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Sample records for residual analysis applied

  1. Residual analysis applied to S-N data of a surface rolled cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Maluf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface rolling is a process extensively employed in the manufacture of ductile cast iron crankshafts, specifically in regions containing stress concentrators with the main aim to enhance fatigue strength. Such process hardens and introduces compressive residual stresses to the surface as a result of controlled strains, reducing cyclic tensile stresses near the surface of the part. The main purpose of this work was to apply the residual analysis to check the suitability of the S-N approach to describe the fatigue properties of a surface rolled cast iron. The analysis procedure proved to be very efficient and easy to implement and it can be applied in the verification of any other statistical model used to describe fatigue behavior. Results show that the conventional S-N methodology is able to model the high cycle fatigue behavior of surface rolled notch testpieces of a pearlitic ductile cast iron submitted to rotating bending fatigue tests.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of six soil organic matter models applied to the decomposition of animal manures and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two features distinguishing soil organic matter simulation models are the type of kinetics used to calculate pool decomposition rates, and the algorithm used to handle the effects of nitrogen (N shortage on carbon (C decomposition. Compared to widely used first-order kinetics, Monod kinetics more realistically represent organic matter decomposition, because they relate decomposition to both substrate and decomposer size. Most models impose a fixed C to N ratio for microbial biomass. When N required by microbial biomass to decompose a given amount of substrate-C is larger than soil available N, carbon decomposition rates are limited proportionally to N deficit (N inhibition hypothesis. Alternatively, C-overflow was proposed as a way of getting rid of excess C, by allocating it to a storage pool of polysaccharides. We built six models to compare the combinations of three decomposition kinetics (first-order, Monod, and reverse Monod, and two ways to simulate the effect of N shortage on C decomposition (N inhibition and C-overflow. We conducted sensitivity analysis to identify model parameters that mostly affected CO2 emissions and soil mineral N during a simulated 189-day laboratory incubation assuming constant water content and temperature. We evaluated model outputs sensitivity at different stages of organic matter decomposition in a soil amended with three inputs of increasing C to N ratio: liquid manure, solid manure, and low-N crop residue. Only few model parameters and their interactions were responsible for consistent variations of CO2 and soil mineral N. These parameters were mostly related to microbial biomass and to the partitioning of applied C among input pools, as well as their decomposition constants. In addition, in models with Monod kinetics, CO2 was also sensitive to a variation of the half-saturation constants. C-overflow enhanced pool decomposition compared to N inhibition hypothesis when N shortage occurred. Accumulated C in the

  3. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  4. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  5. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  6. Project of integrity assessment of flawed components with structural discontinuity (IAF). Data book for residual stress analysis in weld joint. Analysis model of dissimilar metal weld joint applied post weld heat treatment (PWHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The project of Integrity Assessment of Flawed Components with Structural Discontinuity (IAF) was entrusted to Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) from Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and started from FY 2001. And then, it was taken over to Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) which was established in October 2003 and carried out until FY 2007. In the IAF project, weld joints between nickel based alloys and low alloy steels around penetrations in reactor vessel, safe-end of nozzles and shroud supports were selected from among components and pipe arrangements in nuclear power plants, where high residual stresses were generated due to welding and complex structure. Residual stresses around of the weld joints were estimated by finite element analysis method (FEM) with a general modeling method, then the reasonability and the conservativeness was evaluated. In addition, for postulated surface crack of stress corrosion cracking (SCC), a simple calculation method of stress intensity factor (K) required to estimate the crack growth was proposed and the effectiveness was confirmed. JNES compiled results of the IAF project into Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis of Weld Joint, and Data Book of Simplified Stress Intensity Factor Calculation for Penetration of Reactor as typical Structure Discontinuity, respectively. Data Books of Residual Stress Analysis in Weld Joint. 1. Butt Weld Joint of Small Diameter Cylinder (4B Sch40) (JNES-RE-2012-0005), 2. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (One-Side Groove Joint (JNES-RE-2012-0006), 3. Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint in Safe End (Large Diameter Both-Side Groove Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0007), 4. Weld Joint around Penetrations in Reactor Vessel (Insert Joint) (JNES-RE-2012-0008), 5. Weld Joint in Shroud Support (H8, H9, H10 and H11 Welds) (JNES-RE-2012-0009), 6. Analysis Model of Dissimilar Metal Weld Joint Applied Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) (JNES-RE-2012-0010). Data Book of

  7. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  8. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  9. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  10. Four-dimensional data coupled to alternating weighted residue constraint quadrilinear decomposition model applied to environmental analysis: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Shutao; Cui, Yaoyao; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Lingfei; Yang, Zhe

    2018-03-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combining with Alternating Weighted Residue Constraint Quadrilinear Decomposition (AWRCQLD). The experimental subjects were acenaphthene (ANA) and naphthalene (NAP). Firstly, in order to solve the redundant information of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral data, the wavelet transform was used to compress data in preprocessing. Then, the four-dimensional data was constructed by using the excitation-emission fluorescence spectra of different concentration PAHs. The sample data was obtained from three solvents that are methanol, ethanol and Ultra-pure water. The four-dimensional spectral data was analyzed by AWRCQLD, then the recovery rate of PAHs was obtained from the three solvents and compared respectively. On one hand, the results showed that PAHs can be measured more accurately by the high-order data, and the recovery rate was higher. On the other hand, the results presented that AWRCQLD can better reflect the superiority of four-dimensional algorithm than the second-order calibration and other third-order calibration algorithms. The recovery rate of ANA was 96.5% 103.3% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.04 μgL- 1. The recovery rate of NAP was 96.7% 115.7% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.06 μgL- 1.

  11. Numerical analysis of residual stresses in preforms of stress applying part for PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fibers in view of technological imperfections of the doped zone geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trufanov, Aleksandr N.; Trufanov, Nikolay A.; Semenov, Nikita V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental data analysis of the stress applying rod section geometry for the PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fiber has been performed. The dependencies of the change in the radial dimensions of the preform and the doping boundary on the angular coordinate have been obtained. The original algorithm of experimental data statistic analysis, which enables determination of the specimens' characteristic form of section, has been described. The influence of actual doped zone geometry on the residual stress fields formed during the stress rod preform fabrication has been investigated. It has been established that the deviation of the boundary between pure silica and the doped zone from the circular shape results in dissymmetry and local concentrations of the residual stress fields along the section, which can cause preforms destruction at high degrees of doping. The observed geometry deviations of up to 10% lead to the increase of the maximum stress intensity value by over 20%.

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  13. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  14. Applied exposure modeling for residual radioactivity and release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The protection of public health and the environment from the release of materials with residual radioactivity for recycle or disposal as wastes without radioactive contents of concern presents a formidable challenge. Existing regulatory criteria are based on technical judgment concerning detectability and simple modeling. Recently, exposure modeling methodologies have been developed to provide a more consistent level of health protection. Release criteria derived from the application of exposure modeling methodologies share the same basic elements of analysis but are developed to serve a variety of purposes. Models for the support of regulations for all applications rely on conservative interpretations of generalized conditions while models developed to show compliance incorporate specific conditions not likely to be duplicated at other sites. Research models represent yet another type of modeling which strives to simulate the actual behavior of released material. In spite of these differing purposes, exposure modeling permits the application of sound and reasoned principles of radiation protection to the release of materials with residual levels of radioactivity. Examples of the similarities and differences of these models are presented and an application to the disposal of materials with residual levels of uranium contamination is discussed. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Adaptive Control Using Residual Mode Filters Applied to Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Many dynamic systems containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques, which are well suited to applications that have unknown parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a model reference direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend this adaptive control theory to accommodate problematic modal subsystems of a plant that inhibit the adaptive controller by causing the open-loop plant to be non-minimum phase. We will augment the adaptive controller using a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for problematic modal subsystems, thereby allowing the system to satisfy the requirements for the adaptive controller to have guaranteed convergence and bounded gains. We apply these theoretical results to design an adaptive collective pitch controller for a high-fidelity simulation of a utility-scale, variable-speed wind turbine that has minimum phase zeros.

  16. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  17. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  18. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, J Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010

  19. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  20. Residual stress concerns in containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, F.; Kulak, R. F.; Pfeiffer, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    The manufacturing of steel containment vessels starts with the forming of flat plates into curved plates. A steel containment structure is made by welding individual plates together to form the sections that make up the complex shaped vessels. The metal forming and welding process leaves residual stresses in the vessel walls. Generally, the effect of metal forming residual stresses can be reduced or virtually eliminated by thermally stress relieving the vesseL In large containment vessels this may not be practical and thus the residual stresses due to manufacturing may become important. The residual stresses could possibly tiect the response of the vessel to internal pressurization. When the level of residual stresses is significant it will affect the vessel's response, for instance the yielding pressure and possibly the failure pressure. The paper will address the effect of metal forming residual stresses on the response of a generic pressure vessel to internal pressurization. A scoping analysis investigated the effect of residual forming stresses on the response of an internally pressurized vessel. A simple model was developed to gain understanding of the mechanics of the problem. Residual stresses due to the welding process were not considered in this investigation

  1. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  2. Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichiro Yoshida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.

  3. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrus, A [Agrochemicals Unit, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures.

  4. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  5. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  6. Effect of applied stress on the compressive residual stress introduced by laser peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Rie; Tazawa, Toshiyuki; Narazaki, Chihiro; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Peening is the process which is able to be generated compressive residual stress and is known to be effective for preventing SCC initiation and improvement of fatigue strength. Laser peening is used for the nuclear power plant components in order to prevent SCC initiation. Although it is reported that the compressive residual stress decreases due to applied stresses under general operating condition, the change of residual stress might be large under excessive loading such as an earthquake. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relaxation behavior of the compressive residual stress due to laser peening and to confirm the surface residual stress after loading. Therefore laser peened round bar test specimens of SUS316L which is used for the reactor internals of nuclear power plant were loaded at room temperature and elevated temperature and then surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method. In the results of this test, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stress remained after applying uniform stress larger than 0.2% proof stress, and the effect of cyclic loading on the residual stress was small. The effect of applying compressive stress on the residual stress relaxation was confirmed to be less than that of applying tensile stress. Plastic deformation through a whole cross section causes the change in the residual stress distribution. As a result, the surface compressive residual stress is released. It was shown that the effect of specimen size on residual stress relaxation and the residual stress relaxation behavior in the stress concentration region can be explained by assumed stress relaxation mechanism. (author)

  7. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  8. Applied analysis and differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cârj, Ovidiu

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains refereed research articles written by experts in the field of applied analysis, differential equations and related topics. Well-known leading mathematicians worldwide and prominent young scientists cover a diverse range of topics, including the most exciting recent developments. A broad range of topics of recent interest are treated: existence, uniqueness, viability, asymptotic stability, viscosity solutions, controllability and numerical analysis for ODE, PDE and stochastic equations. The scope of the book is wide, ranging from pure mathematics to various applied fields such as classical mechanics, biomedicine, and population dynamics.

  9. MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO EVALUATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812361The evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production demands to consider several characteristicsand properties that may be correlated. This fact demands the use of various multivariate analysis techniquesthat allow the evaluation of relevant energetic factors. This work aimed to apply cluster analysis and principalcomponents analyses for the selection and evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for bioenergy production.8 types of residual biomass were used, whose the elemental components (C, H, O, N, S content, lignin, totalextractives and ashes contents, basic density and higher and lower heating values were determined. Bothmultivariate techniques applied for evaluation and selection of lignocellulosic wastes were efficient andsimilarities were observed between the biomass groups formed by them. Through the interpretation of thefirst principal component obtained, it was possible to create a global development index for the evaluationof the viability of energetic uses of biomass. The interpretation of the second principal component alloweda contrast between nitrogen and sulfur contents with oxygen content.

  10. Modern problems in applied analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rogosin, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    This book features a collection of recent findings in Applied Real and Complex Analysis that were presented at the 3rd International Conference “Boundary Value Problems, Functional Equations and Applications” (BAF-3), held in Rzeszow, Poland on 20-23 April 2016. The contributions presented here develop a technique related to the scope of the workshop and touching on the fields of differential and functional equations, complex and real analysis, with a special emphasis on topics related to boundary value problems. Further, the papers discuss various applications of the technique, mainly in solid mechanics (crack propagation, conductivity of composite materials), biomechanics (viscoelastic behavior of the periodontal ligament, modeling of swarms) and fluid dynamics (Stokes and Brinkman type flows, Hele-Shaw type flows). The book is addressed to all readers who are interested in the development and application of innovative research results that can help solve theoretical and real-world problems.

  11. A survey of residual analysis and a new test of residual trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Klapes, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    A survey of residual analysis in behavior-analytic research reveals that existing methods are problematic in one way or another. A new test for residual trends is proposed that avoids the problematic features of the existing methods. It entails fitting cubic polynomials to sets of residuals and comparing their effect sizes to those that would be expected if the sets of residuals were random. To this end, sampling distributions of effect sizes for fits of a cubic polynomial to random data were obtained by generating sets of random standardized residuals of various sizes, n. A cubic polynomial was then fitted to each set of residuals and its effect size was calculated. This yielded a sampling distribution of effect sizes for each n. To test for a residual trend in experimental data, the median effect size of cubic-polynomial fits to sets of experimental residuals can be compared to the median of the corresponding sampling distribution of effect sizes for random residuals using a sign test. An example from the literature, which entailed comparing mathematical and computational models of continuous choice, is used to illustrate the utility of the test. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Multi-Residue Analysis of Pesticide Residues in Crude Pollens by UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Tong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A multi-residue method for the determination of 54 pesticide residues in pollens has been developed and validated. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 48 crude pollen samples collected from eight provinces of China. The recovery of analytes ranged from 60% to 136% with relative standard deviations (RSDs below 30%. Of the 54 targeted compounds, 19 pesticides were detected. The major detection rates of each compound were 77.1% for carbendazim, 58.3% for fenpropathrin, 56.3% for chlorpyrifos, 50.0% for fluvalinate, 31.3% for chlorbenzuron, and 29.2% for triadimefon in crude pollen samples. The maximum values of each pesticide were 4516 ng/g for carbendazim, 162.8 ng/g for fenpropathrin, 176.6 ng/g for chlorpyrifos, 316.2 ng/g for fluvalinate, 437.2 ng/g for chlorbenzuron, 79.00 ng/g for triadimefon, and so on. This study provides basis for the research on the risks to honeybee health.

  13. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  14. Residual recovery and yield performance of nitrogen fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe low effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizer (N is a substantial concern that threatens global sugarcane production. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to assess the residual effect of N-fertilizer applied at sugarcane planting over four crop seasons in relation to sugarcane crop yield. Toward this end three field experiments were established in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during February of 2005 and July of 2009, in a randomized block design with four treatments: 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 of N applied as urea during sugarcane planting. Within each plot, a microplot was established to which 15N-labeled urea was applied. The application of N at planting increased plant cane yield in two of the three sites and sucrose content at the other, whereas the only residual effect was higher sucrose content in one of the following ratoons. The combined effect was an increase in sugar yield for three of the 11 crop seasons evaluated. Over the crop cycle of a plant cane and three ratoon crops, only 35 % of the applied N was recovered, split 75, 13, 7 and 5 % in the plant cane, first, second and third ratoons, respectively. These findings document the low efficiency of N recovery by sugarcane, which increases the risk that excessive N fertilization will reduce profitability and have an adverse effect on the environment.

  15. Forensic analysis of explosive residues from hand swabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Khairul Ahmad; Sumathy Rajendran; Syahidah Abu Hassan

    2008-01-01

    In the forensic examination of physical evidence for organic explosives, cotton swabs are often used to collect residue from surfaces, such as skin and post-blast debris. A preliminary study has been conducted to develop extraction method of a common energetic compound, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) from hand swabs followed by direct analysis of the resulting extract solution using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector. Analysis was performed on an octadecylsilane-based (C 18 ) column using acetonitrile-water mixture (55:45) as mobile phase. The mobile phase was pumped at 1.0 mL/ min and separation affected using an isocratic mode with the detection wavelength of 230 nm. The explosive residue was extracted from cotton swabs using acetone in an ultrasonic cold bath. The developed method was later applied to the real hand swabs samples, which were taken from three army personnel who handled PETN during a munition disposal operation at Asahan Camp Military Firing range. The acetone extract obtained using sonication method was found to be effective in recovering PETN from cotton swabs with relatively high recovery (89.5 %) and good sensitivity with detection limit as low as 2 ng. The content of PETN in the real hand swab samples were found to be in the range of 4.7-130 mg. (author)

  16. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  17. Barley Benefits from Organic Nitrogen in Plant Residues Applied to Soil using 15N Isotope Dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; El-Degwy, S.M.A.; Abd El-Haleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in pots (sandy soil cultivated with Barley plant) under greenhouse conditions, at Inshas, Egypt. The aim was to evaluate the transformation of nitrogen applied either as mineral form ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or as organic-material-N (plant residues) .Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labeled 15 N as( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (5 % a.e) or plant residues (ground leuceana forage, compost, and mixture of them) were applied at a rate of 20 kg N/ ha). 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer use efficiency. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design under greenhouse conditions. The obtained results showed that the dry weight of barley shoots was positively affected by reinforcement of mineral- N with organic-N. On the other hand, the highest dry weight was estimated with leuceana either applied alone or reinforced with mineral N. Similar trend was noticed with N uptake but only with organic N, while with treatment received 50% organic-N. plus 50% mineral- N. the best value of N uptake was recorded with mixture of leuceana and compost. The amount of Ndff was lowest where fertilizer 15 N was applied alone. Comparing Ndff for the three organic treatments which received a combination of fertilizer- 15 N+organic-material-N, results showed that the highest Ndff was occurred with mixture of leuceana and compost, whereas the lowest was induced with individual leuceana treatment. 15 N recovery in shoots of barley ranged between 22.14 % to 82.16 %. The lowest occurred with application of mineral 15 N alone and; the highest occurred where mineral 15 N was mixed with compost or leucaena-compost mixture

  18. Essentials of applied dynamic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date knowledge of dynamic analysis in engineering world. To facilitate the understanding of the topics by readers with various backgrounds, general principles are linked to their applications from different angles. Special interesting topics such as statistics of motions and loading, damping modeling and measurement, nonlinear dynamics, fatigue assessment, vibration and buckling under axial loading, structural health monitoring, human body vibrations, and vehicle-structure interactions etc., are also presented. The target readers include industry professionals in civil, marine and mechanical engineering, as well as researchers and students in this area.

  19. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  20. Safeguards By Design - As applied to the Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chare, Peter; Lahogue, Yves; Schwalbach, Peter; Smejkal, Andreas; Patel, Bharat [European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy, Directorate E - Nuclear Safeguards, Euroforum, Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2011-12-15

    Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS) is a new facility that has been constructed on the site of Sellafield. The design work started in early 2001 and active commissioning commenced with the introduction of the first nuclear material which arrived in the building early 2011. The store has been designed for the long term storage of Plutonium product (PuO2) from Thorp and Magnox, MOX residue powder from Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) as well as pellet, powder or granular PuO2 residues from the older stores on the Sellafield site. This paper describes the application of Safeguards By Design commencing at the early design stage based upon the Safeguards Approach to be applied by DG ENER at the Sellafield Product and Residue Store (SPRS). The approach had been developed based upon the requirements for implementing Commission Regulation 302(2005) and the technical measures to be implemented in order to meet Article 77(a) of the Euratom Treaty. In order to meet these requirements a close dialogue was established between the different interested parties and the design team for the installation of instrumentation with associated cabling in order to implement the agreed safeguards measures. Early contacts at the design stage facilitated the inclusion of installed safeguards supplied instrumentation into the overall design and facility construction. The equipment and cabling supplied by Euratom was incorporated into the planning and construction phases. This ensured that upon plant completion the safeguards tools were commissioned and ready for the verification of the first nuclear material to be introduced into SPRS. Detailed discussions at the early stages of the design phase raised the profile of nuclear material safeguards and made certain that the necessary instrumentation infrastructure was incorporated into the plant infrastructure.

  1. Applied systems analysis. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Based on a detailed analysis of demands in the area Cologne/Frankfurt, the amount of the system products for this region were ascertained, which under consideration of technical conditions and entrepreneurial aspects seemed to be disposable at cost equality with competative energy supplies. Based on these data, the technical components of the system, location and piping were fixed and first- and operating costs were determined. For a judgement of the economics, the key numbers, cash value, internal rate of interest and cost recovery rate were determined from the difference of costs between the nuclear long distance energy system and alternative facilities. Furthermore specific production cost, associated prices and contribution margin were presented for each product. (orig.) [de

  2. Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residue in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE. However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD or paper (PP, as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown.

  3. Effect of Applied Stress and Temperature on Residual Stresses Induced by Peening Surface Treatments in Alloy 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, A.; Gnäupel-Herold, T.; Gill, A.; Vasudevan, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of applied tensile stress and temperature on laser shock peening (LSP) and cavitation shotless peening (CSP)-induced compressive residual stresses were investigated using neutron and x-ray diffraction. Residual stresses on the surface, measured in situ, were lower than the applied stress in LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600 samples (2 mm thick). The residual stress averaged over the volume was similar to the applied stress. Compressive residual stresses on the surface and balancing tensile stresses in the interior relax differently due to hardening induced by LSP. Ex situ residual stress measurements, using XRD, show that residual stresses relaxed as the applied stress exceeded the yield strength of the LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600. Compressive residual stresses induced by CSP and LSP decreased by 15-25% in magnitude, respectively, on exposure to 250-450 °C for more than 500 h with 10-11% of relaxation occurring in the first few hours. Further, 80% of the compressive residual stresses induced by LSP and CSP treatments in Alloy 600 were retained even after long-term aging at 350 °C for 2400 h.

  4. Mapping allostery through computational glycine scanning and correlation analysis of residue-residue contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quentin R; Lindsay, Richard J; Nellas, Ricky B; Fernandez, Elias J; Shen, Tongye

    2015-02-24

    Understanding allosteric mechanisms is essential for the physical control of molecular switches and downstream cellular responses. However, it is difficult to decode essential allosteric motions in a high-throughput scheme. A general two-pronged approach to performing automatic data reduction of simulation trajectories is presented here. The first step involves coarse-graining and identifying the most dynamic residue-residue contacts. The second step is performing principal component analysis of these contacts and extracting the large-scale collective motions expressed via these residue-residue contacts. We demonstrated the method using a protein complex of nuclear receptors. Using atomistic modeling and simulation, we examined the protein complex and a set of 18 glycine point mutations of residues that constitute the binding pocket of the ligand effector. The important motions that are responsible for the allostery are reported. In contrast to conventional induced-fit and lock-and-key binding mechanisms, a novel "frustrated-fit" binding mechanism of RXR for allosteric control was revealed.

  5. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Burguete, R L [Airbus UK Ltd., New Filton House, Filton, Bristol, BS99 7AR (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  6. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S; Burguete, R L

    2009-01-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  7. Analysis of residual stresses in a long hollow cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovyy, Yuriy V.; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for solving the axisymmetric stress problem for a long hollow cylinder subjected to locally-distributed residual (incompatible) strains. This method is based on direct integration of the equilibrium and compatibility equations, which thereby have been reduced to the set of two governing equations for two key functions with corresponding boundary and integral conditions. The governing equations were solved by making use of the Fourier integral transformation. Application of the method is illustrated with an analysis of the welding residual stresses in a butt-welded thick-walled pipe. - Highlights: → A solution to the axisymmetric stress problem for a hollow cylinder is constructed. → The cylinder is subjected to a field of locally-distributed residual strains. → The method is based on direct integration of the equilibrium equations. → An application of our solution to analysis of welding residual stresses is considered.

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis and Statistical Process Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    Incorporating statistical process control (SPC) methods into applied behavior analysis is discussed. It is claimed that SPC methods would likely reduce applied behavior analysts' intimate contacts with problems and would likely yield poor treatment and research decisions. Cases and data presented by Pfadt and Wheeler (1995) are cited as examples.…

  9. Residual stress analysis in carbon fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, M.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic residual stress analyses are reported, carried out in long-fiber reinforced SiC ceramics. The laminated C fiber /SiC matrix specimens used were prepared by polymer pyrolysis, and the structural component specimens used are industrial products. Various diffraction methods have been applied for non-destructive evaluation of residual stress fields, so as to completely detect the residual stresses and their distribution in the specimens. The residual stress fields at the surface (μm) have been measured using characteristic X-radiation and applying the sin 2 ψ method as well as the scatter vector method. For residual stress field analysis in the mass volume (cm), neutron diffraction has been applied. The stress fields in the fiber layers (approx. 250μm) have been measured as a function of their location within the laminated composite by using an energy-dispersive method and synchrotron radiation. By means of the systematic, process-accompanying residual stress and phase analyses, conclusions can be drawn as to possible approaches for optimization of fabrication parameters. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.

  11. Analysis of pesticide residues Or a needle in a barn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinsen, H.; Cesio, V.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about the analysis of pesticide residues as well as the study of soil, air, water and organisms. The solvents used depend on the matrix, types of pesticides, analysis and the equipment. The chromatography engaged with mass spectrometry is one of the most used techniques.

  12. Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residual on Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Valencia, Carmen; Moreno Valencia, Marta; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Organic farmers are currently allowed to use conventional polyethylene mulch, provided it is removed from the field at the end of the growing or harvest season. To some, such use represents a contradiction between the resource conservation goals of sustainable, organic agriculture and the waste generated from the use of polyethylene mulch. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic or paper as mulch, which could present an alternative to polyethylene in reducing non-recyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues on the ground is one of the basic requisites to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. Determination the extent of mulch residue on the field is an exhausting job while there is not a distinct and accurate criterion for its measurement. There are several indices for estimation the residue covers while most of them are not only laborious and time consuming but also impressed by human errors. Human vision system is fast and accurate enough in this case but the problem is that the magnitude must be stated numerically to be reported and to be used for comparison between several mulches or mulches in different times. Interpretation of the extent perceived by vision system to numerals is possible by simulation of human vision system. Machine vision comprising image processing system can afford these jobs. This study aimed to evaluate the residue of mulch materials over a crop campaign in a processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) crop in Central Spain through image analysis. The mulch materials used were standard black polyethylene (PE), two biodegradable plastic mulches (BD1 and BD2), and one paper (PP1) were compared. Meanwhile the initial appearance of most of the mulches was sort of black PE, at the end of the experiment the materials appeared somewhat discoloured, soil and/or crop residue was impregnated being very difficult to completely remove them. A digital camera

  13. Concept analysis of culture applied to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzilli, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Culture is an important concept, especially when applied to nursing. A concept analysis of culture is essential to understanding the meaning of the word. This article applies Rodgers' (2000) concept analysis template and provides a definition of the word culture as it applies to nursing practice. This article supplies examples of the concept of culture to aid the reader in understanding its application to nursing and includes a case study demonstrating components of culture that must be respected and included when providing health care.

  14. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  15. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  16. Residual Displacements‘ Progresive Analysis of the Multisupported Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudas Liepa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a shakedown behaviour of the ideally elasto-plastic beams system under variable repeated load. The mathematical models of the analysis problems are created using numerical methods, extremum energy principles and mathematic programming. It is shown that during the shakedown process the residual displacements vary non-monotonically. By solving analysis problem, where the load locus is being progressively expanded, it is possible to determine the upper and lower bounds of residual displacements. Suggested methods are ilustrated by solving multisupported beam example problem. The results are obtained considering principle of the small displacements.

  17. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues in Food and Feed - Going from Macro to Micro: The Future of Sample Processing in Residue Analytical Methods" held at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry, this is an opportune time to review sampling theory and sample processing for pesticide residue analysis. If collected samples and test portions do not adequately represent the actual lot from which they came and provide meaningful results, then all costs, time, and efforts involved in implementing programs using sophisticated analytical instruments and techniques are wasted and can actually yield misleading results. This paper is designed to briefly review the often-neglected but crucial topic of sample collection and processing and put the issue into perspective for the future of pesticide residue analysis. It also emphasizes that analysts should demonstrate the validity of their sample processing approaches for the analytes/matrices of interest and encourages further studies on sampling and sample mass reduction to produce a test portion.

  18. Caldwell University's Department of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A

    2016-05-01

    Since 2004, faculty members at Caldwell University have developed three successful graduate programs in Applied Behavior Analysis (i.e., PhD, MA, non-degree programs), increased program faculty from two to six members, developed and operated an on-campus autism center, and begun a stand-alone Applied Behavior Analysis Department. This paper outlines a number of strategies used to advance these initiatives, including those associated with an extensive public relations campaign. We also outline challenges that have limited our programs' growth. These strategies, along with a consideration of potential challenges, might prove useful in guiding academicians who are interested in starting their own programs in behavior analysis.

  19. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  20. Applied regression analysis a research tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pantula, Sastry; Dickey, David

    1998-01-01

    Least squares estimation, when used appropriately, is a powerful research tool. A deeper understanding of the regression concepts is essential for achieving optimal benefits from a least squares analysis. This book builds on the fundamentals of statistical methods and provides appropriate concepts that will allow a scientist to use least squares as an effective research tool. Applied Regression Analysis is aimed at the scientist who wishes to gain a working knowledge of regression analysis. The basic purpose of this book is to develop an understanding of least squares and related statistical methods without becoming excessively mathematical. It is the outgrowth of more than 30 years of consulting experience with scientists and many years of teaching an applied regression course to graduate students. Applied Regression Analysis serves as an excellent text for a service course on regression for non-statisticians and as a reference for researchers. It also provides a bridge between a two-semester introduction to...

  1. Building an applied activation analysis centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartosek, J.; Kasparec, I.; Masek, J.

    1972-01-01

    Requirements are defined and all available background material is reported and discussed for the building up of a centre of applied activation analysis in Czechoslovakia. A detailed analysis of potential users and the centre's envisaged availability is also presented as part of the submitted study. A brief economic analysis is annexed. The study covers the situation up to the end of 1972. (J.K.)

  2. Reverse Conservation Analysis Reveals the Specificity Determining Residues of Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Sung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conservation of amino acids is widely used to identify important alignment positions of orthologs. The assumption is that important amino acid residues will be conserved in the protein family during the evolutionary process. For paralog alignment, on the other hand, the opposite concept can be used to identify residues that are responsible for specificity. Assuming that the function-specific or ligand-specific residue positions will have higher diversity since they are under evolutionary pressure to fit the target specificity, these function-specific or ligand-specific residues positions will have a lower degree of conservation than other positions in a highly conserved paralog alignment. This study assessed the ability of reverse conservation analysis to identify function-specific and ligand-specific residue positions in closely related paralog. Reverse conservation analysis of paralog alignments successfully identified all six previously reported substrate recognition sites (SRSs in cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP 2. Further analysis of each subfamily identified the specificity-determining residues (SDRs that have been experimentally found. New potential SDRs were also predicted and await confirmation by further experiments or modeling calculations. This concept may be also applied to identify SDRs in other protein families.

  3. Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)

  4. Analysis of fenbendazole residues in bovine milk by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, David L; Bates, Anne H; Binder, Ronald G; Montague, William C; Whitehand, Linda C; Barker, Steven A

    2002-10-09

    Fenbendazole residues in bovine milk were analyzed by ELISAs using two monoclonal antibodies. One monoclonal antibody (MAb 587) bound the major benzimidazole anthelmintic drugs, including fenbendazole, oxfendazole, and fenbendazole sulfone. The other (MAb 591) was more specific for fenbendazole, with 13% cross-reactivity with the sulfone and no significant binding to the sulfoxide metabolite. The limit of detection of the ELISA method in the milk matrix was 7 ppb for MAb 587 and 3 ppb for MAb 591. Fenbendazole was administered in feed, drench, and paste form to three groups of dairy cattle. Milk was collected immediately before dosing and then every 12 h for 5 days. The ELISA indicated that residue levels varied widely among individual cows in each group. Fenbendazole levels peaked at approximately 12-24 h and declined rapidly thereafter. Metabolites were detected at much higher levels than the parent compound, peaked at approximately 24-36 h, and declined gradually. Residue levels were undetectable by 72 h. The ELISA data correlated well with the total residues determined by chromatographic analysis, but the use of the two separate ELISAs did not afford an advantage over ELISA with the single, broadly reactive MAb 587. The ELISA method could be used to flag high-residue samples in on-site monitoring of fenbendazole in milk and is a potential tool for studying drug pharmacokinetics.

  5. Lessons learned in applying function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, G.R.; Davey, E.; Basso, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the lessons learned in undertaking and applying function analysis based on the recent experience of utility, AECL and international design and assessment projects. Function analysis is an analytical technique that can be used to characterize and asses the functions of a system and is widely recognized as an essential component of a 'systematic' approach to design, on that integrated operational and user requirements into the standard design process. (author)

  6. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…

  7. Applied Behavior Analysis: Beyond Discrete Trial Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Mark W.; Mace, F. Charles; Perry, Lora; Longenecker, Harold

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of autism-specific special education programs representing themselves as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) programs when the only ABA intervention employed is Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT), and often for limited portions of the school day. Although DTT has many advantages to recommend its use, it is not well suited to teach…

  8. Neutron activation analysis for noble metals in matte leach residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the neutron activation analysis technique as a method for rapid and precise determinations of platinum group metals in matte leach residues depends on obtaining a method for effecting complete and homogeneous sample dilution. A simple method for solid dilution of metal samples is outlined in this study, which provided a basis for the accurate determination of all the noble metals by the Neutron Activation Analysis technique

  9. Biomass Residues to Renewable Energy: A Life Cycle Perspective Applied at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Neri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy, like every country member of the European Union (EU, will have to achieve the objectives required by the Energy Roadmap 2050. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of residue recovery arising from the management of public and private green feedstocks, activity of the cooperative “Green City” in the Bologna district, and usage in a centralized heating system to produce thermal energy for public buildings. Results, obtained using the ReCipe impact assessment method, are compared with scores achieved by a traditional methane boiler. The study shows some advantages of the biomass-based system in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and consumption of non-renewable fuels, which affect climate change (−41% and fossil resources depletion (−40%, compared to the use of natural gas (NG. Moreover, scores from network analysis denote the great contribution of feedstock transportation (98% of the cumulative impact. The main reason is attributable to all requirements to cover distances, in particular due to stages involved in the fuel supply chains. Therefore, it is clear that greater environmental benefits could be achieved by reducing supply transport distances or using more sustainable engines.

  10. Finite element analysis for prediction of the residual stresses induced by shot peening II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol; Seok, Chang Sung; Yang, Won Ho; Ryu, Myung Hai

    2002-01-01

    Shot peening is a surface impact treatment widely used to improve the performance of metal parts and welded details subjected to fatigue loading, contact fatigue, stress corrosion and other damage mechanisms. The better performance of the peened parts is mainly due to the residual stresses resulting from the plastic deformation of the surface layers of the material caused by the impact of the shot. In this paper the simulation technique is applied to predict the magnitude and distribution of the residual stress and plastic deformation caused by shot peening with the help of finite element analysis

  11. Experimental stress analysis for determination of residual stresses and integrity monitoring of components and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For an analysis of the safety-related significance of residual stresses, mechanical, magnetic as well as ultrasonic and diffraction methods can be applied as testing methods. The results of an interlaboratory test concerning the experimental determination of residual stresses in a railway track are included. Further, questions are analyzed concerning the in-service inspections of components and systems with regard to their operational safety and life. Measurement methods are explained by examples from power plant engineering, nuclear power plant engineering, construction and traffic engineering as well as aeronautics. (DG) [de

  12. Efeito residual de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência em diferentes solos Residual effect of herbicides applied in pre-emergence in different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Inoue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar o efeito residual dos herbicidas ametryne, clomazone e diuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, utilizando amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico e de um Latossolo Vermelho, com texturas e composições contrastantes. Para isso, foram conduzidos seis bioensaios em casa de vegetação, com amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico (textura arenosa e de um Latossolo Vermelho (textura argilosa. Foi avaliado o efeito residual de ametryne (0, 1,60 e 2,40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0,90 e 1,10 kg ha-1 e diuron (0, 1,60 e 3,20 kg ha-1, por meio de semeadura de bioindicador previamente selecionado (Cucumis sativus ou Brachiaria decumbens aos 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a aplicação (DAA. Verificou-se que ametryne proporcionou 80% de controle até os 40 DAA, independentemente do solo e da dose. O clomazone apresentou efeito residual satisfatório quando aplicado na dose recomendada em solo argiloso, mantendo o controle acima de 80% até os 71 DAA. Em solo arenoso, o controle não foi satisfatório já aos 25 DAA, mesmo na dose recomendada para solo argiloso. Diuron apresentou alta estabilidade em solo argiloso, observando-se controle superior a 91% até os 100 DAA na dose recomendada e controle acima de 80% até os 54 DAA na dose recomendada para solo arenoso. No entanto, em solo arenoso não houve aumento do efeito residual, mesmo com a aplicação da dose recomendada para solo argiloso.The objective of this work was to monitor the residual effect of the herbicides ametryne, clomazone and diuron, applied in pre-emergence, using Psament and Red Latosol with contrasting texture and composition. Thus, six experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions with samples of Psament (sandy texture and Red Latosol (clay texture. The residual effect of ametryne (0, 1.60 and 2.40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0.90 and 1.10 kg ha-1 and diuron (0, 1.60 and 3.20 kg ha 1 was evaluated by sowing the test plant (Cucumis sativus or

  13. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2015-03-09

    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  15. Efficacy of residual bifenthrin applied to landscape vegetation against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Melissa A; Kline, Daniel L; Allan, Sandra A; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2009-06-01

    The daytime biting mosquito Aedes albopictus is a nuisance pest commonly found in suburban yards. The recommended course of treatment for Ae. albopictus is to keep yards free of water-holding containers; however, infestations may require additional control methods such as residual pesticide applications to vegetation. Five plants commonly found in yards or in uncultivated areas in Gainesville, FL were chosen as substrates for evaluation of the effectiveness of residual bifenthrin against 5-7-day-old female Ae. albopictus. Knockdown of mosquitoes after 1 h of exposure was highest the day of and 7 days after treatment. Plant species clearly impacted the effectiveness of residual bifenthrin. One-hour knockdown 7 days after treatment remained high (>62%) only on azalea and holly bush vegetation. Knockdown counts 24 h after exposure demonstrated that residual efficacy of bifenthrin was highest on azalea, with >77% mortality for up to 35 days. Additional bioassays revealed significant differences in the knockdown rates of male, female, gravid, and blood-fed Ae. albopictus exposed to residual bifenthrin treatments, with the highest knockdown observed on the day of and 7 days after treatment.

  16. Quantum Dots Applied to Methodology on Detection of Pesticide and Veterinary Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Wei; Zou, Xue-Mei; Song, Shang-Hong; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2018-02-14

    The pesticide and veterinary drug residues brought by large-scale agricultural production have become one of the issues in the fields of food safety and environmental ecological security. It is necessary to develop the rapid, sensitive, qualitative and quantitative methodology for the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. As one of the achievements of nanoscience, quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. In these methodology studies, the used QD-signal styles include fluorescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, photoelectrochemistry, etc. QDs can also be assembled into sensors with different materials, such as QD-enzyme, QD-antibody, QD-aptamer, and QD-molecularly imprinted polymer sensors, etc. Plenty of study achievements in the field of detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues have been obtained from the different combinations among these signals and sensors. They are summarized in this paper to provide a reference for the QD application in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues.

  17. Applied decision analysis and risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferse, W.; Kruber, S.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994 the workgroup 'Applied Decision Analysis and Risk Evaluation; continued the work on the knowledge based decision support system XUMA-GEFA for the evaluation of the hazard potential of contaminated sites. Additionally a new research direction was started which aims at the support of a later stage of the treatment of contaminated sites: The clean-up decision. For the support of decisions arising at this stage, the methods of decision analysis will be used. Computational aids for evaluation and decision support were implemented and a case study at a waste disposal site in Saxony which turns out to be a danger for the surrounding groundwater ressource was initiated. (orig.)

  18. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  19. The finite element analysis for prediction of residual stresses induced by shot peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol; Yang, Won Ho; Sung, Ki Deug; Cho, Myoung Rae; Ko, Myung Hoon

    2000-01-01

    The shot peening is largely used for a surface treatment in which small spherical parts called shots are blasted on a surface of a metallic components with velocities up to 100m/s. This treatment leads to an improvement of fatigue behavior due to the developed compressive residual stresses, and so it has gained widespread acceptance in the automobile and aerospace industries. The residual stress profile on surface layer depends on the parameters of shot peening, which are, shot velocity, shot diameter, coverage, impact angle, material properties etc. and the method to confirm this profile is only measurement by X-ray diffractometer. Despite its importance to automobile and aerospace industries, little attention has been devoted to the accurate modeling of the process. In this paper, the simulation technique is applied to predict the magnitude and distribution of the residual stress and plastic deformation caused by shot peening with the help of the finite element analysis

  20. Applied research in uncertainty modeling and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyub, Bilal

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty has been a concern to engineers, managers, and scientists for many years. For a long time uncertainty has been considered synonymous with random, stochastic, statistic, or probabilistic. Since the early sixties views on uncertainty have become more heterogeneous. In the past forty years numerous tools that model uncertainty, above and beyond statistics, have been proposed by several engineers and scientists. The tool/method to model uncertainty in a specific context should really be chosen by considering the features of the phenomenon under consideration, not independent of what is known about the system and what causes uncertainty. In this fascinating overview of the field, the authors provide broad coverage of uncertainty analysis/modeling and its application. Applied Research in Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis presents the perspectives of various researchers and practitioners on uncertainty analysis and modeling outside their own fields and domain expertise. Rather than focusing explicitly on...

  1. Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene applied to wood, metal and concrete for control of stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Frank H; Liu, Siwei; Zhao, Baige; Phillips, Thomas W

    2009-07-01

    Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on wood, metal and concrete surfaces. Pyriproxyfen was applied to the surfaces at 1.15 and 2.3 mg active ingredient [AI] m(-2), while hydroprene was applied at the label rate of 19 mg AI m(-2). Late-instar larvae of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, T. castaneum (Herbst), Oryzaephilus surinamenis L., Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) were exposed with a food source on the treated surfaces. Residual testing was conducted at 1, 28 and 56 days post-treatment. Hydroprene was least persistent on concrete and generally most persistent on metal. Pyriproxyfen gave greater residual persistence than hydroprene, and there was no consistent difference in efficacy among the three surfaces. Efficacy varied among the five insect species, but generally P. interpunctella was the most tolerant species to both IGRs. Pyriproxyfen gave effective residual control of primary stored-product insect species by inhibiting adult emergence of exposed larvae. Results show that pyriproxyfen can be a useful addition for pest management programs in mills, warehouses and food storage facilities. (c) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Analysis of lifetime and residual strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is thought of as a working paper for the CTBA-seminar on Thematic network in the field for reliability based design of timber structures, Topic: Numerical methods for structural analysis. It is preliminary and quite informal in its structure. The intention is to present some wood...... technological problems which can be solved with respect to lifetime and residual strength by the so-called DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material). The outlines of the paper is straight on: Expressions are presented by which the analysis is made. then some examples are considered with solutions presented...

