ATD-1 project is currently addressing the challenges of integrating the three technologies, and implantation into an operational environment. Goals of the ATD-1 demonstration include increasing the throughput of high-density airports, reducing controller workload, increasing efficiency of arrival operations and the frequency of trajectory-based operations, and promoting aircraft ADS-B equipage.

  19. Telemedicine with integrated data security in ATM-based networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Kurth, Ralf; Wenzel, Rudiger; Villringer, Arno; Tolxdorff, Thomas

    1997-05-01

    Telemedical services rely on the digital transfer of large amounts of data in a short time. The acceptance of these services requires therefore new hard- and software concepts. The fast exchange of data is well performed within a high- speed ATM-based network. The fast access to the data from different platforms imposes more difficult problems, which may be divided into those relating to standardized data formats and those relating to different levels of data security across nations. For a standardized access to the formats and those relating to different levels of data security across nations. For a standardized access to the image data, a DICOM 3.0 server was implemented.IMages were converted into the DICOM 3.0 standard if necessary. The access to the server is provided by an implementation of DICOM in JAVA allowing access to the data from different platforms. Data protection measures to ensure the secure transfer of sensitive patient data are not yet solved within the DICOM concept. We investigated different schemes to protect data using the DICOM/JAVA modality with as little impact on data transfer speed as possible.

  20. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  1. Transition to Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) an Implementation Model for NPS Software Metrics Lab

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carney, Cameron

    1999-01-01

    With Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), we are experiencing the emergence of a network technology that has the potential of satisfying the requirement for a worldwide standard to allow interoperability of information, regardless...

  2. Gender, academic achievement, and ownership of ATM as predictors of accounting students’ financial literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti; Hardini, H. T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between GPA, gender, and ownership of ATM on accounting students’ financial literacy (n = 184). Financial literacy was assessed using a paper-and-pencil objective (multiple choice) test measuring general knowledge of finance, income, money management savings, loans, and investment. Gender and GPA data were obtained from the university records. Regression analysis found that GPA and ownership of ATM were associated with financial literacy, but gender was not. Female students with an ownership of ATM and those with a high GPA were found to be superior to males. The implication of this research is that students are expected to increase their GPA and utilize financial facilities in the form of ownership ATM and other financial instruments so as to increase financial literacy. In addition, the need for financial literacy training from related parties to improve financial literacy for students who have low financial literacy.

  3. Pre-IceBridge ATM L2 Icessn Elevation, Slope, and Roughness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Pre-IceBridge ATM Level-2 Icessn Elevation, Slope, and Roughness (BLATM2) data set contains resampled and smoothed elevation measurements of Arctic and...

  4. Four-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2006-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. We have conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  5. Three-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2007-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. When we conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  6. ATM Mutations and the Development of Severe Radiation-Induced Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenstein, Barry S

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis being tested in this project is that a greater proportion of patients who develop radiation-induced subcutaneous late tissue morbidity possess a variant allele in the ATM gene compared...

  7. ATM Mutations and the Development of Severe Radiation-Induced Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenstein, Barry S

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis being tested in this project is that a greater proportion of patients who develop radiation-induced subcutaneous late tissue morbidity possess a variant allele in the ATM gene compared...

  8. Gene mutation in ATM/PI3K region of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongmei; Wu Xinyao; Xia Yunfei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To define the correlation between nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell radiosensitivity and gene mutation in the ATM/PI3K coding region. Methods: The gene mutation in the ATM/PI3K region of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines which vary in radiosensitivity, was monitored by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence-marked ddNTP cycle sequencing technique. Results: No gene mutation was detected in the ATM/PI3K region of either CNE1 or CNE2. Conclusion: Disparity in intrinsic radiosensitivity between different NPC cell lines depends on some other factors and mechanism without being related to ATM/PI3K mutations

  9. ATM QoS Experiments Using TCP Applications: Performance of TCP/IP Over ATM in a Variety of Errored Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Brian D.; Ivancic, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) experiments using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) were performed for various link delays. The link delay was set to emulate a Wide Area Network (WAN) and a Satellite Link. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the ATM QoS requirements for applications that utilize advance TCP/IP protocols implemented with large windows and Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK). The effects of cell error, cell loss, and random bit errors on throughput were reported. The detailed test plan and test results are presented herein.

  10. ATM Polymorphisms Are Associated With Risk of Radiation-Induced Pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Yang Ming; Bi Nan; Fang Mingjing; Sun Tong; Ji Wei; Tan Wen; Zhao Lujun; Yu Dianke; Lin Dongxin; Wang Luhua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Since the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein plays crucial roles in repair of double-stranded DNA breaks, control of cell cycle checkpoints, and radiosensitivity, we hypothesized that variations in this gene might be associated with radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 253 lung cancer patients receiving thoracic irradiation between 2004 and 2006 were included in this study. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 was used to grade RP. Five haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ATM gene were genotyped using DNA from blood lymphocytes. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of RP for genotypes were computed by the Cox model, adjusted for clinical factors. The function of the ATM SNP associated with RP was examined by biochemical assays. Results: During the median 22-month follow-up, 44 (17.4%) patients developed grade ≥ 2 RP. In multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for other clinical predictors, we found two ATM variants were independently associated with increased RP risk. They were an 111G > A) polymorphism (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.07-5.80) and an ATM 126713G > A polymorphism (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.16-5.28). Furthermore, genotype-dependent differences in ATM expression were demonstrated both in cell lines (p < 0.001) and in individual lung tissue samples (p = 0.003), which supported the results of the association study. Conclusions: Genetic polymorphisms of ATM are significantly associated with RP risk. These variants might exert their effect through regulation of ATM expression and serve as independent biomarkers for prediction of RP in patients treated with thoracic radiotherapy.

  11. Factors affecting on customers’ satisfaction an empirical investigation of ATM service

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbhar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    The present empirical study focuses on identifying key factors that have influences customers satisfaction in ATM service provided by public and private sector banks. For the purpose of the study primary data were collected using schedule and collected data from March to November 2010. Results of factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis show that a cost effectiveness, easy to use and security and responsiveness in ATM service were most important factors in customer satisfaction.

  12. ATM/RB1 mutations predict shorter overall survival in urothelial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Grivas, Petros; Emamekhoo, Hamid; Mendiratta, Prateek; Ali, Siraj; Hsu, JoAnn; Vasekar, Monali; Drabick, Joseph J; Pal, Sumanta; Joshi, Monika

    2018-03-30

    Mutations of DNA repair genes, e.g. ATM/RB1 , are frequently found in urothelial cancer (UC) and have been associated with better response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Further external validation of the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations in UC can inform clinical decision making and trial designs. In the discovery dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 24% of patients and were associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 2.67, 95% CI, 1.45-4.92, p = 0.002). There was a higher mutation load in patients carrying ATM/RB1 mutations (median mutation load: 6.7 versus 5.5 per Mb, p = 0.072). In the validation dataset, ATM/RB1 mutations were present in 22.2% of patients and were non-significantly associated with shorter OS (adjusted HR 1.87, 95% CI, 0.97-3.59, p = 0.06) and higher mutation load (median mutation load: 8.1 versus 7.2 per Mb, p = 0.126). Exome sequencing data of 130 bladder UC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed as a discovery cohort to determine the prognostic value of ATM/RB1 mutations. Results were validated in an independent cohort of 81 advanced UC patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare overall survival (OS). ATM/RB1 mutations may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in unselected UC patients and may correlate with higher mutational load. Further studies are required to determine factors that can further stratify prognosis and evaluate predictive role of ATM/RB1 mutation status to immunotherapy and platinum-based chemotherapy.

  13. Expression and clinical significance of ATM and PUMA gene in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Jiangnan

    2017-12-01

    The expression of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) genes in patients with colorectal cancer were investigated, to explore the correlation between the expression of ATM and PUMA and tumor development, to evaluate the clinical significance of ATM and PUMA in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of ATM and PUMA in tumor tissue and adjacent healthy tissue of 67 patients with colorectal cancer and in normal colorectal tissue of 33 patients with colorectal polyps at mRNA level. The expression level of ATM mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in normal mucosa tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissue (P≤0.05), while no significant differences in expression level of ATM mRNA were found between normal mucosa tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue (P=0.07). There was a negative correlation between the expression of ATM mRNA and the degree of differentiation of colorectal cancer (r= -0.312, P=0.013), while expression level of ATM mRNA was not significantly correlated with the age, sex, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis or clinical stage (P>0.05). Expression levels of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues, adjacent noncancerous tissue and normal tissues were 0.68±0.07, 0.88±0.04 and 1.76±0.06, respectively. Expression level of PUMA mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissue was significantly lower than that in normal colorectal tissues (PATM mRNA is expressed abnormally in colorectal cancer tissues. Expression of PUMA gene in colorectal carcinoma is downregulated, and is negatively correlated with the occurrence of cancer.

  14. Ataxia-telangiectasia gene (ATM) mutation heterozygosity in breast cancer: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerzak, K J; Mancuso, T; Eisen, A

    2018-04-01

    Despite the fact that heterozygosity for a pathogenic ATM variant is present in 1%-2% of the adult population, clinical guidelines to inform physicians and genetic counsellors about optimal management in that population are lacking. In this narrative review, we describe the challenges and controversies in the management of women who are heterozygous for a pathogenic ATM variant with respect to screening for breast and other malignancies, to choices for systemic therapy, and to decisions about radiation therapy. Given that the lifetime risk for breast cancer in women who are heterozygous for a pathogenic ATM variant is likely greater than 25%, those women should undergo annual mammographic screening starting at least by 40 years of age. For women in this group who have a strong family history of breast cancer, earlier screening with both magnetic resonance imaging and mammography should be considered. High-quality data to inform the management of established breast cancer in carriers of pathogenic ATM variants are lacking. Although deficiency in the ATM gene product might confer sensitivity to dna-damaging pharmaceuticals such as inhibitors of poly (adp-ribose) polymerase or platinum agents, prospective clinical trials have not been conducted in the relevant patient population. Furthermore, the evidence with respect to radiation therapy is mixed; some data suggest increased toxicity, and other data suggest improved clinical benefit from radiation in women who are carriers of a pathogenic ATM variant. As in the 2017 U.S. National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, we recommend high-risk imaging for women in Ontario who are heterozygous for a pathogenic ATM variant. Currently, ATM carrier status should not influence decisions about systemic or radiation therapy in the setting of an established breast cancer diagnosis.

  15. The Design and Analysis of Virtual Network Configuration for a Wireless Mobile ATM Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Stephen F.

    1999-01-01

    This research concentrates on the design and analysis of an algorithm referred to as Virtual Network Configuration (VNC) which uses predicted future states of a system for faster network configuration and management. VNC is applied to the configuration of a wireless mobile ATM network. VNC is built on techniques from parallel discrete event simulation merged with constraints from real-time systems and applied to mobile ATM configuration and handoff. Configuration in a mobile network is a dyna...

  16. Fabrication and characterization of MCC [Materials Characterization Center] approved testing material: ATM-10 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center ATM-10 glass represents a reference commercial high-level waste form similar to that which will be produced by the West Valley Nuclear Service Co. Inc., West Valley, New York. The target composition and acceptable range of composition were defined by the sponsor, West Valley Nuclear Service. The ATM-10 glass was produced in accordance with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of the work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-10 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. All of the ATM-10 glass was produced in the form of bars 1.9 /times/ 1.9 /times/ 10 cm nominal size, and 93 g nominal mass. A total of 15 bars of ATM-10 glass weighing 1394 g was produced. The production bars were characterized to determine the mean composition, oxidation state, and microstructure of the ATM-10 product. Table A summarizes the characterization results. The ATM-10 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the specifications of the client. Visually, the ATM-10 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination revealed low (less than 2 wt %) concentractions of 3-μm iron-chrome (suspected spinel) crystals and /approximately/0.5-μm ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 5 to 250 μm, was observed in all samples. 4 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs

  17. Dynamic Allostery Mediated by a Conserved Tryptophan in the Tec Family Kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Chopra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk is a Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a critical role in immune signaling and is associated with the immunological disorder X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. Our previous findings showed that the Tec kinases are allosterically activated by the adjacent N-terminal linker. A single tryptophan residue in the N-terminal 17-residue linker mediates allosteric activation, and its mutation to alanine leads to the complete loss of activity. Guided by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results, we have employed Molecular Dynamics simulations, Principal Component Analysis, Community Analysis and measures of node centrality to understand the details of how a single tryptophan mediates allostery in Btk. A specific tryptophan side chain rotamer promotes the functional dynamic allostery by inducing coordinated motions that spread across the kinase domain. Either a shift in the rotamer population, or a loss of the tryptophan side chain by mutation, drastically changes the coordinated motions and dynamically isolates catalytically important regions of the kinase domain. This work also identifies a new set of residues in the Btk kinase domain with high node centrality values indicating their importance in transmission of dynamics essential for kinase activation. Structurally, these node residues appear in both lobes of the kinase domain. In the N-lobe, high centrality residues wrap around the ATP binding pocket connecting previously described Catalytic-spine residues. In the C-lobe, two high centrality node residues connect the base of the R- and C-spines on the αF-helix. We suggest that the bridging residues that connect the catalytic and regulatory architecture within the kinase domain may be a crucial element in transmitting information about regulatory spine assembly to the catalytic machinery of the catalytic spine and active site.

  18. Structure-function similarities between a plant receptor-like kinase and the human interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus-Heisen, Dörte; Nurisso, Alessandra; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, Anna; Mbengue, Malick; Camut, Sylvie; Timmers, Ton; Pichereaux, Carole; Rossignol, Michel; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Imberty, Anne; Lefebvre, Benoit; Cullimore, Julie V

    2011-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has previously shown that plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are monophyletic with respect to the kinase domain and share an evolutionary origin with the animal interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase/Pelle-soluble kinases. The lysin motif domain-containing receptor-like kinase-3 (LYK3) of the legume Medicago truncatula shows 33% amino acid sequence identity with human IRAK-4 over the kinase domain. Using the structure of this animal kinase as a template, homology modeling revealed that the plant RLK contains structural features particular to this group of kinases, including the tyrosine gatekeeper and the N-terminal extension α-helix B. Functional analysis revealed the importance of these conserved features for kinase activity and suggests that kinase activity is essential for the biological role of LYK3 in the establishment of the root nodule nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria. The kinase domain of LYK3 has dual serine/threonine and tyrosine specificity, and mass spectrometry analysis identified seven serine, eight threonine, and one tyrosine residue as autophosphorylation sites in vitro. Three activation loop serine/threonine residues are required for biological activity, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Thr-475 is the prototypical phosphorylated residue that interacts with the conserved arginine in the catalytic loop, whereas Ser-471 and Thr-472 may be secondary sites. A threonine in the juxtamembrane region and two threonines in the C-terminal lobe of the kinase domain are important for biological but not kinase activity. We present evidence that the structure-function similarities that we have identified between LYK3 and IRAK-4 may be more widely applicable to plant RLKs in general.