  3. Strategic decision analysis applied to borehole seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, M.M.; Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic Decision Analysis (SDA) is the evolving body of knowledge on how to achieve high quality in the decision that shapes an organization's future. SDA comprises philosophy, process concepts, methodology, and tools for making good decisions. It specifically incorporates many concepts and tools from economic evaluation and risk analysis. Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (CPTC) has applied SDA to evaluate and prioritize a number of its most important and most uncertain R and D projects, including borehole seismology. Before SDA, there were significant issues and concerns about the value to CPTC of continuing to work on borehole seismology. The SDA process created a cross-functional team of experts to structure and evaluate this project. A credible economic model was developed, discrete risks and continuous uncertainties were assessed, and an extensive sensitivity analysis was performed. The results, even applied to a very restricted drilling program for a few years, were good enough to demonstrate the value of continuing the project. This paper explains the SDA philosophy concepts, and process and demonstrates the methodology and tools using the borehole seismology project example. SDA is useful in the upstream industry not just in the R and D/technology decisions, but also in major exploration and production decisions. Since a major challenge for upstream companies today is to create and realize value, the SDA approach should have a very broad applicability

  4. Viscoelastic finite element analysis of residual stresses in porcelain-veneered zirconia dental crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Dhital, Sukirti; Zhivago, Paul; Kaizer, Marina R; Zhang, Yu

    2018-06-01

    The main problem of porcelain-veneered zirconia (PVZ) dental restorations is chipping and delamination of veneering porcelain owing to the development of deleterious residual stresses during the cooling phase of veneer firing. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of cooling rate, thermal contraction coefficient and elastic modulus on residual stresses developed in PVZ dental crowns using viscoelastic finite element methods (VFEM). A three-dimensional VFEM model has been developed to predict residual stresses in PVZ structures using ABAQUS finite element software and user subroutines. First, the newly established model was validated with experimentally measured residual stress profiles using Vickers indentation on flat PVZ specimens. An excellent agreement between the model prediction and experimental data was found. Then, the model was used to predict residual stresses in more complex anatomically-correct crown systems. Two PVZ crown systems with different thermal contraction coefficients and porcelain moduli were studied: VM9/Y-TZP and LAVA/Y-TZP. A sequential dual-step finite element analysis was performed: heat transfer analysis and viscoelastic stress analysis. Controlled and bench convection cooling rates were simulated by applying different convective heat transfer coefficients 1.7E-5 W/mm 2 °C (controlled cooling) and 0.6E-4 W/mm 2 °C (bench cooling) on the crown surfaces exposed to the air. Rigorous viscoelastic finite element analysis revealed that controlled cooling results in lower maximum stresses in both veneer and core layers for the two PVZ systems relative to bench cooling. Better compatibility of thermal contraction coefficients between porcelain and zirconia and a lower porcelain modulus reduce residual stresses in both layers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional Data Analysis Applied in Chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Martha

    nutritional status and metabolic phenotype. We want to understand how metabolomic spectra can be analysed using functional data analysis to detect the in uence of dierent factors on specic metabolites. These factors can include, for example, gender, diet culture or dietary intervention. In Paper I we apply...... representation of each spectrum. Subset selection of wavelet coecients generates the input to mixed models. Mixed-model methodology enables us to take the study design into account while modelling covariates. Bootstrap-based inference preserves the correlation structure between curves and enables the estimation...

  6. Practical analysis of specificity-determining residues in protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoyen, Mónica; García-Martín, Juan A; Pazos, Florencio

    2016-03-01

    Determining the residues that are important for the molecular activity of a protein is a topic of broad interest in biomedicine and biotechnology. This knowledge can help understanding the protein's molecular mechanism as well as to fine-tune its natural function eventually with biotechnological or therapeutic implications. Some of the protein residues are essential for the function common to all members of a family of proteins, while others explain the particular specificities of certain subfamilies (like binding on different substrates or cofactors and distinct binding affinities). Owing to the difficulty in experimentally determining them, a number of computational methods were developed to detect these functional residues, generally known as 'specificity-determining positions' (or SDPs), from a collection of homologous protein sequences. These methods are mature enough for being routinely used by molecular biologists in directing experiments aimed at getting insight into the functional specificity of a family of proteins and eventually modifying it. In this review, we summarize some of the recent discoveries achieved through SDP computational identification in a number of relevant protein families, as well as the main approaches and software tools available to perform this type of analysis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mineral analysis, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in wine residues flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennemann Gabriela Datsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the mineral content (N, P, K, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in flours produced from residues of different grape cultivars from the wineries in the Southern region of Brazil. Mineral analysis showed a significant difference for all grape cultivar, with the exception for phosphorus content. Residues from cv. Seibel showed higher levels of N, Cu and Mg. The cultivars Ancelotta, Tanat and Bordô present higher contents of K, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ca. For the concentration of anthocyanins, cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon (114.7 mg / 100g, Tannat (88.5 mg / 100 g and Ancelotta (33.8 mg/100 g had the highest concentrations. The cultivars Pinot Noir (7.0 g AGE / 100 g, Tannat (4.3 g AGE / 100 g, and Ancelotta (3.9 g AGE / 100 g had the highest content of phenolic compounds. Considering these results, it became evident the potential of using the residue of winemaking to produce flour for human consumption, highlighting the grapes ‘Tannat' and ‘Ancellotta'.

  8. Applied spectrophotometry: analysis of a biochemical mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Toni A; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the concentration of a given species (RNA, DNA, protein) in isolation (a contrived circumstance) as opposed to determining that concentration in the presence of other species (a more realistic situation). To present the student with a more realistic laboratory experience and also to fill a hole that we believe exists in student experience prior to reaching a biochemistry course, we have devised a three week laboratory experience designed so that students learn to: connect laboratory practice with theory, apply the Beer-Lambert-Bougert Law to biochemical analyses, demonstrate the utility and limitations of example quantitative colorimetric assays, demonstrate the utility and limitations of UV analyses for biomolecules, develop strategies for analysis of a solution of unknown biomolecular composition, use digital micropipettors to make accurate and precise measurements, and apply graphing software. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Efficient identification of critical residues based only on protein structure by network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Cusack

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing number of published protein structures, and the fact that each protein's function relies on its three-dimensional structure, there is limited access to automatic programs used for the identification of critical residues from the protein structure, compared with those based on protein sequence. Here we present a new algorithm based on network analysis applied exclusively on protein structures to identify critical residues. Our results show that this method identifies critical residues for protein function with high reliability and improves automatic sequence-based approaches and previous network-based approaches. The reliability of the method depends on the conformational diversity screened for the protein of interest. We have designed a web site to give access to this software at http://bis.ifc.unam.mx/jamming/. In summary, a new method is presented that relates critical residues for protein function with the most traversed residues in networks derived from protein structures. A unique feature of the method is the inclusion of the conformational diversity of proteins in the prediction, thus reproducing a basic feature of the structure/function relationship of proteins.

  10. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  11. A new approach for applying residual dipolar couplings as restraints in structure elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiler, Jens; Blomberg, Niklas; Nilges, Michael; Griesinger, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Residual dipolar couplings are useful global structural restraints. The dipolar couplings define the orientation of a vector with respect to the alignment tensor. Although the size of the alignment tensor can be derived from the distribution of the experimental dipolar couplings, its orientation with respect to the coordinate system of the molecule is unknown at the beginning of structure determination. This causes convergence problems in the simulated annealing process. We therefore propose a protocol that translates dipolar couplings into intervector projection angles, which are independent of the orientation of the alignment tensor with respect to the molecule. These restraints can be used during the whole simulated annealing protocol

  12. Residual symptoms and functioning in depression, does the type of residual symptom matter? A post-hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romera Irene

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degrees to which residual symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD adversely affect patient functioning is not known. This post-hoc analysis explored the association between different residual symptoms and patient functioning. Methods Patients with MDD who responded (≥50% on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HAMD-17 after 3 months of treatment (624/930 were included. Residual core mood-symptoms (HAMD-17 core symptom subscale ≥1, residual insomnia-symptoms (HAMD-17 sleep subscale ≥1, residual anxiety-symptoms (HAMD-17-anxiety subscale ≥1, residual somatic-symptoms (HAMD-17 Item 13 ≥1, pain (Visual Analogue Scale ≥30, and functioning were assessed after 3 months treatment. A stepwise logistic regression model with normal functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale ≥80 as the dependent variable was used. Results After 3 months, 59.5% of patients (371/624 achieved normal functioning and 66.0% (412/624 were in remission. Residual symptom prevalence was: core mood symptoms 72%; insomnia 63%; anxiety 78%; and somatic symptoms 41%. Pain reported in 18%. Factors associated with normal functioning were absence of core mood symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 8.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6–16.7, absence of insomnia symptoms (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7, episode length (4–24 weeks vs. ≥24 weeks [OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.6] and better baseline functioning (OR 1.0; 95% CI, 1.0–1.1. A significant interaction between residual anxiety symptoms and pain was found (p = 0.0080. Conclusions Different residual symptoms are associated to different degrees with patient functioning. To achieve normal functioning, specific residual symptoms domains might be targeted for treatment.

  13. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Rafael Barrios; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaca; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2017-01-04

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections. Osteocyte and osteocyte lacuna counts, percent bone matrix loss, and fungal spheroid element counts could be measured and collagen fibre bundles observed in all specimens. Decalcification with 7% nitric acid proceeded more rapidly than with 0.5 M EDTA and may offer better preservation of histological and cellular structure. No endothelial cells could be detected using CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Correlation between osteocytes per lacuna and age at death may reflect reported age-related responses to microdamage. Methodological limitations and caveats, and results of the TMA analysis of post mortem diagenesis in bone are discussed, and implications for DNA survival and recovery considered.

  14. Applied linear algebra and matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shores, Thomas S

    2018-01-01

    In its second edition, this textbook offers a fresh approach to matrix and linear algebra. Its blend of theory, computational exercises, and analytical writing projects is designed to highlight the interplay between these aspects of an application. This approach places special emphasis on linear algebra as an experimental science that provides tools for solving concrete problems. The second edition’s revised text discusses applications of linear algebra like graph theory and network modeling methods used in Google’s PageRank algorithm. Other new materials include modeling examples of diffusive processes, linear programming, image processing, digital signal processing, and Fourier analysis. These topics are woven into the core material of Gaussian elimination and other matrix operations; eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and discrete dynamical systems; and the geometrical aspects of vector spaces. Intended for a one-semester undergraduate course without a strict calculus prerequisite, Applied Linear Algebra and M...

  15. Epithermal neutron activation analysis in applied microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marina Frontasyeva

    2012-01-01

    Some results from applying epithermal neutron activation analysis at FLNP JINR, Dubna, Russia, in medical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology and industrial biotechnology are reviewed. In the biomedical experiments biomass from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) has been used as a matrix for the development of pharmaceutical substances containing such essential trace elements as selenium, chromium and iodine. The feasibility of target-oriented introduction of these elements into S. platensis biocomplexes retaining its protein composition and natural beneficial properties was shown. The absorption of mercury on growth dynamics of S. platensis and other bacterial strains was observed. Detoxification of Cr and Hg by Arthrobacter globiformis 151B was demonstrated. Microbial synthesis of technologically important silver nanoparticles by the novel actinomycete strain Streptomyces glaucus 71 MD and blue-green alga S. platensis were characterized by a combined use of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. It was established that the tested actinomycete S. glaucus 71 MD produces silver nanoparticles extracellularly when acted upon by the silver nitrate solution, which offers a great advantage over an intracellular process of synthesis from the point of view of applications. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles by S. platensis proceeded differently under the short-term and long-term silver action. (author)

  16. Analysis of the interaction between experimental and applied behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virues-Ortega, Javier; Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; Cox, Alison D; Pear, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    To study the influences between basic and applied research in behavior analysis, we analyzed the coauthorship interactions of authors who published in JABA and JEAB from 1980 to 2010. We paid particular attention to authors who published in both JABA and JEAB (dual authors) as potential agents of cross-field interactions. We present a comprehensive analysis of dual authors' coauthorship interactions using social networks methodology and key word analysis. The number of dual authors more than doubled (26 to 67) and their productivity tripled (7% to 26% of JABA and JEAB articles) between 1980 and 2010. Dual authors stood out in terms of number of collaborators, number of publications, and ability to interact with multiple groups within the field. The steady increase in JEAB and JABA interactions through coauthors and the increasing range of topics covered by dual authors provide a basis for optimism regarding the progressive integration of basic and applied behavior analysis. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Trends and advances in pesticide residue analysis | Yeboah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature, origin and the economic significance of pesticide residues are reviewed to underscore the need for countries to develop the ability and capacity to monitor pesticide residues. An overview of pesticide residues analytical procedures is also presented with emphasis on thin layer chromatography (TLC) as an ...

  18. Forensic Analysis of High Explosive Residues from Selected Cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Afiq Mohamed Huri; Umi Kalthom Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Increased terrorist activities around the Asian region have resulted in the need for improved analytical techniques in forensic analysis. High explosive residues from post-blast clothing are often encountered as physical evidence submitted to a forensic laboratory. Therefore, this study was initiated to detect high explosives residues of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) on selected cloth in this study. Cotton swabbing technique was employed as a simple and rapid method in recovering analytes from the sample matrix. Analytes were analyzed using Griess spot test, TLC and HPLC. TLC separation employed toluene-ethyl acetate (9:1) as a good solvent system. Reversed phase HPLC separation employed acetonitrile-water (65:35) as the mobile phase and analytes detected using a programmed wavelength. RDX was detected at 235 nm for the first 3.5 min and then switched to 215 nm for PETN. Limits of detection (LODs) of analytes were in the low ppm range (0.05 ppm for RDX and 0.25 ppm for PETN). Analyte recovery studies revealed that the type of cloth has a profound effect on the extraction efficiency. Analytes were recovered better for nylon as compared to cotton cloth. However, no analytes could be recovered from denim cloth. For post-blast samples, only RDX was detected in low concentration for both nylon and cotton cloth. (author)

  19. Residual waters treatment by heterogeneous photocatalysis: a study of experimental parameters applied to the photoelectrocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Santana

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of electrochemically-assisted heterogeneous photo-catalysis will be discussed. Several operational parameters will also be discussed, in order to achieve optimum efficiency of this photo-degradation system, such as: the influence of variables as support electrolyte, applied potential, dye initial concentration, pH and choice of a UV source on dye degradation.

  20. Residual stress analysis in BWR pressure vessel attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, R.J.; Leung, C.P.; Pont, D.

    1992-06-01

    Residual stresses from welding processes can be the primary driving force for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in BWR components. Thus, a better understanding of the causes and nature of these residual stresses can help assess and remedy SCC. Numerical welding simulation software, such as SYSWELD, and material property data have been used to quantify residual stresses for application to SCC assessments in BWR components. Furthermore, parametric studies using SYSWELD have revealed which variables significantly affect predicted residual stress. Overall, numerical modeling techniques can be used to evaluate residual stress for SCC assessments of BWR components and to identify and plan future SCC research

  1. Social network analysis applied to team sports analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.

  2. Residue behavior and risk assessment of imidacloprid applied on greenhouse-cultivated strawberries under different application conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Tao; Sun, Caixia; Zhao, Hua; Tang, Tao; Zhang, Changpeng; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Fen; Zhao, Xueping

    2018-02-01

    A risk assessment for imidacloprid applied on strawberries under different conditions was performed after residue determination using the quick, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. The application conditions were varied according to the applied dosage, addition of a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, water volume, and sprayer type. The degradation dynamics of imidacloprid on strawberries followed first-order kinetics. At applied doses of 30-60 g a.i. ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid were 2.89-3.46, 1.98-3.65, and 2.57-2.77 days after application without a surfactant or with a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, respectively. For water volumes of 112.5, 225, 450, 675, and 900 L ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid applied in the presence of the plant oil surfactant were 3.30, 7.70, 5.33, 7.70, and 6.30 days, respectively. The half-lives after application with a knapsack mist duster, electric sprayer, and manual sprayer were 2.16, 5.77, and 7.70 days, respectively. The health risk assessment revealed risk quotients less than 1 in all cases, indicating that the application of imidacloprid poses a low health risk to humans after a pre-harvest interval of 10 days under our application conditions. The risk assessment results can provide reference data for setting a reasonable maximum residue limit for imidacloprid on strawberries in China.

  3. Colilert® applied to food analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colilert® (IDEXX was originally developed for the simultaneous enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in water samples and has been used for the quality control routine of drinking, swimming pools, fresh, coastal and waste waters (Grossi et al., 2013. The Colilert® culture medium contains the indicator nutrient 4-Methylumbelliferyl-β-D-Glucuronide (MUG. MUG acts as a substrate for the E. coli enzyme β-glucuronidase, from which a fluorescent compound is produced. A positive MUG result produces fluorescence when viewed under an ultraviolet lamp. If the test fluorescence is equal to or greater than that of the control, the presence of E. coli has been confirmed (Lopez-Roldan et al., 2013. The present work aimed to apply Colilert® to the enumeration of E. coli in different foods, through the comparison of results against the reference method (ISO 16649-2, 2001 for E. coli food analysis. The study was divided in two stages. During the first stage ten different types of foods were analyzed with Colilert®, these included pastry, raw meat, ready to eat meals, yogurt, raw seabream and salmon, and cooked shrimp. From these it were approved the following: pastry with custard; raw minced pork; soup "caldo-verde"; raw vegetable salad (lettuce and carrots and solid yogurt. The approved foods presented a better insertion in the tray, the colour of the wells was lighter and the UV reading was easier. In the second stage the foods were artificially contaminated with 2 log/g of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and analyzed. Colilert® proved to be an accurate method and the counts were similar to the ones obtained with the reference method. In the present study, the Colilert® method did not reveal neither false-positive or false-negative results, however sometimes the results were difficult to read due to the presence of green fluorescence in some wells. Generally Colilert® was an easy and rapid method, but less objective and more expensive than the reference method.

  4. Pesticide residues determination in Polish organic crops in 2007-2010 applying gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walorczyk, Stanisław; Drożdżyński, Dariusz; Kowalska, Jolanta; Remlein-Starosta, Dorota; Ziółkowski, Andrzej; Przewoźniak, Monika; Gnusowski, Bogusław

    2013-08-15

    A sensitive, accurate and reliable multiresidue method based on the application of gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) has been established for screening, identification and quantification of a large number of pesticide residues in produce. The method was accredited in compliance with PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 standard and it was operated under flexible scope as PB-11 method. The flexible scope of accreditation allowed for minor modifications and extension of the analytical scope while using the same analytical technique. During the years 2007-2010, the method was used for the purpose of verification of organic crop production by multiresidue analysis for the presence of pesticides. A total of 528 samples of differing matrices such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, plant leaves and other green parts were analysed, of which 4.4% samples contained pesticide residues above the threshold value of 0.01 mg/kg. A total of 20 different pesticide residues were determined in the samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0.......02 SD) was achieved at the late growth stages. The genetic correlation between different growth stages for RFI showed a high association (0.91 to 0.98) between early and late growing periods. However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.29 to 0.50. The residual variances were substantially higher...

  6. Analysis of explosive and other organic residues by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazic, V., E-mail: lazic@frascati.enea.i [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Palucci, A. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Jovicevic, S. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Belgrade, Pregrevica 118 (Serbia); Poggi, C.; Buono, E. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    With the aim of realizing a compact instrument for detection of energetic materials at trace levels, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied on residues from nine explosives in air surroundings. Different potentially interfering organic materials were also analyzed. The residues were not uniformly distributed on an aluminum support and single-shot discrimination was attempted. For a single residue type, large shot-to-shot fluctuations of the line intensity ratios characteristic for organic samples were observed, which made material classification difficult. It was found that both atomic and molecular emission intensities, as well as their ratios, are strongly affected by an amount of the ablated support material, which mainly determines the plasma temperature. With respect to the spectra from the clean support, emission intensities of atomic oxygen and nitrogen are always reduced in the presence of an organic material, even if its molecules contain these elements. This was attributed to chemical reactions in a plasma containing carbon or its fragments. Hydrogen atomic emission depends strongly on the local humidity above the sampled point and its line intensity shows shot to shot variations up to 50%, also on a homogeneous sample. It is argued that shock waves generated by previous spatially and/or temporally close laser pulses blow away a relatively heavy water aerosol, which later diffuses slowly back towards the sampled point. C{sub 2} and CN exhibit a peak emission behavior with atomic Al emission, and their variable ratio indicates an existence of different formation or removal mechanisms from the plasma, depending on the plasma parameters and on the composition of the organic residue. On the basis of these observations, an attempt is made to establish a suitable procedure for data analysis and to determine the optimal experimental conditions, which would allow for discrimination of explosives from other, potentially interfering, residues.

  7. Moving Forward: Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…

  8. Isolation of residuals using trend surface analysis to magnetic data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polynomial surfaces of various degrees are fitted to a magnetic data of Awo area, southwestern Nigeria with the aim of isolating the residuals of the area associated with mineralogy. The fourth degree surface correlates better with the magnetic map of the study area. The residualized data were obtained by subtracting the ...

  9. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  10. Residual stress analysis in reactor pressure vessel attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, R.J.; Pont, D.

    1991-08-01

    Residual stresses in cladding and welded attachments could contribute to the problem of stress-corrosion cracking in boiling-water reactors (BWR). As part of a larger program aimed at quantifying residual stress in BWR components, models that would be applicable for predicting residual stress in BWR components are reviewed and documented. The review includes simple methods of estimating residual stresses as well as advanced finite-element software. In general, simple methods are capable of predicting peak magnitudes of residual stresses but are incapable of adequately characterizing the distribution of residual stresses. Ten groups of researchers using finite-element software are reviewed in detail. For each group, the assumptions of the model, possible simplifications, material property data, and specific applications are discussed. The most accurate results are obtained when a metallurgical simulation is performed, transformation plasticity effects are included, and the heating and cooling parts of the welding thermal cycle are simulated. Two models are identified which can provide these features. The present state of these models and the material property data available in the literature are adequate to quantify residual stress in BWR components

  11. Applied time series analysis and innovative computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong

    2010-01-01

    This text is a systematic, state-of-the-art introduction to the use of innovative computing paradigms as an investigative tool for applications in time series analysis. It includes frontier case studies based on recent research.

  12. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Mello, Rafael; Regis Silva, Maria Regina; Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Evison, Martin; Guimarães, Marco Aurélio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaça; Dias Astolphi, Rafael; Miazato Iwamura, Edna Sadayo

    2017-01-01

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens....

  13. Meta-analysis in applied ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gavin

    2010-02-23

    This overview examines research synthesis in applied ecology and conservation. Vote counting and pooling unweighted averages are widespread despite the superiority of syntheses based on weighted combination of effects. Such analyses allow exploration of methodological uncertainty in addition to consistency of effects across species, space and time, but exploring heterogeneity remains controversial. Meta-analyses are required to generalize in ecology, and to inform evidence-based decision-making, but the more sophisticated statistical techniques and registers of research used in other disciplines must be employed in ecology to fully realize their benefits.

  14. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for determination of tetracycline residues in cow's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Mariel Casarrubias-Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis were tested to determine tetracycline's residues in cow's milk. Cow's milk samples (n = 30 were spiked with tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in the range of 10-400 µg/l. Chemometric models to quantify each of the tetracycline's residues were developed by applying Partial Components Regression and Partial Least Squares algorithms. The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model was used to differentiate between pure milk and milk sample with tetracycline residues. The best models for predicting the levels of these antibiotics were obtained using Partial Least Square 1 algorithm (coefficient of determination between 0.997-0.999 and the standard error of calibration from 1.81 to 2.95. The Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy model showed well-separated groups allowing classification of milk samples and milk sample with antibiotics. The obtained results demonstrate the great analytical potential of chemometrics coupled with mid-infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of antibiotic in cow's milk at a concentration of microgram per litre (µg/l. This technique can be used to verify the safety of the milk rapidly and reliably.

  15. The nev diffractometer ARES for the analysis of residual stresses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staron, P.; Ruhnau, H. U.; Marmotti, M.; Mikula, Pavol; Kampmann, R.

    276/278, - (2000), s. 158-159 ISSN 0921-4526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : neutron instruments * residual stress Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.893, year: 2000

  16. Applied surface analysis of metal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The applications of surface analytical techniques in the solution of technological problems in metalurgy and engineering are reviewed. Some important application areas such as corrosion, grain boundary segregation and metallurgical coatings are presented together with specific requirements for the type of information which is necessary for solving particular problems. The techniques discussed include: electron spectroscopies (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), ion spectroscopies (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Ion Scattering Spectroscopy), Rutherford Back-Scattering, nuclear reaction analysis, optical methods (Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry), ellipsometry, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, the Moessbauer spectroscopy and methods of consumptive depth profile analysis. Principles and analytical features of these methods are demonstrated and examples of their applications to metallurgy are taken from recent literature. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 112 refs

  17. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers...... is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use ofaccelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded...... and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...

  18. Applied quantitative analysis in the social sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Petscher, Yaacov; Compton, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    To say that complex data analyses are ubiquitous in the education and social sciences might be an understatement. Funding agencies and peer-review journals alike require that researchers use the most appropriate models and methods for explaining phenomena. Univariate and multivariate data structures often require the application of more rigorous methods than basic correlational or analysis of variance models. Additionally, though a vast set of resources may exist on how to run analysis, difficulties may be encountered when explicit direction is not provided as to how one should run a model

  19. Applied Spectrophotometry: Analysis of a Biochemical Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Toni A.; Schultz, Emeric; Borland, Michael G.; Pugh, Michael Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Spectrophotometric analysis is essential for determining biomolecule concentration of a solution and is employed ubiquitously in biochemistry and molecular biology. The application of the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer Lawis routinely used to determine the concentration of DNA, RNA or protein. There is however a significant difference in determining the…

  20. Thermal analysis applied to irradiated propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Andrea Harumi; Machado, Luci Brocardo; Mastro, N.L. del E-mail: nelida@usp.br

    2002-03-01

    Propolis is a resinous hive product, collected by bees. Raw propolis requires a decontamination procedure and irradiation appears as a promising technique for this purpose. The valuable properties of propolis for food and pharmaceutical industries have led to increasing interest in its technological behavior. Thermal analysis is a chemical analysis that gives information about changes on heating of great importance for technological applications. Ground propolis samples were {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated with 0 and 10 kGy. Thermogravimetry curves shown a similar multi-stage decomposition pattern for both irradiated and unirradiated samples up to 600 deg. C. Similarly, through differential scanning calorimetry , a coincidence of melting point of irradiated and unirradiated samples was found. The results suggest that the irradiation process do not interfere on the thermal properties of propolis when irradiated up to 10 kGy.

  1. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broen Pedersen, H.; Dahl Kristensen, O.J.

    2003-02-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Different equipment for mounting the accelerometers are investigated and the most suitable are chosen. Different excitation techniques are tried during experimental campaigns. After a discussion the pendulum hammer were chosen, and a new improved hammer was manufactured. Some measurement errors are investigated. The ability to repeat the measured results is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use of accelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on a blade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Oeyes blade{sub E}V1 program. (au)

  2. Analysis of residual solvents in PET radiopharmaceuticals by GC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yungang; Zhang Xiaojun; Liu Jian; Tian Jiahe; Zhang Jinming

    2013-01-01

    The residual solvents in PET radiopharmaceuticals were analyzed by GC, which were acetonitrile, ethanol, N, N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The standard curves were established with the AT-624 capillary column at GC, and the sensitivity of acetonitrile and ethanol were 0.004-0.320 g/L and 0.010-0.120 g/L respectively. The residual solvents of acetonitrile, ethanol, DMEA and DMSO in PET radio- pharmaceuticals were analyzed by GC. The linearity were 0.9994, 0.9999, 0.9997, 0.999 6 respectively. The residual of acetonitrile were (0.0313±0.0433), (0.0829±0.0668), (0.0156±0.0059), (0.0254±0.0266) g/L in 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FLT, 11 C-CFT, 11 C-PIB respectively. The residual of ethanol was (0.0505±0.00528) g/L in 18 F-FDG. The residual of DMSO were (0.0331±0.0180) g/L, (0.0238±0.0100) g/L in 18 F-W372 and 11 C-DTBZ respectively. The residual of DMEA was (0.0348±0.0022) g/L in 11 C-Choline. The survived of organic solvent in PET radiopharmaceuticals can be analyzed with GC directly. The results showed that the QC should be done in PET radiopharmaceuticals purity with semi-HPLC to avoid the high residual. (authors)

  3. Reliability analysis applied to structural tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, P.; Payne, A. O.

    1972-01-01

    The application of reliability theory to predict, from structural fatigue test data, the risk of failure of a structure under service conditions because its load-carrying capability is progressively reduced by the extension of a fatigue crack, is considered. The procedure is applicable to both safe-life and fail-safe structures and, for a prescribed safety level, it will enable an inspection procedure to be planned or, if inspection is not feasible, it will evaluate the life to replacement. The theory has been further developed to cope with the case of structures with initial cracks, such as can occur in modern high-strength materials which are susceptible to the formation of small flaws during the production process. The method has been applied to a structure of high-strength steel and the results are compared with those obtained by the current life estimation procedures. This has shown that the conventional methods can be unconservative in certain cases, depending on the characteristics of the structure and the design operating conditions. The suitability of the probabilistic approach to the interpretation of the results from full-scale fatigue testing of aircraft structures is discussed and the assumptions involved are examined.

  4. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  5. Artificial intelligence applied to process signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsberg, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Many space station processes are highly complex systems subject to sudden, major transients. In any complex process control system, a critical aspect of the human/machine interface is the analysis and display of process information. Human operators can be overwhelmed by large clusters of alarms that inhibit their ability to diagnose and respond to a disturbance. Using artificial intelligence techniques and a knowledge base approach to this problem, the power of the computer can be used to filter and analyze plant sensor data. This will provide operators with a better description of the process state. Once a process state is recognized, automatic action could be initiated and proper system response monitored.

  6. Ethanol production process from banana fruit and its lignocellulosic residues: Energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Arredondo, H.I. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil); Ruiz-Colorado, A.A. [Grupo de Investigacion Bioprocesos y Flujos Reactivos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, Calle 59 A N 63-20 (Colombia); De Oliveira, S. Jr. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Mello Moraes 2231 (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using agricultural lands for growing biomass to produce bio-fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. This study applies an energy analysis to the production process of anhydrous ethanol obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and cellulosic and hemicellulosic material present in the banana fruit and its residual biomass. Four different production routes were analyzed: acid hydrolysis of amylaceous material (banana pulp and banana fruit) and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (flower stalk and banana skin). The analysis considered banana plant cultivation, feedstock transport, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, dehydration, residue treatment and utility plant. The best indexes were obtained for amylaceous material for which mass performance varied from 346.5 L/t to 388.7 L/t, Net Energy Value (NEV) ranged from 9.86 MJ/L to 9.94 MJ/L and the energy ratio was 1.9 MJ/MJ. For lignocellulosic materials, the figures were less favorable; mass performance varied from 86.1 to 123.5 L/t, NEV from 5.24 to 8.79 MJ/L and energy ratio from 1.3 to 1.6 MJ/MJ. The analysis showed, however, that both processes can be considered energetically feasible. (author)

  7. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  8. Pesticide residue quantification analysis by hyperspectral imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Lo, Wei-Sheng; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Kao, Ching-Hua; Chou, Tau-Meu; Chen, Junne-Jih; Wen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chinsu; Chen, Hsian-Min; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide residue detection in agriculture crops is a challenging issue and is even more difficult to quantify pesticide residue resident in agriculture produces and fruits. This paper conducts a series of base-line experiments which are particularly designed for three specific pesticides commonly used in Taiwan. The materials used for experiments are single leaves of vegetable produces which are being contaminated by various amount of concentration of pesticides. Two sensors are used to collected data. One is Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The other is a hyperspectral sensor, called Geophysical and Environmental Research (GER) 2600 spectroradiometer which is a batteryoperated field portable spectroradiometer with full real-time data acquisition from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In order to quantify data with different levels of pesticide residue concentration, several measures for spectral discrimination are developed. Mores specifically, new measures for calculating relative power between two sensors are particularly designed to be able to evaluate effectiveness of each of sensors in quantifying the used pesticide residues. The experimental results show that the GER is a better sensor than FTIR in the sense of pesticide residue quantification.

  9. Residual Stress Analysis of Aircraft Part using Neutron Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun Joo; Seong, Baek Seok; Sim, Cheul Muu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A precise measurement of the residual stress magnitude and distribution is an important factor to evaluate the lifetime or safety of the materials, because the residual stress affects the material properties, such as the strength, fatigue, etc. In the case of a fighter jet, the lifetime and safety of the parts of the landing gear are more important than that of a passenger airplane because of its frequent take offs and landings. In particular in the case of training a fighter jet, a precise evaluation of life time for the parts of the landing gear is strongly required for economic reason. In this study, the residual stress of a part of the landing gear of the training fighter jet which is used to fix the landing gear to the aircraft body was investigated. The part was used for 2000 hours of flight, which corresponds to 10 years. During this period, the fighter jet normally takes off and lands more than 2000 times. These frequent take off and landing can generate residual stress and cause a crack in the part. By measuring the neutron diffraction peaks, we evaluated the residual stress of the landing gear part

  10. Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.

  11. Photometric analysis applied in determining facial type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Flaquer Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In orthodontics, determining the facial type is a key element in the prescription of a correct diagnosis. In the early days of our specialty, observation and measurement of craniofacial structures were done directly on the face, in photographs or plaster casts. With the development of radiographic methods, cephalometric analysis replaced the direct facial analysis. Seeking to validate the analysis of facial soft tissues, this work compares two different methods used to determining the facial types, the anthropometric and the cephalometric methods. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty-four Brazilian individuals, adults, Caucasian, of both genders, who agreed to participate in this research. All individuals had lateral cephalograms and facial frontal photographs. The facial types were determined by the Vert Index (cephalometric and the Facial Index (photographs. RESULTS: The agreement analysis (Kappa, made for both types of analysis, found an agreement of 76.5%. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the Facial Index can be used as an adjunct to orthodontic diagnosis, or as an alternative method for pre-selection of a sample, avoiding that research subjects have to undergo unnecessary tests.INTRODUÇÃO: em Ortodontia, a determinação do tipo facial é um elemento-chave na prescrição de um diagnóstico correto. Nos primórdios de nossa especialidade, a observação e a medição das estruturas craniofaciais eram feitas diretamente na face, em fotografias ou em modelos de gesso. Com o desenvolvimento dos métodos radiográficos, a análise cefalométrica foi substituindo a análise facial direta. Visando legitimar o estudo dos tecidos moles faciais, esse trabalho comparou a determinação do tipo facial pelos métodos antropométrico e cefalométrico. MÉTODOS: a amostra constou de sessenta e quatro indivíduos brasileiros, adultos, leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, que aceitaram participar da pesquisa. De todos os indivíduos da amostra

  12. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  13. Multiclass analysis of antibiotic residues in honey by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose Luis Martínez; Aguilera-Luiz, María Del Mar; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2009-03-11

    A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey. Honey samples were dissolved with Na(2)EDTA, and veterinary residues were extracted from the supernatant by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using OASIS HLB cartridges. The separation and determination was carried out by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in positive mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two ion transitions per compound to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The method was validated, and mean recoveries were evaluated at three concentration levels (10, 50, and 100 microg/kg), ranging from 70 to 120% except for doxycycline, erythromycin, and tylmicosin with recovery higher than 50% at the three levels assayed. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the recoveries were less than 20% within the intraday precision and less than 25% within the interday precision. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were always lower than 4 microg/kg. The developed procedure was applied to 16 honey samples, and erythromycin, sarafloxacin, and tylosin were found in a few samples.

  14. Gradient pattern analysis applied to galaxy morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R. R.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Sautter, R. A.; Barchi, P. H.; Stalder, D. H.; Moura, T. C.; Rembold, S. B.; Morell, D. R. F.; Ferreira, N. C.

    2018-06-01

    Gradient pattern analysis (GPA) is a well-established technique for measuring gradient bilateral asymmetries of a square numerical lattice. This paper introduces an improved version of GPA designed for galaxy morphometry. We show the performance of the new method on a selected sample of 54 896 objects from the SDSS-DR7 in common with Galaxy Zoo 1 catalogue. The results suggest that the second gradient moment, G2, has the potential to dramatically improve over more conventional morphometric parameters. It separates early- from late-type galaxies better (˜ 90 per cent) than the CAS system (C˜ 79 per cent, A˜ 50 per cent, S˜ 43 per cent) and a benchmark test shows that it is applicable to hundreds of thousands of galaxies using typical processing systems.

  15. Energy analysis applied to uranium resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that fuel prices and ore costs are interdependent, and that in estimating ore costs (involving the cost of fuels used to mine and process the uranium) it is necessary to take into account the total use of energy by the entire fuel system, through the technique of energy analysis. The subject is discussed, and illustrated with diagrams, under the following heads: estimate of how total workable resources would depend on production costs; sensitivity of nuclear electricity prices to ore costs; variation of net energy requirement with ore grade for a typical PWR reactor design; variation of average fundamental cost of nuclear electricity with ore grade; variation of cumulative uranium resources with current maximum ore costs. (U.K.)

  16. Toward applied behavior analysis of life aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. V.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with systems at multiple levels, at least from cell to organization. It also deals with learning, decision making, and other behavior at multiple levels. Technological development of a human behavioral ecosystem appropriate to space environments requires an analytic and synthetic orientation, explicitly experimental in nature, dictated by scientific and pragmatic considerations, and closely approximating procedures of established effectiveness in other areas of natural science. The conceptual basis of such an approach has its roots in environmentalism which has two main features: (1) knowledge comes from experience rather than from innate ideas, divine revelation, or other obscure sources; and (2) action is governed by consequences rather than by instinct, reason, will, beliefs, attitudes or even the currently fashionable cognitions. Without an experimentally derived data base founded upon such a functional analysis of human behavior, the overgenerality of "ecological systems" approaches render them incapable of ensuring the successful establishment of enduring space habitats. Without an experimentally derived function account of individual behavioral variability, a natural science of behavior cannot exist. And without a natural science of behavior, the social sciences will necessarily remain in their current status as disciplines of less than optimal precision or utility. Such a functional analysis of human performance should provide an operational account of behavior change in a manner similar to the way in which Darwin's approach to natural selection accounted for the evolution of phylogenetic lines (i.e., in descriptive, nonteleological terms). Similarly, as Darwin's account has subsequently been shown to be consonant with information obtained at the cellular level, so too should behavior principles ultimately prove to be in accord with an account of ontogenetic adaptation at a biochemical level. It would thus seem obvious that the most

  17. Probabilistic safety analysis applied to RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerez Martin, L.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    1995-01-01

    The project financed by the European Union ''Revision of RBMK Reactor Safety was divided into nine Topic Groups dealing with different aspects of safety. The area covered by Topic Group 9 was Probabilistic Safety Analysis. TG9 will have touched on some of the problems discussed by other groups, although in terms of the systematic quantification of the impact of design characteristics and RBMK reactor operating practices on the risk of core damage. On account of the reduced time scale and the resources available for the project, the analysis was made using a simplified method based on the results of PSAs conducted in Western countries and on the judgement of the group members. The simplifies method is based on the concepts of Qualification, Redundancy and Automatic Actuation of the systems considered. PSA experience shows that systems complying with the above-mentioned concepts have a failure probability of 1.0E-3 when redundancy is simple, ie two similar equipment items capable of carrying out the same function. In general terms, this value can be considered to be dominated by potential common cause failures. The value considered above changes according to factors that have a positive effect upon it, such as an additional redundancy with a different equipment item (eg a turbo pumps and a motor pump), individual trains with good separations, etc, or a negative effect, such as the absence of suitable periodical tests, the need for operators to perform manual operations, etc. Similarly, possible actions required by the operator during accident sequences are assigned failure probability values between 1 and 1.0E-4, according to the complexity of the action (including local actions to be performed outside the control room) and the time available

  18. Validation of pestice multi residue analysis method on cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In this study we aimed to validate the method of multi pesticide residue analysis on cucumber. Before real sample injection, system suitability test was performed in gas chromatography (GC). For this purpose, a sensitive pesticide mixture was used for GC-NPD and estimated the performance parameters such as number of effective theoretical plates, resolution factor, asymmetry, tailing and selectivity. It was detected that the system was suitable for calibration and sample injection. Samples were fortified at the level of 0.02, 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg with mixture of dichlorvos, malathion and chloropyrifos pesticides. In the fortification step 1 4C-carbaryl was also added on homogenized analytical portions to make use of 1 4C labelled pesticides for the determining extraction efficiency. Then the basic analytical process, such as ethyl acetate extraction, filtration, evaporation and cleanup, were performed. The GPC calibration using 1 4C- carbaryl and fortification mixture (dichlorvos, malathion and chloropyrifos) showed that pesticide fraction come through the column between the 8-23 ml fractions. The recovery of 1 4C-carbaryl after the extraction and cleanup step were 92.63-111.73 % and 74.83-102.22 %, respectively. The stability of pesticides during analysis is an important factor. In this study, stability test was performed including matrix effect. Our calculation and t test results showed that above mentioned pesticides were not stabile during sample processing in our laboratory conditions and it was found that sample comminution with dry ice may improve stability. In the other part of the study, 1 4C-chloropyrifos was used to determine homogeneity of analytical portions taken from laboratory samples. Use of 1 4C labelled pesticides allows us for quick quantification analyte, even with out clean-up. The analytical results show that after sample processing with waring blender, analytical portions were homogenous. Sample processing uncertainty depending on quantity of

  19. Digital photoelastic analysis applied to implant dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, K.; Hariprasad, M. P.; Bhuvanewari, S.

    2016-12-01

    Development of improved designs of implant systems in dentistry have necessitated the study of stress fields in the implant regions of the mandible/maxilla for better understanding of the biomechanics involved. Photoelasticity has been used for various studies related to dental implants in view of whole field visualization of maximum shear stress in the form of isochromatic contours. The potential of digital photoelasticity has not been fully exploited in the field of implant dentistry. In this paper, the fringe field in the vicinity of the connected implants (All-On-Four® concept) is analyzed using recent advances in digital photoelasticity. Initially, a novel 3-D photoelastic model making procedure, to closely mimic all the anatomical features of the human mandible is proposed. By choosing appropriate orientation of the model with respect to the light path, the essential region of interest were sought to be analysed while keeping the model under live loading conditions. Need for a sophisticated software module to carefully identify the model domain has been brought out. For data extraction, five-step method is used and isochromatics are evaluated by twelve fringe photoelasticity. In addition to the isochromatic fringe field, whole field isoclinic data is also obtained for the first time in implant dentistry, which could throw important information in improving the structural stability of the implant systems. Analysis is carried out for the implant in the molar as well as the incisor region. In addition, the interaction effects of loaded molar implant on the incisor area are also studied.

  20. Analysis and modeling of simulated residual stress of mold injected plastic parts by using robust correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Carlos; Sierra, Juan; Posada, Juan; Botero-Cadavid, Juan F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The injection molding process is the most widely used processing technique for polymers. The analysis of residual stresses generated during this process is crucial for the part quality assessment. The present study evaluates the residual stresses in a tensile strength specimen using the simulation software Moldex3D for two polymers, polypropylene and polycarbonate. The residual stresses obtained under a simulated design of experiment were modeled using a robust multivariable regressi...

  1. Fracture mechanics and residual fatigue life analysis for complex stress fields. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.

    1975-07-01

    This report reviews the development and application of an influence function method for calculating stress intensity factors and residual fatigue life for two- and three-dimensional structures with complex stress fields and geometries. Through elastic superposition, the method properly accounts for redistribution of stress as the crack grows through the structure. The analytical methods used and the computer programs necessary for computation and application of load independent influence functions are presented. A new exact solution is obtained for the buried elliptical crack, under an arbitrary Mode I stress field, for stress intensity factors at four positions around the crack front. The IF method is then applied to two fracture mechanics problems with complex stress fields and geometries. These problems are of current interest to the electric power generating industry and include (1) the fatigue analysis of a crack in a pipe weld under nominal and residual stresses and (2) fatigue analysis of a reactor pressure vessel nozzle corner crack under a complex bivariate stress field

  2. Residual stress analysis in carbon fiber-reinforced SiC ceramics; Eigenspannungsanalyse in kohlenstoffaserverstaerkten SiC-Keramiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, M.