  19. ATM regulates 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase and promotes therapeutic resistance to alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Sameer; Burrell, Kelly; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Remke, Marc; Golbourn, Brian; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; Gajadhar, Aaron; Fernandez, Nestor A; Clarke, Ian D; Barszczyk, Mark S; Pajovic, Sanja; Ternamian, Christian; Head, Renee; Sabha, Nesrin; Sobol, Robert W; Taylor, Michael D; Rutka, James T; Jones, Chris; Dirks, Peter B; Zadeh, Gelareh; Hawkins, Cynthia

    2014-10-01

    Alkylating agents are a first-line therapy for the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including pediatric glioblastoma, a lethal tumor in children. Unfortunately, many tumors are resistant to this therapy. We sought to identify ways of sensitizing tumor cells to alkylating agents while leaving normal cells unharmed, increasing therapeutic response while minimizing toxicity. Using an siRNA screen targeting over 240 DNA damage response genes, we identified novel sensitizers to alkylating agents. In particular, the base excision repair (BER) pathway, including 3-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), as well as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), were identified in our screen. Interestingly, we identified MPG as a direct novel substrate of ATM. ATM-mediated phosphorylation of MPG was required for enhanced MPG function. Importantly, combined inhibition or loss of MPG and ATM resulted in increased alkylating agent-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and prolonged survival in vivo. The discovery of the ATM-MPG axis will lead to improved treatment of alkylating agent-resistant tumors. Inhibition of ATM and MPG-mediated BER cooperate to sensitize tumor cells to alkylating agents, impairing tumor growth in vitro and in vivo with no toxicity to normal cells, providing an ideal therapeutic window. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Downregulated Ku70 and ATM associated to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer among Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuanfang Lu,1,2 Jingyan Gao,1,3 Yuanming Lu,1 1Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guilin Medical University, Guangxi, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Clinical Research Center, Affiliated 2nd Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Background: Double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs are a key factor in carcinogenesis. The necessary repair of DSBs is pivotal in maintaining normal cell division. To address the relationship between altered expression of DSB repair of proteins Ku70 and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM in colorectal cancer (CRC, we examined the expression levels and patterns of Ku70 and ATM in CRC samples. Methods: Expression and coexpression of Ku70 and ATM were investigated by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays and confirmed further with fluorescent immunohistochemistry in CRC and pericancerous samples from 112 Chinese patients. Results: Downexpression patterns for both Ku70 and ATM were found in the CRC samples and were significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis stage and decreased 5-year overall survival rate. Conclusion: Downregulated Ku70 and ATM were associated with poor disease-free survival. Loss of Ku70 and ATM expression might act as a biomarker to predict poor prognosis in patients with CRC. Keywords: DNA double-strand breaks, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, Ku70, colorectal cancer

  1. ATM-Dependent Phosphorylation of All Three Members of the MRN Complex: From Sensor to Adaptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Martin F; Kozlov, Sergei; Gatei, Magtouf; Kijas, Amanda W

    2015-10-23

    The recognition, signalling and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) involves the participation of a multitude of proteins and post-translational events that ensure maintenance of genome integrity. Amongst the proteins involved are several which when mutated give rise to genetic disorders characterised by chromosomal abnormalities, cancer predisposition, neurodegeneration and other pathologies. ATM (mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and members of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN complex) play key roles in this process. The MRN complex rapidly recognises and locates to DNA DSB where it acts to recruit and assist in ATM activation. ATM, in the company of several other DNA damage response proteins, in turn phosphorylates all three members of the MRN complex to initiate downstream signalling. While ATM has hundreds of substrates, members of the MRN complex play a pivotal role in mediating the downstream signalling events that give rise to cell cycle control, DNA repair and ultimately cell survival or apoptosis. Here we focus on the interplay between ATM and the MRN complex in initiating signaling of breaks and more specifically on the adaptor role of the MRN complex in mediating ATM signalling to downstream substrates to control different cellular processes.

  2. Boosting ATM activity alleviates aging and extends lifespan in a mouse model of progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Minxian; Liu, Zuojun; Peng, Linyuan; Tang, Xiaolong; Meng, Fanbiao; Ao, Ying; Zhou, Mingyan; Wang, Ming; Cao, Xinyue; Qin, Baoming; Wang, Zimei; Zhou, Zhongjun; Wang, Guangming; Gao, Zhengliang; Xu, Jun; Liu, Baohua

    2018-05-02

    DNA damage accumulates with age (Lombard et al., 2005). However, whether and how robust DNA repair machinery promotes longevity is elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ATM-centered DNA damage response (DDR) progressively declines with senescence and age, while low dose of chloroquine (CQ) activates ATM, promotes DNA damage clearance, rescues age-related metabolic shift, and prolongs replicative lifespan. Molecularly, ATM phosphorylates SIRT6 deacetylase and thus prevents MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Extra copies of Sirt6 extend lifespan in Atm-/- mice, with restored metabolic homeostasis. Moreover, the treatment with CQ remarkably extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans , but not the ATM-1 mutants. In a progeria mouse model with low DNA repair capacity, long-term administration of CQ ameliorates premature aging features and extends lifespan. Thus, our data highlights a pro-longevity role of ATM, for the first time establishing direct causal links between robust DNA repair machinery and longevity, and providing therapeutic strategy for progeria and age-related metabolic diseases. © 2018, Qian et al.

  3. ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells following continuous low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Quelin; Du Duanming; Chen Zaizhong; Liu Pengcheng; Yang Jianyong; Li Yanhao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the change of ATM phosphorylation in HepG2 cells following a continuous low dose-rate irradiation. Methods: Cells were persistently exposed to low dose-rate (8.28 cGy/h) irradiation. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to detect the expression of ATM phosphorylated proteins. Colony forming assay was used to observe the effect of a low dose-rate irradiation on HepG2 cell survival. Results: After 30 min of low dose-rate irradiation, the phosphorylation of ATM occurred. After 6 h persistent irradiation, the expression of ATM phosphorylated protein reached the peak value, then gradually decreased. After ATM phosphorylation was inhibited with Wortmannin, the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells was lower than that of the irradiation alone group at each time point (P<0.05). Conclusions: Continuous low dose-rate irradiation attenuated ATM phosphorylation, suggesting that continuous low dose-rate irradiation has a potential effect for increasing the radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells. (authors)

  4. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of a human ATM gene analogue at Arabidopsis thaliana; Caracterisation moleculaire et Fonctionnelle d'un Homologue du gene humain ATM chez Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, V.

    2001-12-15

    The human ATM gene, whose inactivation is responsible for the human disease ataxia telangiectasia is conserved throughout the Eukaryotes and plays an important role in the cellular responses to DNA damage, in particular to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we describe the identification of an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue of ATM (AtATM), and the molecular and cytological characterization of plants, hereafter called atm, carrying a disrupting T-DNA insertion in this gene. AtATM covers a 32 kb region on chromosome 3. The AtATM transcript has a complex structure, is 12 kb long and formed by 79 exons. The transcriptional level of AtATM is very low in all the tissues tested, and does not vary after exposure to ionizing radiations (IR). In atm plants, the protein is not detected suggesting the mutants are null. The atm mutants are partially sterile. Aberrant segregation of chromosomes during meiosis I on both male and female sides account for this sterility. However, meiotic recombination frequency is normal. Mutant plants are also hypersensitive to gamma rays and methyl methane sulfonate, but not to UV-B, pointing to a specific defect of atm mutants in the response to DNA DSBs. In plants, ionizing radiations induce a strong, rapid and transient transcriptional activation of genes involved in the cellular response to or the repair of DSBs. This transcriptional regulation of AtRAD51, AtPARP1, atGR1 and AtL1G4 is lost in the atm mutants . The absence of AtRAD51 induction associated with ionizing radiation sensitivity suggest that AtAtm play an important function in DSB repair by homologous recombination. In addition we show that homologous intra-chromosomal recombination frequency is elevated in the mutant comparing to wild-type, with or without gamma irradiation. These results show the implication of AtAtm in the genomic stability. (author)

  6. The over expression of long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Chen, Jiang-Zhi; Chen, Hui-Xing; Qiu, Fu-Nan; Yan, Mao-Lin; Chen, Yan-Ling; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Tian, Yi-Feng; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the roles of lncRNA ANRIL in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer (PC). PC rat models were established and ANRIL overexpression and interference plasmids were transfected. The expression of ANRIL, EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) and ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway-related proteins (ATM, E2F1, INK4A, INK4B and ARF) were detected. Small molecule drugs were applied to activate and inhibit the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Transwell assay and the scratch test were adopted to detect cell invasion and migration abilities. ANRIL expression in the PC cells was higher than in normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. In the PC rat models and PC cells, ANRIL interference promoted the expressions of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, while reduced N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Over-expressed ANRIL decreased the expression of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, but raised N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions. By inhibiting the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in PC cells, E-cadherin expression increased but N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions decreased. After ANRIL was silenced or the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway inhibited, PC cell migration and invasion abilities were decreased. In conclusion, over-expression of lncRNA ANRIL can promote EMT of PC cells by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anthocyanins from roselle extract arrest cell cycle G2/M phase transition via ATM/Chk pathway in p53-deficient leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Kai-Ting; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chang, Yun-Ching

    2017-04-01

    Cell cycle regulation is an important issue in cancer therapy. Delphinidin and cyanidin are two major anthocyanins of the roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa). In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) on cell cycle arrest in human leukemia cell line HL-60 and the analyzed the underlying molecular mechanisms. HAs extracted from roselle calyces (purity 90%) markedly induced G2/M arrest evaluated with flow cytometry analysis. Western blot analyses revealed that HAs (0.1-0.7 mg mL -1 ) induced G2/M arrest via increasing Tyr15 phosphorylation of Cdc2, and inducing Cdk inhibitors p27 and p21. HAs also induced phosphorylation of upstream signals related to G2/M arrest such as phosphorylation of Cdc25C tyrosine phosphatase at Ser216, increasing the binding of pCdc25C with 14-3-3 protein. HAs-induced phosphorylation of Cdc25C could be activated by ATM checkpoint kinases, Chk1, and Chk2. We first time confirmed that ATM-Chk1/2-Cdc25C pathway as a critical mechanism for G2/M arrest in HAs-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest, indicating that this compound could be a promising anticancer candidate or chemopreventive agents for further investigation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1290-1304, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Toward a Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in the Plant Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Janitza, Philipp; Ullrich, Kristian Karsten; Quint, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a three-tier signaling cascade that transmits cellular information from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm where it triggers downstream responses. The MAPKs represent the last step in this cascade and are activated when both tyrosine and threonine residues in a conserved TxY motif are phosphorylated by MAPK kinases, which in turn are themselves activated by phosphorylation by MAPK kinase kinases. To understand the molecular evolution of...

  9. Protein Kinases and Transcription Factors Activation in Response to UV-Radiation of Skin: Implications for Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence A. Marchat; Elena Aréchaga Ocampo; Mavil López Casamichana; Carlos Pérez-Plasencia; César López-Camarillo; Elizbeth Álvarez-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important environmental factor that leads to immune suppression, inflammation, photoaging, and skin carcinogenesis. Here, we reviewed the specific signal transduction pathways and transcription factors involved in the cellular response to UV-irradiation. Increasing experimental data supporting a role for p38, MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, and ATM kinases in the response network to UV exposure is discussed. We also reviewed the participation of NF-?B, AP-1, and NRF2...

  10. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  11. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Taisuke [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nagamatsu, Go, E-mail: gonag@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kosaka, Takeo [Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Takubo, Keiyo [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hotta, Akitsu [Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Department of Reprogramming Science, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ellis, James [Ontario Human iPS Cell Facility, Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, SickKids, Toronto, Canada MG1L7 (Canada); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. {yields} ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. {yields} iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. {yields} ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  12. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Taisuke; Nagamatsu, Go; Kosaka, Takeo; Takubo, Keiyo; Hotta, Akitsu; Ellis, James; Suda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. → ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. → iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. → ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  13. Exceptional disfavor for proline at the P + 1 position among AGC and CAMK kinases establishes reciprocal specificity between them and the proline-directed kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guozhi; Fujii, Koichi; Belkina, Natalya; Liu, Yin; James, Michael; Herrero, Juan; Shaw, Stephen

    2005-03-18

    To precisely regulate critical signaling pathways, two kinases that phosphorylate distinct sites on the same protein substrate must have mutually exclusive specificity. Evolution could assure this by designing families of kinase such as basophilic kinases and proline-directed kinase with distinct peptide specificity; their reciprocal peptide specificity would have to be very complete, since recruitment of substrate allows phosphorylation of even rather poor phosphorylation sites in a protein. Here we report a powerful evolutionary strategy that assures distinct substrates for basophilic kinases (PKA, PKG and PKC (AGC) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK)) and proline-directed kinase, namely by the presence or absence of proline at the P + 1 position in substrates. Analysis of degenerate and non-degenerate peptides by in vitro kinase assays reveals that proline at the P + 1 position in substrates functions as a "veto" residue in substrate recognition by AGC and CAMK kinases. Furthermore, analysis of reported substrates of two typical basophilic kinases, protein kinase C and protein kinase A, shows the lowest occurrence of proline at the P + 1 position. Analysis of crystal structures and sequence conservation provides a molecular basis for this disfavor and illustrate its generality.

  14. Simultaneous targeting of ATM and Mcl-1 increases cisplatin sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuquan; Shen, Mingjing; Yang, Li; Yang, Xiaodong; Tsai, Ying; Keng, Peter C; Chen, Yongbing; Lee, Soo Ok; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2017-08-03

    Development of cisplatin-resistance is an obstacle in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapeutics. To investigate which molecules are associated with cisplatin-resistance, we analyzed expression profiles of several DNA repair and anti-apoptosis associated molecules in parental (A549P and H157P) and cisplatin-resistant (A549CisR and H157CisR) NSCLC cells. We detected constitutively upregulated nuclear ATM and cytosolic Mcl-1 molcules in cisplatin-resistant cells compared with parental cells. Increased levels of phosphorylated ATM (p-ATM) and its downstream molecules, CHK2, p-CHK2, p-53, and p-p53 were also detected in cisplatin-resistant cells, suggesting an activation of ATM signaling in these cells. Upon inhibition of ATM and Mcl-1 expression/activity using specific inhibitors of ATM and/or Mcl-1, we found significantly enhanced cisplatin-cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis of A549CisR cells after cisplatin treatment. Several A549CisR-derived cell lines, including ATM knocked down (A549CisR-siATM), Mcl-1 knocked down (A549CisR-shMcl1), ATM/Mcl-1 double knocked down (A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1) as well as scramble control (A549CisR-sc), were then developed. Higher cisplatin-cytotoxicity and increased apoptosis were observed in A549CisR-siATM, A549CisR-shMcl1, and A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells compared with A549CisR-sc cells, and the most significant effect was shown in A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells. In in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenograft mouse models developed with A549CisR-sc and A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells, significant tumor regression in A549CisR-siATM/shMcl1 cells-derived xenografts was observed after cisplatin injection, but not in A549CisR-sc cells-derived xenografts. Finally, inhibitor studies revealed activation of Erk signaling pathway was most important in upregulation of ATM and Mcl-1 molcules in cisplatin-resistant cells. These studies suggest that simultaneous blocking of ATM/Mcl-1 molcules or downstream Erk signaling may recover the

  15. Experience with PACS in an ATM/Ethernet switched network environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelikan, E; Ganser, A; Kotter, E; Schrader, U; Timmermann, U

    1998-03-01

    Legacy local area network (LAN) technologies based on shared media concepts are not adequate for the growth of a large-scale picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in a client-server architecture. First, an asymmetric network load, due to the requests of a large number of PACS clients for only a few main servers, should be compensated by communication links to the servers with a higher bandwidth compared to the clients. Secondly, as the number of PACS nodes increases, the network throughout should not measurably cut production. These requirements can easily be fulfilled using switching technologies. Here asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is clearly one of the hottest topics in networking because the ATM architecture provides integrated support for a variety of communication services, and it supports virtual networking. On the other hand, most of the imaging modalities are not yet ready for integration into a native ATM network. For a lot of nodes already joining an Ethernet, a cost-effective and pragmatic way to benefit from the switching concept would be a combined ATM/Ethernet switching environment. This incorporates an incremental migration strategy with the immediate benefits of high-speed, high-capacity ATM (for servers and high-sophisticated display workstations), while preserving elements of the existing network technologies. In addition, Ethernet switching instead of shared media Ethernet improves the performance considerably. The LAN emulation (LANE) specification by the ATM forum defines mechanisms that allow ATM networks to coexist with legacy systems using any data networking protocol. This paper points out the suitability of this network architecture in accordance with an appropriate system design.

  16. Breast cancer in female carriers of ATM gene alterations: outcome of adjuvant radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Andreas; John, Esther; Doerk, Thilo; Sohn, Christof; Karstens, Johann H.; Bremer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: We analyzed the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients carrying sequence variants in the ATM gene who received postoperative radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery to test whether an increased cellular radiosensitivity may translate into enhanced tumor cell killing and thereby result in an improvement of the therapeutic ratio. Patients and methods: We investigated a cohort of 138 breast cancer patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy following breast conservative surgery for T1 and T2 tumors. Genomic DNA samples of these patients had previously been scanned for mutations in the ATM gene. Follow-up data were available in 135 patients, with a median follow-up of 87 months. Local relapse-free, metastasis-free and overall survival were compared between carriers and non-carriers of a sequence variant in the ATM gene. Results: Twenty patients were found to carry a sequence variant in the ATM gene (truncating, 7; missense, 13). The actuarial 7-year local relapse-free survival of carriers vs. non-carriers were 88 vs. 94% (P=0.34). Actuarial metastasis-free and overall survival after 7 years were 63 vs. 85% (P=0.01) and 73 vs. 89% (P=0.055), respectively. However, the presence of a variant in the ATM gene did not remain a significant discriminator for metastasis-free survival in a multivariate Cox regression analysis (P=0.068). Conclusions: Our results do not support the hypothesis that breast cancer patients carrying a sequence variant in the ATM gene differentially benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. These findings have to be verified using larger number of cases to clarify the clinical consequences of sequence variants in the ATM gene

  17. Effect of ATM heterozygosity on heritable DNA damage in mice following paternal F0 germline irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulch, Janet E.; Li, M.-W.; Raabe, Otto G.