    1998-12-31

    Systematic residual stress analyses are reported, carried out in long-fiber reinforced SiC ceramics. The laminated C{sub fiber}/SiC{sub matrix} specimens used were prepared by polymer pyrolysis, and the structural component specimens used are industrial products. Various diffraction methods have been applied for non-destructive evaluation of residual stress fields, so as to completely detect the residual stresses and their distribution in the specimens. The residual stress fields at the surface ({mu}m) have been measured using characteristic X-radiation and applying the sin {sup 2}{psi} method as well as the scatter vector method. For residual stress field analysis in the mass volume (cm), neutron diffraction has been applied. The stress fields in the fiber layers (approx. 250{mu}m) have been measured as a function of their location within the laminated composite by using an energy-dispersive method and synchrotron radiation. By means of the systematic, process-accompanying residual stress and phase analyses, conclusions can be drawn as to possible approaches for optimization of fabrication parameters. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Arbeit werden systematische Eigenspannungsanalysen an langfaserverstaerkten SiC-Keramiken durchgefuehrt. Hierbei werden polymerpyrolytisch abgeleitete, laminierte C{sub Faser}/SiC{sub Matrix} Proben und Bauteile untersucht, welche industriell gefertigt wurden. Fuer die zerstoerungsfreie Eigenspannungsermittlung kommen verschiedene Beugungsverfahren zum Einsatz. Dadurch kann die Eigenspannungsverteilung in diesen Proben vollstaendig erfasst werden, d.h. der Eigenspannungszustand im Oberflaechenbereich ({mu}m) wird mit Hilfe charakteristischer Roentgenstrahlung unter Nutzung der sin{sup 2}{psi}-Methode als auch der Streuvektor-Methode beschrieben. Fuer die Analyse der Eigenspannungen im Volumen (cm) wird die Neutronenbeugung herangezogen. Um den Spannungszustand in den einzelnen Fasermatten (ca. 250 {mu}m) in Abhaengigkeit ihrer Lage

  3. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Analysis and characterization of plutonium in pyrochemical salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, John M.; Phillips, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of hydrogen produced during salt-catalyzed hydrolysis of plutonium in pyrochemical salt residues show that the metal is present in concentrations of 10 ± 5 mass%. The analytical method is based on stoichiometric reaction of metal with water to form plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and hydrogen. Results of a kinetic model developed to describe the observed time dependence of the hydrolysis rate shows that metal is present predominately as particles with essentially spherical geometries and diameters near 1 mm. The presence of smaller metallic particles cannot be verified or excluded. Plutonium concentrations measured for residues stored in different configurations suggest that a sizable fraction of the metal has oxidized during storage. Application of the hydrolysis method in determining concentrations and dimensions of metallic plutonium in other nuclear waste forms is proposed

  5. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  6. Amelioration of bauxite residue sand by intermittent additions of nitrogen fertiliser and leaching fractions: The effect on growth of kikuyu grass and fate of applied nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjot; Phillips, Ian; Fey, Martin V

    2016-04-15

    Bauxite residue, a waste product of aluminium processing operations is characterised by high pH, salinity and exchangeable sodium which hinders sustainable plant growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake form, optimum application rate and timing of nitrogen fertiliser to improve bauxite residue characteristics for plant growth. Kikuyu grass was grown in plastic columns filled with residue sand/carbonated residue mud mixture (20:1) previously amended with gypsum, phosphoric acid and basal nutrients. The experiment was set up as a 4×4 factorial design comprising four levels of applied nitrogen (N) fertiliser (0, 3, 6 and 12mgNkg(-1) residue) and four frequencies of leaching (16, 8 and 4day intervals). We hypothesised that the use of ammonium sulfate fertiliser would increase retention of N within the rhizosphere thereby encouraging more efficient fertiliser use. We found that N uptake by kikuyu grass was enhanced due to leaching of excess salts and alkalinity from the residue profile. It was also concluded that biomass production and associated N uptake by kikuyu grass grown in residue is dependent on the type of fertiliser used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The application of probabilistic fracture analysis to residual life evaluation of embrittled reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Simonen, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis is a major element of the comprehensive probabilistic methodology on which current NRC regulatory requirements for pressurized water reactor vessel integrity evaluation are based. Computer codes such as OCA-P and VISA-11 perform probabilistic fracture analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability that occurs as the vessel material accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. The results of such analyses, when compared with limits of acceptable failure probabilities, provide an estimation of the residual life of a vessel. Such codes can be applied to evaluate the potential benefits of plant-specific mitigating actions designed to reduce the probability of failure of a reactor vessel

  8. The application of probabilistic fracture analysis to residual life evaluation of embrittled reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Simonen, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis is a major element of comprehensive probabilistic methodology on which current NRC regulatory requirements for pressurized water reactor vessel integrity evaluation are based. Computer codes such as OCA-P and VISA-II perform probabilistic fracture analyses to estimate the increase in vessel failure probability that occurs as the vessel material accumulates radiation damage over the operating life of the vessel. The results of such analyses, when compared with limits of acceptable failure probabilities, provide an estimation of the residual life of a vessel. Such codes can be applied to evaluate the potential benefits of plant-specific mitigating actions designed to reduce the probability of failure of a reactor vessel. 10 refs

  9. Applying homotopy analysis method for solving differential-difference equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Zou Li; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we apply the homotopy analysis method to solving the differential-difference equations. A simple but typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized homotopy analysis method in solving differential-difference equation. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the homotopy analysis method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations

  10. Sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Z

    2011-11-01

    With the rising application of systems biology, sensitivity analysis methods have been widely applied to study the biological systems, including metabolic networks, signalling pathways and genetic circuits. Sensitivity analysis can provide valuable insights about how robust the biological responses are with respect to the changes of biological parameters and which model inputs are the key factors that affect the model outputs. In addition, sensitivity analysis is valuable for guiding experimental analysis, model reduction and parameter estimation. Local and global sensitivity analysis approaches are the two types of sensitivity analysis that are commonly applied in systems biology. Local sensitivity analysis is a classic method that studies the impact of small perturbations on the model outputs. On the other hand, global sensitivity analysis approaches have been applied to understand how the model outputs are affected by large variations of the model input parameters. In this review, the author introduces the basic concepts of sensitivity analysis approaches applied to systems biology models. Moreover, the author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of different sensitivity analysis methods, how to choose a proper sensitivity analysis approach, the available sensitivity analysis tools for systems biology models and the caveats in the interpretation of sensitivity analysis results.

  11. GIS applied to agriclimatological zoning and agrotoxin residue monitoring in tomatoes: A case study in Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Teixeira, Luciano José Quintão; Saraiva, Sérgio Henriques; Freitas, Deivid França; Pereira, Olavo dos Santos; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Eugenio, Fernando Coelho; Neves, Antônio Augusto; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro; Scherer, Rodrigo

    2016-01-15

    Searches related to global warming have provided important insights into the response of terrestrial ecosystems, but few have examined the impacts on agricultural crops, particularly those associated with the monitoring of agrotoxin residues. In this context, the agriclimatological zoning is an important tool in the planning and consolidation of crops and should be considered in any initiative that involves such planning. This tool is particularly important in the analysis of agrotoxin residues and may be applied by the Program Analysis of Agrotoxin Residues in Food (PARA) created by the National Health Vigilance Agency of Brazil (ANVISA), which enables greater food security and contributes to the improvement of human health. The aim of this study was to elaborate the current and future agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, relating it with the monitoring of samples collected by PARA in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The results indicate that a temperature increase of 5 °C creates a decrease in apt areas from 37.3% to 4.3%, for a total reduction of 33 percentage points (-88.5%). It is noted that of the 41 producing municipalities, only 26 have apt areas greater than 50%, highlighting the municipalities with apt areas greater than 90%, represented by Mantenópolis (100%), Guaçuí (98.5%), São José do Calçado (97.8%), Irupi (94.4%), Santa Teresa (92.3%), and Marechal Floriano (91.4%). The veracity of agriclimatological zoning is proved by a Kendall rank correlation coefficient of 0.876, indicating that the distribution of the variables of apt areas and productivity are similar at the significance level of 0.05 with a confidence interval 95%. After validation of the agriclimatological zoning for the tomato crop, it is recommended that the PARA should monitor 36 municipalities rather than the current 18, representing an increase of 100%. The methodology can be adjusted to agricultural crops of other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Residual stresses analysis of friction stir welding using one-way FSI simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Wook; Jang, Beom Seon; Song, Ha Cheol

    2015-01-01

    When certain mechanisms, such as plastic deformations and temperature gradients, occur and are released in a structure, stresses remain because of the shape of the structure and external constraints. These stresses are referred to as residual stresses. The base material locally expands during heating in the welding process. When the welding is completed and cooled to room temperature, the residual stresses are left at nearly the yield strength level. In the case of friction stir welding, the maximum temperature is 80% to 90% of the melting point of the materials. Thus, the residual stresses in the welding process are smaller than those in other fusion welding processes; these stresses have not been considered previously. However, friction stir welding residual stresses are sometimes measured at approximately 70% or above. These residual stresses significantly affect fatigue behavior and lifetime. The present study investigates the residual stress distributions in various welding conditions and shapes of friction stir welding. In addition, the asymmetric feature is considered in temperature and residual stress distribution. Heat transfer analysis is conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics program Fluent, and results are used in the finite element structural analysis with the ANSYS Multiphysics software. The calculated residual stresses are compared with experimental values using the X-ray diffraction method.

  13. Development of residual stress analysis procedure for fitness-for-service assessment of welded structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun; Dong, P.; Prager, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a state of art review of existing residual stress analysis techniques and representative solutions is presented in order to develop the residual stress analysis procedure for Fitness-For-Service(FFS) assessment of welded structure. Critical issues associated with existing residual stress solutions and their treatments in performing FFS are discussed. It should be recognized that detailed residual stress evolution is an extremely complicated phenomenon that typically involves material-specific thermomechanical/metallurgical response, welding process physics, and structural interactions within a component being welded. As a result, computational procedures can vary significantly from highly complicated numerical techniques intended only to elucidate a small part of the process physics to cost-effective procedures that are deemed adequate for capturing some of the important features in a final residual stress distribution. Residual stress analysis procedure for FFS purposes belongs to the latter category. With this in mind, both residual stress analysis techniques and their adequacy for FFS are assessed based on both literature data and analyses performed in this investigation

  14. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  15. Texture, residual stress and structural analysis of thin films using a combined X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutterotti, L.; Chateigner, D.; Ferrari, S.; Ricote, J.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced thin films for today's industrial and research needs require highly specialized methodologies for a successful quantitative characterization. In particular, in the case of multilayer and/or unknown phases a global approach is necessary to obtain some or all the required information. A full approach has been developed integrating novel texture and residual stress methodologies with the Rietveld method (Acta Cryst. 22 (1967) 151) (for crystal structure analysis) and it has been coupled with the reflectivity analysis. The complete analysis can be done at once and offers several benefits: the thicknesses obtained from reflectivity can be used to correct the diffraction spectra, the phase analysis help to identify the layers and to determine the electron density profile for reflectivity; quantitative texture is needed for quantitative phase and residual stress analyses; crystal structure determination benefits of the previous. To achieve this result, it was necessary to develop some new methods, especially for texture and residual stresses. So it was possible to integrate them in the Rietveld, full profile fitting of the patterns. The measurement of these spectra required a special reflectometer/diffractometer that combines a thin parallel beam (for reflectivity) and a texture/stress goniometer with a curved large position sensitive detector. This new diffraction/reflectivity X-ray machine has been used to test the combined approach. Several spectra and the reflectivity patterns have been collected at different tilting angles and processed at once by the special software incorporating the aforementioned methodologies. Some analysis examples will be given to show the possibilities offered by the method

  16. Animal Research in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L.; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance…

  17. Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination applied to Fickian difussion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Sanchidrian, C.; Castans, M.

    1989-01-01

    Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination is applied to Fickian difussion phenomena in order to transform its partial differen-tial equations into ordinary ones, and also to obtain in a dimensionl-ess fom the Ficks second law. (Author)

  18. Numerical analysis of residual stresses reconstruction for axisymmetric glass components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bo; Xu, Shuang; Yao, Honghui

    2018-01-01

    A non-destructive measurement method for 3D stress state in a glass cylinder using photoelasticity has been analyzed by simulation in this research. Based on simulated stresses in a glass cylinder, intensity of the cylinder in a circular polariscope can be calculated by Jones calculus. Therefore, the isoclinic angle and optical retardation can be obtained by six steps phase shifting technique. Through the isoclinic angle and optical retardation, the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses inside the glass cylinder in cylindrical coordinate system can be reconstructed. Comparing the reconstructed stresses with numerical simulated stresses, the results verify this non-destructive method can be used to reconstruct the 3D stresses. However, there are some mismatches in axial stress, radial stress and circumferential stress.

  19. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  20. Analysis of residual stress in subsurface layers after precision hard machining of forging tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czan Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on analysis of residual stress of functional surfaces and subsurface layers created by precision technologies of hard machining for progressive constructional materials of forging tools. Methods of experiments are oriented on monitoring of residual stress in surface which is created by hard turning (roughing and finishing operations. Subsequently these surfaces were etched in thin layers by electro-chemical polishing. The residual stress was monitored in each etched layer. The measuring was executed by portable X-ray diffractometer for detection of residual stress and structural phases. The results significantly indicate rise and distribution of residual stress in surface and subsurface layers and their impact on functional properties of surface integrity.

  1. TOF-SIMS Analysis of Crater Residues from Wild 2 Cometary on Stardust Aluminum Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutner, Jan; Stephan, Thomas; Kearsley, T.; Horz, Friedrich; Flynn, George J.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Impact residues of cometary particles on aluminum foils from the Stardust mission were investigated with TOF-SIMS for their elemental and organic composition. The residual matter from comet 81P/Wild 2 shows a wide compositional range, from nearly monomineralic grains to polymict aggregates. Despite the comparably small analyzed sample volume, the average element composition of the investigated residues is similar to bulk CI chondritic values. Analysis of organic components in impact residues is complicated, due to fragmentation and alteration of the compounds during the impact process and by the presence of contaminants on the aluminum foils. Nevertheless, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are unambiguously associated with the impact residues were observed, and thus are most likely of cometary origin.

  2. An adjoint method of sensitivity analysis for residual vibrations of structures subject to impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Cheng, Gengdong

    2018-03-01

    For structures subject to impact loads, the residual vibration reduction is more and more important as the machines become faster and lighter. An efficient sensitivity analysis of residual vibration with respect to structural or operational parameters is indispensable for using a gradient based optimization algorithm, which reduces the residual vibration in either active or passive way. In this paper, an integrated quadratic performance index is used as the measure of the residual vibration, since it globally measures the residual vibration response and its calculation can be simplified greatly with Lyapunov equation. Several sensitivity analysis approaches for performance index were developed based on the assumption that the initial excitations of residual vibration were given and independent of structural design. Since the resulting excitations by the impact load often depend on structural design, this paper aims to propose a new efficient sensitivity analysis method for residual vibration of structures subject to impacts to consider the dependence. The new method is developed by combining two existing methods and using adjoint variable approach. Three numerical examples are carried out and demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results show that the dependence of initial excitations on structural design variables may strongly affects the accuracy of sensitivities.

  3. Phyloproteomic Analysis of 11780 Six-Residue-Long Motifs Occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Galzitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How is it possible to find good traits for phylogenetic reconstructions? Here, we present a new phyloproteomic criterion that is an occurrence of simple motifs which can be imprints of evolution history. We studied the occurrences of 11780 six-residue-long motifs consisting of two randomly located amino acids in 97 eukaryotic and 25 bacterial proteomes. For all eukaryotic proteomes, with the exception of the Amoebozoa, Stramenopiles, and Diplomonadida kingdoms, the number of proteins containing the motifs from the first group (one of the two amino acids occurs once at the terminal position made about 20%; in the case of motifs from the second (one of two amino acids occurs one time within the pattern and third (the two amino acids occur randomly groups, 30% and 50%, respectively. For bacterial proteomes, this relationship was 10%, 27%, and 63%, respectively. The matrices of correlation coefficients between numbers of proteins where a motif from the set of 11780 motifs appears at least once in 9 kingdoms and 5 phyla of bacteria were calculated. Among the correlation coefficients for eukaryotic proteomes, the correlation between the animal and fungi kingdoms (0.62 is higher than between fungi and plants (0.54. Our study provides support that animals and fungi are sibling kingdoms. Comparison of the frequencies of six-residue-long motifs in different proteomes allows obtaining phylogenetic relationships based on similarities between these frequencies: the Diplomonadida kingdoms are more close to Bacteria than to Eukaryota; Stramenopiles and Amoebozoa are more close to each other than to other kingdoms of Eukaryota.

  4. X-Ray diffraction technique applied to study of residual stresses after welding of duplex stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monin, Vladimir Ivanovitch; Assis, Joaquim Teixeira de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Turibus, Sergio Noleto; Payao Filho, Joao C.

    2014-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel is an example of composite material with approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite phases. Difference of physical and mechanical properties of component is additional factor that contributes appearance of residual stresses after welding of duplex steel plates. Measurements of stress distributions in weld region were made by X-ray diffraction method both in ferrite and austenite phases. Duplex Steel plates were joined by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) technology. There were studied longitudinal and transverse stress components in welded butt joint, in heat affected zone (HAZ) and in points of base metal 10 mm from the weld. Residual stresses measured in duplex steel plates jointed by welding are caused by temperature gradients between weld zone and base metal and by difference of thermal expansion coefficients of ferrite and austenite phases. Proposed analytical model allows evaluating of residual stress distribution over the cross section in the weld region. (author)

  5. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  6. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses

  7. Review of sample preparation techniques for the analysis of pesticide residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the sample preparation techniques used for the analysis of pesticides in soil. The present status and recent advances made during the last 5 years in these methods are discussed. The analysis of pesticide residues in soil requires the extraction of analytes from this matrix, followed by a cleanup procedure, when necessary, prior to their instrumental determination. The optimization of sample preparation is a very important part of the method development that can reduce the analysis time, the amount of solvent, and the size of samples. This review considers all aspects of sample preparation, including extraction and cleanup. Classical extraction techniques, such as shaking, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and modern techniques like pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) are reviewed. The different cleanup strategies applied for the purification of soil extracts are also discussed. In addition, the application of these techniques to environmental studies is considered.

  8. The Significance of Regional Analysis in Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Lawrence M.

    Regional analysis is central to applied geographic research, contributing to better planning and policy development for a variety of societal problems facing the United States. The development of energy policy serves as an illustration of the capabilities of this type of analysis. The United States has had little success in formulating a national…

  9. Tank 16 Annulus Cleanout Analysis Doses at Seepline from Transport of Residual Tc-99 Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of residual Tc-99 in the Tank 16 annulus was conducted to assess the potential benefit from cleaning the annulus. One analysis was performed for the as-is case to determine seepline doses if no clean out occurs. Another analysis was performed assuming that ninety percent of existing contaminants are removed. Characterization data for samples retrieved from the annulus were used in the analysis. Only Tc-99 was analyzed because preliminary modeling identified it as the highest dose contributor. The effect of residual waste in piping was not analyzed

  10. Calculation method for residual stress analysis of filament-wound spherical pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, C.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Filament wound spherical pressure vessels may be produced with very high performance factors. These performance factors are a calculation of contained pressure times enclosed volume divided by structure weight. A number of parameters are important in determining the level of performance achieved. One of these is the residual stress state in the fabricated unit. A significant level of an unfavorable residual stress state could seriously impair the performance of the vessel. Residual stresses are of more concern for vessels with relatively thick walls and/or vessels constructed with the highly anisotropic graphite or aramid fibers. A method is established for measuring these stresses. A theoretical model of the composite structure is required. Data collection procedures and techniques are developed. The data are reduced by means of the model and result in the residual stress analysis. The analysis method can be used in process parameter studies to establish the best fabrication procedures

  11. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction in Pesticide Residues Analysis: 2. Apple Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Milinović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid phase microextraction method (HS/SPME, optimised previously for pesticide water solutions, was applied to trace residues of the pesticides chlorpyrifos, fenthion and bifenthrin in apple samples. One-hour extraction procedure was performed at 60oC extraction temperature. Nonpolar polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS fiber was used. Detection and quantification were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. A non-pesticide treated apple sample was fortified with the pesticides over a 0.025-1.25 mg/kg concentration range in order to determine analytical parameters of the method applied. Linearity with regression coefficient (R values higher than 0.99 were obtained over the whole concentration range investigated for chlorpyrifos and fenthion, while linear dependence was observed in the 0.1-1.25 mg/kg range for bifenthrin. Relative recovery values for samples fortified at different levels were in the 56.68-82.91% range. Limit of detection (LOD values were determined as follows: 0.014 mg/kg for chlorpyrifos, 0.021 mg/kg for fenthion and 0.053 mg/kg for bifenthrin. Relative standard deviation (RSD values obtained for multiple analysis of the sample fortified at 0.6 mg/kg level were not higher than 20%.

  12. Annotating Protein Functional Residues by Coupling High-Throughput Fitness Profile and Homologous-Structure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yushen; Wu, Nicholas C; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Tianhao; Gong, Danyang; Shu, Sara; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2016-11-01

    Identification and annotation of functional residues are fundamental questions in protein sequence analysis. Sequence and structure conservation provides valuable information to tackle these questions. It is, however, limited by the incomplete sampling of sequence space in natural evolution. Moreover, proteins often have multiple functions, with overlapping sequences that present challenges to accurate annotation of the exact functions of individual residues by conservation-based methods. Using the influenza A virus PB1 protein as an example, we developed a method to systematically identify and annotate functional residues. We used saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing to measure the replication capacity of single nucleotide mutations across the entire PB1 protein. After predicting protein stability upon mutations, we identified functional PB1 residues that are essential for viral replication. To further annotate the functional residues important to the canonical or noncanonical functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp), we performed a homologous-structure analysis with 16 different vRdRp structures. We achieved high sensitivity in annotating the known canonical polymerase functional residues. Moreover, we identified a cluster of noncanonical functional residues located in the loop region of the PB1 β-ribbon. We further demonstrated that these residues were important for PB1 protein nuclear import through the interaction with Ran-binding protein 5. In summary, we developed a systematic and sensitive method to identify and annotate functional residues that are not restrained by sequence conservation. Importantly, this method is generally applicable to other proteins about which homologous-structure information is available. To fully comprehend the diverse functions of a protein, it is essential to understand the functionality of individual residues. Current methods are highly dependent on evolutionary sequence conservation, which is

  13. Finite element analysis of residual stress in plasma-sprayed ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.L.; Hendricks, R.C.; McDonald, G.

    1985-01-01

    Residual stress in a ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 ceramic coating resulting from the plasma spraying operation is calculated. The calculations were done using the finite element method. Both thermal and mechanical analysis were performed. The resulting residual stress field was compared to the measurements obtained by Hendricks and McDonald. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured moment occurred. However, the resulting stress field is not in pure bending

  14. Residual Stress Analysis for Engineering Applications by Means of Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gndupel-Herold, Thomas; Brand, Paul C.; Prask, Henry J.

    1999-01-01

    The economic and scientific importance of neutron diffraction residual stress analysis has led to an increasing number of suitable instruments worldwide. Recently, a dedicated state-of-the-art diffractometer has been installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology reactor. It has been used for a variety of measurements on basic and engineering stress problems. Among the most prominent examples that have been investigated are residual stresses in rails, weldments, and plasma-sprayed coatings

  15. Earthworm-induced N2O emissions in a sandy soil with surface-applied crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research with endogeic and epigeic earthworm species in loamy arable soil has shown that both earthworm groups can increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, provided that crop residue placement matches the feeding strategy of the earthworm ecological group(s). However, it is not yet clear

  16. Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and Hydroprene applied to wood, metal, and concrete for control of stored-product insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on...

  17. Annotating Protein Functional Residues by Coupling High-Throughput Fitness Profile and Homologous-Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushen Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification and annotation of functional residues are fundamental questions in protein sequence analysis. Sequence and structure conservation provides valuable information to tackle these questions. It is, however, limited by the incomplete sampling of sequence space in natural evolution. Moreover, proteins often have multiple functions, with overlapping sequences that present challenges to accurate annotation of the exact functions of individual residues by conservation-based methods. Using the influenza A virus PB1 protein as an example, we developed a method to systematically identify and annotate functional residues. We used saturation mutagenesis and high-throughput sequencing to measure the replication capacity of single nucleotide mutations across the entire PB1 protein. After predicting protein stability upon mutations, we identified functional PB1 residues that are essential for viral replication. To further annotate the functional residues important to the canonical or noncanonical functions of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp, we performed a homologous-structure analysis with 16 different vRdRp structures. We achieved high sensitivity in annotating the known canonical polymerase functional residues. Moreover, we identified a cluster of noncanonical functional residues located in the loop region of the PB1 β-ribbon. We further demonstrated that these residues were important for PB1 protein nuclear import through the interaction with Ran-binding protein 5. In summary, we developed a systematic and sensitive method to identify and annotate functional residues that are not restrained by sequence conservation. Importantly, this method is generally applicable to other proteins about which homologous-structure information is available.

  18. Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, T Agami

    2011-01-01

    ""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and

  19. The analysis of residual monocrotophos in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    The procedure of Ambrus et al. (2.3) for extraction and clean up was modified to apply specifically to the extraction of monocrotophos in rice plant for determination by gas chromatography using flame photometric detector. An effective clean up system was developed to remove unwanted substances as well as to separate monocrotophos from other organic phosphate pesticides that interfere in the determination. The extraction utilized acetone/methylene chloride with recovery ranging from 41-53% for standards, while clean up recovery averaged 94% for standards or an overall percentage recovery of 41-55%. (auth.). 5 refs.; 5 tabs.; 5 figs

  20. Weld residual stress according to the ways of heat input in the simulation of weld process using finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun Seog; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    This paper is to discuss distribution of welding residual stresses of a ferritic low alloy steel nozzle with dissimilar metal weld using Alloy 82/182. Two Dimensional (2D) thermo-mechanical finite element analyses are carried out to simulate multi-pass welding process on the basis of the detailed and fabrication data. On performing the welding analysis generally, the characteristics on the heat input and heat transfer of weld are affected on the weld residual stress analyses. Thermal analyses in the welding heat cycle process is very important process in weld residual stress analyses. Therefore, heat is rapidly input to the weld pass material, using internal volumetric heat generation, at a rate which raises the peak weld metal temperature to 2200 .deg. C and the base metal adjacent to the weld to about 1400 .deg. C. These are approximately the temperature that the weld metal and surrounding base materials reach during welding. Also, According to the various ways of applying the weld heat source, the predicted residual stress results are compared with measured axial, hoop and radial through-wall profiles in the heat affected zone of test component. Also, those results are compared with those of full 3-dimensional simulation

  1. Fourier convergence analysis applied to neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2004-01-01

    Fourier error analysis has been a standard technique for the stability and convergence analysis of linear and nonlinear iterative methods. Though the methods can be applied to Eigenvalue problems too, all the Fourier convergence analyses have been performed only for fixed source problems and a Fourier convergence analysis for Eigenvalue problem has never been reported. Lee et al proposed new 2-D/1-D coupling methods and they showed that the new ones are unconditionally stable while one of the two existing ones is unstable at a small mesh size and that the new ones are better than the existing ones in terms of the convergence rate. In this paper the convergence of method A in reference 4 for the diffusion Eigenvalue problem was analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The Fourier convergence analysis presented in this paper is the first one applied to a neutronics eigenvalue problem to the best of our knowledge

  2. Steel research using neutron beam techniques. In-situ neutron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and residual stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Katsumi; Sato, Kaoru; Nakagaito, Tatsuya; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Arakaki, Yu; Tomota, Yo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the neutron beam techniques have been applied for steel researches and industrial applications. In particular, the neutron diffraction is a powerful non-destructive method that can analyze phase transformation and residual stress inside the steel. The small-angle neutron scattering is also an effective method for the quantitative evaluation of microstructures inside the steel. In this study, in-situ neutron diffraction measurements during tensile test and heat treatment were conducted in order to investigate the deformation and transformation behaviors of TRIP steels. The small-angle neutron scattering measurements of TRIP steels were also conducted. Then, the neutron diffraction analysis was conducted on the high strength steel weld joint in order to investigate the effect of the residual stress distribution on the weld cracking. (author)

  3. Residual subsidence analysis after the end of coal mine work. Example from Lorraine Colliery, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Heib, M.; Nicolas, M.; Noirel, J.F.; Wojtkowiak, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the residual movements associated with the deep coal mines. The studied case relates to works located into Lorraine coal basin. The paper is divided into two sections. The first one describes subsidence phenomena, especially the residual phase in terms of amplitude, duration and localization. The second one focus on Morsbach case: the total and residual subsidence measurements will be analyzed and compared to the state of the art as well as the currant knowledge. The results of the analysis show that the duration of residual movements does not exceed 24 months and their amplitude is about 5% of total subsidence. We analyze also the declarations of the mining damage during and after the mining period. Damages occur, after this period are probably due to late observations. (authors)

  4. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C; Wallis, B; Reimers, W

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 mu m and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth tau to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented.

  5. The application of white radiation to residual stress analysis in the intermediate zone between surface and volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genzel, Ch.; Stock, C.; Wallis, B.; Reimers, W.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical surface processing is known to give rise to complex residual stress fields in the near surface region of polycrystalline materials. Consequently, their analysis by means of non-destructive X-ray and neutron diffraction methods has become an important topic in materials science. However, there remains a gap with respect to the accessible near surface zone, which concerns a range between about 10 μm and 1 mm, where the conventional X-ray methods are no longer and the neutron methods are not yet sensitive. In order to achieve the necessary penetration depth τ to perform residual stress analysis (RSA) in this region, advantageous use can be made of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of synchrotron radiation (15-60 keV) in the reflection mode. Besides an example concerning the adaptation of methods applied so far in the angle dispersive RSA to the energy dispersive case, the concept of a new materials science beamline at BESSY II for residual stress and texture analysis is presented

  6. Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very

  7. Failure Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Analyzer Model SP-1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) subcontractor Wiltech contacted the NASA Electrical Lab (NE-L) and requested a failure analysis of a Solvent Purity Meter; model SP-IOOO produced by the VerTis Instrument Company. The meter, used to measure the contaminate in a solvent to determine the relative contamination on spacecraft flight hardware and ground servicing equipment, had been inoperable and in storage for an unknown amount of time. NE-L was asked to troubleshoot the unit and make a determination on what may be required to make the unit operational. Through the use of general troubleshooting processes and the review of a unit in service at the time of analysis, the unit was found to be repairable but would need the replacement of multiple components.

  8. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  9. Animal research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Timothy L; Poling, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes the 6 studies with nonhuman animal subjects that have appeared in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and offers suggestions for future research in this area. Two of the reviewed articles described translational research in which pigeons were used to illustrate and examine behavioral phenomena of applied significance (say-do correspondence and fluency), 3 described interventions that changed animals' behavior (self-injury by a baboon, feces throwing and spitting by a chimpanzee, and unsafe trailer entry by horses) in ways that benefited the animals and the people in charge of them, and 1 described the use of trained rats that performed a service to humans (land-mine detection). We suggest that each of these general research areas merits further attention and that the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate outlet for some of these publications.

  10. Applied Behavior Analysis Is a Science And, Therefore, Progressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla; Ross, Robert K.; Smith, Tristram; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science and, therefore, involves progressive approaches and outcomes. In this commentary we argue that the spirit and the method of science should be maintained in order to avoid reductionist procedures, stifled innovation, and rote, unresponsive protocols that become increasingly removed from meaningful…

  11. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Scapin Junior, Wilson Santo; Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Imakima, Kengo

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to the soil analysis. A comparative study of the WD-XRFS and ED-XRFS techniques was carried out by using the following soil samples: SL-1, SOIL-7 and marine sediment SD-M-2/TM, from IAEA, and clay, JG-1a from Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ)

  12. Progressive-Ratio Schedules and Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Establishing appropriate relations between the basic and applied areas of behavior analysis has been of long and persistent interest to the author. In this article, the author illustrates that there is a direct relation between how hard an organism will work for access to an object or activity, as indexed by the largest ratio completed under a…

  13. B. F. Skinner's Contributions to Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K.; Smith, Nathaniel G.; Altus, Deborah E.

    2005-01-01

    Our paper reviews and analyzes B. F. Skinner's contributions to applied behavior analysis in order to assess his role as the field's originator and founder. We found, first, that his contributions fall into five categorizes: the style and content of his science, his interpretations of typical and atypical human behavior, the implications he drew…

  14. Applied Behavior Analysis: Current Myths in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Cheryl; Lowdermilk, John; Lanier, Lauren L.; Fannin, Abigail G.; Schkade, Jennifer L.; Rose, Chad A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    The effective use of behavior management strategies and related policies continues to be a debated issue in public education. Despite overwhelming evidence espousing the benefits of the implementation of procedures derived from principles based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA), educators often indicate many common misconceptions…

  15. Positive Behavior Support and Applied Behavior Analysis: A Familial Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene

    2008-01-01

    Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…

  16. Neutron activation analysis applied to energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to a number of problems concerned with energy production and the environment. Burning of fossil fuel, the search for new sources of uranium, possible presence of toxic elements in food and water, and the relationship of trace elements to cardiovascular disease are some of the problems in which neutron activation was used. (auth)

  17. Chemical Analysis of Organic Residues Found in Hellenistic Time Amphorae from SE Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlateva, B.; Rangelov, M.

    2015-05-01

    We have used IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography to study the composition of resin residues found in 22 amphorae from Apollonia Pontika (SE Bulgaria). In particular this analysis of the resin residues was aimed at discovering the content of the amphorae and to verify the hypothesis on the transport of wine, named "Retsina". Additionally this hypothesis has been confirmed by a similar analysis of the modern resin sample from Aleppo pine (Pinus Halepensis) growing in the Attica region (Greece).

  18. Analysis of Residual Stress and Deformation of Rolling Strengthen Crankshaft Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of crankshaft fillet rolling process, used ANSYS finite element analysis software to conduct the elastic-plastic mechanical simulation of crankshaft rolling process, and gained the variation law of the residual stress and plastic deformation in the radial path of the fillet under different rolling laps and rolling pressure. Established the relationship between the rolling pressure and the plastic deformation and residual stress of the fillet, and provided theoretical support for the evaluation and detection of the crankshaft rolling quality.

  19. Structural reliability analysis applied to pipeline risk analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, M. [GL Industrial Services, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F.; Donato, Guilherme V.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) of pipelines requires two main components to be provided. These are models of the consequences that follow from some loss of containment incident, and models for the likelihood of such incidents occurring. This paper describes how PETROBRAS have used Structural Reliability Analysis for the second of these, to provide pipeline- and location-specific predictions of failure frequency for a number of pipeline assets. This paper presents an approach to estimating failure rates for liquid and gas pipelines, using Structural Reliability Analysis (SRA) to analyze the credible basic mechanisms of failure such as corrosion and mechanical damage. SRA is a probabilistic limit state method: for a given failure mechanism it quantifies the uncertainty in parameters to mathematical models of the load-resistance state of a structure and then evaluates the probability of load exceeding resistance. SRA can be used to benefit the pipeline risk management process by optimizing in-line inspection schedules, and as part of the design process for new construction in pipeline rights of way that already contain multiple lines. A case study is presented to show how the SRA approach has recently been used on PETROBRAS pipelines and the benefits obtained from it. (author)

  20. FEM Analysis and Measurement of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction on the Dissimilar Overlay Weld Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang Soo; Lee, Ho Jin; Woo, Wan Chuck; Seong, Baek Seok; Byeon, Jin Gwi; Park, Kwang Soo; Jung, In Chul

    2010-01-01

    Much research has been done to estimate the residual stress on a dissimilar metal weld. There are many methods to estimate the weld residual stress and FEM (Finite Element Method) is generally used due to the advantage of the parametric study. And the X-ray method and a Hole Drilling technique for an experimental method are also usually used. The aim of this paper is to develop the appropriate FEM model to estimate the residual stresses of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe. For this, firstly, the specimen of the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was manufactured. The SA 508 Gr3 nozzle, the SA 182 safe end and SA376 pipe were welded by the Alloy 182. And the overlay weld by the Alloy 52M was performed. The residual stress of this specimen was measured by using the Neutron Diffraction device in the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application ReactOr) research reactor, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Secondly, FEM Model on the dissimilar overlay weld pipe was made and analyzed by the ABAQUS Code (ABAQUS, 2004). Thermal analysis and stress analysis were performed, and the residual stress was calculated. Thirdly, the results of the FEM analysis were compared with those of the experimental methods

  1. Residual stress analysis for engineering applications by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnaeupel-Herold, T.; Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Residual stresses originate from spatial differences in plastic deformation, temperature, or phase distribution, introduced by manufacturing processes or during service. Engineering parts and materials experience mechanical, thermal, and chemical loads during their service, and most of these loads introduce stresses that are superimposed on the already existing residual stresses. Residual stresses can therefore limit or improve life and strength of engineering parts; knowledge and understanding of these stresses is therefore critical for optimizing strength and durability. The economic and scientific importance of neutron diffraction residual stress analysis has led to an increasing number of suitable instruments worldwide. All of the major sources due in the next several years will have instruments for the sole purpose of performing residual stress and texture measurements. Recently, a dedicated, state-of-the-art diffractometer has been installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology reactor. It has been used for a variety of measurements on basic and engineering stress problems. Among the most prominent examples that have been investigated in collaboration with industrial and academic partners are residual stresses in rails, weldments, and plasma-sprayed coatings

  2. Microstructure and temperature dependence of intergranular strains on diffractometric macroscopic residual stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.N., E-mail: Julia.Wagner@kit.edu [KNMF, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hofmann, M. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TU München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Wimpory, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, D-14109 Berlin Wannsee (Germany); Krempaszky, C. [Christian-Doppler-Labor für Werkstoffmechanik von Hochleistungslegierungen, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85747 Garching (Germany); Stockinger, M. [Böhler Schmiedetechnik GmbH and Co KG, Mariazeller Straße 25, 8605 Kapfenberg (Austria)

    2014-11-17

    Knowledge of the macroscopic residual stresses in components of complex high performance alloys is crucial when it comes to considering the safety and manufacturing aspects of components. Diffraction experiments are one of the key methods for studying residual stresses. However a component of the residual strain determined by diffraction experiments, known as microstrain or intergranular residual strain, occurs over the length scale of the grains and thus plays only a minor role for the life time of such components. For the reliable determination of macroscopic strains (with the minimum influence of these intergranular residual strains), the ISO standard recommends the use of particular Bragg reflections. Here we compare the build-up of intergranular strain of two different precipitation hardened IN 718 (INCONEL 718) samples, with identical chemical composition. Since intergranular strains are also affected by temperature, results from room temperature measurement are compared to results at T=550 °C. It turned out that microstructural parameters, such as grain size or type of precipitates, have a larger effect on the intergranular strain evolution than the influence of temperature at the measurement temperature of T=550 °C. The results also show that the choice of Bragg reflections for the diffractometric residual stress analysis is dependent not only on its chemical composition, but also on the microstructure of the sample. In addition diffraction elastic constants (DECs) for all measured Bragg reflections are given.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis for Residual Stress on DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) Nozzle Welded Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Byeong Wook; Chung, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Oak Sug [DOOSAN Heavy Industries and Construction Co. LTD, Reactor Design Team, 555 Guygok-dong Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Generally, any welding process produces high compressive or tensile residual stresses in the heat affected zone depending on the method, shape and procedures of the weldment. In particular, the tensile residual stresses have a considerable effect on the material strength, fatigue strength and corrosion cracking. For this reason, it is important that some knowledge of the internal stress state be deduced either from measurements or from modeling predictions. In this study, the residual stresses after a multi-pass welding process for DVI nozzle welding joint were evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The welding joint considered three weld joint angles of 40 deg., 6 deg. and 2 deg. Computations were made using a 2-D finite element model based on the simulation of cooling from the heat treatment temperature to room temperature with two cooling conditions at the inside surface. In these results, it is shown that the residual stress increased at the inner surface, when water cooling was applied to the inner surface, and axial compressive residual stress increased at the inner surface when the joint angle was decreased. (authors)

  4. Sensitivity Analysis for Residual Stress on DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) Nozzle Welded Joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Byeong Wook; Chung, Sung Ho; Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Oak Sug

    2008-01-01

    Generally, any welding process produces high compressive or tensile residual stresses in the heat affected zone depending on the method, shape and procedures of the weldment. In particular, the tensile residual stresses have a considerable effect on the material strength, fatigue strength and corrosion cracking. For this reason, it is important that some knowledge of the internal stress state be deduced either from measurements or from modeling predictions. In this study, the residual stresses after a multi-pass welding process for DVI nozzle welding joint were evaluated by a numerical simulation method. The welding joint considered three weld joint angles of 40 deg., 6 deg. and 2 deg. Computations were made using a 2-D finite element model based on the simulation of cooling from the heat treatment temperature to room temperature with two cooling conditions at the inside surface. In these results, it is shown that the residual stress increased at the inner surface, when water cooling was applied to the inner surface, and axial compressive residual stress increased at the inner surface when the joint angle was decreased. (authors)

  5. Simplified RP-HPLC method for multi-residue analysis of abamectin, emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianchuan; Gong, Shu; Wang, Xiaorong; Wu, Yinxing; Zhao, Li

    2011-01-01

    A rapid, reliable and sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (RP-FLD-HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of the abamectin (ABA), emamectin (EMA) benzoate and ivermectin (IVM) residues in rice. After extraction with acetonitrile/water (2 : 1) with sonication, the avermectin (AVMs) residues were directly derivatised by N-methylimidazole (N-NMIM) and trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and then analysed on RP-FLD-HPLC. A good linear relationship (r(2 )> 0.99) was obtained for three AVMs ranging from 0.01 to 5 microg ml(-1), i.e. 0.01-5.0 microg g(-1) in rice matrix. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.001 and 0.002 microg g(-1) and between 0.004 and 0.006 microg g(-1), respectively. Recoveries were from 81.9% to 105.4% and precision less than 12.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to routine analysis of the AVMs residues in rice.

  6. Research in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized and abstracts of published reports are presented. The major categories of the ICASE research program are: (1) numerical methods, with particular emphasis on the development and analysis of basic numerical algorithms; (2) control and parameter identification; (3) computational problems in engineering and the physical sciences, particularly fluid dynamics, acoustics, and structural analysis; and (4) computer systems and software, especially vector and parallel computers.

  7. Recent Advances and Uses of Monolithic Columns for the Analysis of Residues and Contaminants in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz-Bao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are gaining interest as excellent substitutes to conventional particle-packed columns. These columns show higher permeability and lower flow resistance than conventional liquid chromatography columns, providing high-throughput performance, resolution and separation in short run times. Monoliths possess also great potential for the clean-up and preparation of complex mixtures. In situ polymerization inside appropriate supports allows the development of several microextraction formats, such as in-tube solid-phase and pipette tip-based extractions. These techniques using porous monoliths offer several advantages, including miniaturization and on-line coupling with analytical instruments. Additionally, monoliths are ideal support media for imprinting template-specific sites, resulting in the so-called molecularly-imprinted monoliths, with ultra-high selectivity. In this review, time-saving LC columns and preparative applications applied to the analysis of residues and contaminants in food in 2010–2014 are described, focusing on recent improvements in design and with emphasis in automated on-line systems and innovative materials and formats.

  8. Experimental analysis of residual stresses in pre-straightened SAE 1045 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Carla Adriana Theis Soares; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva, E-mail: carla.adriana@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Formacao de Metais; Epp, Jérémy; Zoch, Hans-Werner [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik IWT, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of the roller pre-straightening of wire-rods on residual stress distributions in SAE 1045 steel bars. The combined drawing process is used in industrial production of bars in order to obtain a good surface quality and improved mechanical properties complying with specifications of the final products. In this process, prior to the drawing step, a roller straightening of the steel wire-rod is essential, because it provides the minimum straightness necessary for drawing. Metallographic analysis and hardness test were done for selected samples after different processing steps. Also, residual stress analysis of pre-straightened wire-rods by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction were carried out. The hardness tests show higher values near the surface and lower in the center of the wire-rod. Besides, the residual stresses results show a big inhomogeneity from one peripheral position to another and also in the evaluated cross section. (author)

  9. Analysis of residual swirl in tangentially-fired natural gas-boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasril Hasini; Muhammad Azlan Muad; Mohd Zamri Yusoff; Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation on residual swirl flow in a 120 MW natural gas, full-scale, tangential-fired boiler. Emphasis is given towards the understanding of the behavior of the combustion gas flow pattern and temperature distribution as a result of the tangential firing system of the boiler. The analysis was carried out based on three-dimensional computational modeling on full scale boiler with validation from key design parameter as well as practical observation. Actual operating parameters of the actual boiler are taken as the boundary conditions for this modeling. The prediction of total heat flux was found to be in agreement with the key design parameter while the residual swirl predicted at the upper furnace agrees qualitatively with the practical observation. Based on this comparison, detail analysis was carried out for comprehensive understanding on the generation and destruction of the residual swirl behavior in boiler especially those with high capacity. (author)

  10. Experimental analysis of residual stresses in pre-straightened SAE 1045 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Carla Adriana Theis Soares; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of the roller pre-straightening of wire-rods on residual stress distributions in SAE 1045 steel bars. The combined drawing process is used in industrial production of bars in order to obtain a good surface quality and improved mechanical properties complying with specifications of the final products. In this process, prior to the drawing step, a roller straightening of the steel wire-rod is essential, because it provides the minimum straightness necessary for drawing. Metallographic analysis and hardness test were done for selected samples after different processing steps. Also, residual stress analysis of pre-straightened wire-rods by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction were carried out. The hardness tests show higher values near the surface and lower in the center of the wire-rod. Besides, the residual stresses results show a big inhomogeneity from one peripheral position to another and also in the evaluated cross section. (author)

  11. Research Progress on Pesticide Residue Analysis Techniques in Agro-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Ze-ying

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are constant occurrences of acute pesticide poisoning among consumers and pesticide residue violations in agro-products import/export trading. Pesticide residue analysis is the important way to protect the food safety and the interest of import/export enterprises. There has been a rapid development in pesticide residue analysis techniques in recent years. In this review, the research progress in the past five years were discussed in the respects of samples preparation and instrument determination. The application, modification and development of the QuEChERS method in samples preparation and the application of tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry were reviewed. And the implications for the future of the field were discussed.

  12. Mapping residual stresses in PbWO4 crystals using photo-elastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebeau, M.; Gobbi, L.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Pietroni, P.; Rinaldi, D.

    2005-01-01

    Large scintillating crystals are affected by internal stresses induced by the crystal growth temperature gradient remanence. Cutting boules (ingots) into finished crystal shapes allows for a partial tension relaxation but residual stresses remain the main cause of breaking. Quality control of residual stresses is essential in the application of Scintillating Crystals to high-energy physics calorimeters (e.g. CMS ECAL at CERN LHC). In this context the industrial process optimisation towards stress reduction is mandatory. We propose a fast technique for testing samples during the production process in order to evaluate the residual stress distribution after the first phases of mechanical processing. We mapped the stress distribution in PbWO 4 slabs cut from the same production boule. The analysis technique is based on the stress intensity determination using the photo-elastic properties of the samples. The stress distribution is mapped in each sample. The analysis shows that there are regions of high residual tension close to the seed position and at the boule periphery. These results should allow for adapting the industrial process to producing crystals with lower residual stresses

  13. Applied Fourier analysis from signal processing to medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The first of its kind, this focused textbook serves as a self-contained resource for teaching from scratch the fundamental mathematics of Fourier analysis and illustrating some of its most current, interesting applications, including medical imaging and radar processing. Developed by the author from extensive classroom teaching experience, it provides a breadth of theory that allows students to appreciate the utility of the subject, but at as accessible a depth as possible. With myriad applications included, this book can be adapted to a one or two semester course in Fourier Analysis or serve as the basis for independent study. Applied Fourier Analysis assumes no prior knowledge of analysis from its readers, and begins by making the transition from linear algebra to functional analysis. It goes on to cover basic Fourier series and Fourier transforms before delving into applications in sampling and interpolation theory, digital communications, radar processing, medical i maging, and heat and wave equations. Fo...

  14. Least-Squares Linear Regression and Schrodinger's Cat: Perspectives on the Analysis of Regression Residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Jeffrey B.

    The analysis of regression residuals and detection of outliers are discussed, with emphasis on determining how deviant an individual data point must be to be considered an outlier and the impact that multiple suspected outlier data points have on the process of outlier determination and treatment. Only bivariate (one dependent and one independent)…

  15. Thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yuzhu Chen; Feng Li

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition characteristics of microwave liquefied rape straw residues with respect to liquefaction condition and pyrolysis conversion were investigated using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer at the heating rates of 5, 20, 50 °C min-1. The hemicellulose decomposition peak was absent at the derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG...

  16. Applying DEA sensitivity analysis to efficiency measurement of Vietnamese universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh Huyen Nguyen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to measure the technical efficiency of 30 doctorate-granting universities, the universities or the higher education institutes with PhD training programs, in Vietnam, applying the sensitivity analysis of data envelopment analysis (DEA. The study uses eight sets of input-output specifications using the replacement as well as aggregation/disaggregation of variables. The measurement results allow us to examine the sensitivity of the efficiency of these universities with the sets of variables. The findings also show the impact of variables on their efficiency and its “sustainability”.

  17. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Raimondi

    2010-01-01

    -metolachlor foram eficientes para todas as espécies até 30 DAA, em ambas as doses, demonstrando atividade residual consistente para o solo estudado.Herbicides applied at pre-emergence normally present residual activity in the soil, controlling the first weed germinations, and preventing initial weed competition. The aim of this study was to determine the period of residual activity provided by sufficient herbicide rates for 95% (C95 control of the species Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus and A. viridis, and to assess the recommended rates of these herbicides. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions in soils of sandy clay loam texture (20% clay and 1.9 of organic matter, with rates of alachlor, diuron, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, prometryne, oxyfluorfen, S-metolachlor, trifluralin 450 and trifluralin 600 being applied at 30, 20, 10 and 0 days before weed sowing. Weed control was evaluated after herbicide permanence in soil for 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after application (DAA. The residual activity of alachlor and prometryne at a rate C95 was not sufficient for the efficient control (>80% of the species for up to 30 DAA. For alachlor, the use of the recommended rate did not provide considerable increase in residual activity, except for A. viridis. The recommended rate of prometryn promoted efficient control of the species for up to 30 DAA, except for A. hybridus. The recommended rate of oxyfluorfen provided an efficient control of A. hybridus and A. spinosus up to 30 DAA. These species had not been effectively controlled by the rate C95. Trifluralin 450 promoted efficient residual control for up to 30 DAA only compared with A. hybridus. Trifluralin 600 was effective in controlling A. hybridus and A. viridis up to 30 DAA and 29 and 28 DAA for A. lividus and A. spinosus, respectively. Clomazone did not promote efficient control of the species for 30 DAA, except for A. viridis. Diuron, pendimethalin and S-metolachlor were effective in controlling the species for up

  18. ELASTIC-PLASTIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF AN ALUMINUM DISC UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numan Behlül BEKTAŞ

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with elastic-plastic stress analysis of a thin aluminum disc under internal pressures. An analytical solution is performed for satisfying elastic-plastic stress-strain relations and boundary conditions for small plastic deformations. The Von-Mises Criterion is used as a yield criterion, and elastic perfectly plastic material is assumed. Elastic-plastic and residual stress distributions are obtained from inner radius to outer radius, and they are presented in tables and figures. All radial stress components, ?r, are compressive, and they are highest at the inner radius. All tangential stress components, ??, are tensile, and they are highest where the plastic deformation begins. Magnitude of the tangential residual stresses is higher than those the radial residual stresses.

  19. Analysis of residual toluene in food packaging via headspace extraction method using gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ying Chin; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric materials are used in many food contact applications as packaging material. The presence of residual toluene in this food packaging material can migrate into food and thus affect the quality of food. In this study, a manual headspace analysis was successfully designed and developed. The determination of residual toluene was carried out with standard addition method and multiple headspace extraction, MHE) method using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-FID). Identification of toluene was performed by comparison of its retention time with standard toluene and GC-MS. It was found that the suitable heating temperature was 180 degree Celsius with an optimum heating time of 10 minutes. The study also found that the concentration of residual toluene in multicolored sample was higher compared to mono colored sample whereas residual toluene in sample analyzed using standard addition method was higher compared to MHE method. However, comparison with the results obtained from De Paris laboratory, France found that MHE method gave higher accuracy for sample with low analyte concentration. On the other hand, lower accuracy was obtained for sample with high concentration of residual toluene due to systematic errors. Comparison between determination methods showed that MHE method is more precise compared to standard addition method. (author)

  20. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  1. Development of a micrometre-scale radiographic measuring method for residual stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.

    1999-01-01

    The radiographic method described uses micrometre X-ray diffraction for high-resolution residual stress analysis in single crystals. The focus is on application of two x-ray optics (glass capillaries) for shaping a sufficiently fine and intensive primary beam. Due to application of a proper one-grain measuring and analysis method, the resolution results are applicable to the characteristic grain sizes of many materials. (orig.) [de

  2. Structural and chemical analysis of process residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) to ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Anders Tengstedt; Jørgensen, Henning; Laursen, Kristian Holst

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulose to fermentable carbohydrates for ethanol production is now being implemented in large-scale industrial production. Applying hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for the conversion process, a residue containing substantial amounts of lignin...

  3. Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  4. Apply Functional Modelling to Consequence Analysis in Supervision Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Gola, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    This paper will first present the purpose and goals of applying functional modelling approach to consequence analysis by adopting Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM). MFM Models describe a complex system in multiple abstraction levels in both means-end dimension and whole-part dimension. It contains...... consequence analysis to practical or online applications in supervision systems. It will also suggest a multiagent solution as the integration architecture for developing tools to facilitate the utilization results of functional consequence analysis. Finally a prototype of the multiagent reasoning system...... causal relations between functions and goals. A rule base system can be developed to trace the causal relations and perform consequence propagations. This paper will illustrate how to use MFM for consequence reasoning by using rule base technology and describe the challenges for integrating functional...

  5. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  6. [Correlation analysis between residual displacement and hip function after reconstruction of acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kunlong; Fang, Yue; Luan, Fujun; Tu, Chongqi; Yang, Tianfu

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationships between residual displacement of weight-bearing and non weight-bearing zones (gap displacement and step displacement) and hip function by analyzing the CT images after reconstruction of acetabular fractures. The CT measures and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed from 48 patients with displaced acetabular fracture between June 2004 and June 2009. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and were followed up 24 to 72 months (mean, 36 months); all fractures healed after operation. The residual displacement involved the weight-bearing zone in 30 cases (weight-bearing group), and involved the non weight-bearing zone in 18 cases (non weight-bearing group). The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Merle d'Aubigné-Postel criteria, and the reduction of articular surface by CT images, including the maximums of two indexes (gap displacement and step displacement). All the data were analyzed in accordance with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. There was strong negative correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in weight-bearing group (r(s) = -0.722, P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in non weight-bearing group (r(s) = 0.481, P = 0.059). The results of clinical follow-up were similar to the correlation analysis results. In weight-bearing group, the hip function had strong negative correlation with step displacement (r(s) = 0.825, P = 0.002), but it had no correlation with gap displacement (r(s) = 0.577, P = 0.134). In patients with acetabular fracture, the hip function has correlation not only with the extent of the residual displacement but also with the location of the residual displacement, so the residual displacement of weight-bearing zone is a key factor to affect the hip function. In patients with residual displacement in weight-bearing zone, the bigger the step displacement is, the

  7. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. One of the most common routes of pesticide exposure in consumers is via food consumption. Most foods are consumed after passing through various culinary and processing treatments. A few literature reviews have indicated the general trend of reduction or concentration of pesticide residues by certain methods of food processing for a particular active ingredient. However, no review has focused on combining the obtained results from different studies on different active ingredients with differences in experimental designs, analysts and analysis equipment. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of response ratios as a possible method of combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residue levels. Reduction of residue levels was indicated by blanching, boiling, canning, frying, juicing, peeling and washing of fruits and vegetables with an average response ratio ranging from 0.10 to 0.82. Baking, boiling, canning and juicing indicated both reduction and increases for the 95% and 99.5% confidence intervals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of macro and micro residual stresses in functionally graded materials by diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dantz, D; Reimers, W

    1999-01-01

    The residual stress state in microwave sintered metal-ceramic functionally graded materials (FGM) consisting of 8Y-ZrO/sub 2//Ni and 8Y-ZrO/sub 2//NiCr8020, respectively, was analysed by non- destructive diffraction methods. In $9 order to get knowledge of the complete residual stress state in the near surface region as well as in the interior of the material, complementary methods were applied. Whereas the surface was characterised by X-ray techniques using $9 conventional sources, the stresses within the bulk of the material were investigated by means of high energy synchrotron radiation. The stress state was found to obey the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion $9 (micro-stresses) on the one hand and the inhomogeneous cooling conditions (macrostresses) on the other hand. (7 refs).

  9. A simple, fast and cheap non-SPE screening method for antibacterial residue analysis in milk and liver using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Magda Targa; Melo, Jéssica; Barreto, Fabiano; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Jank, Louise; Bittencourt, Michele Soares; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Schapoval, Elfrides Eva Scherman

    2014-11-01

    In routine laboratory work, screening methods for multiclass analysis can process a large number of samples in a short time. The main challenge is to develop a methodology to detect as many different classes of residues as possible, combined with speed and low cost. An efficient technique for the analysis of multiclass antibacterial residues (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and trimethoprim) was developed based on simple, environment-friendly extraction for bovine milk, cattle and poultry liver. Acidified ethanol was used as an extracting solvent for milk samples. Liver samples were treated using EDTA-washed sand for cell disruption, methanol:water and acidified acetonitrile as extracting solvent. A total of 24 antibacterial residues were detected and confirmed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), at levels between 10, 25 and 50% of the maximum residue limit (MRL). For liver samples a metabolite (sulfaquinoxaline-OH) was also monitored. A validation procedure was conducted for screening purposes in accordance with European Union requirements (2002/657/EC). The detection capability (CCβ) false compliant rate was less than 5% at the lowest level for each residue. Specificity and ruggedness were also discussed. Incurred and routine samples were analyzed and the method was successfully applied. The results proved that this method can be an important tool in routine analysis, since it is very fast and reliable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Residual effect of applying composted sewage sludge to the majority nutrients in an alive grove soil; Efecto residual de la aplicacion de un lodo de depuradora compostado sobre los nutrientes mayoritarios de un suelo de olivar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez Fernandez, R.; Aguilar Torres, M. A.; Gonzalez Fernandez, P.

    2002-07-01

    The agricultural reuse of sewage sludge is an excellent management option because in addition to the elimination of the residue, from the environment an appreciable amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and some micronutrients are added to the soil. During two successive years 20 Mgha-1of composted sewage sludge was applied to a clay soil of the Campina de Cordoba cropped with olive trees. The concentrations of some of the main nutrients like phosphorus and potassium increased after the amendment. The phosphorus content in the surface soil horizon increased from 2.3 to 9.3 ppm whereas the potassium content increased from 239 to 320 ppm in the same horizon for the same two years period. These results are encouraging for the organic amendment use. (Author)

  11. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Kim, Young Gi; Jung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun; Lim, Jong Myoung

    2003-05-01

    The aims of this project are to establish the quality control system of Neutron Activation Analysis(NAA) due to increase of industrial needs for standard analytical method and to prepare and identify the standard operation procedure of NAA through practical testing for different analytical items. R and D implementations of analytical quality system using neutron irradiation facility and gamma-ray measurement system and automation of NAA facility in HANARO research reactor are as following ; 1) Establishment of NAA quality control system for the maintenance of best measurement capability and the promotion of utilization of HANARO research reactor 2) Improvement of analytical sensitivity for industrial applied technologies and establishment of certified standard procedures 3) Standardization and development of Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) technology

  12. Reciprocally coupled residues crucial for protein kinase Pak2 activity calculated by statistical coupling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Hsu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of Pak2 activity involves at least two mechanisms: (i phosphorylation of the conserved Thr(402 in the activation loop and (ii interaction of the autoinhibitory domain (AID with the catalytic domain. We collected 482 human protein kinase sequences from the kinome database and globally mapped the evolutionary interactions of the residues in the catalytic domain with Thr(402 by sequence-based statistical coupling analysis (SCA. Perturbation of Thr(402 (34.6% suggests a communication pathway between Thr(402 in the activation loop, and Phe(387 (DeltaDeltaE(387F,402T = 2.80 in the magnesium positioning loop, Trp(427 (DeltaDeltaE(427W,402T = 3.12 in the F-helix, and Val(404 (DeltaDeltaE(404V,402T = 4.43 and Gly(405 (DeltaDeltaE(405G,402T = 2.95 in the peptide positioning loop. When compared to the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA and Src, the perturbation pattern of threonine phosphorylation in the activation loop of Pak2 is similar to that of PKA, and different from the tyrosine phosphorylation pattern of Src. Reciprocal coupling analysis by SCA showed the residues perturbed by Thr(402 and the reciprocal coupling pairs formed a network centered at Trp(427 in the F-helix. Nine pairs of reciprocal coupling residues crucial for enzymatic activity and structural stabilization were identified. Pak2, PKA and Src share four pairs. Reciprocal coupling residues exposed to the solvent line up as an activation groove. This is the inhibitor (PKI binding region in PKA and the activation groove for Pak2. This indicates these evolutionary conserved residues are crucial for the catalytic activity of PKA and Pak2.

  13. Analysis of martensitic transformation and residual tension in an 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Juciane Maria

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between plastic deformation and the strain induced phase transformation, that provides a practical route to the development of new engineering materials with excellent mechanical properties, characterize the TRIP effect 'Transformation Induced Plasticity'. Among the stainless steels, the metastable 304 L austenitic steel is susceptible to transformation of austenite-martensite phase from tensile tests at room temperature by increments of plastic deformation. It is of great technological and scientific interest the knowledge of the evolution of phase transformation and residual stress from different levels and rates of plastic deformation imposed to the material. It is also important to evaluate the interference of metallographic preparation in quantitative analyzes of this steel. The main techniques used in this study consisted of X-rays diffraction and Ferritoscopy for the quantitation phase, and XRD to residual stress analysis also. As observed, the phase transformation quantification has not suffered significant influence of the metallographic preparation and evolved from increments of plastic deformation due to different stop charges and strain rates, leading to a further strengthening of the austenite matrix. The evaluation of residual stress resulting from the martensitic transformation was susceptible to the metallographic preparation and increased its value on comparison to sample without metallographic preparation. It was also observed that the residual stress decreased with the increase of the fraction of transformed martensite. (author)

  14. Pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of castor (Ricinus communis) residue using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravneet; Gera, Poonam; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2018-02-01

    Castor plant is a fast-growing, perennial shrub from Euphorbiaceae family. More than 50% of the residue is generated from its stems and leaves. The main aim of this work is to study the pyrolytic characteristics, kinetics and thermodynamic properties of castor residue. The TGA experiments were carried out from room temperature to 900 °C under an inert atmosphere at different heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 °C/min. The kinetic analysis was carried using different models namely Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS). The average E ɑ calculated by FWO and KAS methods were 167.10 and 165.86 kJ/mole respectively. Gibbs free energy varied from 150.62-154.33 to 150.59-154.65 kJ/mol for FWO and KAS respectively. The HHV of castor residue was 14.43 MJ/kg, considered as potential feedstock for bio-energy production. Kinetic and thermodynamic results will be useful input for the design of pyrolytic process using castor residue as feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated SEM Modal Analysis Applied to the Diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Papike, James J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of volume proportions of minerals, or modal analysis, is routinely accomplished by point counting on an optical microscope, but the process, particularly on brecciated samples such as the diogenite meteorites, is tedious and prone to error by misidentification of very small fragments, which may make up a significant volume of the sample. Precise volume percentage data can be gathered on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing digital imaging and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). This form of automated phase analysis reduces error, and at the same time provides more information than could be gathered using simple point counting alone, such as particle morphology statistics and chemical analyses. We have previously studied major, minor, and trace-element chemistry of orthopyroxene from a suite of diogenites. This abstract describes the method applied to determine the modes on this same suite of meteorites and the results of that research. The modal abundances thus determined add additional information on the petrogenesis of the diogenites. In addition, low-abundance phases such as spinels were located for further analysis by this method.

  16. Liquid paraffin as new dilution medium for the analysis of high boiling point residual solvents with static headspace-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Autry, Ward; Zheng, Chao; Bugalama, John; Wolfs, Kris; Hoogmartens, Jos; Adams, Erwin; Wang, Bochu; Van Schepdael, Ann

    2011-07-15

    Residual solvents are volatile organic compounds which can be present in pharmaceutical substances. A generic static headspace-gas chromatography analysis method for the identification and control of residual solvents is described in the European Pharmacopoeia. Although this method is proved to be suitable for the majority of samples and residual solvents, the method may lack sensitivity for high boiling point residual solvents such as N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide and benzyl alcohol. In this study, liquid paraffin was investigated as new dilution medium for the analysis of these residual solvents. The headspace-gas chromatography method was developed and optimized taking the official Pharmacopoeia method as a starting point. The optimized method was validated according to ICH criteria. It was found that the detection limits were below 1μg/vial for each compound, indicating a drastically increased sensitivity compared to the Pharmacopoeia method, which failed to detect the compounds at their respective limit concentrations. Linearity was evaluated based on the R(2) values, which were above 0.997 for all compounds, and inspection of residual plots. Instrument and method precision were examined by calculating the relative standard deviations (RSD) of repeated analyses within the linearity and accuracy experiments, respectively. It was found that all RSD values were below 10%. Accuracy was checked by a recovery experiment at three different levels. Mean recovery values were all in the range 95-105%. Finally, the optimized method was applied to residual DMSO analysis in four different Kollicoat(®) sample batches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual stress distribution analysis of heat treated APS TBC using image based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Zhang, Xun; Chen, Ying; Carr, James; Jacques, Simon; Behnsen, Julia; di Michiel, Marco; Xiao, Ping; Cernik, Robert

    2017-08-01

    We carried out a residual stress distribution analysis in a APS TBC throughout the depth of the coatings. The samples were heat treated at 1150 °C for 190 h and the data analysis used image based modelling based on the real 3D images measured by Computed Tomography (CT). The stress distribution in several 2D slices from the 3D model is included in this paper as well as the stress distribution along several paths shown on the slices. Our analysis can explain the occurrence of the "jump" features near the interface between the top coat and the bond coat. These features in the residual stress distribution trend were measured (as a function of depth) by high-energy synchrotron XRD (as shown in our related research article entitled 'Understanding the Residual Stress Distribution through the Thickness of Atmosphere Plasma Sprayed (APS) Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by high energy Synchrotron XRD; Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Image Based Modelling') (Li et al., 2017) [1].

  18. Analysis Method for Pesticides Residues by GC/MS in Lebanese Apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, F.; Al Iskandarani, M.

    2008-01-01

    The apple's crop can be affected by many pests during the growing season, which requires careful monitoring. Both apple fruit and apple tree need to be treated by pesticides in order to protect them from pests. Such treatment often leads to the accumulation of stable pesticides inside the fruit. The local market provides a large variety of pesticides allowing farmers to use more than one active substance in order to protect their crop, often without proper advice. Monitoring pesticides on apples and other agricultural crops is the best way to protect consumers health from the hazards of pesticides residues. The development of new, rapid and effective method to analyze the multi pesticides residues at trace levels in apple samples is essential. This work describes the extraction procedure and the analytical method developed to detect the pesticide residues using the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric approach (GC-MS). The developed method was successfully applied to analyze apple samples collected from different Lebanese markets for a one year period in order to monitor the presence of pesticides and their stability in apple fruits during storage. (author)

  19. Residue analysis of orthosulfamuron herbicide in fatty rice using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, orthosulfamuron residues were extracted from fatty (unpolished rice and rice straw using a modified QuEChERS method and analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The matrix-matched calibration was linear over the concentration ranges of 0.01–2.0 mg/kg with determination coefficient (R2 ⩾ 0.997. The recovery rates at two fortification levels (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg were satisfactory and ranged between 88.1% and 100.6%, with relative standard deviation (RSD <8%. The limit of quantitation, 0.03 mg/kg, was lower than the maximum residue limit, 0.05 mg/kg, set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in the Republic of Korea. The developed method was applied successfully to field samples harvested at 116 days and none of the samples were positive for the residue.

  20. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  1. Bioethanol production from forestry residues: A comparative techno-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. • Forestry residues with different bark contents were evaluated as raw materials. • The bark content negatively influenced the minimum ethanol selling price. • Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of raw material cost. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis was conducted to assess the feasibility of using forestry residues with different bark contents for bioethanol production. A proposed cellulosic ethanol biorefinery in Sweden was simulated with Aspen Plus. The plant was assumed to convert different forestry assortments (sawdust and shavings, fuel logs, early thinnings, tops and branches, hog fuel and pulpwood) to ethanol, pellets, biogas and electricity. The intention was not to obtain absolute ethanol production costs for future facilities, but to assess and compare the future potential of utilizing different forestry residues for bioethanol production. The same plant design and operating conditions were assumed in all cases, and the effect of including bark on the whole conversion process, especially how it influenced the ethanol production cost, was studied. While the energy efficiency (not including district heating) obtained for the whole process was between 67 and 69% regardless of the raw material used, the ethanol production cost differed considerably; the minimum ethanol selling price ranging from 0.77 to 1.52 USD/L. Under the basic assumptions, all the forestry residues apart from sawdust and shavings exhibited a negative net present value at current market prices. The profitability decreased with increasing bark content of the raw material. Sensitivity analyses showed that, at current market prices, the utilization of bark-containing forestry residues will not provide significant cost improvement compared with pulpwood unless the conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to monomeric sugars is improved.

  2. Applying Authentic Data Analysis in Learning Earth Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, H.; Suhandi, A.; Samsudin, A.; Wulan, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this research was to develop earth science learning material especially earth atmosphere supported by science research with authentic data analysis to enhance reasoning through. Various earth and space science phenomenon require reasoning. This research used experimental research with one group pre test-post test design. 23 pre-service physics teacher participated in this research. Essay test was conducted to get data about reason ability. Essay test was analyzed quantitatively. Observation sheet was used to capture phenomena during learning process. The results showed that student’s reasoning ability improved from unidentified and no reasoning to evidence based reasoning and inductive/deductive rule-based reasoning. Authentic data was considered using Grid Analysis Display System (GrADS). Visualization from GrADS facilitated students to correlate the concepts and bring out real condition of nature in classroom activity. It also helped student to reason the phenomena related to earth and space science concept. It can be concluded that applying authentic data analysis in learning process can help to enhance students reasoning. This study is expected to help lecture to bring out result of geoscience research in learning process and facilitate student understand concepts.

  3. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-05-01

    This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques.

  4. Applied research and development of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Bak, Sung Ryel; Park, Yong Chul; Kim, Young Ki; Chung, Hwan Sung; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-05-01

    This report is written for results of research and development as follows : improvement of neutron irradiation facilities, counting system and development of automation system and capsules for NAA in HANARO ; improvement of analytical procedures and establishment of analytical quality control and assurance system; applied research and development of environment, industry and human health and its standardization. For identification and standardization of analytical method, environmental biological samples and polymer are analyzed and uncertainity of measurement are estimated. Also data intercomparison and proficency test were performed. Using airborne particulate matter chosen as a environmental indicators, trace elemental concentrations of sample collected at urban and rural site are determined and then the calculation of statistics and the factor analysis are carried out for investigation of emission source. International cooperation research project was carried out for utilization of nuclear techniques

  5. Financial cost-benefit analysis of investment possibilities in district heating system on wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide feasibility analysis of a long-term sustainable development concept for district heating based on wood residues. In this paper, the experimental study has been conducted starting from the data collected by field researches in municipality of Trstenik (town in Serbia with district heating system currently based on heavy fuel oil and lignite. Using the method of Financial Cost-Benefit Analysis, this study evaluates financial efficiency of investment in district heating plant based on wood residues and energy savings in district heating system. Findings show that such investment could be profitable from the financial point of view: Net Present Value of investment is positive, Financial Rate of Return is high (30.69%, and the pay-back period is relatively favourable (7 years. Moreover, the presented SWOT indicates that there are realistic prospects of implementation of district heating based on wood residues. However, this does not mean everything will go smoothly and easily, keeping in mind a number of challenges that each new concept of district heating contains immanently. Nevertheless, the results of this research could provide useful inputs for the decision makers when selecting appropriate models for improving performance of municipal district heating systems.

  6. Residue conservation and dimer-interface analysis of olfactory receptor molecular models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Sowdhamini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory Receptors (ORs are members of the Class A rhodopsin like G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs which are the initial players in the signal transduction cascade, leading to the generation of nerve impulses transmitted to the brain and resulting in the detection of odorant molecules. Despite the accumulation of thousands of olfactory receptor sequences, no crystal structures of ORs are known tο date. However, the recent availability of crystallographic models of a few GPCRs allows us to generate homology models of ORs and analyze their amino acid patterns, as there is a huge diversity in OR sequences. In this study, we have generated three-dimensional models of 100 representative ORs from Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Sacharomyces cerevisiae which were selected on the basis of a composite classification scheme and phylogenetic analysis. The crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin was used as a template and it was found that the full-length models have more than 90% of their residues in allowed regions of the Ramachandran plot. The structures were further used for analysis of conserved residues in the transmembrane and extracellular loop regions in order to identify functionally important residues. Several ORs are known to be functional as dimers and hence dimer interfaces were predicted for OR models to analyse their oligomeric functional state.

  7. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of residual magnetic field for ferromagnets under early damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Kai; Shen, Kai; Wang, Zheng-Dao; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 3D finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. The contour maps of tangential and normal RMF gradients are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. The results show that the tangential peak–peak amplitude and normal peak–vale amplitude are remarkably different in 2D and 3D simulations, but the tangential peak–peak width and normal peak–vale width are similar. Moreover, some key points are capable of capturing the plastic-zone shape, especially when the lift-off is small enough. The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with Metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis is presented by calculating the residual magnetic field signals of ferromagnets under the plastic deformation. • The contour maps of gradients of the tangential and normal residual magnetic fields are given, and the 3D effect is discussed. • The present study suggests an effective defect identification method with metal magnetic memory technique

  8. Residual Heat Removal System qualitative probabilistic safety analysis before and after auto closure interlock removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulicic, V.; Simic, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis evaluates the consequences of the removal of the auto closure interlock (ACI) on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) suction/isolation valves at the nuclear power plant. The deletion of the RHRS ACI is in part based on a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) which justifies the removal based on a criterion of increased availability and reliability. Three different areas to be examined in PSA: the likelihood of an interfacing system LOCA; RHRS availability and reliability; and low temperature overpressurization control. The paper emphasizes particularly the RHRS unavailability and reliability evaluation utilizing the current control circuitry configuration and then with the proposed modification to the control circuitry. (author)

  9. Void analysis of target residues at SPS energy -evidence of correlation with fractal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Das, Rupa . E-mail : dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the target residues in 32 S -AgBr and 16 0 -AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV and 60AGeV respectively in terms of fractal moment by Takagi method and void probability scaling. The study reveals an interesting feature of the production process. In 16 O- AgBr interactions multifractal behaviour is present in both hemispheres and void probability does not show a scaling behaviour, but at high energy the situation changes. In 32 S -AgBr interactions for both hemisphere monofractal behaviour is indicated by that data and void probability also shows good scaling behaviour. This suggests that a possible correlation of void probability with fractal behaviour of target residues. (author)

  10. Distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues as revealed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Jester, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    A systematic investigation using a variety of handguns has revealed the existence of distinguisable distribution patterns of firearm discharge residues on surfaces below the flight path of a bullet. The residues are identificable even at distances of 12 meters from the gun using nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The results of these investigations show that the distribution pattern for a gun is reproducible using similar ammunition and that there exist two distinct regions to the patterns developed between the firearm and the target-one with respect to the position of the gun and the other in the vicinity of the target. The judicious applications of these findings could be of significant value in criminal investigations. (T.G.)

  11. Applying Conjoint Analysis to Study Attitudes of Thai Government Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natee Suriyanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of choice-based conjointanalysis to analyse the attitude of Thai government organisationstowards the restriction of the contractor’s right to claimcompensation for unfavourable effects from undesirable events.The analysis reveals that the organisations want to restrict only 6out of 14 types of the claiming rights that were studied. The rightthat they want to restrict most is the right to claim for additionaldirect costs due to force majeure. They are willing to pay between0.087% - 0.210% of the total project direct cost for restricting eachtype of contractor right. The total additional cost for restrictingall six types of rights that the organisations are willing to pay is0.882%. The last section of this article applies the knowledgegained from a choice based conjoint analysis experiment to theanalysis of the standard contract of the Thai government. Theanalysis reveals three types of rights where Thai governmentorganisations are willing to forego restrictions, but the presentstandard contract does not grant such rights.

  12. Analysis of martensitic transformation and residual tension in an 304L stainless steel; Analise da transformacao martensitica e tensao residual em um aco inoxidavel 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juciane Maria

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between plastic deformation and the strain induced phase transformation, that provides a practical route to the development of new engineering materials with excellent mechanical properties, characterize the TRIP effect 'Transformation Induced Plasticity'. Among the stainless steels, the metastable 304 L austenitic steel is susceptible to transformation of austenite-martensite phase from tensile tests at room temperature by increments of plastic deformation. It is of great technological and scientific interest the knowledge of the evolution of phase transformation and residual stress from different levels and rates of plastic deformation imposed to the material. It is also important to evaluate the interference of metallographic preparation in quantitative analyzes of this steel. The main techniques used in this study consisted of X-rays diffraction and Ferritoscopy for the quantitation phase, and XRD to residual stress analysis also. As observed, the phase transformation quantification has not suffered significant influence of the metallographic preparation and evolved from increments of plastic deformation due to different stop charges and strain rates, leading to a further strengthening of the austenite matrix. The evaluation of residual stress resulting from the martensitic transformation was susceptible to the metallographic preparation and increased its value on comparison to sample without metallographic preparation. It was also observed that the residual stress decreased with the increase of the fraction of transformed martensite. (author)

  13. The Evidence-Based Practice of Applied Behavior Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Timothy A; Detrich, Ronnie; Wilczynski, Susan M; Spencer, Trina D; Lewis, Teri; Wolfe, Katie

    2014-05-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a model of professional decision-making in which practitioners integrate the best available evidence with client values/context and clinical expertise in order to provide services for their clients. This framework provides behavior analysts with a structure for pervasive use of the best available evidence in the complex settings in which they work. This structure recognizes the need for clear and explicit understanding of the strength of evidence supporting intervention options, the important contextual factors including client values that contribute to decision making, and the key role of clinical expertise in the conceptualization, intervention, and evaluation of cases. Opening the discussion of EBP in this journal, Smith (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) raised several key issues related to EBP and applied behavior analysis (ABA). The purpose of this paper is to respond to Smith's arguments and extend the discussion of the relevant issues. Although we support many of Smith's (The Behavior Analyst, 36, 7-33, 2013) points, we contend that Smith's definition of EBP is significantly narrower than definitions that are used in professions with long histories of EBP and that this narrowness conflicts with the principles that drive applied behavior analytic practice. We offer a definition and framework for EBP that aligns with the foundations of ABA and is consistent with well-established definitions of EBP in medicine, psychology, and other professions. In addition to supporting the systematic use of research evidence in behavior analytic decision making, this definition can promote clear communication about treatment decisions across disciplines and with important outside institutions such as insurance companies and granting agencies.

  14. Analysis and measurement of residual stress distribution of vanadium/ceramics joints for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1998-01-01

    Vanadium alloys are considered as candidate structural materials for fusion reactor system. When vanadium alloys are used in fusion reactor system, joining with ceramics for insulating is one of material issues to be solved to make component of fusion reactor. In the application of ceramics/metal jointing and coating, residual stress caused by difference of thermal expansion rate between ceramics and metals is an important factor in obtaining good bonding strength and soundness of coating. In this work, residual stress distribution in direct diffusion bonded vanadium/alumina joint (jointing temperature: 1400 C) was measured by small area X-ray diffraction method. And the comparison of finite element method (FEM) analysis and actual stress distribution was carried out. Tensile stress concentration at the edge of the boundary of the joint in alumina was observed. The residual stress concentration may cause cracks in alumina, or failure of bonding. Actually, cracks in alumina caused by thermal stress after bonding at 1500 C was observed. The stress concentration of the joint must be reduced to obtain good bonded joint. Lower bonding temperature or to devise the shape of the outer surface of the joint will reduce the stress concentration. (orig.)

  15. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifty E. Acquah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage. Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability

  16. A cost-effective screening method for pesticide residue analysis in fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, A; Füzesi, I; Susán, M; Dobi, D; Lantos, J; Zakar, F; Korsós, I; Oláh, J; Beke, B B; Katavics, L

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of studies performed to investigate the potential of applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection in combination with selected extraction and cleanup methods, for providing an alternative cost-effective analytical procedure for screening and confirmation of pesticide residues in plant commodities. The extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and an on-line extraction method applying an acetone-dichloromethane mixture. The extracts were cleaned up with SX-3 gel, an adsorbent mixture of active carbon, magnesia, and diatomaceous earth, and on silica micro cartridges. The Rf values of 118 pesticides were tested in eleven elution systems with UV, and eight biotest methods and chemical detection reagents. Cabbage, green peas, orange, and tomatoes were selected as representative sample matrices for fruits and vegetables, while maize, rice, and wheat represented cereal grains. As an internal quality control measure, marker compounds were applied on each plate to verify the proper elution and detection conditions. The Rf values varied in the different elution systems. The best separation (widest Rf range) was achieved with silica gel (SG)--ethyl acetate (0.05-0.7), SG--benzene, (0.02-0.7) and reverse phase RP-18 F-254S layer with acetone: methanol: water/30:30:30 (v/v) (0.1-0.8). The relative standard deviation of Rf values (CV(Rf)) within laboratory reproducibility was generally less than 20%, except below 0.2 Rf, where the CVRf rapidly increased with decreasing Rf values. The fungi spore inhibition, chloroplast inhibition, and enzyme inhibition were found most suitable for detection of pesticides primarily for confirming their identity or screening for known substances. Their use for determination of pesticide residues in samples of unknown origin is not recommended.

  17. To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Ted; von Hippel, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.

  18. To apply or not to apply: a survey analysis of grant writing costs and benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted von Hippel

    Full Text Available We surveyed 113 astronomers and 82 psychologists active in applying for federally funded research on their grant-writing history between January, 2009 and November, 2012. We collected demographic data, effort levels, success rates, and perceived non-financial benefits from writing grant proposals. We find that the average proposal takes 116 PI hours and 55 CI hours to write; although time spent writing was not related to whether the grant was funded. Effort did translate into success, however, as academics who wrote more grants received more funding. Participants indicated modest non-monetary benefits from grant writing, with psychologists reporting a somewhat greater benefit overall than astronomers. These perceptions of non-financial benefits were unrelated to how many grants investigators applied for, the number of grants they received, or the amount of time they devoted to writing their proposals. We also explored the number of years an investigator can afford to apply unsuccessfully for research grants and our analyses suggest that funding rates below approximately 20%, commensurate with current NIH and NSF funding, are likely to drive at least half of the active researchers away from federally funded research. We conclude with recommendations and suggestions for individual investigators and for department heads.

  19. Method for the Collection, Gravimetric and Chemical Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith; Rutherford, Gugu; Aranda, Denisse

    2017-01-01

    Nonvolatile residue (NVR), sometimes referred to as molecular contamination is the term used for the total composition of the inorganic and high boiling point organic components in particulates and molecular films deposited on critical surfaces surrounding space structures, with the particulate and NVR contamination originating primarily from pre-launch operations. The "nonvolatile" suggestion from the terminology NVR implies that the collected residue will not experience much loss under ambient conditions. NVR has been shown to have a dramatic impact on the ability to perform optical measurements from platforms based in space. Such contaminants can be detected early by the controlled application of various detection techniques and contamination analyses. Contamination analyses are the techniques used to determine if materials, components, and subsystems can be expected to meet the performance requirements of a system. Of particular concern is the quantity of NVR contaminants that might be deposited on critical payload surfaces from these sources. Subsequent chemical analysis of the contaminant samples by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry identifies the components, gives semi-quantitative estimates of contaminant thickness, indicates possible sources of the NVR, and provides guidance for effective cleanup procedures. In this report, a method for the collection and determination of the mass of NVR was generated by the authors at NASA Langley Research Center. This report describes the method developed and implemented for collecting NVR contaminants, and procedures for gravimetric and chemical analysis of the residue obtained. The result of this NVR analysis collaboration will help pave the way for Langley's ability to certify flight hardware outgassing requirements in support of flight projects such as Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Materials International

  20. Applied genre analysis: a multi-perspective model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K Bhatia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Genre analysis can be viewed from two different perspectives: it may be seen as a reflection of the complex realities of the world of institutionalised communication, or it may be seen as a pedagogically effective and convenient tool for the design of language teaching programmes, often situated within simulated contexts of classroom activities. This paper makes an attempt to understand and resolve the tension between these two seemingly contentious perspectives to answer the question: "Is generic description a reflection of reality, or a convenient fiction invented by applied linguists?". The paper also discusses issues related to the nature and use of linguistic description in a genre-based educational enterprise, claiming that instead of using generic descriptions as models for linguistic reproduction of conventional forms to respond to recurring social contexts, as is often the case in many communication based curriculum contexts, they can be used as analytical resource to understand and manipulate complex inter-generic and multicultural realisations of professional discourse, which will enable learners to use generic knowledge to respond to novel social contexts and also to create new forms of discourse to achieve pragmatic success as well as other powerful human agendas.

  1. SUCCESS CONCEPT ANALYSIS APPLIED TO THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio C. Montenegro Duarte

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the concept of success in project management that is applicable to the IT universe, from the classical theory associated with the techniques of project management. Therefore, it applies the theoretical analysis associated to the context of information technology in enterprises as well as the classic literature of traditional project management, focusing on its application in business information technology. From the literature developed in the first part of the study, four propositions were prepared for study which formed the basis for the development of the field research with three large companies that develop projects of Information Technology. The methodology used in the study predicted the development of the multiple case study. Empirical evidence suggests that the concept of success found in the classical literature in project management adjusts to the environment management of IT projects. Showed that it is possible to create the model of standard IT projects in order to replicate it in future derivatives projects, which depends on the learning acquired at the end of a long and continuous process and sponsorship of senior management, which ultimately results in its merger into the company culture.

  2. Applying importance-performance analysis to patient safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yii-Ching; Wu, Hsin-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Weng, Shao-Jen; Hsieh, Liang-Po; Huang, Chih-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The Sexton et al.'s (2006) safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) has been widely used to assess staff's attitudes towards patient safety in healthcare organizations. However, to date there have been few studies that discuss the perceptions of patient safety both from hospital staff and upper management. The purpose of this paper is to improve and to develop better strategies regarding patient safety in healthcare organizations. The Chinese version of SAQ based on the Taiwan Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation is used to evaluate the perceptions of hospital staff. The current study then lies in applying importance-performance analysis technique to identify the major strengths and weaknesses of the safety culture. The results show that teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition and working conditions are major strengths and should be maintained in order to provide a better patient safety culture. On the contrary, perceptions of management and hospital handoffs and transitions are important weaknesses and should be improved immediately. Research limitations/implications - The research is restricted in generalizability. The assessment of hospital staff in patient safety culture is physicians and registered nurses. It would be interesting to further evaluate other staff's (e.g. technicians, pharmacists and others) opinions regarding patient safety culture in the hospital. Few studies have clearly evaluated the perceptions of healthcare organization management regarding patient safety culture. Healthcare managers enable to take more effective actions to improve the level of patient safety by investigating key characteristics (either strengths or weaknesses) that healthcare organizations should focus on.

  3. Applying multicriteria analysis for choosing the best marination for pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto VMOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research aimed to choose a best marination solution using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Materials and methods. Pork meat samples were collected in a commercial slaughterhouse, and they were randomly distributed in four treatments with three different salt contents blend. Color, pH, retention of the solution, exudate and cooking loss, shear force and sensory attributes were assessed and evaluated. Multicriteria analysis using AHP was applied to the results in order to choose the best overall marination solution. Criteria used for selection were the physical and sensory characteristics of meat, and based on these criteria were classified solutions marination. Results. Results showed that the combination of the salts was the best alternative (Na2CO3+NaCl+Na5P3O10, followed by the solutions of (Na2CO3 + NaCl, and (Na5P3O10 + NaCl. Conclusions. All tested solutions with the salts used alone or in combination led to better physical and sensory attributes than the meat not marinated.

  4. Theoretical conformational analysis of the bovine adrenal medulla 12 residue peptide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, N. A.; Tagiyev, Z. H.; Hasanov, E. M.; Akverdieva, G. A.

    2003-02-01

    The spatial structure and conformational properties of the bovine adrenal medulla 12 residue peptide Tyr1-Gly2-Gly3-Phe4-Met5-Arg6-Arg7-Val8-Gly9-Arg10-Pro11-Glu12 (BAM-12P) molecule were studied by theoretical conformational analysis. It is revealed that this molecule can exist in several stable states. The energy and geometrical parameters for the low-energy conformations are obtained. The conformationally rigid and labile segments of this molecule were revealed.

  5. XRF intermediate thickness layer technique for analysis of residue of hard to dissolve materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mzyk, Z.; Mzyk, J.; Buzek, L.; Baranowska, I.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents a quick method for lead and silver determination in materials, such as slags from silver metallurgy and slimes from copper electrorefining, which are very difficult to dissolve, even using a microwave technique. The idea was to dissolve the possibly greatest amount of the sample using acids. Insoluble deposit was filtered out. Silver content in the solution was analysed by potentiometric titration or AAS, lead content by XRS, while sediment deposit on filter - by XRF intermediate thickness technique. The results of silver and lead analysis obtained by this method were compared with those obtained by classical method, i.e. melting the residue with sodium peroxide. (author)

  6. Shutdown risk analysis for a BWR plant (residual heat removal systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo Garcia, C.; Merino Teillet, A.; Cerezo, L.