    2007-01-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product maintains genome integrity and initiates cellular DNA repair pathways following exposures to genotoxic agents. ATM also plays a significant role in meiotic recombination during spermatogenesis. Fertilization with sperm carrying damaged DNA could lead to adverse effects in offspring including developmental defects or increased cancer susceptibility. Currently, there is little information regarding the effect of ATM heterozygosity on germline DNA repair and heritable effects of paternal germline-ionizing irradiation. We used neutral pH comet assays to evaluate spermatozoa 45 days after acute whole-body irradiation of male mice (0.1 Gy, attenuated 137 Cs γ rays) to determine the effect of ATM heterozygosity on delayed DNA damage effects of Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation. Using the neutral pH sperm comet assay, significant irradiation-related differences were found in comet tail length, percent tail DNA and tail extent moment, but there were no observed differences in effect between wild-type and ATM +/- mice. However, evaluation of spermatozoa from third generation descendants of irradiated male mice for heritable chromatin effects revealed significant differences in DNA electrophoretic mobility in the F 3 descendants that were based upon the irradiated F 0 sire's genotype. In this study, radiation-induced chromatin alterations to Type A/B spermatogonia, detected in mature sperm 45 days post-irradiation, led to chromatin effects in mature sperm three generations later. The early cellular response to and repair of DNA damage is critical and appears to be affected by ATM zygosity. Our results indicate that there is potential for heritable genetic or epigenetic changes following Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation and that ATM heterozygosity increases this effect

  18. ATM and SIRT6/SNF2H Mediate Transient H2AX Stabilization When DSBs Form by Blocking HUWE1 to Allow Efficient γH2AX Foci Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Atsumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, H2AX is rapidly phosphorylated at Ser139 to promote DSB repair. Here we show that H2AX is rapidly stabilized in response to DSBs to efficiently generate γH2AX foci. This mechanism operated even in quiescent cells that barely expressed H2AX. H2AX stabilization resulted from the inhibition of proteasome-mediated degradation. Synthesized H2AX ordinarily underwent degradation through poly-ubiquitination mediated by the E3 ligase HUWE1; however, H2AX ubiquitination was transiently halted upon DSB formation. Such rapid H2AX stabilization by DSBs was associated with chromatin incorporation of H2AX and halting of its poly-ubiquitination mediated by the ATM kinase, the sirtuin protein SIRT6, and the chromatin remodeler SNF2H. H2AX Ser139, the ATM phosphorylation site, was essential for H2AX stabilization upon DSB formation. Our results reveal a pathway controlled by ATM, SIRT6, and SNF2H to block HUWE1, which stabilizes H2AX and induces its incorporation into chromatin only when cells are damaged.

  19. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  20. ATM deficiency results in accumulation of DNA-topoisomerase I covalent intermediates in neural cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Alagoz

    Full Text Available Accumulation of peptide-linked DNA breaks contributes to neurodegeration in humans. This is typified by defects in tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1 and human hereditary ataxia. TDP1 primarily operates at single-strand breaks (SSBs created by oxidative stress or by collision of transcription machinery with topoisomerase I intermediates (Top1-CCs. Cellular and cell-free studies have shown that Top1 at stalled Top1-CCs is first degraded to a small peptide resulting in Top1-SSBs, which are the primary substrates for TDP1. Here we established an assay to directly compare Top1-SSBs and Top1-CCs. We subsequently employed this assay to reveal an increased steady state level of Top1-CCs in neural cells lacking Atm; the protein mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. Our data suggest that the accumulation of endogenous Top1-CCs in Atm-/- neural cells is primarily due to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species. Biochemical purification of Top1-CCs from neural cell extract and the use of Top1 poisons further confirmed a role for Atm during the formation/resolution of Top1-CCs. Finally, we report that global transcription is reduced in Atm-/- neural cells and fails to recover to normal levels following Top1-mediated DNA damage. Together, these data identify a distinct role for ATM during the formation/resolution of neural Top1-CCs and suggest that their accumulation contributes to the neuropathology of ataxia telangiectasia.

  1. Association of ATM and BMI-1 genetic variation with breast cancer risk in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Li-Ling; Wang, Fu-Chao; Zhang, Ming-Long; Liu, Dan; Chen, Ping; Mei, Qing-Bu; Li, Peng-Hui; Pan, Hong-Ming; Zheng, Li-Hong

    2018-04-24

    We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in ATM and BMI-1 genes can alter the risk of breast cancer through genotyping 6 variants among 524 breast cancer cases and 518 cancer-free controls of Han nationality. This was an observational, hospital-based, case-control association study. Analyses of single variant, linkage, haplotype, interaction and nomogram were performed. Risk was expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). All studied variants were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were not linked. The mutant allele frequencies of rs1890637, rs3092856 and rs1801516 in ATM gene were significantly higher in cases than in controls (P = .005, ATM gene were significantly associated with 1.98-fold and 6.04-fold increased risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 1.36-2.90 and 1.65-22.08, respectively). Nomogram analysis estimated that the cumulative proportion of 3 significant variants in ATM gene was about 12.5%. Our findings collectively indicated that ATM gene was a candidate gene in susceptibility to breast cancer in Han Chinese. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. S-NPP ATMS Instrument Prelaunch and On-Orbit Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Lyu, Cheng-Hsuan; Anderson, Kent; Leslie, Vincent R.; Blackwell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of a new generation of microwave sounders was launched aboard the Suomi-National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite in October 2011. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) combines the capabilities and channel sets of three predecessor sounders into a single package to provide information on the atmospheric vertical temperature and moisture profiles that are the most critical observations needed for numerical weather forecast models. Enhancements include size/mass/power approximately one third of the previous total, three new sounding channels, the first space-based, Nyquist-sampled cross-track microwave temperature soundings for improved fusion with infrared soundings, plus improved temperature control and reliability. This paper describes the ATMS characteristics versus its predecessor, the advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU), and presents the first comprehensive evaluation of key prelaunch and on-orbit performance parameters. Two-year on-orbit performance shows that the ATMS has maintained very stable radiometric sensitivity, in agreement with prelaunch data, meeting requirements for all channels (with margins of 40% for channels 1-15), and improvements over AMSU-A when processed for equivalent spatial resolution. The radiometric accuracy, determined by analysis from ground test measurements, and using on-orbit instrument temperatures, also shows large margins relative to requirements (specified as ATMS is especially important for this first proto-flight model unit of what will eventually be a series of ATMS sensors providing operational sounding capability for the U.S. and its international partners well into the next decade.

  3. Risk of cancer by ATM missense mutations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah Louise; Weischer, Maren; Allin, Kristine Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Truncating and missense mutations in the ATM gene, which cause insufficient DNA damage surveillance, allow damaged cells to proceed into mitosis, which eventually results in increased cancer susceptibility. We tested the hypotheses that ATM Ser49Cys and ATM Ser707Pro heterozygosity......: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for ATM Ser49Cys heterozygotes versus noncarriers were 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.5) for cancer overall, 0.8 (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.0) for breast cancer, 4.8 (95% CI, 2.2 to 11) for melanoma, 2.3 (95% CI, 1.1 to 5.0) for prostate cancer, and 3.4 (95% CI, 1.1 to 11) for cancer...... of the oral cavity/pharynx. Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for ATM Ser707Pro heterozygotes versus noncarriers were 0.8 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.2) for cancer overall, 0.6 (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) for breast cancer, 10 (95% CI, 1.1 to 93) for thyroid/other endocrine tumors, and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.0 to 7...

  4. Authenticated tracking and monitoring system (ATMS) tracking shipments from an Australian uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeneman, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) answers the need for global monitoring of the status and location of sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items and environmental conditions. A receiver and processing unit collect a variety of sensor event data. The collected data are transmitted to the INMARSAT satellite communication system, which then sends the data to appropriate ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the safety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements. Following discussions between the Australian Safeguards Office (ASO), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in early 1995, the parties mutually agreed to conduct and evaluate a field trial prototype ATMS to track and monitor shipments of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) from an operating uranium mine in Australia to a final destination in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with numerous stops along the way. During the months of February and March 1998, the trial was conducted on a worldwide basis, with tracking and monitoring stations located at sites in both Australia and the US. This paper describes ATMS and the trial

  5. Limited role of murine ATM in oncogene-induced senescence and p53-dependent tumor suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Efeyan

    Full Text Available Recent studies in human fibroblasts have provided a new general paradigm of tumor suppression according to which oncogenic signaling produces DNA damage and this, in turn, results in ATM/p53-dependent cellular senescence. Here, we have tested this model in a variety of murine experimental systems. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras in murine fibroblasts efficiently induced senescence but this occurred in the absence of detectable DNA damage signaling, thus suggesting a fundamental difference between human and murine cells. Moreover, lung adenomas initiated by endogenous levels of oncogenic K-Ras presented abundant senescent cells, but undetectable DNA damage signaling. Accordingly, K-Ras-driven adenomas were also senescent in Atm-null mice, and the tumorigenic progression of these lesions was only modestly accelerated by Atm-deficiency. Finally, we have examined chemically-induced fibrosarcomas, which possess a persistently activated DNA damage response and are highly sensitive to the activity of p53. We found that the absence of Atm favored genomic instability in the resulting tumors, but did not affect the persistent DNA damage response and did not impair p53-dependent tumor suppression. All together, we conclude that oncogene-induced senescence in mice may occur in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Regarding murine Atm, our data suggest that it plays a minor role in oncogene-induced senescence or in p53-dependent tumor suppression, being its tumor suppressive activity probably limited to the maintenance of genomic stability.

  6. A cGMP kinase mutant with increased sensitivity to the protein kinase inhibitor peptide PKI(5-24).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, P; Kamm, S; Nau, U; Pfeifer, A; Hofmann, F

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic peptides corresponding to the active domain of the heat-stable inhibitor protein PKI are very potent inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, but are extremely weak inhibitors of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. In this study, we tried to confer PKI sensitivity to cGMP kinase by site-directed mutagenesis. The molecular requirements for high affinity inhibition by PKI were deduced from the crystal structure of the cAMP kinase/PKI complex. A prominent site of interaction are residues Tyr235 and Phe239 in the catalytic subunit, which from a sandwich-like structure with Phe10 of the PKI(5-24) peptide. To increase the sensitivity for PKI, the cGMP kinase codons at the corresponding sites, Ser555 and Ser559, were changed to Tyr and Phe. The mutant cGMP kinase was stimulated half maximally by cGMP at 3-fold higher concentrations (240 nM) than the wild type (77 nM). Wild type and mutant cGMP kinase did not differ significantly in their Km and Vmax for three different substrate peptides. The PKI(5-24) peptide inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the mutant cGMP kinase with higher potency than that of wild type, with Ki values of 42 +/- .3 microM and 160 +/- .7 microM, respectively. The increased affinity of the mutant cGMP kinase was specific for the PKI(5-24) peptide. Mutation of the essential Phe10 in the PKI(5-24) sequence to an Ala yielded a peptide that inhibited mutant and wild type cGMP kinase with similar potency, with Ki values of 160 +/- 11 and 169 +/- 27 microM, respectively. These results suggest that the mutations Ser555Tyr and Ser559Phe are required, but not sufficient, for high affinity inhibition of cGMP kinase by PKI.

  7. Pea DNA topoisomerase I is phosphorylated and stimulated by casein kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2003-08-01

    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.

  8. A screen for kinase inhibitors identifies antimicrobial imidazopyridine aminofurazans as specific inhibitors of the Listeria monocytogenes PASTA kinase PrkA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaenzer, Adam J; Wlodarchak, Nathan; Drewry, David H; Zuercher, William J; Rose, Warren E; Striker, Rob; Sauer, John-Demian

    2017-10-13

    Bacterial signaling systems such as protein kinases and quorum sensing have become increasingly attractive targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents in a time of rising antibiotic resistance. The family of bacterial P enicillin-binding-protein A nd S erine/ T hreonine kinase- A ssociated (PASTA) kinases is of particular interest due to the role of these kinases in regulating resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. As such, small-molecule kinase inhibitors that target PASTA kinases may prove beneficial as treatments adjunctive to β-lactam therapy. Despite this interest, only limited progress has been made in identifying functional inhibitors of the PASTA kinases that have both activity against the intact microbe and high kinase specificity. Here, we report the results of a small-molecule screen that identified GSK690693, an imidazopyridine aminofurazan-type kinase inhibitor that increases the sensitivity of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to various β-lactams by inhibiting the PASTA kinase PrkA. GSK690693 potently inhibited PrkA kinase activity biochemically and exhibited significant selectivity for PrkA relative to the Staphylococcus aureus PASTA kinase Stk1. Furthermore, other imidazopyridine aminofurazans could effectively inhibit PrkA and potentiate β-lactam antibiotic activity to varying degrees. The presence of the 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (alkynol) moiety was important for both biochemical and antimicrobial activity. Finally, mutagenesis studies demonstrated residues in the back pocket of the active site are important for GSK690693 selectivity. These data suggest that targeted screens can successfully identify PASTA kinase inhibitors with both biochemical and antimicrobial specificity. Moreover, the imidazopyridine aminofurazans represent a family of PASTA kinase inhibitors that have the potential to be optimized for selective PASTA kinase inhibition.

  9. WIPP Transparency Project - container tracking and monitoring demonstration using the Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOENEMAN, J. LEE; SMARTT, HEIDI ANNE; HOFER, DENNIS

    2000-01-01

    The Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring System (ATMS) is designed to answer the need for global monitoring of the status and location of proliferation-sensitive items on a worldwide basis, 24 hours a day. ATMS uses wireless sensor packs to monitor the status of the items within the shipment and surrounding environmental conditions. Receiver and processing units collect a variety of sensor event data that is integrated with GPS tracking data. The collected data are transmitted to the International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) communication system, which then sends the data to mobile ground stations. Authentication and encryption algorithms secure the data during communication activities. A typical ATMS application would be to track and monitor the stiety and security of a number of items in transit along a scheduled shipping route. The resulting tracking, timing, and status information could then be processed to ensure compliance with various agreements

  10. Missense Variants in ATM in 26,101 Breast Cancer Cases and 29,842 Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, O.; Johnson, N.; Silva, Andreá Lema Da

    2010-01-01

    Background: Truncating mutations in ATM have been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer but the effect of missense variants remains contentious. Methods: We have genotyped five polymorphic (minor allele frequency, 0.9-2.6%) missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in ATM (S49C, S707P, F...... for any of the SNPs with an overall trend OR of 1.06 (P-trend = 0.04). The trend OR among bilateral and familial cases was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.23; P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions: In this large combined analysis, these five missense ATM SNPs were associated with a small increased risk...

  11. Signaling by Kit protein-tyrosine kinase--the stem cell factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-11-11

    Signaling by stem cell factor and Kit, its receptor, plays important roles in gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, mast cell development and function, and melanogenesis. Moreover, human and mouse embryonic stem cells express Kit transcripts. Stem cell factor exists as both a soluble and a membrane-bound glycoprotein while Kit is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. The complete absence of stem cell factor or Kit is lethal. Deficiencies of either produce defects in red and white blood cell production, hypopigmentation, and sterility. Gain-of-function mutations of Kit are associated with several human neoplasms including acute myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and mastocytomas. Kit consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, and a protein kinase domain that contains an insert of about 80 amino acid residues. Binding of stem cell factor to Kit results in receptor dimerization and activation of protein kinase activity. The activated receptor becomes autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues that serve as docking sites for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains. The adaptor protein APS, Src family kinases, and Shp2 tyrosyl phosphatase bind to phosphotyrosine 568. Shp1 tyrosyl phosphatase and the adaptor protein Shc bind to phosphotyrosine 570. C-terminal Src kinase homologous kinase and the adaptor Shc bind to both phosphotyrosines 568 and 570. These residues occur in the juxtamembrane segment of Kit. Three residues in the kinase insert domain are phosphorylated and attract the adaptor protein Grb2 (Tyr703), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr721), and phospholipase Cgamma (Tyr730). Phosphotyrosine 900 in the distal kinase domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which in turn binds the adaptor protein Crk. Phosphotyrosine 936, also in the distal kinase domain, binds the adaptor proteins APS, Grb2, and Grb7. Kit has the potential to participate in multiple signal transduction pathways as a result of

  12. Role of ATM in bystander signaling between human monocytes and lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Ghosh, Anu; Krishna, Malini

    2015-12-01

    The response of a cell or tissue to ionizing radiation is mediated by direct damage to cellular components and indirect damage mediated by radiolysis of water. Radiation affects both irradiated cells and the surrounding cells and tissues. The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined by the presence of biological effects in cells that were not themselves in the field of irradiation. To establish the contribution of the bystander effect in the survival of the neighboring cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells were exposed to gamma-irradiation, 2Gy. The medium from the irradiated cells was transferred to non-irradiated A549 cells. Irradiated A549 cells as well as non-irradiated A549 cells cultured in the presence of medium from irradiated cells showed decrease in survival and increase in γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci, indicating a bystander effect. Bystander signaling was also observed between different cell types. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and gamma-irradiated U937 (human monocyte) cells induced a bystander response in non-irradiated A549 (lung carcinoma) cells as shown by decreased survival and increased γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci. Non-stimulated and/or irradiated U937 cells did not induce such effects in non-irradiated A549 cells. Since ATM protein was activated in irradiated cells as well as bystander cells, it was of interest to understand its role in bystander effect. Suppression of ATM with siRNA in A549 cells completely inhibited bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. On the other hand suppression of ATM with siRNA in PMA stimulated U937 cells caused only a partial inhibition of bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. These results indicate that apart from ATM, some additional factor may be involved in bystander effect between different cell types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material - ATM-12 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.