    1994-01-01

    This report analyses the different risk situations which may arise during refuelling outage at Cofrentes NPP. The most critical situations are determined in terms of the small amount of coolant available and the lowest number of heat removal and water make-up systems available. The available times before the boiling point of the coolant is reached and the subsequent moment when the fuel elements are left uncovered in the event of the failure of the normal heat removal functions are determined. The analysis identifies the alternative systems which can be used besides those required by the technical specification and their capacity for residual heat removal and coolant make-up functions. (Author)

  7. Determined analysis of safety, viability and residual service life on criteria of crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matvienko, Yu.G.

    1997-01-01

    Unified methods used in analysis of reliability, vulnerability, and residual lifetime of equipment with crack damage are considered, an increase in the desired lifetime is proven in the framework of vulnerability concept that allows crack developing with regard to the given level of reliability. The problem of reliability, vulnerability, and the lifetime is shown to be an interrelated problem. Optimal combination of the strength value, plasticity and resistance to crack developing results from the criteria of reliability and vulnerability based, in turn, on the principles of the mechanics of cracks. Structural features of technical systems can hinder the crack developing and prevent drastic damages of the equipment thus increasing the lifetime

  8. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the Residual Heat Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) transfer heat from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) to the reactor plant Component Cooling System (CCS) to reduce the temperature of the RCS at a controlled rate during the second part of normal plant cooldown and maintains the desired temperature until the plant is restarted. By the use of an analytic tool, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the RHRS, because of its redundant two train design, is able to accommodate any credible component single failure with the only effect being an extension in the required cooldown time, thus demonstrating the reliability of the RHRS to perform its intended function

  9. Bias due to two-stage residual-outcome regression analysis in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Serkalem; Cupples, L Adrienne

    2011-11-01

    Association studies of risk factors and complex diseases require careful assessment of potential confounding factors. Two-stage regression analysis, sometimes referred to as residual- or adjusted-outcome analysis, has been increasingly used in association studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits. In this analysis, first, a residual-outcome is calculated from a regression of the outcome variable on covariates and then the relationship between the adjusted-outcome and the SNP is evaluated by a simple linear regression of the adjusted-outcome on the SNP. In this article, we examine the performance of this two-stage analysis as compared with multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. Our findings show that when a SNP and a covariate are correlated, the two-stage approach results in biased genotypic effect and loss of power. Bias is always toward the null and increases with the squared-correlation between the SNP and the covariate (). For example, for , 0.1, and 0.5, two-stage analysis results in, respectively, 0, 10, and 50% attenuation in the SNP effect. As expected, MLR was always unbiased. Since individual SNPs often show little or no correlation with covariates, a two-stage analysis is expected to perform as well as MLR in many genetic studies; however, it produces considerably different results from MLR and may lead to incorrect conclusions when independent variables are highly correlated. While a useful alternative to MLR under , the two -stage approach has serious limitations. Its use as a simple substitute for MLR should be avoided. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, A A; Chaudhuri, P; Khirwadkar, S; Reddy, D Chenna; Saxena, Y C; Chauhan, N; Raole, P M

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles

  11. On residual gas analysis during high temperature baking of graphite tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A A; Chaudhuri, P; Khirwadkar, S; Reddy, D Chenna; Saxena, Y C [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382 428 (India); Chauhan, N; Raole, P M [Facilitation Center for Industrial Plasma Technologies, IPR, Gandhinagar (India)], E-mail: arun@ipr.res.in

    2008-05-01

    Steady-state Super-conducting Tokamak-1 (SST-1) is a medium size tokamak with major radius of 1.1 m and minor radius of 0.20 m. It is designed for plasma discharge duration of 1000 seconds to obtain fully steady-state plasma operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFC), consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be UHV compatible for steady state operation. All PFC are made up of graphite tiles mechanically attached to the copper alloy substrate. Graphite is one of the preferred first wall armour material in present day tokamaks. High thermal shock resistance and low atomic number of carbon are the most important properties of graphite for this application. High temperature vacuum baking of graphite tiles is the standard process to remove the impurities. Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA) has been used for qualitative and quantitative measurements of released gases from graphite tiles during baking. Surface Analysis of graphite tiles has also been done before and after baking. This paper describes the residual gas analysis during baking and surface analysis of graphite tiles.

  12. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of residual bacterial species of fouled membranes after NaOCl cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ronald R; Hori, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Kazuyuki; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    Biofouling is one of the major problems during wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this regard, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has been widely used to wash fouled membranes for maintenance and recovery purposes. Advanced chemical and biological characterization was conducted in this work to evaluate the performance of aqueous NaOCl solutions during washing of polyacrylonitrile membranes. Fouled membranes from MBR operations supplemented with artificial wastewater were washed with 0.1% and 0.5% aqueous NaOCl solutions for 5, 10 and 30 min. The changes in organics composition on the membrane surface were directly monitored by an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrometer. In addition, high-throughput Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was applied to detect any residual microorganisms. Results from ATR-FT-IR analysis indicated the complete disappearance of functional groups representing different fouling compounds after at least 30 min of treatment with 0.1% NaOCl. However, the biomolecular survey revealed the presence of residual bacteria even after 30 min of treatment with 0.5% NaOCl solution. Evaluation of microbial diversity of treated samples using Chao1, Shannon and Simpson reciprocal indices showed an increase in evenness while no significant decline in richness was observed. These implied that only the population of dominant species was mainly affected. The high-resolution phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of numerous operational taxonomic units (OTUs) whose close relatives exhibit halotolerance. Some OTUs related to thermophilic and acid-resistant strains were also identified. Finally, the taxonomic analysis of recycled membranes that were previously washed with NaOCl also showed the presence of numerous halotolerant-related OTUs in the early stage of fouling. This further suggested the possible contribution of such chemical tolerance on their survival against NaOCl washing, which in turn

  13. Pathways analysis and radiation-dose estimates for radioactive residues at formerly utilized MED/AEC sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Chee, P.C.; Knight, M.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Roberts, C.J.; Robinson, J.E.; Tsai, S.Y.H.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1983-03-01

    Methods of analysis are developed for estimating the largest individual radiation dose that could result from residual radioactivity at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. Two unique aspects of the methods are (1) a systematic structuring of the radiation pathways analysis into source terms, source-to-exposure analysis, and exposure-to-dose analysis, and (2) the systematic use of data on the average concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil, food, and the human body in order to assess the validity of model calculations and obtain more realistic values. The methods are applied to a typical FUSRAP site in order to obtain generic source-to-dose (D/S) conversion factors for estimating the radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual from a known concentration of radionuclides in the soil. The D/S factors are used to derive soil guidelines, i.e., the limiting concentrations of radionuclides at a typical FUSRAP site that are unlikely to result in individual dose limits that exceed generally accepted radiation protection standards. The results lead to the conclusion that the soil guidelines should not exceed 17, 75, and 300 pCi/g for Ra-226, U-238, and Th-230, respectively

  14. Pathways analysis and radiation-dose estimates for radioactive residues at formerly utilized MED/AEC sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Chee, P.C.; Knight, M.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Roberts, C.J.; Robinson, J.E.; Tsai, S.Y.H.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1983-03-01

    Methods of analysis are developed for estimating the largest individual radiation dose that could result from residual radioactivity at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy. Two unique aspects of the methods are (1) a systematic structuring of the radiation pathways analysis into source terms, source-to-exposure analysis, and exposure-to-dose analysis, and (2) the systematic use of data on the average concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil, food, and the human body in order to assess the validity of model calculations and obtain more realistic values. The methods are applied to a typical FUSRAP site in order to obtain generic source-to-dose (D/S) conversion factors for estimating the radiation dose to the maximally exposed individual from a known concentration of radionuclides in the soil. The D/S factors are used to derive soil guidelines, i.e., the limiting concentrations of radionuclides at a typical FUSRAP site that are unlikely to result in individual dose limits that exceed generally accepted radiation protection standards. The results lead to the conclusion that the soil guidelines should not exceed 17, 75, and 300 pCi/g for Ra-226, U-238, and Th-230, respectively.

  15. gRINN: a tool for calculation of residue interaction energies and protein energy network analysis of molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serçinoglu, Onur; Ozbek, Pemra

    2018-05-25

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations generate a wealth of information related to the dynamics of proteins. If properly analyzed, this information can lead to new insights regarding protein function and assist wet-lab experiments. Aiming to identify interactions between individual amino acid residues and the role played by each in the context of MD simulations, we present a stand-alone software called gRINN (get Residue Interaction eNergies and Networks). gRINN features graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a command-line interface for generating and analyzing pairwise residue interaction energies and energy correlations from protein MD simulation trajectories. gRINN utilizes the features of NAMD or GROMACS MD simulation packages and automatizes the steps necessary to extract residue-residue interaction energies from user-supplied simulation trajectories, greatly simplifying the analysis for the end-user. A GUI, including an embedded molecular viewer, is provided for visualization of interaction energy time-series, distributions, an interaction energy matrix, interaction energy correlations and a residue correlation matrix. gRINN additionally offers construction and analysis of Protein Energy Networks, providing residue-based metrics such as degrees, betweenness-centralities, closeness centralities as well as shortest path analysis. gRINN is free and open to all users without login requirement at http://grinn.readthedocs.io.

  16. Finite element analysis and measurement for residual stress of dissimilar metal weld in pressurizer safety nozzle mockup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, W.; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jai Hak

    2009-01-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis and experiment for weld residual stress (WRS) in the pressurizer safety nozzle mockup is described in various processes and results. Foremost of which is the dissimilar simulation metal welding (DMW) between carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel. Thermal and structural analyses were compared with actual residual stress, and actual measurements of. Magnitude and distribution of WRS in the nozzle mockup were assessed. Two measurement methods were used: hole-drilling method (HDM) with strain gauge for residual stress on the surface of the mockup, and block removal and splitting layer (BRSL) method for through-thickness. FE analysis and measurement data showed good agreement. In conclusion, the characteristics of weld residual stress of DMW could be well understood and the simplified FE analysis was verified as acceptable for estimating WRS

  17. Finite element analysis and measurement for residual stress of dissimilar metal weld in pressurizer safety nozzle mockup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, W.; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    Finite element (FE) analysis and experiment for weld residual stress (WRS) in the pressurizer safety nozzle mockup is described in various processes and results. Foremost of which is the dissimilar simulation metal welding (DMW) between carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel. Thermal and structural analyses were compared with actual residual stress, and actual measurements of. Magnitude and distribution of WRS in the nozzle mockup were assessed. Two measurement methods were used: hole-drilling method (HDM) with strain gauge for residual stress on the surface of the mockup, and block removal and splitting layer (BRSL) method for through-thickness. FE analysis and measurement data showed good agreement. In conclusion, the characteristics of weld residual stress of DMW could be well understood and the simplified FE analysis was verified as acceptable for estimating WRS

  18. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  19. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T Cd = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required

  20. LC-MS/MS analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides: Residue findings in chilean honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bridi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neonicotinoids are a relatively new generation of insecticides that have been used for control of pests such as aphids, leafhoppers and whiteflies. This paper presents for the first time a determination of residues of four neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, thiacloprid and imidacloprid in Chilean honey using QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The limits of detection and quantification found for all analytes ranging from 0.34 to 1.43 μg kg-1 and from 0.30 to 4.76 μg kg-1, respectively. The extraction using QuEChERS method provided recoveries over 79% and the precision showed coefficient of variation lower than 20%. These data are in agreement with the international criteria that recommend general recovery limits of 70 - 120%. Of the 16 samples analyzed, in three honey samples neonicotinoids pesticides were detected. These three samples were collected from the same geographical area (Rengo. Fruit and grain production characterize the province of Rengo. The analysis of the botanical origin of these honeys showed the absence of pollen grains of crops and the majority presence of pollen grains of weeds such as Medicago sativa, Galega officinalis and Brassica rapa, which could be associated with crops. Although the residue levels found were low, the results also confirm the actual occurrence of a transfer of neonicotinoid insecticides from exposed honeybees into honey.

  1. Fractal and probability analysis of creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Mengjia; Xu, Jijin, E-mail: xujijin_1979@sjtu.edu.cn; Lu, Hao; Chen, Jieshi; Chen, Junmei; Wei, Xiao

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Statistical and fractal analysis is applied to study the creep fracture surface. • The tensile residual stresses promote the initiation of creep crack. • The fractal dimension of a mixed mode fracture surface shows a wavy variation. • The fractal dimension increases with increasing intergranular fracture percentage. • Height coordinates of intergranular fracture surface fit Gaussian distribution. - Abstract: In order to clarify creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses, creep crack tests were carried out on the tension creep specimens, in which the residual stresses were generated by local remelting and cooling. Residual stresses in the specimens were measured using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The fracture surface of the creep specimen was analyzed using statistical methods and fractal analysis. The relation between fractal dimension of the fracture surface and fracture mode of the creep specimen was discussed. Due to different fracture mechanisms, the probability density functions of the height coordinates vary with the intergranular crack percentage. Good fitting was found between Gaussian distribution and the probability function of height coordinates of the high percentage intergranular crack surface.

  2. Fractal and probability analysis of creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Mengjia; Xu, Jijin; Lu, Hao; Chen, Jieshi; Chen, Junmei; Wei, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Statistical and fractal analysis is applied to study the creep fracture surface. • The tensile residual stresses promote the initiation of creep crack. • The fractal dimension of a mixed mode fracture surface shows a wavy variation. • The fractal dimension increases with increasing intergranular fracture percentage. • Height coordinates of intergranular fracture surface fit Gaussian distribution. - Abstract: In order to clarify creep crack growth behavior in 2.25Cr–1.6W steel incorporating residual stresses, creep crack tests were carried out on the tension creep specimens, in which the residual stresses were generated by local remelting and cooling. Residual stresses in the specimens were measured using Synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. The fracture surface of the creep specimen was analyzed using statistical methods and fractal analysis. The relation between fractal dimension of the fracture surface and fracture mode of the creep specimen was discussed. Due to different fracture mechanisms, the probability density functions of the height coordinates vary with the intergranular crack percentage. Good fitting was found between Gaussian distribution and the probability function of height coordinates of the high percentage intergranular crack surface.

  3. Method for the analysis of triadimefon and ethofumesate from dislodgeable foliar residues on turfgrass by solid-phase extraction and in-vial elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Field, J A

    1999-08-01

    Triadimefon, a fungicide, and ethofumesate, an herbicide, are commonly applied to turfgrass in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in foliar residues. A simple and rapid method was developed to determine triadimefon and ethofumesate concentrations from dislodgeable foliar residues on turfgrass. Turfgrass samples were washed, and wash water containing surfactant (a 0.126% solution) was collected for residue analysis. This analytical method utilizes a 25 mm C(8) Empore disk and in-vial elution to quantitatively determine triadimefon and ethofumesate in 170 mL aqueous samples. The analytes were eluted by placing the disk in a 2 mL autosampler vial with 980 microL of ethyl acetate and 20 microL of 2-chlorolepidine, the internal standard, for analysis by GC/MS. The method quantitation limits are 0.29 microg/L for ethofumesate and 0.59 microg/L for triadimefon. The method detection limits are 0.047 microg/L and 0.29 microg/L for ethofumesate and triadimefon, respectively. Concentrations of triadimefon and ethofumesate from dislodgeable foliar residues from a field study are reported.

  4. New trends in applied harmonic analysis sparse representations, compressed sensing, and multifractal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrelli, Carlos; Jaffard, Stephane; Molter, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a selection of written notes corresponding to courses taught at the CIMPA School: "New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis: Sparse Representations, Compressed Sensing and Multifractal Analysis". New interactions between harmonic analysis and signal and image processing have seen striking development in the last 10 years, and several technological deadlocks have been solved through the resolution of deep theoretical problems in harmonic analysis. New Trends in Applied Harmonic Analysis focuses on two particularly active areas that are representative of such advances: multifractal analysis, and sparse representation and compressed sensing. The contributions are written by leaders in these areas, and covers both theoretical aspects and applications. This work should prove useful not only to PhD students and postdocs in mathematics and signal and image processing, but also to researchers working in related topics.

  5. Current status of neutron activation analysis and applied nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    A review of recent scientometric studies of citations and publication data shows the present state of NAA and applied nuclear chemistry as compared to other analytical techniques. (author) 9 refs.; 7 tabs

  6. Analysis of antibiotic residues in foodstuffs in Tunisia: The tetracyclines, quinolones, and Sulphonamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezgui, Adel

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotic residues. (Author)

  7. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi Olatoye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara, and 90 fermented milk (nono from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers

  8. Impact-disrupted gunshot residue: A sub-micron analysis using a novel collection protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Spathis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of gunshot residue (GSR has played an integral role within the legal system in relation to shooting cases. With a characteristic elemental composition of lead, antimony, barium, and a typically discriminative spheroidal morphology, the presence and distribution of GSR can aid in firearm investigations. In this experiment, three shots of low velocity rim-fire ammunition were fired over polished silicon collection substrates placed at six intervals over a 100 cm range. The samples were analysed using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM in conjunction with an X-flash Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX detector, allowing for GSR particle analyses of composition and structure at the sub-micron level. The results of this experiment indicate that although classic spheroidal particles are present consistently throughout the entire range of samples their sizes vary significantly, and at certain distances from the firearm particles with an irregular morphology were discerned, forming “impact-disrupted” GSR particles, henceforth colloquially referred to as “splats”. Upon further analysis, trends with regards to the formation of these splat particles were distinguished. An increase in splat frequency was observed starting at 10 cm from the firearm, with 147 mm−2 splat density, reaching a maximal flux at 40 cm (451 mm−2, followed by a gradual decrease to the maximum range sampled. Moreover, the structural morphology of the splats changes throughout the sampling range. At the distances closest to the firearm, molten-looking particles were formed, demonstrating the metallic residues were in a liquid state when their flight path was disrupted. However, at increased distances-primarily where the discharge plume was at maximum dispersion and moving away from the firearm, the residues have had time to cool in-fight resulting in semi-congealed and solid particles that subsequently disrupted upon impact, forming more

  9. Analysis of the Residual Stresses in Helical Cylindrical Springs at High Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep is one of the basic properties of materials, its speed significantly depends on the temperature. Helical cylindrical springs are widely used in the elements of heating systems. This results in necessity of taking into account the effect of temperature on the stress-strain state of the spring. The object of research is a helical cylindrical spring used at high temperatures. Under this condition the spring state stability should be ensured.The paper studies relaxation of stress state and generation of residual stresses. Calculations are carried out in ABAQUS environment. The purpose of this work is to discuss the law of relaxation and residual stress in the spring.This paper describes the basic creep theories of helical cylindrical spring material. The calculation formulas of shear stress relaxation for a fixed compression ratio are obtained. Distribution and character of stress contour lines in the cross section of spring are presented. The stress relaxation – time relationships are discussed. The approximate formula for calculating relaxation shear stresses in the cross section of helical springs is obtained.The paper investigates creep ratio and law of residual stress variation in the cross-section of spring at 650℃. Computer simulation in ABAQUS environment was used. Research presents a finite element model of the spring creep in the cross-section.The paper conducts analysis of the stress changes for the creep under constant load. Under constant load stresses are quickly decreased in the around area of cross-section and are increased in the centre, i.e. the maximum and minimum stresses come close with time. Research work shows the possibility for using the approximate formula to calculate the relaxation shear stress in the cross section of spring and can provide a theoretical basis for predicting the service life of spring at high temperatures.In research relaxation processes of stress state are studied. Finite element model is cre

  10. Pesticide residues in canned foods, fruits, and vegetables: the application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and chromatographic techniques in the analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saeid, Mohamed H

    2003-12-11

    Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates. By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues +/- RSD% ranging from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.8 +/- 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 +/- 0.02 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  11. Pesticide Residues in Canned Foods, Fruits, and Vegetables: The Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques in the Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. EL-Saeid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates.By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues ± RSD% ranging from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.05 ± 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.8 ± 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 ± 0.02 to 0.8 ±0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  12. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Sieverts Nielsen, Per; Pedro Nunes, Clemente

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana's energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70-90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5 MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89 USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25 MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10 km) was 2.64 USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66-72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46-48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic costs. Transport distance of husks has considerable impact on logistic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Logistics cost analysis of rice residues for second generation bioenergy production in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijay Ramamurthi, Pooja; Cristina Fernandes, Maria; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the techno-economic potential of rice residues as a bioenergy resource to meet Ghana’s energy demands. Major rice growing regions of Ghana have 70–90% of residues available for bioenergy production. To ensure cost-effective biomass logistics, a thorough cost analysis was made...... for two bioenergy routes. Logistics costs for a 5MWe straw combustion plant were 39.01, 47.52 and 47.89USD/t for Northern, Ashanti and Volta regions respectively. Logistics cost for a 0.25MWe husk gasification plant (with roundtrip distance 10km) was 2.64USD/t in all regions. Capital cost (66......–72%) contributes significantly to total logistics costs of straw, however for husk logistics, staff (40%) and operation and maintenance costs (46%) dominate. Baling is the major processing logistic cost for straw, contributing to 46–48% of total costs. Scale of straw unit does not have a large impact on logistic...

  14. Analysis of glyphosate residues in cereals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Johannesen, S.; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2003-01-01

    A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean-up) in ser......A fast and specific method for the determination of glyphosate in cereals is described. The method is based on extraction with water by ultrasonication. The samples are cleaned up and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a polystyrene-based reverse-phase column (clean...... monitored m/z 168--> 150 (glyphosate) and 170-->152 (internal standard 2- 13 (CN)-N-15-glyphosate) for quantification. The mean recovery was 85% ( n =32) at spiking levels from 0.03 to 0.33 mg kg(-1) . From 1998 to 2001, from the analysis of about 50 samples per annum, a reduction in the glyphosate residues...... was observed owing to a Danish trade decision not to use grain with glyphosate residues for milling or bread production....

  15. Comparative analysis of different methods of extraction of present hydrocarbons in industrial residual waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa, Judith Rocio; Serrano, Martin; Stashenko, Elena

    2002-01-01

    A comparison among four extraction techniques such as: liquid - liquid (LLE) continuous and for lots, solid phase extraction (SPE), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (S-HS) was carried out. The main purpose of this research was to determine the highest recovery efficiencies and how reproducible the tests are while varying parameters such as time, extraction technique, type of solvents and others. Chromatographic parameters were optimized in order to carry out the analyses. Hydrocarbon's quantification of residual waters was achieved by using a high-resolution gas chromatography with a gas flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID). Validation of the method was carried out by analyzing real samples taken in different sampling places of the residual waters treatment plant of Ecopetrol - Barrancabermeja. The use of extraction methods that require big solvent quantities and long time for analysis are losing validity day by day. Techniques such as the HS-SPME and static HS are offered as alternatives for quantifying hydrocarbons. They show total lack of solvents, high sensibility, selectivity and the techniques are reproducible. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (static HS) techniques were chosen as the extraction techniques to validate the method in real samples. Both techniques showed similar results for the determination of total hydrocarbons (in the gasoline range)

  16. Joining U.S. NRC international round robin for weld residual stress analysis. Stress analysis and validation in PWSCC mitigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Akira; Serizawa, Hisashi; Murakawa, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to establish properly reliable weld residual stress analysis methods for accurate crack initiation and growth assessment of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), which may occur in nickel-based dissimilar metal welds in pressurized water reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission conducted an international round robin for weld residual stress analysis to improve stress analysis methods and to examine the uncertainties involved in the calculated stress values. In this paper, the results from the authors' participation in the round robin were reported. In the round robin, the weld residual stress in a nickel-based dissimilar metal weld of a pressurizer surge nozzle mock-up was computed under various analysis conditions. Based on these residual stress analysis results, a welding simulation code currently being developed that uses the iterative substructure method was validated and affecting factors on the analysis results were identified. (author)

  17. RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED IN OIL EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    aDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ... The analysis in this work is ... risk analysis, oil field, risk management, projects, investment opportunity. 1. .... own merit but since the company has limited.

  18. Empirical modeling and data analysis for engineers and applied scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This textbook teaches advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students in Engineering and Applied Sciences to gather and analyze empirical observations (data) in order to aid in making design decisions. While science is about discovery, the primary paradigm of engineering and "applied science" is design. Scientists are in the discovery business and want, in general, to understand the natural world rather than to alter it. In contrast, engineers and applied scientists design products, processes, and solutions to problems. That said, statistics, as a discipline, is mostly oriented toward the discovery paradigm. Young engineers come out of their degree programs having taken courses such as "Statistics for Engineers and Scientists" without any clear idea as to how they can use statistical methods to help them design products or processes. Many seem to think that statistics is only useful for demonstrating that a device or process actually does what it was designed to do. Statistics courses emphasize creati...

  19. MALDI-MS Imaging Analysis of Fungicide Residue Distributions on Wheat Leaf Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annangudi, Suresh P; Myung, Kyung; Avila Adame, Cruz; Gilbert, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-05

    Improved retention and distribution of agrochemicals on plant surfaces is an important attribute in the biological activity of pesticide. Although retention of agrochemicals on plants after spray application can be quantified using traditional analytical techniques including LC or GC, the spatial distribution of agrochemicals on the plants surfaces has received little attention. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging technology has been widely used to determine the distribution of proteins, peptides and metabolites in different tissue sections, but its application to environmental research has been limited. Herein, we probed the potential utility of MALDI imaging in characterizing the distribution of three commercial fungicides on wheat leaf surfaces. Using this MALDI imaging method, we were able to detect 500 ng of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin applied in 1 μL drop on the leaf surfaces using MALDI-MS. Subsequent dilutions of pyraclostrobin revealed that the compound can be chemically imaged on the leaf surfaces at levels as low as 60 ng of total applied in the area of 1 μL droplet. After application of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin at a field rate of 100 gai/ha in 200 L water using a track sprayer system, residues of these fungicides on the leaf surfaces were sufficiently visualized. These results suggest that MALDI imaging can be used to monitor spatial distribution of agrochemicals on leaf samples after pesticide application.

  20. Applying thematic analysis theory to practice: a researcher's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony G

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experience of thematic analysis. In order to answer the question 'What does analysis look like in practice?' it describes in brief how the methodology of grounded theory, the epistemology of social constructionism, and the theoretical stance of symbolic interactionism inform analysis. Additionally, analysis is examined by evidencing the systematic processes--here termed organising, coding, writing, theorising, and reading--that led the researcher to develop a final thematic schema.

  1. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results

  2. Residue Geometry Networks: A Rigidity-Based Approach to the Amino Acid Network and Evolutionary Rate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, Alexander S.; Cole, Daniel J.; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Chin, Alex W.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) abstract the protein structure by recording the amino acid contacts and can provide insight into protein function. Herein, we describe a novel AAN construction technique that employs the rigidity analysis tool, FIRST, to build the AAN, which we refer to as the residue geometry network (RGN). We show that this new construction can be combined with network theory methods to include the effects of allowed conformal motions and local chemical environments. Importantly, this is done without costly molecular dynamics simulations required by other AAN-related methods, which allows us to analyse large proteins and/or data sets. We have calculated the centrality of the residues belonging to 795 proteins. The results display a strong, negative correlation between residue centrality and the evolutionary rate. Furthermore, among residues with high closeness, those with low degree were particularly strongly conserved. Random walk simulations using the RGN were also successful in identifying allosteric residues in proteins involved in GPCR signalling. The dynamic function of these residues largely remain hidden in the traditional distance-cutoff construction technique. Despite being constructed from only the crystal structure, the results in this paper suggests that the RGN can identify residues that fulfil a dynamical function. PMID:27623708

  3. An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of

  4. A new chiral residue analysis method for triazole fungicides in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    A rapid, simple, reliable, and environment-friendly method for the residue analysis of the enantiomers of four chiral fungicides including hexaconazole, triadimefon, tebuconazole, and penconazole in water samples was developed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) pretreatment followed by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD detection. The enantiomers were separated on a Chiralpak IC column by HPLC applying n-hexane or petroleum ether as mobile phase and ethanol or isopropanol as modifier. The influences of mobile phase composition and temperature on the resolution were investigated and most of the enantiomers could be completely separated in 20 min under optimized conditions. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the separation was enthalpy-driven. The elution orders were detected by both circular dichroism detector (CD) and optical rotatory dispersion detector (ORD). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance for pretreatment of the chiral fungicides residue in water samples, such as the extraction and dispersive solvents and their volume, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum microextraction condition the enrichment factors were over 121 and the linearities were 30-1500 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) over 0.9988 and the recoveries were between 88.7% and 103.7% at the spiking levels of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.05 mg L(-1) (for each enantiomer) with relative standard deviations varying from 1.38% to 6.70% (n = 6) The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 8.5 to 29.0 µg L(-1) (S/N = 3). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Geostatistical analysis and kriging of Hexachlorocyclohexane residues in topsoil from Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.G.; Cao, J.; Liu, W.X.; Shen, W.R.; Wang, X.J.; Tao, S.

    2006-01-01

    A previously published data set of HCH isomer concentrations in topsoil samples from Tianjin, China, was subjected to geospatial analysis. Semivariograms were calculated and modeled using geostatistical techniques. Parameters of semivariogram models were analyzed and compared for four HCH isomers. Two-dimensional ordinary block kriging was applied to HCH isomers data set for mapping purposes. Dot maps and gray-scaled raster maps of HCH concentrations were presented based on kriging results. The appropriateness of the kriging procedure for mapping purposes was evaluated based on the kriging errors and kriging variances. It was found that ordinary block kriging can be applied to interpolate HCH concentrations in Tianjin topsoil with acceptable accuracy for mapping purposes. - Geostatistical analysis and kriging were applied to HCH concentrations in topsoil of Tianjin, China for mapping purposes

  6. Thermogravimetric analysis of the behavior of sub-bituminous coal and cellulosic ethanol residue during co-combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, C; Barbanera, M; Bartocci, P; Fantozzi, F

    2015-06-01

    The influence of the addition of cellulosic ethanol residue (CER) on the combustion of Indonesian sub-bituminous coal was analyzed by non isothermal thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of blends ratio (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%), interaction mechanism, and heating rate (5°C/min, 10°C/min, 15°C/min, 20°C/min) on the combustion process was studied. The results show that the increase of the blending ratio allows to achieve the increase of the combustibility index from 7.49E-08 to 5.26E-07 at the blending ratio of 20%. Two types of non-isothermal kinetic analysis methods (Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin) were also applied. Results indicate that the activation energy of the blends decreases with increasing the conversion rate. In particular, the blending ratio of 20% confirms to have the better combustion performance, with the average value of the activation energy equal to 41.10 kJ/mol obtained by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall model and 31.17 kJ/mol obtained by Vyazovkin model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  8. Identification of homemade inorganic explosives by ion chromatographic analysis of post-blast residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Cameron; Shellie, Robert A; Potter, Oscar G; O'Reilly, John W; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Guijt, Rosanne M; Breadmore, Michael C; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Haddad, Paul R

    2008-02-29

    Anions and cations of interest for the post-blast identification of homemade inorganic explosives were separated and detected by ion chromatographic (IC) methods. The ionic analytes used for identification of explosives in this study comprised 18 anions (acetate, benzoate, bromate, carbonate, chlorate, chloride, chlorite, chromate, cyanate, fluoride, formate, nitrate, nitrite, perchlorate, phosphate, sulfate, thiocyanate and thiosulfate) and 12 cations (ammonium, barium(II), calcium(II), chromium(III), ethylammonium, magnesium(II), manganese(II), methylammonium, potassium(I), sodium(I), strontium(II), and zinc(II)). Two IC separations are presented, using suppressed IC on a Dionex AS20 column with potassium hydroxide as eluent for anions, and non-suppressed IC for cations using a Dionex SCS 1 column with oxalic acid/acetonitrile as eluent. Conductivity detection was used in both cases. Detection limits for anions were in the range 2-27.4ppb, and for cations were in the range 13-115ppb. These methods allowed the explosive residue ions to be identified and separated from background ions likely to be present in the environment. Linearity (over a calibration range of 0.05-50ppm) was evaluated for both methods, with r(2) values ranging from 0.9889 to 1.000. Reproducibility over 10 consecutive injections of a 5ppm standard ranged from 0.01 to 0.22% relative standard deviation (RSD) for retention time and 0.29 to 2.16%RSD for peak area. The anion and cation separations were performed simultaneously by using two Dionex ICS-2000 chromatographs served by a single autoinjector. The efficacy of the developed methods was demonstrated by analysis of residue samples taken from witness plates and soils collected following the controlled detonation of a series of different inorganic homemade explosives. The results obtained were also confirmed by parallel analysis of the same samples by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with excellent agreement being obtained.

  9. Evaluation of two fast and easy methods for pesticide residue analysis in fatty food matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovská, Katerina; Yun, Seon Jong

    2005-01-01

    Two rapid methods of sample preparation and analysis of fatty foods (e.g., milk, eggs, and avocado) were evaluated and compared for 32 pesticide residues representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. One method, dubbed the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for pesticide residue analysis, entailed extraction of 15 g sample with 15 mL acetonitrile (MeCN) containing 1% acetic acid followed by addition of 6 g anhydrous magnesium sulfate and 1.5 g sodium acetate. After centrifugation, 1 mL of the buffered MeCN extract underwent a cleanup step (in a technique known as dispersive solid-phase extraction) using 50 mg each of C18 and primary secondary amine sorbents plus 150 mg MgSO4. The second method incorporated a form of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD), in which 0.5 g sample plus 2 g C18 and 2 g anhydrous sodium sulfate was mixed in a mortar and pestle and added above a 2 g Florisil column on a vacuum manifold. Then, 5 x 2 mL MeCN was used to elute the pesticide analytes from the sample into a collection tube, and the extract was concentrated to 0.5 mL by evaporation. Extracts in both methods were analyzed concurrently by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The recoveries of semi-polar and polar pesticides were typically 100% in both methods (except that basic pesticides, such as thiabendazole and imazalil, were not recovered in the MSPD method), but recovery of nonpolar pesticides decreased as fat content of the sample increased. This trend was more pronounced in the QuEChERS method, in which case the most lipophilic analyte tested, hexachlorobenzene, gave 27 +/- 1% recovery (n=6) in avocado (15% fat) with a<10 ng/g limit of quantitation.

  10. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  11. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  12. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  13. Heisenberg principle applied to the analysis of speckle interferometry fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C. A.; Sciammarella, F. M.

    2003-11-01

    Optical techniques that are used to measure displacements utilize a carrier. When a load is applied the displacement field modulates the carrier. The accuracy of the information that can be recovered from the modulated carrier is limited by a number of factors. In this paper, these factors are analyzed and conclusions concerning the limitations in information recovery are illustrated with examples taken from experimental data.

  14. Residual stress analysis in linear friction welded in-service Inconel 718 superalloy via neutron diffraction and contour method approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M. [University of British Columbia – Okanagan, School of Engineering, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, Canada V1V 1V7 (Canada); Levesque, J.-B. [Institut de recherche d' Hydro-Québec (IREQ), 1800 Lionel-Boulet Blvd., Varennes, Canada J3X 1S1 (Canada); Bichler, L., E-mail: lukas.bichler@ubc.ca [University of British Columbia – Okanagan, School of Engineering, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, Canada V1V 1V7 (Canada); Sediako, D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Building 459, Station 18, Chalk River, Canada K0J 1J0 (Canada); Gholipour, J.; Wanjara, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Aerospace 5145 Decelles Ave., Montreal, Canada H3T 2B2 (Canada)

    2017-04-13

    In this study, an analysis of elastic residual stress in Inconel{sup ®} 718 (IN 718) linear friction welds (LFWs) was carried out. In particular, the suitability of LFW for manufacturing and repair of aero engine components was emulated by joining virgin and in-service (extracted from a turbine disk) materials. The evolution in the residual strains and stresses in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) and dynamically recrystallized zone (DRX) of the weld was characterized using the neutron diffraction and contour methods. The results provided insight into diverse challenges in quantitative analysis of residual stresses in welded IN 718 using diffraction techniques. Specifically, judicious selection of the beam width, height and stress-free lattice spacing were seen to be crucial to minimize measurement error and increase accuracy. Further, the contour method – a destructive technique relying on capturing the stress relaxation after electrical discharge machining – was used to characterize the residual stress distribution on two-dimensional plane sections of the welds. Both techniques suggested an increasing magnitude of residual stress originating from the base metal that reached a peak at the weld interface. Both methods indicated that the peak magnitude of residual stresses were below the yield stress of IN 718.

  15. Concluding Essay: On Applied Linguistics and Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses trends and problems in regarding discourse analysis as a viable paradigm that can govern research, focusing on such issues as the wide diversity and variety of research that can be considered discourse analysis, the predominant focus on English language, research approaches, and undefined variables affecting research outcomes. (seven…

  16. Tensometry technique for X-ray diffraction in applied analysis of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turibus, S.N.; Caldas, F.C.M.; Miranda, D.M.; Monine, V.I.; Assis, J.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of residual stress introduced in welding process. As the stress in a material can induce damages, it is necessary to have a method to identify this residual stress state. For this it was used the non-destructive X-ray diffraction technique to analyze two plates from A36 steel jointed by metal inert gas (MIG) welding. The stress measurements were made by the sin 2 ψ method in weld region of steel plates including analysis of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses in fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. To determine the stress distribution along the depth of the welded material it was used removing of superficial layers made by electropolishing. (author)

  17. The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Alfaro, A.R.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

  18. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  19. Mutational analysis to identify the residues essential for the inhibition of N-acetyl glutamate kinase of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Hongming; Li, Cheng; Han, Shuangyan; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping

    2015-09-01

    N-acetyl glutamate kinase (NAGK) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of L-arginine that is inhibited by its end product L-arginine in Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum). In this study, the potential binding sites of arginine and the residues essential for its inhibition were identified by homology modeling, inhibitor docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. The allosteric inhibition of NAGK was successfully alleviated by a mutation, as determined through analysis of mutant enzymes, which were overexpressed in vivo in C. glutamicum ATCC14067. Analysis of the mutant enzymes and docking analysis demonstrated that residue W23 positions an arginine molecule, and the interaction between arginine and residues L282, L283, and T284 may play an important role in the remote inhibitory process. Based on the results of the docking analysis of the effective mutants, we propose a linkage mechanism for the remote allosteric regulation of NAGK activity, in which residue R209 may play an essential role. In this study, the structure of the arginine-binding site of C. glutamicum NAGK (CgNAGK) was successfully predicted and the roles of the relevant residues were identified, providing new insight into the allosteric regulation of CgNAGK activity and a solid platform for the future construction of an optimized L-arginine producing strain.

  20. Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae bred in the central Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gonçalves Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We applied an "adapted" protocol for collecting and processing pollen grains in the pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Melipona (Melikerria interrupta Latreille. The study was conducted at the Sant'Ana honey farm, located on the banks of the Solimões River, in the municipality of Manacapuru, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, where a colony was monitored in October and November 2010. From that colony, 10 samples of post-emergence residue were collected. Unlike in the acetolysis method, there was no need to expose pollen grains to an acidic medium, because pollen loses its content during the larval digestive process. We identified 32 pollen types, from 19 botanical families, plus three undetermined pollen types. The most representative family was Fabaceae (Mimosoideae, with eight pollen types, Mimosa guilandinae being the most common species. Only the pollen of Miconia (Melastomataceae, with 74.10%, was classified as a common pollen. We also found that the pollen of Mimosa pudica (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae retained its content, indicating that not all resources furnished by workers are utilized by the larvae. The protocol applied here, despite omitting the acetolysis process, was efficient, providing full details of pollen contained in post-emergence residue.

  1. Applying causal mediation analysis to personality disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2018-01-01

    This article is designed to address fundamental issues in the application of causal mediation analysis to research on personality disorders. Causal mediation analysis is used to identify mechanisms of effect by testing variables as putative links between the independent and dependent variables. As such, it would appear to have relevance to personality disorder research. It is argued that proper implementation of causal mediation analysis requires that investigators take several factors into account. These factors are discussed under 5 headings: variable selection, model specification, significance evaluation, effect size estimation, and sensitivity testing. First, care must be taken when selecting the independent, dependent, mediator, and control variables for a mediation analysis. Some variables make better mediators than others and all variables should be based on reasonably reliable indicators. Second, the mediation model needs to be properly specified. This requires that the data for the analysis be prospectively or historically ordered and possess proper causal direction. Third, it is imperative that the significance of the identified pathways be established, preferably with a nonparametric bootstrap resampling approach. Fourth, effect size estimates should be computed or competing pathways compared. Finally, investigators employing the mediation method are advised to perform a sensitivity analysis. Additional topics covered in this article include parallel and serial multiple mediation designs, moderation, and the relationship between mediation and moderation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Signed directed social network analysis applied to group conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Quan; Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Real-world social networks contain relationships of multiple different types, but this richness is often ignored in graph-theoretic modelling. We show how two recently developed spectral embedding techniques, for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric) and for signed graphs (relationships...... are both positive and negative), can be combined. This combination is particularly appropriate for intelligence, terrorism, and law enforcement applications. We illustrate by applying the novel embedding technique to datasets describing conflict in North-West Africa, and show how unusual interactions can...

  3. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  4. Thermoeconomic analysis applied to an alternative wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Silveira, Jose Luz; Mattos dos Reis, Luiz Octavio [Sao Paulo State University, Faculty of Engineering, Campus of Guaratingueta, Postgraduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil); Oscare Giacaglia, Giorgio Eugenio [University of Taubate, Post-graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sp (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work develops a methodology for the determination of costs associated to products generated in a small wastewater treatment station. The methodology begins with plant units identification, relating their fluid and thermodynamics features to each point indicated in its process diagram. Following, a functional diagram and a formulation are developed in exergetic basis, describing all equations for these points, which are the constraints for optimisation and are used to determine costs associated to products generated in a Small Wastewater Treatment Station - SWTS. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical system based on SWTS plants and presents consistent results when compared to values based on previous experiments and evaluations. (author)

  5. Assessment of possibility of primary water stress corrosion cracking occurrence based on residual stress analysis in pressurizer safety nozzle of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, W.; Lee, Jeong Geun

    2012-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is a major safety concern in the nuclear power industry worldwide. PWSCC is known to initiate only in the condition in which sufficiently high tensile stress is applied to alloy 600 tube material or alloy 82/182 weld material in pressurized water reactor operating environments. However, it is still uncertain how much tensile stress is required to generate PWSCC or what causes such high tensile stress. This study was performed to predict the magnitude of weld residual stress and operating stress and compare it with previous experimental results for PWSCC initiation. For the study, a pressurizer safety nozzle was selected because it is reported to be vulnerable to PWSCC in overseas plants. The assessment was conducted by numerical analysis. Before performing stress analysis for plant conditions, a preliminary mock-up analysis was done. The result of the preliminary analysis was validated by residual stress measurement in the mockup. After verification of the analysis methodology, an analysis under plant conditions was conducted. The analysis results show that the stress level is not high enough to initiate PWSCC. If a plant is properly welded and operated, PWSCC is not likely to occur in the pressurizer safety nozzle.

  6. [Pollen analysis of the post-emergence residue of Centris tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) nests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Marcos da C; Dos Santos, Francisco de A R; Lima, Luciene C de L E; Figueroa, Luís E R

    2009-01-01

    A new treatment protocol was developed to analyze pollen residues found in nests of Centris tarsata Smith harvested from nest-traps. The study area was located in the Canudos Biological Station in the municipality of Canudos (09 masculine56'34'S; 38 masculine59'17'W), in the northeastern micro-region of Bahia State, Brazil. The local vegetation is an open caatinga (deciduous dryland vegetation), the regional climate is semi-arid, the average annual temperature is 24.1 masculineC, and the annual regional rainfall rate is 454 mm. Ten nests of C. tarsata were collected in trap-nests during the first semester of 2004. Pollen analysis from the nests required the development of a new methodology that combined techniques of palynological sediment analysis with the more common pollinic analysis by acetolysis. Microscopic analyses employed optical microscopy techniques. The pollinic spectrum of the samples from C. tarsata indicated the presence of 17 pollen types from seven plant families, which were present in assemblage of five to eleven pollen types, pointed to the plants used by bees to feed on their offspring. The most represented plant families were Leguminosae (49.3%) and Solanaceae (43.2%). The most frequent pollen types in the samples were from Solanum paniculatum (43.8%) and Senna rizzini (32.1%). The protocol developed provides a new tool for diet assessment of Centris and other groups of solitary bees.

  7. Analysis of residual stress state in sheet metal parts processed by single point incremental forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaß, F.; Gies, S.; Dobecki, M.; Brömmelhoff, K.; Tekkaya, A. E.; Reimers, W.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanical properties of formed metal components are highly affected by the prevailing residual stress state. A selective induction of residual compressive stresses in the component, can improve the product properties such as the fatigue strength. By means of single point incremental forming (SPIF), the residual stress state can be influenced by adjusting the process parameters during the manufacturing process. To achieve a fundamental understanding of the residual stress formation caused by the SPIF process, a valid numerical process model is essential. Within the scope of this paper the significance of kinematic hardening effects on the determined residual stress state is presented based on numerical simulations. The effect of the unclamping step after the manufacturing process is also analyzed. An average deviation of the residual stress amplitudes in the clamped and unclamped condition of 18 % reveals, that the unclamping step needs to be considered to reach a high numerical prediction quality.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Processes for Recovery of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Chenna Rao; Blanpain, Bart; Pontikes, Yiannis; Binnemans, Koen; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Environmental concerns and lack of space suggest that the management of bauxite residue needs to be re-adressed. The utilization of the residue has thus become a topic high on the agenda for both academia and industry, yet, up to date, it is only rarely used. Nonetheless, recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) with or without other metals from bauxite residue, and utilization of the left-over residue in other applications like building materials may be a viable alternative to storage. Hence, different processes developed by the authors for recovery of REEs and other metals from bauxite residue were compared. In this study, preliminary energy and cost analyses were carried out to assess the feasibility of the processes. These analyses show that the combination of alkali roasting-smelting-quenching-leaching is a promising process for the treatment of bauxite residue and that it is justified to study this process at a pilot scale.

  9. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  10. X-ray residual stress analysis on machined and tempered HPSN-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immelmann, S.; Welle, E.; Reimers, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1997-11-15

    The residual stress state induced by grinding and tempering of hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN) samples is studied by X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that the residual stress values at the surface of the samples as well as their gradient within the penetration depth of the X-rays depend on the sintering aid and thus, on the glassy phase content of the HPSN. Tempering of the ground HPSN reduces the residual stress values due to microplastic deformation, whereas an oxidation of the glassy phase leads to the formation of compressive residual stresses. (orig.) 35 refs.

  11. Concept of spatial channel theory applied to reactor shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of channel theory is used to locate spatial regions that are important in contributing to a shielding response. The method is analogous to the channel-theory method developed for ascertaining important energy channels in cross-section analysis. The mathematical basis for the theory is shown to be the generalized reciprocity relation, and sample problems are given to exhibit and verify properties predicted by the mathematical equations. A practical example is cited from the shielding analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in which a perspective plot of channel-theory results was found useful in locating streaming paths around the reactor cavity shield

  12. Computational modeling applied to stress gradient analysis for metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, Susana M.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Monine, Vladimir I.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays composite materials including materials reinforced by particles are the center of the researcher's attention. There are problems with the stress measurements in these materials, connected with the superficial stress gradient caused by the difference of the stress state of particles on the surface and in the matrix of the composite material. Computer simulation of diffraction profile formed by superficial layers of material allows simulate the diffraction experiment and gives the possibility to resolve the problem of stress measurements when the stress state is characterized by strong gradient. The aim of this paper is the application of computer simulation technique, initially developed for homogeneous materials, for diffraction line simulation of composite materials and alloys. Specifically we applied this technique for siluminum fabricated by powder metallurgy. (author)

  13. Performance analysis of numeric solutions applied to biokinetics of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingatos, Danielle dos Santos; Bevilacqua, Joyce da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Biokinetics models for radionuclides applied to dosimetry problems are constantly reviewed by ICRP. The radionuclide trajectory could be represented by compartmental models, assuming constant transfer rates between compartments. A better understanding of physiological or biochemical phenomena, improve the comprehension of radionuclide behavior in the human body and, in general, more complex compartmental models are proposed, increasing the difficulty of obtaining the analytical solution for the system of first order differential equations. Even with constant transfer rates numerical solutions must be carefully implemented because of almost singular characteristic of the matrix of coefficients. In this work we compare numerical methods with different strategies for ICRP-78 models for Thorium-228 and Uranium-234. The impact of uncertainty in the parameters of the equations is also estimated for local and global truncation errors. (author)

  14. Condition Monitoring of a Process Filter Applying Wireless Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka KOSKELA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel wireless vibration-based method for monitoring the degree of feed filter clogging. In process industry, these filters are applied to prevent impurities entering the process. During operation, the filters gradually become clogged, decreasing the feed flow and, in the worst case, preventing it. The cleaning of the filter should therefore be carried out predictively in order to avoid equipment damage and unnecessary process downtime. The degree of clogging is estimated by first calculating the time domain indices from low frequency accelerometer samples and then taking the median of the processed values. Nine different statistical quantities are compared based on the estimation accuracy and criteria for operating in resource-constrained environments with particular focus on energy efficiency. The initial results show that the method is able to detect the degree of clogging, and the approach may be applicable to filter clogging monitoring.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...

  16. Applying Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Persons with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark; Baker, Jonathan C.; Sadowski, Katherine Ann

    2011-01-01

    Skinner's 1957 analysis of verbal behavior has demonstrated a fair amount of utility to teach language to children with autism and other various disorders. However, the learning of language can be forgotten, as is the case for many elderly suffering from dementia or other degenerative diseases. It appears possible that Skinner's operants may…

  17. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  18. Visual Analytics Applied to Image Analysis : From Segmentation to Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauber, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Image analysis is the field of study concerned with extracting information from images. This field is immensely important for commercial and scientific applications, from identifying people in photographs to recognizing diseases in medical images. The goal behind the work presented in this thesis is

  19. Applying AI tools to operational space environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnak, Mike; Jesse, Lisa; Mucks, John

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force and National Oceanic Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) space environmental operations centers are facing increasingly complex challenges meeting the needs of their growing user community. These centers provide current space environmental information and short term forecasts of geomagnetic activity. Recent advances in modeling and data access have provided sophisticated tools for making accurate and timely forecasts, but have introduced new problems associated with handling and analyzing large quantities of complex data. AI (Artificial Intelligence) techniques have been considered as potential solutions to some of these problems. Fielding AI systems has proven more difficult than expected, in part because of operational constraints. Using systems which have been demonstrated successfully in the operational environment will provide a basis for a useful data fusion and analysis capability. Our approach uses a general purpose AI system already in operational use within the military intelligence community, called the Temporal Analysis System (TAS). TAS is an operational suite of tools supporting data processing, data visualization, historical analysis, situation assessment and predictive analysis. TAS includes expert system tools to analyze incoming events for indications of particular situations and predicts future activity. The expert system operates on a knowledge base of temporal patterns encoded using a knowledge representation called Temporal Transition Models (TTM's) and an event database maintained by the other TAS tools. The system also includes a robust knowledge acquisition and maintenance tool for creating TTM's using a graphical specification language. The ability to manipulate TTM's in a graphical format gives non-computer specialists an intuitive way of accessing and editing the knowledge base. To support space environmental analyses, we used TAS's ability to define domain specific event analysis abstractions. The prototype system defines

  20. CARVEDILOL POPULATION PHARMACOKINETIC ANALYSISAPPLIED VALIDATION PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Catić-Đorđević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carvedilol is a nonselective beta blocker/alpha-1 blocker, which is used for treatment of essential hypertension, chronic stable angina, unstable angina and ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to describe carvedilol population pharmacokinetic (PK analysis as well as the validation of analytical procedure, which is an important step regarding this approach. In contemporary clinical practice, population PK analysis is often more important than standard PK approach in setting a mathematical model that describes the PK parameters. Also, it includes the variables that have particular importance in the drugs pharmacokinetics such as sex, body mass, dosage, pharmaceutical form, pathophysiological state, disease associated with the organism or the presence of a specific polymorphism in the isoenzyme important for biotransformation of the drug. One of the most frequently used approach in population PK analysis is the Nonlinear Modeling of Mixed Effects - NONMEM modeling. Analytical methods used in the data collection period is of great importance for the implementation of a population PK analysis of carvedilol in order to obtain reliable data that can be useful in clinical practice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of carvedilol is used to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the efficacy of the therapy. Analytical procedures used in other studies could not be fully implemented in our research as it was necessary to perform certain modification and validation of the method with the aim of using the obtained results for the purpose of a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Validation process is a logical terminal phase of analytical procedure development that provides applicability of the procedure itself. The goal of validation is to ensure consistency of the method and accuracy of results or to confirm the selection of analytical method for a given sample

  1. Diffusing wave spectroscopy applied to material analysis and process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, Christopher James

    1997-01-01

    Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) was studied as a method of laboratory analysis of sub-micron particles, and developed as a prospective in-line, industrial, process control sensor, capable of near real-time feedback. No sample pre-treatment was required and measurement was via a non-invasive, flexible, dip in probe. DWS relies on the concept of the diffusive migration of light, as opposed to the ballistic scatter model used in conventional dynamic light scattering. The specific requirements of the optoelectronic hardware, data analysis methods and light scattering model were studied experimentally and, where practical, theoretically resulting in a novel technique of analysis of particle suspensions and emulsions of volume fractions between 0.01 and 0.4. Operation at high concentrations made the technique oblivious to dust and contamination. A pure homodyne (autodyne) experimental arrangement described was resilient to environmental disturbances, unlike many other systems which utilise optical fibres or heterodyne operation. Pilot and subsequent prototype development led to a highly accurate method of size ranking, suitable for analysis of a wide range of suspensions and emulsions. The technique was shown to operate on real industrial samples with statistical variance as low as 0.3% with minimal software processing. Whilst the application studied was the analysis of TiO 2 suspensions, a diverse range of materials including polystyrene beads, cell pastes and industrial cutting fluid emulsions were tested. Results suggest that, whilst all sizing should be comparative to suitable standards, concentration effects may be minimised and even completely modelled-out in many applications. Adhesion to the optical probe was initially a significant problem but was minimised after the evaluation and use of suitable non stick coating materials. Unexpected behaviour in the correlation in the region of short decay times led to consideration of the effects of rotational diffusion

  2. Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T

    1987-01-01

    Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.

  3. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  4. Environmental analysis applied to schools. Methodologies for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, L.; Ceccacci, R.

    2001-01-01

    The environment analysis is the basis of environmental management for organizations and it is considered as the first step in EMAS. It allows to identify, deal with the issues and have a clear knowledge on environmental performances of organizations. Schools can be included in the organizations. Nevertheless, the complexity of environmental issues and applicable regulations makes very difficult for a school, that wants to implement an environmental management system (EMAS, ISO 14001, etc.), to face this first step. So, it has been defined an instrument, that is easy but complete and coherent with reference standard, to let schools choose their process for elaborating the initial environmental revue. This instrument consists, essentially, in cards that, if completed, facilitate the drafting of the environmental analysis report [it

  5. Residual stress analysis on materials with steep stress gradient by using X-ray incidence at higher angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Maeno, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    X-ray stress measurements for isotropic polycrystalline are materials are usually carried out by the sin 2 ψ method under the assumption of no stress gradient in X-ray penetration depth. When a steep stress gradient exists in the vicinity of surface layer, however, non-linear sin 2 ψ relation is observed and the sin 2 ψ method cannot be applied on such cases. Although several X-ray stress analyzers have been developed for materials with steep stress gradient in the surface layer, it is desirable to use diffraction data at higher incident angles of ψ 0 as possible as close on 90 degrees in order to determine the both values of surface stress and stress gradient with high accuracy. In the present study, an X-ray stress analyzer based on Ω geometry was fabricated to enable X-ray incidence at higher angle of ψ 0 . The X-ray detector was positioned on -η side against X-ray incident beam. Both of the residual surface stress and stress gradient were determined by use of the COSψ method on shot-peened steel and silicon nitride specimens. This prototype stress analyzer was found effective to perform a biaxial or triaxial stress analysis. (author)

  6. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D D; Bailey, G; Martin, J; Garton, D; Noorman, H; Stelcer, E; Johnson, P [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  7. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  8. Pair distribution function analysis applied to decahedral gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakotte, H; Silkwood, C; Kiefer, B; Karpov, D; Fohtung, E; Page, K; Wang, H-W; Olds, D; Manna, S; Fullerton, E E

    2017-01-01

    The five-fold symmetry of face-centered cubic (fcc) derived nanoparticles is inconsistent with the translational symmetry of a Bravais lattice and generally explained by multiple twinning of a tetrahedral subunit about a (joint) symmetry axis, with or without structural modification to the fcc motif. Unlike in bulk materials, five-fold twinning in cubic nanoparticles is common and strongly affects their structural, chemical, and electronic properties. To test and verify theoretical approaches, it is therefore pertinent that the local structural features of such materials can be fully characterized. The small size of nanoparticles severely limits the application of traditional analysis techniques, such as Bragg diffraction. A complete description of the atomic arrangement in nanoparticles therefore requires a departure from the concept of translational symmetry, and prevents fully evaluating all the structural features experimentally. We describe how recent advances in instrumentation, together with the increasing power of computing, are shaping the development of alternative analysis methods of scattering data for nanostructures. We present the application of Debye scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis towards modeling of the total scattering data for the example of decahedral gold nanoparticles. PDF measurements provide a statistical description of the pair correlations of atoms within a material, allowing one to evaluate the probability of finding two atoms within a given distance. We explored the sensitivity of existing synchrotron x-ray PDF instruments for distinguishing four different simple models for our gold nanoparticles: a multiply twinned fcc decahedron with either a single gap or multiple distributed gaps, a relaxed body-centered orthorhombic (bco) decahedron, and a hybrid decahedron. The data simulations of the models were then compared with experimental data from synchrotron x-ray total scattering. We present our experimentally

  9. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors' offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ''performance evaluations'' for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE's MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues

  10. The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halász Amadé

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.

  11. Applying reliability centered maintenance analysis principles to inservice testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flude, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Federal regulations require nuclear power plants to use inservice test (IST) programs to ensure the operability of safety-related equipment. IST programs are based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements. Many of these plants also use Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to optimize system maintenance. ASME Code requirements are hard to change. The process for requesting authority to use an alternate strategy is long and expensive. The difficulties of obtaining this authority make the use of RCM method on safety-related systems not cost effective. An ASME research task force on Risk Based Inservice Testing is investigating changing the Code. The change will allow plants to apply RCM methods to the problem of maintenance strategy selection for safety-related systems. The research task force is working closely with the Codes and Standards sections to develop a process related to the RCM process. Some day plants will be able to use this process to develop more efficient and safer maintenance strategies

  12. A Multifactorial Analysis of Reconstruction Methods Applied After Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods applied after total gastrectomy in terms of postoperative symptomology and nutrition. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer in 2. Clinic of General Surgery, SSK Ankara Training Hospital. 6 different reconstruction methods were used and analyzed in terms of age, sex and postoperative complications. One from esophagus and two biopsy specimens from jejunum were taken through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from all cases, and late period morphological and microbiological changes were examined. Postoperative weight change, dumping symptoms, reflux esophagitis, solid/liquid dysphagia, early satiety, postprandial pain, diarrhea and anorexia were assessed. Results: Of 31 patients,18 were males and 13 females; the youngest one was 33 years old, while the oldest- 69 years old. It was found that reconstruction without pouch was performed in 22 cases and with pouch in 9 cases. Early satiety, postprandial pain, dumping symptoms, diarrhea and anemia were found most commonly in cases with reconstruction without pouch. The rate of bacterial colonization of the jejunal mucosa was identical in both groups. Reflux esophagitis was most commonly seen in omega esophagojejunostomy (EJ, while the least-in Roux-en-Y, Tooley and Tanner 19 EJ. Conclusion: Reconstruction with pouch performed after total gastrectomy is still a preferable method. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:126-31

  13. Structural analysis of fuel rod applied to pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Danilo P.; Pinheiro, Andre Ricardo M.; Lotto, André A., E-mail: danilo.pinheiro@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CTMSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The design of fuel assemblies applied to Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has several requirements and acceptance criteria that must be attended for licensing. In the case of PWR fuel rods, an important mechanical structural requirement is to keep the radial stability when submitted to the coolant external pressure. In the framework of the Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program new materials have been studied to replace zirconium based alloys as cladding, including iron-based alloys. In this sense, efforts have been made to evaluate the behavior of these materials under PWR conditions. The present work aims to evaluate the collapse cold pressure of a stainless steel thin-walled tube similar to that used as cladding material of fuel rods by means of the comparison of numeric data, and experimental results. As a result of the simulations, it was observed that the collapse pressure has a value intermediate value between those found by regulatory requirements and analytical calculations. The experiment was carried out for the validation of the computational model using test specimens of thin-walled tubes considering empty tube. The test specimens were sealed at both ends by means of welding. They were subjected to a high pressure device until the collapse of the tubes. Preliminary results obtained from experiments with the empty test specimens indicate that the computational model can be validated for stainless steel cladding, considering the difference between collapse pressure indicated in the regulatory document and the actual limit pressure concerning to radial instability of tubes with the studied characteristics. (author)

  14. Framework for applying probabilistic safety analysis in nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    The traditional regulatory framework has served well to assure the protection of public health and safety. It has been recognized, however, that in a few circumstances, this deterministic framework has lead to an extensive expenditure on matters hat have little to do with the safe and reliable operation of the plant. Developments of plant-specific PSA have offered a new and powerful analytical tool in the evaluation of the safety of the plant. Using PSA insights as an aid to decision making in the regulatory process is now known as 'risk-based' or 'risk-informed' regulation. Numerous activities in the U.S. nuclear industry are focusing on applying this new approach to modify regulatory requirements. In addition, other approaches to regulations are in the developmental phase and are being evaluated. One is based on the performance monitoring and results and it is known as performance-based regulation. The other, called the blended approach, combines traditional deterministic principles with PSA insights and performance results. (author)

  15. Stress and Fatigue Life Modeling of Cannon Breech Closures Including Effects of Material Strength and Residual Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, John

    2000-01-01

    ...; overload residual stress. Modeling of applied and residual stresses at the location of the fatigue failure site is performed by elastic-plastic finite element analysis using ABAQUS and by solid...

  16. Consensus guidelines on plasma cell myeloma minimal residual disease analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Maria; Came, Neil; Lin, Pei; Chen, Weina; Yuan, Constance; Lagoo, Anand; Monreal, Mariela; de Tute, Ruth; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Rawstron, Andy C; Paiva, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Major heterogeneity between laboratories in flow cytometry (FC) minimal residual disease (MRD) testing in multiple myeloma (MM) must be overcome. Cytometry societies such as the International Clinical Cytometry Society and the European Society for Clinical Cell Analysis recognize a strong need to establish minimally acceptable requirements and recommendations to perform such complex testing. A group of 11 flow cytometrists currently performing FC testing in MM using different instrumentation, panel designs (≥ 6-color) and analysis software compared the procedures between their respective laboratories and reviewed the literature to propose a consensus guideline on flow-MRD analysis and reporting in MM. Consensus guidelines support i) the use of minimum of five initial gating parameters (CD38, CD138, CD45, forward, and sideward light scatter) within the same aliquot for accurate identification of the total plasma cell compartment; ii) the analysis of potentially aberrant phenotypic markers and to report the antigen expression pattern on neoplastic plasma cells as being reduced, normal or increased, when compared to a normal reference plasma cell immunophenotype (obtained using the same instrument and parameters); and iii) the percentage of total bone marrow plasma cells plus the percentages of both normal and neoplastic plasma cells within the total bone marrow plasma cell compartment, and over total bone marrow cells. Consensus guidelines on minimal current and future MRD analyses should target a lower limit of detection of 0.001%, and ideally a limit of quantification of 0.001%, which requires at least 3 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(6) bone marrow cells to be measured, respectively. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Numerical analysis of cavitating flow characteristics in impeller of residual heat removal pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Feng; Yuan, Jianping; Zhou, Banglun

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate internal cavitating flow characteristics of the impeller in residual heat removal pumps, the three-dimensional cavitating flow in a residual heat removal model pump is numerically calculated by using the homogeneous mixture cavitation model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset

  18. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  19. Productivity and cost analysis of a mobile pyrolysis system deployed to convert mill residues into biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Dongyeob Kim; Nathaniel Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Forest and mill residues are a promising source of biomass feedstock for the production of bioenergy, biofuels and bioproducts. However, high costs of transportation and handling of feedstock often make utilization of forest residues, such as logging slash, financially unviable. As a result, these materials are often considered waste and left on site to decompose or...

  20. Statistical analysis applied to safety culture self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo Soares, P.P.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews and opinion surveys are instruments used to assess the safety culture in an organization as part of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme. Specific statistical tools are used to analyse the survey results. This paper presents an example of an opinion survey with the corresponding application of the statistical analysis and the conclusions obtained. Survey validation, Frequency statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric test, Student (T-test) and ANOVA means comparison tests and LSD post-hoc multiple comparison test, are discussed. (author)

  1. Prompt gamma cold neutron activation analysis applied to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Hiep, N.T.

    1992-01-01

    Cold neutrons at the external neutron guide laboratory (ELLA) of the KFA Juelich are used to demonstrate their profitable application for multielement characterization of biological materials. The set-up and experimental conditions of the Prompt Gamma Cold Neutron Activation Analysis (PGCNAA) device is described in detail. Results for C, H, N, S, K, B, and Cd using synthetic standards and the 'ratio' technique for calculation are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable and complementary with respect to the elements being determined by INAA. (orig.)

  2. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures

  3. Artificial Neural Network methods applied to sentiment analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ebert, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Sentiment Analysis (SA) is the study of opinions and emotions that are conveyed by text. This field of study has commercial applications for example in market research (e.g., “What do customers like and dislike about a product?”) and consumer behavior (e.g., “Which book will a customer buy next when he wrote a positive review about book X?”). A private person can benefit from SA by automatic movie or restaurant recommendations, or from applications on the computer or smart phone that adapt to...

  4. Fate of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid residues in grapes and wine by GC-ITMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Schirra, Mario; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-06-22

    The behavior in field and the transfer from grapes to wine during winemaking of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid was studied. The residue levels found in grapes were far below the MRLs set for grapes in EU, accounting at harvest time 0.81, 0.43, and 4.23 mg/kg for iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid, respectively. The residue levels in the samples treated with boscalid may have residual problems (due to an accumulation effect) if repeated field treatments will be performed. Winemaking experiments showed a complete transfer of all pesticide from grapes to the must, while in wine the residues were low or negligible due to the adsorbing effect of lees and pomace. The clarification experiments showed a good removal of pesticide residues from the wine media, for all pesticides. The GC-ITMS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 75 to 115%, and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs) far below MRLs.

  5. Depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in PVD (Ti, Cr) N hard coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C

    2003-01-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) of thin hard coatings on TiN basis is usually performed at rather low temperatures (T sub D < 500 C) far from thermal equilibrium, which leads to high intrinsic residual stresses in the growing film. In contrast to the extrinsic thermal residual stresses which can easily be estimated from the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the coating, a theoretical prediction of the intrinsic residual stresses is difficult, because their amount as well as their distribution within the film depend in a very complex way on the deposition kinetics. By the example of strongly fibre-textured PVD (Ti, Cr)N coatings which have been prepared under defined variation of the deposition parameters in order to adjust the residual stress distribution within the coatings, the paper compares different X-ray diffraction techniques with respect to their applicability for detecting residual stresses which are non-uniform over the coating thickness. (orig.)

  6. Effectiveness of the compound chlorpyrifos+ cypermethrin+citronellal against Alphitobius diaperinus: laboratory analysis and residue determination in carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness, biological security and the absence of residues in meat and/or eggs must be considered when recommending options for the control Alphitobius diaperinus in poultry production environments. This research study evaluated the effectiveness of cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos+citronellal in the control of A. diaperinus, including analysis for the presence of residues of this compound in poultry carcasses (experimental farm. Two studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. One used paper filters a four dilutions of the compound, and the other used a container including with pulverized broiler litter and the compound. The analysis of carcasses for residues was conducted in broilers that raised in a broiler house treated (floor and/or litter with the compound at a dilution of 1:800. Birds were regularly sacrificed, submitted to necropsy, and liver, muscle and fat fragments were collected. Gas chromatography was used to identify the possible presence of any chemical residue in these samples. High effectiveness rates against A.diaperinus were observed in the two laboratory studies, as well as the absence of residues in the carcasses. This compound, used in the studied concentrations, can be recommended as a valuable alternative for the control and treatment of A. diaperinus.

  7. SPI Trend Analysis of New Zealand Applying the ITA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A natural temporary imbalance of water availability, consisting of persistent lower-than-average or higher-than-average precipitation, can cause extreme dry and wet conditions that adversely impact agricultural yields, water resources, infrastructure, and human systems. In this study, dry and wet periods in New Zealand were expressed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. First, both the short term (3 and 6 months and the long term (12 and 24 months SPI were estimated, and then, possible trends in the SPI values were detected by means of a new graphical technique, the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA, which allows the trend identification of the low, medium, and high values of a series. Results show that, in every area currently subject to drought, an increase in this phenomenon can be expected. Specifically, the results of this paper highlight that agricultural regions on the eastern side of the South Island, as well as the north-eastern regions of the North Island, are the most consistently vulnerable areas. In fact, in these regions, the trend analysis mainly showed a general reduction in all the values of the SPI: that is, a tendency toward heavier droughts and weaker wet periods.

  8. Dynamical Systems Analysis Applied to Working Memory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan eGasimova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we investigate weekly fluctuations in the working memory capacity (WMC assessed over a period of two years. We use dynamical system analysis, specifically a second order linear differential equation, to model weekly variability in WMC in a sample of 112 9th graders. In our longitudinal data we use a B-spline imputation method to deal with missing data. The results show a significant negative frequency parameter in the data, indicating a cyclical pattern in weekly memory updating performance across time. We use a multilevel modeling approach to capture individual differences in model parameters and find that a higher initial performance level and a slower improvement at the MU task is associated with a slower frequency of oscillation. Additionally, we conduct a simulation study examining the analysis procedure’s performance using different numbers of B-spline knots and values of time delay embedding dimensions. Results show that the number of knots in the B-spline imputation influence accuracy more than the number of embedding dimensions.

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis applied to the Force Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Philip; Willoughby, Shannon D.

    2018-06-01

    In 1995, Huffman and Heller used exploratory factor analysis to draw into question the factors of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Since then several papers have been published examining the factors of the FCI on larger sets of student responses and understandable factors were extracted as a result. However, none of these proposed factor models have been verified to not be unique to their original sample through the use of independent sets of data. This paper seeks to confirm the factor models proposed by Scott et al. in 2012, and Hestenes et al. in 1992, as well as another expert model proposed within this study through the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a sample of 20 822 postinstruction student responses to the FCI. Upon application of CFA using the full sample, all three models were found to fit the data with acceptable global fit statistics. However, when CFA was performed using these models on smaller sample sizes the models proposed by Scott et al. and Eaton and Willoughby were found to be far more stable than the model proposed by Hestenes et al. The goodness of fit of these models to the data suggests that the FCI can be scored on factors that are not unique to a single class. These scores could then be used to comment on how instruction methods effect the performance of students along a single factor and more in-depth analyses of curriculum changes may be possible as a result.

  10. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  12. Two-dimensional DFA scaling analysis applied to encrypted images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Olmos, C.; Murguía, J. S.; Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Mejía Carlos, M.; Rosu, H. C.; González-Aguilar, H.

    2015-01-01

    The technique of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been widely used to unveil scaling properties of many different signals. In this paper, we determine scaling properties in the encrypted images by means of a two-dimensional DFA approach. To carry out the image encryption, we use an enhanced cryptosystem based on a rule-90 cellular automaton and we compare the results obtained with its unmodified version and the encryption system AES. The numerical results show that the encrypted images present a persistent behavior which is close to that of the 1/f-noise. These results point to the possibility that the DFA scaling exponent can be used to measure the quality of the encrypted image content.

  13. Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis Methods for Fire Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkina Julia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove the application of multi-criteria analysis methods for optimisation of fire risk identification and assessment process. The object of this research is fire risk and risk assessment. The subject of the research is studying the application of analytic hierarchy process for modelling and influence assessment of various fire risk factors. Results of research conducted by the authors can be used by insurance companies to perform the detailed assessment of fire risks on the object and to calculate a risk extra charge to an insurance premium; by the state supervisory institutions to determine the compliance of a condition of object with requirements of regulations; by real state owners and investors to carry out actions for decrease in degree of fire risks and minimisation of possible losses.

  14. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de; Avegliano, Roseane P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  15. Downside Risk analysis applied to the Hedge Funds universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Josep

    2007-09-01

    Hedge Funds are considered as one of the portfolio management sectors which shows a fastest growing for the past decade. An optimal Hedge Fund management requires an appropriate risk metrics. The classic CAPM theory and its Ratio Sharpe fail to capture some crucial aspects due to the strong non-Gaussian character of Hedge Funds statistics. A possible way out to this problem while keeping the CAPM simplicity is the so-called Downside Risk analysis. One important benefit lies in distinguishing between good and bad returns, that is: returns greater or lower than investor's goal. We revisit most popular Downside Risk indicators and provide new analytical results on them. We compute these measures by taking the Credit Suisse/Tremont Investable Hedge Fund Index Data and with the Gaussian case as a benchmark. In this way, an unusual transversal lecture of the existing Downside Risk measures is provided.

  16. Applying importance-performance analysis to evaluate banking service quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive market, the identification of the most important aspects and the measurement of service quality as perceived by the customers are important actions taken by organizations which seek the competitive advantage. In particular, this scenario is typical of Brazilian banking sector. In this context, this article presents an exploratory case study in which the Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA was used to identify the strong and the weak points related to services provided by a bank. In order to check the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha and correlation analyses were used. The results are presented and some actions have been defined in order to improve the quality of services.

  17. Painleve singularity analysis applied to charged particle dynamics during reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    For a plasma in the collisionless regime, test-particle modelling can lend some insight into the macroscopic behavior of the plasma, e.g. conductivity and heating. A common example for which this technique is used is a system with electric and magnetic fields given by B = δyx + zy + yz and E = εz, where δ, γ, and ε are constant parameters. This model can be used to model plasma behavior near neutral lines, (γ = 0), as well as current sheets (γ = 0, δ = 0). The integrability properties of the particle motion in such fields might affect the plasma's macroscopic behavior, and the author has asked the question open-quotes For what values of δ, γ, and ε is the system integrable?close quotes To answer this question, the author has employed Painleve singularity analysis, which is an examination of the singularity properties of a test particle's equations of motion in the complex time plane. This analysis has identified two field geometries for which the system's particle dynamics are integrable in terms of the second Painleve transcendent: the circular O-line case and the case of the neutral sheet configuration. These geometries yield particle dynamics that are integrable in the Liouville sense (i.e., there exist the proper number of integrals in involution) in an extended phase space which includes the time as a canonical coordinate, and this property is also true for nonzero γ. The singularity property tests also identified a large, dense set of X-line and O-line field geometries that yield dynamics that may possess the weak Painleve property. In the case of the X-line geometries, this result shows little relevance to the physical nature of the system, but the existence of a dense set of elliptical O-line geometries with this property may be related to the fact that for ε positive, one can construct asymptotic solutions in the limit t → ∞

  18. Economic analysis of medical management applied for left colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savlovschi, C; Serban, D; Andreescu, Cv; Dascalu, Am; Pantu, H

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of surgical treatment costs for left colostomy, aiming to calculate a medium cost per procedure and to identify the means to maximize the economic management of this type of surgicale procedure. A retrospective study was conducted on a group of 8 patients hospitalized in the 4th Surgery Department,Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, during the year 2012 for left colic neoplasms with obstruction signs that were operated on with a left colostomy. The followed parameters in the studied group of patients were represented by medical expenses, divided in: preoperative, intra-operative and immediate postoperative (postop. hospitalization). Two major types of colostomy were performed: left loop colostomy with intact tumour for 6 patients and left end colostomy and tumour resection (Hartmann's procedure) for 2 patients. The medium cost of this type of surgical intervention was 4396.807 RON, representing 1068.742 euro. Statistic data analysis didn't reveal average costs to vary with the type of procedure. The age of the study subjects was between 49 and 88, with an average of 61 years, without it being possible to establish a correlation between patient age and the level of medical spendings. Reducing the costs involved by left colostomy can be efficiently done by decreasing the number of days of hospitalisation in the following ways: preoperative preparation and assessment of the subject in an outpatient regimen; the accuracy of the surgical procedure with the decrease of early postoperative complications and antibiotherapy- the second major cause of increased postoperative costs. Celsius.

  19. An Inverse Kinematic Approach Using Groebner Basis Theory Applied to Gait Cycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS Anum Barki AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENP-13-M-02 AN INVERSE KINEMATIC APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS THESIS...APPROACH USING GROEBNER BASIS THEORY APPLIED TO GAIT CYCLE ANALYSIS Anum Barki, BS Approved: Dr. Ronald F. Tuttle (Chairman) Date Dr. Kimberly Kendricks

  20. Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-11-15

    Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/{tau} + 1/L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L{sup 2} >> {tau}, e.g. D{sub 2}O, contributes with {radical}{tau} to the thickness. In cores where {tau} >> L{sup 2} , e.g. H{sub 2}O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D{sub 2}O and on test regions of D{sub 2}O alone (where B{sup 2} = - 1/L{sup 2} ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of {radical}2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D{sub 2}O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis.

  1. Soft tissue cephalometric analysis applied to Himachali ethnic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The modern society considers facial attractiveness as an important physical attribute. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face complicates accurate assessment of the soft tissue profile, and it is a known fact that facial features of different ethnic groups differ significantly. This study was undertaken to establish norms for Himachali ethnic population. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised lateral cephalograms taken in natural head position of 100 normal individuals (50 males, 50 females. The cephalograms were analyzed by Arnett soft tissue cephalometric analysis for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Males have thicker soft tissue structures and a more acute nasolabial angle than females. Males have longer faces and females have greater interlabial gap and maxillary incisor exposure. Males have more deep-set facial structures than females. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found between Himachali males and females in certain key parameters. Differences were also noted between other ethnic groups and Himachali faces.

  2. MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS APPLIED TO LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Madruga de Brito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a multi-criteria analysis (MCA tool for landslide susceptibility assessment in Porto Alegre municipality, southern Brazil. A knowledge driven approach was used, aiming to ensure an optimal use of the available information. The landslide conditioning factors considered were slope, lithology, flow accumulation and distance from lineaments. Standardization of these factors was done through fuzzy membership functions, and evaluation of their relative importance for landslide predisposition was supported by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, based on local expert knowledge. Finally, factors were integrated in a GIS environment using the weighted linear combination (WLC method. For validation, an inventory, including 107 landslide points recorded between 2007 and 2013 was used. Results indicated that 8.2% (39.40 km² of the study area are highly and very highly susceptible to landslides. An overall accuracy of 95% was found, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve of 0.960. Therefore, the resulting map can be regarded as useful for monitoring landslide-prone areas. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the proposed method is effective for susceptibility assessment since it yielded meaningful results and does not require extensive input data.

  3. Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method to Discovery Layer Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Promann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are implementing discovery layers to offer better user experiences. While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus has remained on its relative interface benefits over the traditional federated search. The informal site- and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA method. As no previous application of HTA to the evaluation of discovery layers was found, this paper presents the application of HTA as an expert based and workflow centered (e.g. retrieving a relevant book or a journal article method to evaluating discovery layers. Purdue University’s Primo by Ex Libris was used to map eleven use cases as HTA charts. Nielsen’s Goal Composition theory was used as an analytical framework to evaluate the goal carts from two perspectives: a users’ physical interactions (i.e. clicks, and b user’s cognitive steps (i.e. decision points for what to do next. A brief comparison of HTA and usability test findings is offered as a way of conclusion.

  4. Applied and computational harmonic analysis on graphs and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Jeff; Saito, Naoki

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the advent of new sensor technologies and social network infrastructure has provided huge opportunities and challenges for analyzing data recorded on such networks. In the case of data on regular lattices, computational harmonic analysis tools such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms have well-developed theories and proven track records of success. It is therefore quite important to extend such tools from the classical setting of regular lattices to the more general setting of graphs and networks. In this article, we first review basics of graph Laplacian matrices, whose eigenpairs are often interpreted as the frequencies and the Fourier basis vectors on a given graph. We point out, however, that such an interpretation is misleading unless the underlying graph is either an unweighted path or cycle. We then discuss our recent effort of constructing multiscale basis dictionaries on a graph, including the Hierarchical Graph Laplacian Eigenbasis Dictionary and the Generalized Haar-Walsh Wavelet Packet Dictionary, which are viewed as generalizations of the classical hierarchical block DCTs and the Haar-Walsh wavelet packets, respectively, to the graph setting. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our dictionaries by using them to simultaneously segment and denoise 1-D noisy signals sampled on regular lattices, a problem where classical tools have difficulty.

  5. Applying revised gap analysis model in measuring hotel service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Che; Chien, Chih-Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Lu, Shu-Chiung; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dong, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    With the number of tourists coming to Taiwan growing by 10-20 % since 2010, the number has increased due to an increasing number of foreign tourists, particularly after deregulation allowed admitting tourist groups, followed later on by foreign individual tourists, from mainland China. The purpose of this study is to propose a revised gap model to evaluate and improve service quality in Taiwanese hotel industry. Thus, service quality could be clearly measured through gap analysis, which was more effective for offering direction in developing and improving service quality. The HOLSERV instrument was used to identify and analyze service gaps from the perceptions of internal and external customers. The sample for this study included three main categories of respondents: tourists, employees, and managers. The results show that five gaps influenced tourists' evaluations of service quality. In particular, the study revealed that Gap 1 (management perceptions vs. customer expectations) and Gap 9 (service provider perceptions of management perceptions vs. service delivery) were more critical than the others in affecting perceived service quality, making service delivery the main area of improvement. This study contributes toward an evaluation of the service quality of the Taiwanese hotel industry from the perspectives of customers, service providers, and managers, which is considerably valuable for hotel managers. It was the aim of this study to explore all of these together in order to better understand the possible gaps in the hotel industry in Taiwan.

  6. A generic approach for a linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis of components containing residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeong Y.; Nikbin, Kamran M.; O'Dowd, Noel P.

    2005-01-01

    A review of through thickness transverse residual stress distribution measurements in a number of components, manufactured from a range of steels, has been carried out. Residual stresses introduced by welding and mechanical deformation have been considered. The geometries consisted of welded T-plate joints, pipe butt joints, tube-on-plate joints, tubular Y-joints and tubular T-joints as well as cold bent tubes and repair welds. In addition, the collected data cover a range of engineering steels including ferritic, austenitic, C-Mn and Cr-Mo steels. The methods used to measure the residual stresses also varied. These included neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and deep hole drilling techniques. Measured residual stress data, normalised by their respective yield stress have shown an inverse linear correlation versus the normalised depth of the region containing the residual stress (up to 0.5 of the component thickness). A simplified generic residual stress profile based on a linear fit to the data is proposed for the case of a transverse residual tensile stress field. Whereas the profiles in assessment procedures are case specific the proposed linear profile can be varied to produce a combination of membrane and bending stress distributions to give lower or higher levels of conservatism on stress intensity factors, depending on the amount of case specific data available or the degree of safety required

  7. [Situation analysis and standard formulation of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Zhen; Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Ji, Rui-Feng; Zhou, L I; Wang, Sheng; Li, Zhen-Hao; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Chinese Pharmacopoeia provides nine pesticide Maximum Residual Limits(MRLs) of traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs), The number of pesticides used in production are far more than those listed in pharmacopoeia. The lack of the standards make it's hard to reflect the real situation of pesticide residues in TCMs correctly. The paper is aimed to analyze the data of pesticide residues in TCMs from 7 089 items in 140 reports, and judging the exceedance rate of pesticides in TCMs using the MRLs of European pharmacopoeia,which is widely accepted in many countries. The results show that:①Pesticide residues in 18 kinds of TCMs are higher than MRLs,while in 137 kinds are below MRLs, such as Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus. The average exceedance rate of all TCMs is 1.72%. The average exceedance rates of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid are 2.26%, 1.51%, 0.37%,respectively. ②The average exceedance rate of pesticides is 2.00%, and the exceedance rate is more than 5%, accounting for 8.33%, the exceedance rate is between 1%-5%, accounting for 18.75%. the exceedance rate is between 0%-1%, accounting for 18.75%. The remaining 29 kinds of pesticides were not exceeded, accounting for 60.42%.Some reports like Greenpeace's organization exaggerated the pesticide residues in TCMs.But the pesticide residue question is still worthy of attention, so we proposed to amend the Chinese Pharmacopoeia pesticide residues standards, to increase the pesticide species of traditional Chinese medicine in production on the basis of retaining the existing types of pesticide residues, to strengthen the system research of pesticide residues in TCMs, providing a basis for making standard and promoting import and export trade in TCMs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. The analysis, by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry, of matte-leach residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, R.C.; Ring, E.J.; Middleton, H.R.; Dubois, M.

    1973-01-01

    Alternative methods for the analysis of matte-leach residues by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry were investigated. For the determination of the platinum-group metals, gold, and certain of the base metals, a fusion with sodium peroxide, followed by the separation of gold by reverse-phase chromatography and of the platinum-group metals by ion-exchange, is proposed. The noble metals are then determined in a solution that is free of most base metals including the sodium present as a result of the fusion. Copper, nickel, iron, calcium, magnesium, and aluminium can be determined after they have been removed from the ion-exchange column. Arsenic, selenium, tellurium, bismuth, tin, silver, lead, manganese, zinc, and cobalt can be determined in a separate sample after dissolution by a sealed-tube method. This is also an alternative method for the determination of copper, nickel, and iron. Chromium is determined separately after fusion with sodium peroxide, and silver can also be determined in this way. The laboratory method for these procedures is given as an appendix [af

  9. Determination of barium and antimony in gun shot residues by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuchinda, A.

    1975-01-01

    The antimony contents on both hands of 7 persons before and after firing an automatic pistol were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The gun shot residues were removed from hands by a 4% solution of cellulose acetate in acetone. The average content of antimony on both hands before firing obtained from 70 measurements (35 from each hand) was 0.040 ± 0.010 micro gram, whereas the average contents on the right and the left hands after 1 firing were 0.385 ± 0.036 and 0.144 ± 0.029 micro gram respectively. The ration of the antimony contents after 1 firing to the normal level (before firing) was 9.9 for the right and 3.6 for the left. No significant difference was observed between male and female, smoker and non-smoker. The antimony content after several firings was not much different from that of 1 firing and it reduced to the normal level within 2 days after firing. The barium contents before and after firing were studied from one person. Barium was precipitated as Ba SO 4 before counting. An average contents of 0.936 ± 0.551 micro gram for both hands before firing, 4.092 ± 2.687 micro gram for the right hand and 1.363 ± 0.879 micro gram for the left hand after 1 firing were found

  10. Residual life assessment of French PWR vessel head penetrations through metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, C.; Boudot, R.; Benhamou, C.; Gelpi, A.

    1994-01-01

    In September 1991, a vessel head penetration was found leaking at Bugey 3 plant during the hydrotest included in the framework of decennial In Service Inspections. Non destructive examinations performed afterwards on several other plants have shown some cracked penetrations. Destructive expertise confirmed quickly that again this new problem is related to stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 used as base material. During the last 15 years, similar cracking have been met in steam generator tubes and secondly in pressurizer instrumentation tubes. In spite of all the work performed since that time an extension appears to be necessary for explaining the features of this new event; however material sensitivity, stress and temperature still remain the key parameters governing the behavior of Alloy 600 in PWR environment. In this paper, only the material sensitivity of vessel head penetrations is examined through metallurgical analysis in relation with SCC tests. On the basis of vessel head field experience in combination with thermomechanical process used for fabrication of original bars criteria for a sensitivity ranking of penetrations are proposed. Metallurgical investigations and SCC tests were carried out to support this sensitivity ranking. The final aim is to use such information among those quoted above for assessment of vessel heads residual life. This document is an overview of the work performed in France concerning the material sensitivity of forged Alloy 600. It represents an important part of the assessments and investigations undertaken in France on the stress corrosion cracking phenomenon affecting the reactor vessel head penetrations in PWR's

  11. Nonparametric Bayesian inference for mean residual life functions in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Valerie; Kottas, Athanasios

    2018-01-19

    Modeling and inference for survival analysis problems typically revolves around different functions related to the survival distribution. Here, we focus on the mean residual life (MRL) function, which provides the expected remaining lifetime given that a subject has survived (i.e. is event-free) up to a particular time. This function is of direct interest in reliability, medical, and actuarial fields. In addition to its practical interpretation, the MRL function characterizes the survival distribution. We develop general Bayesian nonparametric inference for MRL functions built from a Dirichlet process mixture model for the associated survival distribution. The resulting model for the MRL function admits a representation as a mixture of the kernel MRL functions with time-dependent mixture weights. This model structure allows for a wide range of shapes for the MRL function. Particular emphasis is placed on the selection of the mixture kernel, taken to be a gamma distribution, to obtain desirable properties for the MRL function arising from the mixture model. The inference method is illustrated with a data set of two experimental groups and a data set involving right censoring. The supplementary material available at Biostatistics online provides further results on empirical performance of the model, using simulated data examples. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A method for the estimation of the residual error in the SALP approach for fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astolfi, M.; Contini, S.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this report is the illustration of the algorithms implemented in the SALP-MP code for the estimation of the residual error. These algorithms are of more general use, and it would be possible to implement them on all codes of the series SALP previously developed, as well as, with minor modifications, to analysis procedures based on 'top-down' approaches. At the time, combined 'top-down' - 'bottom up' procedures are being studied in order to take advantage from both approaches for further reduction of computer time and better estimation of the residual error, for which the developed algorithms are still applicable

  13. Statistical analysis and Kalman filtering applied to nuclear materials accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annibal, P.S.