    1985-10-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) Approved Testing Material ATM-12 is a borosilicate glass that incorporates elements typical of high-level waste (HLW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The composition has been adjusted to match that predicted for HLW type 76-68 glass at an age of 300 y. Radioactive constituents contained in this glass include depleted uranium, 99 Tc, 237 Np, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. The glass was produced by the MCC at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). ATM-12 glass ws produced from July to November of 1984 at the request of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigations (NNWSI) Program and is the third in a series of glasses produced for NNWSI. Most of the glass produced was in the form of cast bars; special castings and crushed material were also produced. Three kilograms of ATM-12 glass were produced from a feedstock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1150 0 C in a platinum crucible, and formed into stress-annealed rectangular bars and the special casting shapes requested by NNWSI. Bars of ATM-12 were nominally 1.9 x 1.9 x 10 cm, with an average mass of 111 g each. Nineteen bars and 37 special castings were made. ATM-12 glass has been provided to the NNWSI Program, in the form of bars, crushed powder and special castings. As of August 1985 approximately 590 g of ATM-12 is available for distribution. Requests for materials or services related to this glass should be directed to the Materials Characterization Center Program Office, PNL

  14. Engineering and Functional Analysis of Mitotic Kinases Through Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew J K; Jallepalli, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, multiple protein kinases transform the cytoskeleton and chromosomes into new and highly dynamic structures that mediate the faithful transmission of genetic information and cell division. However, the large number and strong conservation of mammalian kinases in general pose significant obstacles to interrogating them with small molecules, due to the difficulty in identifying and validating those which are truly selective. To overcome this problem, a steric complementation strategy has been developed, in which a bulky "gatekeeper" residue within the active site of the kinase of interest is replaced with a smaller amino acid, such as glycine or alanine. The enlarged catalytic pocket can then be targeted in an allele-specific manner with bulky purine analogs. This strategy provides a general framework for dissecting kinase function with high selectivity, rapid kinetics, and reversibility. In this chapter we discuss the principles and techniques needed to implement this chemical genetic approach in mammalian cells.

  15. Mutation of serine 1333 in the ATR HEAT repeats creates a hyperactive kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica W Luzwick

    Full Text Available Subcellular localization, protein interactions, and post-translational modifications regulate the DNA damage response kinases ATR, ATM, and DNA-PK. During an analysis of putative ATR phosphorylation sites, we found that a single mutation at S1333 creates a hyperactive kinase. In vitro and in cells, mutation of S1333 to alanine (S1333A-ATR causes elevated levels of kinase activity with and without the addition of the protein activator TOPBP1. S1333 mutations to glycine, arginine, or lysine also create a hyperactive kinase, while mutation to aspartic acid decreases ATR activity. S1333A-ATR maintains the G2 checkpoint and promotes completion of DNA replication after transient exposure to replication stress but the less active kinase, S1333D-ATR, has modest defects in both of these functions. While we find no evidence that S1333 is phosphorylated in cultured cells, our data indicate that small changes in the HEAT repeats can have large effects on kinase activity. These mutants may serve as useful tools for future studies of the ATR pathway.

  16. A Virtual Private Local PCN Ring Network Based on ATM VP Cross—Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinBin; MaYingjun; 等

    1995-01-01

    Avirtual private local PCNring network (VPLPR)is proposed .VPLPR is a virtual logic ring seuved for digital cordless telephone system and it works on ATM VP cross-connection mechanism.Full-distributed data bases are organized for visitor location registers(VLR)and home location register(HLR).The signaling protocols are compatible upward to B-ISDN. The architecture and some of the main characteristics of VPLPR are given.How to configure the ATM VP cross-connection ring is described.And then a protocol conversion between STM frames and ATMcells in base station controller(BSC)is presented.

  17. Experiments at SRT Using the NOAA CrIS/ATMS Proxy Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the talk are: (1) Assess the performance of NGAS Version-1.5.03.00 CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm as delivered by LaRC, modified to include the MW and IR tuning coefficients and new CrIS noise model (a) Percent acceptance (b) RMS and mean differences of T(p) vs. ECMWF truth as a function of % yield (2) Compare performance of NGAS retrieval algorithm with an AIRS Science Team Version-6 like retrieval algorithm modified at Sounder Research Team (SRT) for CrIS/ATMS

  18. Reconstrucción de Atmósferas Sonoras Tridimensionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhosimar Aguacía Fisco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este proyecto es la reconstrucción de atmósferas sonoras tridimensionales, por medio de la tecnología Ambisonics, implementando un sistema de captura Native B-Format, codificación de fuentes puntuales y el uso de algunos audios grabados con micrófonos Soundfield, para crear así atmósferas sonoras naturales y artificiales, que serán reproducidas en un sistema 10.2, con el fin de generar un envolvimiento total, incluyendo alturas.

  19. Leo Satellite Communication through a LEO Constellation using TCP/IP Over ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The simulated performance characteristics for communication between a terrestrial client and a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite server are presented. The client and server nodes consist of a Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over ATM configuration. The ATM cells from the client or the server are transmitted to a gateway, packaged with some header information and transferred to a commercial LEO satellite constellation. These cells are then routed through the constellation to a gateway on the globe that allows the client/server communication to take place. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is specified as the quality of service (QoS). Various data rates are considered.

  20. A Methodology to Integrate Security and Cost-effectiveness in ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Matarese

    2014-01-01

    prioritizing the threats and proposing cost-effective countermeasures for the weaknesses found. ATM security is concerned with securing ATM assets in order to prevent threats and limit their effects on the overall aviation network. This effect limitation can be achieved by removing the vulnerability from the system and/or increasing the tolerance in case of component failures due to attacks. The security risk assessment methodology proposed is based on what is currently being done by the industry (the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO and the International Standard Organization (ISO, etc..

  1. Src protein-tyrosine kinase structure and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Src and Src-family protein kinases are proto-oncogenes that play key roles in cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and survival. v-Src (a viral protein) is encoded by the chicken oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus, and Src (the cellular homologue) is encoded by a physiological gene, the first of the proto-oncogenes. From the N- to C-terminus, Src contains an N-terminal 14-carbon myristoyl group, a unique segment, an SH3 domain, an SH2 domain, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail. The chief phosphorylation sites of Src include tyrosine 416 that results in activation from autophosphorylation and tyrosine 527 that results in inhibition from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase. In the restrained state, the SH2 domain forms a salt bridge with phosphotyrosine 527, and the SH3 domain binds to the kinase domain via a polyproline type II left-handed helix. The SH2 and SH3 domains occur on the backside of the kinase domain away from the active site where they stabilize a dormant enzyme conformation. Protein-tyrosine phosphatases such as PTPα displace phosphotyrosine 527 from the Src SH2 domain and mediate its dephosphorylation leading to Src kinase activation. C-terminal Src kinase consists of an SH3, SH2, and kinase domain; it lacks an N-terminal myristoyl group and a C-terminal regulatory tail. Its X-ray structure has been determined, and the SH2 lobe occupies a position that is entirely different from that of Src. Unlike Src, the C-terminal Src kinase SH2 and SH3 domains stabilize an active enzyme conformation. Amino acid residues in the αD helix near the catalytic loop in the large lobe of C-terminal Src kinase serve as a docking site for the physiological substrate (Src) but not for an artificial substrate (polyGlu 4 Tyr)

  2. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Cassimere

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140, which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks.

  3. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Wolfgang [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Mikkelsen, Nils Egil [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Clausen, Anders Ranegaard [Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden); Willer, Mette [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Eklund, Hans [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Gojkovic, Zoran [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Piskur, Jure, E-mail: Jure.Piskur@cob.lu.se [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  4. Development of a queue warning system utilizing ATM infrastructure system development and field-testing : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    MnDOT has already deployed an extensive infrastructure for Active Traffic Management (ATM) on I-35W and I-94 with plans to expand on other segments of the Twin Cities freeway network. The ATM system includes intelligent lane control signals (ILCS) sp...

  5. Enterococcus faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doun, Stephanie S.; Burgner, John W.; Briggs, Scott D.; Rodwell, Victor W.

    2005-01-01

    The six enzymes of the mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis represent potential for addressing a pressing human health concern, the development of antibiotics against resistant strains of the Gram-positive streptococci. We previously characterized the first four of the mevalonate pathway enzymes of Enterococcus faecalis, and here characterize the fifth, phosphomevalonate kinase (E.C. 2.7.4.2). E. faecalis genomic DNA and the polymerase chain reaction were used to clone DNA thought to encode phosphomevalonate kinase into pET28b(+). Double-stranded DNA sequencing verified the sequence of the recombinant gene. The encoded N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged protein was expressed in Escherichia coli with induction by isopropylthiogalactoside and purified by Ni++ affinity chromatography, yield 20 mg protein per liter. Analysis of the purified protein by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established it as E. faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the kinase exists in solution primarily as a dimer. Assay for phosphomevalonate kinase activity used pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase to couple the formation of ADP to the oxidation of NADH. Optimal activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 37°C. The activation energy was ~5.6 kcal/mol. Activity with Mn++, the preferred cation, was optimal at about 4 mM. Relative rates using different phosphoryl donors were 100 (ATP), 3.6 (GTP), 1.6 (TTP), and 0.4 (CTP). Km values were 0.17 mM for ATP and 0.19 mM for (R,S)-5-phosphomevalonate. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 3.9 μmol substrate converted per minute per milligram protein. Applications to an immobilized enzyme bioreactor and to drug screening and design are discussed. PMID:15802646

  6. From Phosphosites to Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations...... sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available...

  7. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the catalysis of shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Colin P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that the adenyl moiety of ATP plays a direct role in the regulation of ATP binding and/or phosphoryl transfer within a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. The role of the C8-H of ATP in the binding and/or phosphoryl transfer on the enzyme activity of a number of kinase and synthetase enzymes has been elucidated. The intrinsic catalysis rate mediated by each kinase enzyme is complex, yielding apparent KM values ranging from less than 0.4 μM to more than 1 mM for ATP in the various kinases. Using a combination of ATP deuterated at the C8 position (C8D-ATP as a molecular probe with site directed mutagenesis (SDM of conserved amino acid residues in shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase active sites, we have elucidated a mechanism by which the ATP C8-H is induced to be labile in the broader kinase family. We have demonstrated the direct role of the C8-H in the rate of ATP consumption, and the direct role played by conserved Thr residues interacting with the C8-H. The mechanism by which the vast range in KM might be achieved is also suggested by these findings. Results We have demonstrated the mechanism by which the enzyme activities of Group 2 kinases, shikimate kinase (SK and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1, are controlled by the C8-H of ATP. Mutations of the conserved threonine residues associated with the labile C8-H cause the enzymes to lose their saturation kinetics over the concentration range tested. The relationship between the role C8-H of ATP in the reaction mechanism and the ATP concentration as they influence the saturation kinetics of the enzyme activity is also shown. The SDM clearly identified the amino acid residues involved in both the catalysis and regulation of phosphoryl transfer in SK and AK1 as mediated by C8H-ATP. Conclusions The data outlined serves to demonstrate the “push” mechanism associated with the control of the saturation kinetics of Group 2 kinases mediated by ATP C8-H. It

  8. EUV observations of the active Sun from the Havard experiment on ATM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, R.W.; Foukal, P.V.; Huber, M.C.E.; Reeves, E.M.; Schmahl, E.J.; Timothy, J.G.; Vernazza, J.E.; Withbroe, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    The authors review some preliminary results from the Harvard College Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer on ATM that pertain to solar activity. The results reviewed are described in more detail in other papers referred to in the text. They first describe the instrument and its capabilities, and then turm to results on active regions, sunspots, flares, EUV bright points, coronal holes, and prominences. (Auth.)

  9. A hybrid medium access control for convergence of broadband wireless and wireline ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid medium access control protocol for supporting broadband integrated services in the wireless ATM networks. The integrated services include CBR, VBR and ABR traffic varying from low bit-rate to very high bit-rate. The proposed protocol is an excellent compromise...

  10. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  11. Melting diagram of hydrogen-deuterium solutions for pressures up to 100 atm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznyak, N.G.; Sheinina, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Curves of the onset of melting of hydrogen-deuterium solutions of three different concentrations versus the vapor pressure up to ∼140 atm are measured. The topology of the melting diagram of H 2 --D 2 solutions at elevated pressures is determined. The isotope separation coefficients between the liquid and solid phases are calculated

  12. Fast collision resolution for real time services in SDMA based wireless ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vornefeld, U.; Schieimer, D.; Walke, B.

    1999-01-01

    protocol, the influence of SDMA on a contention based access protocol is investigated under collision resolution schemes derived from classical splitting algorithms. Although this work is embedded in the framework of wireless ATM and HIPERLAN/2 systems, the ideas are generally applicable....

  13. Designing a Strategic Plan through an Emerging Knowledge Generation Process: The ATM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this contribution is to describe a new methodology for designing strategic plans and how it was implemented by ATM, a public transportation agency based in Milan, Italy. Design/methodology/approach: This methodology is founded on a new system theory, called "quantum systemics". It is based on models and metaphors both…

  14. ATM Technology and Banking System in West African Sub-Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... bank account makes financial transactions a breeze by eliminating the waste of writing cheques or the dangers of carrying large sums of cash. The debit cards benefit both the card holders and the banks. Some of the benefits of ATM technology is bank decongestion, reduced cost of transactions for both ...

  15. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio; Batista Camargo Junior, Joao

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  16. PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM rare variants and cancer risk: Data from COGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Goldgar (David); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); F.J. Couch (Fergus); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); W.D. Foulkes (William); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); T. Heikkinen (Tuomas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); J.L. Hopper (John); T. Dörk (Thilo); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); J.S. Reis-Filho (Jorge); Teo, Z.L. (Zhi Ling); P. Radice (Paolo); Catucci, I. (Irene); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); F. Odefrey (Fabrice); J.G. Dowty (James); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Verhoef; T.A. Carpenter (Adrian); C. Clarke (Christine); R.J. Scott (Rodney); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); O. Fletcher (Olivia); Johnson, N. (Nichola); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet K.); Sawyer, E.J. (Elinor J.); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); Marme, F. (Federik); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); R. Yang (Rongxi); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); Sanchez, M. (Marie); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); C.A. Clarke (Christina); H. Brenner (Hermann); Arndt, V. (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); Muranen, T.A. (Taru A.); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); Antonenkova, N.N. (Natalia N.); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); E. Wauters (Erwin); D. Smeets (Dominiek); B. Beuselinck (B.); O.A.M. Floris; J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); Rudolph, A. (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); L. Le Marchand (Loic); V. Kristensen (Vessela); Alnæs, G.G. (Grethe Grenaker); W. Zheng (Wei); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); Hankinson, S.E. (Susan E.); P. Kraft (Peter); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); Glendon, G. (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); Grip, M. (Mervi); S. Kauppila (Saila); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); D. Eccles (Diana); M. Rafiq (Meena); W. Tapper (William); S.M. Gerty (Sue); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John); J.M. Collée (Margriet); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); P. Hall (Per); J. Li (Jingmei); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); K. Humphreys (Keith); A. Cox (Angela); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); C. Luccarini (Craig); Baynes, C. (Caroline); A.M. Dunning (Alison); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); Durda, K. (Katarzyna); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); Yannoukakos, D. (Drakoulis); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Jones (Michael); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (Guillermo); M.R. Alonso (Rosario); N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); J. Simard (Jacques); M. Dumont (Martine); Soucy, P. (Penny); R. Eeles (Rosalind); K.R. Muir (K.); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); H. Grönberg (Henrik); Schleutker, J. (Johanna); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); M. Weischer (Maren); S.P.L. Travis (Simon); D. Neal (David); J. Donovan (Jenny); F. Hamdy (Freddie); K.T. Khaw; Stanford, J.L. (Janet L.); W.J. Blot (William); S.N. Thibodeau (Stephen); D.J. Schaid (D.); Kelley, J.L. (Joseph L.); Maier, C. (Christiane); A. Kibel (Adam); C. Cybulski (Cezary); L.A. Cannon-Albright (Lisa); K. Butterbach (Katja); Park, J. (Jong); R. Kaneva (Radka); Batra, J. (Jyotsna); P.J. Teixeira; Z. Kote-Jarai; A.A. Al Olama (Ali Amin); S. Benlloch (Sara); S.P. Renner (S.); A. Hartmann (Arndt); Hein, A. (Alexander); Ruebner, M. (Matthias); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); E. Van Nieuwenhuysen (Els); I. Vergote (Ignace); Lambretchs, S. (Sandrina); J.A. Doherty (Jennifer A.); M.A. Rossing (Mary Anne); Nickels, S. (Stefan); U. Eilber (Ursula); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); K. Odunsi (Kunle); Sucheston-Campbell, L.E. (Lara E.); G. Friel (Grace); G. Lurie (Galina); Killeen, J.L. (Jeffrey L.); L.R. Wilkens (Lynne R.); M.T. Goodman (Marc); I.B. Runnebaum (Ingo); P. Hillemanns (Peter); L.M. Pelttari (Liisa); R. Butzow (Ralf); F. Modugno (Francesmary); R. Edwards (Robert); R.B. Ness (Roberta); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); Bois, A. (Andreas du); P.U. Heitz; P. Harter (Philipp); Kommoss, S. (Stefan); Karlan, B.Y. (Beth Y.); C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); A. Jensen (Allan); M. Kjaer (Michael); E. Høgdall (Estrid); B. Peissel (Bernard); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); L. Bernard (Loris); E.L. Goode (Ellen); B.L. Fridley (Brooke); R.A. Vierkant (Robert); J.M. Cunningham (Julie); M.C. Larson (Melissa); Fogarty, Z.C. (Zachary C.); Kalli, K.R. (Kimberly R.); D. Liang (Dong); K.H. Lu (Karen); M.A.T. Hildebrandt (Michelle A.T.); X. Wu (Xifeng); D.A. Levine (Douglas); Dao, F. (Fanny); M. Bisogna (Maria); A. Berchuck (Andrew); E. Iversen (Erik); J.R. Marks (Jeffrey); Akushevich, L. (Lucy); D.W. Cramer (Daniel); J.M. Schildkraut (Joellen); K.L. Terry (Kathryn); E.M. Poole (Elizabeth); M.J. Stampfer (Meir J.); Tworoger, S.S. (Shelley S.); E.V. Bandera (Elisa); I. Orlow (Irene); S.H. Olson (Sara); L. Bjorge (Line); H.B. Salvesen (Helga); A.M. van Altena (Anne); K.K.H. Aben (Katja); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); L.F. Massuger (Leon); T. Pejovic (Tanja); Y. Bean (Yukie); A. Brooks-Wilson (Angela); L.E. Kelemen (Linda); L.S. Cook (Linda S.); N.D. Le (Nhu D.); B. Górski (Bohdan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Menkiszak (Janusz); C.K. Høgdall (Claus); L. Lundvall (Lene); L. Nedergaard (Lotte); S.A. Engelholm (Svend Aage); E. Dicks (Ed); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); I. Campbell (Ian); I. McNeish (Iain); J. Paul (James); N. Siddiqui (Nadeem); R. Glasspool (Rosalind); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); J.H. Rothstein (Joseph H.); W.P. McGuire; W. Sieh (Weiva); H. Cai (Hui); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); Teten, R.T. (Rachel T.); Sutphen, R. (Rebecca); J. McLaughlin (John); S.A. Narod (Steven A.); C. Phelan (Catherine); A.N.A. Monteiro (Alvaro N.); Fenstermacher, D. (David); Lin, H.-Y. (Hui-Yi); Permuth, J.B. (Jennifer B.); T.A. Sellers (Thomas A.); Chen, Y.A. (Y Ann); Tsai, Y.-Y. (Ya-Yu); Chen, Z. (Zhihua); A. Gentry-Maharaj (Aleksandra); S.A. Gayther (Simon); S.J. Ramus (Susan); U. Menon (Usha); A.H. Wu (Anna); C.L. Pearce (Celeste); D. Van Den Berg (David); M.C. Pike (Malcolm C.); A. Dansonka-Mieszkowska (Agnieszka); J. Plisiecka-Halasa (Joanna); J. Moes-Sosnowska (Joanna); J. Kupryjanczyk (Jolanta); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); H. Song (Honglin); I.M. Winship (Ingrid); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); S.V. Tavtigian (Sean); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); R.L. Milne (Roger)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with

  17. PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM rare variants and cancer risk: data from COGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Southey, M.C.; Goldgar, D.E.; Winqvist, R.; Pylkas, K.; Couch, F.; Tischkowitz, M.; Foulkes, W.D.; Dennis, J.; Michailidou, K.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Heikkinen, T.; Nevanlinna, H.; Hopper, J.L.; Dork, T.; Claes, K.B.; Reis-Filho, J.; Teo, Z.L.; Radice, P.; Catucci, I.; Peterlongo, P.; Tsimiklis, H.; Odefrey, F.A.; Dowty, J.G.; Schmidt, M.K.; Broeks, A.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Verhoef, S.; Carpenter, J.; Clarke, C.; Scott, R.J.; Fasching, P.A.; Haeberle, L.; Ekici, A.B.; Beckmann, M.W.; Peto, J.; Dos-Santos-Silva, I.; Fletcher, O.; Johnson, N.; Bolla, M.K.; Sawyer, E.J.; Tomlinson, I.; Kerin, M.J.; Miller, N.; Marme, F.; Burwinkel, B.; Yang, R.; Guenel, P.; Truong, T.; Menegaux, F.; Sanchez, M.; Bojesen, S.; Nielsen, S.F.; Flyger, H.; Benitez, J.; Zamora, M.P.; Perez, J.I.; Menendez, P.; Anton-Culver, H.; Neuhausen, S.; Ziogas, A.; Clarke, C.A.; Brenner, H.; Arndt, V.; Stegmaier, C.; Brauch, H.; Bruning, T.; Ko, Y.D.; Muranen, T.A.; Aittomaki, K.; Blomqvist, C.; Bogdanova, N.V.; Antonenkova, N.N.; Lindblom, A.; Margolin, S.; Mannermaa, A.; Kataja, V.; Kosma, V.M.; Hartikainen, J.M.; Spurdle, A.B.; Wauters, E.; Smeets, D.; Beuselinck, B.; Floris, G.; Chang-Claude, J.; Rudolph, A.; Seibold, P.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Olson, J.E.; Vachon, C.; Pankratz, V.S.; McLean, C.; Haiman, C.A.; Henderson, B.E.; Schumacher, F.; Marchand, L. Le; Kristensen, V.; Alnaes, G.G.; Zheng, W.; Hunter, D.J.; Altena, A.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with rare BRCA2

  18. Fabrication and characterization of MCC approved testing material: ATM-WV/205 glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupin, G.D.; Bowen, W.M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The ATM-WV/205 glass was produced in accordance with PNL's QA Manual for License-Related Programs, MCC technical procedures, and MCC QA Plan that were in effect during the course of this work. The method and procedure to be used in the fabrication and characterization of the ATM-WV/205 glass were specified in two run plans for glass preparation and a characterization plan. The ATM-WV/205 glass meets all specifications. The elemental composition and oxidation state of the glass are within the sponsor's specifications. Visually, the ATM-WV/205 glass bars appear uniformly glassy and generally without exterior features. Microscopic examination and x-ray diffraction revealed low (about 0.5 wt %) concentrations of 3-μm iron chrome spinel crystals and 1-μm ruthenium inclusions scattered randomly throughout the glassy matrix. Closed porosity, with pores ranging in diameter from 20 to 135 μm, was observed in all samples. 3 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs

  19. User-centered design with illiterate persons : The case of the ATM user interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.H.M.; Jong, J.G.M. de; Balken, J.S. van

    2008-01-01

    One of the major challenges in current user interface research and development is the accommodation of diversity in users and contexts of use in order to improve the self-efficacy of citizens. A common banking service, which should be designed for diversity, is the Automated Teller Machine (ATM).

  20. Cisplatin-mediated radiosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer cells is stimulated by ATM inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Mihatsch, Julia; Holler, Marina; Chaachouay, Hassan; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cisplatin activates ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), a protein with roles in DNA repair, cell cycle progression and autophagy. We investigated the radiosensitizing effect of cisplatin with respect to its effect on ATM pathway activation. Material and methods: Non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC) cell lines (A549, H460) and human fibroblast (ATM-deficient AT5, ATM-proficient 1BR3) cells were used. The effects of cisplatin combined with irradiation on ATM pathway activity, clonogenicity, DNA double-strand break (DNA-DSB) repair and cell cycle progression were analyzed with Western blotting, colony formation and γ-H2AX foci assays as well as FACS analysis, respectively. Results: Cisplatin radiosensitized H460 cells, but not A549 cells. Radiosensitization of H460 cells was not due to impaired DNA-DSB repair, increased apoptosis or cell cycle dysregulation. The lack of radiosensitization demonstrated for A549 cells was associated with cisplatin-mediated stimulation of ATM (S1981) and AMPKα (T172) phosphorylation and autophagy. However, in both cell lines inhibition of ATM and autophagy by KU-55933 and chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) respectively resulted in a significant radiosensitization. Combined treatment with the AMPK inhibitor compound-C led to radiosensitization of A549 but not of H460 cells. As compared to the treatment with KU-55933 alone, radiosensitivity of A549 cells was markedly stimulated by the combination of KU-55933 and cisplatin. However, the combination of CQ and cisplatin did not modulate the pattern of radiation sensitivity of A549 or H460 cells. In accordance with the results that cisplatin via stimulation of ATM activity can abrogate its radiosensitizing effect, ATM deficient cells were significantly sensitized to ionizing radiation by cisplatin. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that ATM targeting can potentiate cisplatin-induced radiosensitization

  1. ATM variants and cancer risk in breast cancer patients from Southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aittomäki Kristiina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals heterozygous for germline ATM mutations have been reported to have an increased risk for breast cancer but the role for ATM genetic variants for breast cancer risk has remained unclear. Recently, a common ATM variant, ATMivs38 -8T>C in cis with the ATMex39 5557G>A (D1853N variant, was suggested to associate with bilateral breast cancer among familial breast cancer patients from Northern Finland. We have here evaluated the 5557G>A and ivs38-8T>C variants in an extensive case-control association analysis. We also aimed to investigate whether there are other ATM mutations or variants contributing to breast cancer risk in our population. Methods Two common ATM variants, 5557G>A and ivs38-8T>C, previously suggested to associate with bilateral breast cancer, were genotyped in an extensive set of 786 familial and 884 unselected breast cancer cases as well as 708 healthy controls. We also screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of the ATM gene in 47 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the patients. The identified variants were also evaluated for increased breast cancer risk among additional breast cancer cases and controls. Results Neither of the two common variants, 5557G>A and ivs38-8T>C, nor any haplotype containing them, was significantly associated with breast cancer risk, bilateral breast cancer or multiple primary cancers in any of the patient groups or subgoups. Three rare missense alterations and one intronic change were each found in only one patient of over 250 familial patients studied and not among controls. The fourth missense alteration studied further was found with closely similar frequencies in over 600 familial cases and controls. Conclusion Altogether, our results suggest very minor effect, if any, of ATM genetic variants on familial breast cancer in Southern Finland. Our results do not support association of the 5557G>A or ivs38-8T>C variant with

  2. Telomere length, ATM mutation status and cancer risk in Ataxia-Telangiectasia families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Anne-Laure; Mebirouk, Noura; Cavaciuti, Eve; Le Gal, Dorothée; Lecarpentier, Julie; d'Enghien, Catherine Dubois; Laugé, Anthony; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Labbé, Martine; Lesca, Gaetan; Leroux, Dominique; Gladieff, Laurence; Adenis, Claude; Faivre, Laurence; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Lortholary, Alain; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Dahan, Karin; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Longy, Michel; Buecher, Bruno; Janin, Nicolas; Zattara, Hélène; Berthet, Pascaline; Combès, Audrey; Coupier, Isabelle; Hall, Janet; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine; Lesueur, Fabienne

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have linked constitutive telomere length (TL) to aging-related diseases including cancer at different sites. ATM participates in the signaling of telomere erosion, and inherited mutations in ATM have been associated with increased risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate whether carriage of an ATM mutation and TL interplay to modify cancer risk in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) families.The study population consisted of 284 heterozygous ATM mutation carriers (HetAT) and 174 non-carriers (non-HetAT) from 103 A-T families. Forty-eight HetAT and 14 non-HetAT individuals had cancer, among them 25 HetAT and 6 non-HetAT were diagnosed after blood sample collection. We measured mean TL using a quantitative PCR assay and genotyped seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) recurrently associated with TL in large population-based studies.HetAT individuals were at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.2-4.4, P = 0.01), and particularly of breast cancer for women (OR = 2.9, 95%CI = 1.2-7.1, P = 0.02), in comparison to their non-HetAT relatives. HetAT individuals had longer telomeres than non-HetAT individuals (P = 0.0008) but TL was not associated with cancer risk, and no significant interaction was observed between ATM mutation status and TL. Furthermore, rs9257445 (ZNF311) was associated with TL in HetAT subjects and rs6060627 (BCL2L1) modified cancer risk in HetAT and non-HetAT women.Our findings suggest that carriage of an ATM mutation impacts on the age-related TL shortening and that TL per se is not related to cancer risk in ATM carriers. TL measurement alone is not a good marker for predicting cancer risk in A-T families. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. TINJAUAN YURIDIS PARA PIHAK DALAM TRANSAKSI PENGAMBILAN ATAU TRANSFER DANA MELALUI MESIN ANJUNGAN TUNAI MANDIRI (ATM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinus Simanjuntak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to civil code or Burgerlijk Wetboek (BW, article 1320, there are four legal conditions of business contract must be fulfilled by parties. One of condition is agreement. Based on this condition, the position of each parties must be equal at the same level. Besides, each parties must be exist and make effective communication before get in to that agreement. Commonly, every subjects in business transaction need dealing process first between one to another party, and than the parties goes to delivering or transfering the object of transaction. At least they have to know each other first if transaction will be implemented. But, this legal term is not fully found in one of banking transaction facilities that is automatic teller machine as we called Anjungan Tunai Mandiri (ATM. The legal issue which come out from this transaction system is particularly regarding to the subjects or parties. Every time the customer goes to ATM, she or he will not find another party existing there. It means that customer do transaction without presence of bank party. So, if ATM has broken and the balance in costumer account has decreased for debit, bank does not always liable for the costumer loss. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Menurut pasal 1320 Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Perdata atau Burgerlijk Wetboek (BW, ada empat syarat sahnya suatu kontrak bisnis yang harus dipenuhi oleh para pihak. Salah satunya ialah kesepakatan. Berdasarkan syarat ini, posisi para pihak harus sejajar pada tingkat yang sama. Selain itu, masing-masing pihak harus eksis dan melakukan komunikasi yang efektif sebelum mencapai kesepakatan. Lazimnya, setiap subjek dalam transaksi bisnis membutuhkan proses persetujuan terlebih dahulu antara pihak yang satu dengan pihak lainnya, dan kemudian para pihak menuju pada penyerahan atau pemindahan objek transaksi. Paling tidak, mereka harus saling mengetahui bila transaksi akan dilaksanakan. Tetapi, syarat hukum ini tidak sepenuhnya ditemukan di salah

  4. Pch2 acts through Xrs2 and Tel1/ATM to modulate interhomolog bias and checkpoint function during meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis requires the formation and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs to form crossovers. Repair is biased toward using the homolog as a substrate rather than the sister chromatid. Pch2 is a conserved member of the AAA(+-ATPase family of proteins and is implicated in a wide range of meiosis-specific processes including the recombination checkpoint, maturation of the chromosome axis, crossover control, and synapsis. We demonstrate a role for Pch2 in promoting and regulating interhomolog bias and the meiotic recombination checkpoint in response to unprocessed DSBs through the activation of axial proteins Hop1 and Mek1 in budding yeast. We show that Pch2 physically interacts with the putative BRCT repeats in the N-terminal region of Xrs2, a member of the MRX complex that acts at sites of unprocessed DSBs. Pch2, Xrs2, and the ATM ortholog Tel1 function in the same pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Hop1, independent of Rad17 and the ATR ortholog Mec1, which respond to the presence of single-stranded DNA. An N-terminal deletion of Xrs2 recapitulates the pch2Δ phenotypes for signaling unresected breaks. We propose that interaction with Xrs2 may enable Pch2 to remodel chromosome structure adjacent to the site of a DSB and thereby promote accessibility of Hop1 to the Tel1 kinase. In addition, Xrs2, like Pch2, is required for checkpoint-mediated delay conferred by the failure to synapse chromosomes.