    1990-08-01

    Much theoretical research has been carried out on the development of statistical methods for nuclear material accountancy. In practice, physical, financial and time constraints mean that the techniques must be adapted to give an optimal performance in plant conditions. This thesis aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice, to show the benefits to be gained from a knowledge of the facility operation. Four different aspects are considered; firstly, the use of redundant measurements to reduce the error on the estimate of the mass of heavy metal in an 'accountancy tank' is investigated. Secondly, an analysis of the calibration data for the same tank is presented, establishing bounds for the error and suggesting a means of reducing them. Thirdly, a plant-specific method of producing an optimal statistic from the input, output and inventory data, to help decide between 'material loss' and 'no loss' hypotheses, is developed and compared with existing general techniques. Finally, an application of the Kalman Filter to materials accountancy is developed, to demonstrate the advantages of state-estimation techniques. The results of the analyses and comparisons illustrate the importance of taking into account a complete and accurate knowledge of the plant operation, measurement system, and calibration methods, to derive meaningful results from statistical tests on materials accountancy data, and to give a better understanding of critical random and systematic error sources. The analyses were carried out on the head-end of the Fast Reactor Reprocessing Plant, where fuel from the prototype fast reactor is cut up and dissolved. However, the techniques described are general in their application. (author)

  14. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    Flash floods are one of the natural hazards that cause major damages worldwide. Especially in Mediterranean areas they provoke high economic losses every year. In mountain areas with high stream gradients, floods events are characterized by extremely high flow and debris transport rates. Flash flood analysis in mountain areas presents specific scientific challenges. On one hand, there is a lack of information on precipitation and discharge due to a lack of spatially well distributed gauge stations with long records. On the other hand, gauge stations may not record correctly during extreme events when they are damaged or the discharge exceeds the recordable level. In this case, no systematic data allows improvement of the understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of the process. Since historic documentation is normally scarce or even completely missing in mountain areas, tree-ring analysis can provide an alternative approach. Flash floods may influence trees in different ways: (1) tilting of the stem through the unilateral pressure of the flowing mass or individual boulders; (2) root exposure through erosion of the banks; (3) injuries and scars caused by boulders and wood transported in the flow; (4) decapitation of the stem and resulting candelabra growth through the severe impact of boulders; (5) stem burial through deposition of material. The trees react to these disturbances with specific growth changes such as abrupt change of the yearly increment and anatomical changes like reaction wood or callus tissue. In this study, we sampled 90 cross sections and 265 increment cores of trees heavily affected by past flash floods in order to date past events and to reconstruct recurrence intervals in two torrent channels located in the Spanish Central System. The first study site is located along the Pelayo River, a torrent in natural conditions. Based on the external disturbances of trees and their geomorphological position, 114 Pinus pinaster (Ait

  15. Pyrolysis behaviors and kinetic studies on Eucalyptus residues using thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhihua; Zhu, Quanjie; Wang, Xun; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The first study on pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic of Eucalyptus residues. • Pyrolysis process can be divided into three stages using differential DTG method. • A new modified discrete DAEM showed better than Gaussian DAEM for kinetic studies. • Variations of activation energy reveal the mechanism change during pyrolysis process. - Abstract: The pyrolysis behaviors and kinetics of Eucalyptus leaves (EL), Eucalyptus bark (EB) and Eucalyptus sawdust (ESD) were investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Three stages for EL, EB and ESD pyrolysis have been divided using differential derivative thermogravimetric (DDTG) method and the second stage is the main pyrolysis process with approximately 86.93% (EL), 88.96% (EB) and 97.84% (ESD) weight loss percentages. Kinetic parameters of Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM) for EL, EB and ESD pyrolysis are: distributed centers (E_0) of 141.15 kJ/mol (EL), 149.21 kJ/mol (EB), 175.79 kJ/mol (ESD), standard deviations (σ) of 18.35 kJ/mol (EL), 18.37 kJ/mol (EB), 14.41 kJ/mol (ESD) and pre-exponential factors (A) of 1.15E+10 s"−"1 (EL), 4.34E+10 s"−"1 (EB), 7.44E+12 s"−"1 (ESD). A new modified discrete DAEM was performed and showed excellent fits to experimental data than Gaussian DAEM. According to the modified discrete DAEM, the activation energies are in ranges of 122.67–308.64 kJ/mol, 118.72–410.80 kJ/mol and 108.39–192.93 kJ/mol for EL, EB and ESD pyrolysis, respectively. The pre-exponential factors of discrete DAEM have wide ranges of 4.84E+13–6.12E+22 s"−"1 (EL), 1.91E+12–4.51E+25 s"−"1 (EB) and 63.43–4.36E+11 s"−"1 (ESD). The variation of activation energy versus conversion reveals the mechanism change during pyrolysis process. The kinetic data would be of immense benefit to model, design and develop suitable thermo-chemical systems for the application of Eucalyptus residues.

  16. Applied machine learning in greenhouse simulation; new application and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediction the inside environment variables in greenhouses is very important because they play a vital role in greenhouse cultivation and energy lost especially in cold and hot regions. The greenhouse environment is an uncertain nonlinear system which classical modeling methods have some problems to solve it. So the main goal of this study is to select the best method between Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Support Vector Machine (SVM to estimate three different variables include inside air, soil and plant temperatures (Ta, Ts, Tp and also energy exchange in a polyethylene greenhouse in Shahreza city, Isfahan province, Iran. The environmental factors which influencing all the inside temperatures such as outside air temperature, wind speed and outside solar radiation were collected as data samples. In this research, 13 different training algorithms were used for ANN models (MLP-RBF. Based on K-fold cross validation and Randomized Complete Block (RCB methodology, the best model was selected. The results showed that the type of training algorithm and kernel function are very important factors in ANN (RBF and MLP and SVM models performance, respectively. Comparing RBF, MLP and SVM models showed that the performance of RBF to predict Ta, Tp and Ts variables is better according to small values of RMSE and MAPE and large value of R2 indices. The range of RMSE and MAPE factors for RBF model to predict Ta, Tp and Ts were between 0.07 and 0.12 °C and 0.28–0.50%, respectively. Generalizability and stability of the RBF model with 5-fold cross validation analysis showed that this method can use with small size of data groups. The performance of best model (RBF to estimate the energy lost and exchange in the greenhouse with heat transfer models showed that this method can estimate the real data in greenhouse and then predict the energy lost and exchange with high accuracy. Keywords: Black box method, Energy lost, Environmental situation, Energy

  17. Fate and Transport of Colloidal Energetic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    laser confocal microscopy was developed and evaluated. Spectral imaging has been applied widely for chromosome karyotype analysis (61), as well as...Walsh et al. (2010) (55), who reported that the timeframe for complete disappearance of the residues (based on visual inspection) was shorter than...enhanced disappearance of residues is that the particulates produced by precipitation- driven (or even tidal flooding) weathering lead to faster

  18. Development of Circular Disk Model for Polymeric Nanocomposites and Micromechanical Analysis of Residual Stresses in Reinforced Fibers with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Ghasemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Circular Disk Model (CDM has been developed to determine the residual stresses in twophase and three- phase unit cell. The two-phase unit cell is consisting of carbon fiber and matrix. The three-phase unit cell is consisting of carbon fiber, carbon nanotubes and matrix in which the carbon fiber is reinforced with the carbon nanotube using electrophoresis method. For different volume fractions of carbon nanotubes, thermal properties of the carbon fiber and carbon nanotube in different linear and lateral directions and also different placement conditions of carbon nanotubes have been considered. Also, residual stresses distribution in two and three phases has been studied, separately. Results of micromechanical analysis of residual stresses obtained from Finite Element Method and CDM, confirms the evaluation and development of three dimensional CDM.

  19. Analysis of Corrosion Residues Collected from the Aluminum Basket Rails of the High-Burnup Demonstration Cask.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    On September, 2015, an inspection was performed on the TN-32B cask that will be used for the high-burnup demonstration project. During the survey, wooden cribbing that had been placed within the cask eleven years earlier to prevent shifting of the basket during transport was removed, revealing two areas of residue on the aluminum basket rails, where they had contacted the cribbing. The residue appeared to be a corrosion product, and concerns were raised that similar attack could exist at more difficult-to-inspect locations in the canister. Accordingly, when the canister was reopened, samples of the residue were collected for analysis. This report presents the results of that assessment, which determined that the corrosion was due to the presence of the cribbing. The corrosion was associated with fungal material, and fungal activity likely contributed to an aggressive chemical environment. Once the cask has been cleaned, there will be no risk of further corrosion.

  20. Analysis of shot-peening and residual stress relaxation in the nickel-based superalloy RR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, B.J.; Gray, S.; Hardy, M.C.; Stekovic, S.; McPhail, D.S.; Shollock, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the residual stress relaxation of the nickel-based alloy RR1000 due to thermal exposure and dwell-fatigue loading. A number of different characterization methods, including X-ray residual stress analysis, electron back-scattered diffraction, microhardness testing and focused ion beam secondary electron imaging, contributed to a detailed study of the shot-peened region. Thermal exposure at 700 °C resulted in a large reduction in the residual stresses and work-hardening effects in the alloy, but the subsurface remained in a beneficial compressive state. Oxidizing environments caused recrystallization in the near surface, but did not affect the residual stress-relaxation behaviour. Dwell-fatigue loading caused the residual stresses to return to approximately zero at nearly all depths. This work forms part of an ongoing investigation to determine the effects of shot-peening in this alloy with the motivation to improve the fatigue and oxidation resistance at 700 °C

  1. Residual lifetime prediction for lithium-ion battery based on functional principal component analysis and Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yujie; Lu, Chen; Li, Tieying; Tao, Laifa

    2015-01-01

    Existing methods for predicting lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery residual lifetime mostly depend on a priori knowledge on aging mechanism, the use of chemical or physical formulation and analytical battery models. This dependence is usually difficult to determine in practice, which restricts the application of these methods. In this study, we propose a new prediction method for Li-ion battery residual lifetime evaluation based on FPCA (functional principal component analysis) and Bayesian approach. The proposed method utilizes FPCA to construct a nonparametric degradation model for Li-ion battery, based on which the residual lifetime and the corresponding confidence interval can be evaluated. Furthermore, an empirical Bayes approach is utilized to achieve real-time updating of the degradation model and concurrently determine residual lifetime distribution. Based on Bayesian updating, a more accurate prediction result and a more precise confidence interval are obtained. Experiments are implemented based on data provided by the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence. Results confirm that the proposed prediction method performs well in real-time battery residual lifetime prediction. - Highlights: • Capacity is considered functional and FPCA is utilized to extract more information. • No features required which avoids drawbacks induced by feature extraction. • A good combination of both population and individual information. • Avoiding complex aging mechanism and accurate analytical models of batteries. • Easily applicable to different batteries for life prediction and RLD calculation.

  2. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  3. Analysis of residual stresses on the transverse beam of a casting stand by means of drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Frankovský

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper demonstrates the application of drilling method in the analysis of residual stresses on the transverse beam of a casting stand. In the initial stage of the analysis the determination of strains was done for individual steps of drilling in the area which was determined by means of numerical analysis. The drilling was carried out gradually by 0,5 mm up to the depth of 5 mm, while the diameter of the drilled hole was 3,2 mm. During the analysis we used the drilling device RS-200, strain indicator P3 and SGD 1-RY21-3/120. The paper presents the development of residual stresses throughout the depth of the drilled hole which were determined according to standard ASTM E837-01, by means of integral method, power series method and by means of Power Series method.

  4. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Sergey; Grishin, Eugene

    2011-01-31

    Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed.

  5. The mining of toxin-like polypeptides from EST database by single residue distribution analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishin Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel high throughput sequencing technologies require permanent development of bioinformatics data processing methods. Among them, rapid and reliable identification of encoded proteins plays a pivotal role. To search for particular protein families, the amino acid sequence motifs suitable for selective screening of nucleotide sequence databases may be used. In this work, we suggest a novel method for simplified representation of protein amino acid sequences named Single Residue Distribution Analysis, which is applicable both for homology search and database screening. Results Using the procedure developed, a search for amino acid sequence motifs in sea anemone polypeptides was performed, and 14 different motifs with broad and low specificity were discriminated. The adequacy of motifs for mining toxin-like sequences was confirmed by their ability to identify 100% toxin-like anemone polypeptides in the reference polypeptide database. The employment of novel motifs for the search of polypeptide toxins in Anemonia viridis EST dataset allowed us to identify 89 putative toxin precursors. The translated and modified ESTs were scanned using a special algorithm. In addition to direct comparison with the motifs developed, the putative signal peptides were predicted and homology with known structures was examined. Conclusions The suggested method may be used to retrieve structures of interest from the EST databases using simple amino acid sequence motifs as templates. The efficiency of the procedure for directed search of polypeptides is higher than that of most currently used methods. Analysis of 39939 ESTs of sea anemone Anemonia viridis resulted in identification of five protein precursors of earlier described toxins, discovery of 43 novel polypeptide toxins, and prediction of 39 putative polypeptide toxin sequences. In addition, two precursors of novel peptides presumably displaying neuronal function were disclosed.

  6. Analysis of residual products in benzyl chloride used for the industrial synthesis of quaternary compounds by liquid chromatography with diode-array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2009-02-01

    In industrial and pharmaceutical processes, the study of residual products becomes essential to guarantee the quality of compounds and to eliminate or minimize toxic residual products. Knowledge about the origin of impurities (raw materials, processes, the contamination of industrial plants, etc.) is necessary in preventive treatment and in the control of a product's lifecycle. Benzyl chloride is used as raw material to synthesize several quaternary ammonium compounds, such as benzalkonium chloride, which may have pharmaceutical applications. Benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, toluene, chloro derivatives of toluene, and dibenzyl ether are compounds that may be found as impurities in technical benzyl chloride. We proposed a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the separation of these compounds, testing two stationary phases with different dimensions and particle sizes, with the application of photodiode array-detection. The linearity for four possible impurities (benzaldehyde, toluene, alpha,alpha-dichlorotoluene, and 2-chlorotoluene) ranged from 0.1 to 10 microg/mL, limits of detection from 11 to 34 ng/mL, and repeatability from 1% to 2.9% for a 0.3-1.2 microg/mL concentration range. The method was applied to samples of technical benzyl chloride, and alpha,alpha-dichlorotoluene and benzaldehyde were identified by spectral analysis and quantitated. The selection of benzyl chloride with lower levels of impurities is important to guarantee the reduction of residual products in further syntheses.

  7. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for residue analysis of the insecticide emamectin benzoate in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Mika; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Uchigashima, Mikiko; Kono, Takeshi; Takemoto, Toshihide; Fujita, Masahiro; Saka, Machiko; Iwasa, Seiji; Ito, Shigekazu; Miyake, Shiro

    2009-01-28

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dc-ELISA) for the analysis of emamectin residues in agricultural products was developed using a prepared mouse monoclonal antibody. The working range was 0.3-3.0 ng/mL, and the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 1.0 ng/mL. The assay was sufficiently sensitive for analysis of the maximum residue limits in agricultural products in Japan (>0.1 microg/g). Emamectin residues contain the following metabolites: the 4''-epi-amino analogue, the 4''-epi-(N-formyl)amino analogue, the 4''-epi-(N-formyl-N-methyl)amino analogue, and the 8,9-Z isomer. The dc-ELISA reacted with these compounds at ratios of 113, 55, 38, and 9.1% of the IC(50) value of emamectin benzoate. Seven kinds of vegetables were spiked with emamectin benzoate at concentrations of 15-300 ng/g, and the recoveries were 91-117% in the dc-ELISA. The dc-ELISA results agreed reasonably well with results obtained by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using spiked samples and actual (incurred) samples. The results indicate that the dc-ELISA was useful for the analysis of emamectin benzoate residues in agricultural products.

  8. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  9. Applied Drama and the Higher Education Learning Spaces: A Reflective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Cletus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores Applied Drama as a teaching approach in Higher Education learning spaces. The exploration takes a reflective analysis approach by first examining the impact that Applied Drama has had on my career as a Lecturer/Educator/Teacher working in Higher Education environments. My engagement with Applied Drama practice and theory is…

  10. A novel bi-level meta-analysis approach: applied to biological pathway analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tin; Tagett, Rebecca; Donato, Michele; Mitrea, Cristina; Draghici, Sorin

    2016-02-01

    The accumulation of high-throughput data in public repositories creates a pressing need for integrative analysis of multiple datasets from independent experiments. However, study heterogeneity, study bias, outliers and the lack of power of available methods present real challenge in integrating genomic data. One practical drawback of many P-value-based meta-analysis methods, including Fisher's, Stouffer's, minP and maxP, is that they are sensitive to outliers. Another drawback is that, because they perform just one statistical test for each individual experiment, they may not fully exploit the potentially large number of samples within each study. We propose a novel bi-level meta-analysis approach that employs the additive method and the Central Limit Theorem within each individual experiment and also across multiple experiments. We prove that the bi-level framework is robust against bias, less sensitive to outliers than other methods, and more sensitive to small changes in signal. For comparative analysis, we demonstrate that the intra-experiment analysis has more power than the equivalent statistical test performed on a single large experiment. For pathway analysis, we compare the proposed framework versus classical meta-analysis approaches (Fisher's, Stouffer's and the additive method) as well as against a dedicated pathway meta-analysis package (MetaPath), using 1252 samples from 21 datasets related to three human diseases, acute myeloid leukemia (9 datasets), type II diabetes (5 datasets) and Alzheimer's disease (7 datasets). Our framework outperforms its competitors to correctly identify pathways relevant to the phenotypes. The framework is sufficiently general to be applied to any type of statistical meta-analysis. The R scripts are available on demand from the authors. sorin@wayne.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  11. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESSES GENERATED DURING HARDENING OFAISI 4140 BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwan Anderson Ariza Echeverri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the distribution of residual stresses resulting from the combination of volumetric changes due to heat gradients and phase changes occurring during the quenching process of an AISI/SAE 4140 steel cylinder. The mathematical model used for this objective is the AC3 modeling software of thermal treatments (transformation curves, cooling curves and microstructure, whose results were input in an finite element model, considering thermalmechanical coupling and non-linear elastic-plastic behavior, aiming the assessment of residual stresses in quenched 4140 steel cylinders. The observed microstructure confirms quantitatively and qualitatively the previsions of the AC3 Software. The results of the modeling are compared with the residual stresses measurements made using X-Ray diffraction techniques. The finite element numerical simulation shows the existence of 350 MPa compressive residual stresses in the surface region and indicates that the most significant stresses are tangential.

  12. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  13. Adjust of the residuals of the Arima model by means of the analysis of the residuals of the explanatory variables by means of the analysis of main components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal Suarez, Nestor Ricardo; Montealegre Bocanegra, Jose Edgar

    2000-01-01

    Based on the previous knowledge and understanding of the causality relationships between the fields of surface temperature of the Pacific and North and South tropical Atlantic oceans and rainfall behaviour in Colombia, we purport to model those relations with a (statistical) transfer model. This work is aimed at improving the adjustment of the model for the monthly mean rainfall registered in Funza (nearby the Capital Bogota). The residues of ARIMA models with six explanatory variables may contribute some percentage to the explanation of the total variability of rainfall as a consequence of their interrelationship. Such effect can be represented as a summary of the six variables, which can be achieved with principal components, taking into account that they are not mutually dependent, since they are white noise time series

  14. Analysis of residual stress relief mechanisms in post-weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study on weld residual stress relief mechanisms associated with furnace-based uniform post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Both finite element and analytical methods are used to quantitatively examine how plastic deformation and creep relaxation contribute to residual stress relief process at different stages of PWHT process. The key contribution of this work to an improved understanding of furnace based uniform PWHT can be summarized as follows: (1)Plastic deformation induced stress relief during PWHT can be analytically expressed by the change in material elastic deformation capacity (or elastic deformation limit) measured in terms of material yield strength to Young's modulus ratio, which has a rather limited role in overall residual stress relief during furnace based uniform PWHT. (2)The most dominant stress relief mechanism is creep strain induced stress relaxation, as expected. However, a rapid creep strain development accompanied by a rapid residual stress reduction during heating stage before reaching PWHT temperature is shown to contribute to most of the stress relief seen in overall PWHT process, suggesting PWHT hold time can be significantly reduced as far as residual stress relief is concerned. (3)A simple engineering scheme for estimating residual stress reduction is proposed based on this study by relating material type, PWHT temperature, and component wall thickness. - Highlights: • The paper clarified effects of plastic deformation and creep relaxation on weld residual stress relief during uniform PWHT. • Creep strain development is far more important than plastic strain, mostly completed even before hold time starts. • Plastic strain development is insignificant and be analytically described by a material elastic deformation capacity parameter. • An engineering estimation scheme is proposed for determining residual stress reduction resulted from furnace based PWHT

  15. A study on the bonding residual thermal stress analysis of dissimilar materials using boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Won; Yu, Yeong Chul; Jeong, Eui Seob; Lee, Chang Ho

    1995-01-01

    It is very important to evaluate the bonding residual thermal stress in dissimilar materials such as LSI package. In this study, the bonding residual thermal stress was calculated using the boundary element method, varing with the sub-element, geometry of specimen and adhesive thickness. The present results reveal a stress singularity at the edge of the interface, therefore the bonding strength of metal/resin interface can be estimated by taking into account it.

  16. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon Wg; Goldie, Frank; Long, Steven; Lappin, David F; Ramage, Gordon; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-10

    The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  17. Pesticide residue analysis of soil, water, and grain of IPM basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumitra; Mukherji, Irani; Kumar, Aman; Tanwar, R K

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of the present investigations was to compare the pesticide load in integrated pest management (IPM) with non-IPM crops of rice fields. The harvest samples of Basmati rice grain, soil, and irrigation water, from IPM and non-IPM field trials, at villages in northern India, were analyzed using multi-pesticide residue method. The field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2008-2011) for the successful validation of the modules, synthesized for Basmati rice, at these locations. Residues of tricyclazole, propiconazole, hexconazole, lambda cyhalothrin, pretilachlor chlorpyrifos, DDVP, carbendazim, and imidacloprid were analyzed from two locations, Dudhli village of Dehradun, Uttrakhand and Saboli and Aterna village of Sonepat, Haryana. The pesticide residues were observed below detectable limit (BDL) (water samples (2008-09). Residues of tricyclazole and carbendazim, analyzed from same locations, revealed pesticide residues as BDL (water samples (2009-2010). The residues of tricyclazole, propioconazole, chlorpyrifos, hexaconazole, pretilachlor, and λ-cyhalothrin were also found as BDL (water samples (<0.001-0.05 μg/L) (2010-2011).

  18. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136 of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170 of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p Conclusions Overall, the results show the superiority of central reprocessing for complex podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  19. Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing by higher performance techniques such as flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect the proportion of remaining leukemic cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood during and after the first phases of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The results of MRD testing are used to reclassify these patients and guide changes in treatment according to their future risk of relapse. We conducted a systematic review of the economic literature, cost-effectiveness analysis, and budget-impact analysis to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of MRD testing by flow cytometry for management of childhood precursor B-cell ALL in Ontario. A systematic literature search (1998-2014) identified studies that examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing by either flow cytometry or PCR. We developed a lifetime state-transition (Markov) microsimulation model to quantify the cost-effectiveness of MRD testing followed by risk-directed therapy to no MRD testing and to estimate its marginal effect on health outcomes and on costs. Model input parameters were based on the literature, expert opinion, and data from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Using predictions from our Markov model, we estimated the 1-year cost burden of MRD testing versus no testing and forecasted its economic impact over 3 and 5 years. In a base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, compared with no testing, MRD testing by flow cytometry at the end of induction and consolidation was associated with an increased discounted survival of 0.0958 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and increased discounted costs of $4,180, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,613/QALY gained. After accounting for parameter uncertainty, incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing was associated with an ICER of $50,249/QALY gained. In the budget-impact analysis, the

  20. Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic-Veljanoski, O.; Pham, B.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Krahn, M.; Higgins, Caroline; Bielecki, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing by higher performance techniques such as flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect the proportion of remaining leukemic cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood during and after the first phases of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The results of MRD testing are used to reclassify these patients and guide changes in treatment according to their future risk of relapse. We conducted a systematic review of the economic literature, cost-effectiveness analysis, and budget-impact analysis to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of MRD testing by flow cytometry for management of childhood precursor B-cell ALL in Ontario. Methods A systematic literature search (1998–2014) identified studies that examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing by either flow cytometry or PCR. We developed a lifetime state-transition (Markov) microsimulation model to quantify the cost-effectiveness of MRD testing followed by risk-directed therapy to no MRD testing and to estimate its marginal effect on health outcomes and on costs. Model input parameters were based on the literature, expert opinion, and data from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Using predictions from our Markov model, we estimated the 1-year cost burden of MRD testing versus no testing and forecasted its economic impact over 3 and 5 years. Results In a base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, compared with no testing, MRD testing by flow cytometry at the end of induction and consolidation was associated with an increased discounted survival of 0.0958 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and increased discounted costs of $4,180, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,613/QALY gained. After accounting for parameter uncertainty, incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing was associated with an ICER of $50,249/QALY gained. In

  1. Beyond Time out and Table Time: Today's Applied Behavior Analysis for Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutot, E. Amanda; Hume, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Recent mandates related to the implementation of evidence-based practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require that autism professionals both understand and are able to implement practices based on the science of applied behavior analysis (ABA). The use of the term "applied behavior analysis" and its related concepts…

  2. Single particle analysis of ice crystal residuals observed in orographic wave clouds over Scandinavia during INTACC experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Targino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual ice crystal residual particles collected over Scandinavia during the INTACC (INTeraction of Aerosol and Cold Clouds experiment in October 1999 were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM equipped with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX. Samples were collected onboard the British Met Office Hercules C-130 aircraft using a Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI. This study is based on six samples collected in orographic clouds. The main aim of this study is to characterize cloud residual elemental composition in conditions affected by different airmasses. In total 609 particles larger than 0.1 μm diameter were analyzed and their elemental composition and morphology were determined. Thereafter a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the signal detected with SEM-EDX in order to identify the major particle classes and their abundance. A cluster containing mineral dust, represented by aluminosilicates, Fe-rich and Si-rich particles, was the dominating class of particles, accounting for about 57.5% of the particles analyzed, followed by low-Z particles, 23.3% (presumably organic material and sea salt (6.7%. Sulfur was detected often across all groups, indicating ageing and in-cloud processing of particles. A detailed inspection of samples individually unveiled a relationship between ice crystal residual composition and airmass origin. Cloud residual samples from clean airmasses (that is, trajectories confined to the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and/or with source altitude in the free troposphere were dominated primarily by low-Z and sea salt particles, while continentally-influenced airmasses (with trajectories that originated or traveled over continental areas and with source altitude in the continental boundary layer contained mainly mineral dust residuals. Comparison of residual composition for similar cloud ambient temperatures around –27°C revealed that supercooled clouds are more likely to persist in conditions where

  3. Diffraction grating strain gauge method: error analysis and its application for the residual stress measurement in thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuanjie; Fan, Bozhao; He, Wei; Dai, Xianglu; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin

    2018-03-01

    Diffraction grating strain gauge (DGSG) is an optical strain measurement method. Based on this method, a six-spot diffraction grating strain gauge (S-DGSG) system has been developed with the advantages of high and adjustable sensitivity, compact structure, and non-contact measurement. In this study, this system is applied for the residual stress measurement in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) combining the hole-drilling method. During the experiment, the specimen’s location is supposed to be reset accurately before and after the hole-drilling, however, it is found that the rigid body displacements from the resetting process could seriously influence the measurement accuracy. In order to understand and eliminate the effects from the rigid body displacements, such as the three-dimensional (3D) rotations and the out-of-plane displacement of the grating, the measurement error of this system is systematically analyzed, and an optimized method is proposed. Moreover, a numerical experiment and a verified tensile test are conducted, and the results verify the applicability of this optimized method successfully. Finally, combining this optimized method, a residual stress measurement experiment is conducted, and the results show that this method can be applied to measure the residual stress in TBCs.

  4. A Robust Transform Estimator Based on Residual Analysis and Its Application on UAV Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guorong Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the transformation between two images from the same scene is a fundamental step for image registration, image stitching and 3D reconstruction. State-of-the-art methods are mainly based on sorted residual for generating hypotheses. This scheme has acquired encouraging results in many remote sensing applications. Unfortunately, mainstream residual based methods may fail in estimating the transform between Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV low altitude remote sensing images, due to the fact that UAV images always have repetitive patterns and severe viewpoint changes, which produce lower inlier rate and higher pseudo outlier rate than other tasks. We performed extensive experiments and found the main reason is that these methods compute feature pair similarity within a fixed window, making them sensitive to the size of residual window. To solve this problem, three schemes that based on the distribution of residuals are proposed, which are called Relational Window (RW, Sliding Window (SW, Reverse Residual Order (RRO, respectively. Specially, RW employs a relaxation residual window size to evaluate the highest similarity within a relaxation model length. SW fixes the number of overlap models while varying the length of window size. RRO takes the permutation of residual values into consideration to measure similarity, not only including the number of overlap structures, but also giving penalty to reverse number within the overlap structures. Experimental results conducted on our own built UAV high resolution remote sensing images show that the proposed three strategies all outperform traditional methods in the presence of severe perspective distortion due to viewpoint change.

  5. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of reactor vessel for pressurized thermal shock: the effect of residual stress and fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Gyu; Jin, Tae Eun; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The structural integrity of the reactor vessel with the approaching end of life must be assured for pressurized thermal shock. The regulation specifies the screening criteria for this and requires that specific analysis be performed for the reactor vessel which is anticipated to exceed the screening criteria at the end of plant life. In case the screening criteria is exceeded by the deterministic analysis, probabilistic analysis must be performed to show that failure probability is within the limit. In this study, probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of the reactor vessel for pressurized thermal shock is performed and the effects of residual stress and master curve on the failure probability are investigated

  6. Analysis of Margin Index as a Method for Predicting Residual Disease After Breast-Conserving Surgery in a European Cancer Center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2011-06-03

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) × 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  7. Analysis of margin index as a method for predicting residual disease after breast-conserving surgery in a European cancer center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) x 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  8. Evaluation of gas chromatography – electron ionization – full scan high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry for pesticide residue analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Hans G.J., E-mail: hans.mol@wur.nl; Tienstra, Marc; Zomer, Paul

    2016-09-07

    Gas chromatography with electron ionization and full scan high resolution mass spectrometry with an Orbitrap mass analyzer (GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS) was evaluated for residue analysis. Pesticides in fruit and vegetables were taken as an example application. The relevant aspects for GC-MS based residue analysis, including the resolving power (15,000 to 120,000 FWHM at m/z 200), scan rate, dynamic range, selectivity, sensitivity, analyte identification, and utility of existing EI-libraries, are assessed and discussed in detail. The optimum acquisition conditions in full scan mode (m/z 50–500) were a resolving power of 60,000 and an automatic-gain-control target value of 3E6. These conditions provided (i) an optimum mass accuracy: within 2 ppm over a wide concentration range, with/without matrix, enabling the use of ±5 ppm mass extraction windows (ii) adequate scan speed: minimum 12 scans/peak, (iii) an intra-scan dynamic range sufficient to achieve LOD/LOQs ≤0.5 pg in fruit/vegetable matrices (corresponding to ≤0.5 μg kg{sup −1}) for most pesticides. EI-Orbitrap spectra were consistent over a very wide concentration range (5 orders) with good match values against NIST (EI-quadrupole) spectra. The applicability for quantitative residue analysis was verified by validation of 54 pesticides in three matrices (tomato, leek, orange) at 10 and 50 μg/kg. The method involved a QuEChERS-based extraction with a solvent switch into iso-octane, and 1 μL hot splitless injection into the GC-HRMS system. A recovery between 70 and 120% and a repeatability RSD <10% was obtained in most cases. Linearity was demonstrated for the range ≤5–250 μg kg{sup −1}. The pesticides could be identified according to the applicable EU criteria for GC-HRMS (SANTE/11945/2015). GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS was found to be highly suited for quantitative pesticide residue analysis. The potential of qualitative screening to extend the scope makes it an attractive

  9. Evaluation of gas chromatography – electron ionization – full scan high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry for pesticide residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mol, Hans G.J.; Tienstra, Marc; Zomer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography with electron ionization and full scan high resolution mass spectrometry with an Orbitrap mass analyzer (GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS) was evaluated for residue analysis. Pesticides in fruit and vegetables were taken as an example application. The relevant aspects for GC-MS based residue analysis, including the resolving power (15,000 to 120,000 FWHM at m/z 200), scan rate, dynamic range, selectivity, sensitivity, analyte identification, and utility of existing EI-libraries, are assessed and discussed in detail. The optimum acquisition conditions in full scan mode (m/z 50–500) were a resolving power of 60,000 and an automatic-gain-control target value of 3E6. These conditions provided (i) an optimum mass accuracy: within 2 ppm over a wide concentration range, with/without matrix, enabling the use of ±5 ppm mass extraction windows (ii) adequate scan speed: minimum 12 scans/peak, (iii) an intra-scan dynamic range sufficient to achieve LOD/LOQs ≤0.5 pg in fruit/vegetable matrices (corresponding to ≤0.5 μg kg"−"1) for most pesticides. EI-Orbitrap spectra were consistent over a very wide concentration range (5 orders) with good match values against NIST (EI-quadrupole) spectra. The applicability for quantitative residue analysis was verified by validation of 54 pesticides in three matrices (tomato, leek, orange) at 10 and 50 μg/kg. The method involved a QuEChERS-based extraction with a solvent switch into iso-octane, and 1 μL hot splitless injection into the GC-HRMS system. A recovery between 70 and 120% and a repeatability RSD <10% was obtained in most cases. Linearity was demonstrated for the range ≤5–250 μg kg"−"1. The pesticides could be identified according to the applicable EU criteria for GC-HRMS (SANTE/11945/2015). GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS was found to be highly suited for quantitative pesticide residue analysis. The potential of qualitative screening to extend the scope makes it an attractive alternative to

  10. Joining of molybdenum disilicide to stainless steel using amorphous metal brazes - residual stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, R.U.; Gallegos, D.E.; Kautz, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2})/stainless steel 316 L joints were produced by high temperature brazing using a cobalt-based metallic-glass (METGLAS trademark 2714A). Successful joining was completed in two different ways; either by feeding excess braze into the braze gap upon heating or by constraining the MoSi{sub 2}/stainless steel assembly with an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) fixture during the heating cycle. These steps were necessary to ensure the production of a high quality void free joint. Residual stress measurements were completed on these joints. Indentation results show higher tensile residual stresses in the stainless steel for the joint with the external constraint, in comparison to the unconstrained state. In contrast, the compressive residual stresses in the MoSi{sub 2} (as measured by X-ray diffraction) were lower in the constrained state relative to the unconstrained state. These results and a lack of residual stress balance indicate that the stress state in the braze is significantly different under the two joining conditions and the volume of the braze plays an important role in the development of the residual stresses. Push-out tests carried out on these joints gave higher joint strengths in the unconstrained as compared to the constrained condition. The results of this study have important implications on the selection of the appropriate joining process (use of constraint versus extra braze). (orig.)

  11. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  12. Residual stresses analysis in ball end milling of nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junteng; Zhang, Dinghua; Wu, Baohai; Luo, Ming [Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University (China)

    2017-11-15

    Inconel 718 is widely used in the aviation, space, automotive and biomedical industries because of its outstanding properties. Near-surface residual stresses that are induced by ball end milling in Inconel 718 can be crucial for the performance and service time of the machined parts. In this paper, the influences of cutting conditions, including the use of cutting parameters, cutting fluid and spindle angles, on the residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718 alloy were investigated experimentally. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that residual stress distributions are highly influenced by cutting parameters, especially the depth of cut and cutting speed. The milling operation with cooling induces more compressive stresses trend and the magnitude of the residual stresses increases in the tensile direction with the increase of spindle angles. These cutting induced effects were further discussed with respect to thermal- mechanical coupling theory and some observations made by optical microscopy. From this investigation, it is suggested that the machining process parameters are not the smaller the better for the control of residual stresses in the ball end milling process of Inconel 718. (author)

  13. Trace analysis of multi-class pesticide residues in Chinese medicinal health wines using gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Kong, Dan-Dan; Liu, Qian-Zhen; Ma, Xin-Ping; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-02-01

    A method is described for multi-residue, high-throughput determination of trace levels of 22 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 5 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Chinese medicinal (CM) health wines using a QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) based extraction method and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Several parameters were optimized to improve preparation and separation time while still maintaining high sensitivity. Validation tests of spiked samples showed good linearities for 27 pesticides (R = 0.9909-0.9996) over wide concentration ranges. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) were measured at ng/L levels, 0.06-2 ng/L and 0.2-6 ng/L for OCPs and 0.02-3 ng/L and 0.06-7 ng/L for PYPs, respectively. Inter- and intra-day precision tests showed variations of 0.65-9.89% for OCPs and 0.98-13.99% for PYPs, respectively. Average recoveries were in the range of 47.74-120.31%, with relative standard deviations below 20%. The developed method was then applied to analyze 80 CM wine samples. Beta-BHC (Benzene hexachloride) was the most frequently detected pesticide at concentration levels of 5.67-31.55 mg/L, followed by delta-BHC, trans-chlordane, gamma-BHC, and alpha-BHC. The validated method is simple and economical, with adequate sensitivity for trace levels of multi-class pesticides. It could be adopted by laboratories for this and other types of complex matrices analysis.

  14. Observation and analysis of tidal and residual current in the North Yellow Sea in the spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qingsheng; Yang, Jinkun; Yang, Yang; Wan, Fangfang; Yu, Jia

    2018-02-01

    In order to study the current characteristics of the North Yellow Sea (NYS), 4 moored ADCPs (Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers) were deployed and Current characteristics were analyzed based on the observations. Results show that tidal current is the dominant and M2 is the main constituent. Shallow water constituents are obvious in the near-shore area, and tidal current ellipses directions have relations with topography. Residual currents in the Bohai Strait point to the Bohai Sea interior and the magnitude have a connection with terrain. Residual current in south NYS can be divided into two layers, and energy of residual current only accounts for about 13% of the total energy. Barotropic eddy kinetic energy plays a major role and the average in NYS accounts for 87%, baroclinic mean kinetic energy is larger in north NYS, in other regions barotropic mean kinetic energy take the leading position.

  15. Quality control of flow cytometry data analysis for evaluation of minimal residual disease in bone marrow from acute leukemia patients during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorklund, E.; Matinlauri, I.; Tierens, A.

    2009-01-01

    before implementation of MRD at cutoff level 10 as one of stratifying parameters in next Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) treatment program for ALL. In 4 quality control (QC) rounds 15 laboratories determined the MRD levels in 48 follow-up samples from 12 ALL patients treated...... according to NOPHO 2000. Analysis procedures were standardized. For each QC round a compact disc containing data in list-mode files was sent out and results were submitted to a central laboratory. At cutoff level 10, which will be applied for clinical decisions, laboratories obtained a high concordance (91......Low levels of leukemia cells in the bone marrow, minimal residual disease (MRD), are considered to be a powerful indicator of treatment response in acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL). A Nordic quality assurance program, aimed on standardization of the flow cytometry MRD analysis, has been established...

  16. Introduction to applied statistical signal analysis guide to biomedical and electrical engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shiavi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis is designed for the experienced individual with a basic background in mathematics, science, and computer. With this predisposed knowledge, the reader will coast through the practical introduction and move on to signal analysis techniques, commonly used in a broad range of engineering areas such as biomedical engineering, communications, geophysics, and speech.Introduction to Applied Statistical Signal Analysis intertwines theory and implementation with practical examples and exercises. Topics presented in detail include: mathematical

  17. Inclusive Elementary Classroom Teacher Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Use of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine inclusive elementary teacher knowledge and attitude toward Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) and their use of ABA. Furthermore, this study examined if knowledge and attitude predicted use of ABA. A survey was developed and administered through a web-based program. Of the…

  18. Impact damage and residual strength analysis of composite panels with bonded stiffeners. [for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ram C.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Blade-stiffened, compression-loaded cover panels were designed, manufactured, analyzed, and tested. All panels were fabricated from IM6/1808I interleafed graphite-epoxy. An orthotropic blade stiffener and an orthotropic skin were selected to satisfy the design requirements for an advanced aircraft configuration. All specimens were impact damaged prior to testing. Experimental results were obtained for three- and five-stiffener panels. Analytical results described interlaminar forces caused by impact and predicted specimen residual strength. The analytical results compared reasonably with the experimental results for residual strength of the specimens.

  19. BOOK REVIEW: Analysis of Residual Stress by Diffraction Using Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, ed M. E.; Lodini, A.

    2003-09-01

    The presence of residual stresses within engineering components is often a key feature in determining their usable lifetimes and failure characteristics. Residual surface compression can, for example, restrict the propagation of surface cracks through the bulk. As a consequence, it is essential to characterize the magnitude and spatial distribution of residual stresses and, at least for non-destructive testing, this is most widely achieved using diffraction of neutron and high energy synchrotron radiations. This book aims to provide a detailed description of the methodology used to determine residual stresses. The major emphasis is placed on the neutron method, this being the more widely established approach at present. It contains 20 chapters contributed by 23 authors, divided into five major parts. The overall layout is very logical, with the first part giving a general introduction to the use of neutrons and x-rays for materials research and summarizing the methods used for their production. Part 2 considers the more specific aspects of extracting the residual stress distribution within a bulk sample and includes some valuable comments on a number of potential experimental problems, such as the determination of the stress-free lattice parameter and the effects of broadening of the Bragg peaks. The experimental facilities currently available or under development are described in part 3, with the remaining two parts devoted to general and specific applications of the residual stress measurement technique. As expected with such a large number of different authors, there is some variation in style and quality. However, the text is generally easy to follow and, more importantly, it is largely free of the problems of inconsistent notation and dupication of material that can afflict multi-authored texts. My only negative comment concerns the latter portion of the book devoted to specific applications of the technique, which is illustrative rather than comprehensive. In

  20. Analysis of core-periphery organization in protein contact networks reveals groups of structurally and functionally critical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Arnold Emerson; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2015-10-01

    The representation of proteins as networks of interacting amino acids, referred to as protein contact networks (PCN), and their subsequent analyses using graph theoretic tools, can provide novel insights into the key functional roles of specific groups of residues. We have characterized the networks corresponding to the native states of 66 proteins (belonging to different families) in terms of their core-periphery organization. The resulting hierarchical classification of the amino acid constituents of a protein arranges the residues into successive layers - having higher core order - with increasing connection density, ranging from a sparsely linked periphery to a densely intra-connected core (distinct from the earlier concept of protein core defined in terms of the three-dimensional geometry of the native state, which has least solvent accessibility). Our results show that residues in the inner cores are more conserved than those at the periphery. Underlining the functional importance of the network core, we see that the receptor sites for known ligand molecules of most proteins occur in the innermost core. Furthermore, the association of residues with structural pockets and cavities in binding or active sites increases with the core order. From mutation sensitivity analysis, we show that the probability of deleterious or intolerant mutations also increases with the core order. We also show that stabilization centre residues are in the innermost cores, suggesting that the network core is critically important in maintaining the structural stability of the protein. A publicly available Web resource for performing core-periphery analysis of any protein whose native state is known has been made available by us at http://www.imsc.res.in/ ~sitabhra/proteinKcore/index.html.