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human Pim-1 kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Kevin C.; Studts, Joey; Wang, Lian; Barringer, Kevin; Kronkaitis, Anthony; Peng, Charline; Baptiste, Alistair; LaFrance, Roger; Mische, Sheenah; Farmer, Bennett

    2004-01-01

    Pim kinases, belong to a distinctive serine/threonine protein-kinase family and are involved in cytokine-induced signal transduction and the development of lymphoid malignancies. Human Pim-1 kinase has been cloned, expressed and crystallized Pim kinases, including Pim-1, Pim-2 and Pim-3, belong to a distinctive serine/threonine protein-kinase family. They are involved in cytokine-induced signal transduction and the development of lymphoid malignancies. Their kinase domains are highly homologous to one another, but share low sequence identity to other kinases. Specifically, there are two proline residues in the conserved hinge-region sequence ERPXPX separated by a residue that is non-conserved among Pim kinases. Full-length human Pim-1 kinase (1–313) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST-fusion protein and truncated to Pim-1 (14–313) by thrombin digestion during purification. The Pim-1 (14–313) protein was purified to high homogeneity and monodispersity. This protein preparation yielded small crystals in the initial screening and large crystals after optimization. The large crystals of apo Pim-1 enzyme diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution and belong to space group P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 95.9, c = 80.0 Å, β = 120° and one molecule per asymmetric unit

  6. The Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 Is a Potent Inhibitor of ATM- and DNA-PKCs-Mediated DNA Damage Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt signaling are being actively developed for tumor therapy owing to the frequent mutational activation of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 pathway in many cancers, including glioblastomas (GBMs. NVP-BEZ235 is a novel and potent dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor that is currently in phase 1/2 clinical trials for advanced solid tumors. Here, we show that NVP-BEZ235 also potently inhibits ATM and DNA-PKcs, the two major kinases responding to ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Consequently, NVP-BEZ235 blocks both nonhomologous end joining and homologous recombination DNA repair pathways resulting in significant attenuation of DSB repair. In addition, phosphorylation of ATMtargets and implementation of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint are also attenuated by this drug. As a result, NVP-BEZ235 confers an extreme degree of radiosensitization and impairs DSB repair in a panel of GBM cell lines irrespective of their Akt activation status. NVP-BEZ235 also significantly impairs DSB repair in a mouse tumor model thereby validating the efficacy of this drug as a DNA repair inhibitor in vivo. Our results, showing that NVP-BEZ235 is a potent and novel inhibitor of ATM and DNA-PKcs, have important implications for the informed and rational design of clinical trials involving this drug and also reveal the potential utility of NVP-BEZ235 as an effective radiosensitizer for GBMs in the clinic.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Hu, Lihua; Xu, Demei; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings.

  8. Comparative Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinase 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Lindin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase MK5 is a substrate of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, ERK3 and ERK4. Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that MK5 is involved in tumour suppression and promotion, embryogenesis, anxiety, cell motility and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, homology models of MK5 were used for molecular dynamics (MD simulations of: (1 MK5 alone; (2 MK5 in complex with an inhibitor; and (3 MK5 in complex with the interaction partner p38α. The calculations showed that the inhibitor occupied the active site and disrupted the intramolecular network of amino acids. However, intramolecular interactions consistent with an inactive protein kinase fold were not formed. MD with p38α showed that not only the p38 docking region, but also amino acids in the activation segment, αH helix, P-loop, regulatory phosphorylation region and the C-terminal of MK5 may be involved in forming a very stable MK5-p38α complex, and that p38α binding decreases the residual fluctuation of the MK5 model. Electrostatic Potential Surface (EPS calculations of MK5 and p38α showed that electrostatic interactions are important for recognition and binding.

  9. A structural informatics approach to mine kinase knowledge bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, Natasja; Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, Rajiah A; Feyfant, Eric; Diller, David; Bikker, Jack; Humblet, Christine

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a combination of structural informatics approaches developed to mine data extracted from existing structure knowledge bases (Protein Data Bank and the GVK database) with a focus on kinase ATP-binding site data. In contrast to existing systems that retrieve and analyze protein structures, our techniques are centered on a database of ligand-bound geometries in relation to residues lining the binding site and transparent access to ligand-based SAR data. We illustrate the systems in the context of the Abelson kinase and related inhibitor structures. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteinase K processing of rabbit muscle creatine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leydier, C; Andersen, Jens S.; Couthon, F

    1997-01-01

    Proteinase K cleaves selectively both cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of creatine kinase leading to the appearance of two fragments, a large N-terminal one (K1) and a small C-terminal peptide (K2) which remain associated together. The loss of enzymatic activity correlates with the extent...... of monomer cleavage. N-terminal sequencing of the K2 fragments from rabbit cytosolic and pig mitochondrial creatine kinase shows that these peptides begin with A328 and A324, respectively. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry demonstrates that K2 peptide is composed of 53 residues (A328-K380). However...

  11. Repair genes expression profile of MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mônica Ghislaine Oliveira; Carta, Celina Faig Lima; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic smoking on the expression profile of the repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers and never smokers. The sample consisted of thirty exfoliative cytology smears per group obtained from Smokers and Never Smokers. Total RNA was extracted and expression of the MLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time and immunocytochemistry. The gene and protein expression data were correlated to the clinical data. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using the Student t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, with pMLH1, MSH2 and ATM genes were downregulated in the smoking group compared to the control with significant values for MLH1 (p=0.006), MSH2 (p=0.0001) and ATM (p=0.0001). Immunocytochemical staining for anti-MLH1, anti-MSH2 and anti-ATM was negative in Never Smokers; in Smokers it was rarely positive. No significant correlation was observed among the expression of MLH1, MSH2, ATM and age, number of cigarettes consumed per day, time of smoking during life, smoking history or levels of CO in expired air. The expression of genes and proteins related to DNA repair mechanism MLH1, MSH2 and ATM in the normal oral mucosa of chronic smokers was reduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drosophila atm/telomere fusion is required for telomeric localization of HP1 and telomere position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikemus, Sarah R; McGinnis, Nadine; Queiroz-Machado, Joana; Tukachinsky, Hanna; Takada, Saeko; Sunkel, Claudio E; Brodsky, Michael H

    2004-08-01

    Terminal deletions of Drosophila chromosomes can be stably protected from end-to-end fusion despite the absence of all telomere-associated sequences. The sequence-independent protection of these telomeres suggests that recognition of chromosome ends might contribute to the epigenetic protection of telomeres. In mammals, Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) is activated by DNA damage and acts through an unknown, telomerase-independent mechanism to regulate telomere length and protection. We demonstrate that the Drosophila homolog of ATM is encoded by the telomere fusion (tefu) gene. In the absence of ATM, telomere fusions occur even though telomere-specific Het-A sequences are still present. High levels of spontaneous apoptosis are observed in ATM-deficient tissues, indicating that telomere dysfunction induces apoptosis in Drosophila. Suppression of this apoptosis by p53 mutations suggests that loss of ATM activates apoptosis through a DNA damage-response mechanism. Loss of ATM reduces the levels of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) at telomeres and suppresses telomere position effect. We propose that recognition of chromosome ends by ATM prevents telomere fusion and apoptosis by recruiting chromatin-modifying complexes to telomeres.

  13. A novel ATM-dependent checkpoint defect distinct from loss of function mutation promotes genomic instability in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Loredana; Brooks, Kelly; Chia, KeeMing; Grossman, Gavriel; Ellis, Jonathan J; Dahmer-Heath, Mareike; Škalamera, Dubravka; Pavey, Sandra; Burmeister, Bryan; Gabrielli, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Melanomas have high levels of genomic instability that can contribute to poor disease prognosis. Here, we report a novel defect of the ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint in melanoma cell lines that promotes genomic instability. In defective cells, ATM signalling to CHK2 is intact, but the cells are unable to maintain the cell cycle arrest due to elevated PLK1 driving recovery from the arrest. Reducing PLK1 activity recovered the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest, and over-expressing PLK1 was sufficient to overcome the checkpoint arrest and increase genomic instability. Loss of the ATM-dependent checkpoint did not affect sensitivity to ionizing radiation demonstrating that this defect is distinct from ATM loss of function mutations. The checkpoint defective melanoma cell lines over-express PLK1, and a significant proportion of melanomas have high levels of PLK1 over-expression suggesting this defect is a common feature of melanomas. The inability of ATM to impose a cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage increases genomic instability. This work also suggests that the ATM-dependent checkpoint arrest is likely to be defective in a higher proportion of cancers than previously expected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evidence for the Deregulation of Protein Turnover Pathways in Atm-Deficient Mouse Cerebellum: An Organotypic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine D; Reed, Ryan E; Juncker, Meredith A; Fang, Zhide; Desai, Shyamal D

    2017-07-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), an antagonist of the ubiquitin pathway, is elevated in cells and brain tissues obtained from ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) patients. Previous studies reveal that an elevated ISG15 pathway inhibits ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, leading to activation of basal autophagy as a compensatory mechanism for protein turnover in A-T cells. Also, genotoxic stress (ultraviolet [UV] radiation) deregulates autophagy and induces aberrant degradation of ubiquitylated proteins in A-T cells. In the current study, we show that, as in A-T cells, ISG15 protein expression is elevated in cerebellums and various other tissues obtained from Atm-compromised mice in an Atm-allele-dependent manner (Atm+/+ Atm+/- Atm-/-). Notably, in cerebellums, the brain part primarily affected in A-T, levels of ISG15 were significantly greater (3-fold higher) than cerebrums obtained from the same set of mice. Moreover, as in A-T cell culture, UV induces aberrant degradation of ubiquitylated proteins and autophagy in Atm-deficient, but not in Atm-proficient, cerebellar brain slices grown in culture. Thus, the ex vivo organotypic A-T mouse brain culture model mimics that of an A-T human cell culture model and could be useful for studying the role of ISG15-dependent proteinopathy in cerebellar neurodegeneration, a hallmark of A-T in humans. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of proteostasis counteracts oxidative stress and affects DNA base excision repair capacity in ATM-deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Mattia; Yang, Di; Fletcher, Sally C; Vendrell, Iolanda; Fischer, Roman; Legrand, Arnaud J; Dianov, Grigory L

    2017-09-29

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a syndrome associated with loss of ATM protein function. Neurodegeneration and cancer predisposition, both hallmarks of A-T, are likely to emerge as a consequence of the persistent oxidative stress and DNA damage observed in this disease. Surprisingly however, despite these severe features, a lack of functional ATM is still compatible with early life, suggesting that adaptation mechanisms contributing to cell survival must be in place. Here we address this gap in our knowledge by analysing the process of human fibroblast adaptation to the lack of ATM. We identify profound rearrangement in cellular proteostasis occurring very early on after loss of ATM in order to counter protein damage originating from oxidative stress. Change in proteostasis, however, is not without repercussions. Modulating protein turnover in ATM-depleted cells also has an adverse effect on the DNA base excision repair pathway, the major DNA repair system that deals with oxidative DNA damage. As a consequence, the burden of unrepaired endogenous DNA lesions intensifies, progressively leading to genomic instability. Our study provides a glimpse at the cellular consequences of loss of ATM and highlights a previously overlooked role for proteostasis in maintaining cell survival in the absence of ATM function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. EGb 761 Protects Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury and Exerts Inhibitory Effect on the ATM Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Deng-Feng; Zhang, Zhuang; Han, Dong; Yang, Kan

    2017-03-28

    Ginkgo bilob a extract (EGb 761) has been widely used clinically to reduce myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). Microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) may be a proper cellular model in vitro for the effect and mechanism study against MIRI. However, the protective effect of EGb 761 on MVECs resisting hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is little reported. In this study, H/R-injured MVECs were treated with EGb 761, and then the cell viability, apoptosis, ROS production, SOD activity, caspase-3 activity, and protein level of ATM, γ-H2AX, p53, and Bax were measured. ATM siRNA was transfected to study the changes of protein in the ATM pathway. EGb 761 presented protective effect on H/R-injured MVECs, with decreasing cell death, apoptosis, and ROS, and elevated SOD activity. Next, EGb 761 could inhibit H/R-induced ATM, γ-H2AX, p53, and Bax in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, ATM siRNA also could inhibit H/R-induced ATM, γ-H2AX, p53, and Bax. Overall, these findings verify that EGb 761 protects cardiac MVECs from H/R injury, and for the first time, illustrate the influence on the ATM pathway and apoptosis by EGb 761 via dampening ROS.

  17. Tetraploidization or autophagy: The ultimate fate of senescent human endometrial stem cells under ATM or p53 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, Aleksandra V; Shatrova, Alla N; Deryabin, Pavel I; Grukova, Anastasiya A; Nikolsky, Nikolay N; Burova, Elena B

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that endometrium-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMESCs) via activation of the ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway enter the premature senescence in response to oxidative stress. Down regulation effects of the key components of this signaling pathway, particularly ATM and p53, on a fate of stressed hMESCs have not yet been investigated. In the present study by using the specific inhibitors Ku55933 and Pifithrin-α, we confirmed implication of both ATM and p53 in H(2)O(2)-induced senescence of hMESCs. ATM or p53 down regulation was shown to modulate differently the cellular fate of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs. ATM inhibition allowed H(2)O(2)-stimulated hMESCs to escape the permanent cell cycle arrest due to loss of the functional ATM/p53/p21/Rb pathway, and induced bypass of mitosis and re-entry into S phase, resulting in tetraploid cells. On the contrary, suppression of the p53 transcriptional activity caused a pronounced cell death of H(2)O(2)-treated hMESCs via autophagy induction. The obtained data clearly demonstrate that down regulation of ATM or p53 shifts senescence of human endometrial stem cells toward tetraploidization or autophagy.

  18. Almost 2% of Spanish breast cancer families are associated to germline pathogenic mutations in the ATM gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera-Tapia, A; Pérez-Cabornero, L; Macías, J A; Ceballos, M I; Roncador, G; de la Hoya, M; Barroso, A; Felipe-Ponce, V; Serrano-Blanch, R; Hinojo, C; Miramar-Gallart, M D; Urioste, M; Caldés, T; Santillan-Garzón, S; Benitez, J; Osorio, A

    2017-02-01

    There is still a considerable percentage of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) cases not explained by BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In this report, next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques were applied to identify novel variants and/or genes involved in HBOC susceptibility. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a novel germline mutation in the moderate-risk gene ATM (c.5441delT; p.Leu1814Trpfs*14) in a family negative for mutations in BRCA1/2 (BRCAX). A case-control association study was performed to establish its prevalence in Spanish population, in a series of 1477 BRCAX families and 589 controls further screened, and NGS panels were used for ATM mutational screening in a cohort of 392 HBOC Spanish BRCAX families and 350 patients affected with diseases not related to breast cancer. Although the interrogated mutation was not prevalent in case-control association study, a comprehensive mutational analysis of the ATM gene revealed 1.78% prevalence of mutations in the ATM gene in HBOC and 1.94% in breast cancer-only BRCAX families in Spanish population, where data about ATM mutations were very limited. ATM mutation prevalence in Spanish population highlights the importance of considering ATM pathogenic variants linked to breast cancer susceptibility.

  19. Identification of the protein kinase C phosphorylation site in neuromodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apel, E.D.; Byford, M.F.; Au, D.; Walsh, K.A.; Storm, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Neuromodulin (P-57, GAP-43, B-50, F-1) is a neurospecific calmodulin binding protein that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C has been shown to abolish the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin and the authors have proposed that the concentration of free CaM in neurons may be regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of neuromodulin. The purpose of this study was to identify the protein kinase C phosphorylation site(s) in neuromodulin using recombinant neuromodulin as a substrate. Toward this end, it was demonstrated that recombinant neuromodulin purified from Escherichia coli and bovine neuromodulin were phosphorylated with similar K m values and stoichiometries and that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation of both proteins abolished binding to calmodulin-Sepharose. Recombinant neuromodulin was phosphorylated by using protein kinase C and [γ- 32 P]ATP and digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were separated by HPLC. Only one 32 P-labeled tryptic peptide was generated from phosphorylated neuromodulin. They conclude that serine-41 is the protein kinase C phosphorylation site of neuromodulin and that phosphorylation of this amino acid residue blocks binding of calmoculin to neuromodulin. The proximity of serine-41 to the calmodulin binding domain in neuromodulin very likely explains the effect of phosphorylation on the affinity of neuromodulin for calmodulin

  20. SH2-dependent autophosphorylation within the Tec family kinase Itk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Raji E; Severin, Andrew; Min, Lie; Fulton, D Bruce; Andreotti, Amy H

    2009-08-07

    The Tec family kinase, Itk (interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase), undergoes an in cis autophosphorylation on Y180 within its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Autophosphorylation of the Itk SH3 domain by the Itk kinase domain is strictly dependent on the presence of the intervening Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. A direct docking interaction between the Itk kinase and SH2 domains brings the Itk SH3 domain into the active site where Y180 is then phosphorylated. We now identify the residues on the surface of the Itk SH2 domain responsible for substrate docking and show that this SH2 surface mediates autophosphorylation in the full-length Itk molecule. The canonical phospholigand binding site on the SH2 domain is not involved in substrate docking, instead the docking site consists of side chains from three loop regions (AB, EF and BG) and part of the betaD strand. These results are extended into Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase), a Tec family kinase linked to the B-cell deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Our results suggest that some XLA-causing mutations might impair Btk phosphorylation.

  1. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Akiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.

  2. EBV-encoded miRNAs target ATM-mediated response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Raymond W-M; Hau, Pok-Man; Yu, Ken H-O; Yip, Kevin Y; Tong, Joanna H-M; Chak, Wing-Po; Chan, Anthony W-H; Lam, Ka-Hei; Lo, Angela Kwok-Fung; Tin, Edith K-Y; Chau, Shuk-Ling; Pang, Jesse C-S; Kwan, Johnny S-H; Busson, Pierre; Young, Lawrence S; Yap, Lee-Fah; Tsao, Sai-Wah; To, Ka-Fai; Lo, Kwok-Wai

    2018-04-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive epithelial malignancy that is prevalent in southern China and Southeast Asia. It is consistently associated with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In NPC, miR-BARTs, the EBV-encoded miRNAs derived from BamH1-A rightward transcripts, are abundantly expressed and contribute to cancer development by targeting various cellular and viral genes. In this study, we establish a comprehensive transcriptional profile of EBV-encoded miRNAs in a panel of NPC patient-derived xenografts and an EBV-positive NPC cell line by small RNA sequencing. Among the 40 miR-BARTs, predominant expression of 22 miRNAs was consistently detected in these tumors. Among the abundantly expressed EBV-miRNAs, BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p could negatively regulate the expression of a key DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair gene, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), by binding to multiple sites on its 3'-UTR. Notably, the expression of these four miR-BARTs represented more than 10% of all EBV-encoded miRNAs in tumor cells, while downregulation of ATM expression was commonly detected in all of our tested sequenced samples. In addition, downregulation of ATM was also observed in primary NPC tissues in both qRT-PCR (16 NP and 45 NPC cases) and immunohistochemical staining (35 NP and 46 NPC cases) analysis. Modulation of ATM expression by BART5-5p, BART7-3p, BART9-3p, and BART14-3p was demonstrated in the transient transfection assays. These findings suggest that EBV uses miRNA machinery as a key mechanism to control the ATM signaling pathway in NPC cells. By suppressing these endogenous miR-BARTs in EBV-positive NPC cells, we further demonstrated the novel function of miR-BARTs in inhibiting Zta-induced lytic reactivation. These findings imply that the four viral miRNAs work co-operatively to modulate ATM activity in response to DNA damage and to maintain viral latency, contributing to the tumorigenesis of NPC. © 2017 The Authors

  3. Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK α subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21 waf/cip as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21 waf/cip and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21 waf/cip pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

  4. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Fission yeast shelterin regulates DNA polymerases and Rad3(ATR kinase to limit telomere extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ting Chang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies in fission yeast have previously identified evolutionarily conserved shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes, and established Rad3(ATR/Tel1(ATM-dependent phosphorylation of the shelterin subunit Ccq1 at Thr93 as the critical post-translational modification for telomerase recruitment to telomeres. Furthermore, shelterin subunits Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 have been identified as negative regulators of Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment. However, it remained unclear how telomere maintenance is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle. Thus, we investigated how loss of Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 affects cell cycle regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomere association of telomerase (Trt1(TERT, DNA polymerases, Replication Protein A (RPA complex, Rad3(ATR-Rad26(ATRIP checkpoint kinase complex, Tel1(ATM kinase, shelterin subunits (Tpz1, Ccq1 and Poz1 and Stn1. We further investigated how telomere shortening, caused by trt1Δ or catalytically dead Trt1-D743A, affects cell cycle-regulated telomere association of telomerase and DNA polymerases. These analyses established that fission yeast shelterin maintains telomere length homeostasis by coordinating the differential arrival of leading (Polε and lagging (Polα strand DNA polymerases at telomeres to modulate Rad3(ATR association, Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomerase recruitment.

  6. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like" Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2015-01-01

    AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6.Monthly mean August 2014 Version-6.22 AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with OMPS, CERES, and witheach other. JPL plans to process AIRS and CrIS for many months and compare interannual differences. Updates to thecalibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. We are also working with JPL to develop a joint AIRS/CrISlevel-1 to level-3 processing system using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm. The NASA Goddard DISCwill eventually use this system to reprocess all AIRS and recalibrated CrIS/ATMS. .

  7. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REGARDING BANK’S DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS – THE ATM NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharie Monica Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to traditional distribution methods (network of territorial units, to better meet market requirements in terms of speed and efficiency of services, banks have developed interactive electronic and computerized systems for clients: banking services via telephone, internet banking, network of automatic teller machines (ATMs, Electronic Funds Transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS. Automatic Teller Machines have become in recent years one of the common instruments through which banks offer the possibility of conducting routine operations such as: cash withdrawals, bill payments, transfer between accounts. This article presents the results obtained following a research that focused on determining the customers’ degree of satisfaction with the distribution channels used by a Top Five Romanian Bank, in particular the ATMs distribution network.

  8. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    AIRS was launched on EOS Aqua in May 2002, together with AMSU-A and HSB (which subsequently failed early in the mission), to form a next generation polar orbiting infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system. AIRS/AMSU had two primary objectives. The first objective was to provide real-time data products available for use by the operational Numerical Weather Prediction Centers in a data assimilation mode to improve the skill of their subsequent forecasts. The second objective was to provide accurate unbiased sounding products with good spatial coverage that are used to generate stable multi-year climate data sets to study the earth's interannual variability, climate processes, and possibly long-term trends. AIRS/AMSU data for all time periods are now being processed using the state of the art AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval methodology. The Suomi-NPP mission was launched in October 2011 as part of a sequence of Low Earth Orbiting satellite missions under the "Joint Polar Satellite System" (JPSS). NPP carries CrIS and ATMS, which are advanced infra-red and microwave atmospheric sounders that were designed as follow-ons to the AIRS and AMSU instruments. The main objective of this work is to assess whether CrIS/ATMS will be an adequate replacement for AIRS/AMSU from the perspective of the generation of accurate and consistent long term climate data records, or if improved instruments should be developed for future flight. It is critical for CrIS/ATMS to be processed using an algorithm similar to, or at least comparable to, AIRS Version-6 before such an assessment can be made. We have been conducting research to optimize products derived from CrIS/ATMS observations using a scientific approach analogous to the AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Our latest research uses Version-5.70 of the CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithm, which is otherwise analogous to AIRS Version-6, but does not yet contain the benefit of use of a Neural-Net first guess start-up system

  9. D-ATM, a working example of health care interoperability: From dirt path to gravel road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClaris, John-William

    2009-01-01

    For many years, there have been calls for interoperability within health care systems. The technology currently exists and is being used in business areas like banking and commerce, to name a few. Yet the question remains, why has interoperability not been achieved in health care? This paper examines issues encountered and success achieved with interoperability during the development of the Digital Access To Medication (D-ATM) project, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). D-ATM is the first government funded interoperable patient management system. The goal of this paper is to provide lessons learned and propose one possible road map for health care interoperability within private industry and how government can help.

  10. Analysis of CrIS ATMS and AIRS AMSU Data Using Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2016-01-01

    Monthly mean August 2014 Version-6.28 AIRS and CrIS products agree well with OMPS and CERES, and reasonably well with each other. Version-6.28 CrIS total precipitable water is biased dry compared to AIRS. AIRS and CrIS Version-6.36 water vapor products are both improved compared to Version-6.28. Version-6.36 AIRS and CrIS total precipitable water also shows improved agreement with each other. AIRS Version-6.36 total ozone agrees even better with OMPS than does AIRS Version-6.28, and gives reasonable results during polar winter where OMPS does not generate products. CrIS and ATMS are high spectral resolution IR and Microwave atmospheric sounders currently flying on the SNPP satellite, and are also scheduled for flight on future NPOESS satellites. CrIS/ATMS have similar sounding capabilities to those of the AIRS/AMSU sounder suite flying on EOS Aqua. The objective of this research is to develop and implement scientifically equivalent AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS retrieval algorithms with the goal of generating a continuous data record of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS level-3 data products with a seamless transition between them in time. To achieve this, monthly mean AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS retrieved products, and more importantly their interannual differences, should show excellent agreement with each other. The currently operational AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm has generated 14 years of level-3 data products. A scientifically improved AIRS Version-7 retrieval algorithm is expected to become operational in 2017. We see significant improvements in water vapor and ozone in Version-7 retrieval methodology compared to Version-6.We are working toward finalization and implementation of scientifically equivalent AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Version-7 retrieval algorithms to be used for the eventual processing of all AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS data. The latest version of our retrieval algorithm is Verison-6.36, which includes almost all the improvements we want in Version-7

  11. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets

  12. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-06-09

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  13. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets. PMID:24212825

  14. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Sridharan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  15. ENTORNOS MPLS Y ATM PARA EL TRANSPORTE DE VOZ SOBRE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Yaneth Gelvez García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de la calidad de servicio sobre redes IP en tráficos sensibles al retardo como la VoIP sobre la tecnología ATM y MPLS. Se analizaran diferentes topologías con características propias que permitirán evaluar valores tales como el retardo y el ancho de banda.

  16. ATM Coastal Topography-Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 15 (Part 1 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 15, from Isles Dernieres to Grand Isle, acquired September 7 and 10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last

  17. ATM Coastal Topography - Louisiana, 2001: UTM Zone 16 (Part 2 of 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Xan; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Louisiana coastline beach face within UTM Zone 16, from Grand Isle to the Chandeleur Islands, acquired September 7 and 9, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and

  18. Arctic Sea Ice: Using Airborne Topographic Mapper Measurements (ATM) to Determine Sea Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    Track Distance (Km) E le v a ti o n ( m ) ATM Elevation Profile Elevation 18 Figure 13: Geoid shape of earth’s equipotential surface , which is...inferred for the region between successive leads. Therefore, flying over a lead in the ice is very important for determining the exact sea surface elevation...inferred for the region between successive leads. Therefore, flying over a lead in the ice is very important for determining the exact sea surface

  19. Regulation of radiation-induced protein kinase Cδ activation in radiation-induced apoptosis differs between radiosensitive and radioresistant mouse thymic lymphoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo; Yukawa, Osami; Tsuji, Hideo; Ohyama, Harumi; Wang, Bing; Tatsumi, Kouichi; Hayata, Isamu; Hama-Inaba, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has an important role in radiation-induced apoptosis. The expression and function of PKCδ in radiation-induced apoptosis were assessed in a radiation-sensitive mouse thymic lymphoma cell line, 3SBH5, and its radioresistant variant, XR223. Rottlerin, a PKCδ-specific inhibitor, completely abolished radiation-induced apoptosis in 3SBH5. Radiation-induced PKCδ activation correlated with the degradation of PKCδ, indicating that PKCδ activation through degradation is involved in radiation-induced apoptosis in radiosensitive 3SBH5. In radioresistant XR223, radiation-induced PKCδ activation was lower than that in radiosensitive 3SBH5. Cytosol PKCδ levels in 3SBH5 decreased markedly after irradiation, while those in XR223 did not. There was no apparent change after irradiation in the membrane fractions of either cell type. In addition, basal cytosol PKCδ levels in XR223 were higher than those in 3SBH5. These results suggest that the radioresistance in XR223 to radiation-induced apoptosis is due to a difference in the regulation of radiation-induced PKCδ activation compared to that of 3SBH5. On the other hand, Atm -/- mouse thymic lymphoma cells were more radioresistant to radiation-induced apoptosis than wild-type mouse thymic lymphoma cells. Irradiated wild-type cells, but not Atm -/- cells, had decreased PKCδ levels, indicating that the Atm protein is involved in radiation-induced apoptosis through the induction of PKCδ degradation. The decreased Atm protein levels induced by treatment with Atm small interfering RNA had no effect on radiation-induced apoptosis in 3SBH5 cells. These results suggest that the regulation of radiation-induced PKCδ activation, which is distinct from the Atm-mediated cascade, determines radiation sensitivity in radiosensitive 3SBH5 cells

  20. Characterization of Early and Late Adopters of ATM Card in Indian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalpreet Kaur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with affect of adoption pattern of the ATMs by banks on its characteristics. With the exploration of various characteristics of the banks like Size, Profi tability, Efficiency, Cost of Operations, Asset quality and Credit risk, Financing Pattern, Diversifi cation and Age etc.; the study has tried to differentiate between the early and late adopter category of the banks regarding ATM cards. The banks have been categorized into early and late adopters on the basis of their adoption period. For this purpose, 50 scheduled commercial banks consisting of 27 Public Sector Banks and 23 Private Sector Banks have been taken as sample to investigate the various aspects of and early adopter banks in comparison to late adopter banks. The time period of the study is 20 years i.e. from 1991 to 2010. It can be concluded that the initiators and fi rst movers take advantage over the late adopters and laggards. They have found to perform better in terms of various parameters. Overall, the early adopter banks are larger in size, more diversifi ed, having lesser branches, more market share and wide ATM network as compared to late adopter ones. Thus, the empirical results evidently reveal that the both the groups have their own different characteristics.

  1. ATM Mediates pRB Function To Control DNMT1 Protein Stability and DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Misa; Hayashi, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Sasaki, Nobunari; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Okamoto, Takahiro; Kohno, Susumu; Muranaka, Hayato; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB) product has been implicated in epigenetic control of gene expression owing to its ability to physically bind to many chromatin modifiers. However, the biological and clinical significance of this activity was not well elucidated. To address this, we performed genetic and epigenetic analyses in an Rb-deficient mouse thyroid C cell tumor model. Here we report that the genetic interaction of Rb and ATM regulates DNMT1 protein stability and hence controls the DNA methylation status in the promoters of at least the Ink4a, Shc2, FoxO6, and Noggin genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that inactivation of pRB promotes Tip60 (acetyltransferase)-dependent ATM activation; allows activated ATM to physically bind to DNMT1, forming a complex with Tip60 and UHRF1 (E3 ligase); and consequently accelerates DNMT1 ubiquitination driven by Tip60-dependent acetylation. Our results indicate that inactivation of the pRB pathway in coordination with aberration in the DNA damage response deregulates DNMT1 stability, leading to an abnormal DNA methylation pattern and malignant progression. PMID:23754744

  2. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles activate the ATM-Chk2 DNA damage response in human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raju Y.; Chastain, Paul D.; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Smeester, Lisa M.; Kaufmann, William K.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in consumer products increases their prevalence in the environment and the potential risk to human health. Although recent studies have shown in vivo and in vitro toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), a more detailed view of the underlying mechanisms of this response needs to be established. Here the effects of nano-TiO2 on the DNA damage response and DNA replication dynamics were investigated in human dermal fibroblasts. Specifically, the relationship between nano-TiO2 and the DNA damage response pathways regulated by ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 were examined. The results show increased phosphorylation of H2AX, ATM, and Chk2 after exposure. In addition, nano-TiO2 inhibited the overall rate of DNA synthesis and frequency of replicon initiation events in DNA combed fibers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exposure to nano-TiO2 activates the ATM/Chk2 DNA damage response pathway. PMID:22770119

  3. Recent Greenland Thinning from Operation IceBridge ATM and LVIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutterley, T. C.; Velicogna, I.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate regional thinning rates in Greenland using two Operation IceBridge lidar instruments, the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS). IceBridge and Pre-IceBridge ATM data are available from 1993 to present and IceBridge and Pre-Icebridge LVIS data are available from 2007 to present. We compare different techniques for combining the two datasets: overlapping footprints, triangulated irregular network meshing and radial basis functions. We validate the combination for periods with near term overlap of the two instruments. By combining the two lidar datasets, we are able to investigate intra-annual, annual, interannual surface elevation change. We investigate both the high melt season of 2012 and the low melt season of 2013. In addition, the major 2015 IceBridge Arctic campaign provides new crucial data for determining seasonal ice sheet thinning rates. We compare our LVIS/ATM results with surface mass balance outputs from two regional climate models: the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR). We also investigate the thinning rates of major outlet glaciers.