  1. Application of acetone acetals as water scavengers and derivatization agents prior to the gas chromatographic analysis of polar residual solvents in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Niels; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2015-12-18

    The sensitivity of gas chromatography (GC) combined with the full evaporation technique (FET) for the analysis of aqueous samples is limited due to the maximum tolerable sample volume in a headspace vial. Using an acetone acetal as water scavenger prior to FET-GC analysis proved to be a useful and versatile tool for the analysis of high boiling analytes in aqueous samples. 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP) was used in this case resulting in methanol and acetone as reaction products with water. These solvents are relatively volatile and were easily removed by evaporation enabling sample enrichment leading to 10-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to the standard 10μL FET sample volumes for a selection of typical high boiling polar residual solvents in water. This could be improved even further if more sample is used. The method was applied for the determination of residual NMP in an aqueous solution of a cefotaxime analogue and proved to be considerably better than conventional static headspace (sHS) and the standard FET approach. The methodology was also applied to determine trace amounts of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous samples like contact lens fluids, where scavenging of the water would avoid laborious extraction prior to derivatization. During this experiment it was revealed that DMP reacts quantitatively with EG to form 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (2,2-DD) under the proposed reaction conditions. The relatively high volatility (bp 93°C) of 2,2-DD makes it possible to perform analysis of EG using the sHS methodology making additional derivatization reactions superfluous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  3. DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL VALUE WITHIN THE COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR THE PROJECTS FINANCED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droj Laurentiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be later used within the Doctoral thesis: The Mechanism of Financing Investment Projects by Usage of European Structural Funds, which is currently under development at the University Babes Bolyai Cluj Napoca, Faculty of Economics and Business Management, under the coordination of the prof. univ. dr. Ioan Trenca. An increasing debate is rising recently between the academic community, the business community, the private lending institutions(banks, investment funds, etc. and the officials of the Romanian Government and of the European Union regarding the proposed method for calculation of the residual value in the European financed investment projects. Several methods of calculation of the Residual Value were taken into consideration and contested by different parties in order to prepare and to submit financial analysis studies for investment projects proposed to be financed within the European Regional Development Fund(ERDF. In this context, the present paper proposes to address the three main methods of calculation of the residual value and later to study its impact over the indicators, especially over the Internal Rate of Return, obtained in the financial analysis for an investment project proposed by a Romanian medium sized company. In order to establish the proper method which should be used for selection and calculation of the residual value previously published studies and official documentations were analyzed. The main methods for calculation of the residual values were identified as being the following: A. the residual market value of fixed assets, as if it were to be sold, B. accounting economic depreciation formula and C. by using the net present value of the cash flows. Based on these methods the research model was elaborated, and using the financial data of the proposed infrastructure investment was created a case study. According to the realized study a pattern was established for proper determination of residual value

  4. Multiclass methods for the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rosanna; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Diamanti, Irene; Giusepponi, Danilo; Galarini, Roberta

    2018-02-01

    Milk is an important and beneficial food from a nutritional point of view, being an indispensable source of high quality proteins. Furthermore, it is a raw material for many dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, cream etc. Before reaching consumers, milk goes through production, processing and circulation. Each step involves potentially unsafe factors, such as chemical contamination that can affect milk quality. Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine for dry cow therapy and mastitis treatment in lactating cows, which can cause the presence of antimicrobial residues in milk. In order to ensure consumers' safety, milk is analyzed to make sure that the fixed Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for antibiotics are not exceeded. Multiclass methods can monitor more drug classes through a single analysis, so they are faster, less time-consuming and cheaper than traditional methods (single-class); this aspect is particularly important for milk, which is a highly perishable food. Nevertheless, multiclass methods for veterinary drug residues in foodstuffs are real analytical challenges. This article reviews the major multiclass methods published for the determination of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with a special focus on sample preparation approaches.

  5. Analysis and Modeling of Process of Residual Deformations Accumulation in Soils and Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A. S.; Dolgih, G. V.; Kalinin, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    It is established that under the influence of repeated loads the process of plastic deformation in soils and discrete materials is hereditary. To perform the mathematical modeling of plastic deformation, the authors applied the integral equation by solution of which they manage to obtain the power and logarithmic dependencies connecting plastic deformation with the number of repeated loads, the parameters of the material and components of the stress tensor in the principal axes. It is shown that these dependences generalize a number of models proposed earlier in Russia and abroad. Based on the analysis of the experimental data obtained during material testing in the dynamic devices of triaxial compression at different values of the stress deviator, the coefficients in the proposed models of deformation are determined. The authors determined the application domain for logarithmic and degree dependences.

  6. Determining High-Quality Critical Body Residues for Multiple Species and Chemicals by Applying Improved Experimental Design and Data Interpretation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Stephan A.; Hermens, Joop L. M.; Sinnige, Theo L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept......, and by a factor of 2.6 between the three species but for individual chemicals. Accounting for the chemicals internal distribution to different partitioning domains and relating effects to estimated concentrations in the target compartment (i.e., membrane lipids) was expected to but did not decrease the overall...

  7. Integrating Residual Stress Analysis of Critical Fastener Holes into USAF Depot Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-02

    Residual Stress Final Report Contract# FA9453-12-C-0218 Figure 6 shows a typical optical fractograph. The particle at the crack nucleation site is...with a relative humidity < 40% (air conditioned) and a temperature of approximately 75°F. Frequency for the spectrum was 8 Hz, which was governed

  8. Micro-flow-injection analysis (μFIA) immunoassay of herbicide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uthuppu, Basil; Heiskanen, Arto; Kofoed, Dan

    2015-01-01

    As a part of developing new systems for continuously monitoring the presence of pesticides in groundwater, a microfluidic amperometric immunosensor was developed for detecting the herbicide residue 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in water. A competitive immunosorbent assay served as the sensing mecha...

  9. Analysis of residual stresses in girth welded type 304 stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, F.W.; Kanninen, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactor (BWR) piping is a problem for the nuclear power industry. Tensile residual stresses induced by welding are an important factor in IGSCC of Type 304 stainless steel pipes. Backlay and heat sink welding can retard IGSCC. 17 refs

  10. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: analysis for residual replicating rickettsiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, G.H. Jr.; Osterman, J.V.; Stephenson, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Scrub thyphus immunogens that received inadequate gamma radiation contained residual, viable rickettsiae. The presence of these organisms in the host was masked by the rapid immune response elicited by the large number of inactivated rickettsiae. Transfer of homogenized spleen cells from immunized mice to normal syngeneic recipients provided a sensitive technique for the detection of these viable, replicating organisms

  11. Experimental determination and theoretical analysis of local residual stress at grain scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basu, Indranil; Ocelík, Václav; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.

    2017-01-01

    Grain/phase boundaries contribute significantly to build up of residual stresses, owing to varied plastic/thermal response of different grain orientations or phases during thermomechanical treatment. Hence, accurate quantification of such local scale stress gradients in commercial components is

  12. Finite element analysis of residual stress in the welded zone of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The distribution of the residual stress in the weld joint of HQ130 grade high strength steel was in- vestigated by ... was adopted in this work to find out the instantaneous distribution of .... welding zone of high strength steel are related to the for-.

  13. A finite element elastic-plastic analysis of residual stresses due to clad welding in reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalet, C.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1972-01-01

    Residual stresses due to weld deposited cladding on the inside of a typical Westinghouse pressurized water reactor vessel are investigated using an axisymmetric finite element elastic-plastic analysis. At the beginning of the analysis, one head of the weld cladding is assumed to lie on the reactor vessel wall at melting temperature (2600degF), but in the solid phase, while the vessel remains at 300degF (preheat temperature). All material properties used in the calculations are taken as temperature-dependent. Temperature profiles are obtained in the cladding and base metal at several discrete time intervals. These temperatures profiles are used to obtain the stress distribution for the same time intervals. Residual hoop tensile stresses of approximately 25 ksi were found to exist in the cladding. Peak tensile stresses in the hoop direction occur in the base metal near the cladding interface and reach a value of 60 ksi at the end of the transient. The tensile stress decreases very rapidly through the thickness of the base metal and becomes insignificant at about two inches from the inside surface. In order to lower residual stresses, a post-weld heat treatment is performed by uniformly heating the vessel to 1100degF, holding at that temperature for a specified period of time and then cooling slowly. The analysis shows that after this treatment, the peak stresses in the base metal decrease from 60 ksi to 32 ksi, while the stress in the cladding does not change significantly. (author)

  14. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction and its error propagation to upper mantle residual gravity and density anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2013-01-01

    ) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions...... from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. The residual...

  15. Welding Residual Stress Analysis and Fatigue Strength Assessment at Elevated Temperature for Multi-pass Dissimilar Material Weld Between Alloy 617 and P92 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhwa; Hwang, Jeongho; Bae, Dongho

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, welding residual stress analysis and fatigue strength assessment were performed at elevated temperature for multi-pass dissimilar material weld between Alloy 617 and P92 steel, which are used in thermal power plant. Multi-pass welding between Alloy 617 and P92 steel was performed under optimized welding condition determined from repeated pre-test welding. In particular, for improving dissimilar material weld-ability, the buttering welding technique was applied on the P92 steel side before multi-pass welding. Welding residual stress distribution at the dissimilar material weld joint was numerically analyzed by using the finite element method, and compared with experimental results which were obtained by the hole-drilling method. Additionally, fatigue strength of dissimilar material weld joint was assessed at the room temperature (R.T), 300, 500, and 700 °C. In finite element analysis results, numerical peak values; longitudinal (410 MPa), transverse (345 MPa) were higher than those of experiments; longitudinal (298 MPa), transverse (245 MPa). There are quantitatively big differences between numerical and experimental results, due to some assumption about the thermal conductivity, specific heat, effects of enforced convection of the molten pool, dilution, and volume change during phase transformation caused by actual shield gas. The low fatigue limit at R.T, 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C was assessed to be 368, 276, 173 and 137 MPa respectively.

  16. Welding Residual Stress Analysis and Fatigue Strength Assessment at Elevated Temperature for Multi-pass Dissimilar Material Weld Between Alloy 617 and P92 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhwa; Hwang, Jeongho; Bae, Dongho

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, welding residual stress analysis and fatigue strength assessment were performed at elevated temperature for multi-pass dissimilar material weld between Alloy 617 and P92 steel, which are used in thermal power plant. Multi-pass welding between Alloy 617 and P92 steel was performed under optimized welding condition determined from repeated pre-test welding. In particular, for improving dissimilar material weld-ability, the buttering welding technique was applied on the P92 steel side before multi-pass welding. Welding residual stress distribution at the dissimilar material weld joint was numerically analyzed by using the finite element method, and compared with experimental results which were obtained by the hole-drilling method. Additionally, fatigue strength of dissimilar material weld joint was assessed at the room temperature (R.T), 300, 500, and 700 °C. In finite element analysis results, numerical peak values; longitudinal (410 MPa), transverse (345 MPa) were higher than those of experiments; longitudinal (298 MPa), transverse (245 MPa). There are quantitatively big differences between numerical and experimental results, due to some assumption about the thermal conductivity, specific heat, effects of enforced convection of the molten pool, dilution, and volume change during phase transformation caused by actual shield gas. The low fatigue limit at R.T, 300 °C, 500 °C and 700 °C was assessed to be 368, 276, 173 and 137 MPa respectively.

  17. The residual efficacy of a cypermethrin pour-on formulation applied on goats on the mortality and blood intake of Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Amelotti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. As a frequent blood meal source for triatomine bugs, domestic goats play a key role in the eco-epidemiology of Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality and blood intake of T. infestans fed on goats that had been treated with different doses of pour-on insecticide. Third-instar nymphs were fed on goats that had been treated with 0 cc, 5 cc, 10 cc or 15 cc of a pour-on formulation of cypermethrin. The exposure of T. infestans to animals treated at different post-application intervals revealed a residual activity of the insecticide. The mortality rate in the treated groups was higher than in the control groups until 30 days post-insecticide application (p = 0.03, except in the group treated with 5 cc, in which no mortality was detected after seven days of insecticide application. Rainfall affected the triatomicide effect, reducing the time of residual activity. The cypermethrin pour-on treatment decreased the blood intake of T. infestans. Thirty days after the cypermethrin application, nymph mortality was 16% (± 13 with both doses (10 cc and 15 cc. The 15 cc dose did not result in higher insect mortality or increased persistence compared to the 10 cc dose.

  18. Investigation of hydrophobic substrates for solution residue analysis utilizing an ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge microplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, Htoo W; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2018-03-12

    A practical method for preparation of solution residue samples for analysis utilizing the ambient desorption liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (AD-LS-APGD-OES) microplasma is described. Initial efforts involving placement of solution aliquots in wells drilled into copper substrates, proved unsuccessful. A design-of-experiment (DOE) approach was carried out to determine influential factors during sample deposition including solution volume, solute concentration, number of droplets deposited, and the solution matrix. These various aspects are manifested in the mass of analyte deposited as well as the size/shape of the product residue. Statistical analysis demonstrated that only those initial attributes were significant factors towards the emission response of the analyte. Various approaches were investigated to better control the location/uniformity of the deposited sample. Three alternative substrates, a glass slide, a poly(tetrafluoro)ethylene (PTFE) sheet, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated glass slide, were evaluated towards the microplasma analytical performance. Co-deposition with simple organic dyes provided an accurate means of determining the location of the analyte with only minor influence on emission responses. The PDMS-coated glass provided the best performance by virtue of its providing a uniform spatial distribution of the residue material. This uniformity yielded an improved limits of detection by approximately 22× for 20 μL and 4 x for 2 μL over the other two substrates. While they operate by fundamentally different processes, this choice of substrate is not restricted to the LS-APGD, but may also be applicable to other AD methods such as DESI, DART, or LIBS. Further developments will be directed towards a field-deployable ambient desorption OES source for quantitative analysis of microvolume solution residues of nuclear forensics importance.

  19. Analysis by the reductive-cleavage method of linkage positions in a polysaccharide containing 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodonik, S A; Gray, G R

    1988-04-01

    The fate of 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residues under reductive-cleavage conditions was investigated by using the Klebsiella aerogenes type 54 strain A3 capsular polysaccharide. Treatment of the fully methylated polysaccharide with triethylsilane and trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate in dichloromethane, followed by in situ acetylation, yielded 1,5-anhydro-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-D-glucitol, 3,4-di-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-2,6-di-O-methyl-D-glucitol, and 3-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-2,4-di-O-methyl-L-fucitol, as expected, but the expected product of reductive cleavage of the 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residue, namely, methyl 3-O-acetyl-2,6-anhydro-4,5-di-O-methyl-L-gulonate, was not observed. Instead, methyl 2-O-acetyl-3,6-anhydro-4,5-di-O-methyl-L-gulonate (6) was identified as the sole product of reductive cleavage of the 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residue. That compound 6 arose as a result of rearrangement during reductive cleavage rather than by reductive cleavage of a 5-linked D-glucofuranosyluronic residue, was established by reductive cleavage of the fully methylated polysaccharide following reduction of its ester groups with either lithium aluminum hydride or lithium aluminum deuteride. The products of the latter reductive cleavage were the same as before, except for the absence of 6 and the presence of 4,6-di-O-acetyl-1,5-anhydro-2,3-di-O-methyl-D-glucitol, or its 6,6-dideuterio isomer. Although the reductive-cleavage technique is suitable for the direct analysis of polysaccharides containing 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residues, it does not establish whether the uronic residue is a 4-linked pyranoside or a 5-linked furanoside. The expected product is, however, derived from the 4-linked D-glucopyranosyluronic residue after sequential methylation, reduction of its ester group and reductive cleavage.

  20. Research in progress in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Research conducted at the Institute in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, numerical analysis, and computer science is summarized. The Institute conducts unclassified basic research in applied mathematics in order to extend and improve problem solving capabilities in science and engineering, particularly in aeronautics and space.

  1. Model Proposition for the Fiscal Policies Analysis Applied in Economic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Preda

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about fiscal policy applied in economic development. Correlations between macroeconomics and fiscal indicators signify the first steep in our analysis. Next step is a new model proposal for the fiscal and budgetary choices. This model is applied on the date of the Romanian case.

  2. Advantages and Drawbacks of Applying Periodic Time-Variant Modal Analysis to Spur Gear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune; Santos, Ilmar; Hede, Ivan Arthur

    2010-01-01

    to ensure sufficient accuracy of the results. The method of time-variant modal analysis is applied, and the changes in the fundamental and the parametric resonance frequencies as a function of the rotational speed of the gears, are found. By obtaining the stationary and parametric parts of the time...... of applying the methodology to wind turbine gearboxes are addressed and elucidated....

  3. Applied behavior analysis: understanding and changing behavior in the community-a representative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis, a psychological discipline, has been characterized as the science of behavior change (Chance, 2006). Research in applied behavior analysis has been published for approximately 40 years since the initial publication of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis in 1968. The field now encompasses a wide range of human behavior. Although much of the published research centers on problem behaviors that occur in schools and among people with disabilities, a substantial body of knowledge has emerged in community settings. This article provides a review of the behavioral community research published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis as representative of this work, including research in the areas of home and family, health, safety, community involvement and the environment, recreation and sports, crime and delinquency, and organizations. In the interest of space, research in schools and with people with disabilities has been excluded from this review.

  4. Application of the whole powder pattern decomposition procedure in the residual stress analysis of layers and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoderböck, Peter; Brechbühl, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray investigation of stress states in materials, based on the determination of elastic lattice strains which are converted to stresses by means of theory of elasticity, is a necessity in quality control of thin layers and coatings for optimizing manufacturing steps and process parameters. This work introduces the evaluation of residual stress from complex and overlapping diffraction patterns using a whole-powder pattern decomposition procedure defining a 2θ-offset caused by residual stresses. Furthermore corrections for sample displacement and refraction are directly implemented in the calculation procedure. The correlation matrices of the least square fitting routines have been analyzed for parameter interactions and obvious interdependencies have been decoupled by the introduction of an internal standard within the diffraction experiment. This decomposition based evaluation has been developed on tungsten as a model material system and its efficiency was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell multilayer system. The results are compared with those obtained by the classical sin 2 Ψ-method. - Highlights: • Analysis of complex multiphase diffraction patterns with respect to residual stress • Stress-gradient determination with in situ correction of displacement and refraction • Consideration of the elastic anisotropy within the refinement

  5. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Analysis of tissue residues and comparative metabolism of virginiamycin in rats, turkeys, and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschall, D.W.; Gombatz, C.; Wang, R.

    1987-01-01

    Liver tissue samples from turkeys, cattle, and rats given [ 14 C]virginiamycin were examined for the presence of metabolites. Extraction of the liver was performed sequentially with methanol and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. The methanol fraction was further partitioned into chloroform-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The majority of the total liver residue (56-73%) remained intractable following these treatments. The three extracts were fractionated by normal- or reversed-phase HPLC. The results indicated that virginiamycin was metabolized to a large number of fragments and that no single metabolite represented greater than 3.5% of the total liver residue. Due to sample limitations no metabolite identification was possible at this time. Fortification experiments indicated that little, if any, parent virginiamycin was present in the tissue. Additional balance-excretion studies conducted in cattle and rats demonstrated that the majority of the dose (83-94%) was eliminated in the feces

  7. Evaluation and analysis of the residual radioactivity for the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkawade, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    For the assessment of radiological impact of the accelerators, it will be better to have the documented information on activation of metal parts of the accelerator components. It is very much essential to get reliable data on these subjects. During acceleration of light ion, the residual radioactivity in the accelerator facility was found near the Analyzing Magnet, single slit, Beam Profile Monitors (BPM), Faraday Cups (FC), bellows, beginning of switching magnet bellows, at the target and the ladder. Study with HPGE detector gives an insight of the formation of the short or long lived radionuclides. The different targets used in the light ion experiment were also monitored and proper decommissioning and decontamination steps were followed. This paper presents the data of residual radioactivity in the 15UD Pelletron accelerator infrastructure. (author)

  8. Trace analysis of chloramphenicol residues in eggs, milk, and meat: comparison of gas chromatography radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.; Somgyi, A.

    1985-01-01

    A radioimmunological assay (RIA) to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in eggs, milk, and meat is described. For tissues and other edible products of chloramphenicol-treated animals (chickens, cows, and pigs), the limit of detection is about 200 ng/kg. Residue levels above 1 μg/kg can easily be quantitated. When highly specific antisera produced in sheep were used, cross-reactivity was insignificant except for metabolites deviating from the parent compound in the acyl side chain only. Thiamphenicol fails to bind to the antisera; hence, it does not interfere with the assay. In the procedure described, the role of cleanup is merely to remove lipids. Thus, skim milk can be analyzed following appropriate dilution without cleanup. The results obtained by RIA were confirmed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The new RIA allows rapid, sensitive, and specific screening of large numbers of samples

  9. Optimisation of process parameters in friction stir welding based on residual stress analysis: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    The present paper considers the optimisation of process parameters in friction stir welding (FSW). More specifically, the choices of rotational speed and traverse welding speed have been investigated using genetic algorithms. The welding process is simulated in a transient, two......-dimensional sequentially coupled thermomechanical model in ANSYS. This model is then used in an optimisation case where the two objectives are the minimisation of the peak residual stresses and the maximisation of the welding speed. The results indicate that the objectives for the considered case are conflicting......, and this is presented as a Pareto optimal front. Moreover, a higher welding speed for a fixed rotational speed results, in general, in slightly higher stress levels in the tension zone, whereas a higher rotational speed for a fixed welding speed yields somewhat lower peak residual stress, however, a wider tension zone...

  10. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  11. Geological and engineering analysis of residual soil for forewarning landslide from highland area in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkhao, Thanakrit; Phantuwongraj, Sumet; Choowong, Montri; Thitimakorn, Thanop; Charusiri, Punya

    2015-11-01

    One devastating landslide event in northern Thailand occurred in 2006 at Ban Nong Pla village, Chiang Klang highland of Nan province after, a massive amount of residual soil moved from upstream to downstream, via creek tributaries, into a main stream after five days of unusual heavy rainfall. In this paper, the geological and engineering properties of residual soil derived fromsedimentary rocks were analyzed and integrated. Geological mapping, electrical resistivity survey and test pits were carried out along three transect lines together with systematic collection of undisturbed and disturbed residual soil samples. As a result, the average moisture content in soil is 24.83% with average specific gravity of 2.68,whereas the liquid limit is 44.93%, plastic limit is 29.35% and plastic index is 15.58%. The cohesion of soil ranges between 0.096- 1.196 ksc and the angle of internal friction is between 11.51 and 35.78 degrees. This suggests that the toughness properties of soil change when moisture content increases. Results from electrical resistivity survey reveal that soil thicknesses above the bedrock along three transects range from 2 to 9 m. The soil shear strength reach the rate of high decreases in the range of 72 to 95.6% for residual soil from shale, siltstone and sandstone, respectively. Strength of soil decreaseswhen the moisture content in soil increases. Shear strength also decreases when the moisture content changes. Therefore, the natural soil slope in the study area will be stable when the moisture content in soil level is equal to one, but when the moisture content between soil particle increases, strength of soil will decrease resulting in soil strength decreasing.

  12. Comparative study of plans for integrated residue management of construction: an analysis documental

    OpenAIRE

    Júnior, Jorge Henrique e Silva; Vieira, Elizângela de Jesus Oliveira de Sousa; Monte, Maria José Soares; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; Oliveira, Francílio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Jancineide Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is a comparative study of integrated plans in four cities, highlighting the points that are in accordance with Resolution 307/2002 of CONAMA. Methods: This is a bibliographic and documentary research as having scientific articles sources Plans and Integrated Solid Waste Management Construction of five Brazilian cities: Curitiba, Cuiaba, Florianopolis, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Results: The resolution foresees the Integrated Management of Residues Plan for Cons...

  13. Cloning, Site-Directed Mutagenesis, and Functional Analysis of Active Residues in Lymantria dispar Chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Chun; Zhang, Chang; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds in chitin, the major structural polysaccharide presented in the cuticle and gut peritrophic matrix of insects. Two aspartate residues (D143, D145) and one tryptophan (W146) in the Lymantria dispar chitinase are highly conserved residues observed within the second conserved motif of the family 18 chitinase catalytic region. In this study, a chitinase cDNA, LdCht5, was cloned from L. dispar, and the roles of the three residues were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and substituting them with three other amino acids. Seven mutant proteins, D143E, D145E, W146G, D143E/D145E, D143E/W146G, D145E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G, as well as the wild-type enzyme, were produced using the baculovirus-insect cell line expression system. The enzymatic and kinetic properties of these mutant enzymes were measured using the oligosaccharide substrate MU-(GlcNAc) 3 . Among the seven mutants, the D145E, D143E/D145E, and D145E/W146G mutations kept some extant catalytic activity toward MU-(GlcNAc) 3 , while the D143E, W146G, D143E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G mutant enzymes were inactivated. Compared with the mutant enzymes, the wild-type enzyme had higher values of k cat and k cat / K m . A study of the multiple point mutations in the second conserved catalytic region would help to elucidate the role of the critical residues and their relationships.

  14. [Evaluation of residual osteomuscular function using computerised movement analysis for building sector workers: specificity and technical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orso, M I; Centemeri, R; Latocca, R; Riva, M; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Occupational Health Doctors active in building sector firms frequently have to evaluate residual workers' osteomuscular function in patients coming back to work after an accident happened during work time or free time. Definition of their specific individual work suitability is usually carried out utilizing semeiotic tests in which subjective evaluation of every single Medical Doctor is real important in definition of final results and this fact can cause legal controversies. In our research we describe the application of computerised movement analysis on 10 workers of building sector. In every patient examined this technical method has been able to study objectively the tridimensional ranges of motion of most important osteomuscular districts. The possibility to have an objective evaluation of residual osteomuscular function has a relevant importance both in definition of workers' work suitability at the moment in which they start again their activities and in possible future legal conflicts.

  15. Residues and Analysis of Degradation of Novel Fungicide Picoxystrobin in Cucumber and Soil Under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for the residues of picoxystrobin in cucumber vegetable and soil matrices was developed and the dissipation of picoxystrobin under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection(LODof picoxystrobin was 3.5×10 -11 g and the limit of quantifica-tion(LOQwas found to be 0.005 mg·kg -1 in cucumber and soil. At three different spiking levels(0.005, 0.05, 0.25 mg·kg -1, mean recoveries and relative standard deviation(RSDfrom fortified samples in five replicated experiments for each matrix were in the range of 68.61%-122.4% and 1.06%-17.2%, respectively. The results showed that the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Tianjin City were 5.71 d and 12.9 d, respectively, the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Shandong Province were 2.70 d and 10.3 d, respec-tively, and the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Jiangsu Province were 9.76 d and 14.9 d, respectively. The maximum residual concentration of picoxystrobin on the 5th day after the last application was 0.014 mg· kg -1, much lower than the Maximum Residue Limits(MRLsfor picoxystrobin in cucumber according to the standards of EU(0.05 mg·kg-1.

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of coal and its combustion residues from a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Jeong, J.H.; Lee, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A growing demand of electrical energy derived from coal combustion led to a significant increase of coal ash as residues. Approximately 70 % of the fly ashes are recycled, while most of the bottom ashes have been land-filled in the ash pond in Korea. In this work, to evaluate the potential impacts of the residues from a coal power plant on the environment, its inorganic elemental components were determined by INAA and PGAA. Coal ash samples were collected from the biggest power plant complex in Korea. These samples were analyzed by using the NAA facilities in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A total of 31 elements were analyzed in the samples, and certified reference materials were used for the analytical quality control. The enrichment status of a given metal in fuel coal and ashes was investigated by its concentration ratio. In order to assess the impact of the coal combustion residues on ecosystem, their concentrations determined for each respective type of the samples were compared to both reference data and nearby beach sand samples. (author)

  17. Compositional analysis and projected biofuel potentials from common West African agricultural residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the focus on sustainable biofuel production from agricultural residues has increased considerably. However, the scientific work within this field has predominantly been concentrated upon bioresources from industrialised and newly industrialised countries, while analyses of the res......In recent years the focus on sustainable biofuel production from agricultural residues has increased considerably. However, the scientific work within this field has predominantly been concentrated upon bioresources from industrialised and newly industrialised countries, while analyses......, cassava stalks, plantain peelings, plantain trunks, plantain leaves, cocoa husks, cocoa pods, maize cobs, maize stalks, rice straw, groundnut straw and oil palm empty fruit bunches. The yam peelings showed the highest methane and bioethanol potentials, with 439 L methane (kg Total Solids)−1 and 0.61 L...... bioethanol (kg TS)−1 based on starch and cellulose alone due to their high starch content and low content of un-biodegradable lignin and ash. A complete biomass balance was done for each of the 13 residues, providing a basis for further research into the production of biofuels or biorefining from West...

  18. Design and analysis of a new passive residual heat removal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xing [Key Subject Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Peng, Minjun, E-mail: heupmj@163.com [Key Subject Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Yuan, Xiao [Guangxi Fangchenggang Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (China); Xia, Genglei [Key Subject Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An air cooling passive residual heat removal System (PRHRs) is designed. • Using RELAP5/MOD3.4 code to analyze the operation characteristics of the PRHRs. • Noncondensable gas is used to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior in the air cooling tower. • The natural circulations could respectively establish in the primary circuit and the PRHRs circuit. • The PRHRs could remove the residual heat effectively. - Abstract: The inherent safety functions will mitigate the consequences of the accidents, and it can be accomplished through the passive safety systems which employed in the typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). In this paper, a new passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) is designed for a typical nuclear power plant. PRHRS consists of a steam generator (SG), a cooling tank with two groups of cooling pipes, an air-cooling heat exchanger (AHX), an air-cooling tower, corresponding pipes and valves. The cooling tank which works as an intermediate buffer device is used to transfer the core decay heat to the AHX, and then the core decay heat will be removed to the atmosphere finally. The RELAP5/MOD3.4 code is used to analyze the operation characteristics of PRHRS and the primary loop system. It shows PRHRS could remove the decay heat from the primary loop effectively, and the natural circulations can be established in the primary circuit and the PRHRS circuit respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity study has also been done to research the effect of various factors on the heat removal capacity.

  19. Analysis of Infiltration-Suction Response in Unsaturated Residual Soil Slope in Gelugor, Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Hasliza Hamzah, Nur; Min, Ng Soon; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    Rainfall infiltration on residual soil slope may impair slope stability by altering the pore-water pressure in the soil. A study has been carried out on unsaturated residual soil slope in Gelugor, Penang to determine the changes in matric suction of residual soils at different depth due to rainwater infiltration. The sequence of this study includes the site investigation, field instrumentation, laboratory experiment and numerical modeling. Void ratio and porosity of soil were found to be decreasing with depth while the bulk density and dry density of soil increased due to lower porosity of soil at greater depth. Soil infiltration rate and matric suction of all depths decrease with the increase of volumetric water content as well as the degree of saturation. Numerical modeling was used to verify and predict the relationship between infiltration-suction response and degree of saturation. Numerical models can be used to integrate the rainfall scenarios into quantitative landslide hazard assessments. Thus, development plans and mitigation measures can be designed for estimated impacts from hazard assessments based on collected data.

  20. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and isotopic analysis of carbonized residues from subarctic Canadian prehistoric pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherriff, B.L.; Tisdale, M.A.; Sayer, B.G.; Schwarcz, H.P.; Knyf, M.

    1995-01-01

    Late prehistoric pottery is found in abundance at archaeological sites around Southern Indian Lake. Black residues, found on the two dominant vessel forms, flat plates and round pots, are presumed to be the remains of prehistoric meals. 13 C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CPMAS NMR) and 13 C and 15 N isotopic ratios and C/N ratios are used to reconstruct prehistoric diet and to shed light on possible uses for the plates. Samples of foods were cooked in clay pots, on a wood fire, to simulate the conditions of burning that could have produced the residue. Decomposition of carbohydrates, protein, and fat during cooking is studied with 13 C CPMAS NMR, and the effect of cooking on isotopic and C/N ratios documented. Predominantly fish and fat were cooked in the pots, whereas the residues from plates contain a greater proportion of fat and could have been used as frying pans or possibly as fat-burning lamps placed on the ashes of a wood fire. (Author)

  2. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force

  3. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding radionuclide distributions among Remedial Action Program (RAP) sites and long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites requires a flexible approach capable of handling different levels of contamination, dose limits, and closure scenarios. We identified a commercially available pathway analysis model, DECOM, which had been used previously in support of remedial activities involving contaminated soil at the Savannah River Plant. The DECOM computer code, which estimates concentrations of radionuclides uniformly distributed in soil that correspond to an annual effective dose equivalent, is written in BASIC and runs on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. We obtained the latest version of DECOM and modified it to make it more user friendly and applicable to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RAP. Some modifications involved changes in default parameters or changes in models based on approaches used by the EPA in regulating remedial actions for hazardous substances. We created a version of DECOM as a LOTUS spreadsheet, using the same models as the BASIC version of DECOM. We discuss the specific modeling approaches taken, the regulatory framework that guided our efforts, the strengths and limitations of each approach, and areas for improvement. We also demonstrate how the LOTUS version of DECOM can be applied to specific problems that may be encountered during ORNL RAP activities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Critical Analysis of a Website: A Critique based on Critical Applied Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Agustina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available E-learning was easily found through browsing internet, which was mostly free of charge and provided various learning materials. Spellingcity.com was one of e-learning websites for teaching and learning English to learn spelling, vocabulary and writing, which offered various games and activities for young learners, 6 until 8 year old learners in particular. Having considered those constraints, this paper aimed to analyse the website from two different views: (1 critical applied linguistics  (CAL aspects and (2 critical  discourse analysis (CDA. After analysing the website using CAL and CDA, it was found that the website was adequate for beginner, in which it provided fun learning through games as well as challenged learners’ to test their vocabulary. Despite of these strengths, there were several issues required further thinking in terms of learners’ broad knowledge, such as, some of learning materials focused on states in America. It was quite difficult for EFL learners if they did not have adequate general knowledge. Thus, the findings implied that the website could be used as a supporting learning material, which accompanied textbooks and vocabulary exercise books.

  5. Large-scale evaluation of dynamically important residues in proteins predicted by the perturbation analysis of a coarse-grained elastic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekpinar Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds It is increasingly recognized that protein functions often require intricate conformational dynamics, which involves a network of key amino acid residues that couple spatially separated functional sites. Tremendous efforts have been made to identify these key residues by experimental and computational means. Results We have performed a large-scale evaluation of the predictions of dynamically important residues by a variety of computational protocols including three based on the perturbation and correlation analysis of a coarse-grained elastic model. This study is performed for two lists of test cases with >500 pairs of protein structures. The dynamically important residues predicted by the perturbation and correlation analysis are found to be strongly or moderately conserved in >67% of test cases. They form a sparse network of residues which are clustered both in 3D space and along protein sequence. Their overall conservation is attributed to their dynamic role rather than ligand binding or high network connectivity. Conclusion By modeling how the protein structural fluctuations respond to residue-position-specific perturbations, our highly efficient perturbation and correlation analysis can be used to dissect the functional conformational changes in various proteins with a residue level of detail. The predictions of dynamically important residues serve as promising targets for mutational and functional studies.

  6. Automated multi-plug filtration cleanup for liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric pesticide multi-residue analysis in representative crop commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Fangbing; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Xu, Haowei; Qian, Meiyuan; Pan, Canping

    2016-09-02

    An automated multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts was developed. The automatic device was aimed to reduce labor-consuming manual operation workload in the cleanup steps. It could control the volume and the speed of pulling and pushing cycles accurately. In this work, m-PFC was based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with other sorbents and anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) in a packed tip for analysis of pesticide multi-residues in crop commodities followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection. It was validated by analyzing 25 pesticides in six representative matrices spiked at two concentration levels of 10 and 100μg/kg. Salts, sorbents, m-PFC procedure, automated pulling and pushing volume, automated pulling speed, and pushing speed for each matrix were optimized. After optimization, two general automated m-PFC methods were introduced to relatively simple (apple, citrus fruit, peanut) and relatively complex (spinach, leek, green tea) matrices. Spike recoveries were within 83 and 108% and 1-14% RSD for most analytes in the tested matrices. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.997 between concentration levels of 10 and 1000μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of pesticide residues in market samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Confirmatory analysis of the AP1000 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger with 3-D computational fluid dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwall, James R.; Karim, Naeem U.; Thakkar, Jivan G.; Taylor, Creed; Schulz, Terry; Wright, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    The AP1000 is an 1100 MWe advanced nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 received final design approval from the US-NRC in 2004. The AP1000 design is based on the AP600 design that received final design approval in 1999. Wherever possible, the AP1000 plant configuration and layout was kept the same as AP600 to take advantage of the maturity of the design and to minimize new design efforts. As a result, the two-loop configuration was maintained for AP1000, and the containment vessel diameter was kept the same. It was determined that this significant power up-rate was well within the capability of the passive safety features, and that the safety margins for AP1000 were greater than those of operating PWRs. A key feature of the passive core cooling system is the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger (PRHR HX) that provides decay heat removal for postulated LOCA and non-LOCA events. The PRHR HX is a C-tube heat exchanger located in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) above the core promoting natural circulation heat removal between the reactor cooling system and the tank. Component testing was performed for the AP600 PRHR HX to determine the heat transfer characteristics and to develop correlations to be used for the AP1000 safety analysis codes. The data from these tests were confirmed by subsequent integral tests at three separate facilities including the ROSA facility in Japan. Owing to the importance of this component, an independent analysis has been performed using the ATHOS-based computational fluid dynamics computer code PRHRCFD. Two separate models of the PRHR HX and IRWST have been developed representing the ROSA test geometry and the AP1000 plant geometry. Confirmation of the ROSA test results were used to validate PRHRCFD, and the AP1000 plant model

  8. Applied Behavior Analysis: Its Impact on the Treatment of Mentally Retarded Emotionally Disturbed People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Coe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews applications of the applied behavior analysis ideas of B. F. Skinner and others to persons with both mental retardation and emotional disturbance. The review examines implications of behavior analysis for operant conditioning and radical behaviorism, schedules of reinforcement, and emotion and mental illness. (DB)

  9. An Objective Comparison of Applied Behavior Analysis and Organizational Behavior Management Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; McGee, Heather M.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an objective review, analysis, and comparison of empirical studies targeting the behavior of adults published in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM) between 1997 and 2001. The purpose of the comparisons was to identify similarities and differences with respect to…

  10. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  11. Applying Fuzzy and Probabilistic Uncertainty Concepts to the Material Flow Analysis of Palladium in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a widely applied tool to investigate resource and recycling systems of metals and minerals. Owing to data limitations and restricted system understanding, MFA results are inherently uncertain. To demonstrate the systematic implementation of uncertainty analysis in ...

  12. Study by X-ray diffraction and mechanical analysis of the residual stress generation during thermal spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J.; Dias, A.; Lebrun, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Thermally sprayed coatings are formed by the deposition of molten or partially molten particles, propelled onto a substrate where they impact, spread and solidify rapidly. Residual stresses are expected within the sprayed deposit as a consequence of the release of thermal and kinetic energies. A wide range of materials and two spraying techniques are considered in this study, namely atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high-velocity oxygen fuel. Stresses were determined by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The results were compared with those calculated by mechanical analysis of stress relief in coatings detached from the substrate. Comparison of the results for adherent and free-standing coatings shows that the residual stress state can be resolved in terms of the components suggested by models that propose two stages of stress generation: quenching stresses and secondary-cooling stresses. The in-depth distribution of residual stresses, through the coating thickness, is discussed in terms of the nature of the coating system

  13. Kinetics of diuron under aerobic condition and residue analysis in sugarcane under subtropical field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shishir; Pant, Ravi

    2017-10-10

    The phenylureas group includes persistent herbicides which are major pollutants to soil and water. Dissipation kinetics of diuron in different soils under sugarcane field conditions was investigated. Diuron was extracted with acetone and florisil solid phase extraction clean-up and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV. Diuron persisted for more than 100 days and dissipation followed monophasic first-order kinetics. Persistence was more in sandy loam compared to silty clay loam soil. Half-life of diuron in silty clay loam soil was 22.57 and 32.37 days and in sandy loam was 28.35 and 43.93 days at 2 and 4 kg ha-1applications, respectively. Average recovery in soil, bagasse, leaf-straw and juice ranged from 75.95% to 84.20%, 80.15% to 89.35%, 77.46% to 86.19% and 81.88% to 92.68%, respectively. The quantitation limits for soil, bagasse, leaf-straw and juice were 0.01, 0.03, 0.04 μg g -1 and 0.008 μg mL -1 , respectively. Application of diuron inhibited growth of soil microbes initially but they recovered later. At harvest, diuron residues were below maximum residue limits in all samples. The study revealed that under subtropical conditions, diuron is safe for use in weed management and would not pose any residual/environmental problem and that sugarcane crop could be used safe for human/animal consumption.

  14. A practical guide to propensity score analysis for applied clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Little, Todd D

    2017-11-01

    Observational studies are often the only viable options in many clinical settings, especially when it is unethical or infeasible to randomly assign participants to different treatment régimes. In such case propensity score (PS) analysis can be applied to accounting for possible selection bias and thereby addressing questions of causal inference. Many PS methods exist, yet few guidelines are available to aid applied researchers in their conduct and evaluation of a PS analysis. In this article we give an overview of available techniques for PS estimation and application, balance diagnostic, treatment effect estimation, and sensitivity assessment, as well as recent advances. We also offer a tutorial that can be used to emulate the steps of PS analysis. Our goal is to provide information that will bring PS analysis within the reach of applied clinical researchers and practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new method of residual stress distribution analysis for corroded Zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, J.; Cadalbert, R.

    1992-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction method of residual stress measurement is developed to determine the stress level in the metal near the metal/oxide interface of Zircaloy-4 cladding samples oxidized in steam water at 400degC under a pressure of 10.3 MPa. The stress gradient is obtained and the evolution of the average stress is determined as function of the oxidation time. The presence of tetragonal zirconia phase in quite large quantity near the metal/oxide interface could be correlated to the high stress level in the base metal, adjacent to the interface. (author)

  16. Reliability analysis on passive residual heat removal of AP1000 based on Grey model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Shi; Zhou, Tao; Shahzad, Muhammad Ali; Li, Yu [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Beijing Key Laboratory of Passive Safety Technology for Nuclear Energy, Beijing (China); Jiang, Guangming [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China). Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory

    2017-06-15

    It is common to base the design of passive systems on the natural laws of physics, such as gravity, heat conduction, inertia. For AP1000, a generation-III reactor, such systems have an inherent safety associated with them due to the simplicity of their structures. However, there is a fairly large amount of uncertainty in the operating conditions of these passive safety systems. In some cases, a small deviation in the design or operating conditions can affect the function of the system. The reliability of the passive residual heat removal is analysed.

  17. Analysis of nifursol residues in turkey and chicken meat using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2005-01-01

    on conversion of nifursol and its metabolites with an intact 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid hydrazide (DNSH) side chain to the 2-nitrophenyl analogue of nifursol (NPDNSH) by treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Nifuroxazide (salicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) added......Nifursol (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) is mainly used as a feed additive for the prevention of blackhead disease in turkeys. The objective of the present work was to establish information on nifursol residues in turkey and chicken meat. The analytical method was based...

  18. Simplified analysis of passive residual heat removal systems for small size PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1992-02-01

    The function and general objectives of a passive residual heat removal system for small size PWR's are defined. The characteristic configuration, the components and the operation modes of this system are concisely described. A preliminary conceptual specification of this system, for a small size PWR of 400 MW thermal, is made analogous to the decay heat removal system of the AP-600 reactor. It is shown by analytic models that such passive systems can dissipate 2% of nominal power within the thermal limits allowed to the reactor fuel elements. (author)

  19. A new method for residual stress distribution - analysis of corroded zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, J.; Cadalbert, R.

    1992-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction method for residual stress measurement is developed to determine the stress level in the metal near the metal/oxide interface of Zircaloy-4 cladding samples oxidized in steam water at 400 deg C under a pressure of 10.3 MPa. The stress gradient is obtained and the evolution of the average stress is determined as a function of the oxidation time. The presence of tetragonal zirconia phase in quite large quantity near the metal/oxide interface could be correlated to the high stress level in the base metal, adjacent to the interface. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. An Assessment of Subsurface Residual Stress Analysis in SLM Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mishurova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V bridges were additively fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM under different scanning speed conditions, to compare the effect of process energy density on the residual stress state. Subsurface lattice strain characterization was conducted by means of synchrotron diffraction in energy dispersive mode. High tensile strain gradients were found at the frontal surface for samples in an as-built condition. The geometry of the samples promotes increasing strains towards the pillar of the bridges. We observed that the higher the laser energy density during fabrication, the lower the lattice strains. A relief of lattice strains takes place after heat treatment.