  4. Screening for ATM Mutations in an African-American Population to Identify a Predictor of Breast Cancer Susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenstein, Barry S

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis being tested in this project is that a greater proportion of African-Americans with breast cancer harbor a specific germline genetic alteration in the ATM gene or possess a particular...

  5. ATM Heterozygosity and the Development of Radiation-Induced Erectile Dysfunction and Urinary Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesaretti, Jamie A

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this training grant project is to determine whether the prevalence of ATM carriers among prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy that develop erectile dysfunction and urinary...

  6. ATM Heterozygosity and the Development of Radiation-Induced Erectile Dysfunction and Urinary Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesaretti, Jamie A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this training grant project is to determine whether the prevalence of ATM carriers among prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy that develop erectile dysfunction and urinary...

  7. ATM Heterozygosity and the Development of Radiation-Induced Erectile Dysfunction and Urinary Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cesaretti, Jamie A

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this training grant project is to determine whether the prevalence of ATM carriers among prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy that develop erectile dysfunction and urinary...

  8. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  9. Kinetic properties of ATP sulfurylase and APS kinase from Thiobacillus denitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Sean C; Fribourgh, Jennifer L; Donohoue, Paul D; Segel, Irwin H; Fisher, Andrew J

    2009-09-01

    The Thiobacillus denitrificans genome contains two sequences corresponding to ATP sulfurylase (Tbd_0210 and Tbd_0874). Both genes were cloned and expressed protein characterized. The larger protein (Tbd_0210; 544 residues) possesses an N-terminal ATP sulfurylase domain and a C-terminal APS kinase domain and was therefore annotated as a bifunctional enzyme. But, the protein was not bifunctional because it lacked ATP sulfurylase activity. However, the enzyme did possess APS kinase activity and displayed substrate inhibition by APS. Truncated protein missing the N-terminal domain had APS kinase activity suggesting the function of the inactive sulfurylase domain is to promote the oligomerization of the APS kinase domains. The smaller gene product (Tbd_0874; 402 residues) possessed strong ATP sulfurylase activity with kinetic properties that appear to be kinetically optimized for the direction of APS utilization and ATP+sulfate production, which is consistent with an enzyme that functions physiologically to produce inorganic sulfate.

  10. Effect of silencing of ATM expression by siRNA on radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoqun; Qiao Tiankui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of silencing of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) expression by plasmid-mediated RNA interference on the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A 549 cells. Methods: Eukaryotic expression plasmid containing ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) (pSilencer2.1-ATM), as well as pSilencer2.1-nonspecific, was constructed.Lung adenocarcinoma A 549 cells were divided into positive group, negative group,and control group to be transfected with pSilencer2.1-ATM, pSilencer2.1-nonspecific, and no plasmid, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of ATM was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The change in cell radiosensitivity was observed by colony-forming assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The eukaryotic expression plasmid containing ATM siRNA was successfully constructed. The RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the expression of ATM was down-regulated in the positive group. The sensitization enhancement ratios (D 0 ratios) for the positive group and negative group were 1.50 and 1.01, respectively. The flow cytometry revealed that the proportions of A 549 cells in G 1 and G 2 /M phases were significantly lower in the positive group than in the control group (51.27% vs 61.85%, P = 0.012; 6.34% vs 10.91%, P = 0.008) and that the apoptosis rate was significantly higher in the positive group than in the control group and negative group (49.31% vs 13.58%, P = 0.000; 49.31% vs 13.17%, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Silencing of ATM expression may increase the radiosensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A 549 cells, probably by affecting the cell cycle and promoting cell apoptosis. (authors)

  11. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  12. Barriers and Facilitators of Iranian Elderly in Use of ATM Machines: A Qualitative Research in the Way of Cultural Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Mokhberi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Having considering to the rate of increasing of elder people population in Iran, is preadicted that in the next thirty years the number of elderly people who need to independently work with electronic devices such as ATMs machineswill be significantly increased while there is no sufficient studies in order to modification of these devices considering physical, mental and psychology abilities of the elder people. Methods & Materials: This article is part of a qualitative study with cultural Probes Methodology to explore the needs and barriers and facilitators in the work ATMs. This study collected data through observation, interview and documentation participants respectively. This qualitative study was conducted in two stages. In the first phase interviewed with 30 elderly people in Tehran.In the second Phase according to cultural probes method we designed a package to extract the needs and problems associated with ATM. purposive sample of 10 elderly people in Tehran, 6 participants were female and 4 males. Interviews continued until data saturation, data Were coded and categorized by content analysis method. Results: Six key factors required for the design of ATM data were extracted according to the Iranian people, that pleasant, unpleasant, wants and desires, problems and obstacles, banking and mishaps. that the classification of barriers and facilitating factors these factors were extracted for the elderly. The results showed a much higher barriers to Elderly people using ATMs in facilitating conditions are present. Conclusion: According to the Iranian people using ATMs barrier is recommended to attention to ATMs in the the environment, nature and location of the installation, ATMs appear particularly relevant in the context of software that can be tailored to the elderly should be done. Finally, it is suggested that future studies in different groups of people, especially older people with disabilities and low literacy are doing.

  13. An Exploratory Study of the Critical Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun Folorunso; Oluwafunmilayo Ayobami Ateji; Gabriel Oludare Awe

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a basis for studying critical factors that affects the acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) in Nigeria. Questionnaire approach was used with the respondents predominantly between 20-29 years old. Factor analysis was used to test which of the factors are the main factors affecting the adoption of the technology in Nigeria. It was discovered that the major factors affecting people’s intention to accept ATM are the security issu...

  14. The association between ATM IVS 22-77 T>C and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has become increasingly clear that ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated safeguards genome stability, which is a cornerstone of cellular homeostasis, and ATM IVS 22-77 T>C affects the normal activity of ATM proteins. However, the association between the ATM IVS 22-77 T>C genetic variant and cancer risk is controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis to estimate the overall cancer risk associated with the polymorphism and to quantify any potential between-study heterogeneity. METHODS: A total of nine studies including 4,470 cases and 4,862 controls were analyzed for ATM IVS 22-77 T>C association with cancer risk in this meta-analysis. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested. RESULTS: Our results showed that no association reached the level of statistical significance in the overall risk. Interestingly, in the stratified analyses, we observed an inverse relationship in lung and breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Further functional research on the ATM mechanism should be performed to explain the inconsistent results in different cancer types.

  15. Radiotherapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the ATM and Smad pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yi; Liu, Jin-Quan; Chen, Dong-Ping; Li, Zhou-Yu; Qi, Bin; He, Lu; Yu, Yi; Yin, Wen-Jin; Wang, Meng-Yao; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-02

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck which is harmful to human's health. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of NPC and it induces immediate cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism remains unknown. Evidences suggested the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and Smad pathway are 2 of the important crucial mediators in the function of radiotherapy. In this study, we performed in vitro assays with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells and in vivo assays with nude mice to investigate the role of the ATM and Smad pathways in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy. The results suggested that radiation induced activation of ATM pathway by inducing expression of p-ATM, p-CHK1, p-CHK2, p15 and inhibiting expression of p-Smad3. In addition, Caspase3 expression was increased while CDC25A was decreased, leading to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, activation of Smad3 can inhibited the ATM pathway and attenuated the efficacy of radiation. In summary, we suggest that both ATM and Smad pathways contribute to the cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis during nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells treated with radiation.

  16. Decreased expression of the ATM gene linked to poor prognosis for gastric cancer of different nationalities in Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei; Ma, Lanying; Qu, Yanli; Tang, Yong

    2017-08-01

    To explore the clinicopathological significance of ATM gene in the occurrence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) from different nationalities in Xinjiang. The expression of ATM in 385 patients with GC (including 98 Uygurs, 231 Hans and 56 Kazaks) and its corresponding adjacent tissues were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry assay to, analyze its correlations with clinicopathological features and prognosis of GC. The ATM expression in GC tissues was significantly decreased when compared to that in adjacent normal tissues of Uygur, Han and Kazak patients in Xinjiang, while Uygurs and Kazaks were much lower than Hans in the ATM expression of GC tissues (all PATM-negative tumors had a markedly lower survival rate than patients in Hans (P=0.028), and GC patients with ATM negative expression presented more unfavorable overall survival rate than those with positive expression among the three different nationalities (all PATM expression, TNM staging, depth of invasion, and lymph node metastasis were independent factors affecting the prognosis of GC patients in Xinjiang (all PATM was downregulated in GC patients in Xinjiang, especially for Uygurs and Kazaks, which suggested ATM to be an independent indicator of prognosis for GC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. MiR-2964a-5p binding site SNP regulates ATM expression contributing to age-related cataract risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Han; Gu, Shanshan; Zhang, Guowei; Kang, Lihua; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Junfang; Shen, Xinyue; Guan, Huaijin

    2017-10-17

    This study was to explore the involvement of DNA repair genes in the pathogenesis of age-related cataract (ARC). We genotyped nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes responsible to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in 804 ARC cases and 804 controls in a cohort of eye diseases in Chinese population and found that the ataxia telangiectasia mutated ( ATM ) gene-rs4585:G>T was significantly associated with ARC risk. An in vitro functional test found that miR-2964a-5p specifically down-regulated luciferase reporter expression and ATM expression in the cell lines transfected with rs4585 T allele compared to rs4585 G allele. The molecular assay on human tissue samples discovered that ATM expression was down-regulated in majority of ARC tissues and correlated with ATM genotypes. In addition, the Comet assay of cellular DNA damage of peripheral lymphocytes indicated that individuals carrying the G allele (GG/GT) of ATM -rs4585 had lower DNA breaks compared to individuals with TT genotype. These findings suggested that the SNP rs4585 in ATM might affect ARC risk through modulating the regulatory affinity of miR-2964a-5p. The reduced DSBs repair might be involved in ARC pathogenesis.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF ATM AND BRANCH CASH OPERATIONS USING AN INTEGRATED CASH REQUIREMENT FORECASTING AND CASH OPTIMIZATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canser BİLİR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrated cash requirement forecasting and cash inventory optimization model is implemented in both the branch and automated teller machine (ATM networks of a mid-sized bank in Turkey to optimize the bank’s cash supply chain. The implemented model’s objective is to minimize the idle cash levels at both branches and ATMs without decreasing the customer service level (CSL by providing the correct amount of cash at the correct location and time. To the best of our knowledge, the model is the first integrated model in the literature to be applied to both ATMs and branches simultaneously. The results demonstrated that the integrated model dramatically decreased the idle cash levels at both branches and ATMs without degrading the availability of cash and hence customer satisfaction. An in-depth analysis of the results also indicated that the results were more remarkable for branches. The results also demonstrated that the utilization of various seasonal indices plays a very critical role in the forecasting of cash requirements for a bank. Another unique feature of the study is that the model is the first to include the recycling feature of ATMs. The results demonstrated that as a result of the inclusion of the deliberate seasonal indices in the forecasting model, the integrated cash optimization models can be used to estimate the cash requirements of recycling ATMs.

  19. Growth- and Stress-Induced PASTA Kinase Phosphorylation in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Benjamin D; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Such PASTA kinases regulate critical processes, including antibiotic resistance, cell division, toxin production, and virulence, and are essential for viability in certain organisms. Based on in vitro studies with purified extracellular and intracellular fragments of PASTA kinases, a model for signaling has been proposed, in which the extracellular PASTA domains bind currently undefined ligands (typically thought to be peptidoglycan, or fragments thereof) to drive kinase dimerization, which leads to enhanced kinase autophosphorylation and enhanced phosphorylation of substrates. However, this model has not been rigorously tested in vivo Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive intestinal commensal and major antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogen. In E. faecalis , the PASTA kinase IreK drives intrinsic resistance to cell wall-active antimicrobials, suggesting that such antimicrobials may trigger IreK signaling. Here we show that IreK responds to cell wall stress in vivo by enhancing its phosphorylation and that of a downstream substrate. This response requires both the extracellular PASTA domains and specific phosphorylatable residues in the kinase domain. Thus, our results provide in vivo evidence, with an intact full-length PASTA kinase in its native physiological environment, that supports the prevailing model of PASTA kinase signaling. In addition, we show that IreK responds to a signal associated with growth and/or cell division, in the absence of cell wall-active antimicrobials. Surprisingly, the ability of IreK to respond to growth and/or division does not require the extracellular PASTA domains, suggesting that IreK monitors multiple parameters for sensory input in vivo IMPORTANCE Transmembrane Ser/Thr kinases containing extracellular PASTA domains are ubiquitous among Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and regulate critical processes. The

  20. Detection of ATM germline variants by the p53 mitotic centrosomal localization test in BRCA1/2-negative patients with early-onset breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodosmo, Andrea; Buffone, Amelia; Mattioni, Manlio; Barnabei, Agnese; Persichetti, Agnese; De Leo, Aurora; Appetecchia, Marialuisa; Nicolussi, Arianna; Coppa, Anna; Sciacchitano, Salvatore; Giordano, Carolina; Pinnarò, Paola; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Strigari, Lidia; Alessandrini, Gabriele; Facciolo, Francesco; Cosimelli, Maurizio; Grazi, Gian Luca; Corrado, Giacomo; Vizza, Enrico; Giannini, Giuseppe; Soddu, Silvia

    2016-09-06

    Variant ATM heterozygotes have an increased risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Costs and time of sequencing and ATM variant complexity make large-scale, general population screenings not cost-effective yet. Recently, we developed a straightforward, rapid, and inexpensive test based on p53 mitotic centrosomal localization (p53-MCL) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that diagnoses mutant ATM zygosity and recognizes tumor-associated ATM polymorphisms. Fresh PBMCs from 496 cancer patients were analyzed by p53-MCL: 90 cases with familial BRCA1/2-positive and -negative breast and/or ovarian cancer, 337 with sporadic cancers (ovarian, lung, colon, and post-menopausal breast cancers), and 69 with breast/thyroid cancer. Variants were confirmed by ATM sequencing. A total of seven individuals with ATM variants were identified, 5/65 (7.7 %) in breast cancer cases of familial breast and/or ovarian cancer and 2/69 (2.9 %) in breast/thyroid cancer. No variant ATM carriers were found among the other cancer cases. Excluding a single case in which both BRCA1 and ATM were mutated, no p53-MCL alterations were observed in BRCA1/2-positive cases. These data validate p53-MCL as reliable and specific test for germline ATM variants, confirm ATM as breast cancer susceptibility gene, and highlight a possible association with breast/thyroid cancers.

  1. Interaction between focal adhesion kinase and Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate p130Cas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polte, T R; Hanks, S K

    1995-11-07

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been implicated in integrin-mediated signaling events and in the mechanism of cell transformation by the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. To gain further insight into FAK signaling pathways, we used a two-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with mouse FAK. The screen identified two proteins that interact with FAK via their Src homology 3 (SH3) domains: a v-Crk-associated tyrosine kinase substrate (Cas), p130Cas, and a still uncharacterized protein, FIPSH3-2, which contains an SH3 domain closely related to that of p130Cas. These SH3 domains bind to the same proline-rich region of FAK (APPKPSR) encompassing residues 711-717. The mouse p130Cas amino acid sequence was deduced from cDNA clones, revealing an overall high degree of similarity to the recently reported rat sequence. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that p130Cas and FAK are associated in mouse fibroblasts. The stable interaction between p130Cas and FAK emerges as a likely key element in integrin-mediated signal transduction and further represents a direct molecular link between the v-Src and v-Crk oncoproteins. The Src family kinase Fyn, whose Src homology 2 (SH2) domain binds to the major FAK autophosphorylation site (tyrosine 397), was also identified in the two-hybrid screen.

  2. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of mammalian germinal center kinase-III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  3. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  4. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interact